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Sample records for active coping style

  1. Insight, distress and coping styles in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Michael; Peters, Emmanuelle; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P.P.; Aasen, Ingrid; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2007-01-01

    Background The stigma and negative societal views attached to schizophrenia can make the diagnosis distressing. There is evidence that poor insight into symptoms of the disorder and need for treatment may reflect the use of denial as a coping style. However, the relationships between insight and other coping styles have seldom been investigated. Method We examined the associations between insight, distress and a number of coping styles in 65 outpatients with schizophrenia (final n = 57) in a cross-sectional study. Results We found that (i) awareness of symptoms and problems correlated with greater distress, (ii) ‘preference for positive reinterpretation and growth’ coping style correlated with lower distress and with lower symptom awareness (re-labelling), (iii) ‘preference for mental disengagement’ coping style correlated with greater distress and lower awareness of problems, and (iv) ‘social support-seeking’ coping style correlated with greater awareness of illness, but not distress. No relationship occurred between the use of ‘denial’ as a coping style and insight or distress. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that awareness of illness and related problems is associated with greater distress in schizophrenia. However, this investigation has not supported a simple psychological denial explanation for this relationship, as complex relationships emerged between different dimensions of insight and coping styles. The negative association between ‘positive reinterpretation and growth’ and distress suggests that adopting this style may lead to re-labelling symptoms in a less distressing way. Avoidant and isolating styles of coping both appear unhelpful. Psychological interventions should aim to promote more active coping such as discussing a mental health problem with others. PMID:17561377

  2. Context-dependent activation of reduced autobiographical memory specificity as an avoidant coping style.

    PubMed

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Hermans, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    According to the affect-regulation hypothesis (Williams et al., 2007), reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS) or overgeneral memory (OGM) might be considered a cognitive avoidance strategy; that is, people learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. Based on this hypothesis, one would predict significant negative associations between AMS and avoidant coping. However, studies investigating this prediction have led to equivocal results. In the present study we tested a possible explanation for these contradictory findings. It was hypothesized that rAMS (in part) reflects an avoidant coping strategy, which might only become apparent under certain conditions, that is, conditions that signal the possibility of 'danger.' To test this hypothesis, we assessed AMS and behavioral avoidance but experimentally manipulated the instructions. In the neutral condition, two parallel versions of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) were presented under neutral instructions. In the threat condition, the first AMT was presented under neutral instructions, while the second AMT was presented under 'threat instructions.' Results showed no significant correlations between avoidance and OGM under neutral conditions but significant and markedly stronger correlations under threat conditions, with more avoidance being associated with fewer specific and more categoric memories. In addition, high avoiders showed a stronger reduction in AMS in the threat condition as compared with the neutral condition, while low avoiders showed no such difference between conditions. The data confirm that OGM can be considered as part of a broader avoidant coping style. However, more importantly, they show that, at least in nonclinical individuals, the activation of this coping style may depend on the context.

  3. Coping styles of Chicago adults: description.

    PubMed

    Ilfeld, F W

    1980-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 2,299 Chicago adults the author empirically describes the coping styles used to combat stressors in the social roles of marriage, parenting, finances, and job. Factor analyses of coping responses uncovered three major patterns: taking direct action, rationalization avoidance of the stressor, and acceptance of the stressful situation without attempting alteration. Respondents did not consistently utilize one coping style across all role areas, but rather employed a repertoire of responses. Demographic characteristics were found to explain only a small amount of variation in the coping styles.

  4. Coping styles of Chicago adults: effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Ilfeld, F W

    1980-11-01

    With a sample of 2,299 Chicago adults, a quantitive exploration is made of the effectiveness of different coping styles in dealing with stressor situations and feelings of distress associated with marriage, parenting, finances, and job; psychiatric symptomatology; and feelings of low self-efficacy. The specific measure of effectiveness is the extent to which one or more coping styles predicts a given dependent variable in a multiple regression analysis. As a group. coping strategies are more predictive of the stressor situation and feelings of personal distress than of psychiatric symptomatology or feelings of low self-efficacy. Also, coping styles relate differentially among the four life areas; they are more predictive of levels of stressors in marriage and parenting than in finances or job. Some coping styles are strongly predictive of low amounts of stressors; this is particularly true of the use of strategies that invoke direct action.

  5. Coping styles and personality: a biometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kerry L; Thordarson, Dana S; Stein, Murray B; Cohan, Sharon L; Taylor, Steven

    2007-03-01

    Previous research suggests that coping styles are modestly heritable and that this genetic influence is shared in large part with genetic influences on personality. To test this hypothesis, we estimated the heritable basis of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations in a sample of 91 monozygotic and 80 dizygotic twin pairs. Task-oriented, emotion-oriented, and social diversion coping styles were modestly heritable (h(2)=.17 to .20), whereas the use of distraction appeared to be influenced solely by environmental factors. Multivariate analyses showed that genetic contributions to coping styles were, at best, only modestly related to genetic contributions to personality (r=-.03 to .35). Environmental contributions to personality were unrelated to environmental factors in coping style. These results suggest that coping style is not merely a manifestation of basic personality traits but does support the possibility that the genetic factors in personality influences have a modest influence on an individual's preferred coping style or strength (e.g., rigidity vs flexibility).

  6. Coping styles of older adults with ostomies.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Sheila Normand; Meeker, Bonnie Juve'

    2002-05-01

    Various clinical studies throughout the years have shown that individuals with ostomies are a unique group facing adjustment demands. One of the most important challenges for an individual with an ostomy is coping with the physiological and psychological changes. The purpose of this study was to describe coping styles of older adults after undergoing ostomy surgery and to explore its helpfulness in dealing with the stressors related to having an ostomy. Lazarus and Folkman's theory on stress and coping was used as the framework to guide this study. A sample of 27 participants ranging from age 50 to 84 years was obtained from an ostomy association in southeastern Louisiana. Participants were asked to complete a demographic data form and the Revised Jalowiec Coping Scale. This revised scale measured eight coping styles related to Use and Effectiveness. Findings revealed significant differences existed among the means of the eight measures for both Use and Effectiveness at p < .01. Results demonstrated that the optimistic and self-reliant styles of coping were the most frequently used as effective styles for coping with an ostomy. This indicated a positive outlook and dependence on oneself rather than dependence on others when coping with the stressors of having an ostomy. There were no statistically significant differences related to gender or ostomy type. Also, aging did not appear to be a factor when considering coping styles of older adults with ostomies. The nursing role should include assessment of the individual preoperatively to identify fears, concerns, and stressors related to having an ostomy. Also, nurses can provide education on disease management, assist with identification of ineffective coping mechanisms, and promote effective coping skills and stress management techniques.

  7. Monitoring: a dual-function coping style.

    PubMed

    Shiloh, Shoshana; Orgler-Shoob, Michal

    2006-04-01

    Monitoring (Miller, 1991) is defined as a cognitive coping style characterized by the tendency to seek information about threats. This study found that information seeking in stressful situations is perceived by individuals as related to the emotion-focused more than the problem-focused function of coping and that there is considerable variance among individuals in the perceived functions of information seeking and the relationships among information-seeking reactions and their perceived functions. Information-seeking preferences in a natural stressful situation (a final course examination) were predicted by individual differences in perceived functions of information seeking rather than by generalized behavioral coping styles (monitoring). The results were interpreted in relation to the cognitive-affective system theory (Mischel & Shoda, 1995), and implications for the measurement of coping dispositions were discussed. PMID:16529583

  8. Co-segregation of hyperactivity, active coping styles, and cognitive dysfunction in mice selectively bred for low levels of anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Yi-Chun; Anderzhanova, Elmira; Bunck, Mirjam; Schuller, Julia; Landgraf, Rainer; Wotjak, Carsten T.

    2013-01-01

    We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field (OF) test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB) and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB). Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition (PPI), implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles, and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD-like symptoms

  9. Co-segregation of hyperactivity, active coping styles, and cognitive dysfunction in mice selectively bred for low levels of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yi-Chun; Anderzhanova, Elmira; Bunck, Mirjam; Schuller, Julia; Landgraf, Rainer; Wotjak, Carsten T

    2013-01-01

    We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field (OF) test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB) and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB). Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition (PPI), implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles, and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD-like symptoms.

  10. Coping Styles and Alcohol Dependence among Homeless People

    PubMed Central

    Opalach, Cezary; Romaszko, Jerzy; Jaracz, Marcin; Kuchta, Robert; Borkowska, Alina; Buciński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The ways in which homeless individuals cope with stress may differ from those relied upon by the members of the general population and these differences may either be the result or the cause of their living conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the preferred coping style among the homeless and its relationship with alcohol dependence. Methods The study included 78 homeless individuals and involved the collection of demographic, sociological, psychological and medical data from each participant. Coping styles relied upon when dealing with stressful situations were assessed using a Polish adaptation of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Alcohol dependence was assessed using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and a quantitative analysis of alcohol consumption. Results Men accounted for 91.93% of the study population. Nearly 75% of the subjects met the alcohol dependence criterion. Significant relationships were observed between the individual's age, preferred coping style and alcohol consumption level. As an individual’s age increased, the use of emotion-oriented coping styles decreased, while an increase in alcohol consumption was associated with a more frequent use of emotion- and avoidance-oriented strategies. Conclusions The findings of this study, similarly to those of many other studies of homeless individuals but investigating other areas (e.g. epidemiology of tuberculosis and traumatic injuries), are an exaggerated representation of associations observed in the general population. The results describe a group of people living on the margins of the society, often suffering from extremely advanced alcoholism, with clear evident psychodegradation. The presence of specific ways of coping with stress related to excessive alcohol consumption in this group of individuals may interfere with active participation in support programmes provided for the homeless and may further exacerbate their problems. PMID

