Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Hermans, Dirk
According to the affect-regulation hypothesis (Williams et al., 2007), reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS) or overgeneral memory (OGM) might be considered a cognitive avoidance strategy; that is, people learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. Based on this hypothesis, one would predict significant negative associations between AMS and avoidant coping. However, studies investigating this prediction have led to equivocal results. In the present study we tested a possible explanation for these contradictory findings. It was hypothesized that rAMS (in part) reflects an avoidant coping strategy, which might only become apparent under certain conditions, that is, conditions that signal the possibility of 'danger.' To test this hypothesis, we assessed AMS and behavioral avoidance but experimentally manipulated the instructions. In the neutral condition, two parallel versions of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) were presented under neutral instructions. In the threat condition, the first AMT was presented under neutral instructions, while the second AMT was presented under 'threat instructions.' Results showed no significant correlations between avoidance and OGM under neutral conditions but significant and markedly stronger correlations under threat conditions, with more avoidance being associated with fewer specific and more categoric memories. In addition, high avoiders showed a stronger reduction in AMS in the threat condition as compared with the neutral condition, while low avoiders showed no such difference between conditions. The data confirm that OGM can be considered as part of a broader avoidant coping style. However, more importantly, they show that, at least in nonclinical individuals, the activation of this coping style may depend on the context.
Rauch, Astrid Veronika; ter Horst, Lena; Paul, Victoria Gabriele; Bauer, Jochen; Dannlowski, Udo; Konrad, Carsten; Ohrmann, Patricia; Kugel, Harald; Egloff, Boris; Arolt, Volker; Suslow, Thomas
Background Coping plays an important role for emotion regulation in threatening situations. The model of coping modes designates repression and sensitization as two independent coping styles. Repression consists of strategies that shield the individual from arousal. Sensitization indicates increased analysis of the environment in order to reduce uncertainty. According to the discontinuity hypothesis, repressors are sensitive to threat in the early stages of information processing. While repressors do not exhibit memory disturbances early on, they manifest weak memory for these stimuli later. This study investigates the discontinuity hypothesis using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods Healthy volunteers (20 repressors and 20 sensitizers) were selected from a sample of 150 students on the basis of the Mainz Coping Inventory. During the fMRI experiment, subjects evaluated and memorized emotional and neutral faces. Subjects performed two sessions of face recognition: immediately after the fMRI session and three days later. Results Repressors exhibited greater activation of frontal, parietal and temporal areas during encoding of angry faces compared to sensitizers. There were no differences in recognition of facial emotions between groups neither immediately after exposure nor after three days. Conclusions The fMRI findings suggest that repressors manifest an enhanced neural processing of directly threatening facial expression which confirms the assumption of hyper-responsivity to threatening information in repression in an early processing stage. A discrepancy was observed between high neural activation in encoding-relevant brain areas in response to angry faces in repressors and no advantage in subsequent memory for these faces compared to sensitizers. PMID:25502775
Ferrari, Robert; Russell, Anthony S
In pain conditions, active coping has been found to be associated with less severe depression, increased activity level, and less functional impairment. Studies indicate that Canadians have a high expectation for chronic pain following whiplash injury. Expectation of recovery has been shown to predict recovery in whiplash victims. The objective of this study was to compare both the expectations and the coping style for whiplash injury in injury-naive subjects. The Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory was administered to university students. Subjects who had not yet experienced whiplash injury were given a vignette concerning a neck sprain (whiplash injury) in a motor vehicle collision and were asked to indicate how likely they were to have thoughts or behaviors indicated in the coping style questionnaire. Subjects also completed expectation questionnaires regarding whiplash injury. Subjects (57%) held an expectation of chronic pain after whiplash injury. The mean active coping style score was 28.5±6.6 (40 is the maximum score for active coping). The mean passive coping style score was 28.5±6.6 (50 is the maximum score for passive coping). Those with high passive coping styles had a higher mean expectation score. The correlation between passive coping style score and expectation score was 0.62, while the correlation between active coping style score and expectation was -0.48. Both expectations and coping styles may interact or be co-modifiers in the outcomes of whiplash injury in whiplash victims. Further studies of coping style as an etiologic factor in the chronic whiplash syndrome are needed.
Klucken, Tim; Kruse, Onno; Schweckendiek, Jan; Stark, Rudolf
The investigation of individual differences in coping styles in response to fear conditioning is an important issue for a better understanding of the etiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders. It has been assumed that an avoidant (repressive) coping style is characterized by increased emotion regulation efforts in context of fear stimuli as compared to a more vigilant coping style. However, no study so far has investigated the neural correlates of fear conditioning of repressors and sensitizers. In the present fMRI study, 76 participants were classified as repressors or as sensitizers and were exposed to a fear conditioning paradigm, in which the CS+ predicted electrical stimulation, while another neutral stimulus (CS−) did not. In addition, skin conductance responses (SCRs) were measured continuously. As the main findings, we found increased neural activity in repressors as compared to sensitizers in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during fear conditioning. In addition, elevated activity to the CS+ in amygdala, insula, occipital, and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as well as elevated conditioned SCRs were found in repressors. The present results demonstrate increased neural activations in structures linked to emotion down-regulation mechanisms like the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which may reflect the increased coping effort in repressors. At the same time, repressors showed increased activations in arousal and evaluation-associated structures like the amygdala, the occipital cortex (OCC), and the OFC, which was mirrored in increased SCRs. The present results support recent assumptions about a two-process model of repression postulating a fast vigilant response to fear stimuli, and a second process associated with the down-regulation of emotional responses. PMID:26082695
Grossoehme, Daniel H; Ragsdale, Judy; Cotton, Sian; Wooldridge, Jamie L; Grimes, Lisa; Seid, Michael
Parents of children diagnosed with cystic fibrosis described it as "devastating." Given religion's importance to many Americans, parents may utilize religious coping. Relatively little is known about parents' use of religious coping to handle their child's illness. Interviews with 15 parents about their use of religion in the year following their child's cystic fibrosis diagnosis were coded for religious coping styles. Sixteen styles were identified. Positive religious coping styles were more frequent than negative styles (previously associated with poorer health outcomes), and occurred more frequently than in other studies. Religious coping styles used to make meaning, gain control, or seek comfort/intimacy with God were equally prevalent. The most common styles were: Pleading, Collaboration, Benevolent Religious Reappraisals, and Seeking Spiritual Support. Parents described active rather than passive coping styles. Religious coping involving religious others was rare. Clinical attention to negative religious coping may prevent it becoming chronic and negatively affecting health.
Yen, Yi-Chun; Anderzhanova, Elmira; Bunck, Mirjam; Schuller, Julia; Landgraf, Rainer; Wotjak, Carsten T
We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field (OF) test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB) and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB). Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition (PPI), implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles, and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD-like symptoms.
Kuna, Piotr; Witusik, Andrzej; Wujcik, Radosław; Antczak, Adam; Pietras, Tadeusz
Introduction Temperament, defined as the formal characteristics of behavior, is a personality trait which can influence the clinical presentation and course of bronchial asthma. It determines susceptibility to stress as well as stress coping styles. Aim The aim of the study was to assess whether healthy subjects differ from bronchial asthma patients with regard to temperamental variables and stress coping styles, and whether these factors may also differentiate patients with severe asthma from those with the milder form. The study also assesses whether the results of flow volume curve analysis correlate with temperamental traits and stress coping styles. Material and methods The study was conducted in a group of 65 asthma patients and 62 healthy controls. All underwent flow volume curve examination and psychological tests: Formal Characteristics of Behavior – Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI) and Coping in Stress Situations (CISS) questionnaire. Results Bronchial asthma patients were characterized by a lower level of briskness (“agility”) than healthy subjects (13.35 ±4.48 vs. 14.97 ±3.98, p = 0.031). The remaining temperamental traits and stress coping styles did not differ between the groups. Additionally, the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) value was found to correlate negatively with the intensity of the emotion-oriented stress coping style, whereas FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) were found to positively correlate with briskness, emotional reactivity and endurance, while a negative correlation was found with activity. Conclusions Briskness differentiates healthy subjects from bronchial asthma patients. The values obtained in FEV1 and FVC pulmonary function tests were also found to correlate with some temperamental variables. PMID:28035226
Opalach, Cezary; Romaszko, Jerzy; Jaracz, Marcin; Kuchta, Robert; Borkowska, Alina; Buciński, Adam
Background and Objectives The ways in which homeless individuals cope with stress may differ from those relied upon by the members of the general population and these differences may either be the result or the cause of their living conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the preferred coping style among the homeless and its relationship with alcohol dependence. Methods The study included 78 homeless individuals and involved the collection of demographic, sociological, psychological and medical data from each participant. Coping styles relied upon when dealing with stressful situations were assessed using a Polish adaptation of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Alcohol dependence was assessed using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and a quantitative analysis of alcohol consumption. Results Men accounted for 91.93% of the study population. Nearly 75% of the subjects met the alcohol dependence criterion. Significant relationships were observed between the individual's age, preferred coping style and alcohol consumption level. As an individual’s age increased, the use of emotion-oriented coping styles decreased, while an increase in alcohol consumption was associated with a more frequent use of emotion- and avoidance-oriented strategies. Conclusions The findings of this study, similarly to those of many other studies of homeless individuals but investigating other areas (e.g. epidemiology of tuberculosis and traumatic injuries), are an exaggerated representation of associations observed in the general population. The results describe a group of people living on the margins of the society, often suffering from extremely advanced alcoholism, with clear evident psychodegradation. The presence of specific ways of coping with stress related to excessive alcohol consumption in this group of individuals may interfere with active participation in support programmes provided for the homeless and may further exacerbate their problems. PMID
Gongora, Vanesa C; van der Staak, Cees P F; Derksen, Jan J L
This study investigates the coping styles of bulimic patients with personality disorders (PDs) and the effects of the level of depression on the relations between PDs and coping. The sample consisted of 75 Argentinean bulimic outpatients engaged in treatment. Patients completed the SCID II (Structural Interview for DSM IV-Personality Disorders), COPE (Coping Inventory), and the SCL-90-R (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised). No differences in the coping styles of bulimic patients with or without a PD were found. However, when three specific PDs were considered-Avoidant, Obsessive-Compulsive, or Borderline PDs-clear differences in the coping styles of the bulimics were found. However, the differences disappeared when depression was controlled. Regarding the severity of the three specific PDs, coping styles were only found to be associated with the Avoidant PD. Depression showed to affect the relations between coping styles and two specific PDs-Avoidant and Borderline PDs-in bulimic patients.
Nowakowska-Domagala, Katarzyna; Jablkowska-Górecka, Karolina; Kostrzanowska-Jarmakowska, Lilianna; Mortoń, Marta; Stecz, Patryk
Abstract Burnout is a pathological syndrome in which emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DEP), and a reduced sense of personal accomplishment (PA) develop in response to prolonged occupational stress. Those working in the physiotherapy profession appear to be at risk for professional burnout brought on by the specific character of the medical professions, involving continuous contact with patients and associated stress, as well as poor working conditions. However, literature data concerning the scale of professional burnout and its psychosocial correlates remain scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess the scale of professional burnout among physiotherapists and to determine the interrelationships between coping styles and burnout symptoms. The sample consisted of 117 professionally active physiotherapists (90 women and 27 men) aged 21 to 55 years (mean [M] 31.88, standard deviation [SD] = 9.14, responsiveness rate of 80.6%) from randomly selected medical institutions of the Lodz Region. The study was conducted using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) by Endler and Parker. Demographic and job-related data on the respondents were also collected. Task-oriented coping correlated negatively with DEP, EE, and low PA, in contrast to emotion-oriented coping. No correlation was found between avoidance-oriented coping and burnout symptoms. Similarly, no interactive correlations between coping styles and particular burnout symptoms were confirmed. Coping styles correlate independently with professional burnout, without any mutual correlations. Physiotherapists employing a wider spectrum of task-oriented strategies are slightly more satisfied with their job. The incidence of burnout syndrome in the analyzed group is similar to that observed in other medical professions and requires the adoption of preventive measures. PMID:26091455
Hanson, Cindy L.; And Others
Evaluated relationships between two coping styles and two health outcomes in 135 youth with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Found that poor adherence to treatment, older adolescent age, and long duration of IDDM correlated with ventilation and avoidance coping. High ventilation and avoidance coping was predicted by high stress, low…
Bensky, Miles K; Paitz, Ryan; Pereira, Laura; Bell, Alison M
Coping styles theory provides a framework for understanding individual variation in how animals respond to environmental change, and predicts how individual differences in stress responsiveness and behavior might relate to cognitive differences. According to coping styles theory, proactive individuals are bolder, less reactive to stressors, and more routinized than their reactive counterparts. A key tenet of coping styles theory is that variation in coping styles is maintained by tradeoffs with behavioral flexibility: proactive individuals excel in stable environments while more flexible, reactive individuals perform better in variable environments. Here, we assess evidence for coping styles within a natural population of threespined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We developed a criterion-based learning paradigm to evaluate individual variation in initial and reversal learning. We observed strong individual differences in boldness, cortisol production, and learning performance. Consistent with coping styles, fish that released more cortisol were more timid in response to a predator attack and slower to learn a color discrimination task. However, there was no evidence that reactive individuals performed better when the environment changed (when the rewarded color was reversed). The failure to detect trade-offs between behavioral routinization and flexibility prompts other explanations for the maintenance of differing coping styles.
Price, Barrie Jo; Marsh, George E., II
The Coping Analysis Schedule for Educational Settings (CASES), an observation instrument to identify students' primary coping or interaction styles, was evaluated with 44 educable mentally retarded (EMR), learning disabled (LD), or normal children (7 to 11 years old). CASES is intended to be a quantitative tool for collecting the data required…
Lewis, Ramon; Roache, Joel; Romi, Shlomo
This study reports the relationships between coping styles of Australian teachers and the classroom based classroom management techniques they use to cope with student misbehaviour. There is great interest internationally in improving educational systems by upgrading the quality of teachers' classroom management. However, the relationship between…
Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J; Wilson, Anna C; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa
We investigated the associations of appraisal and coping styles with emotion regulation in a community sample of preadolescents (N=196, 9-12 years of age), with appraisal, coping styles, and emotion regulation measured at a single time point. In a previous study, we identified five frustration and four anxiety emotion regulation profiles based on children's physiological, behavioral, and self-reported reactions to emotion-eliciting tasks. In this study, preadolescents' self-reported appraisal and coping styles were associated with those emotion regulation profiles. Overall, findings revealed that children who were more effective at regulating their emotions during the emotion-eliciting tasks had higher levels of positive appraisal and active coping when dealing with their own problems. Conversely, children who regulated their emotions less effectively had higher levels of threat appraisal and avoidant coping.
Schmidt, Steven D; Blank, Thomas O; Bellizzi, Keith M; Park, Crystal L
This cross-sectional study investigated attachment style, coping strategies, social support, and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in 54 cancer survivors. Secure attachment was significantly associated with active coping, positive reframing, and religion, and these were all associated with PTG. Insecure types of attachment and social support variables were unrelated to PTG. Regression analysis suggests that positive reframing and religion as coping strategies may mediate the relationship between secure attachment and PTG.
Siu, Angela F. Y.; Chang, Jian Fang
This study examined the factorial structure of the Collectivist Coping Style inventory (Heppner "et al." "Journal of Counseling Psychology" 53:107-125, 2006) and investigated how the effects of stress-related events on psychological distress are mediated through coping strategies. Three hundred and five Hong Kong university…
Brunelli, Susan A.; Hofer, Myron A.
Human depression and anxiety disorders show inherited biases across generations, as do antisocial disorders characterized by aggression. Each condition is preceded in children by behavioral inhibition or aggressive behavior, respectively, and both are characterized by separation anxiety disorders. In affected families, adults and children exhibit different forms of altered autonomic nervous system regulation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in response to stress. Because it is difficult to determine mechanisms accounting for these associations, animal studies are useful for studying the fundamental relationships between biological and behavioral traits. Pharmacologic and behavioral studies suggest that infant rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) are a measure of an early anxiety-like state related to separation anxiety. However, it was not known whether or not early ultrasound emissions in infant rats are markers for genetic risk for anxiety states later in life. To address these questions, we selectively bred two lines of rats based on high and low rates of USV to isolation at postnatal (P) 10 days of age. To our knowledge, ours is the only laboratory that has ever selectively bred on the basis of an infantile trait related to anxiety. The High and Low USV lines show two distinct sets of patterns of behavior, physiology and neurochemistry from infancy through adulthood. As adults High line rats demonstrate “anxious”/“depressed” phenotypes in behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation to standard laboratory tests. In Lows, on the other hand, behavior and autonomic regulation are consistent with an “aggressive” phenotype. The High and Low USV lines are the first genetic animal models implicating long-term associations of contrasting “coping styles” with early attachment responses. They thus present a potentially powerful model for examining gene-environment interactions in the development of life-long affective regulation. PMID
Nowack, Kenneth M.
Much research has examined how individuals cope with work and life stress. Findings have suggested that stress, generally measured as major life events or daily hassles, may be less important to both physical and psychological well-being than are other individual appraisal and coping processes. This study was conducted to examine the effects of…
Reimert, Inonge; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Rodenburg, T Bas
The presence of a conspecific during a stressful situation, i.e. social support, can considerably lower the stress response of an individual compared to experiencing the stressful situation alone. Pigs also benefit from social support, but it is not known whether the extent to which they benefit is dependent on their personality or coping style. In this study, therefore, the effect of social support on behavioral and physiological (i.e. salivary cortisol, heart rate and the heart rate variability parameters standard deviation (SDNN) and root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD)) stress responses was studied in pigs with different coping styles. Based on the backtest, piglets were classified as high-resisting (HR) or low-resisting (LR). At 11weeks of age, 12 gilts of each coping style were subjected to a 15min restraint test in a weighing cage without a pen mate present (i.e. no support treatment) and 12 other gilts of each coping style were subjected to this test with a pen mate, a boar with the same coping style, present (i.e. support treatment). With the pen mate present, LR gilts showed less standing alert behavior and they had their ears back less often than without the pen mate present. On the other hand, HR gilts seemed to spend less time on escaping the cage and more HR gilts seemed to urinate in the situation when the pen mate was present than without the pen mate present, but this was not significant. Independently of the test situation, HR gilts grunted more than LR gilts and they were more likely to urinate than LR gilts. Salivary cortisol concentrations were not affected by treatment or coping style, but were increased at 30min after the start of the test after which concentrations decreased again to starting levels. The heart rate and heart rate variability parameters RMSSD and RMSSD/SDNN ratio were not affected by treatment or coping style, but the SDNN was lower in the LR pigs during the first and last 5min of the test when a pen mate was
Nijhof, Karin S.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
The present study examined the role of parenting styles in the experience and expression of homesickness, and the way of coping with the feelings involved. Using a sample of 670 first year college and university students, aged 16 to 25, we tested three hypotheses: (1) authoritarian, permissive as well as uninvolved parenting are associated with…
Naquin, M. R.; Gilbert, Glen G.
Examines college students' (N=1330) smoking behavior as well as their current smoking status and its effects on perceived levels of stress and coping styles. Results show that current smokers' scores on perceived stress were higher than that of the students who had never smoked. Other results are reported. (RJM)
Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Jones, Jayme L.; Wieland, Amy L.
The literature suggests that teacher responses to bullying are a function of the type of aggression (overt vs. relational), the gender of the children involved, and characteristics of the teacher. We extended the literature by examining teachers' dispositional coping styles as a predictor of their responses to bullying. Preservice teachers (N =…
Afshar, Hamid; Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Mazaheri, Mina; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman
Background: Some personality traits and coping styles could be as risk factors in stressful situations. This study aimed to investigate the association of personality traits and coping styles according to the stress level. Meterials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2011. A total of 4628 individuals over 20 years were selected by random sampling from nonacademic employees that working in 50 different centers across Isfahan province. Data were collected using 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Big Five Personality Inventory Short Form and coping strategies scale, and individuals were divided into high and low-stress groups in term of GHQ-12. To analyze the data, a binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results: Mean age of participants was 36.3 ± 7.91 years and 56.26% (2604) of them were female. Neuroticism with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of personality traits was a risk factor for stress level with odds ratios (OR) OR:1.24; but other personality traits were protective. Also, active coping styles were protective factors for OR of stress level with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of coping styles, and positive reinterpretation and growth was the most effective of coping style with OR:0.84. Conclusion: Some personality traits are associated with passive copings and cause high-stress level. So, it could be concluded that improve and strengthen effective coping strategies in individual with maladaptive traits should be considered as a crucial component of prevention and control programs of stress. PMID:26109990
Thompson, Stephanie F; Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J
Temperament, appraisal, and coping are known to underlie emotion regulation, yet less is known about how these processes relate to each other across time. We examined temperamental fear, frustration, effortful control, and impulsivity, positive and threat appraisals, and active and avoidant coping as processes underpinning the emotion regulation of pre-adolescent children managing stressful events. Appraisal and coping styles were tested as mediators of the longitudinal effects of temperamental emotionality and self-regulation on adjustment using a community sample (N=316) of preadolescent children (8-12 years at T1) studied across one year. High threat appraisals were concurrently related to high fear and impulsivity, whereas effortful control predicted relative decreases in threat appraisal. High fear was concurrently related to high positive appraisal, and impulsivity predicted increases in positive appraisal. Fear was concurrently related to greater avoidant coping, and impulsivity predicted increases in avoidance. Frustration predicted decreases in active coping. These findings suggest temperament, or dispositional aspects of reactivity and regulation, relates to concurrent appraisal and coping processes and additionally predicts change in these processes. Significant indirect effects indicated that appraisal and coping mediated the effects of temperament on adjustment. Threat appraisal mediated the effects of fear and effortful control on internalizing and externalizing problems, and avoidant coping mediated the effect of impulsivity on internalizing problems. These mediated effects suggest that one pathway through which temperament influences adjustment is pre-adolescents' appraisal and coping. Findings highlight temperament, appraisal and coping as emotion regulation processes relevant to children's adjustment in response to stress.
Nijhof, Karin S; Engels, Rutger C M E
The present study examined the role of parenting styles in the experience and expression of homesickness, and the way of coping with the feelings involved. Using a sample of 670 first year college and university students, aged 16 to 25, we tested three hypotheses: (1) authoritarian, permissive as well as uninvolved parenting are associated with the experience of homesickness, contrary to students with authoritative parents who are less likely to have feelings of homesickness; (2) students with authoritarian, permissive or uninvolved parents show their homesickness by internalizing and externalizing problems; and (3) students raised by authoritative or permissive parents use more effective coping strategies to deal with homesickness. Results indicated that students raised by authoritative and permissive parents experienced more homesickness with stronger feelings of homesickness than students raised by authoritarian or uninvolved parents. However, they hardly express homesickness by internalizing or externalizing problems when they use effective ways of coping, namely support-seeking and/or problem-solving. Students with parents endorsing an authoritarian or uninvolved parenting style, on the other hand, showed more internalizing and externalizing problems in reaction to feelings of homesickness. They also use less effective coping strategies. The results revealed the importance of a loving and accepting home environment for the development and expression of homesickness, as well as the importance of the way in which students learn to cope with their problems.
Tudorache, Christian; ter Braake, Anique; Tromp, Mara; Slabbekoorn, Hans; Schaaf, Marcel J M
Different individuals cope with stressors in different ways. Stress coping styles are defined as a coherent set of individual behavioral and physiological differences in the response to a stressor which remain consistent across time and context. In the present study, we have investigated coping styles in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) at 8 days post-fertilization. Larvae were separated into two groups, according to the emergence sequence from a darkened into a novel well-lit environment, early (EE) and late (LE) emergers. We used brief periods of netting as a stressor. Swimming behavior and kinematics before and after netting stress were analyzed, as were whole-body cortisol levels before and at 10, 30 and 60 min after the stress event. The results show that general swimming activity was different between EE and LE larvae, with lower baseline cumulative distance and more erratic swimming movements in EE than in LE larvae. EE larvae showed a faster recovery to baseline levels after stress than LE larvae. Cortisol baseline levels were not different between EE and LE larvae, but peak levels after stress were higher and the recovery towards basal levels was faster in EE than in LE larvae. This study shows that coping styles are manifest in zebrafish larvae, and that behavior and swimming kinematics are associated with different cortisol responses to stress. A better understanding of the expression of coping styles may be of great value for medical applications, animal welfare issues and conservation.
Van Buskirk, A M; Duke, M P
The authors' purpose in this paper was to examine how the use of the "sad passive" coping style may be related to adolescent self-reported loneliness. Subjects were asked to complete the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980) to determine self-reported loneliness and the Coping with Loneliness Questionnaire (CLQ; Rubenstein & Shaver, 1980) in order to examine coping styles. We hypothesized that those adolescents whose coping strategies fell into the category of sad passivity described by Rubenstein and Shaver would indicate greater loneliness than those adolescents whose coping strategies fell into other categories. Results indicated that sad passivity was used by both lonely and nonlonely adolescents, but that nonlonely youngsters resorted to this method only temporarily and in preparation for a more active coping style. Lonely teens, on the other hand, appeared to remain in the sad-passive mode to a maladaptive degree. These results were discussed in terms of their importance for theories of adolescent loneliness and for possible intervention strategies.
Scannell, E D; Quirk, M M; Smith, K; Maddern, R; Dickerson, M
An investigation of the relationship between impaired control over gambling, coping strategies, and demographic variables was conducted by surveying female poker machine players (N = 163) in their gaming venues. Metropolitan (n = 14) and regional (n = 6) gaming venues in Victoria, Australia participated. Control over gambling was measured using the Impaired Control Over Gambling Scale (Baron & Dickerson, 1994). Coping strategies were measured using (Folkman et al., 1986) adaptation of the Revised Ways of Coping Checklist (Vitaliano et al., 1985). MANOVA supported the hypothesis that the lower the control over gambling the greater the reliance on emotion-focused coping (blamed self, wishful thinking, avoidance) with F = 9.92, 13.35, 14.04 respectively, all significant at p <.001. MANOVA failed to supported the hypothesis that problem-focused strategies (problem focus, seek social support) would be significantly related to control over gambling with F =.82 and.21 respectively. Control over gambling was not related to age, employment, relationship status, education, or distress from significant life events, further supporting the relationship between control and coping strategies. Ways in which coping styles might be related to pathological gambling are discussed.
Ding, Yongqing; Yang, Yanjie; Yang, Xiuxian; Zhang, Tiehui; Qiu, Xiaohui; He, Xin; Wang, Wenbo; Wang, Lin; Sui, Hong
avoid negative coping style, improve skill of coping and enhance PsyCap of nurses, active interventions should be developed in the future. PMID:25898257
Krypel, Michelle N.; Henderson-King, Donna
We explored the meanings that undergraduate students make of their education and how these meanings relate to students' perceived stress, styles of coping with stress, and optimism. Participants completed a meaning of education questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale, the COPE (a measure of coping styles), and the Life Orientation Test-Revised.…
Fatsini, E.; Rey, S.; Chereguini, O.; Martin, I.; Rasines, I.; Duncan, N.
The aim of this work was to characterize stress coping styles of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles and breeders and to select an operational behavioural screening test (OBST) that can be used by the aquaculture industry to classify and select between behavioural phenotypes in order to improve production indicators. A total of 61 juveniles and 59 breeders were subjected to five individual behavioural tests and two grouping tests. At the end of the individual tests, all animals were blood sampled in order to measure cortisol, glucose and lactate. Three tests (restraining, new environment and confinement) characterized the stress coping style behaviour of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders and demonstrated inter-individual consistency. Further, the tests when incorporated into a principal components analysis (PCA) (i) identified two principal axes of personality traits: ‘fearfulness-reactivity’ and ‘activity-exploration’, (ii) were representative of the physiological axis of stress coping style, and (iii) were validated by established group tests. This study proposed for the first time three individual coping style tests that reliably represented proactive and reactive personalities of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders. In addition, the three proposed tests met some basic operational criteria (rapid testing, no special equipment and easy to apply and interpret) that could prove attractive for fish farmers to identify fish with a specific behaviour that gives advantages in the culture system and that could be used to establish selection-based breeding programmes to improve domestication and production. PMID:28018634
Ibarra-Zatarain, Z; Fatsini, E; Rey, S; Chereguini, O; Martin, I; Rasines, I; Alcaraz, C; Duncan, N
The aim of this work was to characterize stress coping styles of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles and breeders and to select an operational behavioural screening test (OBST) that can be used by the aquaculture industry to classify and select between behavioural phenotypes in order to improve production indicators. A total of 61 juveniles and 59 breeders were subjected to five individual behavioural tests and two grouping tests. At the end of the individual tests, all animals were blood sampled in order to measure cortisol, glucose and lactate. Three tests (restraining, new environment and confinement) characterized the stress coping style behaviour of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders and demonstrated inter-individual consistency. Further, the tests when incorporated into a principal components analysis (PCA) (i) identified two principal axes of personality traits: 'fearfulness-reactivity' and 'activity-exploration', (ii) were representative of the physiological axis of stress coping style, and (iii) were validated by established group tests. This study proposed for the first time three individual coping style tests that reliably represented proactive and reactive personalities of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders. In addition, the three proposed tests met some basic operational criteria (rapid testing, no special equipment and easy to apply and interpret) that could prove attractive for fish farmers to identify fish with a specific behaviour that gives advantages in the culture system and that could be used to establish selection-based breeding programmes to improve domestication and production.
Klucken, Tim; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Chatziastros, Astros; Kagerer, Sabine; Netter, Petra; Hennig, Juergen
The understanding of individual differences in response to threat (e.g., attentional bias) is important to better understand the development of anxiety disorders. Previous studies revealed only a small attentional bias in high-anxious (HA) subjects. One explanation for this finding may be the assumption that all HA-subjects show a constant attentional bias. Current models distinguish HA-subjects depending on their level of tolerance for uncertainty and for arousal. These models assume that only HA-subjects with intolerance for uncertainty but tolerance for arousal ("sensitizers") show an attentional bias, compared to HA-subjects with intolerance for uncertainty and intolerance for arousal ("fluctuating subjects"). Further, it is assumed that repressors (defined as intolerance for arousal but tolerance for uncertainty) would react with avoidance behavior when confronted with threatening stimuli. The present study investigated the influence of coping styles on attentional bias. After an extensive recruiting phase, 36 subjects were classified into three groups (sensitizers, fluctuating, and repressors). All subjects were exposed to presentations of happy and threatening faces, while recording gaze durations with an eye-tracker. The results showed that only sensitizer showed an attentional bias: they gazed longer at the threatening face rather than at the happy face during the first 500 ms. The results support the findings of the relationship between anxiety and attention and extend these by showing variations according to coping styles. The differentiation of subjects according to a multifaceted coping style allows a better prediction of the attentional bias and contributes to an insight into the complex interplay of personality, coping, and behavior.
Deniz, M Engin; Işik, Erkan
The purpose was to investigate positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, and coping with stress in relation to attachment styles. Undergraduate students (N=421) completed the Relationship Scales Questionnaire, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Coping with Stress Scale. Results indicated that secure attachment style was the unique predictor of positive affect while fearful and preoccupied attachment styles significantly predicted negative affect. Regarding life satisfaction, a positive correlation with secure attachment style and a negative correlation with fearful and preoccupied styles were seen. However, the unique predictor of life satisfaction was preoccupied attachment style. In terms of coping with stress, there was no significant association between attachment variables and avoidance coping style, but significant links were observed between problem-focused coping and dismissing, and fearful and preoccupied attachment styles.
Ruchkin, Vladislav V.; Eisemann, Martin; Hagglof, Bruno
Compared coping styles in 178 delinquent adolescents versus 91 controls from a region of Northern Russia and tested for possible interactions with personality traits and parental rearing factors. Discusses the specific correlational patterns discovered between coping styles and both personality dimensions and parental styles. (SLD)
Murphy, Devin; Knapp, Caprice A.; Christie, Juliette; Phares, Vicky; Wells, Kristen J.
Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess the coping styles of female adolescent cancer patients regarding potential loss of fertility. Expectations and desires for the future, coping styles in typical adolescence, and coping styles when faced with potential loss of fertility due to cancer treatment are discussed. Methods Female adolescents diagnosed with cancer aged 12–18 years at study (N=14) were administered a 10-item values clarification tool to pilot test the readability and relevance of the items on reproductive concerns, followed by a cognitive debriefing interview asking participants how they would respond to each item. These qualitative responses were assessed for coping style type using the constant comparative approach. Results All adolescent participants reported having a strong desire for biological children in the future. Reactions to questions regarding the loss of fertility fell into two categories of coping styles: emotion-focused coping or problem-focused (engagement) coping. Within emotion-focused coping, there were three distinct styles: externalizing attribution style, internalizing attribution style, and repressive adaptation. Problem-focused coping adolescents displayed optimism. Conclusion Successful interventions aimed at promoting adaptive coping styles should seek to uncover adolescents' values about future parenthood and reproduction. Development of an age-appropriate assessment to stimulate dialogue regarding fertility and initiate an adolescent's cognitive processing of potential fertility loss is warranted. PMID:23781403
de Boer, Sietse F; Buwalda, Bauke; Koolhaas, Jaap M
Considerable individual differences exist in trait-like patterns of behavioral and physiological responses to salient environmental challenges. This individual variation in stress coping styles has an important functional role in terms of health and fitness. Hence, understanding the neural embedding of coping style variation is fundamental for biobehavioral neurosciences in probing individual disease susceptibility. This review outlines individual differences in trait-aggressiveness as an adaptive component of the natural sociobiology of rats and mice, and highlights that these reflect the general style of coping that varies from proactive (aggressive) to reactive (docile). We propose that this qualitative coping style can be disentangled into multiple quantitative behavioral domains, e.g., flexibility/impulse control, emotional reactivity and harm avoidance/reward processing, that each are encoded into selective neural circuitries. Since functioning of all these brain circuitries rely on fine-tuned serotonin signaling, autoinhibitory control mechanisms of serotonergic neuron (re)activity are crucial in orchestrating general coping style. Untangling the precise neuromolecular mechanisms of different coping styles will provide a roadmap for developing better therapeutic strategies of stress-related diseases.
Sánchez, Mónica; Stein, Judith; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
This study examined the relationships among acculturation, coping styles, substance use, sexual risk behavior, and medication non-adherence among 219 Latinas living with HIV/AIDS in Los Angeles, CA. Coping styles were hypothesized to mediate the link between acculturation and health risk behaviors for HIV positive Latinas. Structural equation modeling revealed that greater acculturation was related to less positive coping and more negative coping. In turn, negative coping was associated with more health risk behaviors and more non-adherence. Positive coping was associated with less substance use as reflected in use of cigarettes and alcohol and less non-adherence. Coping styles mediated the relationship between acculturation and health risk behaviors. Findings echo previous works examining the Hispanic Health Paradox wherein more acculturated Latinos exhibit increased risk behavior and maladaptive coping styles. HIV/AIDS interventions need to be mindful of cultural differences within Hispanic populations and be tailored to address these differences. PMID:19847637
Kozora, E; Ellison, M C; Waxmonsky, J A; Wamboldt, F S; Patterson, T L
The objective of this study was to examine psychological processes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in relation to measures of life stress, coping styles, social support and cognitive ability. Fifty-two SLE patients without overt neuropsychiatric symptoms, 29 RA patients and 27 healthy controls completed measures of depression, mood, disease activity, perceived health, stressful life events, coping, and social support. Variables entered into the multiple regression analysis following principal component analysis were: group, major difficult event, major life threatening event, disengaging coping, emotional coping, social support, and cognitive impairment. Depressive symptoms were associated with SLE group status (P < 0.001), major life-threatening events (P < 0.01), disengage coping (P < 0.001) and emotional coping (P < 0.05). SLE group status (P < 0.05), disengage coping (P < 0.05) and emotional coping (P < 0.05) were associated with current distressed mood. SLE patients without overt, major neuropsychiatric symptoms had greater psychological distress compared to RA and control subjects. Increased depressive symptoms and distressed mood state in SLE patients were related to use of disengaging and emotional coping styles. These findings are limited to SLE patients with no overt neuropsychiatric illness and low disease activity, suggesting the need for future studies with a greater variety of SLE patients. Interventions aimed at improving active coping and minimizing emotional response to stress may lower psychological distress in SLE patients with mild disease.
Thompson, Stephanie F.; Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.
Temperament, appraisal, and coping are known to underlie emotion regulation, yet less is known about how these processes relate to each other across time. We examined temperamental fear, frustration, effortful control, and impulsivity, positive and threat appraisals, and active and avoidant coping as processes underpinning the emotion regulation of pre-adolescent children managing stressful events. Appraisal and coping styles were tested as mediators of the longitudinal effects of temperamental emotionality and self-regulation on adjustment using a community sample (N=316) of preadolescent children (8–12 years at T1) studied across one year. High threat appraisals were concurrently related to high fear and impulsivity, whereas effortful control predicted relative decreases in threat appraisal. High fear was concurrently related to high positive appraisal, and impulsivity predicted increases in positive appraisal. Fear was concurrently related to greater avoidant coping, and impulsivity predicted increases in avoidance. Frustration predicted decreases in active coping. These findings suggest temperament, or dispositional aspects of reactivity and regulation, relates to concurrent appraisal and coping processes and additionally predicts change in these processes. Significant indirect effects indicated that appraisal and coping mediated the effects of temperament on adjustment. Threat appraisal mediated the effects of fear and effortful control on internalizing and externalizing problems, and avoidant coping mediated the effect of impulsivity on internalizing problems. These mediated effects suggest that one pathway through which temperament influences adjustment is pre-adolescents’ appraisal and coping. Findings highlight temperament, appraisal and coping as emotion regulation processes relevant to children’s adjustment in response to stress. PMID:25821237
Sawicki, Bogusław; Mazurek-Kusiak, Anna; Hawlena, Joanna
Abstract The main objective of this study was to investigate whether the personality dimension of conformism/nonconformism was a predictor of stress coping styles in athletes training combat sports, and to present the characteristics of this personality dimension in the context of the competitors’ adaptive/innovative sport performance. Scores of 346 males practising combat sports such as kick boxing, MMA, thai boxing, boxing and wrestling were analyzed. The participants completed the Creative Behaviour Questionnaire (KANH III) measuring the conformity/nonconformity personality dimension and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) measuring stress coping styles. The comparative analyses were conducted only for the groups of conformists and nonconformists. Differences in stress coping styles between conformists and nonconformists training combat sports were found as nonconformists tended to prefer the task-oriented coping style. Conclusively, a higher rate of nonconformity was associated with increasingly frequent occurrence of task-oriented coping and decreasingly frequent emotion-oriented coping. PMID:28149386
Bernacka, Ryszarda Ewa; Sawicki, Bogusław; Mazurek-Kusiak, Anna; Hawlena, Joanna
The main objective of this study was to investigate whether the personality dimension of conformism/nonconformism was a predictor of stress coping styles in athletes training combat sports, and to present the characteristics of this personality dimension in the context of the competitors' adaptive/innovative sport performance. Scores of 346 males practising combat sports such as kick boxing, MMA, thai boxing, boxing and wrestling were analyzed. The participants completed the Creative Behaviour Questionnaire (KANH III) measuring the conformity/nonconformity personality dimension and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) measuring stress coping styles. The comparative analyses were conducted only for the groups of conformists and nonconformists. Differences in stress coping styles between conformists and nonconformists training combat sports were found as nonconformists tended to prefer the task-oriented coping style. Conclusively, a higher rate of nonconformity was associated with increasingly frequent occurrence of task-oriented coping and decreasingly frequent emotion-oriented coping.
de la Paz Bermúdez, María; Teva, Inmaculada; Buela-Casal, Gualberto
The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of gender, age, and type of high school (public/private) on coping styles solve the problem coping style, reference to others coping style and non-productive coping, social stress, and sexual sensation seeking in adolescents. A total of 4.456 adolescents participated. The following measures were used: Adolescent Coping Scale, Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale, and the Social Stress subscale of the Behavior Assessment System for Children. This is a cross-sectional study that used a stratified random sampling considering Spanish regions and type of high school (public/private) to select participants. The sample is representative of the national level at a 95.5% confidence interval. Results showed that males had higher scores in sexual sensation seeking and social stress compared to females. Female adolescents scored higher in reference to others coping style and non-productive coping. Compared to adolescents of public high schools, adolescents who attended to private high schools scored higher in solve the problem coping style and reference to others coping style. Associations among sexual sensation seeking, coping styles, social stress, and health risk behaviors in adolescents are discussed.
Shakeri, Jalal; Kamangar, Mohamad; Ebrahimi, Ehteram; Aznab, Mozafar; Shakeri, Hania; Arman, Farid
Backgrounds and Aim: Cancer patients experience a high level of stress caused by the disease and treatment processes. Dealing with cancer using more beneficial coping styles can effectively improve the quality of life (QOL) and reduce the side effects of cancer, and it is treatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between coping styles and QOL in cancer patients. Methods: The study was performed on 150 cancer patients (71 females and 79 males) admitted to the hospitals affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Endler and Parker Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire were used to evaluate their coping style and QOL, respectively. Results: The Present study showed in cancer patients being male, single, having higher salary and education, and lower age are related to higher QOL. Furthermore, in general, QOL of cancer patients was positively correlated with avoidant coping style (P < 0.05, r : 0.170) and negatively associated with emotion-focused coping styles (P < 0.01, r : −0.378). Conclusion: The results suggested that focusing on a patient's coping style, predominantly on an emotion-focused coping style, is essential to improve patient's QOL, and that patients possibly to employ a more emotion-oriented coping style should receive enough notice, particularly before discharge. PMID:26600698
Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Young, Kimberly S.
Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users show that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person’s specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations) increased the risk for GIA. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of GIA and the need to assess a patient’s coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery. PMID:25426088
Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Young, Kimberly S
Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users show that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person's specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations) increased the risk for GIA. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of GIA and the need to assess a patient's coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery.
Nor Zaidah, A H; Khairani, O; Normah, C D
Chronic disability in children imposes great strains on a family. The responsibility of mothering disabled children may be detrimental to the well-being of mothers. This study aims to assess the different types of coping styles of mothers with disabled children and its influencing factors. It is a cross-sectional study using Coping Inventory Stressful Situation (CISS) scale to determine the mothers' coping styles. A sample of 81 mothers with disabled children attending two rural Community Rehabilitation Centres, were included in the study. Overall, the mothers were using a mixture of coping strategies. However, they scored more in the task-oriented (mean T score = 52.88) and emotion-oriented (mean T score = 50.52) coping styles, while the other subscales of coping styles, namely avoidance, distraction and social diversion were below average (mean T score < 50). Divorced mothers (p=0.04) and those with low educational level (p=0.00) were more inclined to use emotion-oriented coping strategies while mothers with younger children (< 5 years old) used more avoidance coping strategies (p=0.01). There were no significant difference of coping styles in association with the mothers' age, ethnicity, duration of marriage, number of siblings, child's birth order or gender. By understanding the mothers' coping styles, health care workers would be able to educate the mothers with effective coping strategies and consequently reduce their psychological distress.
REKNES, Iselin; EINARSEN, Ståle; PALLESEN, Ståle; BJORVATN, Bjørn; MOEN, Bente Elisabeth; MAGERØY, Nils
The aim of the present study was to investigate if bullied nurses have a more negative coping style when facing stressful events than do non-bullied nurses, and to determine if coping style moderates the well-established bullying-anxiety relationship. Cohort data were gathered in 2008/2009 and 2010 with a time lag of approximately one year for all respondents. At T1 2059 Norwegian nurses participated, whereof 1582 also responded at T2. A t-test and a hierarchical regression analysis were conducted to obtain results for the hypothesized relationships. The results show that bullied nurses use an active goal-oriented coping style less often compared to non-bullied nurses. Furthermore, active goal-oriented coping seems beneficial only when exposure to bullying behaviors is very low. This effect diminishes however as the bullying behavior intensifies. Hence, victims of bullying seem to cope more negatively with stressful events than do others. On the other hand, high exposure to bullying behaviors has negative consequences for the subsequent level of anxiety for those affected, regardless of their general coping style. PMID:27151548
Vaughn, L. M.; Hensley, B.; Baker, R. C.; Dearman, L.
The authors examined the relationship between specific learning styles and stress and coping in a sample of female college students (N = 246). Participants in the study were assessed on the three variables by completing several self-report instruments measuring learning styles, life stress level, and coping skills. There were significant…
Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wilson, Anna C.; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa
We investigated the associations of appraisal and coping styles with emotion regulation in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 196, 9-12 years of age), with appraisal, coping styles, and emotion regulation measured at a single time point. In a previous study, we identified five frustration and four anxiety emotion regulation profiles based…
Lynch, Anne M; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Goldschneider, Kenneth R; Jones, Benjamin A
The purpose of this study was to examine sex and age differences in coping strategies among pediatric patients with chronic pain. Sex differences are reported in the adult pain and coping literatures, but little attention has been given to possible distinctions in coping styles in the pediatric chronic pain population. Investigating pain coping skills at an early age may provide clinicians with a better understanding of the evolution of characteristic coping styles and identify areas for intervention. Pain intensity (Visual Analog Scale), pain coping strategies (Pain Coping Questionnaire), and coping efficacy were assessed in children (ages 8-12 years) and adolescents (ages 13-18 years), presenting to a pediatric chronic pain clinic (n=272). Significant sex differences in coping strategies were found. After controlling for pain intensity, girls used social support seeking more than boys, while boys used more behavioral distraction techniques. Adolescents engaged in more positive self-statements (a cognitive strategy) than children. Both boys and girls showed a trend toward pain coping efficacy being negatively correlated with average pain intensity. For girls, pain coping efficacy was also significantly negatively correlated with internalizing/catastrophizing. However, no sex or age differences in coping efficacy were found. This study demonstrates the early emergence of sex- and aged-based preferences in coping strategies among children and adolescents with chronic pain. The findings establish a basis for further research on early social influences in the development of pain coping styles in males and females. Implications for further clinical research in this area are discussed.