  11. The Interrelationships of Coping Styles and Professional Burnout Among Physiotherapists

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowska-Domagala, Katarzyna; Jablkowska-Górecka, Karolina; Kostrzanowska-Jarmakowska, Lilianna; Mortoń, Marta; Stecz, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Burnout is a pathological syndrome in which emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DEP), and a reduced sense of personal accomplishment (PA) develop in response to prolonged occupational stress. Those working in the physiotherapy profession appear to be at risk for professional burnout brought on by the specific character of the medical professions, involving continuous contact with patients and associated stress, as well as poor working conditions. However, literature data concerning the scale of professional burnout and its psychosocial correlates remain scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess the scale of professional burnout among physiotherapists and to determine the interrelationships between coping styles and burnout symptoms. The sample consisted of 117 professionally active physiotherapists (90 women and 27 men) aged 21 to 55 years (mean [M] 31.88, standard deviation [SD] = 9.14, responsiveness rate of 80.6%) from randomly selected medical institutions of the Lodz Region. The study was conducted using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) by Endler and Parker. Demographic and job-related data on the respondents were also collected. Task-oriented coping correlated negatively with DEP, EE, and low PA, in contrast to emotion-oriented coping. No correlation was found between avoidance-oriented coping and burnout symptoms. Similarly, no interactive correlations between coping styles and particular burnout symptoms were confirmed. Coping styles correlate independently with professional burnout, without any mutual correlations. Physiotherapists employing a wider spectrum of task-oriented strategies are slightly more satisfied with their job. The incidence of burnout syndrome in the analyzed group is similar to that observed in other medical professions and requires the adoption of preventive measures. PMID:26091455

  12. The Interrelationships of Coping Styles and Professional Burnout Among Physiotherapists

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowska-Domagala, Katarzyna; Jablkowska-Górecka, Karolina; Kostrzanowska-Jarmakowska, Lilianna; Mortoń, Marta; Stecz, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Burnout is a pathological syndrome in which emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DEP), and a reduced sense of personal accomplishment (PA) develop in response to prolonged occupational stress. Those working in the physiotherapy profession appear to be at risk for professional burnout brought on by the specific character of the medical professions, involving continuous contact with patients and associated stress, as well as poor working conditions. However, literature data concerning the scale of professional burnout and its psychosocial correlates remain scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess the scale of professional burnout among physiotherapists and to determine the interrelationships between coping styles and burnout symptoms. The sample consisted of 117 professionally active physiotherapists (90 women and 27 men) aged 21 to 55 years (mean [M] 31.88, standard deviation [SD] = 9.14, responsiveness rate of 80.6%) from randomly selected medical institutions of the Lodz Region. The study was conducted using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) by Endler and Parker. Demographic and job-related data on the respondents were also collected. Task-oriented coping correlated negatively with DEP, EE, and low PA, in contrast to emotion-oriented coping. No correlation was found between avoidance-oriented coping and burnout symptoms. Similarly, no interactive correlations between coping styles and particular burnout symptoms were confirmed. Coping styles correlate independently with professional burnout, without any mutual correlations. Physiotherapists employing a wider spectrum of task-oriented strategies are slightly more satisfied with their job. The incidence of burnout syndrome in the analyzed group is similar to that observed in other medical professions and requires the adoption of preventive measures.

  13. Maternal coping styles and adjustment in children.

    PubMed

    Atlas, J G; Rickel, A U

    1988-06-01

    A comprehensive examination of children's social-emotional adjustment as related to maternal coping styles was performed. Subjects were 186 black mothers from lower-income families, and their children who were enrolled in the Detroit Public Schools Area F, Title I Preschool Program. Maternal nurturant and restrictive child rearing practices, life stress, locus of control and marital status were evaluated with respect to each of the child variables of school adjustment, self-concept and social problem solving skills. Maternal life stress was significantly related to children's lower self-concept, higher aggression, use of finagling and nondirective problem-solving strategies. Significant negative relationships were found between maternal nurturance and child moodiness and learning problems in school, further validating the Modified Child Rearing Practices Report. These findings provide support for expanding the current child developmental focus of preventive parenting programs to include maternal coping strategies such as improved communication and assertiveness training.

  14. Assessment of pain coping styles: development of an inventory.

    PubMed

    Crow, C S; Olivet, L W; Burry-Stock, J; VanderMeer, J L

    1996-11-01

    The Pain Coping Style Inventory (PCSI) is an instrument designed to measure the pain coping style of individuals. It is based on the pain coping model and typology described by Copp. A study with a convenience sample of 145 university graduates, undergraduates, and faculty revealed a Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of 0.90, adequate stability, and a nine factor analysis solution representing 57% of the variance. Four of Copp's five coping styles are clearly defined by the factor analysis: interactive, reactive, combatant, and victim. Five more coping styles are named: contractor, distractor, spiritual coping, substance users, and mind over matter. The development and piloting of the PCSI is a step towards empowering the nurse with the ability to provide patients with individualized pain coping strategies. PMID:8933247

  15. Coping Styles among Mothers of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden

    This paper describes the use of various coping strategies of mothers of adult children with mental retardation, and examines whether there is a relation between specific styles of coping and maternal characteristics and personal well-being. A group of 349 mothers completed the "Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced" scale. On average,…

  16. Coping Styles in Youths with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Cindy L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated relationships between two coping styles and two health outcomes in 135 youth with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Found that poor adherence to treatment, older adolescent age, and long duration of IDDM correlated with ventilation and avoidance coping. High ventilation and avoidance coping was predicted by high stress, low…

  17. Coping Styles among Adolescent Competitive Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshel, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Examines the various coping strategies that competitive adolescent athletes use to deal with errors, penalties, and unpleasant comments from spectators. Identifies and discusses four coping strategies: avoidance, approach, task-focused, and emotion-focused. Briefly reviews the literature on coping and the results of a survey of Australian…

  18. Coping Styles as Mediators of Teachers' Classroom Management Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ramon; Roache, Joel; Romi, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the relationships between coping styles of Australian teachers and the classroom based classroom management techniques they use to cope with student misbehaviour. There is great interest internationally in improving educational systems by upgrading the quality of teachers' classroom management. However, the relationship between…

  19. Coping Styles and Psychological Distress among Hong Kong University Students: Validation of the Collectivist Coping Style Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Angela F. Y.; Chang, Jian Fang

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the factorial structure of the Collectivist Coping Style inventory (Heppner "et al." "Journal of Counseling Psychology" 53:107-125, 2006) and investigated how the effects of stress-related events on psychological distress are mediated through coping strategies. Three hundred and five Hong Kong university students participated…

  20. Selective Breeding for Infant Rat Separation-Induced Ultrasonic Vocalizations: Developmental Precursors of Passive and Active Coping Styles

    PubMed Central

    Brunelli, Susan A.; Hofer, Myron A.

    2009-01-01

    Human depression and anxiety disorders show inherited biases across generations, as do antisocial disorders characterized by aggression. Each condition is preceded in children by behavioral inhibition or aggressive behavior, respectively, and both are characterized by separation anxiety disorders. In affected families, adults and children exhibit different forms of altered autonomic nervous system regulation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in response to stress. Because it is difficult to determine mechanisms accounting for these associations, animal studies are useful for studying the fundamental relationships between biological and behavioral traits. Pharmacologic and behavioral studies suggest that infant rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) are a measure of an early anxiety-like state related to separation anxiety. However, it was not known whether or not early ultrasound emissions in infant rats are markers for genetic risk for anxiety states later in life. To address these questions, we selectively bred two lines of rats based on high and low rates of USV to isolation at postnatal (P) 10 days of age. To our knowledge, ours is the only laboratory that has ever selectively bred on the basis of an infantile trait related to anxiety. The High and Low USV lines show two distinct sets of patterns of behavior, physiology and neurochemistry from infancy through adulthood. As adults High line rats demonstrate “anxious”/“depressed” phenotypes in behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation to standard laboratory tests. In Lows, on the other hand, behavior and autonomic regulation are consistent with an “aggressive” phenotype. The High and Low USV lines are the first genetic animal models implicating long-term associations of contrasting “coping styles” with early attachment responses. They thus present a potentially powerful model for examining gene-environment interactions in the development of life-long affective regulation. PMID

  1. Tail skin temperatures reflect coping styles in rats.

    PubMed

    Agren, Greta; Lund, Irene; Thiblin, Ingemar; Lundeberg, Thomas

    2009-02-16

    This study was carried out to elucidate the predictive value of tail skin temperatures (TSTs) assessed in naïve rats as a non-invasive pre-experimental method of classification of coping style. Male Lewis rats were classified according to tail skin temperatures (TST), and relative size within cage-groups. TSTs were monitored over two-hour periods following exposure to physical and emotional stressors. Bodyweight-shifts associated to the experiments were analysed. Six organs of neuroendocrine relevance to allostasis were weighed. Challenge-specific TST-profiles were size-related and consistent with proactive or reactive coping. Pro-active (A) rats showed a more pronounced TST-response to unknown conspecifics, but reactive (B) rats to environmental novelties. B-rats showed challenge-specific weight-losses while A-rats gained more after experiments. Second size males showed rapidly decreased TSTs (vasoconstriction) after nociceptive stimulation. Males that showed the highest basal TSTs and weight-loss in emotionality tests had lost a first rank position during a pre-experimental period, suggesting long-lasting effects of social defeat. Pre-experimental growth correlated positively to adiposisity post-experimentally, but negatively to testes relative weight in B-rats. Scaling effects explained heart-size in B-rats and pituitary-size in A-rats. The overall patterns that emerged, in factor analyses including organ sizes, were consistent with pro-active coping in A-rats and reactive in B-rats. Our results, controlling for rank-effects, suggest that non-invasively assessed TSTs may predict individual stress-coping phenotypes pre-experimentally in rats housed in groups. PMID:19041659

  2. Attributions and Coping Styles in Reducing Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, Danielle; Craig, Wendy M.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the role of attributions and coping on children's victimization over time, 220 children completed questionnaires twice over a 6-month period. Direct and mediational models were tested using regressions, cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Characterological self-blame was positively related to victimization within and across time for…

  3. Parenting Styles, Coping Strategies, and the Expression of Homesickness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijhof, Karin S.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the role of parenting styles in the experience and expression of homesickness, and the way of coping with the feelings involved. Using a sample of 670 first year college and university students, aged 16 to 25, we tested three hypotheses: (1) authoritarian, permissive as well as uninvolved parenting are associated with…

  4. Development and Validation of a Collectivist Coping Styles Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul; Heppner, Mary J.; Lee, Dong-gwi; Wang, Yu-Wei; Park, Hyun-joo; Wang, Li-fei

    2006-01-01

    This research consisted of 3 studies, with a sample of over 3,000 Taiwanese college students, aimed at developing and validating a situation-specific Collectivist Coping Styles (CCS) inventory from an Asian perspective. The results from the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a stable 5-factor structure of the CCS: (a)…

  5. Attachment, Coping, and Attributional Style in Late Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberger, Ellen; McLaughlin, Caitlin

    This study examined the relationships of early and current attachment styles to the coping strategies late adolescents employ when faced with problems and to the attributions they make concerning their successes and failures. Subjects were 157 late adolescents, ages 18 to 22, taken from an ethnically diverse sample of university students. Subjects…

  6. Preservice Teachers' Coping Styles and Their Responses to Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Jones, Jayme L.; Wieland, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    The literature suggests that teacher responses to bullying are a function of the type of aggression (overt vs. relational), the gender of the children involved, and characteristics of the teacher. We extended the literature by examining teachers' dispositional coping styles as a predictor of their responses to bullying. Preservice teachers (N =…

  7. The association of personality traits and coping styles according to stress level

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Hamid; Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Mazaheri, Mina; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some personality traits and coping styles could be as risk factors in stressful situations. This study aimed to investigate the association of personality traits and coping styles according to the stress level. Meterials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2011. A total of 4628 individuals over 20 years were selected by random sampling from nonacademic employees that working in 50 different centers across Isfahan province. Data were collected using 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Big Five Personality Inventory Short Form and coping strategies scale, and individuals were divided into high and low-stress groups in term of GHQ-12. To analyze the data, a binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results: Mean age of participants was 36.3 ± 7.91 years and 56.26% (2604) of them were female. Neuroticism with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of personality traits was a risk factor for stress level with odds ratios (OR) OR:1.24; but other personality traits were protective. Also, active coping styles were protective factors for OR of stress level with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of coping styles, and positive reinterpretation and growth was the most effective of coping style with OR:0.84. Conclusion: Some personality traits are associated with passive copings and cause high-stress level. So, it could be concluded that improve and strengthen effective coping strategies in individual with maladaptive traits should be considered as a crucial component of prevention and control programs of stress. PMID:26109990

  8. The Coexistence of Coping Resources and Specific Coping Styles in Stress: Evidence from Full Information Item Bifactor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Meng; Wu, Qing; Zhu, Xia; Miao, Danmin; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Xi; Xiao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge of coping styles is useful in clinical diagnosis and suggesting specific therapeutic interventions. However, the latent structures and relationships between different aspects of coping styles have not been fully clarified. A full information item bifactor model will be beneficial to future research. Objective One goal of this study is identification of the best fit statistical model of coping styles. A second goal is entails extended analyses of latent relationships among different coping styles. In general, such research should offer greater understanding of the mechanisms of coping styles and provide insights into coping with stress. Methods Coping Styles Questionnaire (CSQ) and Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) were administrated to officers suffering from military stress. Confirmatory Factor Analyses was performed to indentify the best fit model. A hierarchical item response model (bifactor model) was adopted to analyze the data. Additionally, correlations among coping styles and self-efficacy were compared using both original and bifactor models. Results Results showed a bifactor model best fit the data. Item loadings on general and specific factors varied among different coping styles. All items loaded significantly on the general factor, and most items also had moderate to large loadings on specific factors. The correlation between coping styles and self-efficacy and the correlation among different coping styles changed significantly after extracting the general factor of coping stress using bifactor analysis. This was seen in changes from positive (r = 0.714, p<0.01) correlation to negative (r = −0.335, p<0.01) and also from negative (r = −0.296, p<0.01) to positive (r = 0.331, p<0.01). Conclusion Our results reveal that coping styles have a bifactor structure. They also provide direct evidence of coexisting coping resources and styles. This further clarifies that dimensions of coping styles should include

  9. Parenting styles, coping strategies, and the expression of homesickness.

    PubMed

    Nijhof, Karin S; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2007-10-01

    The present study examined the role of parenting styles in the experience and expression of homesickness, and the way of coping with the feelings involved. Using a sample of 670 first year college and university students, aged 16 to 25, we tested three hypotheses: (1) authoritarian, permissive as well as uninvolved parenting are associated with the experience of homesickness, contrary to students with authoritative parents who are less likely to have feelings of homesickness; (2) students with authoritarian, permissive or uninvolved parents show their homesickness by internalizing and externalizing problems; and (3) students raised by authoritative or permissive parents use more effective coping strategies to deal with homesickness. Results indicated that students raised by authoritative and permissive parents experienced more homesickness with stronger feelings of homesickness than students raised by authoritarian or uninvolved parents. However, they hardly express homesickness by internalizing or externalizing problems when they use effective ways of coping, namely support-seeking and/or problem-solving. Students with parents endorsing an authoritarian or uninvolved parenting style, on the other hand, showed more internalizing and externalizing problems in reaction to feelings of homesickness. They also use less effective coping strategies. The results revealed the importance of a loving and accepting home environment for the development and expression of homesickness, as well as the importance of the way in which students learn to cope with their problems.

  10. Behavioral and physiological indicators of stress coping styles in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tudorache, Christian; ter Braake, Anique; Tromp, Mara; Slabbekoorn, Hans; Schaaf, Marcel J M

    2015-01-01

    Different individuals cope with stressors in different ways. Stress coping styles are defined as a coherent set of individual behavioral and physiological differences in the response to a stressor which remain consistent across time and context. In the present study, we have investigated coping styles in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) at 8 days post-fertilization. Larvae were separated into two groups, according to the emergence sequence from a darkened into a novel well-lit environment, early (EE) and late (LE) emergers. We used brief periods of netting as a stressor. Swimming behavior and kinematics before and after netting stress were analyzed, as were whole-body cortisol levels before and at 10, 30 and 60 min after the stress event. The results show that general swimming activity was different between EE and LE larvae, with lower baseline cumulative distance and more erratic swimming movements in EE than in LE larvae. EE larvae showed a faster recovery to baseline levels after stress than LE larvae. Cortisol baseline levels were not different between EE and LE larvae, but peak levels after stress were higher and the recovery towards basal levels was faster in EE than in LE larvae. This study shows that coping styles are manifest in zebrafish larvae, and that behavior and swimming kinematics are associated with different cortisol responses to stress. A better understanding of the expression of coping styles may be of great value for medical applications, animal welfare issues and conservation.

  11. The Mediating Role of Coping Style in the Relationship between Psychological Capital and Burnout among Chinese Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yongqing; Yang, Yanjie; Yang, Xiuxian; Zhang, Tiehui; Qiu, Xiaohui; He, Xin; Wang, Wenbo; Wang, Lin; Sui, Hong

    2015-01-01

    avoid negative coping style, improve skill of coping and enhance PsyCap of nurses, active interventions should be developed in the future. PMID:25898257

  12. Does the repressor coping style predict lower posttraumatic stress symptoms?

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J; Hatch, John P; Cedillos, Elizabeth M; Luethcke, Cynthia A; Baker, Monty T; Peterson, Alan L; Litz, Brett T

    2011-07-01

    We tested whether a continuous measure of repressor coping style predicted lower posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 122 health care professionals serving in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Zero-order correlational analyses indicated that predeployment repressor coping scores negatively predicted postdeployment PTSD symptoms, r(s) = -0.29, p = 0.001, whereas predeployment Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) scores did not predict postdeployment PTSD symptoms, r(s) = -0.13, p = 0.14. However, predeployment trait anxiety was chiefly responsible for the association between repressor coping and PTSD symptom severity, r(s) = 0.38, p = 0.001. Four percent of the subjects qualified for a probable PTSD diagnosis. Although service members with relatively higher PTSD scores had lower repressor coping scores than did the other subjects, their level of predeployment anxiety was chiefly responsible for this relationship. Knowing someone's predeployment level of trait anxiety permits better prediction of PTSD symptoms among trauma-exposed service members than does knowing his or her level of repressive coping. PMID:22128715

  13. Stress, Coping Styles, and Optimism: Are They Related to Meaning of Education in Students' Lives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krypel, Michelle N.; Henderson-King, Donna

    2010-01-01

    We explored the meanings that undergraduate students make of their education and how these meanings relate to students' perceived stress, styles of coping with stress, and optimism. Participants completed a meaning of education questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale, the COPE (a measure of coping styles), and the Life Orientation Test-Revised.…

  14. Young Adults' Coping Style as a Predictor of Their Alcohol Use and Response to Daily Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromme, Kim; Rivet, Kathy

    1994-01-01

    Retrospective questionnaires and prospective monitoring measures were used to test the trait of coping styles of 105 college students as predictors of their weekly alcohol consumption. Individuals reporting deficits in emotion focused and avoidant coping strategies drank more often than subjects with other styles of coping. Measurement methodology…

  15. The impact of coping style on gaze duration.

    PubMed

    Klucken, Tim; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Chatziastros, Astros; Kagerer, Sabine; Netter, Petra; Hennig, Juergen

    2010-11-15

    The understanding of individual differences in response to threat (e.g., attentional bias) is important to better understand the development of anxiety disorders. Previous studies revealed only a small attentional bias in high-anxious (HA) subjects. One explanation for this finding may be the assumption that all HA-subjects show a constant attentional bias. Current models distinguish HA-subjects depending on their level of tolerance for uncertainty and for arousal. These models assume that only HA-subjects with intolerance for uncertainty but tolerance for arousal ("sensitizers") show an attentional bias, compared to HA-subjects with intolerance for uncertainty and intolerance for arousal ("fluctuating subjects"). Further, it is assumed that repressors (defined as intolerance for arousal but tolerance for uncertainty) would react with avoidance behavior when confronted with threatening stimuli. The present study investigated the influence of coping styles on attentional bias. After an extensive recruiting phase, 36 subjects were classified into three groups (sensitizers, fluctuating, and repressors). All subjects were exposed to presentations of happy and threatening faces, while recording gaze durations with an eye-tracker. The results showed that only sensitizer showed an attentional bias: they gazed longer at the threatening face rather than at the happy face during the first 500 ms. The results support the findings of the relationship between anxiety and attention and extend these by showing variations according to coping styles. The differentiation of subjects according to a multifaceted coping style allows a better prediction of the attentional bias and contributes to an insight into the complex interplay of personality, coping, and behavior.