Firth, Nola; Greaves, Daryl; Frydenberg, Erica
In this study, the authors compared the results of a coping measure completed by 98 seventh through ninth grade students who were assessed as having learning disabilities with published means from the general Australian student population. The Adolescent Coping Scale was the measure used. The results suggested higher use by students aged 12 to 13 years who had learning disabilities of an overall nonproductive coping style and in particular of the nonproductive strategies of ignoring the problem and not coping. Although there was no difference in overall productive or nonproductive coping style for 14- to 15-year-olds, the students in this age group who had learning disabilities reported higher use of the strategies of not coping and ignoring the problem. These findings are discussed in relation to a need for interventions that give students who have learning disabilities strategies that address the risk of a passive coping style.
Boersma, Gretha J; Smeltzer, Michael D; Scott, Karen A; Scheurink, Anton J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Sakai, Randall R
Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual copes with stress, their "stress coping style", may influence the consequences of social stress. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that stress coping style may modulate social status and influence the consequences of having a lower social status. We formed 7 VBS colonies, with 1 proactive coping male, 1 passive coping male, and 4 female rats per colony to assess whether a rat's coping style prior to colony formation could predict whether that individual is more likely to become socially dominant. The rats remained in their respective colonies for 14days and the physiological and behavioral consequences of social stress were assessed. Our study shows that stress coping style does not predict social status. However, stress coping style may influence the consequences of having a lower social status. Subordinate passive and proactive rats had distinctly different wound patterns; proactive rats had more wounds on the front of their bodies. Behavioral analysis confirmed that proactive subordinate rats engaged in more offensive interactions. Furthermore, subordinate rats with a proactive stress coping style had larger adrenals, and increased stress responsivity to a novel acute stressor (restraint stress) compared to passive subordinate rats or dominant rats, suggesting that the allostatic load may have been larger in this group.
Kinshuk; Liu, Tzu-Chien; Graf, Sabine
Although learning styles are considered as an important factor in education, students often have to learn in courses that do not support their learning styles. A challenge for technology facilitated learning is therefore to assist and help students to cope with courses that do not match their learning styles by training and developing their less…
McNeill, Shannon A; Galovski, Tara E
There is little known about coping styles used by individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) and even less known about the influence of a comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (SMI-PTSD) diagnosis on coping. The current study examines differences in utilization of coping strategies, overall psychological distress, and exposure to traumatic events between SMI only and SMI-PTSD individuals seeking community mental health clinic services (N = 90). Results demonstrate that overall psychological distress and use of avoidance coping were significantly higher among the SMI-PTSD sample. Avoidance coping partially mediated the relationship between PTSD symptom severity and psychological distress. Findings suggest that the experience of PTSD for those with SMI is associated with increases in avoidance coping, a coping style that significantly contributes to psychological distress. Implications for further study and treatment within community mental health clinics are considered.
Purpose. This study aims at evaluating coping style and quality of life in patients with glaucoma and cataract. Methods. The participants were patients (N = 237, 130F; mean age: M = 67,8; SD = 9,5) with low vision caused by cataract (N = 188) and glaucoma (N = 49) who answered the Quality of Life Questionnaire (QOLQ) by Schalock and Keith. The participants were divided by means of cluster analysis (k-means) according to coping styles measured by CISS (Endler and Parker) into three groups: (1) high mobilization for coping, (2) task-oriented coping, and (3) low mobilization for coping. Results. In all the group, a general quality of life was moderately lowered; however, in task-oriented group it was relatively high. Moreover, task-oriented group had significantly lower level of anxiety (STAI), hopelessness (HS), and loneliness (UCLA LS-R) and higher level of self-esteem (SES) in comparison to the patients from high mobilization and low mobilization for coping. Conclusions. In an old age, adaptive coping with vision disturbances does not necessarily mean flexibility in combining all coping styles, but rather task-oriented coping and an ability to use social support. Extreme mobilization for coping seems not adaptive similarly like low mobilization for coping because it violates balance between environmental requirements and personal resources. PMID:25215225
Gudmundson, Jessica A; Leerkes, Esther M
The extent to which engaged maternal coping styles moderate the association between toddler's temperamental reactivity and mothers' sensitivity to children's negative emotions was examined in 89 mother-child dyads. Primiparous mothers completed a measure of coping styles prenatally. When toddlers were 16 months old, mothers completed a measure of perceived toddler temperament and a self-report of how they respond to toddler negative emotions, and maternal sensitivity and temperamental reactivity were observed during emotionally arousing tasks in the laboratory. Mothers' disengaged coping style was positively associated with self-reported insensitive responses to children's negative emotions. Engaged coping moderated the association between toddler temperamental reactivity and both self-reported insensitive responses and observed maternal sensitivity, such that temperamental reactivity was more strongly linked with less sensitive maternal behavior when engaged coping was low.
Grinstein-Cohen, O; Katz, A; Sarid, O
The Israeli worldview places great significance on childbearing. This could create emotional and ethical difficulties for women coping with fertility issues in addition to their treatments. This study examined the relations between coping strategies and level of religiosity in 159 women undergoing infertility treatment. Statistically significant relations were found between the problem-solving coping style and religious observance (p < 0.01) and religious beliefs (p < 0.05). An inverse correlation was found between the emotional coping style and religious beliefs (p < 0.001). Health professionals should recognize the patient's coping styles and understand the patient's religious belief system as part of an ongoing fertility treatment.
Zhou, Yueyue; Li, Dongping; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui; Zhao, Liyan
This study examined the unique associations between big five personality traits and adolescent Internet addiction (IA), as well as the mediating role of coping style underlying these relations. Our theoretical model was tested with 998 adolescents. Participants provided self-report data on demographic variables, big five personality traits, coping style, and IA. After controlling for demographic variables, it was found that agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with IA, whereas extraversion, neuroticism, and openness to experience were positively associated with IA. Mediation analyses further indicated that conscientiousness had an indirect impact on adolescent IA through decreased emotion-focused coping, whereas extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience had indirect impacts on adolescent IA through increased emotion-focused coping. In contrast, problem-focused coping had no mediating role. These findings suggest that emotion-focused coping may, in part, account for the association between big five personality and adolescent IA.
Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker, Regina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Baumeister, Sarah; Plichta, Michael M; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred
Stress exposure has been linked to increased rates of depression and anxiety in adults, particularly in females, and has been associated with maladaptive changes in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is an important brain structure involved in internalizing disorders. Coping styles are important mediators of the stress reaction by establishing homeostasis, and may thus confer resilience to stress-related psychopathology. Anatomical scans were acquired in 181 healthy participants at age 25 years. Positive coping styles were determined using a self-report questionnaire (German Stress Coping Questionnaire, SVF78) at age 22 years. Adult anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed at ages 22, 23 and 25 years with the Young Adult Self-Report. Information on previous internalizing diagnoses was obtained by diagnostic interview (2-19 years). Positive coping styles were associated with increased ACC volume. ACC volume and positive coping styles predicted anxiety and depression in a sex-dependent manner with increased positive coping and ACC volume being related to lower levels of psychopathology in females, but not in males. These results remained significant when controlled for previous internalizing diagnoses. These findings indicate that positive coping styles and ACC volume are two linked mechanisms, which may serve as protective factors against internalizing disorders.
Fledderus, Martine; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Pieterse, Marcel E.
Experiential avoidance (EA) is considered a risk factor for psychopathology. This study explores whether EA mediates the relationship between maladaptive coping styles (palliative, avoidance, and passive coping) and psychopathology and positive mental health. A total of 93 adults with mild to moderate psychological distress completed measures…
Simons, Ronald L.; Robertson, Joan F.
Developed and tested adolescent drug use model integrating social learning theory and recent stress and coping studies. Interviewed adolescents (N=343) aged 13-17 and found increase in adolescent drug use with presence of parental rejection, deviant peers, and combination of low self-esteem and avoidant coping style. Suggests both individual…
LeSure-Lester, G. Evelyn
Administered the Persistence/Voluntary Dropout Decision Scale and Cope Inventory to Hispanic two-year college students to assess the impact of coping style on college persistence decisions. Results identified how different types of persistence decisions among students were positively or negatively associated with specific dispositional coping…
Lee, Kyoung Othelia; Brennan, Mark
Narrative data from two earlier studies of adaptation to age-related visual impairment were examined for constellations of stressors and coping styles. In the course of previous qualitative analyses, the researchers identified stress and coping codes according to behavioral, psychological, and social domains using a grounded theory approach. In…
Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Celestin-Westreich, Smadar; Celestin, Leon-Patrice; Verleye, Gino; Verte, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid
This study aims to explore use of coping strategies among adolescents and their relationships with well being in the context of ongoing terrorism. Furthermore, we aim to explore to what extent coping styles in addition to exposure variables explain well being of adolescents facing ongoing terror. During September 2003, after three years of ongoing…
Bacanli, Hasan; Surucu, Mustafa; Ilhan, Tahsin
The aim of the current study was to develop a short form of Coping Styles Scale based on COPE Inventory. A total of 275 undergraduate students (114 female, and 74 male) were administered in the first study. In order to test factors structure of Coping Styles Scale Brief Form, principal components factor analysis and direct oblique rotation was…
Nazir, Amber; Mohsin, Humaira
Background: The present study compared people with depressive symptoms and people without depressive symptoms with reference to their coping styles, level of aggression and interpersonal conflicts. Methods: A purposive sample of 128 people (64 depressed and 64 normal controls)was selected from four different teaching hospitals of Lahore. Both the groups were matched on four demographic levels i.e. age, gender, education and monthly income. Symptom Checklist-R was used to screen out depressed and non-depressed people. The Brief COPE, the Aggression Questionnaire and the Bergen Social Relationship Scale were used to assess coping styles, aggression and interpersonal conflicts respectively. The Independent t-test was used to compare the groups. Binary logistic Regression was also carried out to predict the role of research variables in causing depression. Results: The results showed that level of aggression and interpersonal conflict was significantly more in people with depressive symptoms as compared to control group. On the other hand control group was using more adaptive coping styles than people with depressive symptoms but no difference was found in the use of maladaptive coping styles. Conclusion: The present findings revealed that coping styles, aggression and interpersonal conflicts play important role in depression. Therefore, these dimensions must be considered while dealing with the depressive patients. Implications for preventive work are also discussed in the light of previous researches. PMID:24688956
Costantini, David; Ferrari, Caterina; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Cavallone, Elena; Carere, Claudio; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Réale, Denis
Variation in how individuals cope behaviourally and physiologically with stressors is widespread and can have a significant impact on life-history traits and fitness. Individual coping styles are characterised by differential behavioural and adrenocortical reactivity to various challenges. As stress hormones can affect the production of reactive chemical species and the antioxidant status, individuals with different coping styles may differ also in oxidative status. Field studies on wild mammalian populations are few in number and none so far has simultaneously tested the relationship between coping style, adrenocortical reactivity and oxidative status in the same individuals. We measured individual variation in coping styles along a proactive-reactive continuum together with variation in baseline and stress-induced plasma oxidative damage, plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and cortisol in wild alpine marmots, Marmota marmota. Confirmatory path analysis revealed that different coping styles are accompanied by different baseline and stress-induced plasma oxidative statuses. Our findings also highlight the potential role of cortisol as a mediator of such differences.
Shanmugasegaram, Shamila; Flett, Gordon L; Madan, Mina; Oh, Paul; Marzolini, Susan; Reitav, Jaan; Hewitt, Paul L; Sturman, Edward D
This study investigated the associations among trait perfectionism, perfectionistic self-presentation, Type D personality, and illness-specific coping styles in 100 cardiac rehabilitation patients. Participants completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale, the Type D Scale-14, and the Coping with Health Injuries and Problems Scale. Correlational analyses established that emotional preoccupation coping was associated with trait perfectionism, perfectionistic self-presentation, and Type D personality. Perfectionism was linked with both facets of the Type D construct (negative emotionality and social inhibition). Our results suggest that perfectionistic Type D patients have maladaptive coping with potential negative implications for their cardiac rehabilitation outcomes.
Introduction: To examine the extent to which cigarette smoking in adolescence is associated with maladaptive versus adaptive coping behaviors in adulthood. Method: The data came from a longitudinal study of New Zealand adolescents followed into adulthood at age 32 years. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we examined the predictive association between daily smoking of cigarettes and symptoms of tobacco dependence from 18 to 26 years of age and later coping at age 32 years. We included pathways from childhood family disadvantage in addition to both adolescent stress–worry and adult coping in the model. Results: SEM revealed that cigarette smoking had a small but direct inverse effect on later adaptive coping (−.14) and a direct effect on maladaptive coping (.23) independent of the relationships between adolescent coping and stress–worry and later adult coping. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tobacco smoking may inhibit the development of self-efficacy or one’s ability to act with appropriate coping behaviors in any given situation. PMID:23817581
Roesch, Scott C; Vaughn, Allison A; Aldridge, Arianna A; Villodas, Feion
Many researchers underscore the importance of coping in the daily lives of adolescents, yet very few studies measure this and related constructs at this level. Using a daily diary approach to stress and coping, the current study evaluated a series of mediational coping models in a sample of low-income minority adolescents (N = 89). Specifically, coping was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between attributional style (and dimensions) and daily affect. Using random coefficient regression modeling, the relationship between (a) the locus of causality dimension and positive affect was completely mediated by the use of acceptance and humor as coping strategies; (b) the stability dimension and positive affect was completely mediated by the use of both problem-solving and positive thinking; and (c) the stability dimension and negative affect was partially mediated by the use of religious coping. In addition, the locus of causality and stability (but not globality) dimensions were also directly related to affect. However, the relationship between pessimistic explanatory style and affect was not mediated by coping. Consistent with previous research, these findings suggest that attributions are both directly and indirectly related to indices of affect or adjustment. Thus, attributions may not only influence the type of coping strategy employed, but may also serve as coping strategies themselves.
Moghadam, Alexander A.; Cordner, Zachary A.; Tamashiro, Kellie L.
Both prenatal stress (PNS) exposure and a passive stress-coping style have been identified as risk factors for insulin resistance in rats. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that PNS and stress-coping style may interact in predicting susceptibility for metabolic disease. To test this hypothesis, adult male control and PNS offspring were behaviorally characterized using a defensive burying test to have either a passive or proactive stress-coping style. In adulthood, all rats were fed either a standard chow or a high-fat diet for 3 weeks. After 3 weeks of diet exposure, glucose and insulin levels were assessed during an oral glucose tolerance test. Under high-fat diet conditions, PNS rats display elevated glucose and insulin responses to the oral glucose tolerance test, indicative of glucose intolerance. Interestingly, these effects of PNS were far more pronounced in rats characterized by a passive stress-coping style. Additionally, the passively coping PNS rats also gained more weight on the high-fat diet than all other rats tested. This observation suggests that a stressful prenatal environment in combination with a passive stress-coping strategy may prime an individual to be sensitive to diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24467745
Sempértegui, Gabriela A; Karreman, Annemiek; van Hout, Gerbrand Cm; Bekker, Marrie Hj
This study examined how coping styles are related to functional status in patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms and to what extent depression and anxiety account for this relationship. In 90 Dutch adult patients presenting medically unexplained physical symptoms, coping styles, health-related functional status, anxiety, and depression were measured. Multiple regression analyses and mediation analysis showed that coping styles were directly and indirectly related to functional status. In this relationship, depression and anxiety played an important role. The findings highlight the relevance of addressing coping styles, depression, and anxiety when targeting the functional status of patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms in clinical practice.
Geryk, Lorie L.; Blalock, Susan J.; DeVellis, Robert F.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Han, Paul K. J.; Carpenter, Delesha M.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the attentional coping styles (monitoring and blunting) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) patients and: (a) receipt of medication information; (b) receipt of conflicting medication information; (c) ambiguity aversion; (d) medication-related discussions with doctors and spouse/partners; and (e) medication adherence. Method: A sample of 328 adults with a self-reported diagnosis of arthritis (RA n=159; OA n=149) completed an Internet-based survey. Coping style was assessed using the validated short version of the Miller Behavioral Style Scale. Measures related to aspects of medication information receipt and discussion and validated measures of ambiguity aversion and medication adherence (Vasculitis Self-Management Survey) were collected. Pearson correlation coefficients, ANOVA, independent samples t-tests and multiple regression models were used to assess associations between coping style and the other variables of interest. Results: Arthritis patients in our sample were more likely to be high monitors (50%) than high blunters (36%). Among RA patients, increased information-receipt was significantly associated with decreased monitoring (b = -1.06, p = .001). Among OA patients, increased information-receipt was significantly associated with increased blunting (b = .60, p = .02). Conclusion: In our sample of patients with arthritis, attentional coping style is not in accordance with the characteristic patterns outlined in the acute and chronic disease coping literature. PMID:27843510
Pamies Aubalat, Lidia; Quiles Marcos, Yolanda
The first aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between coping styles and strategies in Spanish adolescents of both genders, with high and low eating disorder risk. Secondly, this study aims to examine the relation of coping styles and coping strategies with eating disorder risk. The sample comprised 2142 adolescents (1.130 girls and 1.012 boys), mean age 13,96 years (SD= 1.34). They completed the Adolescent Coping Scale (ACS) and the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-40). The results showed high use of intropunitive avoidance coping in both female and male adolescents with high EAT-40 scores. The regression analysis indicated that, in both girls and boys, the intropunitive avoidance and the tension reduction coping strategy explained a high percentage of variance of eating disorder risk. The results of this study have implications for the prevention of these behaviours in adolescents, because people with a high risk of developing an eating disorder present a maladaptive coping style before the onset of the eating disorder.
Earl, William L.; And Others
Examined styles of denial associated with traumatic information (specifically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome infection) among 58 HIV-positive patients. Found three styles of denial, evenly distributed across subjects: primary denial, secondary denial, and denial with no benefit. Found some mobility where 9…
Bos, Henny; van Beusekom, Gabriël; Sandfort, Theo
This study examined whether feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) in 12- to 15-year-old Dutch adolescents were related to psychological health (self-esteem and psychological distress) and whether this relation was mediated by coping styles and moderated by biological sex. Data were collected from 1,546 high school students (802 boys and 744 girls; M age = 13.57 years) by means of standardized measurements. SSA was found to predict lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of psychological distress. Further analyses showed that passive coping style partly mediated these associations. This mediation was not moderated by biological sex. The findings suggest that in understanding and addressing mental health disparities between sexual minorities and heterosexual youth attention should be paid to intrapersonal psychological factors such as coping styles.
Yao, Jianrong; Li, Xirong; Liu, Xinghui; Pang, Meiche
Aim The aim of this study is to assess the depression of pregnant women in the aftermath of an earthquake, and to identify the social support that they obtained, their coping styles and socio-demographic factors associated with depression. Methods A total of 128 pregnant women from three hospitals in the epicenter area were recruited immediately after the Ya’an earthquake. Their depression was investigated using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) with a cutoff score of 14; the social support that they obtained was measured using the Social Support Questionnaire; and their coping styles were assessed using the Coping Styles Questionnaire. Results Immediately after the earthquake, the incidence rate of depression in pregnant women was 35.2%, higher than that of the general pregnant population (7%-14%). The EPDS scores were significantly correlated with gestation age at the time of the earthquake, objective support, subjective support, use of support, negative coping style, and positive coping style. The regression analysis indicated that risk factors of prenatal depression include the number of children, relatives wounded, subjective support, and coping styles. A further analysis of the interaction between social support and two types of coping styles with depression showed that there was interaction effect between subjective social support and positive coping styles in relation to EPDS scores. There was an inverse relationship between low EPDS scores and positive coping styles and high social support, and vice versa. Conclusion The timing of the occurrence of the earthquake may not necessarily affect the progress of the illness and recovery from depression, and psychological intervention could be conducted in the immediate aftermath after the earthquake. The impact of coping styles on prenatal depression appeared to be linked with social support. Helping pregnant women to adopt positive coping styles with good social support after a recent major
current and future dysphoria . Bolger (1990) conducted a longitudinal study investigating the interrelationships between neuroticism, coping and...dealing with the legitimate problem or cause of stress. It is not clear if there are gender differences in preferred coping styles. The only consensus...seems to be that women generally seek more social support than men (Houtman, 1990). This may be due to widely held sex-role stereotypes and gender
Isa, Siti Nor Ismalina; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Rahman, Azriani Ab; Saat, Nur Zakiah Mohd; Din, Normah Che; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Ismail, Muhammad Faiz Mohd
Background Caregivers of children with learning disabilities have been shown to experience increased stress and greater negative caregiving consequences than those with typically developing children. There remains a lack of studies focusing on stress and coping mechanisms among caregivers of a wider age group and diagnosis of individuals with disabilities in Asian countries. The current study examines levels of perceived stress and associated child and caregiver factors among caregivers of children with learning disabilities in the Malaysian context. An additional aim was to determine whether caregiver coping styles may be predictors of perceived stress. Methods The Malay version of the Perceived Stress Scale with 10 items and the Brief COPE Scale were administered to a sample of 190 Malay caregivers of children with learning disabilities registered with community-based rehabilitation centres in Kelantan, a state in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine the predictors of perceived stress. Results The mean total perceived stress score of caregivers was 16.96 (SD = 4.66). The most frequently used coping styles found among caregivers included religion, acceptance and positive reframing, while substance use and behavioural disengagement were least frequently used. Higher perceived stress was significantly predicted among caregivers with fewer children, frequent use of instrumental support and behavioural disengagement coping, and lack of emotional support and religious coping. Conclusion Findings indicate that the perceived stress levels among caregivers were significantly predicted by different coping styles. It is vital to help the caregivers improve their good coping styles in order to reduce their stress levels. PMID:28381931
Castanheira, Maria Filipa; Martínez Páramo, Sonia; Figueiredo, F; Cerqueira, Marco; Millot, Sandie; Oliveira, Catarina C V; Martins, Catarina I M; Conceição, Luís E C
Individual differences in behaviour and physiological responses to stress are associated with evolutionary adaptive variation and thus raw material for evolution. In farmed animals, the interest in consistent trait associations, i.e. coping styles, has increased dramatically over the last years. However, one of limitations of the available knowledge, regarding the temporal consistency, is that it refers always to short-term consistency (usually few weeks). The present study used an escape response during a net restraining test, previously shown to be an indicative of coping styles in seabream, to investigate long-term consistency of coping styles both over time and during different life history stages. Results showed both short-term (14 days) consistency and long-term (8 months) consistency of escape response. However, we did not found consistency in the same behaviour after sexual maturation when the restraining test was repeated 16, 22 and 23 months after the first test was performed. In conclusion, this study showed consistent behaviour traits in seabream when juveniles, and a loss of this behavioural traits when adults. Therefore, these results underline that adding a life story approach to data interpretation as an essential step forward towards coping styles foreground. Furthermore, a fine-tuning of aquaculture rearing strategies to adapt to different coping strategies may need to be adjusted differently at early stages of development and adults to improve the welfare of farmed fish.
Figura, Andrea; Ahnis, Anne; Stengel, Andreas; Hofmann, Tobias; Elbelt, Ulf; Ordemann, Jürgen; Rose, Matthias
Background. The amount of excess weight loss (%EWL) among obese patients after bariatric surgery varies greatly. However, reliable predictors have not been established yet. The present study evaluated the preoperative psychological burden, coping style, and motivation to lose weight as factors determining postoperative treatment success. Methods. The sample included 64 morbidly obese patients with a preoperative BMI of 51 ± 8 kg/m2 who had undergone laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Well-established questionnaires were applied before surgery to assess the psychological burden in terms of “perceived stress” (PSQ-20), “depression” (PHQ-9), “anxiety” (GAD-7), and “mental impairment” (ISR) as well as coping style (Brief COPE) and motivation to lose weight. %EWL as an indicator for treatment success was assessed on average 20 months after surgery. Results. Based on the %EWL distribution, patients were classified into three %EWL groups: low (14–39%), moderate (40–59%), and high (60–115%). LSG patients with high %EWL reported significantly more “active coping” behavior prior to surgery than patients with moderate and low %EWL. Patients' preoperative psychological burden and motivation to lose weight were not associated with %EWL. Conclusion. An “active coping” style might be of predictive value for better weight loss outcomes in patients following LSG intervention. PMID:26649192
Garnett, Bernice R.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Austin, S. Bryn; Williams, David R.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula
Background: We used a latent class analysis (LCA) to characterize coping styles of urban youth and examined if coping styles moderated the association between experiencing discrimination and bullying and depressive symptoms. Methods: The data come from the 2006 Boston Youth Survey, where students were asked to select 2 behaviors they do most often…
Reimert, Inonge; Rodenburg, T Bas; Ursinus, Winanda W; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth
Pigs living in intensive husbandry systems may experience both acute and chronic stress through standard management procedures and limitations in their physical and social environment, which may have implications for their immune status. Here, the effect of a new breeding method where pigs were selected on their heritable influence on their pen mates' growth, and environmental enrichment on the immune status of pigs was investigated. Hereto, 240 pigs with a relatively positive genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (+SBV) and 240 pigs with a relatively negative genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (-SBV) were housed in barren or straw-enriched pens from 4 to 23 weeks of age (n = 80 pens in total). A blood sample was taken from the pigs before, three days after a 24 h regrouping test, and at week 22. In addition, effects of coping style, as assessed in a backtest, and gender were also investigated. Mainly, +SBV were found to have lower leukocyte, lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations than -SBV pigs. Enriched housed pigs had a lower neutrophil to lymphocyte (N:L) ratio and lower haptoglobin concentrations, but had higher antibody titers specific for Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) than barren housed pigs. No interactions were found between SBV class and housing. Furthermore, pigs with a proactive coping style had higher alternative complement activity and, in the enriched pens, higher antibody titers specific for KLH than pigs with a reactive coping style. Lastly, females tended to have lower leukocyte, but higher haptoglobin concentrations than castrated males. Overall, these results suggest that +SBV pigs and enriched housed pigs were less affected by stress than -SBV and barren housed pigs, respectively. Moreover, immune activation might be differently organized in individuals with different coping styles and to a lesser extent in individuals of opposite genders.
Kantner, James E.; And Others
Stress and its influence upon physiological and emotional functioning has been well documented in research literature. In order to extend this research to study the relationship between accumulated life stress, symptoms, and coping responses, 202 college graduates and undergraduates, (144 females and 58 males) responded to three self-report…
D'haese, Lies; Dewaele, Alexis; Houtte, Mieke Van
The understanding of how lesbians, gays, and bisexuals cope with homophobic violence is limited. Therefore, on the one hand, this study focuses on avoidance, problem-oriented, and emotion-oriented coping as general coping styles. On the other hand, special attention is paid to visibility management as a coping strategy that can be applied in a heteronormative context. Moreover, the moderating role of general coping styles and visibility management in the relationship between homophobic violence and negative mental health outcomes is studied. Data were collected from 1,402 Flemish lesbians, gays, and bisexuals. Stepwise regression analyses shows that coping styles and visibility management have a direct effect on mental health; however, no evidence for a moderating effect is found. Additionally, visibility management and emotion-oriented coping are found to exert a combined effect on mental health.
The literature consists of numerous references to coping styles of patients facing life-threatening illness, but the general consensus denotes the following as the predominant ones: denial, depression, anger, suicide, anxiety and fear reactions, psychosomatic compaining, schizoid-type and neurotic-type reactions, regression, dependency, and…
Hobdy, Juliann; Hayslip, Bert; Kaminski, Patricia L.; Crowley, Barbara J.; Riggs, Shelley; York, Christina
The current study employed a life events perspective to examine the relationship between attachment style and both adjustment and coping processes in adults during two specific life events involving both the loss of and a renegotiation of an attachment relationship: the launching of children from the family of origin and job loss, which represent…
Welbourne, Jennifer L.; Eggerth, Donald; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Sanchez, Francisco
This paper examined the relationships between workplace coping strategies, occupational attributional style, and job satisfaction among a sample of 190 nurses employed with a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. As an occupational group, nurses experience high levels of chronic workplace stressors. Participants completed a questionnaire packet…
Eighty orienteers, divided into three groups according to level of expertise in orienteering, completed questionnaires measuring extraversion, neuroticism, trait anxiety, social desirability, need for achievement, and locus of control. Subject interviews revealed individual styles of coping with precompetitive stress. A combination of high sport…
Chan, Siu Mui
The present study used a cross-sectional survey design to examine how adolescent depressive mood was related to attributional styles and coping strategies with a sample of 326 youths (aged 8-14 years). With the cutting point adopted in the West, 20.9% of the current sample reported depressive symptoms. Regression analysis results show that, with…
Szymanski, Dawn M.; Obiri, Oluwafunmilayo
The purpose of this study was to examine the potential moderating and mediating roles of positive and negative religious coping styles in the relationship between external and internalized racism and African American persons' psychological distress. Participants included 269 African Americans who completed a web-based Internet survey. Results…
Jarmas, Audre L.; Kazak, Anne E.
Surveyed college students with (n=84) and without (n=123) alcoholic fathers regarding their perceptions of their families, depressive experiences, and coping styles within developmental model of depression that focuses on object representations. Subjects with alcoholic fathers exhibited greater introjective depression but no increase in anaclitic…
Oxman, Thomas E.; Hegel, Mark T.; Hull, Jay G.; Dietrich, Allen J.
Research was undertaken to compare problem-solving treatment for primary care (PST-PC) with usual care for minor depression and to examine whether treatment effectiveness was moderated by coping style. PST-PC is a 6-session, manual-based, psychosocial skills intervention. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 academic, primary care…
Tran, Van Dat
The purpose of the present study is to identify how teachers' use of various coping styles with student misbehavior, and the extent to which these relate to their classroom management techniques -- punishment, recognition and reward, hinting, discussion, and aggression. It examines data from 397 junior high school teachers in Vietnam. The results…
Ireland, J.L.; Boustead, R.; Ireland, C.A.
The current study explores the role of coping styles as a predictor of poor psychological health among adolescent offenders. It presents the first study to compare young and juvenile offenders. Two hundred and three male offenders took part: 108 young (18-21 years) and 95 juvenile (15-17 years) offenders. All completed the General Health…
Luong, June; Yoder, Marian K.; Canham, Daryl
Autism is a developmental disability increasing in incidence over the past decade. Parents of children with autism experience prolonged levels of stress and isolation. Using qualitative research design, nine parents of children with autism participated in this study that focused on the effect of autism on the family, coping styles, and support…
Quinones del Valle, Rose M.; Arredondo, Patricia
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the cultural worldview perspective and coping styles of Puerto Rican females in the study. According to Hobfoll's "Conservation of Resources Theory," people strive to retain, protect, and build resources. Hobfoll's theory addresses some of the issues associated with…
Quintard, Bruno; Gana, Kamel; Constant, Aymery; Quintric, Chantal; Taïeb, Alain; Léauté-Labrèze, Christine
This study investigated factors associated with social isolation in parents of children with hemangiomas. Eighty-one parents completed questionnaires assessing their emotional distress, social isolation, and coping styles. To explore the relationships between these variables, a path analysis was used to test a model in which clinical characteristics of hemangiomas and parents' coping strategies do not have direct effects on their social isolation but indirect effects via their emotional distress. Bootstrapping was used to assess indirect effects. Time since onset and lesional complications had positive direct effects on parents' social isolation. Lesional visibility and emotion-focused coping had negative indirect effects on parents' social isolation via their emotional distress, while problem-focused coping showed a positive indirect effect. These findings may have implications for clinicians managing parents of children with hemangiomas.
Margari, Francesco; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Craig, Francesco; Lafortezza, Elena; Lisi, Andrea; Pinto, Floriana; Stallone, Valentina; Pierri, Grazia; Pisani, Rossella; Zagaria, Giuseppina; Margari, Lucia; Grattagliano, Ignazio
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in juvenile sex offenders showing that this population is highly heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to identify possible different profiles that could help understand the motivation behind offending, comparing 31 Juvenile Sexual Offenders (JSOs), 31 Juvenile Sexual Non Offenders (JSNOs) and 31 Juvenile Non Offenders (Control Group). A data collection form, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) or Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI) were administered to all participants. The results show that JSOs differs from JNSOs in some domains, such as living in single-parent homes, while maintain some common aspects such as academic failure and previous sexual intercourse. Moreover, JNSOs showed more abnormal personality traits, such as Authority Problems, MacAndrew Alcoholism, Acknowledgement and Alcohol-Drug Problem Proneness compared to JSOs and the Control Group, while JSOs and JNSOs use a coping strategy more oriented to Avoidance and Distraction compared to the Control group. Finally, JSOs described the relationships with fathers characterized by higher care and protection than JNSOs. These findings provide additional evidence with respect the prevention and treatment of criminal sexual behavior in adolescent.
Santos, Paulo Roberto
Quality of life (QOL) is an important outcome among end-stage renal disease patients and can be associated with modifiable behaviors. We analyzed the correlation between coping style and QOL among hemodialysis patients. We studied 166 end-stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis. They were older than 18 years, under hemodialysis for at least 3 months, and had never received a transplant. Quality of life was assessed by SF-36 and coping style was scored by the Jalowiec Coping Scale. Emotion-oriented coping and problem-oriented coping scores were compared according to sex, comorbidity, and socioeconomic status by the Mann-Whitney test. Correlations between QOL and 2 coping styles (emotion-oriented coping and problem-oriented coping) were adjusted for age, time on dialysis, hemoglobin, creatinine, albumin, calcium-phosphorus product, and Kt/V by backward stepwise linear regression. There was no difference between coping scores according to sex, comorbidity, and socioeconomic status. Emotion-oriented coping was independently and negatively associated with 4 QOL dimensions: physical functioning, role-physical, role-emotional, and mental health. Our results indicate that patients with high emotion-oriented coping scores should be seen at risk for poor QOL. Patient education in coping skills may be used to change the risk of poor QOL.
Magara, Salvatore; Holst, Sarah; Lundberg, Stina; Roman, Erika; Lindskog, Maria
Modeling depression in animals is based on the observation of behaviors interpreted as analog to human symptoms. Typical tests used in experimental depression research are designed to evoke an either-or outcome. It is known that explorative and coping strategies are relevant for depression, however these aspects are generally not considered in animal behavioral testing. Here we investigate the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL), a rat model of depression, compared to the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat in three independent tests where the animals are allowed to express a more extensive behavioral repertoire. The multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) and the novel cage tests evoke exploratory behaviors in a novel environment and the home cage change test evokes social behaviors in the re-establishment of a social hierarchy. In the MCSF test, FSL rats exhibited less exploratory drive and more risk-assessment behavior compared to SD rats. When re-exposed to the arena, FSL, but not SD rats, increased their exploratory behavior compared to the first trial and displayed risk-assessment behavior to the same extent as SD rats. Thus, the behavior of FSL rats was more similar to that of SDs when the rats were familiar with the arena. In the novel cage test FSL rats exhibited a reactive coping style, consistent with the reduced exploration observed in the MCSF. Reactive coping is associated with less aggressive behavior. Accordingly, FSL rats displayed less aggressive behavior in the home cage change test. Taken together, our data show that FSL rats express altered exploratory behavior and reactive coping style. Reduced interest is a core symptom of depression, and individuals with a reactive coping style are more vulnerable to the disease. Our results support the use of FSL rats as an animal model of depression and increase our understanding of the FSL rat beyond the behavioral dimensions targeted by the traditional depression-related tests. PMID:25954168
Oxman, Thomas E; Hegel, Mark T; Hull, Jay G; Dietrich, Allen J
Research was undertaken to compare problem-solving treatment for primary care (PST-PC) with usual care for minor depression and to examine whether treatment effectiveness was moderated by coping style. PST-PC is a 6-session, manual-based, psychosocial skills intervention. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 academic, primary care clinics. Those subjects who were eligible were randomized (N = 151), and 107 subjects completed treatment (57 PST-PC, 50 usual care) and a 35-week follow-up. Analysis with linear mixed modeling revealed significant effects of treatment and coping, such that those in PST-PC improved at a faster rate and those initially high in avoidant coping were significantly more likely to have sustained benefit from PST-PC.
Bartone, Paul T; Hystad, Sigurd W; Eid, Jarle; Brevik, John I
Alcohol abuse is a growing problem in the military, and a costly one. The present study evaluates the potential role of psychological hardiness, an individual resilience resource, to stress-related problem drinking in a military population. We assess the association of psychological hardiness and avoidance coping style with alcohol use patterns in a large national sample of Norwegian military defense personnel. Results show that low hardiness and high avoidance coping are significant predictors of alcohol abuse. Also, the challenge facet of hardiness predicts risk of alcohol abuse among respondents with recent deployment experience, and this effect is greater for those with harsh deployment experiences. Older defense workers are also at higher risk, suggesting cumulative occupational stress may take a toll. This research indicates that hardiness and avoidance coping measures may serve as useful adjunct screening tools for alcohol abuse in the military.
Mesquita, Flavia Oliveira; Borcato, Fabio Luiz; Huntingford, Felicity Ann
Common carp that had been screened for stress coping style using a standard behavioural test (response to a novel environment) were given a learning task in which food was concealed in one of two compartments, its location randomised between trials and its presence in a given compartment signalled by either a red or a yellow light. All the fish learned to find food quickly, but did so in different ways. Fifty five percent learned to use the light cue to locate food; the remainder achieved the same result by developing a fixed movement routine. To explore this variation, we related learning strategy to stress coping style. Time to find food fell identically with successive trials in carp classified as reactive or proactive, but reactive fish tended to follow the light cue and proactive fish to adopt a fixed routine. Among fish that learned to follow the light, reactive individuals took fewer trials to reach the learning criterion than did proactive fish. These results add to the growing body of information on within-species variation in learning strategies and suggest a possible influence of stress coping style on the use of associative learning as opposed to algorithmic searching during foraging.
Poerio, V; Merenda, M T; Congedo, M L
Coping is defined by Perlin and Shooler as "... that behavior that protects people from psychological pressure due to social situations and problems". This intention Lazarus and Folkman affirm: "... the coping allows people to use different abilities to manage the difficulties (stressors) that they experience in daily existence..." When the stressor is diabetes, the requirements and pressures due to the illness and its physiological and psychosocial consequences are continuous and become chronic. In numerous studies, the coping, suitable or not, has been linked to different medical consequences of the diabetes: changes in glycosylated hemoglobin levels, in the physiological functionality, in the specific symptomatology, in body weight and body mass index. In other research, as in the present contribution, the coping and specific socio-cognitive dimensions have been correlated with the psychosocial consequences of the diabetes, particularly with quality of life and psychological and social adaptation (PSA). This last concept refers, within the illness process, to the attainment of the characteristic behavioral and psychological objectives of recovery. The purpose of the present work is to individualize the coping styles and to note the correlations with socio-cognitive dimensions in diabetic patients, and to measure their incidence on the APS, answering to a series of questions, such as: "What are the modalities of a more functional coping? Are they correlated with the socio-cognitive dimensions? Together do they influence the APS processes?". To 123 diabetic patients (51 with diabetes type 1; 72 with diabetes type 2), with a middle age of 63.7 and 54.9, respectively, have been administered, in sequence, two questionnaires: an adaptation of the Bernese Coping Modes (BECOMO) of Heim et coll. and the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire (MDQ) of Talbot et coll. The results, by using descriptive statistics and data analysis techniques, seem to point out that, in the
Lau, Ying; Tha, Pyai Htun; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Wang, Yuqiong; Wang, Ying; Yobas, Piyanee Klainin
Few studies have examined different perceptions of stress or explored the positive aspects of well-being among pregnant Chinese women, so there is a need to explore these phenomena in order to fill the research gap. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among the different perceptions of stress, coping styles, and general well-being using a structural equation modeling approach. We examined a hypothetical model among 755 pregnant Chinese women based on the integration of theoretical models. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Trait Coping Styles Questionnaire (TCSQ), and the General Well-Being Schedule (GWB) were used to measure perceived stress, coping styles, and general well-being, respectively. A structural equation model showed that positive and negative perceptions of stress significantly influenced positive and negative coping styles, respectively. Different perceptions of stress were significantly associated with general well-being, but different coping styles had no significant effects on general well-being. The model had a good fit to the data (IFI = 0.910, TLI = 0.904, CFI = 0.910, and RMSEA = 0.038). Different perception of stress was able to predict significant differences in coping styles and general well-being.
Shapiro, Deborah L.; Levendosky, Alytia A.
A study of 80 adolescent females found that attachment style mediates the effects of child sexual abuse (CSA) and child abuse and neglect on coping and psychological distress. The indirect effects of CSA and other abuse through attachment accounted for most of the effects on coping and psychological distress. (Author/CR)
Varescon, Isabelle; Leignel, Shirley; Gérard, Caroline; Aubourg, Frédérique; Detilleux, Michel
The literature underscores that psychological factors could play an important role in smoking behavior, which is considered a coping mechanism. To study relations among measures of self-esteem, psychological distress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and coping styles in pregnant smokers, a cross-sectional study was conducted. These factors were assessed in two groups of pregnant women (Smokers, n = 40; Non-smokers, n = 40) contacted at one University Hospital in Paris. All participants filled out the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the General Health Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Brief Cope Scale. Comparisons, correlations, and regression models were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the group of pregnant women who smoked had significantly lower mean self-esteem, elevated psychological distress and anxiety scores, and reported using more emotion-focused coping than the group of pregnant non-smokers. Self-esteem significantly predicted problem-focused coping. This study confirms the importance of assessing these psychological variables to offer women more specific support to quit smoking.
Kartalova-O'Doherty, Yulia; Doherty, Donna Tedstone
A qualitative exploratory study investigated the experiences and needs of family carers of persons with enduring mental illness in Ireland. The current mixed-methods secondary study used content analysis and statistical procedures to identify and explore the coping strategies emerging from the original interviews. The majority of family carers reported use of active behavioural coping strategies, sometimes combined with active cognitive or avoidance strategies. The percentage of cares reporting use of active cognitive strategies was the lowest among those whose ill relative lived in their home, and the highest among those whose relative lived independently. Participants with identified active cognitive strategies often reported that their relative was employed or in training. Participants who reported use of avoidance strategies were significantly younger than participants who did not report use of such strategies. The lowest percentage of avoidance strategies was among participants whose ill relative lived independently, whereas the highest was among carers whose relative lived in their home. The findings of this study highlight the importance of a contextual approach to studying coping styles and processes. Further research questions and methodological implications are discussed.
Tan-Kristanto, Stef; Kiropoulos, Litza A
High levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms have been reported by individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study examined the associations between resilience, self-efficacy and coping and depressive and anxiety symptoms and whether resilience, self-efficacy and coping were predictors of depressive and anxiety symptoms in patients newly diagnosed with MS. A sample of 129 individuals newly diagnosed with MS participated in this cross-sectional study and completed an online questionnaire assessing resilience, self-efficacy, coping and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Results revealed that depressive and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with problem-focused, emotion-focused and avoidance coping strategies, resilience and self-efficacy. Anxiety symptoms were also significantly associated with employment status and level of disability. Results from hierarchical multiple regression revealed that the resilience subscale of personal competence, the avoidance coping style of substance use and emotion-focused coping styles of venting predicted depressive symptoms and uniquely accounted for 63.8% of the variance in the depression score, F (18, 124) = 10.36, p = .000. Level of disability and employment status accounted for 13.2% of the anxiety score and avoidance coping style of denial and emotion-focused coping style of humour accounted for 36.4% of the variance in the anxiety symptom score, F (15, 112) = 6.37, p = .000. Our findings suggest that resilience and avoidance and emotion-focused coping strategies are predictive of depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in those newly diagnosed with MS. Resilience and coping styles may be another target for interventions aimed at managing depressive and anxiety symptoms in those newly diagnosed with MS.
Hughes, Jamie S.; Gourley, Mary K.; Madson, Laura; Le Blanc, Katya
Stress management and coping techniques are not only relevant in many psychology courses but also personally relevant for undergraduate students. In this article, the authors describe an activity designed to provide students with practice evaluating and challenging negative self-talk. Students responded to scenarios individually, were paired with…
Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Ginzburg, Karni; Chartier, Maggie; Gardner, William; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; McGarvey, Elizabeth; Weiss, Elizabeth; Koopman, Cheryl
Research indicates that a significant proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS report symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Moreover, attachment style has been associated with psychological and behavioral outcomes among persons living with HIV/AIDS. Attachment style may influence the ability to cope with traumatic stress and affect PTSD symptoms. To examine the association between attachment style and coping with PTSD symptoms, we assessed 94 HIV-positive adults on self-report measures of posttraumatic stress, coping, and attachment style. In multiple regression analysis, avoidant attachment and emotion-focused coping were positively and significantly associated with greater PTSD symptomatology. Support was also found for the moderating effects of avoidant and insecure attachment styles on emotion-focused coping in relation to greater PTSD symptoms. Taken altogether, these results suggest that interventions that develop adaptive coping skills and focus on the underlying construct of attachment may be particularly effective in reducing trauma-related symptoms in adults living with HIV/AIDS.
Grubb, Amy; Brown, Sarah
This article explores the potential role of hostage negotiator characteristics and the impact of psychological constructs on negotiator success. It explores the role of Personality, Decision-Making Style, Coping Style, Cognitive Coping Style and Emotion Regulation and Emotional Intelligence within high stress environments and occupations. The findings suggest that certain individual traits and characteristics may play a role in negotiator success, via the mediation of specific styles, which are conducive to effective crisis negotiation skills. It is proposed that these findings have application within the field of hostage/crisis negotiation in the format of guidance regarding the recruitment and selection of hostage negotiators and the identification of potential training needs within individual negotiators in order to maximize their efficacy within the field. In line with this, it is argued that a psychometric tool that assesses these constructs is developed in order to aid the process of hostage negotiation selection.
Díaz-Morán, Sira; Palència, Marta; Mont-Cardona, Carme; Cañete, Toni; Blázquez, Gloria; Martínez-Membrives, Esther; López-Aumatell, Regina; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate for the first time the stress-induced hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone and prolactin responses of the National Institutes of Health genetically heterogeneous rat stock (N/Nih-HS rats) in comparison with responses of the relatively high and low stress-prone Roman Low- (RLA-I) and High-Avoidance (RHA-I) rat strains. The same rats were also compared (experiment 1) with respect to their levels of unconditioned anxiety (elevated zero-maze test), novelty-induced exploratory behavior, conditioned fear and two-way active avoidance acquisition. In experiment 2, naive rats from these three strains/stocks were evaluated for "depressive-like" behavior in the forced swimming test. N/Nih-HS and RLA-I rats showed significantly higher post-stress ACTH, corticosterone and prolactin levels than RHA-I rats. N/Nih-HS rats also presented the highest context-conditioned freezing responses, extremely poor two-way avoidance acquisition and very low novelty-induced exploratory behavior. Experiment 2 showed that, compared to RHA-I rats, N/Nih-HS and RLA-I rats displayed significantly less struggling (escape-directed) and increased immobility responses in the forced swimming test. Factor analysis of data from experiment 1 showed associations among behavioral and hormonal responses, with a first factor comprising high loadings of elevated zero-maze variables and lower loadings of conditioned fear, two-way avoidance acquisition and hormonal measures, while a second factor mainly grouped conditioned fear and two-way avoidance acquisition with novelty-induced exploration and post-stress prolactin. Thus, regarding their anxiety/fearfulness, passive coping style, "depressive-like" and stress-induced hormonal responses the N/Nih-HS rats resemble the phenotype profiles of the relatively high-anxious and stress-prone RLA-I rat strain.
Sil, Soumitri; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Thompson, Caitlin; Hahn, Amy; Herbert, Linda; Wohlheiter, Karen; Horn, Susan
This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) enhanced interactive videogame distraction for children undergoing experimentally induced cold pressor pain and examined the role of avoidant and approach coping style as a moderator of VR distraction effectiveness. Sixty-two children (6-13 years old) underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by two cold pressor trials in which interactive videogame distraction was delivered both with and without a VR helmet in counterbalanced order. As predicted, children demonstrated significant improvement in pain tolerance during both interactive videogame distraction conditions. However, a differential response to videogame distraction with or without the enhancement of VR technology was not found. Children's coping style did not moderate their response to distraction. Rather, interactive videogame distraction with and without VR technology was equally effective for children who utilized avoidant or approach coping styles.
McKee, Tara Eberhardt; Harvey, Elizabeth; Danforth, Jeffrey S.; Ulaszek, Wendy R.; Friedman, Julie L.
This study examined the relation between parental coping styles, discipline, and child behavior before and after participating in a parent training program for parents of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and oppositional behavior. For mothers, use of more maladaptive and less adaptive coping styles was related to more…
Weisz, John R.; And Others
Obtained reports of coping and goals from 33 children being treated for leukemia. Coping strategies were classified as primary control coping (attempts to alter objective conditions), secondary control coping (attempts to adjust to objective conditions), or relinquished control (no attempt to cope). Secondary control coping was positively…
Fox, Lisa; Walsh, Jane C.; Morrison, Todd G.; O’ Gorman, David; Ruane, Nancy; Mitchell, Caroline; Carey, John J.; Coughlan, Robert; McGuire, Brian E.
Aim This study set out to investigate whether cognitive coping strategies that match participants’ preferred coping style effectively reduce pain intensity and situational anxiety in a population of people with chronic pain. Method Chronic pain patients (N = 43) completed questionnaires on coping style, pain intensity, self-efficacy, and situational/trait anxiety. Participants were classified as Monitors (n = 16) or Blunters (n = 19) based on their Miller Behavioural Style Scale score. Participants were then provided with an audiotaped intervention in which they were instructed to focus on pain sensations or to engage in a distraction task and then to rate the pain intensity and their anxiety during and after the attentional focus and distraction conditions. The two interventions were each completed by all participants, having been presented in counterbalanced order. Results Findings revealed that Monitors’ level of anxiety decreased following a congruent (i.e., sensation-focused) intervention. No effects were obtained in terms of perceived pain. For blunters, however, their perceived levels of anxiety and pain did not attenuate following a congruent, distraction-focused intervention. Conclusion Among persons experiencing chronic pain, tailoring coping strategies to match an individual’s preferred coping style–in particular, those with a high level of monitoring–may enhance the benefit of psychological approaches to management of anxiety. PMID:27071028
Mark, George; Smith, Andrew P
Well-being at work has been shown to be influenced by job characteristics and individual differences in coping styles. This study investigated the relationships between job demands, control, social support, efforts, rewards, coping, and attributional style in predicting anxiety, depression, and job satisfaction in a sample of 307 university employees from the UK. Results were compared to those from a sample of 120 members of the general population. Workplace demands, intrinsic and extrinsic effort, and negative coping and attributional behaviors were associated with high levels of depression and anxiety and low job satisfaction in university employees. Rewards, social support, job control, and positive coping and attributional behaviors were associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety and high job satisfaction. The study adds to the growing research on university samples by showing that a transactional approach should be adopted. This has implications for interventions and suggests that rather than just trying to change job characteristics one should identify at-risk individuals in this population and help them adopt appropriate positive coping styles.
Stern, Marilyn; Alvarez, Aracelly
The purpose of this ongoing study is to assess the impact of style of coping, self-image, family environment, and perceptions of parenting skills on the adaptation of adolescents to the stressors of parenthood. A total of 27 adolescent mothers and their infants, and a cohort of 16 pregnant teens, have thus far participated in the study. Each of…
Chang, Yuhsuan; Lan, Yu-Ling; Lin, Hung-Yu; Heppner, Puncky Paul
The current research comprises two samples that investigated the psychometric properties of the Problem-Focused Style of Coping (PF-SOC; Heppner, Cook, Wright, & Johnson) scale using two Taiwanese samples. In Sample 1 (N = 809), we investigated the structural dimensions of the PF-SOC using a principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmed…
Rahat, Enes; Ilhan, Tahsin
The purpose of the present study is to investigate how well coping styles, social support, relational self-construal, and resilience characteristics predict first year university students' ability to adjust to university life. Participants consisted of 527 at-risk students attending a state university in Turkey. The Personal Information Form, Risk…
Dabrowska, A.; Pisula, E.
Background: The study examined the profile of stress in mothers and fathers of preschool children with autism, Down syndrome and typically developing children. A further aim was to assess the association between parenting stress and coping style. Methods: A total of 162 parents were examined using Holroyd's 66-item short form of Questionnaire of…
Stallard, Paul; Smith, Elisabeth
Background: Comparatively little is known about the cognitive appraisals and coping styles of child road traffic accident (RTA) survivors that are associated with chronic post-traumatic reactions. Methods: Seventy-five children and young people aged 7-18 who were involved in a road traffic accident and attended an accident and emergency department…
Kim, Jung-Hyun; Knight, Bob G.
Purpose: This study investigated direct and indirect effects of caregiver status on the physical health of Korean American caregivers in terms of caregiver coping styles and the quantity and the quality of informal social support. Design and Methods: Using a sample of 87 caregivers and 87 matched noncaregivers, we analyzed a path model, employing…
Teva, Inmaculada; Bermudez, Maria Paz; Buela-Casal, Gualberto
The aim of this study was to assess whether coping styles, social stress, and sexual sensation seeking were predictors of HIV/STD risk behaviours in adolescents. A representative sample of 4,456 female and male Spanish high school students aged 13 to 18 years participated. A stratified random sampling procedure was used. Self-report questionnaires…
Villada, Carolina; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Salvador, Alicia
The main objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of some personality traits to the physiological and psychological response to a standardized laboratory psychosocial stressor (trier social stress test). Cortisol and affective response (anxiety and mood) were analysed in a mixed-sex group composed of 35 young adults who participated in a crossover design (18 men and 17 women). After verifying a statistically significant response to the trier social stress test in all parameters studied in both sex groups, exploratory cluster analyses were carried out to identify sub-groups based on their psychophysiological responses. These analyses showed two different groups: subjects displaying lower psychological response along with higher cortisol response (cluster 1) compared with the group with high affective reactivity along with lower cortisol response (cluster 2). Interestingly, we also found significant differences in trait anxiety and coping styles when the two clusters were compared. Subjects in cluster 1 showed lower scores on trait anxiety and higher scores on active coping, whereas the subjects in the second cluster obtained higher scores on anxiety and on coping focused on emotions and mental disengagement. These findings support the importance of personality traits and coping styles in understanding the overall integrative psychobiological responsiveness to social stress.
Zhou, H; Peng, J; Wang, D; Kou, L; Chen, F; Ye, M; Deng, Y; Yan, J; Liao, S
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Studies show that psychological capital (PsyCap) is a protective factor against psychological distress, such as depressive symptoms. However, few have attempted to address the role of coping styles in the relationship between PsyCap and psychological distress. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Our study found moderate levels of PsyCap among nurses in China. Among the subcategories of PsyCap, optimism and hope were most highly correlated with psychological distress. Psychological distress was positively associated with negative coping and negatively associated with positive coping. This study confirmed the partial mediating effect of coping styles in PsyCap and psychological distress among Chinese nurses. In other words, this study found direct and indirect effects of PsyCap on psychological distress mediated via coping styles. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The significant mediating effect of negative and positive coping styles between PsyCap and psychological distress has implications for hospital administrators, especially nurse leaders. Effective strategies should be implemented to improve PsyCap and coping styles among Chinese nurses, and alleviate psychological distress. Optimism and hope should be emphasized in PsyCap investment. Different styles of coping are influenced and modified by teaching and experience. Therefore, it is essential that nurse managers organize educational and training programmes to provide nurses with relative coping knowledge and techniques, and improve their coping ability. Several studies suggest that coping styles are affected by social support. Thus, nurse managers should assist nurses with social support and enhance coping strategies to reduce psychological distress.
Robles-Piña, Rebecca A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether depression and self-concept could be construed as personality characteristics and/or coping styles in reaction to school retention or being held back a grade. The participants in this study were 156 urban Hispanic adolescents, ages 12–18, and of these, 51 or 33% had been retained in school. Students who had been retained reported a lower self-concept score, higher GPA, and higher rates of depression, and they were more likely to be male than students who had not been retained. The findings of this study indicated that self-concept was a personality characteristic that, due to its malleability, is also a coping style in regards to retention with this Hispanic adolescent population. PMID:21738867
Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Beata; KaŸmierczak, Maria; Błażek, Magdalena
Summary Background Psychopathy is a notion that has been difficult to define. The operational definition of psychopathy by Hare is one of the most commonly used in psychology and it is usually identified with the scale used to measure this type of personality, which is the Psychopathy Checklist - Revision (PCL-R). PCL-R is composed of two factors: Factor 1 describes a constellation of psychopathic traits considered by many clinicians to be basic for this type of personality, and Factor 2 describes types of behaviour indicating impulsiveness, lack of stability and antisocial lifestyle. The aim of the research was to verify a hypothesis that people with psychopathic personality disorders are characterised by high self-esteem, unconstructive strategies of planning actions and non-adaptive styles of coping with stress. Material/Methods The group of participants included 30 people at the age of 22–36 convicted with a legally binding sentence. Methods were: 1. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revision (PCL-R); 2. Antisocial Personality Questionnaire (APQ); 3. Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS); 4. Generalised Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES). Results The participants were diagnosed as psychopaths (PCL-R), and more specifically – as primary psychopaths (APQ). They revealed a grandiose sense of self-worth, increased self-control, impulsive style of functioning, perceived high self-efficacy (which might be considered as a defence mechanism). Psychopaths prefer a coping style focused on emotions and avoidance. Conclusions The hypothesis was confirmed, that people with psychopathic personality disorders are characterised by high self-esteem, unconstructive strategies of planning actions and non-adaptive styles of coping with stress. PMID:22293875
Aizawa, Saeko; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Masuda, Koji; Inoue, Ayako; Oshita, Harumi; Hirakawa, Hirofumi; Ninomiya, Taiga; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Okamoto, Kana; Kawashima, Chiwa; Nakanishi, Mari; Higuma, Haruka; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Akiyoshi, Jotaro
Introduction Stress coping has been defined as the cognitive and behavioral efforts made to conquer, endure, or decrease external and internal demands and the conflicts between them. It has two main elements: the control or modification of the person–environment relationship causing the stress (i.e., problem-focused coping) and/or regulation of stressful feelings (i.e., emotion-focused coping). Research suggests that the expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 (NTRK2) play important roles in brain adaptation to investigate stress. To clarify the genetic basis of stress coping, we investigated the association of stress-coping strategies and social adaptation with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in neural plasticity, anxiety, and depression. Methods In 252 healthy controls (94 women; 158 men), we measured and estimated the stress-coping style using the Lazarus-type stress-coping inventory, ego aptitude scale (EAS), and social adaptation self-evaluation scale (SASS). We investigated one SNP of BDNF (rs6265, Val/Met) and five SNPs of NTRK2 (rs11140800, rs1187286, rs1867283, rs1147198, and rs10868235). Results We observed significant associations between BDNF and emotion-focused strategies, seeking social support, self-control, and distancing. We also found significant associations between NTRK2 and cognitive strategies, problem-solving, confrontive- coping, seeking social support, distancing and positive reappraisal. Significant associations were also found between BDNF and critical attitudes and between NTRK2 and all seven ego-related factors on the EAS. In the SASS, the minor allele rs1867283 of NTRK2 had a significantly higher score than the heterozygote. Conclusions These findings may provide insights into the partial effects of genetic mutations in BDNF and NTRK2 on stress tolerance and personality. PMID:26445699
Alston, Lauren L.; Kratchmer, Carissa; Jeznach, Anna; Bartlett, Nathan T.; Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Fujiwara, Esther
Individuals with a repressive coping style self-report low anxiety, but show high defensiveness and high physiological arousal. Repressors have impoverished negative autobiographical memories and are better able to suppress memory for negatively valenced and self-related laboratory materials when asked to do so. Research on spontaneous forgetting of negative information in repressors suggests that they show significant forgetting of negative items, but only after a delay. Unknown is whether increased forgetting after a delay is potentiated by self-relevance. Here we asked in three experiments whether repressors would show reduced episodic memories for negative self-relevant information when tested immediately versus after a 2-day delay. We predicted that repressors would show an exaggerated reduction in recall of negative self-relevant memories after a delay, at least without anew priming of this information. We tested a total of 300 participants (experiment 1: N = 95, experiment 2: N = 106; experiment 3: N = 99) of four types: repressors, high-anxious (HA), low-anxious, and defensive HA individuals. Participants judged positive and negative adjectives with regard to self-descriptiveness, serving as incidental encoding. Surprise free-recall was conducted immediately after encoding (experiment 1), after a 2-day delay (experiment 2), or after a 2-day delay following priming via a lexical decision task (experiment 3). In experiment 1, repressors showed a bias against negative self-relevant words in immediate recall. Such a bias was neither observed in delayed recall without priming nor in delayed recall with priming. Thus, counter to our hypothesis, negative information that was initially judged as self-relevant was not forgotten at a higher rate after a delay in repressors. We suggest that repressors may reinterpret initially negative information in a more positive light after a delay, and therefore no longer experience the need to bias their recall after
Shayeghian, Zeinab; Hassanabadi, Hamidreza; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Amiri, Parisa; Besharat, Mohammad Ali
Background and Aim Evidence of the efficacy of existing psychological interventions for self-management in diabetes is limited. The current study aimed at assessing the effects of group-based ACT on self-management of patients with T2DM, considering the moderating role of coping styles. Methods One hundred and six patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned either to the education alone (n = 53) or to a combination of education and group-based acceptance and commitment therapy (n = 53) over a period of 10 sessions. In each group, 50 participants completed a 3 month follow-up assessment. Results After 3 months, compared to patients who received education alone, those in the group-based acceptance and commitment therapy condition were more likely to use effective coping strategies, reported better diabetes self-care, and optimum glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels in the target range. Conclusions Consideration of the role of coping style for a more accurate evaluation of the effects of acceptance and commitment therapy may be a useful addition to services provided for patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27907074
Andersson, Madelene Åberg; Khan, Uniza Wahid; Overli, Oyvind; Gjøen, Hans Magnus; Höglund, Erik
Correlations between behavioral and physiological traits, often referred to as stress coping styles, have been demonstrated in numerous animal groups. Such trait variations often cluster in two contrasting styles, with animals characterized as either proactive or reactive. In natural populations of salmonid fishes, emergence from spawning nests, when fry establish a territory and shifts from exogenous to endogenous feeding, is a crucial niche shift with a high selection pressure. The timing of this event is correlated to behavioral and physiological traits such as aggression, boldness/shyness, dominance, and metabolic rate; resembling those of proactive and reactive stress coping styles. In farmed fish populations, however the relation between emergence and stress coping styles seems to be absent, an effect which has been related to lack of selection pressure during emergence. In the present study two rainbow trout strains genetically selected as LR (low-responsive) and HR (high-responsive) trout, characterized with proactive (LR) and reactive (HR) stress coping traits, was used to further investigate the relationship between the time of emergence and stress coping style in salmonid fishes. For this task LR and HR larvae were hatched in mixed batches, and thirty individuals from the earliest and latest 25% of emerging larvae were randomly collected. Thereafter, a line specific genetic marker was used to distinguish the proportion of LR and HR occurring in early and late fractions. The result demonstrates a higher proportion of LR fry in the early fraction in comparison to the HR fry, which emerged at a higher proportion during the late period. Early emerging individuals had larger yolk reserves at emergence, lending further support to a relationship between emergence times, yolk reserves at emergence and stress coping styles in salmonids. Smaller larval bodies in early compared to late emerging individuals suggest that this difference in yolk size reflects
Jarrin, Denise C; Chen, Ivy Y; Ivers, Hans; Morin, Charles M
Individuals who are more prone to experience situational insomnia under stressful conditions may also be at greater risk to develop subsequent insomnia. While cross-sectional data exist on the link between sleep reactivity (heightened vulnerability to stress-related insomnia) and insomnia, limited data exist on its predictive value. The aim of the study was to evaluate prospectively whether sleep reactivity was associated with increased risk of incident and persistent insomnia in a population-based sample of good sleepers. Social support and coping styles were also investigated as potential moderators. Participants were 1449 adults (Mage = 47.4 years, standard deviation = 15.1; 41.2% male) without insomnia at baseline and evaluated four times over 3 years. Sleep reactivity was measured using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST). Additional measures included depressive symptoms, the frequency and perceived impact of stressful life events, social support and coping styles. After controlling for prior sleep history, depressive symptoms, arousal predisposition, stressful life events and perceived impact, individuals with higher sleep reactivity had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.56 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-2.16], 1.41 (95% CI: 0.87-2.30) and 2.02 (95% CI: 1.30-3.15) of developing insomnia symptoms, syndrome and persistent insomnia, respectively. Social support and coping styles did not moderate these associations. Results suggest that heightened vulnerability to insomnia is associated with an increased risk of developing new-onset subsyndromal and persistent insomnia in good sleepers. Knowledge of premorbid differences is important to identify at-risk individuals, as this may help to develop more targeted prevention and intervention strategies for insomnia.
Frank, Robert G.; And Others
Identified and validated two subgroups in group of 53 persons with spinal cord injury by applying cluster-analytic procedures to subjects' self-reported coping and health locus of control belief scores. Cluster 1 coped less effectively and tended to be psychologically distressed; Cluster 2 subjects emphasized internal health attributions and…
Vaz-Serrano, J; Ruiz-Gomez, M L; Gjøen, H M; Skov, P V; Huntingford, F A; Overli, O; Höglund, E
Individual variation in the way animals cope with stressors has been documented in a number of animal groups. In general, two distinct sets of behavioural and physiological responses to stress have been described: the proactive and the reactive coping styles. Some characteristics of stress coping style seem to be coupled to the time to emerge of fry from spawning redds in natural populations of salmonid fishes. In the present study, behavioural and physiological traits of stress coping styles were compared two and five months after emergence in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), using individuals with an early or late time to emerge. Initially, compared to late emerging individuals, early emerging individuals showed a shorter time to resume feeding after transfer to rearing in isolation. Resumption of feeding after isolation was suggested to be related to boldness behaviour, rather than hunger, in the present study. This observation was repeated five months after emergence, demonstrating behavioural consistency over time in this trait. However, in other traits of proactive and reactive stress coping styles, such as social status, resting metabolism or post stress cortisol concentrations, early and late emerging individuals did not differ. Therefore, this study demonstrates that boldness in a novel environment is uncoupled from other traits of the proactive and reactive stress coping styles in farmed salmonids. It is possible that this decoupling is caused by the low competitive environment in which fish were reared. In natural populations of salmonids, however, the higher selection pressure at emergence could select for early emerging individuals with a proactive coping style.
Shoval-Zuckerman, Yael; Dekel, Rachel; Solomon, Zahava; Levi, Ofir
This study had two aims: 1. To examine whether soldiers who participated in Early Group Intervention (EGI) would show less distress and better functioning and physical health than soldiers who did not participate in EGI, and 2. To examine the contribution of the intervention to participants with repressive coping style. The sample comprised 166 male reserve soldiers who fought in the Second Lebanon War. The intervention was conducted three months after the traumatic event, was based on military protocol, and took place over the course of one day. Data were collected at two points in time (four months apart). The findings indicated that after EGI, the intervention group experienced less post-traumatic distress than did the control group. In addition, four months after the intervention, the functioning and physical health of the intervention group was significantly better than that of the control group. Notably, the intensity of post-traumatic distress before the intervention was lower among repressors and low-anxious soldiers than among soldiers in the other two groups (high-anxious and defensive). No significant differences were found after the intervention with regard to the various styles of coping with post-traumatic distress. Future clinical implications of the findings are discussed.
Öztürk, Özlem; Ocakçı, Ayşe F
This study was performed to determine the effects of a stress management training program that was administered to adolescents in prison. This was a semi-experimental study that used pretests and posttests in controlled groups; it was performed between June 2012 and March 2013 in a closed prison for children and adolescents. The study was completed with the participation of 73 adolescents (36 in the experimental group and 37 in the control group). Adolescent Lifestyle Profile scale and the Stress Coping Styles Scale were used as the data collection tools. The Stress Management Training Program was developed by the researchers and carried out for 2 weeks, a total of 10 sessions of 40 min each. The scales were administered before the program was implemented, immediately after the program and 1 month following the program. Although there were no statistically significant differences between the mean Stress Coping Styles Scale scores of the experimental and control groups before the intervention (p > 0.05), a statistically significant difference was found after the intervention and at re-test (p < 0.05). This study has shown that this training program could be implemented with adolescents in prison, and the program was effective in providing positive behavioural changes in stress management. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pico-Alfonso, M Angeles; Mastorci, Francesca; Ceresini, Graziano; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Manghi, Massimo; Pino, Olimpia; Troisi, Alfonso; Sgoifo, Andrea
can be predictive of cardiac autonomic activity and stress responsiveness. They also highlight the modulating role of the individual style of behavioral coping in cardiac sympathovagal stress reactivity. Therefore, the objective assessment of the individual behavioral profile via the analysis of non-verbal communication patterns might represent a powerful tool for identifying subjects with higher risk of cardiac events.
Evans, Kathy M.
Examined physical, emotional, cognitive, and spiritual wellness activities of African American mental health counselors and behaviors they used to cope with racism. Counselors used a wide variety of wellness strategies, although counselors in school settings were less likely to engage in occupational wellness activities. Confrontation was the most…
Karns, Gary L.
The learning style individual difference factor has long been a basis for understanding student preferences for various learning activities. Marketing educators have been advised to heavily invest in tailoring course design based on the learning style groups in their classes. A further exploration of the effects of learning style differences on…
van den Akker, Lizanne Eva; Beckerman, Heleen; Collette, Emma Hubertine; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Dekker, Joost; Knoop, Hans; de Groot, Vincent
To determine the relationship between appraisal and societal participation in fatigued patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and whether this relation is mediated by coping styles. 265 severely-fatigued MS patients. Appraisal, a latent construct, was created from the General Self-Efficacy Scale and the helplessness and acceptance subscales of the Illness Cognition Questionnaire. Coping styles were assessed using the Coping Inventory Stressful Situations (CISS21) and societal participation was assessed using the Impact on Participation and Autonomy. A multiple mediator model was developed and tested by structural equation modeling on cross-sectional data. We corrected for confounding by disease-related factors. Mediation was determined using a product-of-coefficients approach. A significant relationship existed between appraisal and participation (β = 0.21, 95 % CI 0.04-0.39). The pathways via coping styles were not significant. In patients with severe MS-related fatigue, appraisal and societal participation show a positive relationship that is not mediated by coping styles.
Ono, Yumie; Lin, Hsiao-Chun; Tzen, Kai-Yuan; Chen, Hui-Hsing; Yang, Pai-Feng; Lai, Wen-Sung; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Onozuka, Minoru; Yen, Chen-Tung
We used 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose small-animal positron-emission tomography to determine whether different styles of coping with stress are associated with different patterns of neuronal activity in the hypothalamus. Adult rats were subjected to immobilization (IMO)-stress or to a non-immobilized condition for 30 min, in random order on separate days, each of which was followed by brain-scanning. Some rats in the immobilized condition were allowed to actively cope with the stress by chewing a wooden stick during IMO, while the other immobilized rats were given nothing to chew on. Voxel-based statistical analysis of the brain imaging data shows that chewing counteracted the stress-induced increased glucose uptake in the hypothalamus to the level of the non-immobilized condition. Region-of-interest analysis of the glucose uptake values further showed that chewing significantly suppressed stress-induced increased glucose uptake in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and the anterior hypothalamic area but not in the lateral hypothalamus. Together with the finding that the mean plasma corticosterone concentration at the termination of the IMO was also significantly suppressed when rats had an opportunity to chew a wooden stick, our results showed that active coping by chewing inhibited the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to reduce the endocrine stress response.
Sinha, Rajita; Lacadie, Cheryl M.; Constable, R. Todd; Seo, Dongju
Active coping underlies a healthy stress response, but neural processes supporting such resilient coping are not well-known. Using a brief, sustained exposure paradigm contrasting highly stressful, threatening, and violent stimuli versus nonaversive neutral visual stimuli in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we show significant subjective, physiologic, and endocrine increases and temporally related dynamically distinct patterns of neural activation in brain circuits underlying the stress response. First, stress-specific sustained increases in the amygdala, striatum, hypothalamus, midbrain, right insula, and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) regions supported the stress processing and reactivity circuit. Second, dynamic neural activation during stress versus neutral runs, showing early increases followed by later reduced activation in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), left DLPFC, hippocampus, and left insula, suggested a stress adaptation response network. Finally, dynamic stress-specific mobilization of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VmPFC), marked by initial hypoactivity followed by increased VmPFC activation, pointed to the VmPFC as a key locus of the emotional and behavioral control network. Consistent with this finding, greater neural flexibility signals in the VmPFC during stress correlated with active coping ratings whereas lower dynamic activity in the VmPFC also predicted a higher level of maladaptive coping behaviors in real life, including binge alcohol intake, emotional eating, and frequency of arguments and fights. These findings demonstrate acute functional neuroplasticity during stress, with distinct and separable brain networks that underlie critical components of the stress response, and a specific role for VmPFC neuroflexibility in stress-resilient coping. PMID:27432990
Glidden, L. M.; Billings, F. J.; Jobe, B. M.
Background: Parents with children with developmental disabilities (DD) encounter a variety of stressors associated with rearing their children and must develop effective coping mechanisms in order to adapt successfully to these challenges. Previous research has failed to establish the role of parental individual differences in the reported use of…
Li, Ying; Lindsey, Billie J.; Yin, Xiaoqin; Chen, William
A cross-sectional survey utilized the Perceived Stress Scale, Brief COPE, and Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile II to ascertain similarities and differences between American (n=319) and Chinese (n=335) college students and between higher and lower stressed students in both samples. The results suggested the existence of a country difference in…
Evans, Stephanie; Crockett, Stanley
Passive coping behavior and traditional role-gender definitions affect learning needs of segments of the Mexican American adult community and may affect the behavioral development of younger family members. Networking within the community is useful in defining and meeting learning needs of adult Mexican Americans by creating cooperative,…
Tanaka, Masaaki; Fukuda, Sanae; Mizuno, Kei; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
Fatigue is a common complaint among medical students and researchers consider it to be related to poor academic outcomes. The authors' goal in the present study was to determine whether stress and coping strategies were associated with fatigue in medical students. The study group consisted of 73 second-year healthy students attending the Osaka…
Li, Huanhuan; Wang, Jiaqi; Wang, Li
Problematic internet use (PIU) during the college life becomes a significant public health concern with a variety of negative outcomes. The aim of the present study was to examine the incidence of generalized PIU (GPIU) and its relationship to stressful life events and coping style among Chinese college students. Six hundred and fifty-four college…
Defines active learning as students actively involved in the learning process. Suggests that to learn actively, students need to know their learning styles and engage with the subject matter. Concludes that students who know their learning styles and are allowed to choose time management methods, note-taking systems, textbook marking methods and…
Dermody, Sarah Siodmok; Cheong, JeeWon; Manuck, Stephen
The stress-negative affect model for alcohol use was examined. The mediating roles of different components of negative affect were tested in the context of coping style. Data from 1,057 drinking adults (Mage = 44.45) and 352 drinking college students (Mage = 19.07) collected during 2001-2005 and in 2010, respectively, were examined separately. Participants completed self-administered measures of alcohol use, coping strategies, negative life events, and negative affect. A structural equation modeling framework detected stress-related drinking only in the adult sample. Sadness, anger, and guilt were significant mediators and the significant pathways differed based on coping style. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed.
Chen, Jie; Liu, Yang; Cai, Qing-Qing; Liu, Yi-Min; Wang, Tong; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Jing-Feng; Chen, Wei-qing; Huang, Hui
The aims were to access anxiety and type D personality (TDP) in parents of children with leukemia, and to determine the mediating effect of social support and coping style on the relationship between TDP and anxiety. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 231 parents of children with leukemia and 261 parents of children with acute diseases in hospitals. Parents completed questionnaires on anxiety, TDP, social support, coping styles, children's clinical characteristics, and demographic characteristics. Parents of children with leukemia showed higher prevalence of anxiety (64.5% vs 40.2%, P < 0.01) and TDP (44.2% vs 24.1%, P < 0.01) compared with controls. TDP (odds ratio [OR] = 4.34, P < 0.01), lower social support (OR = 1.92, P = 0.02), and less positive coping (OR = 1.87, P = 0.02) were independently associated with anxiety. Parents with TDP showed lower social support and less positive coping, but more negative coping compared with those without. Moreover, multiple mediation analyses revealed that the significant effect of TDP on anxiety was partially mediated by social support and positive coping. In conclusion, anxiety and TDP were highly prevalent in parents of children with leukemia. The predictive factors could be used to identify those parents who are at high risk of anxiety and may also be targets for prevention and intervention.
Levitt, Ash; Leonard, Kenneth E
Research and theory suggest that romantic couple members are motivated to drink to cope with interpersonal distress. Additionally, this behavior and its consequences appear to be differentially associated with insecure attachment styles. However, no research has directly examined drinking to cope that is specific to relationship problems, or with relationship-specific drinking outcomes. Based on alcohol motivation and attachment theories, the current study examines relationship-specific drinking-to-cope processes over the early years of marriage. Specifically, it was hypothesized that drinking to cope with a relationship problem would mediate the associations between insecure attachment styles (i.e., anxious and avoidant) and frequencies of drinking with and apart from one's partner and marital alcohol problems in married couples. Multilevel models were tested via the actor-partner interdependence model using reports of both members of 470 couples over the first nine years of marriage. As expected, relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives mediated the effects of actor anxious attachment on drinking apart from one's partner and on marital alcohol problems, but, unexpectedly, not on drinking with the partner. No mediated effects were found for attachment avoidance. Results suggest that anxious (but not avoidant) individuals are motivated to use alcohol to cope specifically with relationship problems in certain contexts, which may exacerbate relationship difficulties associated with attachment anxiety. Implications for theory and future research on relationship-motivated drinking are discussed.
Orejudo Hernández, Santos; Froján Parga, María Xesús; Malo Aznar, Carmen
A study was carried out with 501 persons to analyze the predictive capacity of various psychosocial variables-symptom perception, neuroticism, Personality Types 2 and 4 of Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck, beliefs about health, social support, or certain coping styles-on two health-related behaviors: the frequency of visits to the doctor and self-medication. The results were analyzed by two structural equation models that revealed that some of the variables have direct effects on the behaviors, whereas other variables, such as attribution style, coping styles, or the impact of the stressors, have indirect effects via the reported symptoms or neuroticism. In addition, self-medication and the frequency of health service visits are independent of each other, which shows that their determinants are different. It is concluded that to address these factors in the two health indicators, it is also necessary to take in account the psychosocial variables considered herein.
Cody, P J; Welch, P L
This study describes thematically the life experiences of 20 gay men in the rural setting of northern New England and examines what coping skills they have evolved. A qualitative study was undertaken, so that the researchers could learn of rural gay men in their own words, particularly in terms of how they understood their life experiences. This material was analyzed and 9 common themes were discovered. In descending order of frequency of occurrence in subjects' narratives, the themes are: early awareness of difference, internalized homophobia, positive aspects of rural living, negative aspects of rural living, positive family of choice, compulsory heterosexuality, isolation, current life partner, and family censorship.
Pisula, Ewa; Lukowska, Ewa; Fudalej, Piotr S
Objectives : To evaluate self-esteem, coping styles, and health-related quality of life and their relationships in Polish adolescents and young adults with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate and related sex differences. Design and Participants : Self-report questionnaires measuring self-esteem (Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory), coping styles (Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations), and health-related quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) were completed by 48 participants with cleft lip and palate (age, 16 to 23 years; 31 males, 17 females) and 48 controls without cleft lip and palate (age, 16 to 23 years; 28 males, 20 females) matched for age, place of residence, and socioeconomic status. Results : Regarding self-esteem, individuals with cleft lip and palate scored higher on body functioning (P < .01) and defensive self-enhancement (P < .05). Self-control showed an interaction effect: Females with cleft lip and palate scored higher than controls, but males did not differ between groups (P < .05). Males with cleft lip and palate scored lower than controls in personal power but higher in body functioning (P < .05); females showed no differences between groups. The groups did not differ with regard to coping styles or quality of life, but several correlations were found between self-esteem and coping styles, and quality of life (P < .01). Conclusions : Late adolescents and young adults with and without cleft lip and palate differed little in terms of psychological adjustment measures. The higher scores in defensive self-enhancement of individuals with cleft lip and palate suggest the need for instruments measuring social approval in psychosocial adjustment research involving this group.
Innes, Stanley I.
Objective The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between chiropractic students' coping styles and levels of resilience with their physical injuries, perceived levels of stress, and well-being. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to the entire student body of the chiropractic program at Murdoch University, and gathered demographic variables and responses to the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Perceived Levels of Stress Scale, Everyday Feelings Questionnaire, and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Linear regression analysis was used to calculate for significant relationships. Results Of 244 students, 194 (81%) completed the surveys. Being female and not having recovered from an injury within 12 months was significantly associated with lower levels of well-being and higher levels of stress. Being female, possessing an increased use of an emotional-based coping style, and having lower levels of well-being were associated with higher levels of stress (R2 = 0.65, F(6,164) = 50.47, p < .001). Lower levels of well-being were associated with being female, higher perceived levels of stress, lower levels of resilience, and an increased use emotional coping styles (R2 = 0.64, F[6,164] = 49.5, p < .001). Conclusion It is possible to identify chiropractic students at the university who are at risk of experiencing low levels of well-being and high levels of stress. These students may benefit from interventions aimed at enhancing their coping style choices and increasing their resilience levels. Future studies are recommended to see if these findings are consistent across chiropractic programs nationally and internationally. PMID:27459674
Kelly, Kimberly M; Shedlosky-Shoemaker, Randi; Porter, Kyle; Desimone, Philip; Andrykowski, Michael
Despite a growing literature on the psychosocial impact of the threat of cancer recurrence, underserved populations, such as those from the Appalachian region, have been understudied. To examine worry and perceived risk in cancer survivors, Appalachian and non-Appalachian cancer patients at an ambulatory oncology clinic in a university hospital were surveyed. Appalachians had significantly higher worry than non-Appalachians. Cancer type and lower need for cognition were associated with greater worry. Those with missing perceived risk data were generally older, less educated, and lower in monitoring, blunting, and health literacy. Additional resources are needed to assist Appalachians and those with cancers with poor prognoses (e.g., liver cancer, pancreatic cancer) to cope with worry associated with developing cancer again. More attention for cancer prevention is critical to improve quality of life in underserved populations where risk of cancer is greater.
Machin, M Anthony; Hoare, P Nancey
A survey was conducted on a sample of 159 Australian bus drivers to determine the extent to which workload and self-reported driver coping styles predicted their subjective health status. The model that was proposed incorporated the hours spent driving as a measure of workload, both adaptive and maladaptive driver coping styles, and self-report measures of need for recovery (i.e., fatigue), positive and negative affect (PA and NA), and physical symptoms. The results of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the workload was a significant predictor of drivers' need for recovery, but not of their PA and NA nor of their physical symptoms. Need for recovery was in turn a significant predictor of PA and NA and of their physical symptoms, indicating that it mediates the influence of workload on PA and NA and physical symptoms. Two maladaptive coping strategies added to the prediction of need for recovery, as well as to the prediction of NA, even after controlling for the influence of need for recovery. One adaptive coping strategy added to the prediction of PA. Strategies for management of fatigue in bus drivers should focus on the assessment and remediation of maladaptive coping strategies which impact of drivers' need for recovery, which in turn predicts PA and NA and physical symptoms.
Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Zimmerman, Marc A; Xue, Yange; Bauermeister, Jose A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Wang, Zhenhong; Hou, Yubo
Little is known about the stress and coping mechanisms on problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents, which might be quite different from their counterparts in Western cultures. We examined risk process of stress for internalizing outcomes (i.e., psychological distress, self-acceptance) and externalizing outcomes (i.e., substance use, delinquency, violent behavior) among Chinese adolescents. We also examined John Henryism Active Coping as a protective factor in a test of resilience from the negative effects of stress. A cross-sectional survey using self-reported questionnaires was conducted in 2 urban cities in China: Beijing and Xian. Participants included 1,356 students in Grades 7 to 12 (48% male, 52% female). Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test the conceptual model. The modifying (protective) effects of John Henryism were tested in multiple-group analysis. After controlling for demographics, we found that stress was associated with decreased self-acceptance and increased psychological distress among adolescents. Higher degree of psychological distress was then associated with increased delinquent behaviors and substance use. The results also indicated that individuals who scored higher in John Henryism reported more substance use as a result of psychological distress. Overall, our results support previous research with Western samples. Although John Henryism did not serve as a protective factor between stress and its negative outcomes, the findings underscore the relevance of addressing stress and possible coping strategies among Chinese adolescents. Further research that refines the active coping tailored for Chinese adolescents is necessary to more precisely test its protective effects.
Pavlickova, Hana; Varese, Filippo; Smith, Angela; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Turnbull, Oliver H.; Emsley, Richard; Bentall, Richard P.
Background Previous research has suggested that the way bipolar patients respond to depressive mood impacts on the future course of the illness, with rumination prolonging depression and risk-taking possibly triggering hypomania. However, the relationship over time between variables such as mood, self-esteem, and response style to negative affect is complex and has not been directly examined in any previous study – an important limitation, which the present study seeks to address. Methods In order to maximize ecological validity, individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder (N = 48) reported mood, self-esteem and response styles to depression, together with contextual information, up to 60 times over a period of six days, using experience sampling diaries. Entries were cued by quasi-random bleeps from digital watches. Longitudinal multilevel models were estimated, with mood and self-esteem as predictors of subsequent response styles. Similar models were then estimated with response styles as predictors of subsequent mood and self-esteem. Cross-sectional associations of daily-life correlates with symptoms were also examined. Results Cross-sectionally, symptoms of depression as well as mania were significantly related to low mood and self-esteem, and their increased fluctuations. Longitudinally, low mood significantly predicted rumination, and engaging in rumination dampened mood at the subsequent time point. Furthermore, high positive mood (marginally) instigated high risk-taking, and in turn engaging in risk-taking resulted in increased positive mood. Adaptive coping (i.e. problem-solving and distraction) was found to be an effective coping style in improving mood and self-esteem. Conclusions This study is the first to directly test the relevance of response style theory, originally developed to explain unipolar depression, to understand symptom changes in bipolar disorder patients. The findings show that response styles significantly impact on subsequent mood
Li, Ming-Hui; Nishikawa, Takeshi
This study compared predictors of active coping (people's tendency to actively cope with stress) among college students in the United States and Taiwan. In both samples, trait resilience predicted active coping and mediated the effect of self-efficacy on active coping. The findings indicate that trait resilience influences college students' active…
Self-oriented perfectionism has two aspects: pursuing perfection simply as a goal (Personal Standard: PS) and not accepting imperfection (Concern for Mistake: CM, Doubting of Action: D). The former is said to enhance mental health, while the latter deteriorates it. The latter aspect may also have vulnerability to uncontrollable events. The present study used causal modeling to investigate the relation of these two aspects, self-evaluative depression (composed of Self-Esteem and Depression: SED), and styles of coping with uncontrollable events. A questionnaire measuring these concepts was completed by 169 college students, and the following results were yielded: Of the two aspects of self-oriented perfectionism, PS lowered SED, while CM and D heightened SED. PS increased such coping styles that attempt to control uncontrollable events as "Face and Act", "Positive expectation" and "Rumination", whereas CM increased "Avoidance", "Negative expectation" and "Self-blame" copings, which represent vulnerability to uncontrollable events. Moreover, Self-blame coping increased SED. These results suggested that CM was related, via Self-blame, to negative evaluation of imperfect self.
Hewlett, Sarah; Rodham, Karen; White, Alan; Noddings, Robert; Kirwan, John R.
Objective To explore the experiences, coping styles, and support preferences of male rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods Six focus groups comprised 22 men with RA. Transcripts were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results Three overarching themes describe the experiences, coping styles, and support preferences of men with RA. In “challenges to masculinity,” the men described a “reduction in strength and abilities,” which can lead to loss of independence, “challenges to masculine identity and role,” and “loss of power and control.” Coping by “getting through life with RA” meant dealing with RA by “just getting on with it,” “information seeking,” engaging in “destructive behaviors,” and “withdrawing socially.” Preferred “sources of support” tended not to include friends, as they were perceived to lack understanding or support. For acceptable support the men reported a preference for information‐giving sessions rather than a discussion group, but there was no agreement on whether these should be mixed‐sex or men only, or who should run the sessions. Conclusion Male patients reported a range of coping styles and support preferences to address their experiences of living with RA, many of which may not be shared with women. Further research is needed to investigate whether these findings exist in a larger sample and whether the support preferences of men with RA are broadly different from those of women with RA to decide whether there is a clinical need to design a service for the potentially different needs of men. PMID:27273926
Li, Huanhuan; Zou, Yingmin; Wang, Jiaqi; Yang, Xuelin
Online game addiction (OGA) is becoming a significant problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence of OGA and the roles of stressful life events, avoidant coping styles (ACSs), and neuroticism in OGA. A total of 651 Chinese college students were selected by random cluster sampling. Subjects completed the Chinese version of Young's eight-item Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), Online Game Cognition Addiction Scale (OGCAS), Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale in Chinese (EPQ-RSC), Chinese College-student Stress Questionnaire, and Coping Style Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the interactive effects of stressful life events, ACSs, and neuroticism on OGA. Of the 651 participants in the sample, 31 (4.8%) were identified as addicts. The incidence of OGA was two times higher for males than females. The addicts had markedly higher scores on the neuroticism subscale of the EPQ-RSC than non-addicts. Compared to non-addicts, addicts were more apt to use ACSs. Having an avoidant coping strategy mediated the effect of stressful life events on OGA. Furthermore, neuroticism moderated the indirect effect of stressful life events on OGA via ACSs. Applications of these findings to etiological research and clinical treatment programs are discussed.