  16. Coping Styles in Delinquent Adolescents and Controls: The Role of Personality and Parental Rearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruchkin, Vladislav V.; Eisemann, Martin; Hagglof, Bruno

    1999-01-01

    Compared coping styles in 178 delinquent adolescents versus 91 controls from a region of Northern Russia and tested for possible interactions with personality traits and parental rearing factors. Discusses the specific correlational patterns discovered between coping styles and both personality dimensions and parental styles. (SLD)

  17. The Interrelationships of Coping Styles and Professional Burnout Among Physiotherapists: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska-Domagala, Katarzyna; Jablkowska-Górecka, Karolina; Kostrzanowska-Jarmakowska, Lilianna; Mortoń, Marta; Stecz, Patryk

    2015-06-01

    Burnout is a pathological syndrome in which emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DEP), and a reduced sense of personal accomplishment (PA) develop in response to prolonged occupational stress. Those working in the physiotherapy profession appear to be at risk for professional burnout brought on by the specific character of the medical professions, involving continuous contact with patients and associated stress, as well as poor working conditions. However, literature data concerning the scale of professional burnout and its psychosocial correlates remain scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess the scale of professional burnout among physiotherapists and to determine the interrelationships between coping styles and burnout symptoms. The sample consisted of 117 professionally active physiotherapists (90 women and 27 men) aged 21 to 55 years (mean [M] 31.88, standard deviation [SD] = 9.14, responsiveness rate of 80.6%) from randomly selected medical institutions of the Lodz Region. The study was conducted using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) by Endler and Parker. Demographic and job-related data on the respondents were also collected. Task-oriented coping correlated negatively with DEP, EE, and low PA, in contrast to emotion-oriented coping. No correlation was found between avoidance-oriented coping and burnout symptoms. Similarly, no interactive correlations between coping styles and particular burnout symptoms were confirmed. Coping styles correlate independently with professional burnout, without any mutual correlations. Physiotherapists employing a wider spectrum of task-oriented strategies are slightly more satisfied with their job. The incidence of burnout syndrome in the analyzed group is similar to that observed in other medical professions and requires the adoption of preventive measures. PMID:26091455

  18. Acculturation, Coping Styles, and Health Risk Behaviors Among HIV Positive Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Mónica; Stein, Judith; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among acculturation, coping styles, substance use, sexual risk behavior, and medication non-adherence among 219 Latinas living with HIV/AIDS in Los Angeles, CA. Coping styles were hypothesized to mediate the link between acculturation and health risk behaviors for HIV positive Latinas. Structural equation modeling revealed that greater acculturation was related to less positive coping and more negative coping. In turn, negative coping was associated with more health risk behaviors and more non-adherence. Positive coping was associated with less substance use as reflected in use of cigarettes and alcohol and less non-adherence. Coping styles mediated the relationship between acculturation and health risk behaviors. Findings echo previous works examining the Hispanic Health Paradox wherein more acculturated Latinos exhibit increased risk behavior and maladaptive coping styles. HIV/AIDS interventions need to be mindful of cultural differences within Hispanic populations and be tailored to address these differences. PMID:19847637

  19. Cognitive motivation correlates of coping style in decisional conflict.

    PubMed

    Bouckenooghe, Dave; Vanderheyden, Karlien; Mestdagh, Steven; Van Laethem, Sarah

    2007-11-01

    Can personality traits account for the handling of internal conflicts? The authors explored how individual differences in information-processing style affect coping patterns displayed before making important decisions. Need for cognition and need for cognitive closure were linked to the major tendencies identified in the conflict theory of decision making: vigilance, hypervigilance, and defensive avoidance (buck passing and procrastination). A sample of 1,119 Belgian human resource professionals completed the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire, the 18-item short-form Need for Cognition Scale, and the Need for Closure Inventory. Ordinary least squares regression analysis indicated that significant relationships existed between need for cognition, need for closure, and conflict decision-making styles. The authors also found significant effects of gender and age.

  20. Personality profiles and coping styles in migraine patients with fibromyalgia comorbidity.

    PubMed

    de Tommaso, Marina; Federici, Antonio; Loiacono, Anna; Delussi, Marianna; Todarello, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) is frequently associated with migraine. In this study we aimed to compare personality profiles and coping styles across 23 migraine without aura patients sharing FM comorbidity (MWA-FM), 28 migraine without aura patients without FM symptoms (MWA) and 51 age- and sex-matched controls, by means of Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ) and Coping Orientation to Problem Experienced (COPE), and to correlate main results with clinical features. The "Energy" personality factor was significantly reduced in patients presenting with FM symptoms, compared to both migraine without aura patients and controls. A low score in "Dynamism" sub-item with a high score in denial coping style was able to distinguish MWA from MW-FM groups with an accuracy of 82.35% (Wilks lambda=0.98; chi-square=8.99, DF=1, p=0.005). In particular, lower "Dynamism" scores corresponded to a major expression of allodynia, fatigue, anxiety, depression, headache frequency and poor quality of sleep and life. Avoidance from active coping with stressful events may facilitate worsening of migraine and fibromyalgia comorbidity.

  1. Association of Coping Styles with Quality of Life in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Jalal; Kamangar, Mohamad; Ebrahimi, Ehteram; Aznab, Mozafar; Shakeri, Hania; Arman, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aim: Cancer patients experience a high level of stress caused by the disease and treatment processes. Dealing with cancer using more beneficial coping styles can effectively improve the quality of life (QOL) and reduce the side effects of cancer, and it is treatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between coping styles and QOL in cancer patients. Methods: The study was performed on 150 cancer patients (71 females and 79 males) admitted to the hospitals affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Endler and Parker Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire were used to evaluate their coping style and QOL, respectively. Results: The Present study showed in cancer patients being male, single, having higher salary and education, and lower age are related to higher QOL. Furthermore, in general, QOL of cancer patients was positively correlated with avoidant coping style (P < 0.05, r : 0.170) and negatively associated with emotion-focused coping styles (P < 0.01, r : −0.378). Conclusion: The results suggested that focusing on a patient's coping style, predominantly on an emotion-focused coping style, is essential to improve patient's QOL, and that patients possibly to employ a more emotion-oriented coping style should receive enough notice, particularly before discharge. PMID:26600698

  2. Internet addiction: coping styles, expectancies, and treatment implications

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Young, Kimberly S.

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users show that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person’s specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations) increased the risk for GIA. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of GIA and the need to assess a patient’s coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery. PMID:25426088

  3. Internet addiction: coping styles, expectancies, and treatment implications.

    PubMed

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Young, Kimberly S

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users show that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person's specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations) increased the risk for GIA. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of GIA and the need to assess a patient's coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery.

  4. Emotional vulnerability and coping styles for resolving decisional conflict.

    PubMed

    Umeh, Kanayo; Omari-Asor, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    This investigation supplements the study by D. Bouckenooghe, K. Vanderheyden, S. Mestdagh, and S. van Laethem (2007) on the role of cognitive dispositions in coping patterns for resolving decisional conflict. Literature suggests emotional vulnerabilities may significantly affect decision making. Thus, the present authors assessed the role of trait anxiety and depression in decision coping styles as specified by I. L. Janis and L. Mann's (1977) conflict-theory model. The participants--100 young adults--completed the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (J. A. Taylor, 1953), Beck's Depression Inventory (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. M. Garbin, 1988), and the Melbourne Decision-Making Questionnaire (L. Mann et al., 1998), which measures 4 coping strategies: vigilance, buck-passing, procrastination, and hypervigilance. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis, controlling for demographic and lifestyle factors, revealed trait anxiety and depression as significant predictors of procrastination and hypervigilance. Depression failed to predict buck-passing but functioned as an important moderator variable whereby trait anxiety better predicted hypervigilance in nondepressed participants. Consistent with past research, emotional dispositions failed to predict vigilance. Overall, these findings implicate emotional vulnerabilities in the quality of decision making but raise important questions about their unique and conditional effects.

  5. Emotional vulnerability and coping styles for resolving decisional conflict.

    PubMed

    Umeh, Kanayo; Omari-Asor, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    This investigation supplements the study by D. Bouckenooghe, K. Vanderheyden, S. Mestdagh, and S. van Laethem (2007) on the role of cognitive dispositions in coping patterns for resolving decisional conflict. Literature suggests emotional vulnerabilities may significantly affect decision making. Thus, the present authors assessed the role of trait anxiety and depression in decision coping styles as specified by I. L. Janis and L. Mann's (1977) conflict-theory model. The participants--100 young adults--completed the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (J. A. Taylor, 1953), Beck's Depression Inventory (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. M. Garbin, 1988), and the Melbourne Decision-Making Questionnaire (L. Mann et al., 1998), which measures 4 coping strategies: vigilance, buck-passing, procrastination, and hypervigilance. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis, controlling for demographic and lifestyle factors, revealed trait anxiety and depression as significant predictors of procrastination and hypervigilance. Depression failed to predict buck-passing but functioned as an important moderator variable whereby trait anxiety better predicted hypervigilance in nondepressed participants. Consistent with past research, emotional dispositions failed to predict vigilance. Overall, these findings implicate emotional vulnerabilities in the quality of decision making but raise important questions about their unique and conditional effects. PMID:21834323

  6. Are reported stress and coping style associated with frequent recurrence of genital herpes?

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, L; Meadows, J; Catalán, J; Barton, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper reports on the cross sectional data from the longitudinal study examining the impact of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection on quality of life. In particular the report sought to study the relation between recurrence of genital HSV and coping style, mood, personality, and quality of life, among other factors. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: 116 patients with a known history of genital herpes simplex infection attending the Department of Genitourinary Medicine at Chelsea and Westminster Hospital. METHODS: Psychosocial factors (stress, anxiety, depression, health locus of control, personality, social support, coping skills, and quality of life) and the reported frequency of genital herpes episodes were measured using self administered questionnaires designed to examine the relation between psychosocial status and the frequency of genital HSV episodes. RESULTS: The number of recurrences reported by patients was significantly related to the style of coping skills used. Higher recurrences were less likely to use problem focused coping skills of planning and active coping, and the emotion focused coping skills of positive reinterpretation and growth. There was a significant difference in the number of patients who believed that psychological stress was related to the number of recurrences they experienced. This belief was related to neuroticism on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire scale, and not to any of the other measures investigated. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that it is the way individuals cope, and their personality characteristics rather than actual levels of psychological stress, that influence their belief in a link between recurrent genital HSV and stress. HSV may become the focus of existing concerns and be viewed as the physical manifestation of stress. PMID:9389946