Li, Huanhuan; Zou, Yingmin; Wang, Jiaqi; Yang, Xuelin
Online game addiction (OGA) is becoming a significant problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence of OGA and the roles of stressful life events, avoidant coping styles (ACSs), and neuroticism in OGA. A total of 651 Chinese college students were selected by random cluster sampling. Subjects completed the Chinese version of Young’s eight-item Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), Online Game Cognition Addiction Scale (OGCAS), Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale in Chinese (EPQ-RSC), Chinese College-student Stress Questionnaire, and Coping Style Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the interactive effects of stressful life events, ACSs, and neuroticism on OGA. Of the 651 participants in the sample, 31 (4.8%) were identified as addicts. The incidence of OGA was two times higher for males than females. The addicts had markedly higher scores on the neuroticism subscale of the EPQ-RSC than non-addicts. Compared to non-addicts, addicts were more apt to use ACSs. Having an avoidant coping strategy mediated the effect of stressful life events on OGA. Furthermore, neuroticism moderated the indirect effect of stressful life events on OGA via ACSs. Applications of these findings to etiological research and clinical treatment programs are discussed. PMID:27920734
Rimmer, Ruth Brubaker; Alam, Now Bahar; Bay, R Curt; Sadler, Ian J; Foster, Kevin N; Caruso, Daniel M
Unresolved pediatric pain, both acute and chronic, has been associated with negative short- and long-term physical and mental health outcomes. This study sought to determine whether an association existed between self-reported pain coping skills and anxiety levels in a cohort of pediatric burn patients, and whether gender would influence their responses. The sample comprised burn-injured children in attendance at one of three mature burn camp sites. The self-report measures utilized included the 41-item Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders Child Version and the 39-item Pain Coping Questionnaire. Parental consent was obtained. A psychologist administered the measures. Participants included 187 youth, mean age 12.4 ± 2.4 years, girls (n = 89) boys (n = 98) with 67% reporting visible burn scars. Among boys, the use of Internalizing Coping Strategies was moderately correlated with elevated scores on Panic Disorder symptoms (r = .42, P < .001). Among girls, the use of Internalizing Coping Strategies was associated with elevated Generalized Anxiety (r = .51, P < .001), Panic Disorder (r = .46, P < .001), and Total Anxiety Symptom Scores (r = .49, P < .001). Those children who reported using Behavioral Distraction Strategies did not have any elevated anxiety scores. These findings suggest that burn-injured children, who employ Internalization as their pain coping strategy, may be more vulnerable to the development of long-term anxiety disorder, which, if left untreated may result in a negative psycho/social outcome. Applicability to Practice: Assessment of in-patient pediatric patients with the Pain Coping Questionnaire may help to identify children who are more likely to experience long-term anxiety. Future studies should seek to confirm these findings and determine whether improved pain management and early treatment of anxiety can help to diminish the long-term implications of unhelpful pain strategies and increased anxiety in burn-injured children.
Suzumura, Miwa; Fushiki, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Kota; Oura, Asae; Suzumura, Shigeo; Yamashita, Masafumi; Mori, Mitsuru
A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the potential association between work environment and/or stress coping ability, and depressive status among caregivers working for "group homes (GHs)" in Japan. In January 2010, 438 out of 700 caregivers working at GHs in Sapporo City returned completed questionnaires to us. The questionnaires consisted of the Center of Epidemiological Scales-Depression, items about worker's attributions, Ozeki's coping scale, and so on. An analysis using a logistic regression model was used to find the associations adjusting for gender and age. Subjects who were 45 yr or older, had a spouse, had job training, a standard workload and scored high in emotion-oriented coping were significantly associated with a decreased risk of depression. Subjects who were less proud of their job, less willing to continue care for the frail elderly and had fewer acceptances by their supervisors or colleagues for consultation were significantly associated with an increased risk of depression. This study supports our hypothesis that there can be possible variables among individual factors, work environment and/or coping style for stress which may modulate a risk on the depressive status of caregivers.
Boulton, Kay; Couto, Elsa; Grimmer, Andrew J; Earley, Ryan L; Canario, Adelino V M; Wilson, Alastair J; Walling, Craig A
It is widely expected that physiological and behavioral stress responses will be integrated within divergent stress-coping styles (SCS) and that these may represent opposite ends of a continuously varying reactive–proactive axis. If such a model is valid, then stress response traits should be repeatable and physiological and behavioral responses should also change in an integrated manner along a major axis of among-individual variation. While there is some evidence of association between endocrine and behavioral stress response traits, few studies incorporate repeated observations of both. To test this model, we use a multivariate, repeated measures approach in a captive-bred population of Xiphophorus birchmanni. We quantify among-individual variation in behavioral stress response to an open field trial (OFT) with simulated predator attack (SPA) and measure waterborne steroid hormone levels (cortisol, 11-ketotestosterone) before and after exposure. Under the mild stress stimulus (OFT), (multivariate) behavioral variation among individuals was consistent with a strong axis of personality (shy–bold) or coping style (reactive–proactive) variation. However, behavioral responses to a moderate stressor (SPA) were less repeatable, and robust statistical support for repeatable endocrine state over the full sampling period was limited to 11-ketotestosterone. Although post hoc analysis suggested cortisol expression was repeatable over short time periods, qualitative relationships between behavior and glucocorticoid levels were counter to our a priori expectations. Thus, while our results clearly show among-individual differences in behavioral and endocrine traits associated with stress response, the correlation structure between these is not consistent with a simple proactive–reactive axis of integrated stress-coping style. Additionally, the low repeatability of cortisol suggests caution is warranted if single observations (or indeed repeat measures over short
Background Insulin analogs are regarded as more convenient to use than human insulin; however, they require a different administration scheme due to their unique pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. This study aimed to assess difficulties with adherence to treatment with insulin analogs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), who had previously been treated with human insulin. The associations between difficulties with adherence and clinical, demographic, and psychological characteristics were also evaluated. Patients and methods The study was conducted on 3,467 consecutively enrolled patients with T2DM (54.4% women), mean age 63.9 years (SD =9.57), who had recently undergone a physician-directed change in treatment from human insulin to insulin analogs. The questionnaires addressed difficulties with switching the therapy, coping styles, well-being, and perception of self-influence on the disease. Results No adherence problems in switching therapy were reported in 56.6% of patients. Specific moderate difficulties were reported in 10.4%–22.1% of patients, major difficulties in 0.7%–6.9% of patients, and very significant difficulties in 0.03%–1.3% of patients. Overall, remembering to modify the insulin dose in the case of additional meals was the most frequently reported difficulty, and problems with identifying hypoglycemic symptoms were the least frequently reported. The increased risk of difficulties was moderately related to low perception of self-influence on diabetes and poor well-being. The intensity of problems was higher among those who were less-educated, lived in rural areas, had complications, and/or reported maladaptive coping styles. Conclusion Switching from human insulin to an insulin analog did not cause adherence problems in more than half of the patients. In the remaining patients, difficulties in adherence correlated with maladaptive coping styles, low perception of self-influence on disease course, and depressive
Lyons, Amy M.; Leon, Scott C.; Roecker Phelps, Carolyn E.; Dunleavy, Alison M.
We examined the impact of autism severity and parental coping strategies on stress in parents of children with ASD. Children's autism symptoms and parental coping strategies (task-oriented, emotion-oriented, social diversion, and distraction) were evaluated as predictors of four types of parental stress (parent and family problems, pessimism,…
Saxby, Dyani J.; Matthews, Gerald; Warm, Joel S.; Hitchcock, Edward M.; Neubauer, Catherine
Despite the known dangers of driver fatigue, it is a difficult construct to study empirically. Different forms of task-induced fatigue may differ in their effects on driver performance and safety. Desmond and Hancock (2001) defined active and passive fatigue states that reflect different styles of workload regulation. In 2 driving simulator studies we investigated the multidimensional subjective states and safety outcomes associated with active and passive fatigue. Wind gusts were used to induce active fatigue, and full vehicle automation to induce passive fatigue. Drive duration was independently manipulated to track the development of fatigue states over time. Participants were undergraduate students. Study 1 (N = 108) focused on subjective response and associated cognitive stress processes, while Study 2 (N = 168) tested fatigue effects on vehicle control and alertness. In both studies the 2 fatigue manipulations produced different patterns of subjective response reflecting different styles of workload regulation, appraisal, and coping. Active fatigue was associated with distress, overload, and heightened coping efforts, whereas passive fatigue corresponded to large-magnitude declines in task engagement, cognitive underload, and reduced challenge appraisal. Study 2 showed that only passive fatigue reduced alertness, operationalized as speed of braking and steering responses to an emergency event. Passive fatigue also increased crash probability, but did not affect a measure of vehicle control. Findings support theories that see fatigue as an outcome of strategies for managing workload. The distinction between active and passive fatigue is important for assessment of fatigue and for evaluating automated driving systems which may induce dangerous levels of passive fatigue. PMID:24041288
Choi, Kyung-Hee; Steward, Wayne T.; Miège, Pierre; Hudes, Esther; Gregorich, Steven E.
The direct link between stigma against sexual minorities and psychological distress is well established. However, few studies have examined the potential mediating roles of avoidant and social support coping in the relationships between internalized and anticipated stigma associated with homosexuality and depressive symptoms and anxiety among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). We recruited a longitudinal sample of 493 MSM in Beijing, China from 2011 to 2012. Participants completed computer-based questionnaires at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. We found significant indirect effects of anticipated MSM stigma on symptoms of both depression and anxiety via avoidant coping: anticipated MSM stigma at baseline was significantly associated with avoidant coping (B = 0.523, p < 0.001) at 6 months and, conditional on anticipated MSM stigma, avoidant coping had a significant positive effect on depressive symptoms and anxiety at 12 months (B = 0.069, p = 0.001 and B=0.071, p=0.014). In contrast, no significant indirect effects of anticipated MSM stigma on either psychological distress outcome via social support coping were found. No significant indirect effects of internalized MSM stigma via either avoidant or social support coping were found. These results underscore the need for interventions that address anticipations of stigma and the use of avoidant coping techniques to manage such anticipations. PMID:26679303
Rotheram-Borus, Mary J.; And Others
Compared cognitive style and pleasant activities of 77 suicide-attempting female minority adolescents with those of 39 psychiatrically disturbed and 23 nondisturbed female adolescents. Suicide attempters reported significantly fewer alternatives for solving interpersonal problems, were significantly more focused on problems, and were more likely…
Hetzel-Riggin, Melanie D; Meads, Christina L
Research suggests the existence of distinct avoidant coping mechanisms after trauma: peritraumatic dissociation, secondary alexithymia, and experiential avoidance. Within the Emotional Processing Model (Foa and Kozak, Psychol Bull. 99:20-35, 1986), research suggests that each of these avoidant coping mechanisms comes into play at a different phase of traumatic stress development. The present study sought to confirm if these three avoidant coping mechanisms are different constructs and how they relate to each other and the experience of trauma, peritraumatic distress, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A total of 227 participants with a trauma history completed measures on trauma experience, peritraumatic distress, peritraumatic dissociation, secondary alexithymia, experiential avoidance, and PTSD. Structural equation modeling confirmed that peritraumatic dissociation, secondary alexithymia, and experiential avoidance influence different phases of the development of traumatic stress problems. These results also confirm that the Emotional Process Model provides a good context for understanding the interrelationships among the avoidant coping mechanisms.
For two decades, the extended parallel process model (EPPM; Witte, 1992 ) has been one of the most widely used theoretical frameworks in health risk communication. The model has gained much popularity because it recognizes that, ironically, preceding fear appeal models do not incorporate the concept of fear as a legitimate and central part of them. As a remedy to this situation, the EPPM aims at "putting the fear back into fear appeals" ( Witte, 1992 , p. 330). Despite this attempt, however, this article argues that the EPPM still does not fully capture the essence of fear as an emotion. Specifically, drawing upon Lazarus's (1991 ) cognitive appraisal theory of emotion and the concept of dispositional coping style ( Miller, 1995 ), this article seeks to further extend the EPPM. The revised EPPM incorporates a more comprehensive perspective on risk perceptions as a construct involving both cognitive and affective aspects (i.e., fear and anxiety) and integrates the concept of monitoring and blunting coping style as a moderator of further information seeking regarding a given risk topic.
Besson, Anne A; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Senior, Alistair M; Hector, Katie L; Nakagawa, Shinichi
Maternal nutrition can have long-term effects on offspring morphology, physiology and behaviours. However, it is unclear whether mothers 'program' offspring behavioural coping strategy (proactive/reactive) according to the predicted nutritional quality of their future environment. We conducted a systematic review on this topic and meta-analytically synthesized relevant experimental data on mice and rats (46 studies). We included data from experiments where dams were subjected to caloric restriction, protein restriction or overfeeding around gestation and subsequently measured offspring activity, exploration, or anxiety. Overall, little evidence existed for effects of maternal nutrition on the three investigated behavioural traits. The high heterogeneity observed in the data set suggests that maternal programming may sometimes occur. However, because offspring had access to a balanced diet before testing, behaviours may have been reprogrammed. Our results may indicate that reprogrammed behaviours could ameliorate negative effects associated with sub-optimal nutrition in early life. Further, our systematic review revealed clear knowledge gaps and fruitful future research avenues.
Ogłodek, Ewa; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander
Yung was of an opinion that the borderline personality as a pathology results from the experiences of a frightened and violence-experiencing child who is left to their own devices in the hostile world. In that situation, the child, longing for safety, simultaneously experiences fear of abuse, hurt and rejection and remains distrustful. In order to understand the dramatic changes in the individual's behaviour, in case of the borderline personality disorders, Yung developed the concept, presented by Aaron Beck at the therapeutic workshops in the 1980s. Beck's concept was based upon the assumption that some pathological states expressed strong emotional states, experienced in childhood on the basis of regression. Yung presented them in the form of conceptualization in the categories of the active styles of schema. Apart from the states of regression, he also differentiated less regressive styles of schema. The style of schema should be interpreted as a pattern of experiencing, thinking and behaviour, based upon a determined set of schema, and characterized by independence from other styles.
Logan, Jeongok G; Barksdale, Debra J; James, Sherman A; Chien, Lung-Chang
This study aimed to explore the levels of John Henryism (JH) active coping and its association with acculturation status and psychological health (specifically perceived stress, acculturative stress, anxiety, and depression) in Korean immigrants to the United States. In 102 Korean immigrants, JH active coping was measured by the JH Scale; acculturation by the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale; perceived stress by the Perceived Stress Scale; acculturative stress by the Social, Attitudinal, Familial, and Environmental Scale; anxiety by the State Anxiety Subscale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; and depression by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The levels of JH active coping in this sample of Korean immigrants appear to be lower than the levels reported in other racial groups. Independent of demographic factors, JH active coping was a significant predictor of higher acculturation status and better psychological health as indicated by lower levels of perceived stress, acculturative stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms.
Wilson, Lisa; Catalano, Denise; Sung, Connie; Phillips, Brian; Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung; Chan, Fong
Objective: To examine the roles of attachment, social support, and coping as psychosocial correlates in predicting happiness in people with spinal cord injuries. Design: Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlation techniques. Participants: 274 individuals with spinal cord injuries. Outcome Measures: Happiness…
Higgins, Daryl J.; Bailey, Susan R.; Pearce, Julian C.
A survey of parents/caregivers of a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was conducted to examine the relationship between ASD characteristics, family functioning and coping strategies. Having a child with ASD places considerable stress on the family. Primary caregivers of a child with ASD from a regional and rural area in Victoria,…
Büssing, Arndt; Fischer, Julia
Background A patient's interpretation of illness may have an influence on the choice of coping strategies and decision making. We intended to analyze the meaning German cancer survivors would attribute to their disease, and investigated intercorrelations between the respective interpretations, health-related variables and adaptive coping strategies. Methods In an anonymous cross-sectional survey, we analyzed the interpretations of disease (according to Lipowski's eight 'meaning of illness' categories) in 387 patients with cancer (81% breast cancer). To make statements about their conceptual relationships with health-related variables, we correlated the 8 items of the 'Interpretation of Illness' questionnaire (IIQ) with health-related quality of life, anxiety/depression, fatigue, life satisfaction, and adaptive coping strategies. Results Most cancer survivors regarded their disease as a challenge (52%), others as value (38%) or even an interruption of life (irreparable loss; 35%); weakness/failure (5%) and punishment (3%) were rated the lowest. The fatalistic negative interpretations 'interruption/loss' and 'enemy/threat' were inversely correlated with mental health-related quality of life and life satisfaction, and positively with an escape-avoidance strategy, depression and anxiety. In contrast, positive disease interpretations (i.e., 'challenge' and 'value') correlated only with adaptive coping strategies. Physical health correlated with none of the disease interpretations. Conclusion Despite conceptual limitations, the 8-item schema could be regarded as a useful screening approach to identify patients at risk for reduced psychosocial functioning. PMID:19178733
Wang, Yanfang; Sun, Ning; Liu, Zhifen; Li, Xinrong; Yang, Chunxia; Zhang, Kerang
The mechanism of 5-HTT genetic polymorphisms related susceptibility of major depressive disorder (MDD) has not been fully understood. Two hundred MDD patients and 199 control subjects were included. A model of two binary logistical regressions with and without controlling for different psychosocial variables, was applied to investigate the possible mediation effects of psychosocial factors in contribution of 5-HTT polymorphisms in MDD development. These psychosocial variables included personality, trait coping style, life events and social support. Then, contribution of interactions between 5-HTT polymorphisms and psychosocial factors in MDD was investigated by a stepwise logistical approach. The results indicated a significant association of 5-HTT LPR with the MDD indicence, but not of VNTR genotype variances with the MDD incidence without counting effects of psychosocial factors. The ss genotype of LPR demonstrated 2.50 (95% CI: 1.11-5.62) times higher odds to develop MDD than ll genotype (p=0.026). After including psychosocial variables, the odds ratio of 5-HTT LPR ss to ll genotype dropped to 1.30 times (95% CI: 0.41-4.10) and became non-significant (p=0.658). While psychosocial variables all showed significant contributions to MDD susceptibility. Our data suggested an intermediator role of this psychosocial variable in LPR genetic pathogenesis of MDD. Whereas, 5-HTT VNTR could significantly affect MDD outcome by interacting with life events (p=0.043). In conclusion, 5-HTT LPR and VNTR polymorphisms could affect MDD susceptibility through mediation by trait coping styles and interaction with severe life events, respectively. The genetic information of 5-HTT can be potentially helpful for diagnosis and further therapy.
Wang, Yanfang; Sun, Ning; Liu, Zhifen; Li, Xinrong; Yang, Chunxia; Zhang, Kerang
The mechanism of 5-HTT genetic polymorphisms related susceptibility of major depressive disorder (MDD) has not been fully understood. Two hundred MDD patients and 199 control subjects were included. A model of two binary logistical regressions with and without controlling for different psychosocial variables, was applied to investigate the possible mediation effects of psychosocial factors in contribution of 5-HTT polymorphisms in MDD development. These psychosocial variables included personality, trait coping style, life events and social support. Then, contribution of interactions between 5-HTT polymorphisms and psychosocial factors in MDD was investigated by a stepwise logistical approach. The results indicated a significant association of 5-HTT LPR with the MDD indicence, but not of VNTR genotype variances with the MDD incidence without counting effects of psychosocial factors. The ss genotype of LPR demonstrated 2.50 (95% CI: 1.11-5.62) times higher odds to develop MDD than ll genotype (p=0.026). After including psychosocial variables, the odds ratio of 5-HTT LPR ss to ll genotype dropped to 1.30 times (95% CI: 0.41-4.10) and became non-significant (p=0.658). While psychosocial variables all showed significant contributions to MDD susceptibility. Our data suggested an intermediator role of this psychosocial variable in LPR genetic pathogenesis of MDD. Whereas, 5-HTT VNTR could significantly affect MDD outcome by interacting with life events (p=0.043). In conclusion, 5-HTT LPR and VNTR polymorphisms could affect MDD susceptibility through mediation by trait coping styles and interaction with severe life events, respectively. The genetic information of 5-HTT can be potentially helpful for diagnosis and further therapy. PMID:27158415
Chronic pain coping styles in patients with herniated lumbar discs and coexisting spondylotic changes treated surgically: Considering clinical pain characteristics, degenerative changes, disability, mood disturbances, and beliefs about pain control
Misterska, Ewa; Jankowski, Roman; Głowacki, Maciej
Background Pain catastrophizing, appraisals of pain control, styles of coping, and social support have been suggested to affect functioning in patients with low back pain. We investigated the relation of chronic pain coping strategies to psychological variables and clinical data, in patients treated surgically due to lumbar disc herniation and coexisting spondylotic changes. Material/Methods The average age of study participants (n=90) was 43.47 years (SD 10.21). Patients completed the Polish versions of the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42 (PL-CPCI-42), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-PL), Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ-PL), Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire (BPCQ-PL), and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ-PL). Results In the PL-CPCI-42 results, resting, guarding and coping self-statements were frequently used as coping strategies (3.96 SD 1.97; 3.72 SD 1.72; 3.47 SD 2.02, respectively). In the CSQ-PL domains, catastrophizing and praying/hoping were frequently used as coping strategies (3.62 SD 1.19). The mean score obtained from the BDI-PL was 11.86 SD 7.23, and 12.70 SD 5.49 from the RMDQ-PL. BPCQ-PL results indicate that the highest score was in the subscale measuring beliefs that powerful others can control pain (4.36 SD 0.97). Exercise correlated significantly with beliefs about internal control of pain (rs=0.22). We identified associations between radiating pain and guarding (p=0.038) and between sports recreation and guarding (p=0.013) and task persistence (p=0.041). Conclusions Back pain characteristics, depressive mood, disability, and beliefs about personal control of pain are related to chronic LBP coping styles. Most of the variables related to advancement of degenerative changes were not associated with coping efforts. PMID:24370564
Hasenfratz, M; Bättig, K
This study investigated the effects of 9 days' smoking abstinence on psychophysiological stress reactions. The subjects were 40 female smokers; 20 of them intended to give up smoking in the course of the study, whereas the remaining 20 had no such intention. A first session was carried out before, a second and a third during days 3 and 9 of abstinence. The nonabstainers were tested at corresponding intervals. Each session consisted of a 30-min stress-coping phase with relaxation phases before and after. While performing a rapid information processing task (RIP) the subjects had to sustain electrical shocks which were, according to instructions, but not in fact, either avoidable (active coping) or not (passive coping). Generally, the active coping instruction produced greater responses to the RIP task than did the passive coping instruction for heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure but not for finger pulse amplitude, thus resembling a beta-adrenergic stimulation. RIP processing rate was not affected, but the response rate (total of hits and commission errors) was greater during active than during passive coping. However, none of these stress reactions differed between abstainers and nonabstainers. On the other hand, both heart rate and the craving to smoke decreased significantly in the abstainer group across the 9 days. Thus, it is concluded that a deprivation of 1 h, 3 or 9 days has no differential effect on physiological stress reactions.
Briggs, Denise Broholm; Munley, Patrick H
Relations were examined among therapist stress, coping styles, career sustaining behaviors and therapist working alliance. 160 therapists completed a demographic questionnaire, a rating of stress experienced in work as a psychotherapist, a rating of stress experienced in work with an individual client, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Career Sustaining Behavior Questionnaire, the COPE, and the Working Alliance Inventory. After controlling for demographic and therapists' stress variables, and alternating entry of Career Sustaining Behavior and COPE scores in the regression model, Career Sustaining Behavior contributed significant variance to predicting working alliance, and COPE scores accounted for significant variance in working alliance with active coping a significant predictor. Career Sustaining Behavior and COPE scores entered together accounted for significant unique variance in Working Alliance with career sustaining behavior and avoidant coping identified as significant predictors.
Yusop, Farrah Dina; Sumari, Melati
The main purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate pre-service teachers' learning styles and their preferences with respect to 15 technology-based instructional activities and collaborative work tasks. Felder and Silverman's online Index of Learning Style (ILS) and a questionnaire were used to measure students' learning styles and…
Arredondo, Elva M.; Elder, John P.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Campbell, Nadia; Baquero, Barbara; Duerksen, Susan
Parenting styles influence a child's risk for obesity. The goals of this study are to evaluate the influence of (i) parenting style on children's health behaviors (physical activity and dietary intake), (ii) children's sociodemographic characteristics on parenting style and on children's health behaviors and (iii) parents' sociodemographic…
Golubeva, E Iu; Danilova, R I
The contemporary approaches to the conception of healthy aging are discussed. The insufficient propaganda of healthy style of life of elderly population results in non-satisfaction of own health in old age; lack of information about opportunities to strengthen the health in the system of social services managing is also a problem. Weak skills and motivation of elder generation for taking care of the own health are registered. Gender and age features of health self-evaluation have been considered. Low meaning of spending spare time to use physical culture activity for strengthening health have been determinated.
Cromwell, K D; Chiang, Y J; Armer, J; Heppner, P P; Mungovan, K; Ross, M I; Gershenwald, J E; Lee, J E; Royal, R E; Lucci, A; Cormier, J N
We assessed the impact of lymphoedema (defined as ≥ 10% limb volume change) on quality of life (QOL), ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and coping in 277 melanoma patients. Limb volume was measured prospectively, pre-operatively and every 3-6 months for 18 months post-operatively using a perometer. Three questionnaires were administered to measure QOL, coping and impact on ADLs. Statistical analyses were conducted using longitudinal logistic regression models. At 18 months, the cumulative incidence of lymphoedema was 31% in patients with upper extremity nodal basin treatment and 40% in lower extremity nodal basin treatment patients. Patients with lower extremity lymphoedema reported lower QOL scores than those with upper extremity lymphoedema. Over 18 months, both groups with mild and moderate lymphoedema showed improvement in coping [odds ratio (OR): 6.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.30-13.47] and performance of ADLs (OR: 7.46, CI: 3.38-16.47). Over the course of 18 months, men were found to have poorer coping scores than women (OR: 2.91, CI: 1.35-6.27). Lymphoedema was associated with improvement in coping over time (P = 0.08) and a higher reported interference with ADLs (OR: 2.53, CI: 1.29-4.97). Patient education about lymphoedema at the time of surgical consent may improve self-efficacy and coping ability. Effective management of lymphoedema may improve patient QOL and reduce interference with ADLs.
Bernaards, Claire M; Ariëns, Geertje A M; Knol, Dirk L; Hildebrandt, Vincent H
This study assessed the effectiveness of a single intervention targeting work style and a combined intervention targeting work style and physical activity on the recovery from neck and upper limb symptoms. Computer workers with frequent or long-term neck and upper limb symptoms were randomised into the work style group (WS, n=152), work style and physical activity group (WSPA, n=156), or usual care group (n=158). The WS and WSPA group attended six group meetings. All meetings focused on behavioural change with regard to body posture, workplace adjustment, breaks and coping with high work demands (WS and WSPA group) and physical activity (WSPA group). Pain, disability at work, days with symptoms and months without symptoms were measured at baseline and after 6 (T1) and 12 months (T2). Self-reported recovery was assessed at T1/T2. Both interventions were ineffective in improving recovery. The work style intervention but not the combined intervention was effective in reducing all pain measures. These effects were present in the neck/shoulder, not in the arm/wrist/hand. For the neck/shoulder, the work style intervention group also showed an increased recovery-rate. Total physical activity increased in all study groups but no differences between groups were observed. To conclude, a group-based work style intervention focused on behavioural change was effective in improving recovery from neck/shoulder symptoms and reducing pain on the long-term. The combined intervention was ineffective in increasing total physical activity. Therefore we cannot draw conclusions on the effect of increasing physical activity on the recovery from neck and upper limb symptoms.
Balantekin, Katherine N; Roemmich, James N
Children's stress-coping behaviors and their determinants have not been widely studied. Some children eat more after stress and dietary restraint moderates stress eating in youth, but eating has been studied in isolation of other coping behaviors. Children may not choose to eat when stressed if other behavioral alternatives are available. The purpose was to determine individual difference factors that moderate the duration of stress coping choices and to determine if stress-induced eating in youth persists when other stress coping behaviors are available. Thirty children (8-12 years) completed a speech stressor on one day and read magazines on another day. They completed a free-choice period with access to food, TV, and physical activity on both days. Dietary restraint moderated changes in time spent eating and energy consumed from the control to stress day. Children high in restraint increased their energy intake on the stress day. Changes in the time spent watching TV were moderated by usual TV time, as children higher in usual TV increased their TV time after stress. Thus, dietary restrained children eat more when stressed when other common stress coping behaviors are freely available. These results extend the external validity of laboratory studies of stress-induced eating.
Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A; Devine, Katie A; Heckler, Charles E
The factors that influence caregiver coping mechanism preferences after a child's diagnosis with cancer are not fully understood. This study examines the relationship between caregivers' socio-demographic characteristics and the coping strategies they use to adapt to childhood cancer. Sixty caregivers of pediatric cancer patients completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Family Environment Scale, and the COPE inventory. There were no significant differences in family environment by income or education. Caregiver educational attainment was positively associated with use of planning and active coping styles, while income was not associated with caregiver coping style. Mothers were more likely than fathers to use active coping, instrumental support, religious coping, and emotional support. Men with lower education engaged in greater substance use coping and lower planning. The findings show that educational attainment and caregiver gender influence caregiver coping styles following a pediatric cancer diagnosis and suggest that educational attainment rather than financial resources drive the association between SES and coping. Programs that address educational gaps and teach caregivers planning and active coping skills may be beneficial for parents with lower educational attainment, particularly men.
Robinson, Edward H.; And Others
How fears, phobias, anxiety and stress develop in elementary school students and how these students can be assisted in coping with fears and stress are discussed in this book. Part 1, "Discussion and Activities," contains six sections. Section 1 presents an overview of fears, and stress in children. Section 2 presents 12 fear-specific activities…
Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Sharma, Sakshi; Knighton, Joi Sheree’; Oser, Carrie B.; Leukefeld, Carl G.
African American women are at a greater risk for exposure to multiple traumatic events and are less likely to seek mental health services than White women. Many women report avoidant and passive coping strategies placing them at an increased risk for lower psychological adjustment. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to examine the role of culturally relevant factors such as spirituality, self-esteem, and social support as significant correlates of John Henryism Active Coping among African American female trauma survivors. The study utilized secondary data from the B-WISE project (Black Women in a Study of Epidemics) with a sample of 161 community-based African American women with a self-reported history of trauma. Results indicate that participants with higher self-esteem and existential well-being were more likely to cope actively with daily life stressors. However, socio-demographics were not significant correlates of John Henryism Active Coping at the multivariate level. Implications for clinical practice are discussed along with the Strong Black Woman (SBW) ideology, which may explain over-reporting of positive attributes such as self-esteem and existential well-being. Limitations of the study and directions of future research are also discussed. PMID:25180071
Carothers, Kristin J; Arizaga, Jessica A; Carter, Jocelyn Smith; Taylor, Jeremy; Grant, Kathryn E
The present study addresses the lack of specificity and diversity highlighted in recent stress literature reviews by examining active coping in relationships between exposure to violence and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a sample of urban youth from predominantly low-income, African American and Latino backgrounds. Two hundred and forty-one youth (mean age at Time 1 = 13 years; 66 % female; 41 % African American, 28 % Latino, 14 % European American, 6 % Asian American, 7 % mixed/biracial, 1 % American Indian/native American, .5 % Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 2 % other) and their parents participated in this three-wave study. Hierarchical regression analyses tested for moderation, and a cross lag panel path analysis tested for mediation. The results provide greater support for active coping as a variable that changes the relationship between exposure to community violence and externalizing symptoms, or moderation, rather than one that explains or mediates it. Further, specificity did not emerge for type of psychological outcome but did emerge for gender, such that active coping exacerbated the association between exposure to community violence and both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for girls, but not boys. These findings highlight the importance of contextual and demographic factors in influencing stress and coping processes during adolescence.
Sparks, Glenn G.; Spirek, Melissa M.
Reports on two studies summarizing recent advances in the study of behavioral dispositions by detailing the activation-arousal framework. Uses the Miller Behavioral Style Scale to measure individual differences in activation/arousal while viewing a negative emotional film segment and media coverage of the explosion of the space shuttle…
Calhoun, Patrick Wayne
Little is known about the decision-making styles of active-duty police officers or what the consequences of not understanding those decision-making styles may be. The purpose of the study was to describe the demographics and decision-making profiles of active-duty police officers, as well as any relationships that may exist among these variables,…
Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others
Examined pain and negative moods during labor in relation to instructions to monitor labor contractions and LaMaze class attendance. In Study 1, pain and negative moods showed sharp decline at Stage 2 (active labor) for women who monitored and LaMaze participants; in Study 2, LaMaze participants reported decline in pain during active labor and…
Sun, Fei; Kosberg, Jordan I; Kaufman, Allan V; Leeper, James D
We studied the coping styles by which family caregivers living in rural areas of Alabama deal with the demands of caring for an older relative with dementia. Data were obtained from a sample of 141 caregivers through the random-digit dialing telephone survey. Two coping styles were identified: deliberate coping and avoidance coping. Deliberate coping was related to higher life satisfaction scores and, avoidance coping was related to lower life satisfaction scores and higher caregiver burden scores. Avoidance coping appeared to moderate the effects of caregiver health on caregiver burden. Social workers should pay greater attention to caregivers with dysfunctional coping styles.
Nomura, Kyoko; Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Sato, Mikiya; Ishikawa, Hirono; Yano, Eiji
To assess the associations between job stress and somatic symptoms and to investigate the effect of individual coping on these associations. In July 2006, a cross-sectional study was conducted during a periodic health check-up of 185 Japanese male office workers (21-66 yr old) at a Japanese company. Job stress was measured by job demand, control, and strain (=job demand/control) based on the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Major somatic symptoms studied were headache, dizziness, shoulder stiffness, back pain, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, general fatigue, sleep disturbance, and skin itching. Five kinds of coping were measured using the Job Stress Scale: active coping, escape, support seeking, reconciliation, and emotional suppression. Comorbidities of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, depression, and anxiety were also evaluated. The most frequently cited somatic symptom was general fatigue (66%), followed by shoulder stiffness (63%) and sleep disturbance (53%). Of the five kinds of coping, only "active coping" was significantly and negatively associated with the number of somatic symptoms. The generalized linear models showed that the number of somatic symptoms increased as job strain index (p=0.001) and job demand (p=0.001) became higher, and decreased as active coping (p=0.018) increased, after adjusting for age and comorbidities. There was no statistical interaction among active coping, the number of somatic symptoms, and the three JCQ scales. Reporting somatic symptoms may be a simple indicator of job stress, and active coping could be used to alleviate somatization induced by job stress.
Lopes, R. M. C.; Smythe, W. D.; Kamp, L. W.; Doute, S.; Carlson, R.; McEwen, A.; Geissler, P.
Observations by Galileo's Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer were used to map the thermal structure of several of Io's hot spots, revealing different styles of volcanism Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract..
Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.
Emerging evidence suggests that parenting style may directly or indirectly influence school-aged children's activity behaviour. Given that relatively fewer studies have been conducted among preschool-aged children, this study's primary purpose was to examine the direct relationships between parental support and parenting style on preschool…
Richter, Michael; Gendolla, Guido H E
An experiment with 44 participants assessed the moderating effects of four levels of incentive value on cardiovascular responses in active coping. Randomly assigned to one of four different incentive conditions, participants performed a memory task without knowing its difficulty in advance. By means of successfully performing the task participants could either win no reward, 10 Swiss Francs, 20 Swiss Francs, or 30 Swiss Francs. In accordance with the theoretical predictions derived from motivational intensity theory, reactivity of systolic blood pressure and heart rate monotonically increased with incentive value. Thereby, these findings provide additional empirical evidence for the predictions of motivational intensity theory with regard to unclear task difficulty and extend recent research (Richter, M., Gendolla, G.H.E., 2006. Incentive effects on cardiovascular reactivity in active coping with unclear task difficulty. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 61, 216-225.), which was not conclusive regarding the predicted monotonic relationship between incentive value and cardiovascular reactivity under conditions of unclear task difficulty.
Ghetti, Claire M
Liver and kidney transplant recipients report elevated psychological distress following transplant in comparison to other types of organ transplant recipients. Negative affective states can lead to immune dysregulation and adverse health behaviors, and therefore may contribute to disease. In contrast, positive affective states can broaden individuals' thoughts and actions to promote the accumulation of coping resources. Coping strategies have traditionally been conceived of as being either problem-focused or emotion-focused in nature, while contemporary theory and research supports a different division: approach-oriented strategies versus avoidance-oriented strategies. Emotional expression and processing may function as an approach-oriented coping strategy. Emotional-approach coping relates to the use of emotional expression, awareness and understanding to facilitate coping with significant life stressors. The current study evaluated the impact of music therapy with and without a specific emphasis on emotional-approach coping. This randomized, controlled trial aimed to use Active Music Engagement with Emotional-Approach Coping to improve well-being in post-operative liver and kidney transplant recipients (N = 29). Results indicated that music therapy using Emotional-Approach Coping led to significant increases in positive affect, music therapy using Active Music Engagement led to significant decreases in pain, and both conditions led to significant decreases in negative affect, an indicator of perceived stress/anxiety.
Saita, Emanuela; Acquati, Chiara; Kayser, Karen
The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of 72 Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire), interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale), and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale). We hypothesized that diverse personality traits and degrees of closeness contribute to determine the coping styles shown by participants. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the five coping styles (Helplessness/Hopelessness, Anxious Preoccupation, Avoidance, Fatalism, and Fighting Spirit) using personality traits and interpersonal closeness variables (Strength of Support Relations, and Number of Support Relations) as predictors. Women who rated high on assertiveness and social anxiety were more likely to utilize active coping strategies (Fighting Spirit). Perceived strength of relationships was predictive of using an active coping style while the number of supportive relationships did not correlate with any of the coping styles. Implications for assessment of breast cancer patients at risk for negative adaptation to the illness and the development of psychosocial interventions are discussed. PMID:25699003
Vanneste, Sven; Joos, Kathleen; Langguth, Berthold; To, Wing Ting; De Ridder, Dirk
Here we aimed to investigate the neuronal correlates of different coping styles in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. Adaptive and maladaptive coping styles were determined in 85 tinnitus patients. Based on resting state EEG recordings, coping related differences in brain activity and connectivity were found. Maladaptive coping behavior was related to increases in subjective tinnitus loudness and distress, higher tinnitus severity and higher depression scores. EEG recordings demonstrated increased alpha activity over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) as well as increased connectivity in the default (i.e. resting state) network in tinnitus patients with a maladaptive coping style. Correlation analysis revealed that the changes in the DLPFC correlate primarily with maladaptive coping behavior, whereas the changes in the sgACC correlate with tinnitus severity and depression. Our findings are in line with previous research in the field of depression that during resting state a alpha band hyperconnectivity exists within the default network for patients who use a maladaptive coping style, with the sgACC as the dysfunctional node and that the strength of the connectivity is related to focusing on negative mood and catastrophizing about the consequences of tinnitus. PMID:24558383
Vanneste, Sven; Joos, Kathleen; Langguth, Berthold; To, Wing Ting; De Ridder, Dirk
Here we aimed to investigate the neuronal correlates of different coping styles in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. Adaptive and maladaptive coping styles were determined in 85 tinnitus patients. Based on resting state EEG recordings, coping related differences in brain activity and connectivity were found. Maladaptive coping behavior was related to increases in subjective tinnitus loudness and distress, higher tinnitus severity and higher depression scores. EEG recordings demonstrated increased alpha activity over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) as well as increased connectivity in the default (i.e. resting state) network in tinnitus patients with a maladaptive coping style. Correlation analysis revealed that the changes in the DLPFC correlate primarily with maladaptive coping behavior, whereas the changes in the sgACC correlate with tinnitus severity and depression. Our findings are in line with previous research in the field of depression that during resting state a alpha band hyperconnectivity exists within the default network for patients who use a maladaptive coping style, with the sgACC as the dysfunctional node and that the strength of the connectivity is related to focusing on negative mood and catastrophizing about the consequences of tinnitus.
Seiter, Richard P.; West, Angela D.
Supervision of offenders in the community remains a critical component of the correctional processes in the United States. With almost six million offenders under correctional supervision in the community, there has been relatively little attention and few resources devoted to the style and quality of supervision received by these offenders. As a…
Herrmann, M; Freyholdt, U; Fuchs, G; Wallesch, C W
This study aimed at a contrastive analysis of coping strategies and psychosocial alterations in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and stroke (CVA) and their relatives. Fifty-four PD and 50 CVA patients were investigated with a standardized semistructured interview to assess the severity of psychosocial changes following illness, the Freiburg Questionnaire on Coping with Illness, the Cornell Depression Scale and instruments to assess motor impairment. Psychosocial alterations were most prominent in the professional and emotional-cognitive domains. Degree of depression correlated with familial and emotional-cognitive alterations in both patient groups. Active problem-oriented coping and distraction predominated as coping styles. Religious relief and quest for sense were significantly more important for the PD patients. Coping styles did not correlate with degrees of depression, motor impairment or psychosocial alterations.
Maciuba, Sandra A; Westneat, Susan C; Reed, Deborah B
Elevated suicide mortality rates have been reported for farmers and for the elderly. Very little literature exists that looks at the health of older minority farmers. This mixed-method study describes older African-American farmers (N = 156) in the contexts of active coping, personal satisfaction from farm work, and attachment to their farmland to provide insight into the psychosocial dimensions of their mental health. Findings show that the farmers have positive perspectives on work and farm future, and strong attachment to the land. Differences were noted by gender. Nurses can use these findings to frame culturally appropriate strategies for aging farmers to maximize positive outcomes.
by law enforcement that carried a medical kit was able to save lives. Loughner was held by citizens in the crowd until the arrival of law ...IS LAW ENFORCEMENT READY FOR A MUMBAI STYLE ATTACK? by Joel M. Justice September 2013 Thesis Co-Advisors: David Brannan Patrick Miller...COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ACTIVE SHOOTERS: IS LAW ENFORCEMENT READY FOR A MUMBAI STYLE ATTACK? 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR
Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Knighton, Joi-Sheree'; Allen, Kristin; Fisher, Sycarah; Crowell, Candice; Mahaffey, Carlos; Leukefeld, Carl; Oser, Carrie
The rates of illicit drug use among African American women are increasing, yet African American women are least likely to participate in treatment for substance use disorders when compared to women of other racial groups. The current study examined family history of substance use, perceived family support, and John Henryism Active Coping (JHAC) as correlates to seeking treatment for substance abuse. The underlying theoretical frame of JHAC (James et al., 1983) suggests that despite limited resources and psychosocial stressors, African Americans believe that hard work and self-determination are necessary to cope with adversities. The current study is a secondary data analyses of 206 drug-using African American women (N=104 urban community women with no criminal justice involvement and N=102 women living in the community on supervised probation) from urban cities in a southern state. It was expected that African American women with a family history of substance abuse, higher levels of perceived family support, and more active coping skills would be more likely to have participated in substance abuse treatment. Step-wise logistic regression results reveal that women on probation, had children, and had a family history of substance abuse were significantly more likely to report participating in substance abuse treatment. Perceived family support and active coping were significant negative correlates of participating in treatment. Implication of results suggests coping with psychosocial stressors using a self-determined and persistent coping strategy may be problematic for drug-using women with limited resources.
Safa, Mitra; Talischi, Firouzeh; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza
Background Treatment of patients with chronic conditions requiring hospitalization requires patient acceptance and cooperation and adoption of coping strategies. Inappropriate coping strategies such as substance abuse are concerning in the course of treatment. This study sought to explore the association of coping strategies with suicidal behavior in substance abusers and non substance abuser patients with chronic pulmonary diseases namely asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Materials and Methods This comparative study was performed on 100 patients with asthma and COPD selected via convenience sampling. Subjects with and without substance abuse were separated into two groups of 50 patients each. Ways of Coping Questionnaire of Lazarus (WOCQ) and Suicide Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) were completed by them. Five Persian speaking patients rated this questionnaire to be easily understandable in the pre-test stage. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to measure the internal consistency. Results The mean (±standard deviation) age of participants was 40 (±14) years; 58% of individuals were men; 62% had chosen problem-focused coping. The most abused substances were cigarettes (78%) and opium (42%); 6% of substance abusers had thought about suicide five times or more in the past year; 5% of substance abusers had seriously attempted suicide. Tendency to commit suicide was greater in men, substance abusers and participants who had chosen emotion-focused coping strategies, based on a regression model. Average score of suicide tendency was significantly higher in substance abusers (B=2.196, P =0.007). Conclusion Chronic disease is a crisis and patients need to acquire appropriate coping strategies to deal with it, especially in substance abusers and suicidal patients. Precise recognition of coping strategies in chronic pulmonary patients with substance abuse is necessary via a team cooperation among psychiatrics, psychologists and an internal
Dressler, W W
Research was conducted on the relationships of coping styles, chronic economic stressors and symptoms of distress in a black community in the rural South. It was found that the effect of an active coping style in moderating the effects of stressors was different for males and females. For females, active coping buffered the effects of stressors; for males, active coping exacerbated the effects of stressors. These results are consistent with the social and cultural context of the community, and with cultural norms governing gender roles within the community. This study demonstrates the need to systematically incorporate cultural and social structural factors in models of the stress process. Cultural norms and structural constraints interact to systematically alter the meaning of different factors in the stress process and in turn alter the effects of those factors on health.
Bailey, K Alysse; Lamarche, Larkin; Gammage, Kimberley L; Sullivan, Philip J
We investigated the mediating role of body shame in the relationship between self-objectification and body image coping strategies in highly physically active university women. Bivariate correlations revealed body shame was positively related to self-objectification, appearance fixing, and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. In addition, self-objectification was positively related to appearance fixing and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. Mediation analyses showed that body shame partially mediated the relationship between self-objectification and avoidance and appearance fixing coping but did not mediate the relationship between self-objectification and positive rational acceptance. Future research should examine other potential mediators or moderators in this relationship and explore the role of positive body image framed within self-objectification theory.
Felton, Barbara J.; Revenson, Tracey A.