  7. Exposure to bullying behaviors at work and subsequent symptoms of anxiety: the moderating role of individual coping style

    PubMed Central

    REKNES, Iselin; EINARSEN, Ståle; PALLESEN, Ståle; BJORVATN, Bjørn; MOEN, Bente Elisabeth; MAGERØY, Nils

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if bullied nurses have a more negative coping style when facing stressful events than do non-bullied nurses, and to determine if coping style moderates the well-established bullying-anxiety relationship. Cohort data were gathered in 2008/2009 and 2010 with a time lag of approximately one year for all respondents. At T1 2059 Norwegian nurses participated, whereof 1582 also responded at T2. A t-test and a hierarchical regression analysis were conducted to obtain results for the hypothesized relationships. The results show that bullied nurses use an active goal-oriented coping style less often compared to non-bullied nurses. Furthermore, active goal-oriented coping seems beneficial only when exposure to bullying behaviors is very low. This effect diminishes however as the bullying behavior intensifies. Hence, victims of bullying seem to cope more negatively with stressful events than do others. On the other hand, high exposure to bullying behaviors has negative consequences for the subsequent level of anxiety for those affected, regardless of their general coping style. PMID:27151548

  8. Age and Gender Differences in Coping Style across Various Problems: Omani Adolescents' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Bahrani, Muna; Aldhafri, Said; Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali; Alzubiadi, Abdulqawi

    2013-01-01

    This study examines adolescents' coping styles, with relation to their gender and age and level, of six types of problems. The participants were 1843 adolescents (51.7% female and 48.3% male) from the Sultanate of Oman with a mean age of 15.75. Two scales examining general adaptive and maladaptive coping styles and levels of school, economic,…

  9. Learning Styles and Their Relationship to Stress and Coping in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, L. M.; Hensley, B.; Baker, R. C.; Dearman, L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between specific learning styles and stress and coping in a sample of female college students (N = 246). Participants in the study were assessed on the three variables by completing several self-report instruments measuring learning styles, life stress level, and coping skills. There were significant…

  10. Assessment of Coping Styles and Strategies with School-Related Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrzesniewski, Kazimierz; Chylinska, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    A review of the relevant literature indicates a lack of measurement techniques for coping styles and strategies with school-related stress. This study presents the procedure of constructing "The Coping with School-related Stress Questionnaire" (CSSQ), which makes it possible to investigate dispositional as well as situational aspects of coping.…

  11. Coping styles and strategies: a comparison of adolescent students with and without learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Firth, Nola; Greaves, Daryl; Frydenberg, Erica

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared the results of a coping measure completed by 98 seventh through ninth grade students who were assessed as having learning disabilities with published means from the general Australian student population. The Adolescent Coping Scale was the measure used. The results suggested higher use by students aged 12 to 13 years who had learning disabilities of an overall nonproductive coping style and in particular of the nonproductive strategies of ignoring the problem and not coping. Although there was no difference in overall productive or nonproductive coping style for 14- to 15-year-olds, the students in this age group who had learning disabilities reported higher use of the strategies of not coping and ignoring the problem. These findings are discussed in relation to a need for interventions that give students who have learning disabilities strategies that address the risk of a passive coping style. PMID:20023178

  12. Coping with Mismatched Courses: Students' Behaviour and Performance in Courses Mismatched to Their Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinshuk; Liu, Tzu-Chien; Graf, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    Although learning styles are considered as an important factor in education, students often have to learn in courses that do not support their learning styles. A challenge for technology facilitated learning is therefore to assist and help students to cope with courses that do not match their learning styles by training and developing their less…

  13. Cognitive mediational deficits and the role of coping styles in pedophile and ephebophile Roman Catholic clergy.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Gregory P; Baerwald, Jeffrey P; McGlone, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to examine hypothesized differences between sex offending and nonoffending Roman Catholic clergy on cognitive mediation abilities as measured by the Rorschach Inkblot Test (H. Rorschach, 1921/1942). This study compared 78 priest pedophiles and 77 priest ephebophiles with 80 nonoffending priest controls on the Inkblot test using J. E. Exner's (2003) Comprehensive System. The three groups were compared on seven variables that constitute Exner's Cognitive Mediation cluster. Additionally, the groups' coping styles were compared to examine the interaction of coping style and cognitive mediational abilities. We found interactions between coping style and offending status across most of the cognitive variables indicating impairment in the mild to pathological ranges. Moreover, significantly higher unusual thinking styles (Xu%) and significantly lower conventional thinking styles (X+%) in offenders compared to nonoffenders. Those with an Extratensive style (n=31) showed significantly higher distorted thinking when compared to the Introversive (n=81), Ambitent (n=73), and Avoidant (n=50) coping styles. This study suggests that offenders display significantly higher distorted thinking styles than do nonoffenders. Possible reasons for these discrepancies and the role of coping styles in abusive behaviors were discussed.

  14. A Test of Whether Coping Styles Moderate the Effect of PTSD Symptoms on Alcohol Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Justine A.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Dolan, Sara; Meyer, Eric C.; Kruse, Marc I.; Gulliver, Suzy B.; Morissette, Sandra B.

    2016-01-01

    Coping style may partially account for the frequent co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol-use disorders (AUD). We hypothesized that PTSD symptom severity, avoidant coping, and action-oriented coping would interact, such that veterans high on PTSD symptoms and avoidant coping and low on action-oriented coping would report more negative alcohol-related consequences and drinking a greater number of drinks per week compared to veterans without all three risk factors. The sample (N = 128) of veterans (85.2% male, M = 37.8 years old, 63.3% Caucasian) completed a diagnostic assessment and self-report measures assessing PTSD, alcohol use disorders, coping styles, and alcohol outcomes. Consistent with the main hypothesis, a three-way interaction among PTSD symptom severity, avoidant coping, and action-oriented coping was found in the predicted direction. In addition, post-hoc descriptive analyses indicated that Veterans with a current PTSD diagnosis, low action-oriented coping, and high avoidant coping had worse alcohol outcomes and were twice as likely to meet criteria for current AUD compared with Veterans with two or fewer risk factors. These findings suggest that the combination of PTSD and maladaptive coping styles may be more important for understanding alcohol-related outcomes than the presence of any of these variables in isolation. PMID:25158641

  15. Relationship of chronic stress, social support, and coping style to health among Namibian refugees.

    PubMed

    Shisana, O; Celentano, D D

    1987-01-01

    This study investigates how social support and coping style affect the relationship between a traumatic chronic stressor and health status. A population of 88 Namibian refugees living in an equatorial region of Africa participated in the study. The central hypothesis was that social support and coping style moderate the relationship between length of stay in exile (a proxy measure of chronic stress) and health status (symptoms of generalized anxiety disorders, self-reported physical health status and length of stay in hospital). The results show that when social support is high the relationship between length of stay in exile and all three health outcomes is substantially reduced. When social support is low, the relation between stress and poor health outcomes is high. Coping style moderates the relationship between length of stay in exile and period of hospitalization but has no effect on level of anxiety or perceived health status. When both social support and coping style are simultaneously considered, the best results emerge.

  16. Do coping styles mediate the relationship between substance use and educational attainment and antiretroviral adherence?

    PubMed

    Martinez, David A; Goggin, Kathy; Catley, Delwyn; Gerkovich, Mary M; Williams, Karen; Wright, Julie; Berkley-Patton, Jannette

    2012-11-01

    There is a substantial body of literature that demonstrates that substance use and lower educational attainment are associated with poorer antiretroviral (ART) adherence, however, the nature of these relationships are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to explore whether coping styles mediate the relationship between substance use and educational attainment and ART adherence in order to better understand how these variables relate to adherence. The sample consisted of 192 HIV-positive patients (mean age = 41 years; 75.5 % male, 46.9 % heterosexual; 52.6 % with a high school/GED education or less) who were on ART. Path analysis revealed that active and avoidant coping significantly mediated the relationship between drug use and ART adherence. No form of coping was found to mediate the relationship between either binge drinking or educational attainment and adherence. Findings suggest that a focus on coping skills should be included in any multimodal intervention to increase ART adherence among HIV-positive drug using patients.

  17. Relationships between coping style and PAI profiles in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Deisinger, J A; Cassisi, J E; Whitaker, S L

    1996-05-01

    Relationships between coping style and psychological functioning were examined in a heterogeneous community sample (N = 168). Psychological functioning was categorized with the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991). Subjects were assigned to PAI configural profile clusters, using T-scores from PAI clinical scales. Three PAI clusters were prominent in this sample: normal, anxious, and eccentric. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that these clusters differed significantly in coping style, as measured by the dispositional format of the COPE Inventory (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989). Normals coped through avoidance significantly less than anxious or eccentric subjects. Also, normals engaged in seeking social support and venting more than eccentric but less than anxious subjects. Gender differences also were noted, with women more likely to cope by seeking social support and men more likely to cope through hedonistic escapism.

  18. Positive coping styles and perigenual ACC volume: two related mechanisms for conferring resilience?

    PubMed

    Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker, Regina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Baumeister, Sarah; Plichta, Michael M; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-05-01

    Stress exposure has been linked to increased rates of depression and anxiety in adults, particularly in females, and has been associated with maladaptive changes in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is an important brain structure involved in internalizing disorders. Coping styles are important mediators of the stress reaction by establishing homeostasis, and may thus confer resilience to stress-related psychopathology. Anatomical scans were acquired in 181 healthy participants at age 25 years. Positive coping styles were determined using a self-report questionnaire (German Stress Coping Questionnaire, SVF78) at age 22 years. Adult anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed at ages 22, 23 and 25 years with the Young Adult Self-Report. Information on previous internalizing diagnoses was obtained by diagnostic interview (2-19 years). Positive coping styles were associated with increased ACC volume. ACC volume and positive coping styles predicted anxiety and depression in a sex-dependent manner with increased positive coping and ACC volume being related to lower levels of psychopathology in females, but not in males. These results remained significant when controlled for previous internalizing diagnoses. These findings indicate that positive coping styles and ACC volume are two linked mechanisms, which may serve as protective factors against internalizing disorders. PMID:26743466

  19. Positive coping styles and perigenual ACC volume: two related mechanisms for conferring resilience?

    PubMed

    Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker, Regina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Baumeister, Sarah; Plichta, Michael M; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-05-01

    Stress exposure has been linked to increased rates of depression and anxiety in adults, particularly in females, and has been associated with maladaptive changes in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is an important brain structure involved in internalizing disorders. Coping styles are important mediators of the stress reaction by establishing homeostasis, and may thus confer resilience to stress-related psychopathology. Anatomical scans were acquired in 181 healthy participants at age 25 years. Positive coping styles were determined using a self-report questionnaire (German Stress Coping Questionnaire, SVF78) at age 22 years. Adult anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed at ages 22, 23 and 25 years with the Young Adult Self-Report. Information on previous internalizing diagnoses was obtained by diagnostic interview (2-19 years). Positive coping styles were associated with increased ACC volume. ACC volume and positive coping styles predicted anxiety and depression in a sex-dependent manner with increased positive coping and ACC volume being related to lower levels of psychopathology in females, but not in males. These results remained significant when controlled for previous internalizing diagnoses. These findings indicate that positive coping styles and ACC volume are two linked mechanisms, which may serve as protective factors against internalizing disorders.

  20. A model linking sources of stress to approach and avoidance coping styles of Turkish basketball referees.

    PubMed

    Anshel, Mark Howard; Sutarso, Toto; Ekmekci, Ridvan; Saraswati, Intan W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to externally validate and test a conceptual transient model involving six paths that linked sources of acute stress to avoidance and approach coping styles among Turkish basketball referees. The sample consisted of 125 Turkish basketball referees ranging in age from 18 to 36 years (mean = 25.58. σ = 3.69). The path analysis tested the relationships simultaneously from stressors, in consecutive order, distractions, subpar performance and verbal abuse, to coping styles, first both avoidance-cognitive and approach-cognitive, and then approach-behaviour. Results indicated that the model achieved a good fit and that all paths tested simultaneously were significant. The distractions stressor was positively related to subpar performance, which, in turn, was positively related to verbal abuse. Verbal abuse was negatively associated with an avoidance-cognitive coping style and positively related to the approach-cognitive coping style. The results also supported a crossover effect of both avoidance-cognitive and approach-cognitive on approach-behaviour. One implication of this study is that coping should be studied in naturally occurring stages, a process-oriented approach. Another implication is that approach and avoidance coping styles, each sub-divided into cognitive and behavioural categories, provide a meaningful framework which provides sports officials a coherent structure for learning and improving ways to cope with acute stress experienced during the contest.

  1. Pathways to Social Coping Patterns in Adolescence: Influences of Attachment Style and Social Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Laurie

    Attachment theory and stress-coping theory provided a basis for exploring how social cognitive components of internal working models may influence choice of coping strategies in stressful interpersonal situations. A multi-ethnic, non-clinical sample of 185 young adolescents was surveyed about their attachment styles; rejection sensitivity,…

  2. The Impact of Parenting Factors, Deviant Peers, and Coping Style upon Adolescent Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Ronald L.; Robertson, Joan F.

    1989-01-01

    Developed and tested adolescent drug use model integrating social learning theory and recent stress and coping studies. Interviewed adolescents (N=343) aged 13-17 and found increase in adolescent drug use with presence of parental rejection, deviant peers, and combination of low self-esteem and avoidant coping style. Suggests both individual…

  3. Coping Styles as Moderating the Relationships between Terrorist Attacks and Well-Being Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Celestin-Westreich, Smadar; Celestin, Leon-Patrice; Verleye, Gino; Verte, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explore use of coping strategies among adolescents and their relationships with well being in the context of ongoing terrorism. Furthermore, we aim to explore to what extent coping styles in addition to exposure variables explain well being of adolescents facing ongoing terror. During September 2003, after three years of ongoing…

  4. Stress Constellations and Coping Styles of Older Adults with Age-Related Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyoung Othelia; Brennan, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Narrative data from two earlier studies of adaptation to age-related visual impairment were examined for constellations of stressors and coping styles. In the course of previous qualitative analyses, the researchers identified stress and coping codes according to behavioral, psychological, and social domains using a grounded theory approach. In…

  5. Does Experiential Avoidance Mediate the Effects of Maladaptive Coping Styles on Psychopathology and Mental Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fledderus, Martine; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2010-01-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) is considered a risk factor for psychopathology. This study explores whether EA mediates the relationship between maladaptive coping styles (palliative, avoidance, and passive coping) and psychopathology and positive mental health. A total of 93 adults with mild to moderate psychological distress completed measures…

  6. School Coping Style Analysis in the Elementary School. Georgia Comprehensive Guidance Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Earl J.

    This workshop manual is one of four volumes in a staff development series designed for use with the Georgia comprehensive guidance and counseling units. The manual presents three separate models of students' school coping styles to aid classroom teachers' understanding of student behavior. Part 1 summarizes four basic models of student coping,…

  7. An Investigation of Psychometric Properties of Coping Styles Scale Brief Form: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacanli, Hasan; Surucu, Mustafa; Ilhan, Tahsin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to develop a short form of Coping Styles Scale based on COPE Inventory. A total of 275 undergraduate students (114 female, and 74 male) were administered in the first study. In order to test factors structure of Coping Styles Scale Brief Form, principal components factor analysis and direct oblique rotation was…

  8. Relationship between Stress Coping Styles and Pregnancy Complications among Women Exposed to Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    Oni, Olurinde; Harville, Emily; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between maternal stress exposure, stress coping styles, and pregnancy complications. Design Quantitative, cross-sectional, and prospective study. Setting Tulane-Lakeside Hospital, New Orleans, LA and Women's Hospital, Baton Rouge, LA. Participants The study included 146 women (122 from New Orleans and 24 from Baton Rouge), who were pregnant during or immediately after Hurricane Katrina. Methods Participants were interviewed regarding their hurricane experiences and perceived stress, and coping styles were assessed using the Brief COPE. Medical charts were also reviewed to obtain information about pregnancy outcomes. Logistic regression was performed to determine possible associations. Results Hurricane exposure was significantly associated with induction of labor (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) =1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.03, 1.86; P=0.03) and current perceived stress (aOR=1.50; CI=1.34, 1.99; P<0.01). Stress perception significantly predisposed to pregnancy-induced hypertension (aOR=1.16; CI=1.05, 1.30; P<0.01) and gestational diabetes (aOR=1.13; CI=1.02, 1.25; P=0.03). Use of planning, acceptance, humor, instrumental support, and venting coping styles were associated with a significantly reduced occurrence of pregnancy complications (P<0.05). Higher rates for gestational diabetes was found among women using the denial coping style (aOR=2.25; CI=1.14, 4.45; P=0.02). Conclusion Exposure to disaster-related stress may complicate pregnancy, while some coping styles may mitigate its effects. Further research should explore how coping styles may mitigate or exacerbate the effect of major stressors and how positive coping styles can be encouraged or augmented. PMID:25712783

  9. Interplay between plasma oxidative status, cortisol and coping styles in wild alpine marmots, Marmota marmota.

    PubMed

    Costantini, David; Ferrari, Caterina; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Cavallone, Elena; Carere, Claudio; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Réale, Denis

    2012-01-15

    Variation in how individuals cope behaviourally and physiologically with stressors is widespread and can have a significant impact on life-history traits and fitness. Individual coping styles are characterised by differential behavioural and adrenocortical reactivity to various challenges. As stress hormones can affect the production of reactive chemical species and the antioxidant status, individuals with different coping styles may differ also in oxidative status. Field studies on wild mammalian populations are few in number and none so far has simultaneously tested the relationship between coping style, adrenocortical reactivity and oxidative status in the same individuals. We measured individual variation in coping styles along a proactive-reactive continuum together with variation in baseline and stress-induced plasma oxidative damage, plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and cortisol in wild alpine marmots, Marmota marmota. Confirmatory path analysis revealed that different coping styles are accompanied by different baseline and stress-induced plasma oxidative statuses. Our findings also highlight the potential role of cortisol as a mediator of such differences.

  10. Core Self-Evaluation and Burnout among Nurses: The Mediating Role of Coping Styles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaofei; Guan, Lili; Chang, Hui; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to determine the potential association between core self-evaluation and the burnout syndrome among Chinese nurses, and the mediating role of coping styles in this relationship. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shenyang, China, from May to July, 2013. A questionnaire which consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), the Core Self-Evaluation Scale (CSE), and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (CSQ), was completed by a total of 1,559 nurses. Hierarchical linear regression analyses and the Sobel test were performed to determine the mediating role of coping styles on the relationship between CSE and burnout. Results Nurses who had higher self-evaluation characteristics, reported less emotional exhaustion and cynicism, and higher professional efficacy. Coping style had a partial mediating effect on the relationship between CSE and the burnout syndrome among nurses. Conclusions Core self-evaluation had effects on burnout and coping style was a mediating factor in this relationship among Chinese nurses. Therefore, the improvement of coping strategies may be helpful in the prevention of burnout among nurses, thus enhancing professional performance. PMID:25541990

  11. Correlational study: illness representations and coping styles in caregivers for individuals with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Caring for individuals with schizophrenia can create distress for caregivers which can, in turn, have a harmful impact on patient progress. There could be a better understanding of the connections between caregivers’ representations of schizophrenia and coping styles. This study aims at exploring those connections. Methods This correlational descriptive study was conducted with 92 caregivers of individuals suffering from schizophrenia. The participants completed three questionnaires translated and validated in French: (a) a socio-demographic questionnaire, (b) the Illness Perception Questionnaire for Schizophrenia and (c) the Family Coping Questionnaire. Results Our results show that illness representations are slightly correlated with coping styles. More specifically, emotional representations are correlated to an emotion-focused coping style centred on coercion, avoidance and resignation. Conclusion Our results are coherent with the Commonsense Model of Self-Regulation of Health and Illness and should enable to develop new interventions for caregivers. PMID:23984848

  12. Perfectionism, Type D personality, and illness-related coping styles in cardiac rehabilitation patients.

    PubMed

    Shanmugasegaram, Shamila; Flett, Gordon L; Madan, Mina; Oh, Paul; Marzolini, Susan; Reitav, Jaan; Hewitt, Paul L; Sturman, Edward D

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the associations among trait perfectionism, perfectionistic self-presentation, Type D personality, and illness-specific coping styles in 100 cardiac rehabilitation patients. Participants completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale, the Type D Scale-14, and the Coping with Health Injuries and Problems Scale. Correlational analyses established that emotional preoccupation coping was associated with trait perfectionism, perfectionistic self-presentation, and Type D personality. Perfectionism was linked with both facets of the Type D construct (negative emotionality and social inhibition). Our results suggest that perfectionistic Type D patients have maladaptive coping with potential negative implications for their cardiac rehabilitation outcomes.