While most lifespan developmental theories of personality predict age-related changes in coping, little direct evidence exists for determining whether age differences in coping style are due to intrinsic developmental processes or to age differences in the kinds of stresses encountered. To evaluate age differences in coping strategies and whether…
Frydenberg, Erica; Care, Esther; Freeman, Elizabeth; Chan, Esther
This study examined the interrelationships between coping styles, emotional wellbeing, and school connectedness using path analysis. A total of 536 Year 8 students (241 boys and 295 girls) responded to an in-class survey and the "Adolescent Coping Scale" (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993a) as part of a larger study. Productive coping style…
Sandler, Irwin N.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Mehta, Paras; Wolchik, Sharlene; Ayers, Tim
Investigated models relating coping efficacy, coping efforts, and psychological problems of children of divorce. Structural equation model supported coping efficacy as mediating between active coping, avoiding coping, and psychological problems. Prospective longitudinal model supported coping efficacy as mediating between active coping and…
The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between physical activity levels and healthy life-style behaviors in distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University. In total, 526 distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University participated in this study voluntarily. The short form of International Physical…
Children’s stress-coping behaviors and their determinants have not been widely studied. Some children eat more after stress and dietary restraint moderates stress eating in youth, but eating has been studied in isolation of other coping behaviors. Children may not choose to eat when stressed if othe...
This paper analyses students' written work from an activity based on two well known games in the UK: Chinese Whispers and Consequences. Within this activity students were asked to translate formal algebraic equations into word statements and vice versa. Using the framework of affordances and constraints to offer an account for what the students'…
Trouillet, Raphaël; Doan-Van-Hay, Loane-Martine; Launay, Michel; Martin, Sophie
To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data using French versions of the Perceived Stress Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and Way of Coping Checklist. Cognitive assessments comprised the WAIS III digit-span subtest and the Trail Making Test parts A and B. In multivariate analyses, neither working-memory nor mental-flexibility deficit predicted problem-focused coping. Age was found to predict only problem-focused coping. Self-efficacy predicted problem-focused coping, and perceived stress predicted emotion-focused coping. Our results confirmed that use of an emotion-focused coping style would not significantly change with age. Problem-focused coping increases with age and depends primarily on participants' confidence in their ability to successfully solve problems (i.e., self-efficacy).
Nakkas, Can; Annen, Hubert; Brand, Serge
Background Soldiers must cope with stressors during both military operations and training if they are to accomplish their missions successfully and stay mentally stable. This holds true particularly for military superiors, as they bear greater responsibilities and must meet greater demands during both deployment and training. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated whether recruits chosen for further promotion at the end of basic training differed with regard to psychological distress and coping strategies from those not chosen for promotion, and whether recruits’ coping styles and distress levels were associated. Methods A total of 675 Swiss recruits took part in the study. At the beginning of basic training, recruits filled out self-rating questionnaires covering demographic data, psychological distress (depression, somatization, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility), and coping styles. Results were compared between those recruits who received a recommendation for further promotion at the end of basic training and those who did not. Results Recruits selected for promotion had lower scores for depressive symptoms and hostility, engaged more in active coping, and considered their coping to be more effective. Dysfunctional and functional coping were associated with higher and lower distress levels, respectively. Conclusion Recruits recommended for promotion exhibited less psychological distress during basic training and exhibited a socially more conducive profile of distress. They also endorsed more efficient and more prosocial coping strategies than those recruits not recommended for promotion. These cognitive–emotional features not only contribute to resilience but are also consistent with leadership research, indicating the importance of emotional stability and prosocial behavior in successful leaders. PMID:27621634
... Estrés Traumático | Ver todos When trauma survivors take direct action to cope with their stress reactions, they ... impact of trauma on your life and taking direct action to improve things. Active coping occurs even ...
Ušćumlić, Marija; Blankertz, Benjamin
Objective. State-of-the-art experiments for studying neural processes underlying visual cognition often constrain sensory inputs (e.g., static images) and our behavior (e.g., fixed eye-gaze, long eye fixations), isolating or simplifying the interaction of neural processes. Motivated by the non-stationarity of our natural visual environment, we investigated the electroencephalography (EEG) correlates of visual recognition while participants overtly performed visual search in non-stationary scenes. We hypothesized that visual effects (such as those typically used in human-computer interfaces) may increase temporal uncertainty (with reference to fixation onset) of cognition-related EEG activity in an active search task and therefore require novel techniques for single-trial detection. Approach. We addressed fixation-related EEG activity in an active search task with respect to stimulus-appearance styles and dynamics. Alongside popping-up stimuli, our experimental study embraces two composite appearance styles based on fading-in, enlarging, and motion effects. Additionally, we explored whether the knowledge obtained in the pop-up experimental setting can be exploited to boost the EEG-based intention-decoding performance when facing transitional changes of visual content. Main results. The results confirmed our initial hypothesis that the dynamic of visual content can increase temporal uncertainty of the cognition-related EEG activity in active search with respect to fixation onset. This temporal uncertainty challenges the pivotal aim to keep the decoding performance constant irrespective of visual effects. Importantly, the proposed approach for EEG decoding based on knowledge transfer between the different experimental settings gave a promising performance. Significance. Our study demonstrates that the non-stationarity of visual scenes is an important factor in the evolution of cognitive processes, as well as in the dynamic of ocular behavior (i.e., dwell time and
Chu, Congying; Fan, Lingzhong; Eickhoff, Claudia R.; Liu, Yong; Yang, Yong; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Jiang, Tianzi
Recent progress in functional neuroimaging has prompted studies of brain activation during various cognitive tasks. Coordinate-based meta-analysis has been utilized to discover the brain regions that are consistently activated across experiments. However, within-experiment co-activation relationships, which can reflect the underlying functional relationships between different brain regions, have not been widely studied. In particular, voxel-wise co-activation, which may be able to provide a detailed configuration of the co-activation network, still needs to be modeled. To estimate the voxel-wise co-activation pattern and deduce the co-activation network, a Co-activation Probability Estimation (CoPE) method was proposed to model within-experiment activations for the purpose of defining the co-activations. A permutation test was adopted as a significance test. Moreover, the co-activations were automatically separated into local and long-range ones, based on distance. The two types of co-activations describe distinct features: the first reflects convergent activations; the second represents co-activations between different brain regions. The validation of CoPE was based on five simulation tests and one real dataset derived from studies of working memory. Both the simulated and the real data demonstrated that CoPE was not only able to find local convergence but also significant long-range co-activation. In particular, CoPE was able to identify a ‘core’ co-activation network in the working memory dataset. As a data-driven method, the CoPE method can be used to mine underlying co-activation relationships across experiments in future studies. PMID:26037052
Wu, Sheng-Yi; Hou, Huei-Tse
Cognitive styles play an important role in influencing the learning process, but to date no relevant study has been conducted using lag sequential analysis to assess knowledge construction learning patterns based on different cognitive styles in computer-supported collaborative learning activities in online collaborative discussions. This study…
Byra, Mark; Sanchez, Beth; Wallhead, Tristan
Validating selected theoretical assumptions associated with the Spectrum of Teaching Styles is critical to the pursuit of knowledge about effective instructional strategies. To assess these styles, a total of 77 college-aged students at one university enrolled in four physical activity classes and participated in three 50-minute lessons with…
DORUK, Ali; DUGENCİ, Muharrem; ERSÖZ, Filiz; ÖZNUR, Taner
Introduction We aimed to explore the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and coping mechanisms in a nonclinical sample with the same age and educational level. Methods The Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced (COPE) scale was used to evaluate the coping mechanisms. The IU scale was used to evaluate IU situations. Results We found that the negative impact of uncertainty on the action in female students was greater than males. While female students used more planning, instrumental support, reinterpretation, religion, emotional support, venting, and mental disengagement coping styles, male students used more humor, denial, and alcohol/drug abuse coping styles. Subjects with psychological problems had higher IU scores and used some more coping mechanisms (restraint, acceptance, behavioral disengagement, and alcohol/drug abuse) than the others. Conclusion Our results suggest that healthy subjects use different coping styles and respond differently to uncertainty in both genders.
Silvia, Paul J; Eddington, Kari M; Beaty, Roger E; Nusbaum, Emily C; Kwapil, Thomas R
Grit, a recently proposed personality trait associated with persistence for long-range goals, predicts achievement in a wide range of important life outcomes. Using motivational intensity theory, the present research examined the physiological underpinnings of grit during an active coping task. Forty young adults completed the Short Grit Scale and worked on a self-paced mental effort task. Effort-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity was assessed using impedance cardiography, which yielded measures of sympathetic activity (pre-ejection period; PEP) and parasympathetic activity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA). Multilevel models revealed that people high on the Perseverance of Effort subscale showed autonomic coactivation: both PEP and RSA became stronger during the task, reflecting higher activity of both ANS divisions. The Consistency of Interest subscale, in contrast, predicted only weaker sympathetic activity (slower PEP). Taken together, the findings illuminate autonomic processes associated with how "gritty" people pursue goals, and they suggest that more attention should be paid to the facets' distinct effects.
Viguer, Paz; Meléndez, Juan Carlos; Valencia, Sandra; Cantero, Ma José; Navarro, Esperanza
The objective of this study is to describe the relationships between grandchildren and their favourite grandparents, by studying the socialization styles used by latter and the shared activities undertaken. The participants were 360 children between 10 and 12 years old, who completed the grandparent-grandchild relationship questionnaire of Rico, Serra and Viguer (2001) and the socialization questionnaire of Rey and Ruiz (1990). The results demonstrate the importance of gender and family line in the selection of the favourite grandparent, differences being shown in the types of shared activities and in socialization styles. It is concluded that in the majority of cases the profile of the favourite grandparent is the maternal grandmother, retired or a house wife, aged between 60-70, who lives in the same city as his/her grandchild, and who has contact with them several times a week. Furthermore, favourite grandparents get more involved with granddaughters than with grandsons, both in support and care activities and in cultural-recreational activities, and they primarily employ a democratic style. However, there are differences depending on the gender of the grandchild, with democratic principles being used more with girls and authoritarian ones with boys.
Palmer, Angele; Rodger, Susan
A sample of 135 first-year university students living in residence completed questionnaires that measured individual differences in mindfulness, coping styles, and perceived stress. Findings revealed significant positive relationships between mindfulness and rational coping, and significant negative relationships with emotional and avoidant coping…
This review identifies key issues in research on adolescent coping with stress with parents, friends, and romantic partners during the past decade. An analysis of 78 studies revealed findings on relationship stressors and the potential links between the use of different coping styles for different relationship types. Research has confirmed…
Franzen, Michael D.; Heffernan, William
Both behavioral and cognitive coping strategies are determined by an individual's perception of the stressful stimuli. To investigate the relationship of an individual's usual coping style to differential responses to a behavioral or cognitive stressor in four response systems (heart rate, muscle tension, galvanic skin response, and subjective…
Zhang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Haiping; Xia, Yan; Liu, Xiaohong; Jung, Eunju
The study was to examine 1) whether stress and coping styles could significantly predict the probability of suicide ideation; 2) and whether coping styles were mediators or moderators on the association between life stress and suicide ideation. The survey was conducted in a sample of 671 Chinese college students. Approximately twenty percent…
Morris, Matthew C.; Rao, Uma
Research on the psychobiological sequelae of trauma has typically focused on long-term alterations in individuals with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Far less is known about the nature and course of psychobiological risk factors for PTSD during the acute aftermath of trauma. In this review, we summarize data from prospective studies focusing on the relationships among sympathetic nervous system activity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function, coping strategies and PTSD symptoms during the early recovery (or non-recovery) phase. Findings from pertinent studies are integrated to inform psychobiological profiles of PTSD-risk in children and adults in the context of existing models of PTSD-onset and maintenance. Data regarding bidirectional relations between coping strategies and stress hormones is reviewed. Limitations of existing literature and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:23380312
Crockett, Lisa J; Iturbide, Maria I; Torres Stone, Rosalie A; McGinley, Meredith; Raffaelli, Marcela; Carlo, Gustavo
This study examined the relations between acculturative stress and psychological functioning, as well as the protective role of social support and coping style, in a sample of 148 Mexican American college students (67% female, 33% male; mean age = 23.05 years, SD = 3.33). In bivariate analyses, acculturative stress was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Moreover, active coping was associated with better adjustment (lower depression), whereas avoidant coping predicted poorer adjustment (higher levels of depression and anxiety). Tests of interaction effects indicated that parental support and active coping buffered the effects of high acculturative stress on anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms. In addition, peer support moderated the relation between acculturative stress and anxiety symptoms. Implications for reducing the effects of acculturative stress among Mexican American college students are discussed.
Background Understanding the influences on physical activity is crucial, particularly among important target groups such as adolescent girls. This study describes cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and girls’ participation in organized sport, walking/cycling trips and objectively assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Methods Data were collected from adolescent girls (n=222) and their parents in 2004 and again in 2006. Parents self-reported their demographic characteristics and parenting style. Girls self-reported their organized sport participation and weekly walking/cycling trips, while MVPA was assessed using accelerometers. Linear regression and interaction analyses were performed. Interactions between socio-demographic factors and parenting style with organized sport, walking/cycling trips and MVPA are presented. Results There were cross-sectional associations between authoritative (B=−0.45, p=0.042) and indulgent (B=−0.56, p=0.002) parenting and the number of walking/cycling trips, and authoritarian (B=0.27, p=0.033) parenting and frequency of organized sport. Significant interactions included those between: family status, authoritative parenting and daily (p=0.048) and week day (p=0.013) MVPA; education, indulgent parenting and MVPA on weekend days (p=0.006); and, employment, authoritarian parenting and duration and frequency of organized sport (p=0.004), highlighting the complexity of these relationships. Longitudinal analyses revealed significant decreases in organized sport and MVPA, significant increases in walking/cycling trips and no significant associations between parenting and physical activity. Conclusion Parenting styles appear to influence walking and cycling trips among adolescent girls, though not physical activity within other domains. Socio-demographic characteristics interact with the relationships between parenting and physical activity. While these findings can inform the
Erickson, Sarah J.; Feldstein, Sarah W.
Objective: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) in measuring adolescent humor, including the relationship between humor and coping style, defense style, depressive symptoms, and adjustment in a non-clinical sample of adolescents. Method: Humor, coping, defense strategies, depressive symptoms,…
Carraro, Natasha; Gaudreau, Patrick
The moderating role of academic goal conflict in the relations between action planning (AP) and coping planning (CP) with physical activity was tested using samples of university students concurrently pursuing an academic and a physical activity goal. In Study 1 (N = 317), AP was found to positively relate to physical activity goal progress at low, but not at high, levels of goal conflict. CP trended toward being positively related to goal progress at high, but not at low levels of goal conflict. Study 2 (N = 97), using a 1-week daily diary design and measures of self-reported physical activity behavior and goal progress, showed that daily AP positively related to daily physical activity outcomes on days when students experienced lower, but not higher, levels of goal conflict relative to their average. Conversely, CP positively related to daily physical activity outcomes on days when students experienced higher, but not lower, levels of goal conflict.
Turkmen, Mutlu; Ozkan, Ali; Kul, Murat; Bozkus, Taner
The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship of physical activity (PA) level and healthy life-style behaviors in academic staff in Bartin University, Turkey. The short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was administered for the determination of physical activity level of academic staff. Their PA levels were…
Luo, Yang; Wang, Honghong
The purpose of this study was to explore the factors affecting nurse students' psychological status, and the interactions between mental symptoms and stressful factors, coping style and social support in their early clinical experiences. We assessed clinically 288 college nurse students during their first period by adopting College Seniors Stress Scale (CSSS), Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ), Support Questionnaire and Symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90). The result of this study was that (1) positive correlations were found between stressful events, negative coping style and the total scores of SCL-90 (r=0.487, 0.462, p<0.01), while negative correlations related to positive coping style, social support and the total scores of SCL-90 (r=-0.192, -00.135, p<0.05) and (2) stressful factors, negative coping style and social support all have main effects on mental symptoms (F=34.062, 16.090, 20.898, P<0.01), and positive coping style has no main effect on mental symptoms (F=1.853, P>0.05), but interactions relate to stressful factors and positive coping style (F=14.579, P<0.01), as well as negative coping style and social support. In order to improve the psychological condition of nursing students, aside from reducing the stress incidents and avoiding negative coping, it is very necessary to enhance the social support systems and to encourage them to adopt the positive coping styles.
Bazrafshan, Mohammad-Rafi; Jahangir, Fereidun; Mansouri, Amir; Kashfi, Seyyed Hannan
Background: Having a set of effective coping skills can prevent suicidal behavior by increasing self-control and self-direction. This study examines coping styles used by suicidal patients. Objectives: The researchers in this study try to identify coping strategies used by suicide attempters admitted to Shiraz Shahid Faghihi Hospital emergency room. Materials and Methods: This is a analytical cross-sectional study. Participants consisted of 50 suicide-attempted people admitted to Shiraz Faghihi Hospital. Instruments for data collections were a demographic checklist and the coping styles scale of Carver, Schier and Wintrope. Data were collected conveniently and analyzed using descriptive and analytic (Pearson Correlation, Student’s t-tests, and ANOVA) statistical methods. Results: Suicide attempted people used less useful coping strategies (Mean = 49.32) more than the other strategies (respectively mean of problem focused and emotion focused strategies were 30.27 and 27.83). Using ANOVA, in different educational level, problem focused and less effective coping skills of samples differed significantly (P = 0.009, P = 0.006, respectively). People with low educational level used less effective coping skills. There was a significant difference between men and women scores in use of less effective coping skills (P = 0.029). Conclusions: Teaching effective coping skills by psychological consultants in suicide attempted people, especially for women and people with low educational level, is important PMID:24971300
Burkitt, Chantel C.; Breau, Lynn M.; Zabalia, Marc
Pain coping is thought to be the most significant behavioural contribution to the adjustment to pain. Little is known about how those with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) cope with pain. We describe parental reported coping styles and how coping relates to individual factors. Seventy-seven caregivers of children and adults with…
Smedema, Susan Miller; Catalano, Denise; Ebener, Deborah J.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between various coping-related variables and the evaluation of self-worth and subjective well-being among persons with spinal cord injury. Positive coping variables included hope, proactive coping style, and sense of humor, whereas negative coping variables included perceptions of stress,…
West, Lindsey M.; Donovan, Roxanne A.; Roemer, Lizabeth
Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has deleterious effects on Black Americans. However, there is minimal empirical research on the influence of gender and coping on the relationship between PRD and mental health. This study posited that coping style (i.e., problem-focused coping and avoidant coping) would moderate the relationship between PRD…
Chenel, A.; Meier, C.; Dive, G.; Desouter-Lecomte, M.
We compare the strategy found by the optimal control theory in a complex molecular system according to the active subspace coupled to the field. The model is the isomerization during a Cope rearrangement of Thiele’s ester that is the most stable dimer obtained by the dimerization of methyl-cyclopentadienenylcarboxylate. The crudest partitioning consists in retaining in the active space only the reaction coordinate, coupled to a dissipative bath of harmonic oscillators which are not coupled to the field. The control then fights against dissipation by accelerating the passage across the transition region which is very wide and flat in a Cope reaction. This mechanism has been observed in our previous simulations [Chenel et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 11273 (2012)]. We compare here, the response of the control field when the reaction path is coupled to a second active mode. Constraints on the integrated intensity and on the maximum amplitude of the fields are imposed limiting the control landscape. Then, optimum field from one-dimensional simulation cannot provide a very high yield. Better guess fields based on the two-dimensional model allow the control to exploit different mechanisms providing a high control yield. By coupling the reaction surface to a bath, we confirm the link between the robustness of the field against dissipation and the time spent in the delocalized states above the transition barrier.
Metna-Laurent, Mathilde; Soria-Gómez, Edgar; Verrier, Danièle; Conforzi, Martina; Jégo, Pierrick; Lafenêtre, Pauline; Marsicano, Giovanni
To maximize their chances of survival, animals need to rapidly and efficiently respond to aversive situations. These responses can be classified as active or passive and depend on the specific nature of threats, but also on individual fear coping styles. In this study, we show that the control of excitatory and inhibitory brain neurons by type-1 cannabinoid (CB₁) receptors is a key determinant of fear coping strategies in mice. In classical fear conditioning, a switch between initially predominant passive fear responses (freezing) and active behaviors (escape attempts and risk assessment) develops over time. Constitutive genetic deletion of CB₁ receptors in CB₁⁻/⁻ mice disrupted this pattern by favoring passive responses. This phenotype can be ascribed to endocannabinoid control of excitatory neurons, because it was reproduced in conditional mutant mice lacking CB₁ receptors from cortical glutamatergic neurons. CB₁ receptor deletion from GABAergic brain neurons led to the opposite phenotype, characterized by the predominance of active coping. The CB₁ receptor agonist Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol exerted a biphasic control of fear coping strategies, with lower and higher doses favoring active and passive responses, respectively. Finally, viral re-expression of CB₁ receptors in the amygdala of CB₁⁻/⁻ mice restored the normal switch between the two coping strategies. These data strongly suggest that CB₁ receptor signaling bimodally controls the spontaneous adoption of active or passive coping strategies in individuals. This primary function of the endocannabinoid system in shaping individual behavioral traits should be considered when studying the mechanisms of physiological and pathological fear.
Baastrup, Sidsel; Schultz, Rikke; Brødsgaard, Inger; Moore, Rod; Jensen, Troels S; Vase Toft, Lene; Bach, Flemming W; Rosenberg, Raben; Gormsen, Lise
Patients suffering from chronic pain may benefit from learning adaptive coping strategies. Consensus on efficient strategies for this group of patients is, however, lacking, and previous studies have shown inconsistent results. The present study has examined coping strategies in two distinctly different groups of chronic pain patients and a group of healthy controls. Thirty neuropathic pain (NP) patients, 28 fibromyalgia (FM) patients, and 26 pain-free healthy controls completed the Coping Strategy Questionnaire (CSQ-48/27) and rated their daily pain. The results showed that FM and NP patients did not cope differently with pain. The only difference between the groups was that FM patients felt more in control of their pain than NP patients. Both patient groups used more maladaptive/passive coping strategies, but surprisingly also more adaptive/active coping strategies than healthy controls. However, FM patients with high levels of passive strategies felt less in control than FM patients with low levels of passive strategies. This was not seen in NP patients. An important implication for clinical practice is therefore that passive coping strategies should be restructured into active ones, especially for FM patients. Otherwise, the same psychological treatment model can be applied to both groups since they use similar coping styles.
Pavlygina, R A; Sakharov, D S; Davydov, V I; Avdonkin, A V
The efficiency of the recognition of masked visual images (Arabic numerals) increased when accompanied by classical (62 dB) and rock music (25 dB). These changes were accompanied by increases in the coherence of potentials in the frontal areas seen on recognition without music. Changes in intercenter EEG relationships correlated with the formation a dominant at the behavioral level. When loud music (85 dB) and music of other styles was used, these changes in behavior and the EEG were not seen; however, the coherence of potentials in the temporal and motor cortex of the right hemisphere increased and the latent periods of motor reactions of the hands decreased. These results provide evidence that the "recognition" dominant is formed when there are particular ratios of the levels of excitation in the corresponding centers, which should be considered when there is a need to increase the efficiency of recognition activity in humans.
Lamm, C; Pine, D S; Fox, N A
The canonical AX-CPT task measures two forms of cognitive control: sustained goal-oriented control ("proactive" control) and transient changes in cognitive control following unexpected events ("reactive" control). We modified this task by adding negative and neutral International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pictures to assess the effects of negative emotion on these two forms of cognitive control. Proactive and reactive control styles were assessed based on measures of behavior and electrophysiology, including the N2 event-related potential component and source space activation (Low Resolution Tomography [LORETA]). We found slower reaction-times and greater DLPFC activation for negative relative to neutral stimuli. Additionally, we found that a proactive style of responding was related to less prefrontal activation (interpreted to reflect increased efficiency of processing) during actively maintained previously cued information and that a reactive style of responding was related to less prefrontal activation (interpreted to reflect increased efficiency of processing) during just-in-time environmentally triggered information. This pattern of results was evident in relatively neutral contexts, but in the face of negative emotion, these associations were not found, suggesting potential response style-by-emotion interaction effects on prefrontal neural activation.
Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Simon, Olivier; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard
The study aimed to identify different patterns of gambling activities (PGAs) and to investigate how PGAs differed in gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. A representative sample of 4989 young Swiss males completed a questionnaire assessing seven distinct gambling activities, gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. PGAs were identified using latent class analysis (LCA). Differences between PGAs in gambling and substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies were tested. LCA identified six different PGAs. With regard to gambling and substance use outcomes, the three most problematic PGAs were extensive gamblers, followed by private gamblers, and electronic lottery and casino gamblers, respectively. By contrast, the three least detrimental PGAs were rare or non-gamblers, lottery only gamblers and casino gamblers. With regard to personality traits, compared with rare or non-gamblers, private and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sensation seeking. Electronic lottery and casino gamblers, private gamblers and extensive gamblers had higher levels of aggression-hostility. Extensive and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sociability, whereas casino gamblers reported lower levels of anxiety-neuroticism. Extensive gamblers used more maladaptive and less adaptive coping strategies than other groups. Results suggest that gambling is not a homogeneous activity since different types of gamblers exist according to the PGA they are engaged in. Extensive gamblers, electronic and casino gamblers and private gamblers may have the most problematic PGAs. Personality traits and coping skills may predispose individuals to PGAs associated with more or less negative outcomes.
Bergier, Józef; Bergier, Barbara; Tsos, Anatolii
Determining the state of physical activity of societies as an important component of a health promoting life style is a very up-to-date problem. Studies of physical activity among students, the future elites in their environments, become of increasing importance. An important problem is the recognition of factors differentiating this activity on the example of place of residence. For this purpose, the study covered 2,125 students (60.8% females and 39.2% males) from the National Institute in Lutsk, Ukraine, aged 17-22 (mean age: 20.4). The method of a diagnostic survey was applied which included the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The following measures of physical activity according to the place of residence (rural area, small town with a population up to 100,000; medium-size town - 100,000-200,000 inhabitants; large city - over 200,000) were taken into consideration: level of physical activity, self-reported physical fitness, sports disciplines practiced by the respondents, and those which they would like to practice, and the BMI, and leisure time possessed. The study showed that the place of residence positively differentiated physical activity among students from medium-size towns and rural areas, compared to their contemporaries from small towns and large cities. Significant differences were also found with respect to the BMI, which was significantly less favourable among respondents from the rural environment. However, no differences were observed between the place of residence for leisure time, self-reported physical activity, and forms of physical activity practiced, and those which the respondents would like to practice.
Missouri Univ., Columbia. Coll. of Education.
Information is provided regarding major learning styles and other factors important to student learning. Several typically asked questions are presented regarding different learning styles (visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic, and multisensory learning), associated considerations, determining individuals' learning styles, and appropriate…
Barendregt, Charlotte S; Van der Laan, André M; Bongers, Ilja L; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs
Coping, general well-being and self-esteem play an important role during the process of adaptation to turning points in life-course. This study aimed to investigate the effect of coping on both the development of general well-being and self-esteem of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems in secure residential care. In addition, risk and protective factors were taken into account. Adolescents between the age of 16 and 18 (N = 172) were followed for 1.5 years. General well-being and self-esteem were assessed with the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, respectively. In addition, the Utrecht Coping List for Adolescents and the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth were administered. Results showed that the longitudinal relation between general well-being and self-esteem is no longer significant after adding active and passive coping to the model. The use of active coping strategies was associated with a higher self-esteem. The use of passive coping strategies was associated with a lower self-esteem and also a lower perceived general well-being. Having multiple risks in the individual and/or social/contextual domain affected the developmental pattern of general well-being. During treatment of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems in secure residential care, attention should be paid for enhancing those capabilities and skills, like coping, which help adolescents to fulfill their needs and consequently enhance their well-being. Enhancing the well-being of adolescents might in the long run decrease the chance of reoffending and/or psychiatric relapse.
Bell, Martha Ann; Fox, Nathan A
Relations between brain electrical activity and performance on two cognitive tasks were examined in a normal population selected to be high on self-reported measures of Positive or Negative Affectivity. Twenty-five right-handed women, from an original pool of 308 college undergraduates, were the participants. EEG was recorded during baseline and during psychometrically matched spatial and verbal tasks. As predicted, participants who were high in Positive Affectivity performed equally well on the verbal and spatial tasks, while participants who were high in Negative Affectivity had spatial scores that were lower than their verbal scores. There were no group differences in baseline EEG. Both groups exhibited left central activation (i.e., alpha suppression) during the verbal and spatial tasks. When EEG data were analyzed separately for the group high in Positive Affectivity, there was evidence of parietal activation for the spatial task relative to the verbal task. The EEG data for the group high in Negative Affectivity had comparable EEG power values during verbal and spatial tasks at parietal scalp locations. These data suggest that, within a selected normal population, differences in affective style may interact with cognitive performance and with the brain electrical activity associated with that performance.
Dunbar, C; Edwards, V; Gede, E; Hamilton, J; Sniderman, M S; Smith, V; Whitfield, M
This paper describes the experiences of seven women mental health professionals who met in a leaderless group over a period of a year and a half. There is a discussion of the conflicts for women in four major areas--competition, dependency needs, economic success and the search for role models, and the suggestion of possible successful resolutions in these conflict areas. The resolutions are a result of individual experiences and discussions in the group.
Davidson, Virginia M.
Role strain is discussed as it occurs in the context of presenting complaint and treatment, and issues of feminine sexuality and role adjustment are examined. It is suggested that medical schools can increase their awareness of how sex bias and institutional sexism affect the mental health and well-being of women students and can make appropriate…
Yildiz Findik, Ummu; Ozbas, Ayfer; Cavdar, Ikbal; Yildizeli Topcu, Sacide; Onler, Ebru
The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress levels and stress coping strategies of nursing students in their first operating room experience. This descriptive study was done with 126 nursing students who were having an experience in an operating room for the first time. Data were collected by using Personal Information Form, Clinical Stress Questionnaire, and Styles of Coping Inventory. The nursing students mostly had low clinical stress levels (M = 27.56, SD = 10.76) and adopted a self-confident approach in coping with stress (M = 14.3, SD = 3.58). The nursing students generally employed a helpless/self-accusatory approach among passive patterns as their clinical stress levels increased, used a self-confident and optimistic approach among active patterns as their average age increased, and those who had never been to an operating room previously used a submissive approach among passive patterns. The results showed that low levels of stress caused the nursing students to use active patterns in coping with stress, whereas increasing levels of stress resulted in employing passive patterns in stress coping. The nursing students should be ensured to maintain low levels of stress and use active patterns in stress coping.
Alias, Norlidah; DeWitt, Dorothy; Siraj, Saedah
In this study, the PTEchLS WebQuest on Gas Laws was evaluated. It was designed for Form Four students with active learning styles. The focus of the evaluation was on the usability and effectiveness of the PTechLS WebQuest. Data were collected from interviews and students' achievement scores. Two teachers and eight students volunteered to…
Earle, J B; Garcia-Dergay, P; Manniello, A; Dowd, C
The localization of arithmetic sign comprehension was investigated using EEG spectral parameters as indicators of cortical engagement. Right-handed male subjects were selected on the basis of scores on the Mathematics Cognitive Style Survey and assigned to 2 groups, a 'left hemisphere oriented (LHO)' (N = 9) and 'right hemisphere oriented (RHO)' (N = 9) group. Subjects were presented with 4 conditions, a motoric baseline condition, two arithmetic fact retrieval tasks employing either a sign operator or verbal operator and a sign comprehension task which required subjects to fill in a missing sign (e.g. 6 ? 4 = 24). Both across subject correlational analysis of EEG alpha 1 asymmetry and performance as well as within subject analysis of condition means indicated a somewhat unique contribution of the right hemisphere to sign comprehension. LHO subjects exhibited greater relative left mid-temporal lobe activation than RHO subjects but less relative left frontal activation (theta band) than RHO subjects during the verbal operator task. It was tentatively concluded that this frontal lobe asymmetry difference was due to a mismatch in strategy preference and coding requirements among RHO subjects.
Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, Sooyeon; Gopalan, Himanshu
During acculturation, Asian immigrant adolescents have numerous challenges such as language barriers, cultural and ethnic differences, different school environments, discrimination experiences, and intergroup conflicts and tension. These challenges generate acculturative stress, which negatively affects the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. This article explored how Asian immigrant adolescents perceive and cope with acculturative stress. In particular, this study examined the stress-coping strategies in the adaptation process as experienced by Korean immigrant adolescents. Three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were captured: (a) engagement in meaningful activities; (b) social support; and (c) positive emotion. This finding implies that Asian immigrant adolescents create and develop their own strategies to deal with acculturative stress, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being. This study discuss the future implications on how to improve the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. PMID:23195747
Jambor, Edina; Elliott, Marta
Research studies on the determinants of self-esteem of deaf individuals often yield inconsistent findings. The current study assessed the effects on self-esteem of factors related to deafness, such as the means of communication at home and severity of hearing loss with hearing aid, as well as the coping styles that deaf people adopt to cope with…
Namson, J.S. ); Davis, T.L.; Lagoe, M.B.
The stratigraphy of the Coalinga region can be divided into tectostratigraphic facies whose boundaries delineate two major tectonic events - one in the mid-Cenozoic (38-17 Ma) and one in the late Cenozoic (less than 3 Ma). The succession of these tectostratigraphic facies, and an integration of geology, subsurface well data, a seismic-reflection profile, and earthquake seismicity on a retrodeformable cross section, yield a model for the tectonic evolution of the Coalinga region. This model suggests that the structural style of both deformational events is characteristic of fold and thrust belts. The model also indicates that the causative fault of the May 2 earthquake is a ramped thrust. The results of this study, in combination with regional geologic relations, suggest that the Coalinga region is part of an active fold and thrust belt which borders the west and south sides of the San Joaquin Valley. The potential for future earthquakes due to movement of other blind thrust faults within this belt should be evaluated.
Hughes, Sheryl O; Hayes, Jenna T; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; VanBrackle, Angela
Objective To provide preliminary descriptive data on caregiver and child weight status, parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices of a small American Indian sample. Methods Participants included a subsample of American Indian caregivers (n = 23) identified from a larger study that was conducted in five states. Using previously validated instruments, means, standard deviations, and ranges for general parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices were explored. Results In general, most caregivers reported healthy feeding practices. Most caregivers scored higher on responsive compared to restrictive or permissive in general parenting. Of the sample, 12 caregivers (52.2 %) were classified in the indulgent feeding style category, 5 caregivers (21.7 %) were classified as authoritative, 5 (21.7 %) uninvolved, and 1 (4.3 %) authoritarian. Conclusions More investigations are needed to explore questions raised by this study about using common tools that measure childhood obesity with American Indian families.
MacCann, Carolyn; Fogarty, Gerard J.; Zeidner, Moshe; Roberts, Richard D.
Research examining the relationships between performance measures of emotional intelligence (EI), coping styles, and academic achievement is sparse. Two studies were designed to redress this imbalance. In each of these studies, both EI and coping styles were significantly related to academic achievement. In Study 1, 159 community college students…
Lee, Kelly M.; Shellman, Alison B.; Osmer, Sarah C.; Day, Susan X.; Dempsey, Allison G.
This study examined the relationship between recalled peer victimization, coping styles, and current social anxiety. College students (N = 298, 87.9% female) completed a demographic questionnaire, the Recalled Victimization Questionnaire- Revised (RVQ-R), the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE), and the Coping Styles Questionnaire (CSQ).…
de Kloet, E R; Molendijk, M L
In the forced swim test (FST) rodents progressively show increased episodes of immobility if immersed in a beaker with water from where escape is not possible. In this test, a compound qualifies as a potential antidepressant if it prevents or delays the transition to this passive (energy conserving) behavioural style. In the past decade however the switch from active to passive "coping" was used increasingly to describe the phenotype of an animal that has been exposed to a stressful history and/or genetic modification. A PubMed analysis revealed that in a rapidly increasing number of papers (currently more than 2,000) stress-related immobility in the FST is labeled as a depression-like phenotype. In this contribution we will examine the different phases of information processing during coping with the forced swim stressor. For this purpose we focus on the action of corticosterone that is mediated by the closely related mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the limbic brain. The evidence available suggests a model in which we propose that the limbic MR-mediated response selection operates in complementary fashion with dopaminergic accumbens/prefrontal executive functions to regulate the transition between active and passive coping styles. Upon rescue from the beaker the preferred, mostly passive, coping style is stored in the memory via a GR-dependent action in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. It is concluded that the rodent's behavioural response to a forced swim stressor does not reflect depression. Rather the forced swim experience provides a unique paradigm to investigate the mechanistic underpinning of stress coping and adaptation.
Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E.
The experience of stressful social interactions, negative causal attributions, and the use of maladaptive coping efforts help maintain depression over time in the general population. We investigated whether a similar experience occurs among adults with mild intellectual disability. We compared the frequency and stress impact of such interactions, identified causal attributions for these interactions, and determined the coping strategies of 47 depressed and 47 nondepressed adults with mild intellectual disability matched on subject characteristics. The depressed group reported a higher frequency and stress impact of stressful social interactions, more negative attribution style, and more avoidant and less active coping strategies did than the nondepressed group. Findings have implications for theory building and development of psychotherapies to treat depression. PMID:19374469
Foley, Daniel P.
Although some researchers have distinguished the concepts of pain and suffering and despite the recent rise of many centers for pain management in the United States, medical educators and practitioners have given little attention to the topic of suffering. In the studies which have been conducted, patients differed in styles of coping with and…
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Persike, Malte; Chau, Cecilia; Hendry, Leo B.; Kloepp, Marion; Terzini-Hollar, Michelle; Tam, Vicky; Naranjo, Carmen Rodriguez; Herrera, Dora; Menna, Palma; Rohail, Iffat; Veisson, Marika; Hoareau, Elsa; Luwe, Merja; Loncaric, Darko; Han, Hyeyoun; Regusch, Ludmilla
This study investigated how N = 5,126 adolescents (mean age of 15 years) from 18 countries perceive and cope with future- and school-related stress. The adolescents completed the Problem Questionnaire (PQ), which assesses stress, and the Coping Across Situations Questionnaire (CASQ), which assesses three coping styles (reflection/support-seeking,…
Calonne, Maryline; Fontaine, Joël; Debiane, Djouher; Laruelle, Frédéric; Grandmougin-Ferjani, Anne; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa
The phytoremediation assisted by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could constitute an ecological and economic method to restore polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) polluted soils. Unfortunately, little is known about the PAH impact on the beneficial symbiotic AMF. Using radiolabelling experiments, our work aims to understand how benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a representative of high molecular weight PAH, acts on the AMF lipid metabolism. Our results showed decreases in the sterol precursors as well as in total phospholipid quantities, in link with the [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation decreases in these lipids. Interestingly, a concomitant increase of [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation by 29.5% into phosphatidylcholine with its content decrease in Rhizophagus irregularis extraradical mycelium was observed, suggesting a membrane regeneration. A second concomitant increase (estimated to 69%) of [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation into triacylglycerols (TAG) with the content decrease was also observed. This suggests a fungal TAG biosynthesis activation probably to offset the decrease in storage lipid content when the fungus was grown under B[a]P pollution. In addition, our findings showed that lipase activity was induced by more than 3 fold in the presence of B[a]P in comparison to the control indicating that the drop in TAG content could be a consequence of their active degradation. Taken together, our data suggest the involvement of the fungal TAG metabolism to cope B[a]P toxicity through two means: (i) by providing carbon skeletons and energy necessary for membrane regeneration and/or for B[a]P translocation and degradation as well as (ii) by activating the phosphatidic acid and hexose metabolisms which may be involved in cellular stress defence.
Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O
The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and χ(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection.
Coping Intelligence is defined as efficient individual ways of managing life stress. This paper presents a new assessment instrument named Coping IQ (CIQ; Coping Intelligence Questionnaire). A measure is based on the Multidimensional Positive Coping Model, which includes three cross-cutting parameters that characterize coping strategy as efficient or inefficient, emotional, cognitive or behavioral, and active or passive. Results of the factor analysis verified a basic two-factor structure of the Coping Intelligence with the alternative solutions for efficient and inefficient coping strategies characterized via three basic modalities. The validity of the Coping IQ instrument showed an internal consistency ranging from 0.72 to 0.81. The unified methodology that underlies the new concept of Coping Intelligence, as well as Coping IQ assessment, is applicable for studying both clinical and general populations. CIQ parameters might serve as useful feedback while assessing changes in individual coping repertoire, for CIQ measures strategies that can be modified as a result of life experiences or educational training. Based on the study findings, Coping Intelligence is further defined by a broad repertoire of life skills required to solve successfully everyday stress and life adversities in order to achieve desired goals and maintain physical, mental, and social well-being. PMID:28316579
Ekdahl, Kristina N; Lambris, John D.; Elwing, Hans; Ricklin, Daniel; Nilsson, Per H.; Teramura, Yuji; Nicholls, Ian A.; Nilsson, Bo
When an artificial biomaterial (e.g., a stent or implantable pump) is exposed to blood, plasma proteins immediately adhere to the surface, creating a new interface between the biomaterial and the blood. The recognition proteins within the complement and contact activation/coagulation cascade systems of the blood will be bound to, or inserted into, this protein film and generate different mediators that will activate polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes, as well as platelets. Under clinical conditions, the ultimate outcome of these processes may be thrombotic and inflammatory reactions, and consequently the composition and conformation of the proteins in the initial layer formed on the surface will to a large extent determine the outcome of a treatment involving the biomaterial, affecting both the functionality of the material and the patient’s life quality. This review presents models of biomaterial-induced activation processes and describes various strategies to attenuate potential adverse reactions by conjugating bioactive molecules to surfaces or by introducing nanostructures. PMID:21771620
Miller, Michael B; Donovan, Christa-Lynn; Bennett, Craig M; Aminoff, Elissa M; Mayer, Richard E
Neuroimaging is being used increasingly to make inferences about an individual. Yet, those inferences are often confounded by the fact that topographical patterns of task-related brain activity can vary greatly from person to person. This study examined two factors that may contribute to the variability across individuals in a memory retrieval task: individual differences in cognitive style and individual differences in encoding strategy. Cognitive style was probed using a battery of assessments focused on the individual's tendency to visualize or verbalize written material. Encoding strategy was probed using a series of questions designed to assess typical strategies that an individual might utilize when trying to remember a list of words. Similarity in brain activity was assessed by cross-correlating individual t-statistic maps contrasting the BOLD response during retrieval to the BOLD response during fixation. Individual differences in cognitive style and encoding strategy accounted for a significant portion of the variance in similarity. This was true above and beyond individual differences in anatomy and memory performance. These results demonstrate the need for a multidimensional approach in the use of fMRI to make inferences about an individual.
Zhang, Weiyuan; Jegede, Olugbemiro; Tsui, Cecelia; Ng, Fowie; Kwok, Louisa
Reports the results of a comparative study of the 26 open universities in Asia (of 12 Asian countries/regions) conducted by the Center for Research in Distance and Adult Learning, Open University of Hong Kong. Topics explored were: gender/age distribution of the students; leadership styles; teaching and delivery model; methods and forms of student…
Previous studies on L2 Japanese sojourners often reported that learners overuse the plain style or haphazardly mix the plain and polite styles upon return. These styles, which are often associated with formal or informal contexts, also index complex social and situational meanings, and native speakers are reported to shift their styles to create…
Hussong, Andrea M; Chassin, Laurie
The transition to young adulthood is both a time when risky health behaviors such as substance misuse peak and a time of opportunity for growth and development through the acquisition of adult roles. In this transition, coping styles include responses to the stressors and opportunities associated with the emergence of adulthood. The extent to which such coping styles are skillfully employed in part determines adjustment into adulthood. The current study used a high-risk, longitudinal design to examine the development of coping styles over adolescence, continuity in these coping styles from adolescence to adulthood, the impact of coping on adult stress and substance misuse, the ability of coping to buffer effects of stress on substance use, and differences in coping between at-risk youth (i.e., children of alcoholics [COAs]) and their peers. A sample of 340 adolescents completed four assessments over ages 11-23. We used latent trajectory models to examine interindividual and intraindividual change in coping over time. Evidence for both change and continuity in the development of coping from adolescence to adulthood was found, although adolescent coping had limited impact on stress and substance use in adulthood. Support was also found for complex stress-buffering and stress-exacerbating effects of coping on the relations between major life events and adult drug use and between stress associated with the new roles of adulthood and heavy alcohol use. Implications of these findings for development and adjustment in the transition to adulthood are discussed.
Merrill, Jennifer E.; Thomas, Suzanne E.
Using alcohol to cope (i.e., coping motivation) and general coping style both are theorized and demonstrated empirically to lead to problematic drinking. In the present study, we sought to examine whether these factors interact to predict alcohol use, both retrospectively reported and in the lab following a stressor task. Social drinkers (N=50, 50% women) received the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and then consumed beer under the guise of a taste-test. A Timeline Followback interview to assess past month alcohol use, the Drinking Motives Questionnaire (DMQ), and the COPE (to assess adaptive coping) were administered prior to the laboratory challenge. Multiple regression models were used to examine DMQ coping motives, adaptive coping, and their interaction as predictors of milliliters (mls) of beer consumed in a clinical laboratory setting. The association between coping motives and mls beer was positive at both high and low levels of adaptive coping, but at low levels of adaptive coping, this association was stronger. In contrast, there was no interaction between adaptive coping and coping motives in predicting quantity and frequency of drinking in the prior month. Findings suggest that stronger coping motives for drinking predict greater alcohol consumption following a stress provocation to a greater extent when an individual is lacking in adaptive coping strategies. As both general coping skills and coping motives for alcohol use are responsive to intervention, study of the conditions under which they exert unique and interactive effects is important. PMID:23254217
Takamoto, Masahiro; Aikawa, Atsushi
This study examined the effect of coping and appraisal for coping on mental health and later coping in two longitudinal studies. In Study 1 (Time 1: n = 342, Time 2: n = 367) investigated the influence of selected coping and coping for appraisal on mental health and assumed coping. In Study 2 (Time 1: n = 161, Time 2: n = 154) investigated the influence of selected coping and coping for appraisal on mental health and later coping. The results indicated that coping and coping for appraisal affected mental health and later coping. However, the influence of the coping for appraisal was more limited than selected coping.
The International Space Station Expedition 11 crew, set for liftoff Apr. 15 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, is to perform two extravehicular activities-one in Russian and the other in U.S. spacesuits, a unique combination that points up different national space-operating styles. The outgoing Expedition 10 commander, astronaut Leroy Chiao, addressed the differences in an e-mail exchange from the ISS. Chiao is well qualified to discuss these topics, having logged four shuttle-based EVAs in the American suit and two in the Russian Orlan, the most recent one Mar. 28. Chiao and Expedition 10 cosmonaut Salizhan Sharipov are to return to Earth in their own Soyuz Apr. 25.
de Kloet, E. R.; Molendijk, M. L.
In the forced swim test (FST) rodents progressively show increased episodes of immobility if immersed in a beaker with water from where escape is not possible. In this test, a compound qualifies as a potential antidepressant if it prevents or delays the transition to this passive (energy conserving) behavioural style. In the past decade however the switch from active to passive “coping” was used increasingly to describe the phenotype of an animal that has been exposed to a stressful history and/or genetic modification. A PubMed analysis revealed that in a rapidly increasing number of papers (currently more than 2,000) stress-related immobility in the FST is labeled as a depression-like phenotype. In this contribution we will examine the different phases of information processing during coping with the forced swim stressor. For this purpose we focus on the action of corticosterone that is mediated by the closely related mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the limbic brain. The evidence available suggests a model in which we propose that the limbic MR-mediated response selection operates in complementary fashion with dopaminergic accumbens/prefrontal executive functions to regulate the transition between active and passive coping styles. Upon rescue from the beaker the preferred, mostly passive, coping style is stored in the memory via a GR-dependent action in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. It is concluded that the rodent's behavioural response to a forced swim stressor does not reflect depression. Rather the forced swim experience provides a unique paradigm to investigate the mechanistic underpinning of stress coping and adaptation. PMID:27034848
Barnard, Antoni; Clur, Loraine; Joubert, Yvonne
The aim of this study was to explore cancer survivors’ return to work (RTW) experience with a specific focus on the adjustment and coping process underlying their journey. The study was conducted in the Southern Cape, South Africa, with eight cancer survivors having returned to work following successful treatment of various types of cancer. Unstructured interviews were conducted and data were analysed following the principles of hermeneutic phenomenological reflection and analysis. Four themes emerged, representing the changing adjustment responses and coping during the RTW journey. Participants evolve from being overwhelmed with emotions and applying avoidant coping to seeking understanding and positive affectivity in their attempt to comprehend the reality of their situation. Participants’ external locus of control change to a more active approach and problem-solving orientation, demonstrating a need to take control and responsibility. Ultimately, adjustment and coping become most constructive when cancer survivors resolve to re-assess life and self through meaning-making, resulting in renewed appreciation of life, appropriate life style changes, and regained confidence in their relational role. A process perspective is proposed to facilitate an understanding of, and working with, cancer survivors’ transition through the RTW journey towards optimal coping phases. PMID:27852419
Ganjiwale, Deepak; Ganjiwale, Jaishree; Sharma, Bharti; Mishra, Brajesh
Background: Developmental disability is a term that refers to permanent cognitive and or physical impairment. Arrested development of physical or mental capacities can lead to number of problems for the sufferer as well as the carers. Methodology: This study was conducted to assess the quality of life (QOL) and coping mechanisms used by the carers of physically challenged children. In this cross-sectional study, all the 116 children from a school for children with special needs in Anand, Gujarat and their carers were included. World Health Organization-QOL (WHO-QOL) and BREF COPE were administered to measure QOL and coping strategies, respectively. Results: On WHO-QOL, the social relationship domain was observed to be the best while environment domain had the lowest score. The main coping style used by the caregivers was Active emotional coping. Conclusions: Significant differences were found in QOL of the caregivers of physically challenged children based on the type of disability of the child. Rehabilitation programs can be planned to provide psychological support to the caregivers to ease the burden if any through collaborative efforts. PMID:27843839
Robinson, Edward H.; Rotter, Joseph C.; Robinson, Sandra L.; Fey, Mary Ann; Vogel, Joanne E.
This book explains how fears, anxiety, and stress develop in children, and how they can learn to successfully cope with these factors. It offers specific activities designed to assist in coping with a particular aspect of fear or stress. Part I, "Overview of Fears and Stress," contains activities to complement the various curricular…
Hunsucker, S; Flannery, J; Frank, D
This study explored the coping strategies of families of critically ill patients in a rural Southern Appalachian setting. A convenience sample of 30 family members of 22 critically ill patients in two rural hospitals completed the Jaloweic Coping Scale. The five most frequently used coping methods were helping, thinking positively, worrying about the problem, trying to find out more about the problem and trying to handle things one step at a time. The five most effective coping strategies were talking the problem over with friends, praying, thinking about the good things in life, trying to handle things one step at a time and trying to see the good side of the situation. Findings contradicted many of the more "negative" descriptions of Appalachian people in the literature. Similarities outweighed differences when comparing the coping styles of rural and urban populations. Findings suggest that coping strategies must be considered for positive outcomes in the delivery of care to such a rural population.
Shiba, Yoshiro; Kim, Charissa; Santangelo, Andrea M.; Roberts, Angela C.
The ventral prefrontal cortex is an integral part of the neural circuitry that is dysregulated in mood and anxiety disorders. However, the contribution of its distinct sub-regions to the regulation of negative emotion are poorly understood. Recently we implicated both the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) and anterior orbitofrontal cortex (antOFC) in the regulation of conditioned fear and anxiety responses to a social stimulus, i.e., human intruder, in the marmoset monkey. In the present study we extend our investigations to determine the role of these two regions in regulating innate responses and coping strategies to a predator stimulus, i.e., a model snake. Both the vlPFC and antOFC lesioned groups exhibited enhanced anxiety-related responses to the snake in comparison to controls. Both groups also showed a reduction in active coping behavior. These results indicate that the vlPFC and antOFC contribute independently to the regulation of both innate fear and, as previously reported, conditioned fear, and highlight the importance of these regions in producing stimulus-appropriate coping responses. The finding that dysregulation in two distinct prefrontal regions produces the apparently similar behavioral phenotype of heightened negative emotion provides insight into the varied etiology that may underlie this symptom across a wide variety of neuropsychiatric conditions with implications for personalized treatment strategies. PMID:25653599
Brasileiro, Sarah V; Orsini, Mara R C A; Cavalcante, Julianna A; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M; Costa, Paulo S S; Costa, Luciane R
The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts.
Val, Carlin; Kemp, Jess
This study examines how a group's dynamic changes under the influence of different leadership styles, and determines what leadership style works best in a large group expedition. The main question identified was "What roles can a leader play in affecting the dynamic of a large group while partaking in a field expedition?" The following…
Villarreal, Eduardo A Garza; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene; Østergaard, Leif; Vuust, Peter
Listening to music has been found to reduce acute and chronic pain. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood; however, emotion and cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to influence the analgesic effect of music. In this study we investigated the influence of familiarity, emotional and cognitive features, and cognitive style on music-induced analgesia. Forty-eight healthy participants were divided into three groups (empathizers, systemizers and balanced) and received acute pain induced by heat while listening to different sounds. Participants listened to unfamiliar Mozart music rated with high valence and low arousal, unfamiliar environmental sounds with similar valence and arousal as the music, an active distraction task (mental arithmetic) and a control, and rated the pain. Data showed that the active distraction led to significantly less pain than did the music or sounds. Both unfamiliar music and sounds reduced pain significantly when compared to the control condition; however, music was no more effective than sound to reduce pain. Furthermore, we found correlations between pain and emotion ratings. Finally, systemizers reported less pain during the mental arithmetic compared with the other two groups. These findings suggest that familiarity may be key in the influence of the cognitive and emotional mechanisms of music-induced analgesia, and that cognitive styles may influence pain perception.
Chaffin, M; Wherry, J N; Dykman, R
Strategies used by 84 sexually abused children, ages 7 to 12, to cope with their abuse were evaluated, along with child abuse-related symptoms, parent-reported behavioral symptoms, and teacher-reported behavioral symptoms. Principal components analysis of coping yielded four strategies that were labeled avoidant coping, internalized coping, angry coping, and active/social coping. Each coping strategy was found to be associated with a unique set of abuse characteristics, abuse-related social environment, and symptoms. In contrast to findings with adult survivors and adolescents, use of avoidant coping strategies among school-age children was found to be related to fewer behavioral problems, although it was also associated with greater sexual anxieties. Internalized coping was found to be associated with increased guilt and PTSD hyperarousal symptoms. Active/social coping was the only strategy found to be unrelated to symptoms, but neither was it associated with measured benefits. In contrast to some clinical opinion that externalizing blame and venting anger is a helpful strategy, angry coping was found to be associated with a wide range of behavioral and emotional problems as rated by the child's home-room school teacher. Results are discussed in terms of a proposed mediational model.
Davis, Sarah K.; Humphrey, Neil
Theoretically, trait and ability emotional intelligence (EI) should mobilise coping processes to promote adaptation, plausibly operating as personal resources determining choice and/or implementation of coping style. However, there is a dearth of research deconstructing if/how EI impacts mental health via multiple coping strategies in adolescence.…
Lengua, Liliana J.; Long, Anna C.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.
Background: Appraisal and coping following a disaster are important factors in children's post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. However, little is known about predictors of disaster coping responses. This study examined stress-load, appraisals and coping styles measured prior to the September 11 terrorist attacks as predictors of 9/11-specific…
Martins, Andressa Juliane; Vasconcelos, Suleima Pedroza; Skene, Debra Jean; Lowden, Arne; de Castro Moreno, Claudia Roberta
Physical activity has been recommended as a strategy for improving sleep. Nevertheless, physical effort at work might not be not the ideal type of activity to promote sleep quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of type of job (low vs. high physical effort) and life-style on sleep of workers from an Amazonian Extractivist Reserve, Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 148 low physical activity (factory workers) and 340 high physical activity (rubber tappers) was conducted between September and November 2011. The workers filled out questionnaires collecting data on demographics (sex, age, occupation, marital status and children), health (reported morbidities, sleep disturbances, musculoskeletal pain and body mass index) and life-style (smoking, alcohol use and practice of leisure-time physical activity). Logistic regression models were applied with the presence of sleep disturbances as the primary outcome variable. The prevalence of sleep disturbances among factory workers and rubber tappers was 15.5% and 27.9%, respectively. The following independent variables of the analysis were selected based on a univariate model (p<0.20): sex, age, marital status, work type, smoking, morbidities and musculoskeletal pain. The predictors for sleep disturbances were type of job (high physical effort); sex (female); age (>40 years), and having musculoskeletal pain (≥5 symptoms). Rubber tapper work, owing to greater physical effort, pain and musculoskeletal fatigue, was associated with sleep disturbances. Being female and older than 40 years were also predictors of poor sleep. In short, these findings suggest that demanding physical exertion at work may not improve sleep quality.
Pavlygina, R A; Sakharov, D S; Davydov, V I; Avdonkin, A V
The efficiency of recognition of masked visual images (Arabic numerals) under conditions of listening to classical (intensity 62 dB) or rock music (25 dB) increased. Coherence of potential in the frontal cortical region characteristic of the masked image recognition increased under conditions of listening to music. The changes in intercenter EEG relations were correlated with the formation of "the recognition dominant" at the behavioral level. Such behavioral and EEG changes were not observed during listening to louder music (85 dB) and listening to music of other styles, however, the coherence between potentials of the temporal and motor areas of the right hemisphere increased, and the latency of hand motor reactions decreased. The results suggest that the "recognition dominant" is formed under conditions of establishment of certain relations between the levels of excitation in the corresponding centers. These findings should be taken into consideration in case if it were necessary to increase the efficiency of the recognition.
Çuhadar, Döndü; Savaş, Haluk Asuman; Ünal, Ahmet; Gökpınar, Fatma
The coping of patients with prodromal syndromes prevents relapses, and the differences in coping strategies affect the results of bipolar disorder. The various functionality levels of bipolar disorder patients such as work, marital relations, parental abilities and social presentation are significantly related with how well they cope. The objective of this study was to determine the family functionality and coping attitudes of bipolar disorder patients. The study planned as a descriptive one was carried with 81 bipolar disorder patients. Personal description form, family assessment device and Coping Attitudes Scale were used as data acquisition tools. It was determined that the adaptive coping attitudes used most frequently by the patients were religious coping, positive reinterpretation, active coping, problem-focused coping and emotional focused coping, beneficial social support use, emotional social support use, planning, suppression of competing activities and restraint coping; maladaptive coping attitudes used most frequently by the patients were "focusing on the problem and venting of emotions and mental disengagement." It was determined that family functions affected the coping attitudes of patients and that the patients who evaluated family functions in a healthy manner made use of adaptive coping strategies more at a statistically significant level.
Cheng, Cecilia; Sun, Peizhen; Mak, Kwok-Kei
This 6 month prospective study systematically tested some multivariate models that advanced the understanding of the psychological mechanisms underlying Internet addiction and psychosocial maladjustment. On the basis of previous theories, avoidant coping and coping inflexibility were proposed as underlying mechanisms. Participants were 271 Chinese undergraduates (75% women, Mage=20.49) who took part in both phases of this study. Structural equation modeling was performed to obtain the best fit models for both the cross-sectional and the prospective data. The cross-sectional model testing revealed statistically significant mediating effects for both avoidant coping (β=0.149 [95% CI 0.071-0.226], p=0.002) and coping flexibility (β=0.048 [95% CI 0.013-0.081], p=0.032). The prospective model testing further showed that avoidant coping mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and Time 2 psychosocial maladjustment (β=0.141 [95% CI 0.065-0.216], p=0.005), as well as that between coping flexibility and Time 2 psychosocial maladjustment (β=-0.096 [95% CI -0.161 to -0.031], p=0.015). This study was the first to establish theory-driven models, which unveiled an inflexible, avoidant coping style as psychological mechanisms that explained the link between Internet addiction and psychosocial maladjustment.
Manuel, Gerdenio M.; And Others
Since the incidence of cancer in this country is high and the cancer survival rates are increasing, it is important to study coping strategies in cancer patients. As survival time lengthens, coping strategies that might affect the quality of a patient's life become increasingly important. A study was conducted to examine coping strategies in newly…
The current study examined the relationship between coping with workplace interpersonal stress (WIS) and psychological dysfunction (i.e. depressive symptoms, burnout, general distress and daytime sleepiness). Three hundred twenty-four Japanese full-time workers completed measures assessing coping strategies with WIS and psychological dysfunction. Three strategies of coping with WIS were measured: distancing coping, reassessing coping and constructive coping. Multiple regression analyses revealed that distancing coping, which reflects strategies to actively damage, disrupt and dissolve a stressful relationship, was related to high levels of depressive symptoms, burnout, general distress and daytime sleepiness. Reassessing coping, which incorporates efforts to patiently wait for an appropriate opportunity to act, such as a change or improvement in the situation, was related to low levels of depressive symptoms, burnout, general distress and daytime sleepiness. Constructive coping was not significantly associated with psychological dysfunction. Implications for workplace stress are discussed.
Prince-Embury, S.; Rooney, J.F.
A study of residents who remained in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) immediately following the restart of the nuclear generating plant revealed that older residents employed a more emotion-focused coping style in the face of this event than did younger residents. Coping style was, however, unrelated to the level of psychological symptoms for these older residents, whereas demographic variables were related. Among younger residents, on the other hand, coping style was related to the level of psychological symptoms, whereas demographic variables were not. Among younger residents, emotion-focused coping was associated with more symptoms and problem-focused coping was associated with fewer symptoms, contradicting previous findings among TMI area residents.
Hultsch, D F; Hammer, M; Small, B J
The predictive relationships among individual differences in self-reported physical health and activity life style and performance on an array of information processing and intellectual ability measures were examined. A sample of 484 men and women aged 55 to 86 years completed a battery of cognitive tasks measuring verbal processing time, working memory, vocabulary, verbal fluency, world knowledge, word recall, and text recall. Hierarchical regression was used to predict performance on these tasks from measures of self-reported physical health, alcohol and tobacco use, and level of participation in everyday activities. The results indicated: (a) individual differences in self-reported health and activity predicted performance on multiple cognitive measures; (b) self-reported health was more predictive of processing resource variables than knowledge-based abilities; (c) interaction effects indicated that participation in cognitively demanding activities was more highly related to performance on some measures for older adults than for middle-aged adults; and (d) age-related differences in performance on multiple measures were attenuated by partialing individual differences in self-reported health and activity.
Eryigit, Suna; Kerpelman, Jennifer
This paper reports on two studies with Turkish young adults that used the Turkish version of the Identity Processing Style Q-Sort (IPSQ). The IPSQ is based on Berzonsky's informational, normative, and diffused identity styles. Participants sort descriptors of the styles into columns ranging from most to least like them. Patterns in Turkish young adults' identity styles were examined in the first study. The construct validity of the IPSQ-Turkish version based on associations between the IPSQ and measures of cultural orientation, self-definitions, self-concept clarity, self-esteem, and coping was tested in the second study. Results of the first study were consistent with the current literature in terms of a negative correlation between informational and diffuse/avoidant styles, and a relatively weaker relationship between informational and normative styles. Support for the construct validity of the Turkish version of the IPSQ was found in the second study, with results consistent with other IPSQ research.
Brown, Gregory K.; And Others
Examined role of pain episodes and active and passive pain coping strategies in predicting depression in 287 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Findings revealed pain, passive coping, and interaction between the 2 accounted for higher depression. Results also indicated that frequent use of passive pain coping strategies in face of high pain…
Martin, Peter; And Others
Compared adults (n=165) in their 60s, 80s, and 100s on personality, life events, and coping. Found personality differences: centenarians scored higher on dominance, suspiciousness, and imagination. Although centenarians scored lower on active behavioral coping than other age groups, they used cognitive strategies when coping with health and family…
Graber, Rebecca; Turner, Rhiannon; Madill, Anna
This is a novel investigation of whether, and how, a single close supportive friendship may facilitate psychological resilience in socio-economically vulnerable British adolescents. A total of 409 adolescents (160 boys, 245 girls, four unknown), aged between 11 and 19 years, completed self-report measures of close friendship quality, psychological resilience, social support, and other resources. Findings revealed a significant positive association between perceived friendship quality and resilience. This relationship was facilitated through inter-related mechanisms of developing a constructive coping style (comprised of support-seeking and active coping), effort, a supportive friendship network, and reduced disengaged and externalising coping. While protective processes were encouragingly significantly present across genders, boys were more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of disengaged and externalizing coping than girls. We suggest that individual close friendships are an important potential protective mechanism accessible to most adolescents. We discuss implications of the resulting Adolescent Friendship and Resilience Model for resilience theories and integration into practice.
Maltby, John; Day, Liza; McCutcheon, Lynn E; Gillett, Raphael; Houran, James; Ashe, Diane D
The adaptational-continuum model of personality and coping suggests a useful context for research areas that emphasize both personality and coping. The present paper used Ferguson's (2001) model integrating personality and coping factors to further conceptualize findings around celebrity worship. Three hundred and seventy-two respondents completed measures of celebrity worship, personality, coping style, general health, stress, positive and negative affect and life satisfaction. Celebrity worship for intense-personal reasons is associated with poorer mental heath and this relationship can be understood within the dimensions of neuroticism and a coping style that suggests disengagement. Such findings suggest the utility of examining the relationship between celebrity worship and mental health within both personality and coping variables, which have practical implications for understanding and addressing mental health problems that may occur as the result of engaging in celebrity worship for intense-personal reasons.
This research reviews the effects of education and schooling activities that are conducted with respect to different learning styles on the success of teaching abstract and tangible concepts of 6th Grade Social Studies, and researches whether the demographic variables (age, gender) of the students had any effect on this success levels. To do so, 2…
Gipple, Deborah Ellen; Lee, Sang Min; Puig, Ana
This study examined the relationship among coping strategies, dissociation, and childhood abuse experiences of female college students. Results provided support for the theoretical links between 3 types of child abuse experience (sexual abuse, physical abuse, and negative home environment) and coping style and dissociation. The study's results add…
Cheng, Paul; Tang, Catherine So-Kum
Coping and correlates of psychological distress of 174 Chinese parents of children with Down's syndrome, language delays, or no disabilities were compared. Down's syndrome parents more frequently used avoidance coping style. No differences were observed between Down's syndrome and language delay parents on psychological distress, optimism,…
Persike, Malte; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge
The ways adolescents develop and use strategies to cope with stress vary according to cultural scripts and values. This cross-sectional study tested the impact of region and gender on adolescents' stress perceptions and coping styles. A total sample of 10,941 adolescents (51.3% female) from 20 countries completed questionnaires on stress and…
Parker, Holly A.; McNally, Richard J.
Research indicates that a repressive coping style is psychologically protective against the stress of trauma, yet it is unclear whether this finding generalizes to suicide bereavement. Thus, we assessed cognitive ability and mental health among individuals who lost a loved one to suicide. The results indicate that repressive coping may be…
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
The present study investigated the interplay between developmental changes in stress and coping during early and late adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, stress perception and coping styles of 200 adolescents in 7 different stressful situations were investigated. Multilevel piecewise latent growth curve models showed that stress perception…
Rovira, Darío Páez; Martínez Sánchez, Francisco; Sevillano Triguero, Verónica; Mendiburo Seguel, Andrés; Campos, Miriam
An expanded Spanish version of the Measure of Affect Regulation Styles (MARS), was applied to episodes of anger and sadness, in a sample of 355 graduate students from Chile, Spain, and Mexico. The study examines the association between affective regulation, adaptation to episodes and dispositional coping and emotional regulation, and psychological well-being. With regard to perceived improvement of adaptive goals, the following adaptive affect regulation strategies were confirmed: Instrumental coping, seeking social support, positive reappraisal, distraction, rumination, self-comfort, self-control, and emotional expression were functional; whereas inhibition and suppression were dysfunctional. Adaptive strategies were positively associated with psychological well-being, reappraisal and humor as a coping strategy. Negative associations were found between adaptive strategies and suppression and alexithymia. Maladaptive strategies show the opposite profile. Confrontation, instrumental coping, social support as well as social isolation were more frequently found in anger, an approach emotion.
Tarango-Hernández, S; Alarcón-Rojo, A D; Robles-Sánchez, M; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Rodríguez-Figueroa, J C
Recently, traditional Mexican Fresco-style cheese production has been increasing, and the volume of cheese whey generated represents a problem. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of Fresco-style cheese wheys and their potential as a source of protein fractions with antioxidant and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities. Three samples from Fresco, Panela, and Ranchero cheeses whey were physicochemically characterized. Water-soluble extracts were fractionated to obtain whey fractions with different molecular weights: 10-5, 5-3, 3-1 and <1 kDa. The results indicated differences in the lactose, protein, ash, and dry matter contents (% wt/wt) in the different Fresco-style cheese wheys. All whey fractions had antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities. The 10-5 kDa whey fraction of Ranchero cheese had the highest Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (0.62 ± 0.00 mM), and the 3-1 kDa Panela and Fresco cheese whey fractions showed the highest ACE-inhibitory activity (0.57 ± 0.02 and 0.59 ± 0.04 μg/mL 50%-inhibitory concentration values, respectively). These results suggest that Fresco-style cheese wheys may be a source of protein fractions with bioactivity, and thus could be useful ingredients in the manufacture of functional foods with increased nutritional value.
Miranda, Dave; Claes, Michel
This study was conducted with 418 French-Canadian adolescents from Montreal (Canada) and had three objectives: (1) to find empirical evidence that music listening in adolescence can lead to peer affiliation based upon music preferences; (2) to find out whether three styles of coping by music listening (original self-report scale: emotion-oriented,…
Sheth, Hetu C.; Ray, Jyotiranjan S.; Bhutani, Rajneesh; Kumar, Alok; Smitha, R. S.
Barren Island (India) is a relatively little studied, little known active volcano in the Andaman Sea, and the northernmost active volcano of the great Indonesian arc. The volcano is built of prehistoric (possibly late Pleistocene) lava flows (dominantly basalt and basaltic andesite, with minor andesite) intercalated with volcaniclastic deposits (tuff breccias, and ash beds deposited by pyroclastic falls and surges), which are exposed along a roughly circular caldera wall. There are indications of a complete phreatomagmatic tephra ring around the exposed base of the volcano. A polygenetic cinder cone has existed at the centre of the caldera and produced basalt-basaltic andesite aa and blocky aa lava flows, as well as tephra, during historic eruptions (1787-1832) and three recent eruptions (1991, 1994-95, 2005-06). The recent aa flows include a toothpaste aa flow, with tilted and overturned crustal slabs carried atop an aa core, as well as locally developed tumuli-like elliptical uplifts having corrugated crusts. Based on various evidence we infer that it belongs to either the 1991 or the 1994-95 eruptions. The volcano has recently (2008) begun yet another eruption, so far only of tephra. We make significantly different interpretations of several features of the volcano than previous workers. This study of the volcanology and eruptive styles of the Barren Island volcano lays the ground for detailed geochemical-isotopic and petrogenetic work, and provides clues to what the volcano can be expected to do in the future.
Chaffin, Mark; And Others
Coping strategies used by 84 sexually abused children ages 7-12 were evaluated along with related symptoms and factors. Avoidance behavior was associated with fewer behavioral problems but greater sexual anxiety. Internalization was associated with increased guilt, and active/social coping was associated with no symptoms or benefits. Expressive…
Pungente, Michael D.; Wasan, Kishor M.; Moffett, Claire
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a relationship existed between student learning styles and their preferences toward the various activities associated with the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) approach in the first-year pharmacy curriculum at the University of British Columbia. These PBL activities comprise group discussions, independent research, in-class critical-thinking and group report writing. In the fall semester of the 2000–2001 academic year, first-year pharmacy students completed Kolb’s Learning Styles Inventory. Student preferences toward the various activities associated with the PBL tutorials were evaluated based upon the results of student surveys. Results from these surveys revealed that Divergers indicated the lowest preference overall for the activities associated with the PBL program in the first-year pharmacy curriculum compared to the other three learning style groups. Convergers showed strong preferences for these activities. While the Convergers and Divergers indicated opposing preferences overall for the activities associated with the PBL, the Assimilators and Accommodators indicated overall positive responses to the PBL activities. These findings may be used in future studies to evaluate whether student preferences for certain learning environments are correlated to their academic success as measured by grades. PMID:24707057
What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The article explored different learning styles and outlined some of the models that can be used to identify them. It discussed the limitations of these models, indicating that although they can be helpful in identifying a student's preferred learning style, this is not 'fixed' and might change over time. Learning is also influenced by other factors, such as culture and age.
Presents an art activity where students create Inuit-style animals. Discusses the Inuit (Eskimo) artform in which the compositions utilize patterning and textures, such as small lines signifying fur. Explains that this project is well suited to a study of animals or to integrate with a social studies unit about Canada. (CMK)
Erwin, Heather E.; Stellino, Megan Babkes; Beets, Michael W.; Beighle, Aaron; Johnson, Christine E.
Obesity levels among American children are increasing at an alarming rate, due in part to a lack of regular physical activity (PA). Physical education (PE) is one way to facilitate student PA. The overarching PA goal for physical educators is 50% PA for students. Self-determination theory suggests that PA levels in PE and a variety of other…
Khusainova, Rezeda M.; Ivutina, Helena P.
The relevance of the study is largely due to changes in the country's education system in recent years, in particular--the transition to a two-tier system of education--undergraduate and graduate--the purpose of which is to improve learning efficiency. One feature of this system is to strengthen the role of independent educational activity of…
Gladding, Gary; Gutmann, Brianne; Schroeder, Noah; Stelzer, Timothy
This paper is part of a series of studies to improve the efficacy of online physics homework activities by integrating narrated animated solutions with mastery inspired exercises. In a clinical study using first- and second-year university students, the mastery group attempted question sets in four levels, with animated solutions between each…
Patterson, Joan M.; McCubbin, Hamilton I.
Examined the relationship of gender-role orientation and specific behavioral coping responses of wives (N=82) experiencing a long-term separation from their military spouses. Results showed that an androgynous gender-role orientation was significantly associated with four of the five coping patterns identified as helpful to wives managing a…
Romero, Daniel H; Riggs, Shelley A; Ruggero, Camilo
With rising numbers of student veterans on today's college campuses, multicultural competence in college counseling centers increasingly includes an understanding of military culture and its relation to the psychological health and functioning of student veterans. Research on interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with college student veterans' mental health is scarce. The current study examines the contributions of coping style and family social support on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in a student veteran sample. We also tested the moderating role of family social support in the relationship between coping style and psychological symptoms. Data from 136 student veterans were analyzed by using path analysis. Results revealed that avoidant coping and family social support significantly predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms. Avoidant coping also significantly predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. In addition, findings indicated that family social support moderated the relationship between problem-focused coping and depression, as well as between avoidant coping and symptoms of anxiety and depression but not posttraumatic stress. Implications of results for college and university counselors are discussed.
Gladding, Gary; Gutmann, Brianne; Schroeder, Noah; Stelzer, Timothy
This paper is part of a series of studies to improve the efficacy of online physics homework activities by integrating narrated animated solutions with mastery inspired exercises. In a clinical study using first- and second-year university students, the mastery group attempted question sets in four levels, with animated solutions between each attempt, until mastery was achieved on each level. This combined elements of formative assessment, the worked example effect, and mastery learning. The homework group attempted questions with immediate feedback and unlimited tries. The two groups took a similar amount of time to complete the activity. The mastery group significantly outperformed the homework group on a free response post-test that required students to show their work in solving near and far transfer problems.
Amar, Angela Frederick; Alexy, Eileen M
Stalking is a serious public health and societal concern affecting the college population. Although numerous studies illustrate the physical and mental effects of stalking, literature addressing how individuals cope with this phenomenon is lacking. The purpose of this study was to describe stalking experiences of college students and the coping strategies used to manage stalking. In this descriptive study, 262 college students completed an online survey that included a stalking questionnaire and coping survey. Slightly more than one-fourth of the sample (n = 69) reported experiencing stalking victimization. Results indicated that the most common coping strategies employed were: ignoring the problem, minimizing the problem, distancing, detaching or depersonalizing, using verbal escape tactics, attempting to end the relationship, controlling the interaction, and restricting accessibility. Implications for refining current practice and research on coping strategies and stalking are suggested.
Monnet, Christophe; Dugat-Bony, Eric; Swennen, Dominique; Beckerich, Jean-Marie; Irlinger, Françoise; Fraud, Sébastien; Bonnarme, Pascal
The microbial communities in cheeses are composed of varying bacteria, yeasts, and molds, which contribute to the development of their typical sensory properties. In situ studies are needed to better understand their growth and activity during cheese ripening. Our objective was to investigate the activity of the microorganisms used for manufacturing a surface-ripened cheese by means of metatranscriptomic analysis. The cheeses were produced using two lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus), one ripening bacterium (Brevibacterium aurantiacum), and two yeasts (Debaryomyces hansenii and Geotrichum candidum). RNA was extracted from the cheese rinds and, after depletion of most ribosomal RNA, sequencing was performed using a short-read sequencing technology that generated ~75 million reads per sample. Except for B. aurantiacum, which failed to grow in the cheeses, a large number of CDS reads were generated for the inoculated species, making it possible to investigate their individual transcriptome over time. From day 5 to 35, G. candidum accounted for the largest proportion of CDS reads, suggesting that this species was the most active. Only minor changes occurred in the transcriptomes of the lactic acid bacteria. For the two yeasts, we compared the expression of genes involved in the catabolism of lactose, galactose, lactate, amino acids, and free fatty acids. During ripening, genes involved in ammonia assimilation and galactose catabolism were down-regulated in the two species. Genes involved in amino acid catabolism were up-regulated in G. candidum from day 14 to day 35, whereas in D. hansenii, they were up-regulated mainly at day 35, suggesting that this species catabolized the cheese amino acids later. In addition, after 35 days of ripening, there was a down-regulation of genes involved in the electron transport chain, suggesting a lower cellular activity. The present study has exemplified how
Monnet, Christophe; Dugat-Bony, Eric; Swennen, Dominique; Beckerich, Jean-Marie; Irlinger, Françoise; Fraud, Sébastien; Bonnarme, Pascal
The microbial communities in cheeses are composed of varying bacteria, yeasts, and molds, which contribute to the development of their typical sensory properties. In situ studies are needed to better understand their growth and activity during cheese ripening. Our objective was to investigate the activity of the microorganisms used for manufacturing a surface-ripened cheese by means of metatranscriptomic analysis. The cheeses were produced using two lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus), one ripening bacterium (Brevibacterium aurantiacum), and two yeasts (Debaryomyces hansenii and Geotrichum candidum). RNA was extracted from the cheese rinds and, after depletion of most ribosomal RNA, sequencing was performed using a short-read sequencing technology that generated ~75 million reads per sample. Except for B. aurantiacum, which failed to grow in the cheeses, a large number of CDS reads were generated for the inoculated species, making it possible to investigate their individual transcriptome over time. From day 5 to 35, G. candidum accounted for the largest proportion of CDS reads, suggesting that this species was the most active. Only minor changes occurred in the transcriptomes of the lactic acid bacteria. For the two yeasts, we compared the expression of genes involved in the catabolism of lactose, galactose, lactate, amino acids, and free fatty acids. During ripening, genes involved in ammonia assimilation and galactose catabolism were down-regulated in the two species. Genes involved in amino acid catabolism were up-regulated in G. candidum from day 14 to day 35, whereas in D. hansenii, they were up-regulated mainly at day 35, suggesting that this species catabolized the cheese amino acids later. In addition, after 35 days of ripening, there was a down-regulation of genes involved in the electron transport chain, suggesting a lower cellular activity. The present study has exemplified how
Berings, Marjolein G. M. C.; Poell, Rob F.; Simons, P. Robert-Jan
The broad aims of this study are to gain insight into employees' on-the-job learning activities to help them improve their on-the-job learning. The authors define on-the-job learning styles and operationalize the concept to include both mental and overt learning styles and both interpersonal and intrapersonal learning styles. Organizations and…
Crown, David A.; Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Mest, Scott C.
The east rim of the Hellas basin and the surrounding highlands comprise a geologically significant region for evaluating volatile abundance, volatile distribution and cycling, and potential changes in Martian environmental conditions. This region of the Martian surface exhibits landforms shaped by a diversity of geologic processes and has a well-preserved geologic record, with exposures of Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian units, as well as spans a wide range in both latitude and elevation due to the magnitude of Hellas basin. In addition, geologically contemporaneous volcanism and volatile-driven activity in the circum-Hellas highlands provide important ingredients for creating habitats for potential Martian life.
Pashler, Harold; McDaniel, Mark; Rohrer, Doug; Bjork, Robert
The term "learning styles" refers to the concept that individuals differ in regard to what mode of instruction or study is most effective for them. Proponents of learning-style assessment contend that optimal instruction requires diagnosing individuals' learning style and tailoring instruction accordingly. Assessments of learning style typically ask people to evaluate what sort of information presentation they prefer (e.g., words versus pictures versus speech) and/or what kind of mental activity they find most engaging or congenial (e.g., analysis versus listening), although assessment instruments are extremely diverse. The most common-but not the only-hypothesis about the instructional relevance of learning styles is the meshing hypothesis, according to which instruction is best provided in a format that matches the preferences of the learner (e.g., for a "visual learner," emphasizing visual presentation of information). The learning-styles view has acquired great influence within the education field, and is frequently encountered at levels ranging from kindergarten to graduate school. There is a thriving industry devoted to publishing learning-styles tests and guidebooks for teachers, and many organizations offer professional development workshops for teachers and educators built around the concept of learning styles. The authors of the present review were charged with determining whether these practices are supported by scientific evidence. We concluded that any credible validation of learning-styles-based instruction requires robust documentation of a very particular type of experimental finding with several necessary criteria. First, students must be divided into groups on the basis of their learning styles, and then students from each group must be randomly assigned to receive one of multiple instructional methods. Next, students must then sit for a final test that is the same for all students. Finally, in order to demonstrate that optimal learning requires
Crown, David A.; Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Mest, Scott C.; Teneva, Lida T.
Hellas basin, the largest well-preserved impact structure on the Martian surface, is Mars deepest depositional sink and has long been recognized as a source for global dust storms. The basin and surrounding highlands span a wide range in latitude and elevation, exhibit landforms shaped by a diversity of geologic processes, and preserve exposures of Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian units. Geologically contemporaneous volcanism and volatile-driven activity in the circum-Hellas highlands provide resources for potential Martian life. Hellas is a geologically significant region for evaluating volatile abundance, distribution and cycling and changes in surface conditions on Mars. Current work integrates geologic studies of the basin floor and east rim using Viking Orbiter, Mars Global Surveyor, and Mars Odyssey datasets to provide a synthesis of the history of volatiles in the region.
Alvarez, Alvin N; Juang, Linda P
Although the literature on Asian Americans and racism has been emerging, few studies have examined how coping influences one's encounters with racism. To advance the literature, the present study focused on the psychological impact of Filipino Americans' experiences with racism and the role of coping as a mediator using a community-based sample of adults (N = 199). Two multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediating effects of active, avoidance, support-seeking, and forbearance coping on the relationship between perceived racism and psychological distress and self-esteem, respectively. Separate analyses were also conducted for men and women given differences in coping utilization. For men, a bootstrap procedure indicated that active, support-seeking, and avoidance coping were mediators of the relationship between perceived racism and psychological distress. Active coping was negatively associated with psychological distress, whereas both support seeking and avoidance were positively associated with psychological distress. A second bootstrap procedure for men indicated that active and avoidance coping mediated the relationship between perceived racism and self-esteem such that active coping was positively associated with self-esteem, and avoidance was negatively associated with self-esteem. For women, only avoidance coping had a significant mediating effect that was associated with elevations in psychological distress and decreases in self-esteem. The results highlight the importance of examining the efficacy of specific coping responses to racism and the need to differentiate between the experiences of men and women.
Orsini, Mara R. C. A.; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M.
The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts. PMID:27007646
Herres, Joanna; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley
The purpose of the study was to identify groups of adolescents based on their reported use of different coping strategies and compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms across the groups. Tenth and eleventh grade public school students (N = 982; 51% girls; 66% Caucasian; M age =16.04, SD = .73) completed a battery of self-report measures that assessed their use of different coping strategies, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Latent profile analysis (LPA) classified the participants into four distinct groups based on their responses on subscales of the COPE inventory (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989). Groups differed in amount of coping with participants in each group showing relative preference for engaging in certain strategies over others. Disengaged copers reported the lowest amounts of coping with a preference for avoidance strategies. Independent copers reported moderate levels of coping with relatively less use of support-seeking. Social support-seeking copers and active copers reported the highest levels of coping with a particular preference for support-seeking strategies. The independent copers reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms compared to the three other groups. The Social Support Seeking and Active Coping Groups reported the highest levels of anxiety. Although distinct coping profiles were observed, findings showed that adolescents between the ages of 14 and 16 engage in multiple coping strategies and are more likely to vary in their amount of coping than in their use of specific strategies. PMID:26275359
Skinner, Ellen A; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J
Research on coping during childhood and adolescence is distinguished by its focus on how children deal with actual stressors in real-life contexts. Despite burgeoning literatures within age groups, studies on developmental differences and changes have proven difficult to integrate. Two recent advances promise progress toward a developmental framework. First, dual-process models that conceptualize coping as "regulation under stress" establish links to the development of emotional, attentional, and behavioral self-regulation and suggest constitutional underpinnings and social factors that shape coping development. Second, analyses of the functions of higher-order coping families allow identification of corresponding lower-order ways of coping that, despite their differences, are developmentally graded members of the same family. This emerging framework was used to integrate 44 studies reporting age differences or changes in coping from infancy through adolescence. Together, these advances outline a systems perspective in which, as regulatory subsystems are integrated, general mechanisms of coping accumulate developmentally, suggesting multiple directions for future research.
Lyon, B G; Davis, C E; Windham, W R; Lyon, C E
The U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration have issued temperature requirements to help consumers cook beef patty products that are free of pathogens. Verification of end-point temperature (EPT) is needed in cooked meat products due to concerns over outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Acid phosphatase (ACP) activity was studied as a potential method for determination of EPT in ground beef patties cooked nonfrozen, patties frozen 7 days and thawed at room temperature 4 h in a refrigerator or by microwave, and patties made from ground beef frozen in store packages, then thawed in a refrigerator overnight. Pressed-out meat juices were analyzed from patties (n = 314) cooked to 57.2 degrees C (135 degrees F). 65.6 degrees C (150 degrees F), 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F), and 79.4 degrees C (175 degrees F) target EPTs. Expressed meat juice and internal meat patty color decreased in redness as EPT increased. Freezing whole packs with slow refrigerator or room temperature thawing caused significantly greater loss of redness in expressed cooked meat juice than did other handling methods. Log10 ACP had a significant linear (R2 = 0.99) response to EPT. Results show that the 3- to 5-min ACP test could be used to verify EPT in griddle-cooked hamburger patties.
Hartley, Tara A.; Violanti, John M.; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.
Policing is a stressful occupation and working in this environment may make officers more vulnerable to adverse psychological and physiological outcomes. The impact of prior military experience on work stress and coping strategies has not been well-studied in police. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine differences in levels of police-related stress and coping in officers with and without military experience. Participants were 452 police officers from the Buffalo Cardio-metabolic Occupational Police Stress Study. Officers were categorized into three groups: non-military (n=334), non-combat military (n=84), and military with combat (n=34). Age, sex and education adjusted levels of psychological stress and coping measures were compared across the three groups using ANCOVA. P-values were derived from post-hoc comparisons. Non-military police officers had significantly higher stress levels for physically and psychological threatening events compared to non-combat officers (p=0.019). Non-military officers also reported experiencing significantly more organizational stressors and physically and psychologically threatening events in the past year than combat and non-combat officers (p<0.05). Combat officers had significantly lower levels of planning and active coping styles compared to non-combat officers (p=0.026, p=0.032, respectively) and non-military officers (p=0.010, p=0.005, respectively). In summary, police officers without military experience reported experiencing more organizational and life-threatening events than officers who served in the military. Yet combat officers were less likely to utilize positive coping than non-combat and non-military officers. These findings demonstrate the potential positive influence of military experience on police stress. Further research is needed as military veterans return to police work. PMID:24707586
Grebniak, N P; Grebniak, V P; Mashinistov, V V
It is established that the increase of morbidity with highly active chronic development is an integral characteristic of students' health. The unfavorable tendencies in health conditions are conditioned by the improper life-style. The specificity of students' life-style relates to the professional targeting of the education and gender trends. The conceptual model of healthy life-style formation includes such blocks as the parameters of life-style, the risk factors, the deviations in health conditions, the activities in life-style enhancement.
Muller, L; Spitz, E
This Article aims to introduce the translation and the validation of a multidimensional measure of coping strategies: the Brief COPE, in a French population. The coping concept comes from psychological studies that were conducted on stress. In the conceptual analysis of stress by Lazarus and Folkman, coping works with two cognitive appraisals performed by the person concerning the perception of a threatening situation and his or her available resources to deal with it. Coping is defined as "cognitive and behavioural efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the internal and/or external demands that are created by the stressful transaction". The Brief COPE is the abridged version of the COPE inventory and presents fourteen scales all assessing different coping dimensions: 1) active coping, 2) planning, 3) using instrumental support, 4) using emotional support, 5) venting, 6) behavioural disengagement, 7) self-distraction, 8) self-blame, 9) positive reframing, 10) humor, 11) denial, 12) acceptance, 13) religion, and 14) substance use. Each scale contains two items (28 altogether). This inventory has the advantage of being built from acknowledged theoretical models (Lazarus' transactional model of stress, 1984; behavioral self-regulation model, Carver and Scheier, 1981, 1998). It can be used to assess trait coping (the usual way people cope with stress in everyday life) and state coping (the particular way people cope with a specific stressful situation). As is the COPE inventory, the Brief COPE is a measure used for many health-relevant studies: drugs addiction, ageing, breast cancer, depression, AIDS. Both measures are widely used in Anglophone countries and translated in many Languages. Today, the COPE inventory has been validated among Estonian, Croatian, Chinese, and Italian populations and the Brief COPE is also validated among Spanish people. Thus, the worldwide use of this coping inventory should allow a broad comparison of medical and psychological research for
Sirois, Fuschia M; Gick, Mary L
Guided by pain-related attachment models and coping theory, we used structural equation modeling to test an appraisal-based coping model of how insecure attachment was linked to arthritis adjustment in a sample of 365 people with arthritis. The structural equation modeling analyses revealed indirect and direct associations of anxious and avoidant attachment with greater appraisals of disease-related threat, less perceived social support to deal with this threat, and less coping efficacy. There was evidence of reappraisal processes for avoidant but not anxious attachment. Findings highlight the importance of considering attachment style when assessing how people cope with the daily challenges of arthritis.