  13. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescence Predicts Maladaptive Coping Styles in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To examine the extent to which cigarette smoking in adolescence is associated with maladaptive versus adaptive coping behaviors in adulthood. Method: The data came from a longitudinal study of New Zealand adolescents followed into adulthood at age 32 years. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we examined the predictive association between daily smoking of cigarettes and symptoms of tobacco dependence from 18 to 26 years of age and later coping at age 32 years. We included pathways from childhood family disadvantage in addition to both adolescent stress–worry and adult coping in the model. Results: SEM revealed that cigarette smoking had a small but direct inverse effect on later adaptive coping (−.14) and a direct effect on maladaptive coping (.23) independent of the relationships between adolescent coping and stress–worry and later adult coping. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tobacco smoking may inhibit the development of self-efficacy or one’s ability to act with appropriate coping behaviors in any given situation. PMID:23817581

  14. Couple dissatisfaction and eating profile: a mediation effect of coping style.

    PubMed

    Gagnon-Girouard, M-P; Gagnon, C; Bégin, C; Provencher, V; Tremblay, A; Boivin, S; Lemieux, S

    2010-12-01

    Individuals' ways of coping with psychological stress have often been associated with body weight regulation through their impact on eating behaviours. In particular, emotion-oriented and distraction-oriented coping styles have been steadily related to disordered eating. Couple dissatisfaction may be experienced as an important psychological stressor and could therefore affect eating behaviours through the use of inadequate coping strategies. The study proposes 1) to compare women reporting a low vs a high level of couple satisfaction, and 2) to test mediational models including couple satisfaction, coping styles, and eating variables. Analyses were performed among 65 overweight/obese premenopausal women who reported being weight-preoccupied. Women exhibiting couple dissatisfaction (34.8%) showed a higher level of EDE-Q restraint, more intense concerns about eating and shape, a higher level of disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger and endorsed more often a distraction-oriented coping style, independently of their body weight. Furthermore, distraction- oriented coping style seemed to be a valid mediator of the relation between couple dissatisfaction and eating behaviours. Since non-normative eating behaviours, namely disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger, have been particularly linked to a higher body weight status, it is relevant to extend the scope of interest to more distal contributing factors, such as couple dissatisfaction.

  15. Three different coping styles in police dogs exposed to a short-term challenge.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Zsuzsánna; Igyártó, Botond-Zoltán; Magyar, Attila; Miklósi, Adám

    2007-12-01

    According to some researchers, animals show different coping styles to deal with stressful situations. In the case of social carnivores, social stress is a substantial part of the overall stress load. Previous research has established two extreme (proactive and reactive) coping styles in several animal species, but means of coping with social stress has not yet been investigated in the case of dogs. The aim of this current study was to examine whether (1) experienced working police dogs adopt different coping strategies during a short-term unexpected social challenge presented by a threatening human, (2) whether this affects post-encounter cortisol levels, and (3) whether there is an association between the cortisol response and the behavior (coping strategy) displayed during the threatening approach. Using factor analysis, we have identified three different group of dogs which were characterized by either fearfulness, aggressiveness, or ambivalence and in parallel showed specific differences in their reaction norm when threatened by an approaching stranger. This grouping also allowed to draw possible parallels between aggressiveness and the proactive behavior style and fearfulness and reactive coping style, respectively. In addition, we have revealed a third group of animals which show ambivalent behavior in a social threatening situation. PMID:17900575

  16. [Avoidance coping style and the risk of developing an eating disorder in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Pamies Aubalat, Lidia; Quiles Marcos, Yolanda

    2012-05-01

    The first aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between coping styles and strategies in Spanish adolescents of both genders, with high and low eating disorder risk. Secondly, this study aims to examine the relation of coping styles and coping strategies with eating disorder risk. The sample comprised 2142 adolescents (1.130 girls and 1.012 boys), mean age 13,96 years (SD= 1.34). They completed the Adolescent Coping Scale (ACS) and the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-40). The results showed high use of intropunitive avoidance coping in both female and male adolescents with high EAT-40 scores. The regression analysis indicated that, in both girls and boys, the intropunitive avoidance and the tension reduction coping strategy explained a high percentage of variance of eating disorder risk. The results of this study have implications for the prevention of these behaviours in adolescents, because people with a high risk of developing an eating disorder present a maladaptive coping style before the onset of the eating disorder.

  17. Review of Coping in Children Exposed to Mass Trauma: Measurement Tools, Coping Styles, and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Nitiéma, Pascal; Jacobs, Anne K; Noffsinger, Mary A; Wind, Leslie H; Allen, Sandra F

    2016-04-01

    Evidence-based practice requires the use of data grounded in theory with clear conceptualization and reliable and valid measurement. Unfortunately, developing a knowledge base regarding children's coping in the context of disasters, terrorism, and war has been hampered by a lack of theoretical consensus and a virtual absence of rigorous test construction, implementation, and evaluation. This report presents a comprehensive review of measurement tools assessing child and adolescent coping in the aftermath of mass trauma, with a particular emphasis on coping dimensions identified through factor analytic procedures. Coping measurement and issues related to the assessment of coping are reviewed. Concepts important in instrument development and psychometric features of coping measures used in disasters, terrorism, and war are presented. The relationships between coping dimensions and both youth characteristics and clinical outcomes also are presented. A discussion of the reviewed findings highlights the difficulty clinicians may experience when trying to integrate the inconsistencies in coping dimensions across studies. Incorporating the need for multiple informants and the difference between general and context-specific coping measures suggests the importance of a multilevel, theoretical conceptualization of coping and thus, the use of more advanced statistical measures. Attention also is given to issues deemed important for further exploration in child disaster coping research. PMID:26887259

  18. Coping Styles of Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Developing Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Sugar, Catherine A.; Zinberg, Jamie; Bachman, Peter; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Bearden, Carrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Aim There is a wealth of evidence suggesting that patients with schizophrenia tend to respond to life stressors using less effective coping skills, which are in turn related to poor outcome. However, the contribution of coping strategies to outcome in youth at clinical high risk (CHR) for developing psychosis has not been investigated. Methods This longitudinal study followed CHR youth over a twelve-month period, using the Brief COPE questionnaire. CHR subjects (n=88) were compared at baseline to a healthy control sample (n=53), and then mixed models were used to explore the relationship of coping strategies to clinical and psychosocial outcomes in CHR subjects over time (n=102). Results Cross-sectional analyses revealed that, in comparison to healthy controls, CHR youth reported using more maladaptive coping strategies (p<.001) and fewer adaptive coping strategies (p<.01). Longitudinal analyses within the CHR group showed significant decreases in maladaptive coping and symptom severity over time, with corresponding improvements in social and role functioning. Adaptive coping was associated with better concurrent social functioning and less severe symptomatology (both p<.001). Over time, more maladaptive coping was associated with more severe positive and negative symptoms (both p < .005). Conclusions Youth at-risk for psychosis report using fewer adaptive and more maladaptive coping strategies relative to healthy controls. Over one year follow-up, more adaptive coping styles are associated with less severe clinical symptomatology and better social functioning. These findings suggest that teaching adaptive coping styles may be an important target for intervention in youth at high risk for psychosis. PMID:23164368

  19. Sexual attraction and psychological adjustment in Dutch adolescents: coping style as a mediator.

    PubMed

    Bos, Henny; van Beusekom, Gabriël; Sandfort, Theo

    2014-11-01

    This study examined whether feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) in 12- to 15-year-old Dutch adolescents were related to psychological health (self-esteem and psychological distress) and whether this relation was mediated by coping styles and moderated by biological sex. Data were collected from 1,546 high school students (802 boys and 744 girls; M age = 13.57 years) by means of standardized measurements. SSA was found to predict lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of psychological distress. Further analyses showed that passive coping style partly mediated these associations. This mediation was not moderated by biological sex. The findings suggest that in understanding and addressing mental health disparities between sexual minorities and heterosexual youth attention should be paid to intrapersonal psychological factors such as coping styles.

  20. Gendered racism, psychological distress, and coping styles of African American women.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Witherspoon, Karen M; Speight, Suzette L

    2008-10-01

    This study explores the relationship of the accumulative effect of gendered racism, the discrimination felt by African American women, on psychological distress. The study also explores whether coping serves as a mediating variable between gendered racism and psychological distress. Over 300 African American women participated in the study and were administered the Symptoms Checklist 90, a revised version of the Schedule of Sexist Events, and the Africultural Coping Styles Inventory. A positive significant relationship between global psychological distress was found with experiences of gendered racism. Regression analyses suggest some degree of partial mediation on the relationship between gendered racism and global psychological distress via cognitive-emotional coping styles, but no mediating effects with spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping. Suggestions for future research and implications are discussed.

  1. Parental conflict and children's coping styles in litigating separated families: relationships with children's adjustment.

    PubMed

    Radovanovic, H

    1993-12-01

    The influence of interparental verbal and physical aggression, children's coping styles, and relevant demographic factors on children's adjustment was examined in a group of 52 families who were disputing custody and/or access arrangements after separation. It was hypothesized that parental conflict and specific children's coping strategies (i.e., cognitive redefinition and social support seeking) would be important predictors of children's adjustment. Consistent with previous research, aggressive styles of resolving conflict between parents were related to more frequent and severe behavior problems and diminished competence among children. Conversely, greater flexibility in coping and greater use of cognitive coping strategies among children were related to decreased behavioral disturbance. The unique and combined influence of these variables is discussed.