Smith, Maureen C; Dust, Margaret C
This study explored the correlates of self-reported coping strategies from both an appraisal (e.g., severity, impact, desirability of the event, as well as perceived stress) and a dispositional (e.g., preferred/typical coping style, self-concept clarity, self-esteem, emotion regulation, problem-solving style, anxiety) perspective. Participants were 211 African American undergraduate and graduate students from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. The results indicated that dispositional traits (especially problem-solving style) are associated uniquely with preferred/typical coping styles. The results also provided modest evidence that dispositional traits and subjects' appraisals (e.g., challenge, harm/threat, impact) are predictive of subjects' coping strategies in specific ongoing stressful situations. The general findings from this study appear to mirror research on Caucasian subjects.
Khan, Aqeel; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Ahmad, Roslee; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif; Mahalle, Salwa
This study examined whether productive coping styles and social support were significant mediators of the relationship between academic stress and suicidal ideation. The survey was performed on a sample of 300 Malaysian and 300 Indian college students. The participants completed psychological assessments of productive coping styles, social support, academic stress, and suicidal ideation. Significant cultural and demographic differences emerged. Indian students reported higher suicidal ideation and academic stress than did Malaysian students, and Malaysian students received more social support and had better problem-solving coping styles than did Indian students. Overall, students who were male, non-religious, and from low-income families reported more academic stress and more suicidal ideation. Productive coping styles and overall social support strongly affected the relationship between academic stress and suicidal ideation among both countries' participants.
Examines housing strategies several college facilities managers used to cope with the problem of overcrowded residence halls. Also highlighted are tips to help facilities managers determine if their solution is to build additional housing. (GR)
Jones, Jami I.
Considers the role of school library media specialists in helping teens cope with developmental and emotional challenges. Discusses resiliency research, and opportunities to develop programs and services especially for middle school and high school at-risk teens. (LRW)
Bendersky, Nora; And Others
Describes a workshop for nine South American students at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The two-day session focussed on exploring coping behaviors that could help students adjust to transitions. (JAC)
Anderson, Ruth; Hanrahan, Stephanie J
This study investigated the relationships between the type of pain experienced (performance pain and injury pain), the cognitive appraisal of pain and pain coping styles in dancers. Fifty-one professional ballet and contemporary dancers (17 males and 34 females), with the mean age of 25.9 years, completed a general pain questionnaire, the Pain Appraisal Inventory, the Survey of Pain Attitudes Control Subscale, and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Multivariate analyses of variance indicated that both the cognitive appraisal of the pain and pain coping styles did not differ according to the type of pain experienced or the pain severity. However, it was found that dancers with performance pain of either low or high severity were more likely to dance in pain than dancers experiencing injury pain. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the appraisal of pain as threatening was predictive of the use of avoidance and catastrophizing pain coping styles. Overall, results indicated that dancers may not differentiate between performance pain and injury pain, or modify their appraisal and coping strategies according to the characteristics of the pain experienced. The study highlighted an opportunity for increased education for dancers in recognizing the difference between pain considered to be a routine aspect of training and pain which is a signal of serious injury.
Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women
Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett
The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…
Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J. A.; Martin, Rod A.
Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria. PMID:27547253
Parker, Mitchum; Curtner-Smith, Mathew
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of one component of physical education teacher education on preservice teachers' (PTs) use of Mosston's (1981) spectrum of teaching styles within an early field experience (EFE). Participants were two PTs who were trained to use the spectrum within a methods course and team/turn-taught…
Shankland, Rebecca; Franca, Lionel Riou; Genolini, Christophe M.; Guelfi, Julien-Daniel; Ionescu, Serban
Coping styles are generally considered to be environmentally driven. Up to now, research has mainly focused on family influences. However, some studies underline the effect of educational settings on the development of problem-focused coping strategies. Consistently with previous reports on the enhancement of autonomy and problem-solving in…
Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Vasquez, Elizabeth; Echeverria, Sandra E.
This study tested a theoretical model concerning religious, passive, and active coping; pain; and psychological adjustment among a sample of 200 Latinos with arthritis. Respondents reported using high levels of religious coping. A path analysis indicated that religious coping was correlated with active but not with passive coping. Religious coping…
Pozzi, Gino; Frustaci, Alessandra; Tedeschi, Daniela; Solaroli, Silvia; Grandinetti, Paolo; Di Nicola, Marco; Janiri, Luigi
Background The relationship between coping styles and mental disorders has received considerable attention and instruments have been developed to assess coping strategies. The measurement by means of category systems has been criticized and a functional hierarchy of action types linked to the adaptive processes is preferred. We aimed to determine which factors may exist within the Brief-COPE (Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced – COPE – Inventory) in an Italian sample of patients with anxiety disorders; and if these factors correlate with the severity of psychopathology or with other characteristics. Methods A total sample of 148 patients was recruited. The Brief-COPE inventory, the Symptom Check List 90-Revised, the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, the Zung Anxiety Status Inventory and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale were administered. Results Factor analysis of the Brief-COPE yielded nine factors accounting for 65.48% of the variance. Patients scored higher on Searching Support, followed by Acceptance, Changing Perspective, and Problem Solving. Associations between measures of psychopathology and factors of coping strategies, mostly Searching support and Avoidance, were found. Conclusions Data of the present study support a nine-factor structure of the Brief-COPE that includes five broad dimensions of coping. Psychopathology was mostly related to Searching support and Avoidance factors, showing that these strategies may reflect ineffective ways of coping; Problem solving and Changing perspective could be a valid approach to moderate anxiety/depression symptoms and psychopathology in general. PMID:26356192
NASA Johnson Style is a volunteer outreach video project created by the students of NASA's Johnson Space Center. It was created as an educational parody of Psy's Gangnam Style. The lyrics and scene...
Jensen, Mark P.; Karoly, Paul
Examined adaptation to chronic pain in 118 patients. Control appraisals, ignoring pain, using coping self-statements, and increasing activities were positively related to psychological functioning. Control appraisals, diverting attention, ignoring pain, and using coping self-statements were positively related to activity level for patients…
Peronace, Edoardo; Della Seta, Marta; Fredi, Paola; Galli, Paolo; Giaccio, Biagio; Messina, Paolo; Troiani, Francesco
The western side of Southern Calabria is the epicentral region of the strongest earthquakes of Italy. These are mainly generated by extensional faults which are still poorly investigated and/or parameterized. In this study, we explore the potential of the combined analysis of geomorphic markers, stream network morphometry and paleosimological investigations, aimed at identifying and time-constraining the surface effects of the Calabrian seismogenic faults. In this perspective, we presents results from i) plano-altimetric analysis of geomorphic markers related to active tectonics (such as marine and fluvial terraces), ii) paleoseismological investigations, and iii) time-dependent river basin and long-profile metrics of the Cittanova Fault (CF). The CF, responsible for the catastrophic Mw 7.0 earthquake of 5 February 1783, is a N220° striking, 30 km-long normal fault that downthrows the crystalline-metamorphic basement of the Aspromonte massif (~1000 m asl) below the Gioia Tauro Plain, to elevations of ~500-800 m bsl. Radiocarbon dating allowed us to ascribe the depostion of a major terraced alluvial fan (Cittanova-Taurianova terrace, TAC) to the early Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and to date the avulsion of the depositional top surface of TAC to 28 ka. As we have found remnants of the TAC also in the CF footwall offset by 12-17 m, we estimate a vertical slip rate of 0.6 ± 0.1 mm/yr for the past 28 ka. Paleoseismological data across the fault scarp evidenced at least three surface ruptures associated to ~Mw 7.0 paleoearthquakes prior to the 1783 event. The recurrence time (~3.2 kyr) is rather longer than other Apennine normal faults (0.3-2.4 kyr), whereas it is consistent with the low slip rate of CF for the late Upper Pleistocene (0.6 mm/yr). On a longer time scale, the spatial configuration of river basin morphometry evidenced the morphodynamic rensponse to the higher slip in the central sector of CF. Furthermore, long-profile metrics, and in particular the spatial
Lara, M. Dolores; Bermudez, Jose; Perez-Garcia, Ana M.
Introduction: Adolescence is a period when at-risk health behaviors often begin, such as tobacco and alcohol use; thus, it is a critical period for implementing preventive strategies. Method: In this context, 106 adolescents took part in this research (54 females and 52 males; mean age for both groups = 14.10). The main objectives were to first…
Kelley, Melissa M.; Chan, Keith T.
Research has examined the relationship of styles of attachment to others and meaning with grief and the stress-related growth process. Less has been written on styles of attachment to God and patterns of religious coping and how these constructs may impact adjustment in persons dealing with loss. This study examines the roles of attachment to God,…
Villa, Valentina; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Pagnini, Francesco; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Cesa, Gian Luca; Molinari, Enrico
The purpose of this explorative research was to examine how the COPE (Coping Orientation to Problem Experienced Inventory), an established instrument for measuring coping styles, and EDI-2 (Eating Disorder Inventory-2), a widely used questionnaire for assessing psychological and behavioural features of eating disorders (ED), discriminate among healthy individuals, inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and inpatients with bulimia nervosa (BN). A discriminant analysis approach was used. Results showed that coping styles such as positive attitude, planning and social support are even more discriminative variables than eating disorder features. Implications for further studies are discussed.
Trouillet, Raphael; Doan-Van-Hay, Loane-Martine; Launay, Michel; Martin, Sophie
To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data…
Mucowski, Richard; Hayden, Robert R.
When children are raised in an environment where alcoholism is prominent, certain dysfunctional responses are learned as a way to cope with the challenge of that environment. This study was conducted to examine the learning styles of adult children of alcoholics. Subjects were college freshmen and self-identified adult children of alcoholics…
... Center > Coping With Aging and Amputation Coping With Aging and Amputation Web Development February 15, 2015 Senior ... Though we don’t have much control over aging, we do have some power over the way ...
... With Fear of Recurrence Request Permissions Coping With Fear of Recurrence Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... affects your life. Tips for coping with the fear of recurrence Living with uncertainty is never easy. ...
Lidstone, Sheila S.
Describes a Texas elementary school's efforts to cope with the special needs of Kenneth, a fourth grader slowly dying of kidney cancer. Besides learning their subjects like other students, Kenneth's classmates learned how to care. Every student volunteered to be Kenneth's assistant and was enriched by the boy's positive attitude and determination…
Papava, Ion; Oancea, Cristian; Enatescu, Virgil Radu; Bredicean, Ana Cristina; Dehelean, Liana; Romosan, Radu Stefan; Timar, Bogdan
Background and objectives Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most debilitating somatic diseases, having anxiety and depression frequently as comorbidities. The coping style, the way in which the subject manages to control the difficult and stressful situations of life, can influence its evolution and also the existence of the comorbidities. In this study, coping styles in a group of subjects with COPD and their association with the intensity of depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as medical determinants were identified. Materials and methods In this cross-sectional study, 28 male patients with COPD risk class D were enrolled. The patients performed spirometry tests, Borg scale, 6-minute walking test, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and COPE Inventory were recorded. Results According to their higher coping subscale score, the depression score was the highest in patients with avoidance-type coping and the lowest in patients with problem-focused coping (11.0 vs 5.6; P=0.042), respectively, patients with social support-focused coping having the highest anxiety score in contrast to patients with emotion-focused coping, which had the lowest anxiety score (11.6 vs 5.0; P=0.006). Regarding respiratory parameters, significant differences were present for the variation of the medians between the four groups only for forced vital capacity (FVC%) (the lowest FVC% was in patients with predominant social support-focused coping and the highest in patients with problem-focused coping) and 6-minute walking test (%) (the lowest score for patients with social support-focused coping and the highest value in patients with avoidance-type coping). Problem-coping score was significantly and positively associated with FVC% (Spearman’s r=0.400; P=0.035), emotion-focused coping score was significantly and positively associated with FVC% (Spearman’s r=0.395; P=0.038), and social support-focused coping score was negatively and significantly correlated
Raftery-Helmer, Jacquelyn N.; Grolnick, Wendy S.
There is little consensus on how to conceptualize coping after perceived failure and less is known about the contextual resources that may support or undermine the use of specific coping strategies. This study examined parenting in relation to coping using the framework of self-determination theory and examined the motivational processes through…
Perez, Lissette M.
Children who live with chronic illness are confronted with challenges that frequently force them to cope in myriad ways. The ways in which children face chronic illness are summarized in this literature review. Also covered, are how the effects of family can influence coping strategies and how family members, especially parents, cope with their…
Gil, Karen M.; And Others
Examined pain coping strategies in 79 adult sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. Results revealed that coping strategies factors were important predictors of pain and adjustment. Subjects high on Negative Thinking and Passive Adherence had more severe pain, were less active and more distressed, and used more health services. Individuals high on…
SPAULDING, ROBERT L.
THIS BOOKLET INTRODUCES TWO MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS FOCUSING ON CLASS MANAGEMENT. THE COPING ANALYSIS SCHEDULE FOR EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS PERMITS THE CODIFICATION OF ALL OPERANT BEHAVIOR OBSERVED IN THE CLASSROOM, INTO ONE OF THIRTEEN CATEGORIES. ALL BUT ONE OF THE THIRTEEN CATEGORIES ARE DESIGNED TO CHARACTERIZE THE CHILD'S ECONOMY WITH THE…
Hoying, Jacqueline; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek
Approximately one in three preadolescents (34%) is obese/overweight and one in four (25%) experience a mental health issue. Urban youth suffer from higher rates of these problems, and at earlier ages than their peers. This study's purpose was to determine feasibility/acceptability and preliminary effects of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for…
Baker, James R; Moore, Susan M
A review of blog literature suggests that blogs may have many social and emotional benefits. In particular, there is the suggestion that blogging may have benefits in the forms of coping, insight and growth, catharsis, as a free space to communicate, through feedback, through recognition, and in social support. However, while there have been numerous studies on the potential motivations for and effects of blogging, little quantitative research has been conducted on defining the manner in which one experiences blogging. Thus rather than focusing on motivation for blogging, the present study examined the way in which bloggers perceived and experienced their activity, that is, their blogging style. A 16-item Personal Blogging Style Scale (PBSS) was created after a factor analysis of 25 sample items. Participants were 182 experienced bloggers. The PBSS classifies user experiences by four independent and unique subscales: Therapeutic Blogging, Self-Censoring Blogging, Connected Blogging, and Substitution Blogging. Reliability and validity evidence were presented for the subscales of the measure.
Joseph, Justine; Kuo, Ben C. H.
On the basis of a cultural coping framework, the present study examined coping responses to racial discrimination among 190 Black Canadians. The study assessed the respondents' coping with both general (i.e., problem- and emotion-focused coping) and Africultural coping strategies (i.e., spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping)…
Andronico, Daniele; Cioni, Raffaello
Intense explosive activity occurred repeatedly at Vesuvius during the nearly 1,600-year period between the two Plinian eruptions of Avellino (3.5 ka) and Pompeii (79 A.D.). By correlating stratigraphic sections from more than 40 sites around the volcano, we identify the deposits of six main eruptions (AP1-AP6) and of some minor intervening events. Several deposits can be traced up to 20 km from the vent. Their stratigraphic and dispersal features suggest the prevalence of two main contrasting eruptive styles, each involving a complex relationship between magmatic and phreatomagmatic phases. The two main eruption styles are (1) sub-Plinian to phreato-Plinian events (AP1 and AP2 members), where deposits consist of pumice and scoria fall layers alternating with fine-grained, vesiculated, accretionary lapilli-bearing ashes; and (2) mixed, violent Strombolian to Vulcanian events (AP3-AP6 members), which deposited a complex sequence of fallout, massive to thinly stratified, scoria-bearing lapilli layers and fine ash beds. Morphology and density variations of the juvenile fragments confirm the important role played by magma-water interaction in the eruptive dynamics. The mean composition of the ejected material changes with time, and shows a strong correlation with vent position and eruption style. The ranges of intensity and magnitude of these events, derived by estimations of peak column height and volume of the ejecta, are significantly smaller than the values for the better known Plinian and sub-Plinian eruptions of Vesuvius, enlarging the spectrum of the possible eruptive scenarios at Vesuvius, useful in the assessment of its potential hazard.
Taddei, Maria Letizia; Giannoni, Elisa; Laurenzana, Anna; Biagioni, Alessio; Chillà, Anastasia; Chiarugi, Paola; Fibbi, Gabriella; Rosso1, Mario Del
The receptor for the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR) is up-regulated in malignant tumors. Historically the function of uPAR in cancer cell invasion is strictly related to its property to promote uPA-dependent proteolysis of extracellular matrix and to open a path to malignant cells. These features are typical of mesenchymal motility. Here we show that the full-length form of uPAR is required when prostate and melanoma cancer cells convert their migration style from the “path generating” mesenchymal to the “path finding” amoeboid one, thus conferring a plasticity to tumor cell invasiveness across three-dimensional matrices. Indeed, in response to a protease inhibitors-rich milieu, prostate and melanoma cells activated an amoeboid invasion program connoted by retraction of cell protrusions, RhoA-mediated rounding of the cell body, formation of a cortical ring of actin and a reduction of Rac-1 activation. While the mesenchymal movement was reduced upon silencing of uPAR expression, the amoeboid one was almost completely abolished, in parallel with a deregulation of small Rho-GTPases activity. In melanoma and prostate cancer cells we have shown uPAR colocalization with β1/β3 integrins and actin cytoskeleton, as well integrins-actin co-localization under both mesenchymal and amoeboid conditions. Such co-localizations were lost upon treatment of cells with a peptide that inhibits uPAR-integrin interactions. Similarly to uPAR silencing, the peptide reduced mesenchymal invasion and almost abolished the amoeboid one. These results indicate that full-length uPAR bridges the mesenchymal and amoeboid style of movement by an inward-oriented activity based on its property to promote integrin-actin interactions and the following cytoskeleton assembly. PMID:24681666
Lengua, Liliana J.; Long, Anna C.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.
Background Appraisal and coping following a disaster are important factors in children’s post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. However, little is known about predictors of disaster coping responses. This study examined stress-load, appraisals and coping styles measured prior to the September 11 terrorist attacks as predictors of 9/11-specific appraisals, coping and PTS. Methods A community sample of children and parents (N = 143) participating in an ongoing study were interviewed by phone approximately 1 month following 9/11. Results Pre-attack stress-load, appraisal and coping styles predicted children’s 9/11-specific appraisals, coping, and PTS. 9/11-specific threat appraisals and avoidant coping predicted higher PTS and mediated the effects of pre-attack stress-load and threat appraisal. Conclusions Pre-disaster stress-load, appraisal and coping styles predict disaster-specific appraisal and coping, which in turn, contribute to PTS. Coping interventions might mitigate PTS symptoms following a disaster. PMID:17176377
Ross, Hildy; Taylor, Heather
Observation of 18 three-year-old boys revealed that they reacted more positively to both of their parents when their play style was more physical and active, resembling the typical paternal style. (Author/BJV)
Background Compulsive buying has become a serious problem affecting a growing number of people in contemporary consumer societies. Nevertheless, research examining its prevalence in representative samples from the general population is still scarce and mainly focused on the exploration of sociodemographic factors, neglecting other aspects like psychological distress and coping styles. Therefore, this study intends to contribute to the cumulative knowledge by assessing compulsive buying prevalence in a representative sample from the general population in the region of Galicia, in Spain. Sociodemographic determinants, psychological symptoms, and coping strategies are also analyzed to clarify their role in this phenomenon. Methods A random routes procedure was employed in the recruitment of the sample which was comprised of 2159 participants who were classified as either compulsive buyers or non-compulsive buyers. Both groups were compared regarding sociodemographic determinants, symptoms, and coping strategies through chi-square tests or analyses of variance. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine which of these determinants might play a part in the make up of a risk profile for compulsive buying. Results Estimated prevalence of compulsive buying was 7.1%. Compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers differed significantly in sex and age, with women and younger people showing a higher propensity for this phenomenon. Individuals with compulsive buying presented significantly higher scores on all the psychological symptoms considered. They also employed passive-avoidance coping strategies much more frequently and active strategies of problem solving and cognitive restructuring much less frequently. The logistic regression analysis results confirmed that being female, experiencing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and obsession-compulsion, and employing the passive-avoidance coping strategies of problem avoidance, wishful thinking, and self
Myers, Lynn B.; Derakshan, Nazanin
The constructs of repressive coping and alexithymia are both related to impaired emotion processing, yet individuals with a repressive coping style (repressors) score lower than controls on standard self-report measures of alexithymia. A large body of evidence indicates that repressors avoid negative affect. Therefore, the current study examined the relationship between repressive coping and alexithymia by using independently-rated interviews with the aim of bypassing repressors’ tendency of avoiding negative affect. Results showed that repressors scored high on alexithymia, similar to anxious individuals on the independently-rated interview, but scored low on alexithymia on a questionnaire measure. Our findings confirm a link between alexithymia and repressive coping and stress the need for non-standard measures in exploring the nature of the relationship between repressive coping and alexithymia. PMID:26136706
Fornés-Vives, Joana; Garcia-Banda, Gloria; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Rosales-Viladrich, Gerard
The purpose of this study was to examine the dominant stress coping style in nursing students, its relationships with stressful life events and personality traits, and the students' changes during their academic training. A non-experimental two-wave longitudinal design was carried out in 199 nursing students recruited from three Spanish nursing schools. The Stressful Life Events Scale, NEO-FFI, and COPE questionnaire were administered at the beginning (T1) and end (T2) of their nursing studies. Descriptive statistics, Anova(s), NPar tests, and Pearson correlations were carried out. Results show that nursing students' dominant coping style was emotion-focused coping, both at T1 and T2. Highly significant correlations between emotional coping and the neuroticism trait were found. Coping, stress, and personality changed positively during the training program. At T2, the use of problem-focused strategies increased, and participants became more extroverted, agreeable, and conscientious. Coping and personality changes experienced by nursing students throughout their degree program seem to mirror the professional competences needed by future licensed nurses.
Miura, Naoki; Shirasawa, Naoko; Kanoh, Shin’ichiro
catch the red-colored ball. Thus, activation of the left LPFC corresponded more closely to the increase in cognitive control underlying the behavioral change made to cope with the additional rule. PMID:27847475
Cabib, Simona; Campus, Paolo; Colelli, Valentina
Stress is the main non-genetic source of psychopathology. Therefore, the identification of neurobiological bases of resilience, the resistance to pathological outcomes of stress, is a most relevant topic of research. It is an accepted view that resilient individuals are those who do not develop helplessness, or other depression-like phenotypes, following a history of stress. In the present review, we discuss the phenotypic differences between mice of the inbred C57BL/6J and DBA/2J strains that could be associated with the strain-specific resistance to helplessness observable in DBA/2J mice. The reviewed results support the hypothesis that resilience to stress-promoted helplessness develops through interactions between a specific genetic makeup and a history of stress, and is associated with an active coping style, a bias toward the use of stimulus-response learning, and specific adaptive changes of mesoaccumbens dopamine transmission under stress. Finally, evidence that compulsivity represents a side effect of the neuroadaptive processes fostering resistance to develop depressive-like phenotypes under stress is discussed.
Most professors realize that students receive and process information in different ways. Some professors are even capable of identifying how most students learn. If students' learning styles are compatible with the teaching style of their instructors, they tend to retain more information, effectively apply it, and have a better attitude toward the…
Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah
We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict.
Lam, Cecilia Wing Chi; Frydenberg, Erica
As increasing numbers of adolescents become involved in online activities, many also become victims of cyberharassment. This pilot project investigates how a program teaching coping skills (Best of Coping program, BOC) and a program teaching cybersafety (Cyber Savvy Teens program, CST) can optimise adolescents' capacity to cope online.…
Studied the relationships of coping resources, optimism, perceived control, and coping strategies to anxiety, physical symptoms, and cognitive functioning for 69 male and 40 female Jewish Israeli adolescents in real crisis during the Persian Gulf War. Discusses the implications of the reported mixture of active and palliative coping strategies.…
Dannenberg, Roger B.
Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.
Aebi, Marcel; Giger, Joël; Plattner, Belinda; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph
The purpose of this study was to test child and adolescent psychosocial and psychopathological risk factors as predictors of adult criminal outcomes in a Swiss community sample. In particular, the role of active and avoidant problem coping in youths was analysed. Prevalence rates of young adult crime convictions based on register data were calculated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyse the prediction of adult criminal convictions 15 years after assessment in a large Swiss community sample of children and adolescents (n = 1,086). Risk factors assessed in childhood and adolescence included socio-economic status (SES), migration background, perceived parental behaviour, familial and other social stressors, coping styles, externalizing and internalizing problems and drug abuse including problematic alcohol consumption. The rate of any young adult conviction was 10.1 %. Besides externalizing problems and problematic alcohol consumption, the presence of any criminal conviction in young adulthood was predicted by low SES and avoidant coping even after controlling for the effects of externalizing problems and problematic alcohol use. The other predictors were significant only when externalizing behaviours and problematic alcohol use were not controlled. In addition to child and adolescent externalizing behaviour problems and substance use, low SES and inadequate problem-solving skills, in terms of avoidant coping, are major risk factors of young adult criminal outcomes and need to be considered in forensic research and criminal prevention programs.
Zeece, Pauline Davey
Adult read aloud book activities, including literature selections, have significant impact on children's language learning opportunities. The style in which books are orally shared with children is also important. Detailed examination of adult-child book reading conversations has demonstrated a variety of teaching and learning approaches in the…
Freeman, Ellen E; Lesk, Mark R; Harasymowycz, Paul; Desjardins, Daniel; Flores, Veronica; Kamga, Hortence; Li, Gisèle
The identification of modifiable risk factors for glaucoma progression is needed. Our objective was to determine whether maladaptive coping styles are associated with recent glaucoma progression or worse visual field mean deviation.A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in the Glaucoma Service of Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital in Montreal, Canada. Patients with primary open angle glaucoma or normal tension glaucoma with ≥4 years of follow-up and ≥5 Humphrey visual fields were included. Cases had recent visual field progression as defined according to the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial pattern change probability maps. Controls had stable visual fields. The Brief Cope questionnaire, a 28-item questionnaire about 14 different ways of coping with the stress of a chronic disease, was asked. Questions were also asked about demographic and medical factors, and the medical chart was examined. Outcomes included glaucoma progression (yes, no) and visual field mean deviation. Logistic and linear regressions were used.A total of 180 patients were included (82 progressors and 98 nonprogressors). Although none of the 14 coping scales were associated with glaucoma progression (P > 0.05), higher denial was correlated with worse visual field mean deviation (r = -0.173, P = 0.024). In a linear regression model including age, sex, education, depression, intraocular pressure, and family history of glaucoma, greater levels of denial (β = -1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.32, -0.41), Haitian ethnicity (β = -7.78, 95% CI -12.52, -3.04), and the number of glaucoma medications (β = -1.20, 95% CI -2.00, -0.38) were statistically significantly associated with visual field mean deviation.The maladaptive coping mechanism of denial was a risk factor for worse visual field mean deviation. Further prospective research will be required to verify the pathways by which denial may exert an effect on glaucomatous visual field loss.
Adamczuk, Jolanta; Szymona-Pałkowska, Katarzyna; Robak, Jacek Marcin; Rykowska-Górnik, Katarzyna; Steuden, Stanisława
Introduction Urinary incontinence (UI) involves uncontrolled leakage of urine through the urethra as a result of damage to its sphincter muscle and a disturbed function of the urogenital diaphragm within the pelvis minor. The symptoms of UI radically impair psychological, somatic, and social functioning. The aim of each disease stress coping process is to reduce the impact of harmful agents as well as the acquisition of necessary preventive measures in order to combat the disorder. Aim of the study was to assess the relationship between coping styles used when dealing with stress associated with disease and the quality of life. Material and methods The study was carried out at an outpatients’ clinic located in the Lublin Province (eastern Poland), covering 150 women with diagnosed stress urinary incontinence, aged between 32 and 79. The following methods were used: (a) Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (Endler, Parker) to assess coping styles, (b) CASP-19 scale (Higgins, Hyde, Wiggins, Blade) to measure the overall quality of life, and (c) Urinary Incontinence Life Quality Scale (Szymona-Pałkowska, Kraczkowski). Results The preferred style in the studied group of women was Task-Oriented Coping. This style is associated with a low score on the Independence from Symptoms scale and low Control, being simultaneously correlated with Autonomy and Self-Realisation. Emotion-Oriented Coping is associated with low psychological, physical and social well-being, as well as with little independence from the disease symptoms, little pleasure and self-realisation, but it gives a sense of internal control. Avoidance-Oriented Coping does not significantly correlate with any of the Overall Quality of Life dimensions. Conclusions Women suffering from UI tend to try to solve their problem by means of cognitive transformation. In their situation, clinging to the problem turns out to be a depressing factor and entails a lower quality of their life. PMID:26528106
There is little doubt that during the past few decades science communication efforts aimed at non-expert audiences have increased in quantity and intensity on a global scale. Public engagement and outreach activities have now become a routine - when not a prominent - feature for several research institutions in Europe. However, it would be difficult for both scholars and those involved in science communication to agree on the impact of these activities, on the long-term implications of the 'science communication movement' and on the indicators we should develop and employ in order to assess impact. The paper argues that quality is a relevant issue and challenge for contemporary science communication. Style is relevant to addressing that challenge, insofar as it relates to discussions about how to strengthen the quality of science communication, suggesting a different perspective other than the traditional normative/prescriptive framework. The notion of style also fruitfully connects the debate on science communication with a rich tradition of studies in the history and sociology of science.
Maroney, Barbara R.
This study explores persistence and non-persistence among adult undergraduate students with particular focus on these students' lives, their stressors, their coping resources including academic supports, and their styles of coping. The study approaches the issue of non-persistence not as a personal failure but rather as a consequence of multiple…
Provides specific and useful guidelines for utilizing learning styles to increase instructional effectiveness during choral rehearsal. Broadly identifies students as either "analytical" (inductive reasoning) or "global" (deductive reasoning). Includes a chart containing specific rehearsal activities designed to interest each group. (MJP)
Hopkins, Ramona O.; Wilson, Emily L.; Orme, James F.; Beesley, Sarah J.; Kuttler, Kathryn; Brown, Samuel M.
Objective The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is a stressful environment for families of critically ill patients and these individuals are at risk to develop persistent psychological morbidity. Our study objective was to identify individual differences in coping with stress and information presentation preferences of respondents exposed to a simulated ICU experience. Methods Participants were recruited from a university and two community populations. Participants completed questionnaires that measured demographic information and characteristics that may be relevant to an individual’s ICU experience. Quality of life was measured by the EQ-5D, personality dimensions were examined with the abbreviated Big Five inventory, coping with stress was assessed with Brief COPE. Shared decision making preferences were assessed by the Degner Control Preferences Scale (CPS) and information seeking style was assessed with the Miller Behavioral Style Scale (MBSS). Social support was examined using an abbreviated version of the Social Relationship Index. Participants also completed a vignette-based simulated ICU experience, in which they made a surrogate decision on behalf of a loved one in the ICU. Results Three hundred forty-three participants completed the study. Three distinct coping profiles were identified: adaptive copers, maladaptive copers, and disengaged copers. Profiles differed primarily on coping styles, personality, quality of their closest social relationship, and history of anxiety and depression. Responses to the simulated ICU decision making experience differed across profiles. Disengaged copers (15%) were more likely to elect to refuse dialysis on behalf of an adult sibling compared to adaptive copers (7%) or maladaptive copers (5%) (p = 0.03). Notably, the MBSS and the CPS did not differ by coping profile. Conclusion Distinct coping profiles are associated with differences in responses to a simulated ICU experience. Tailoring communication and support to specific
Lawden, M. D.
This document describes the various styles which are recommended for Starlink documents. It also explains how to use the templates which are provided by Starlink to help authors create documents in a standard style. This paper is concerned mainly with conveying the ``look and feel" of the various styles of Starlink document rather than describing the technical details of how to produce them. Other Starlink papers give recommendations for the detailed aspects of document production, design, layout, and typography. The only style that is likely to be used by most Starlink authors is the Standard style.
Khor, Angela S; Melvin, Glenn A; Reid, Sophie C; Gray, Kylie M
Although daily hassles and coping are associated with behavior and emotional problems in non-clinical populations, few studies have investigated these relationships in individuals with high-functioning autism/Asperger's Disorder (HFASD). This study examined the relationships between daily hassles, coping and behavior and emotional problems in adolescents with HFASD. Thirty-one adolescents with HFASD completed questionnaires assessing their coping and behavior and emotional problems, and completed an Ecological Momentary Assessment run via a mobile phone application on their coping and daily hassles. Parents completed questionnaires of the adolescents' daily hassles, coping, and behavior and emotional problems. The disengagement coping style was associated with significantly higher levels of behavior and emotional problems regardless of respondent or methodology, suggesting it may be a valuable target for intervention.
Hosoya, Satoshi; Byun, Keigo Ohyama; Okada, Morihiko
Since a Japanese-style bow has a very complicated shape and structure, an archer has to apply the "Teno-uchi" maneuver including horizontally twisting torque, or "Nejiri", and sagittally down-pushing torque, or "Uwa-oshi", to the restoring bow in order to hit the target. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanical relationship between the muscular activities of the left forearm and the operation of "Teno-uchi" maneuver. Surface EMG of left forearm muscles and the two kinds of torque acting on the bow around the time of release were recorded in 10 experienced subjects during arrow shooting. The "Biku", an involuntary resignation from release happening in the shooting, was also examined. Close analyses of the results revealed that activation of the extensor carpi ulnaris and extensor digitorum muscles together with inhibition of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle brought about "Nejiri", while activation of the extensor carpi ulnaris as well as flexor carpi ulnaris muscles and inhibition of the extensor carpi redialis longus and extensor digitorum muscles gave rise to "Uwa-oshi", thus causing activities of trade-off nature in the extensor digitorum and flexor carpi ulnaris muscles for the "Nejiri" and "Uwa-oshi. The trade-off activities were presumably actualized through time-sharing coordination between the muscles.
Lu, Luo; Kao, Shu-Fang; Chang, Ting-Ting; Lee, Ya-Wen
When someone is criticized for some failure or deficiency, he or she is faced with a dilemma about whether or how to respond. To date, most research on responses to criticism has adopted a communication approach and has focused on general social complaints. The present study instead adopted the perspective of stress and coping and aimed to delineate possible responses to criticism pertaining to one's physical appearance. We investigated the efficacy of three coping styles, namely acceptance, avoidance, and retaliation in explaining emotional reactions towards such criticism, and we additionally controlled for personality characteristics, in particular assertion and harmony beliefs. A sample of Taiwanese university students (N = 300) was surveyed for their coping styles and psychological outcomes, and personality traits were examined as possible predictors of response options. We found that (1) acceptance, retaliation, and avoidance were three broad coping styles in this problematic social situation; (2) the individual trait of assertion was negatively related to the use of avoidance, while harmony beliefs were positively related to acceptance and avoidance, but negatively related to retaliation; and (3) the use of acceptance and avoidance were positively related to positive emotions, whereas retaliation was positively related to negative emotions. Males tended to use more acceptance. Implications of these findings were discussed in relation to existing studies of communication, stress and coping. Possible influences of the Chinese collectivist culture on people's responses to criticism were also delineated, such as valuing interpersonal harmony and face-work in social situations.
Despite a large body of research into learning styles from cognitive, personality and activity perspectives, the definition of learning style is still unclear. The assessment instruments commonly in use have methodological problems. The learning styles of conservatorium instrumentalists are scarcely known and are best studied using an…
Romi, Shlomo; Lewis, Ramon; Roache, Joel
This paper discusses the degree to which recently reported relationships between the classroom management techniques and coping styles of Australian teachers apply in two other national settings: China and Israel. Little is known about which teacher characteristics relate to their approach to classroom management, although researchers in Australia…
Kahng, Sang K.; Mowbray, Carol T.
A positive coping style can be critical to successful rehabilitation of psychiatric consumers. Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the relationships among consumers' psychological characteristics, self-esteem, and behaviors, and the role of self-esteem in mediating the relationships between psychological characteristics and…
Zarski, John J.; And Others
Examined the stress and illness paradigm by considering influences of social interest and coping styles on three measures of health status: overall health, somatic symptoms, and energy level. Subjects (N=109) included office workers, nurses, and graduate students. Found social interest and daily hassles explained significant amounts of variance on…
Yılmaz Irmak, Türkan; Aksel, Şeyda; Thompson, Dennis
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between type of coping style and depression in college students with child sexual abuse experience. A total of 1,055 college students completed self-report measures to assess depressive symptoms, coping strategies, and child sexual abuse history. This study was conducted with a subset of 125 college students who reported that they had been sexually abused in childhood. They were divided into depressive and nondepressive groups according to their depressive symptoms. Data was collected with the Childhood Sexual Abuse Measurement, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Coping Styles of Stress Scale. Family characteristics were measured with a demographic questionnaire. Analyses involved multiple regression to test for predictive effects. Among college students with child sexual abuse histories, parental education level and both problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies significantly explained depression scores.
Resnik, Linda; Allen, Susan
Purpose Identify facilitators and barriers to physical activity (PA), and explore the utility of Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) and Transactional Model of Stress and Coping (TMSC) in understanding PA behaviour among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods Thirteen participants from a clinical trial were interviewed and classified as physically active, sometimes active, or inactive based on the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II. Interviews were analysed using analytical induction, which consisted of coding data into pre-established categories and then exploring similarities and differences between groups. Pre-established coding categories were constructs from SCT (i.e. environment, expectations, self-efficacy, and self-regulation) and TMSC (i.e. stress appraisal and coping style). Results Inactive and active participants differed in their self-regulation skills, self-efficacy, and coping styles. Common barriers to PA included symptoms and the physical and social environment. Facilitators of PA included strong self-regulation skills, confidence to overcome symptoms to engage in PA (i.e. barrier self-efficacy), and positive coping styles. Conclusion Results from this pilot study suggest that PA interventions will need to implement multiple strategies that target self-efficacy, social environment, and coping styles. We found SCT and TMSC useful in understanding PA behaviour among persons with MS; however, a limitation to these theories is that they are not explicit in the relationship between health and cognitions. Future research will need to explore how to incorporate models of health and function into existing behaviour change theories. PMID:19479491
"Coping flexibility" was defined as the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping) and produce and implement an alternative coping strategy (i.e., adaptive coping). The Coping Flexibility Scale (CFS) was developed on the basis of this definition. Five studies involving approximately 4,400 Japanese…
Poirel, Emmanuel; Yvon, Frédéric
The present study examines the emotional coping of school principals in Quebec. Emotional coping was measured by stimulated recall; six principals were filmed during a working day and presented a week later with their video showing stressful encounters. The results show that school principals experience anger because of reproaches from staff…
Hammer, Allen L.
Coping resources are what people bring to situations (as opposed to what they do) that enable them to deal with stressors more effectively, allow them to recover faster, or experience fewer or less intense symptoms upon exposure to stressors. The Coping Resources Inventory (CRI) measures resources in the following domains: cognitive, social,…
Polizzi, Concetta; Fontana, Valentina; Perricone, Giovanna; D’Angelo, Paolo; Jankovic, Momcilo; Taormina, Calogero; Nichelli, Francesca; Burgio, Sofia
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a very distressing experience for children and requires a special effort of adjustment. Therefore, it seems to be crucial to explore coping resources for the experienced risk condition. In this sense, the study focuses on coping strategies and locus of control in children with ALL during the treatment phase, and on their possible relation. The correlation between children and maternal coping strategies is also investigated. The participants involved were an experimental group of 40 children with ALL and their mothers, and 30 healthy children as the control group. The tools used were: the Child Behavioral Style Scale and the Monitor-Blunter Style Scale to assess the coping strategies of children and mothers; the locus of Control Scale for Children to analyze the children’s perception of controlling the events. Both children with ALL and their mothers resorted to monitoring coping strategies with a statistically significant rate of occurrence (children: M=17.8, SD=3.8; mothers: M=10.48, SD=3.4). The data concerning the locus of control show this tendency towards internal causes (M=53.1, SD=4.7). There were statistically significant correlations between monitoring coping strategies and external locus of control (r=0.400, P<0.05). The results gained from the control group are almost equivalent. The outcomes show several interesting resources of the psychological functioning of children as well as of their mothers. PMID:26266029
Zevon, Michael A.; And Others
This study was conducted to examine the influence of medical, psychological, and familial factors on the coping of pediatric cancer patients. Participants were 36 pediatric cancer patients and their families under active treatment at Roswell Park Memorial Institute, a comprehensive cancer research and treatment center in Buffalo, New York. The…
This book is a collection of selected papers from the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Droughts entitled “Drought Impact Control Technology,” held at the National Laboratory of Civil Engineering in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 1980. The editors of the book have chosen a nontraditional but successful approach to presenting the papers. Instead of including a verbatim proceedings of the institute, they assembled 21 papers presented by 14 of the institute's lecturers, reshaped and synthesized them, and supplemented them by five new papers that cover obvious gaps in topics. The result is enlightening reading and a more or less complete presentation of the subject. The edited material in the book was arranged around three central themes related to efforts needed to cope with or manage the droughts. In the process, the identity of individual contributors has been preserved.
Martin, Peter; Kliegel, Matthias; Rott, Christoph; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann
With increasing age, older adults are more likely to be challenged by an increasing number of physical, functional and social losses. As a result, coping with losses becomes a central theme in very late life. This study investigated age differences and age changes in active behavioral, active cognitive and avoidance coping and related coping to…
Giltinane, Charlotte Louise
It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice.
Baiardini, I; Braido, F; Menoni, S; Bellandi, G; Savi, E; Canonica, G W; Macchia, D
The clinical features of Celiac Disease (CD) are heterogeneous and both severity and extent of villous atrophy do not correlate with clinical presentation. This study aims to evaluate the psychological wellbeing of CD patients with a similar clinical pattern and to explore whether patients with different levels of wellbeing differed in illness perception and coping strategies. CD outpatients with proven diagnosis filled in validated questionnaires to investigate wellbeing (PGWBI), illness perception (IPQ-R) and coping style (COPE). One hundred and four patients underwent data analysis. Compared to Italian reference sample, CD patients reported a significantly reduced PGWBI total score (p<0.001), self-control (p<0.001), general health (p=0.002) and vitality (p<0.001) and increased anxiety (p=0.009). 7.7% of patients reported a positive wellbeing, 40.4% distress absence, 28.8% a moderate distress and 23.1% a severe distress. Patients with distress showed a different illness perception and reported more frequently two dysfunctional strategies: focus on and venting emotions (p= 0.009) and substance abuse (p= 0.01) compared to those having a positive wellbeing. A high percentage of CD patients experience distress and differ from those who reach wellbeing in illness perception and use of coping strategies. Assessing subjective viewpoint with standardized methods can provide useful information for a better management of CD patients.
This study aimed to explore the relationship between thinking styles and emotions among university students in Hong Kong. Participants were 99 2nd-year students (23 men and 76 women) who responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised (TSI-R), based on R. J. Sternberg's (1988) theory of mental self-government, and to the Iowa Managing Emotions Inventory (IMEI), based on A. Chickering's (1969) theory of psychosocial development. Results indicated not only that thinking styles were associated with emotions but also that thinking styles had predictive power for emotions beyond age. The author discusses implications of these findings for faculty members and student-development educators.
Jambor, Edina; Elliott, Marta
Research studies on the determinants of self-esteem of deaf individuals often yield inconsistent findings. The current study assessed the effects on self-esteem of factors related to deafness, such as the means of communication at home and severity of hearing loss with hearing aid, as well as the coping styles that deaf people adopt to cope with everyday life in a hearing world. Data were collected among the deaf students of California State University, Northridge. Hierarchical regression modeling showed that identification with the Deaf community significantly contributed to positive self-esteem. Results also revealed that deaf students with greater degree of hearing loss and with bicultural skills that help them function in both the hearing and the Deaf community generally have higher self-esteem. Implications for further study are discussed.
In order to examine job stress and coping among self-employed and organizationally employed professionals, job-related stressors and coping strategies were assessed among self-employed (n = 149) and organizationally employed (n = 159) professionals working as accountants, lawyers, pharmacists and psychologists. Results indicate that although self-employed workers complained about lack of security and organizationally employed workers complained about lack of autonomy, no differences were found in overall stress levels or overload. Examination of workers' coping strategies provided a partial explanation for these findings. Stress levels negatively correlated with active coping and positively correlated with passive/avoidance coping; self-employed workers were found to cope by confronting problems, whereas organizationally employed workers were found to cope by avoiding them. These findings qualify previous research findings on self-employed and organizationally employed workers.
Shahrill, Masitah; Mundia, Lawrence
Using the Adolescent Coping Scale, ACS (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993) we surveyed 45 randomly selected foreign adolescents in Australian schools. The coping strategies used most by the participants were: focus on solving the problem; seeking relaxing diversions; focusing on the positive; seeking social support; worry; seeking to belong; investing in close friends; wishful thinking; and keep to self (Table 4). With regard to coping styles, the most widely used was the productive coping followed by non-productive coping while the least used style was reference to others (Table 4). In terms of both genders the four coping strategies used most often were: work hard to achieve; seeking relaxing diversions; focus on solving the problem; and focus on the positive (Table 5). The most noticeable gender difference was the use of the physical recreation coping strategy in which male students engaged more (Fig 1). The usage of four coping strategies (solving problem; work hard; focus on positive; and social support) was higher for students who have been away from family more than once as compared to those who have been away once only while the usage of seeking relaxing diversions was higher for the first timers (Table 6). No significant differences were obtained on the sample's performance on the ACS subscales by gender (Table 7), frequency of leaving own country (Table 8), country of origin (Table 9), and length of stay in Australia (Table 11). However, foundation students scored significantly higher on the reference to others variable than their secondary school peers (Table 10). We recommended counseling for students with high support needs and further large-scale mixed-methods research to gain additional insights.
Shahrill, Masitah; Mundia, Lawrence
Using the Adolescent Coping Scale, ACS (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993) we surveyed 45 randomly selected foreign adolescents in Australian schools. The coping strategies used most by the participants were: focus on solving the problem; seeking relaxing diversions; focusing on the positive; seeking social support; worry; seeking to belong; investing in close friends; wishful thinking; and keep to self (Table 4). With regard to coping styles, the most widely used was the productive coping followed by non-productive coping while the least used style was reference to others (Table 4). In terms of both genders the four coping strategies used most often were: work hard to achieve; seeking relaxing diversions; focus on solving the problem; and focus on the positive (Table 5). The most noticeable gender difference was the use of the physical recreation coping strategy in which male students engaged more (Fig 1). The usage of four coping strategies (solving problem; work hard; focus on positive; and social support) was higher for students who have been away from family more than once as compared to those who have been away once only while the usage of seeking relaxing diversions was higher for the first timers (Table 6). No significant differences were obtained on the sample’s performance on the ACS subscales by gender (Table 7), frequency of leaving own country (Table 8), country of origin (Table 9), and length of stay in Australia (Table 11). However, foundation students scored significantly higher on the reference to others variable than their secondary school peers (Table 10). We recommended counseling for students with high support needs and further large-scale mixed-methods research to gain additional insights. PMID:24373267
Shimai, S; Kawabata, T; Nishioka, N; Haruki, T
The aim of the present study was to investigate current problems of snacking behavior and their relationship to stress coping among 1,486 fourth through ninth grade students from 10 elementary schools and six junior high schools. An anonymous self-completed questionnaire was utilized which included items about 1) selection of snack foods, which were classified into healthy, popular, complementary and western-style snacks, 2) problems of snacking behavior, which included external and emotional eating scores, and 3) stress coping scale. The stress coping scale contained two sub-scales; problem-focused and emotion-focused coping. The results were as follows: 1) Students who frequently went without breakfast did not select healthy foods, i.e., fruits and dairy products, but popular snacks, i.e., potato chips, pop corn and sweet beverage. 2) Both external and emotional eating scores increased by age in girls but was not apparent in boys. 3) Students who preferred either western-style or popular snacks showed higher score of external and emotional eating. 4) The score of problem-focused coping was positively correlated with preference for health snacks, but emotion-focused coping was positively correlated with external and emotional eating scores. The close relationship between snack food selection and problematic aspects of eating behavior suggests that modification of eating behavior is necessary to develop healthy snack habits in early adolescents. Also, it is interesting that snacking behavior is closely related to stress coping, which suggested the behavioral intervention for healthy eating habit should be included in development of stress-coping skills against various kinds of demands in life.
Schroeder, David H.
This study assessed the bipolarity of cognitive style for 970 clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation, a vocational guidance service. The 462 male and 508 female examinees were aged 14 to 65 years, with a median age of 24 years. Three cognitive style tests were investigated: (1) the Kagan Matching Familiar Figures Test (KMFFT); (2) the…
Neely, Robert; Alm, Duane
Following a presentation of Rita and Kenneth Dunn's learning styles model at a NAESP convention, staff at a South Dakota elementary school began teaching students according to their own perceptual strengths. This article profiles teachers' efforts and presents an observation checklist for preparing individualized learning style inventories and…
Fischer, Judith L.; Crawford, Duane W.
College students (n=175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style of the father (uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian, or democratic) was related to offspring codependency. Both sons and daughters of authoritarian fathers had higher levels of…
KONKAN, Ramazan; ERKUŞ, Gizem Hanzade; GÜÇLÜ, Oya; ŞENORMANCI, Ömer; AYDIN, Erkan; ÜLGEN, Mine Cansu; SUNGUR, Mehmet Z.
Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate coping strategies suggested to be a determinant of suicide attempt and to compare them with coping strategies of healthy volunteers. Methods This study was conducted on 50 patients who had suicide attempts within the past two months and 52 healthy volunteers who did not have any suicide attempt. They were evaluated with the Turkish version of COPE inventory. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 for Windows. Results In the suicide attempt group, ‘active coping’, ‘planning’, ‘positive reinterpretation and growth’ scores were found to be lower than that in the control group. On the other hand, ‘restraint coping’, ‘acceptance’, ‘focus on and venting of emotions’, ‘behavioral disengagement’, ‘substance use’ and nonfunctional coping total points were significantly higher in the suicide attempt group. The patients with depression in the suicide group were found less of the ‘positive reinterpretation and growth’ but more of the ‘substance use’ compared to the healthy group. Subjects who attempted suicide more than once tended to ‘substance use’ rather than ‘active coping’. ‘Focus on and venting of emotions’ scores in suicide attempters were higher in women than in males. Conclusion We observed that individuals who attempted suicide have fewer functional coping strategies and more nonfunctional coping strategies than who do not attempt suicide. It was determined that under stressful situations, individuals with depression tended to alcohol and substance abuse instead of positive reinterpretation and growth. In subjects who had recurrent suicidal attempts, alcohol and substance abuse was more common than active coping. Women were using focusing on and venting of emotions techniques much more than men. We assume that to monitor, and in case of necessity, to change the coping strategies in suicide attempters are vitally important for preventing suicide
Wilder-Willis, Kelly E; Shear, Paula K; Steffen, John J; Borkin, Joyce
Cognitive dysfunction is a core feature of schizophrenia [Psychiatr. Clin. North Am., 16 (1993) 295; Psychopharmacology: The fourth generation of progress, Raven Press, New York (1995) 1171; Clinical Neuropsychology, Oxford University Press, New York (1993) 449] and is related to psychosocial functioning in this population [Am. J. Psychiatry, 153 (1996) 321]. It is unclear whether cognitive dysfunction is related to specific areas of functioning in schizophrenia, such as coping abilities. Individuals with schizophrenia have deficient coping skills, which may contribute to their difficulties dealing with stressors [Am. J. Orthopsychiatry, 62 (1992) 117; J. Abnorm. Psychol., 82 (1986) 189]. The current study examined the relationship between coping abilities and cognitive dysfunction in a community sample of individuals with schizophrenia. It was hypothesized that executive dysfunction and mnemonic impairments would be positively related to deficiencies in active coping efforts involving problem solving and self-initiation (e.g. advocating for oneself and others with mental illness and becoming involved in meaningful activities, such as work), independent of the contributions of the general intellectual deficits associated with the disorder and psychiatric symptoms. The results indicated that both executive dysfunction and mnemonic impairments were related to decreased usage of active coping mechanisms after controlling for general intellectual deficits. Further, recognition memory made independent contributions to the prediction of coping involving action and help seeking after controlling for the effects of negative symptoms. These findings suggest that individuals with schizophrenia may be less flexible in their use of coping strategies, which may in turn contribute to their difficulties in coping with mental illness and its consequences.
... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000914.htm Coping with cancer - hair loss To use the sharing features on this ... lose your hair. Why Cancer Treatments can Cause Hair Loss Many chemotherapy drugs attack fast-growing cells. ...
Tharaldsen, Kjersti B.; Bru, Edvin
The aim of this research is to develop and validate a self-report measure of mindfulness and coping, the mindful coping scale (MCS). Dimensions of mindful coping were theoretically deduced from mindfulness theory and coping theory. The MCS was empirically evaluated by use of factor analyses, reliability testing and nomological network validation.…
This longitudinal study examined relations among mood, coping, perceived stress, and side effects from chemotherapy in 50 individuals with stages III and IV adenocarcinoma of the lung over four consecutive combination chemotherapy courses. Results indicated that perceived stress was moderately high only at the time of pretreatment, and four coping strategies were used: seeking social support, planful problem solving, self-control, and positive reappraisal. No relations existed between coping strategies and side effects from chemotherapy, coping and perceived stress, mood and side effects, and perceived stress and side effects. Seven side effects occurred: leukopenia, decreased activity, nausea, loss of appetite, fatigue, constipation, and taste changes. In summary, receiving chemotherapy is stressful at the time of pretreatment, so nursing interventions need to be concentrated at that point.
An, Hoyoung; Chung, Seockhoon; Park, Jangho; Kim, Seong-Yoon; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, Ki-Soo
High levels of stress and depression in medical students is raising concern. In this study, we sought to identify coping strategies and other factors influencing academic stress in medical students. We enrolled 157 students from the University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Korea, in November, 2010. We used the Medical Stress Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory, Hamilton Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Coping Response Inventory to assess psychological parameters. We used Pearson's correlation and linear regression analyses to analyze the data. Novelty-seeking, self-directedness, cooperativeness, coping strategy, and depression scale scores all correlated significantly with stress level. Linear regression analysis indicated that students who are novelty-seeking, likely to use avoidant coping strategies, and unlikely to use active-cognitive and active-behavioral strategies tend to have higher stress levels. Reduction of stress in medical students may be achieved through evaluation of coping strategies and personality features and use of interventions to promote active coping strategies.
Read, Jennifer P.; Griffin, Melissa J.; Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Ouimette, Paige
The objective of the present study was to examine prospective, bidirectional associations among posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, coping style, and alcohol involvement (use, consequences), in a sample of trauma-exposed students just entering college. We also sought to test the mechanistic role that coping may play in associations between PTSD symptoms and problem alcohol involvement over time. Participants (N=734) completed measures of trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms, coping, and alcohol use and consequences in September of their first college year (Y1) and again each September for the next two years (Y2–3). We observed reciprocal associations between PTSD and negative coping strategies. In our examination of a mediated pathway through coping, we found an indirect association from alcohol consequences and PTSD symptoms via negative coping, suggesting that alcohol consequences may exacerbate posttraumatic stress over time by promoting negative coping strategies. Trauma characteristics such as type (interpersonal vs. non-interpersonal) and trauma re-exposure did not moderate these pathways. Models also were invariant across gender. Findings from the present study point to risk that is conferred by both PTSD and alcohol consequences for using negative coping approaches, and through this, for posttraumatic stress. Interventions designed to decrease negative coping may help to offset this risk, leading to more positive outcomes for those students who enter college with trauma exposure. PMID:25528048
Zhang, Limei; Hernández, Vito S.; Vázquez-Juárez, Erika; Chay, Freya K.; Barrio, Rafael A.
Water-homeostasis is a fundamental physiological process for terrestrial life. In vertebrates, thirst drives water intake, but the neuronal circuits that connect the physiology of water regulation with emotional context are poorly understood. Vasopressin (VP) is a prominent messenger in this circuit, as well as L-glutamate. We have investigated the role of a VP circuit and interaction between thirst and motivational behaviors evoked by life-threatening stimuli in rats. We demonstrate a direct pathway from hypothalamic paraventricular VP-expressing, glutamatergic magnocellular neurons to the medial division of lateral habenula (LHbM), a region containing GABAergic neurons. In vivo recording and juxtacellular labeling revealed that GABAergic neurons in the LHbM had locally branching axons, and received VP-positive axon terminal contacts on their dendrites. Water deprivation significantly reduced freezing and immobility behaviors evoked by innate fear and behavioral despair, respectively, accompanied by decreased Fos expression in the lateral habenula. Our results reveal a novel VP-expressing hypothalamus to the LHbM circuit that is likely to evoke GABA-mediated inhibition in the LHbM, which promotes escape behavior during stress coping. PMID:27065810
Grady, Kathleen L; Andrei, Adin-Cristian; Li, Zhi; Rybarczyk, Bruce; White-Williams, Connie; Gordon, Robert; McGee, Edwin C.
OBJECTIVES We examined whether gender differences exist regarding stress, symptom distress, coping, adherence, and social support 5 years after heart transplantation. BACKGROUND Differences exist in health-related quality of life outcomes by gender after heart transplantation; women report poorer outcomes. METHODS Patients (n=210, female=42), were from a prospective, multi-site, study of health-related quality of life long-term after heart transplantation. Patients completed self-report instruments 5 years after heart transplantation (mean=4.98±0.17 years after transplant). Statistical analyses included two-sample t-tests, Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multivariable modeling. RESULTS Women did not report more overall stress or symptom distress, but reported more difficulty adhering to the transplant regimen, yet more actual adherence than men. Women reported using more negative coping styles, but reported more satisfaction with social support. CONCLUSIONS Gender differences exist regarding appraisal of stress, coping styles, and coping resources long-term after heart transplantation. These differences may guide tailoring therapy regarding stress, poor coping, and lack of resources. PMID:26514074
Clarke, Tricia A.; Lesh, Jennifer J.; Trocchio, Jennie S.; Wolman, Clara
This study investigated the relationship between two intellectual styles approaches: Sternberg's thinking styles of teachers and Felder and Silverman's learning styles. Ninety-five graduate students majoring in special education, reading, educational leadership and curriculum, and elementary education completed the Thinking Styles in Teaching…
Massey, Margaret G; Kim, Suk-Hee; Mitchell, Courtney
This study examines the learning styles of students in social work classes at Norfolk State University. Knowledge of learning styles can enhance the ability of faculty to build on student experiences and construct new learning opportunities. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory was administered to identify each student's dominate learning style. The theoretical underpinning is experiential learning, which supports the concept that learning styles are developed through experiences. The results indicated that diverging and accommodating learning styles occurred most often. Students with these styles learn best in classes where activities include lectures, role playing exercises, discussions, opportunities to practice skills, and reflection.
Shepherd-McMullen, Cassandra; Mearns, Jack; Stokes, Julie E; Mechanic, Mindy B
This study explored the relationships among psychological abuse, attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV), negative mood regulation expectancies (NMRE), and coping. Participants were 126 female college students in dating, cohabitating, or married relationships within the previous year. In one single session, they completed self-report scales measuring IPV, NMRE, and coping. Results indicated that women reporting higher levels of psychological abuse reported less negative attitudes toward IPV, engaged in less-active coping responses, and had lower NMRE. Psychological abuse was a significant predictor of avoidant coping, while NMRE significantly predicted both active and avoidant coping. In addition, the interaction of NMRE × Psychological abuse added incremental prediction of avoidant coping. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Granek, Leeat; Barrera, Maru; Scheinemann, Katrin; Bartels, Ute
This research examined pediatric oncologists coping strategies when their patients died of cancer. Twenty-one pediatric oncologists at 2 Canadian pediatric academic hospitals were interviewed about their coping strategies when patients died or were in the process of dying. The grounded theory method of data collection and data analysis were used. Line-by-line coding was used to establish codes and themes and constant comparison was used to establish relations among emerging codes and themes. Pediatric oncologists used engagement coping strategies with primary and secondary responses including emotional regulation (social support and religion), problem solving (supporting families at end of life), cognitive restructuring (making a difference and research), and distraction (breaks, physical activity, hobbies and entertainment, spending time with own children). They also used disengagement coping strategies that included voluntary avoidance (compartmentalization and withdrawing from families at end of life). Given the chronic nature of patient death in pediatric oncology and the emotionally difficult nature of this work, medical institutions such as hospitals have a responsibility to assist pediatric oncologists in coping with this challenging aspect of their work. Future research is needed to evaluate how best to implement these changes on the institutional level to help oncologists cope with patient death and the effect of using these strategies on their quality of life.
Jones, Alvin C; Kwoh, C Kent; Groeneveld, P W; Mor, Maria; Geng, Ming; Ibrahim, Said A
Osteoarthritis is a prevalent disease in older patients of all racial groups, and it is known to cause significant pain and functional disability. Racial differences in how patients cope with the chronic pain of knee or hip osteoarthritis may have implications for utilization of treatment modalities such as joint replacement. Therefore, we examined the relationships between patient race and pain coping strategies (diverting attention, reinterpreting pain, catastrophizing, ignoring sensations, hoping and praying, coping self-statements, and increasing behavior activities) for hip and knee osteoarthritis. This is a cross-sectional survey of 939 veterans 50 to 79 years old with chronic hip or knee osteoarthritis pain recruited from VA primary care clinics in Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. Patients had to have moderate to severe hip or knee osteoarthritis symptoms as measured by the WOMAC index. Standard, validated instruments were used to obtain information on attitudes and use of prayer, pain coping strategies, and arthritis self-efficacy. Analysis included separate multivariable models adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. Attitudes on prayer differed, with African Americans being more likely to perceive prayer as helpful (adjusted OR = 3.38, 95% CI 2.35 to 4.86) and to have tried prayer (adjusted OR = 2.28, 95% 1.66 to 3.13) to manage their osteoarthritis pain. Upon evaluating the coping strategies, we found that, compared to whites, African Americans had greater use of the hoping and praying method (beta = 0.74, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.99). Race was not associated with arthritis pain self-efficacy, arthritis function self-efficacy, or any other coping strategies. This increased use of the hoping and praying coping strategy by African Americans may play a role in the decreased utilization of total joint arthroplasty among African Americans compared to whites. Further investigation of the role this coping strategy has on the decision making process for
Personality-style instruments that are used intelligently, for the purpose for which they were designed, are a valuable tool in the trainers' arsenal. One justification for their use is to increase awareness about communication differences. (JOW)
Gellerman, Saul W.
Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)
Grady, Kathleen L.; Wang, Edward; White-Williams, Connie; Naftel, David C.; Myers, Susan; Kirklin, James K.; Rybarczyk, Bruce; Young, James B.; Pelegrin, Dave; Kobashigawa, Jon; Higgins, Robert; Heroux, Alain
Background Heart transplant-related stressors and coping are related to poor outcomes early after transplant. The purposes of our study were to (1) identify the most frequent and bothersome stressors and most used and effective coping strategies, and (2) compare the most frequent and bothersome stresses and most used and effective coping styles between patients at 5 and 10 years after heart transplantation. We also examined differences in coping styles by patient characteristics, and factors associated with frequency and intensity of stress at both 5 and 10 years after heart transplantation. Methods This report is a secondary analysis of data from a prospective, multi-site study of quality of life outcomes. Data are from 199 and 98 patients at 5 and 10 years after transplant, respectively. Patients completed the Heart Transplant Stressor Scale and Jalowiec Coping Scale. Statistical analyses included frequencies, measures of central tendency, t-tests, Chi-square and generalized linear models. Results At 5 and 10 years after heart transplantation, the most bothersome stressors were regarding work, school, and financial issues. Patients who were 10 years post transplant reported less stress, similar stress intensity, and less use and perceived effectiveness of negative coping than patients who were 5 years post transplant. Long-term after transplant, demographic characteristics, psychological problems, negative coping, and clinical factors were related to stress frequency and/or intensity. Conclusions Heart transplant-related stress occurs long-term after surgery. Types of transplant-related stress and factors related to stress confirm the importance of ongoing psychological and clinical support after heart transplantation. PMID:23498164
Laughlin, J. Stanley
The literature on administrative style is reviewed. Attention is directed to four basic concepts of administrative style: (1) the structured, classical, traditional model; (2) the participatory or employee-involved operation; (3) a more behavioral scientific style; and (4) the situational or environmental style. These ideas are more fully…
Ivie, Stan D.
What is a learning style? No one seems to know for sure. The language used by learning style theorists is filled with ambiguities. Price (2004) maintains that "learning style is often used as a metaphor for considering the range of individual differences in learning" (p. 681). Is learning style merely a fanciful metaphor or is it the wave of the…
Keefe, James W.
This monograph builds upon rapid developments in the field of learning styles during the past few years, providing useful information about the theory, research, instrumentation, and practice of learning style. The first section presents an overview of learning style and addresses the school learning process, learning style concept, cognitive…
Henze, Mary Vance
This study undertook to determine (1) whether teaching sixth grade children elements of style would increase their pleasure in listening to "The Hobbit," (2) whether children who learned the most about style would respond the most positively to Tolkien's style, and (3) what children's preferences would be for selected examples of Tolkien's style.…
Browne, Dauna B.
This paper summarizes research on learning styles, then examines the cognitive style of Native American primary school students. Five theories of cognitive style (Dunn and Dunn, Gregorc, Kagan, Witkin, and Cohen) are examined along with the test instruments these theories have fostered. A sixth concept of cognitive style, brain hemispheric…
Acronyms ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange DAU data acquisition unit DDML data display markup language IHAL...Transfer Standard URI uniform resource identifier W3C World Wide Web Consortium XML extensible markup language XSD XML schema definition XML Style...Style Guide, RCC 125-15, July 2015 1 Introduction The next generation of telemetry systems will rely heavily on extensible markup language (XML
Williams-Piehota, Pamela; Latimer, Amy E.; Katulak, Nicole A.; Cox, Ashley; Silvera, Stephanie A. N.; Mowad, Linda; Salovey, Peter
Objective: To examine whether messages matched to individuals' monitoring-blunting coping styles (MBCS) are more effective in increasing fruit and vegetable intake than mismatched messages. MBCS refers to the tendency to either attend to and amplify, or distract oneself from and minimize threatening information. Design/Setting: Randomly assigned…
Intended to help those interested in developing ways of coping effectively with the wide variety of meeting and decision-making styles that are available throughout the world, the booklet integrates a number of ideas and approaches discussed at a recent convention of the Society of Intercultural Education, Training, and Research (SIETAR). An…
Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin
Discusses the effects that information and communication technologies are having on education, particularly the introduction of online courses; and describes a study at the Ghent University that examines how students cope with a re-engineered course that is task-based and how it affects their learning styles. Examines the results from tested…
Two markers of regional exchange in the Eastern Mediterranean during the first millennium BCE are the White Painted and Bichrome Wares from Cyprus’s Cypro-Geometric and Cypro-Archaic periods. Although these ceramics are often assumed to be imports from Cyprus, excavations in southern Turkey at sites such as Tarsus-Gözlükule, Kilise Tepe, Sirkeli Höyük, and Kinet Höyük suggest that at least some of this pottery was produced locally, requiring a major revision of our understanding of economic interaction in the Eastern Mediterranean. We employ a combination of portable x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis to investigate the White Painted and Bichrome Wares recovered from Tell Tayinat, Çatal Höyük, and Tell Judaidah, three sites in the Amuq Valley of southeastern Anatolia. Our results demonstrate that a clear geochemical distinction exists between imported and local versions of this pottery. Through comparison with legacy datasets, we locate the likely origin of the imported pottery in the Circum-Troodos sediments of central and southern Cyprus. The secondary and tertiary settlements of Çatal Höyük and Tell Judaidah had access only to this imported material. In contrast, the inhabitants of Tell Tayinat, capital city of the region, consumed both imported and locally produced White Painted and Bichrome Wares. This pattern cannot be explained in purely economic terms whereby the frequency of imports decreases as distance from the point of production increases. Instead, we suggest that elite feasting practices drove demand, resulting in either local potters producing Cypriot-style pottery or Cypriot potters settling in the vicinity of Tell Tayinat. These findings offer new insights into the relationship between historically attested Iron Age kingdoms in southern Turkey and Cyprus and complicate our understanding of exchange in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Iron Age. PMID:27902729
Farzipour-Saein, Ali; Koyi, Hemin
Although the role of various basal and intermediate decollement levels on structural style is well documented individually in many folded terrains, the interaction between basal and intermediate decollements is poorly constrained. This study uses results of two scaled sand-box models shortened from one end to study the variation in structural development in response to varying basal friction and its consequent interaction with intermediate decollement horizons. Two models with similar incompetent intermediate decollement, but with different basal friction (with and without a thick basal decollement), were prepared analogous for the eastern and the western parts of the Razak basement fault in the Fars Region of the eastern part of the Zagros fold thrust belt (ZFTB). Combined results of scaled models with geological observations are used to argue that the basal decollement friction characteristics govern propagation of deformation front. In addition, model results, analogues to north-south direction, show that deformation complexity and disharmonic folding exist in the section where the intermediate decollement has been activated in response to the shortening without the basal decollement (throughout the western part of the Razak basement fault where less thickness of the Hormuz series as the basal decollement has been documented compared to its eastern part). In other words, the complexity in deformation is less portrayed along sections where basal friction beneath the model decreases (e.g. the eastern part of the Razak basement fault). We argue here that, in addition to other parameters (not presented in this study) interaction of intermediate decollement levels with basal decollement friction characteristics could explain decoupling between structures within the sedimentary column of the Fars Region of the eastern part of the Zagros fold thrust belt.
Shatkin, Jess P.; Diamond, Ursula; Zhao, Yihong; DiMeglio, John; Chodaczek, Michaela; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie
This study tested the impact of the skills-building component of a two-semester risk and resilience (R&R) course on the stress, coping skills, and cognitive style of 36 undergraduates compared to 62 students enrolled in a child and adolescent psychopathology course. In the fall, students learned about risk taking and decision-making as well as…
Smith, Tara; Renk, Kimberly
This study examined potential predictors of the academic-related stress experienced by college students. In particular, the relationships among the coping strategies used by college students, social support, the parenting style used by college students' mothers and fathers, college students' experience of anxiety, and academic-related stress were…
Caserta, Michael; Utz, Rebecca; Lund, Dale; Bearnson, Kristin Lee; de Vries, Brian
We investigated if an intervention based on the dual process model (vs. traditional bereavement support) enhanced oscillation between loss- and restoration-oriented (LO/RO) coping of recently bereaved (2–6 months) spouses/partners. Participants were followed over 12 months. We found an increased emphasis over time on RO coping, particularly for women and those who were younger; however, no treatment effect was detected. Although patterns in the data are consistent with the model, we conclude that it is difficult for interventions to modify LO, RO and oscillation unless there is sufficient intervention dosage and tailored to those exclusively engaged in one process. PMID:24524542
Young, David E.
Far from being peripheral to human functioning, aesthetic activity is fundamental to the process of coping. It is distinguished from other cultural activity, like religion and science, because its raw materials are formal properties--line, form, color, texture--derived from the external world. (Author/CS)
Choo, Heeyoung; Nasar, Jack L; Nikrahei, Bardia; Walther, Dirk B
Images of iconic buildings, such as the CN Tower, instantly transport us to specific places, such as Toronto. Despite the substantial impact of architectural design on people's visual experience of built environments, we know little about its neural representation in the human brain. In the present study, we have found patterns of neural activity associated with specific architectural styles in several high-level visual brain regions, but not in primary visual cortex (V1). This finding suggests that the neural correlates of the visual perception of architectural styles stem from style-specific complex visual structure beyond the simple features computed in V1. Surprisingly, the network of brain regions representing architectural styles included the fusiform face area (FFA) in addition to several scene-selective regions. Hierarchical clustering of error patterns further revealed that the FFA participated to a much larger extent in the neural encoding of architectural styles than entry-level scene categories. We conclude that the FFA is involved in fine-grained neural encoding of scenes at a subordinate-level, in our case, architectural styles of buildings. This study for the first time shows how the human visual system encodes visual aspects of architecture, one of the predominant and longest-lasting artefacts of human culture.
Choo, Heeyoung; Nasar, Jack L.; Nikrahei, Bardia; Walther, Dirk B.
Images of iconic buildings, such as the CN Tower, instantly transport us to specific places, such as Toronto. Despite the substantial impact of architectural design on people’s visual experience of built environments, we know little about its neural representation in the human brain. In the present study, we have found patterns of neural activity associated with specific architectural styles in several high-level visual brain regions, but not in primary visual cortex (V1). This finding suggests that the neural correlates of the visual perception of architectural styles stem from style-specific complex visual structure beyond the simple features computed in V1. Surprisingly, the network of brain regions representing architectural styles included the fusiform face area (FFA) in addition to several scene-selective regions. Hierarchical clustering of error patterns further revealed that the FFA participated to a much larger extent in the neural encoding of architectural styles than entry-level scene categories. We conclude that the FFA is involved in fine-grained neural encoding of scenes at a subordinate-level, in our case, architectural styles of buildings. This study for the first time shows how the human visual system encodes visual aspects of architecture, one of the predominant and longest-lasting artefacts of human culture. PMID:28071765
Jauregui, Paula; Onaindia, Jaione; Estévez, Ana
Coping plays a central role in the appearance and persistence of pathological gambling. Anxious and depressive symptomatology also influence pathological gambling and are related to coping. This study aimed to analyze pathological gamblers' coping strategies and styles, as well as associated anxious and depressive symptomatology. The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Measures of gambling, coping, and anxious and depressive symptomatology were used. Results showed that pathological gamblers' scored higher in all the maladaptive coping strategies, problem- and emotion-focused disengagement, and disengagement subscales. These subscales also correlated with pathological gambling, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Pathological gamblers also scored higher in emotional expression and emotion-focused engagement, with no differences in the rest of the adaptive coping strategies. Coping was also found to predict pathological gambling and anxious and depressive symptomatology. It was found that coping mediated the relationship between pathological gambling and anxious symptomatology when controlling for the effect of age. Specifically, social withdrawal and disengagement stood out as mediators. These results provide practical information for use in clinical settings with people diagnosed with pathological gambling.
Ezenwa, Miriam O; Yao, Yingwei; Molokie, Robert E; Wang, Zaijie Jim; Mandernach, Molly W; Suarez, Marie L; Wilkie, Diana J
To evaluate the pain coping strategies of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) who experience healthcare injustice from either physicians or nurses during medical visits for pain management. It is unknown how patients' coping with pain relates to their experiences of healthcare injustice from physicians or nurses. This descriptive comparative study included adult outpatients with SCD who completed the PAINReportIt(®), Healthcare Justice Questionnaire(©), and Coping Strategies Questionnaire-SCD. Data were analyzed using independent t tests. Frequent coping strategies of patients who experienced healthcare justice from physicians were praying-hoping and from nurses were praying-hoping, calming self-statements, diverting attention, and increasing behavioral activity. In contrast, frequent coping strategies of patients who experienced healthcare injustice from physicians were catastrophizing and isolation and from nurses were isolation. Patients who experienced healthcare justice used different sets of pain coping strategies than those who experienced healthcare injustice during medical visits for pain management.
Padden, Diane L; Connors, Rebecca A; Agazio, Janice G
This study examined the relationships between stress, coping, general well-being, and sociodemographic characteristics using Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress and coping. A descriptive correlational design was used. The sample consisted of 105 female spouses of currently deployed active duty military members. Instruments included the Perceived Stress Scale, the Jalowiec Coping Scale, and the RAND-36. Perceived stress was the best predictor of both mental and physical well-being, accounting for 51.7% and 25.4% of the variance, respectively. Evasive and optimistic coping contributed an additional 1.9 % and 4.3%, respectively, to the variance in mental well-being. Differences in coping use were found among rank groups, those who grew up in a military family, and those with a previous deployment separation. Nurses are in an ideal position to identify military spouses at risk and provide education on effective coping behaviors shown to positively affect well-being during deployment separation.
Medley, Andrew R; Powell, Theresa; Worthington, Andrew; Chohan, Gagandeep; Jones, Chris
The interplay between individuals' subjective beliefs about traumatic brain injury, their coping style and their self-awareness might provide a more helpful guide to rehabilitation goals than looking at these factors in isolation. We therefore conducted a preliminary study to determine whether the Self-Regulatory Model can identify different clusters of individuals according to belief schemata, and to explore whether clusters differed across measures of coping and self-awareness. The Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised was administered to 37 participants with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), along with the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised and the European Brain Injury Questionnaire. Clinicians also rated clients' level of difficulties using the latter scale, and the discrepancy between client and clinician scores was used as a measure of self-awareness. Hierarchical cluster analysis distinguished three groups based on profiles of subjective beliefs about TBI, labelled "low control/ambivalent", "high salience", and "high optimism". The high salience group was characterised by beliefs about serious consequences of the injury and greater self-awareness, and reported a greater range of coping strategies. The other two groups showed lower levels of awareness but differed in coping styles, with the low control/ambivalent group showing a trend towards more avoidance coping against a background of lower perceived control.
Smith, Gabie E.; Eggleston, Tami J.
Describes an activity designed to enhance undergraduate student comprehension of the American Psychological Association (APA) manual and style where students examined a poorly written paper for errors in relation to the APA guidelines. Reports the results of a study that tested the effectiveness of the activity. (CMK)
Chauvet, Seanna; Hofmeyer, Anne
Although the nursing and education literature confirm that humor has a role to play in the learning experience, there is little evidence available about the impact and the challenges of using humor to facilitate group process and learning in problem-based learning environments for nursing students. In this paper, we explore humor as a style of communication in PBL environments using examples from the classroom. We then propose a range of strategies to build capacity in PBL tutors and to infuse humor into the PBL classroom such as: acceptance that fun and humor are components of the ground rules in the group; appropriate humor and boundaries; mutual story sharing; and creative activities to moderate stress and build coping strategies to thrive in clinical practice. It is timely for nurse academics and researchers to examine the contribution of humor as a facilitative communication style in the PBL environment. Findings could inform evidence-based teaching of nursing students and foster life-long learning and communication skills.
... bone structure. I use relaxation methods like meditation, yoga, or progressive muscle relaxation at least 5 times ... minutes of moderate exercise (such as walking or yoga) or 75 minutes of vigorous activity (such as ...
Thompson, Stephanie F; Lengua, Liliana J; Garcia, Connie Meza
This study examined the concurrent and longitudinal relations among cumulative risk, appraisal, coping, and adjustment. Longitudinal path models were tested in a community sample of 316 children in preadolescence to examine hypotheses that threat appraisal and avoidant coping mediate the effects of cumulative risk on child adjustment, whereas positive appraisal and active coping were hypothesized to predict better adjustment independently. Children and their mothers were assessed during in-home interviews at three time points at one-year intervals. Children reported on appraisal and coping strategies. Mothers and children reported on child adjustment problems and positive adjustment. Rank-order changes in appraisal and coping predicted rank-order changes in adjustment. Cumulative risk was concurrently related to higher threat appraisal and avoidant coping at each time point. Threat appraisal and avoidant coping mediated the relations of cumulative risk to rank-order changes in adjustment. There is specificity in the relations of cumulative risk to threat appraisal and avoidant coping, whereas positive appraisal and active coping are independent of risk and operate as individual resource factors.
Anie, K; Steptoe, A; Ball, S; Dick, M; Smalling, B
Aims: To assess sickle cell pain and coping in children and to examine the relation between these factors and the utilisation of health services. Methods: Cross sectional study involving 67 children with sickle cell disease attending three London hospitals. Interviews and questionnaires involved measures of pain, health service utilisation, and coping responses (measured with the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), revised for children with sickle cell disease). Medical data on complications, haemoglobin (Hb) levels, and foetal haemoglobin (HbF) percentage were also collected. Results: Pain accounted for about 24% of hospital service use, independent of age, sex, number of with sickle cell disease complications, and Hb levels. However, 42% of patients had not utilised hospital services in the past 12 months. Three higher order factors emerged from analysis of the CSQ (active coping, affective coping, passive adherence coping). Pain severity was predicted by passive adherence coping, while utilisation of hospital services was predicted by active coping. Conclusions: Sickle cell disease in children involves severe recurrent pain leading to hospitalisation in some cases. Psychological coping patterns are relevant to both pain experience, and the use of acute hospital services. It is likely that children would benefit from community based interventions that incorporate both medical and psychological assessments. PMID:11970920
... also use other drugs. Despite what happens, most children of alcoholics love their parents and worry about something bad happening to them. ... there are lots of support groups to help children of alcoholics cope with the problem. What If a Parent Doesn't See a Problem? Drinking too much ...
Wood, Frances B.
In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.
Reviews the need for and appropriate use of individual assessment in physical education and explains how computerized data management can combat the logistical difficulties of using the data. Describes project COPE (Computer Organized Physical Education), a computerized data management system for improving recordkeeping, planning, and…
Classroom teachers need to understand the broad differences that exist between a child's perception of death and that of an adult and should be prepared to confront and cope with the effects of death and grief upon students. Children's perceptions of death and ways in which the teacher can help the child with his grief are described. (JN)
Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari
This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…
Shearer, Dana Ann
According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers.
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between religiousness, spirituality (R/S), and coping among late adolescents within a meaning-making perspective. Specifically, global meaning and situational meaning were examined as potential mediators. Two hundred and twenty one Polish participants (115 women and 106 men) completed the Religious Meaning System Questionnaire, the Self-description Questionnaire of Spirituality, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, and the Situational Meaning Scale. Results of SEM analysis showed that R/S had both direct and indirect effects on coping, suggesting that global meaning and situational meaning served as partial mediators among late adolescents. The mediating role of global meaning and situational meaning may be more fully understood within the framework of the meaning-making model. Consistent with the model, individuals with higher levels of R/S had a propensity to experience stronger global meaning in life and situational meaning, which in turn contributed to more frequent using coping styles.
Hadjistavropoulos, T; Hadjistavropoulos, H D; Craig, K D
Previous research led to the conclusion that patient characteristics such as physical attractiveness and non-verbal expressiveness affected judgements of patient pain and distress. This study investigated whether this represents an intrusive bias or whether there indeed are psychological differences between physically attractive vs physically unattractive and expressive vs inexpressive pain patients. The findings led to the conclusion that both variables are related to the types of coping strategies pain patients use. Specifically, physically attractive and nonverbally expressive patients were found to be less likely to utilize passive coping strategies. Coping style also was found to be related to demographic characteristics of the patients. Theoretical reasons for the identified relationships are discussed as are the implications of these findings for the assessment of pain.
Peterson, Brennan D.; Newton, Christopher R.; Rosen, Karen H.; Schulman, Robert S.
This study explored the coping processes of couples experiencing infertility. Participants included 420 couples referred for advanced reproductive treatments. Couples were divided into groups based on the frequency of their use of eight coping strategies. Findings suggest that coping processes, which are beneficial to individuals, may be…
Mohino, Susana; Kirchner, Teresa; Forns, Maria
The general aim of this study is to analyze diverse aspects relating to the use of coping strategies among prison inmates. The specific objectives are (a) to analyze which type of coping strategies predominate among prisoners, considering both the focus and the method; (b) to relate the use of coping strategies with variables related to the prison…
Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka
The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…
Solano, Nancy H.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss
Investigated whether the coping framework developed with younger adults with schizophrenia could be applied to people over 50 with schizophrenia. Results indicated that coping strategies used by older people were similar to those of younger populations. However, it was reported that efficacy of coping strategies had increased as participants had…
Cuddy, Claudia M
Many nursing schools and health care journals have adopted the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA stylebook) as their guide to achieve uniformity and consistency in manuscript preparation as well as in usage and writing style. Published in 2001, the fifth edition of the APA stylebook contains 440 pages and can overwhelm someone who tries to use it for the first time. This article delineates main points in the areas of manuscript preparation, reference lists, in-text citations, and style choices.
Many reading problems are caused by using the wrong teaching methods. This article advocates using a reading style inventory and matching the teaching method to the student's reading style. The author holds copyright to this article. (Contains 3 figures.)
Rafique, Rafia; Hunt, Nigel
The study explored experiences of adolescents aged 15–19 with alopecia areata (AA) and investigated their accounts of coping behaviours. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to provide an in-depth and holistic perspective of their accounts. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a volunteer sample of eight respondents diagnosed with AA. Four key themes were identified: loss (self/social), concerns (physical/future), negative (emotions/thoughts), and coping styles (adaptive/maladaptive). Females experienced greater feelings of loss, were more concerned about their looks and their future, and reported more negative thoughts and emotions. Females felt angry and blamed God for their fate; males blamed both their fate and luck. Action-oriented and practical coping styles were adopted by all of them. After the realization that initial coping behaviours were ineffective, self-distraction, acceptance, and humour were used. Psychological relief followed with the practice of religion and planning for treatments to be undertaken in the future. The findings here are similar to research conducted in the West, though with more emphasis on religion. Health care providers and student counsellors need to understand the negative psychosocial consequences for adolescents living with a visible disfigurement and provide appropriate psychological and social support. PMID:25636795
Keyes, Kathryn; And Others
Examined the responses of a group of middle-aged and older adults (N=34) to colostomy surgery. Analyzed the relationship between the method and focus of coping and age, sickness-related dysfunction, and depression. Found that neither a lower level of active behavioral coping nor age itself was correlated with depression or dysfunction. (Author/ABB)
Catanzaro, Salvatore J.; Greenwood, Gregory
College students (n=222) completed measures of negative mood regulation (NMR) expectancies, negative life events, coping responses, dysphoria, and somatic symptoms. Weeks later, they completed same questionnaires but with daily hassles replacing life events. NMR expectancies were positively related to active coping and negatively related to…
Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena
This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive…
Härenstam, A; Theorell, T; Kaijser, L
This study explored the association among coping, psychosocial work factors, and signs of coronary heart disease (CHD) among prison staff (777 men, 345 women). Electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings at rest, health examinations, and a questionnaire were used. A high level of covert coping in men and a low level of open coping in women showed the strongest association with signs of CHD. Among several traditional biological and lifestyle risk factors, only age and systolic blood pressure in men and none in the case of women were significantly associated with CHD signs in the final multivariate regression analyses. A coping style of repressed emotions and actions in anger-provoking situations, independent of traditional risk factors, seems to be associated with a prevalence of ECG signs in male and female prison staff.
Logan, Richard D.; O'Hearn, George T.
Examines changes in the broad cultural background which provide the context for thinking, and how such life-style changes may have influenced the decline of reasoning skills and styles fundamental to the sciences. Considers peasant/rural farming, new world, and postaffluent society life-styles and science education in the latter. (Author/SK)
Carrica, Jennifer L.
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…
Background Previous research has found that acceptance of pain is more successful than cognitive coping variables for predicting adjustment to pain. This research has a limitation because measures of cognitive coping rely on observations and reports of thoughts or attempts to change thoughts rather than on overt behaviours. The purpose of the present study, therefore, is to compare the influence of acceptance measures and the influence of different behavioural coping strategies on the adjustment to chronic pain. Methods A sample of 167 individuals diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome completed the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory (CPCI) and the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ). Results Correlational analyses indicated that the acceptance variables were more related to distress and functioning than were behavioural coping variables. The average magnitudes of the coefficients for activity engagement and pain willingness (both subscales of pain acceptance) across the measures of distress and functioning were r = 0.42 and 0.25, respectively, meanwhile the average magnitude of the correlation between coping and functioning was r = 0.17. Regression analyses examined the independent, relative contributions of coping and acceptance to adjustment indicators and demonstrated that acceptance accounted for more variance than did coping variables. The variance contributed by acceptance scores ranged from 4.0 to 40%. The variance contributed by the coping variables ranged from 0 to 9%. Conclusions This study extends the findings of previous work in enhancing the adoption of acceptance-based interventions for maintaining accurate functioning in fibromyalgia patients. PMID:21714918
Klostermann, Keith; Chen, Rui; Kelley, Michelle L; Schroeder, Valarie M; Braitman, Abby L; Mignone, Theresa
This paper examined whether adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) would report more depressive mood symptoms as compared to non-ACOAs, whether coping behaviors differed as a function of ACOA status, and whether specific coping behaviors were related to depressive mood symptoms in ACOAs. Participants were 136 college students categorized as ACOAs and 436 college students categorized as non-ACOAs as determined by scores on the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST; J.W.Jones, 1983 The children of alcoholics screening test: test manual. Chicago: Camelot). As compared to non-ACOAs, ACOAs reported significantly more symptoms of depressive mood as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS; McNair, Lorr, and Droppleman, 1992 POMS manual: profile of mood states. San Diego, CA: Edits). On the COPE Inventory (Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub, 1989 Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56:267-283), ACOAs reported higher use of the following coping strategies: Behavior Disengagement, Denial, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Humor, and Substance Use. For both the ACOA and non-ACOA groups, the use of Positive Reinterpretation and Growth and the use of Planning were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms, whereas Mental Disengagement, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Denial, Behavior Disengagement, Substance Use, and Suppression of Competing Activities were associated with higher depressive mood scores.
Morrison, Mark; Sweeney, Arthur; Heffernan, Troy
Debate over the link between student learning styles and effective teaching has a long tradition, made more interesting by Karns's recent article "Learning Style Differences in the Perceived Effectiveness of Learning Activities." Fundamentally he asserts, in critiquing Morrison et al. (2003), that marketing educators should not adopt "a high…
Fung, Y. H.; And Others
Describes a study of Chinese undergraduate students at the Hong Kong Polytechnic that was conducted to examine the reliability and predictive validity of a short form of Honey and Mumford's Learning Styles Questionnaire. Correlations between learning style scores and preferences for different types of learning activities are discussed. (16…
Dudley, R T; Whisnand, E A
52 college students completed Tobacyk's 1988 Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Peterson, Semmel, von Baeyer, Abramson, Metalsky, and Seligman's 1982 Attributional Style Questionnaire. Analysis showed significantly higher depressive attributional styles among high scorers on paranormal phenomena than low scorers.
Glenn, E. S.; And Others
Offers an alternative methodology for studying persuasive strategies by examining the persuasive strategies selected by professional persuaders representing those cultures being studied. Analyzes the persuasive styles of United States, Soviet Union and Arab diplomats involved in international negotiations in the Security Council of the United…
Brew, Angela; Wright, Tony
Eleven tutor counselors in the British Open University were interviewed to ascertain how they responded to the idea of using a facilitative teaching style in their tutorials. Analyses of their responses using a systems model revealed factors which offer a tentative explanation of why some tutor counselors were more amenable to changing their…