  2. Depression, Social Support, and Coping Styles among Pregnant Women after the Lushan Earthquake in Ya’an, China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jianrong; Li, Xirong; Liu, Xinghui; Pang, Meiche

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to assess the depression of pregnant women in the aftermath of an earthquake, and to identify the social support that they obtained, their coping styles and socio-demographic factors associated with depression. Methods A total of 128 pregnant women from three hospitals in the epicenter area were recruited immediately after the Ya’an earthquake. Their depression was investigated using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) with a cutoff score of 14; the social support that they obtained was measured using the Social Support Questionnaire; and their coping styles were assessed using the Coping Styles Questionnaire. Results Immediately after the earthquake, the incidence rate of depression in pregnant women was 35.2%, higher than that of the general pregnant population (7%-14%). The EPDS scores were significantly correlated with gestation age at the time of the earthquake, objective support, subjective support, use of support, negative coping style, and positive coping style. The regression analysis indicated that risk factors of prenatal depression include the number of children, relatives wounded, subjective support, and coping styles. A further analysis of the interaction between social support and two types of coping styles with depression showed that there was interaction effect between subjective social support and positive coping styles in relation to EPDS scores. There was an inverse relationship between low EPDS scores and positive coping styles and high social support, and vice versa. Conclusion The timing of the occurrence of the earthquake may not necessarily affect the progress of the illness and recovery from depression, and psychological intervention could be conducted in the immediate aftermath after the earthquake. The impact of coping styles on prenatal depression appeared to be linked with social support. Helping pregnant women to adopt positive coping styles with good social support after a recent major

  3. Paternal versus maternal coping styles with child diagnosis of developmental delay.

    PubMed

    Barak-Levy, Yael; Atzaba-Poria, Na'ama

    2013-06-01

    Parents of children with disabilities vary in their reaction to their children's diagnosis. The current study focused on fathers in addition to mothers and examined their resolution and coping styles when having children diagnosed with developmental delay (DD). Sixty-five fathers and 71 mothers were interviewed using the reaction to the diagnosis interview (RDI; Pianta & Marvin, 1992a). Results indicated that the majority of parents were unresolved with their child's diagnosis, with no differences found between fathers' and mothers' rates of resolution. Furthermore, both parents of children that were diagnosed at a later age and parents that were less educated tended to be unresolved, as did fathers of a lower socioeconomic status. Older age of both children and mothers was related to maternal lack of resolution. Finally, an in-depth examination revealed significant differences in the manner in which fathers and mothers cope with their children's diagnosis: whereas mothers were more prone to using an emotional coping style, fathers tended to use a cognitive coping style. The clinical implications of paternal versus maternal coping styles are discussed.

  4. Paternal versus maternal coping styles with child diagnosis of developmental delay.

    PubMed

    Barak-Levy, Yael; Atzaba-Poria, Na'ama

    2013-06-01

    Parents of children with disabilities vary in their reaction to their children's diagnosis. The current study focused on fathers in addition to mothers and examined their resolution and coping styles when having children diagnosed with developmental delay (DD). Sixty-five fathers and 71 mothers were interviewed using the reaction to the diagnosis interview (RDI; Pianta & Marvin, 1992a). Results indicated that the majority of parents were unresolved with their child's diagnosis, with no differences found between fathers' and mothers' rates of resolution. Furthermore, both parents of children that were diagnosed at a later age and parents that were less educated tended to be unresolved, as did fathers of a lower socioeconomic status. Older age of both children and mothers was related to maternal lack of resolution. Finally, an in-depth examination revealed significant differences in the manner in which fathers and mothers cope with their children's diagnosis: whereas mothers were more prone to using an emotional coping style, fathers tended to use a cognitive coping style. The clinical implications of paternal versus maternal coping styles are discussed. PMID:23584184

  5. Selection Based on Indirect Genetic Effects for Growth, Environmental Enrichment and Coping Style Affect the Immune Status of Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Reimert, Inonge; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Ursinus, Winanda W.; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Pigs living in intensive husbandry systems may experience both acute and chronic stress through standard management procedures and limitations in their physical and social environment, which may have implications for their immune status. Here, the effect of a new breeding method where pigs were selected on their heritable influence on their pen mates' growth, and environmental enrichment on the immune status of pigs was investigated. Hereto, 240 pigs with a relatively positive genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (+SBV) and 240 pigs with a relatively negative genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (−SBV) were housed in barren or straw-enriched pens from 4 to 23 weeks of age (n  =  80 pens in total). A blood sample was taken from the pigs before, three days after a 24 h regrouping test, and at week 22. In addition, effects of coping style, as assessed in a backtest, and gender were also investigated. Mainly, +SBV were found to have lower leukocyte, lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations than -SBV pigs. Enriched housed pigs had a lower neutrophil to lymphocyte (N:L) ratio and lower haptoglobin concentrations, but had higher antibody titers specific for Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) than barren housed pigs. No interactions were found between SBV class and housing. Furthermore, pigs with a proactive coping style had higher alternative complement activity and, in the enriched pens, higher antibody titers specific for KLH than pigs with a reactive coping style. Lastly, females tended to have lower leukocyte, but higher haptoglobin concentrations than castrated males. Overall, these results suggest that +SBV pigs and enriched housed pigs were less affected by stress than -SBV and barren housed pigs, respectively. Moreover, immune activation might be differently organized in individuals with different coping styles and to a lesser extent in individuals of opposite genders. PMID:25275507

  6. Coping Styles of Adolescents Experiencing Multiple Forms of Discrimination and Bullying: Evidence from a Sample of Ethnically Diverse Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnett, Bernice R.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Austin, S. Bryn; Williams, David R.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2015-01-01

    Background: We used a latent class analysis (LCA) to characterize coping styles of urban youth and examined if coping styles moderated the association between experiencing discrimination and bullying and depressive symptoms. Methods: The data come from the 2006 Boston Youth Survey, where students were asked to select 2 behaviors they do most often…

  7. Life Stress: Related Symptoms, Subjective Appraisal and Coping Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantner, James E.; And Others

    Stress and its influence upon physiological and emotional functioning has been well documented in research literature. In order to extend this research to study the relationship between accumulated life stress, symptoms, and coping responses, 202 college graduates and undergraduates, (144 females and 58 males) responded to three self-report…

  8. How Significant Is Culture in the Development of Coping Styles among Latinas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinones del Valle, Rose M.; Arredondo, Patricia

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the cultural worldview perspective and coping styles of Puerto Rican females in the study. According to Hobfoll's "Conservation of Resources Theory," people strive to retain, protect, and build resources. Hobfoll's theory addresses some of the issues associated with the stress…

  9. Southeast Asian Parents Raising a Child with Autism: A Qualitative Investigation of Coping Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luong, June; Yoder, Marian K.; Canham, Daryl

    2009-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disability increasing in incidence over the past decade. Parents of children with autism experience prolonged levels of stress and isolation. Using qualitative research design, nine parents of children with autism participated in this study that focused on the effect of autism on the family, coping styles, and support…

  10. Problem-Solving Treatment and Coping Styles in Primary Care for Minor Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxman, Thomas E.; Hegel, Mark T.; Hull, Jay G.; Dietrich, Allen J.

    2008-01-01

    Research was undertaken to compare problem-solving treatment for primary care (PST-PC) with usual care for minor depression and to examine whether treatment effectiveness was moderated by coping style. PST-PC is a 6-session, manual-based, psychosocial skills intervention. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 academic, primary care…

  11. Coping Styles and Sex Differences in Depressive Symptoms and Delinquent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Building on research that links gender to differences in well-being and differences in stress exposure and vulnerability, the current study examines how coping styles are gendered in ways that may contribute to sex differences in depressive symptoms and delinquent behavior. The study disaggregates stress measures to reflect gender differences in…

  12. Paternal versus Maternal Coping Styles with Child Diagnosis of Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak-Levy, Yael; Atzaba-Poria, Na'ama

    2013-01-01

    Parents of children with disabilities vary in their reaction to their children's diagnosis. The current study focused on fathers in addition to mothers and examined their resolution and coping styles when having children diagnosed with developmental delay (DD). Sixty-five fathers and 71 mothers were interviewed using the reaction to the diagnosis…

  13. Coping Styles with Student Misbehavior as Mediators of Teachers' Classroom Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Van Dat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to identify how teachers' use of various coping styles with student misbehavior, and the extent to which these relate to their classroom management techniques -- punishment, recognition and reward, hinting, discussion, and aggression. It examines data from 397 junior high school teachers in Vietnam. The results…

  14. Early Adolescent Depressive Mood: Direct and Indirect Effects of Attributional Styles and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2012-01-01

    The present study used a cross-sectional survey design to examine how adolescent depressive mood was related to attributional styles and coping strategies with a sample of 326 youths (aged 8-14 years). With the cutting point adopted in the West, 20.9% of the current sample reported depressive symptoms. Regression analysis results show that, with…

  15. Coping Style and Psychological Health among Adolescent Prisoners: A Study of Young and Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, J.L.; Boustead, R.; Ireland, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The current study explores the role of coping styles as a predictor of poor psychological health among adolescent offenders. It presents the first study to compare young and juvenile offenders. Two hundred and three male offenders took part: 108 young (18-21 years) and 95 juvenile (15-17 years) offenders. All completed the General Health…

  16. Young Adult Children of Alcoholic Fathers: Depressive Experiences, Coping Styles, and Family Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmas, Audre L.; Kazak, Anne E.

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed college students with (n=84) and without (n=123) alcoholic fathers regarding their perceptions of their families, depressive experiences, and coping styles within developmental model of depression that focuses on object representations. Subjects with alcoholic fathers exhibited greater introjective depression but no increase in anaclitic…

  17. The Relationships between Different Personality Characteristics and Styles of Coping with Stress in Elite Orienteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zsheliaskova-Koynova, Zshivka

    1993-01-01

    Eighty orienteers, divided into three groups according to level of expertise in orienteering, completed questionnaires measuring extraversion, neuroticism, trait anxiety, social desirability, need for achievement, and locus of control. Subject interviews revealed individual styles of coping with precompetitive stress. A combination of high sport…

  18. The Role of Attachment Style in Coping with Job Loss and the Empty Nest in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobdy, Juliann; Hayslip, Bert; Kaminski, Patricia L.; Crowley, Barbara J.; Riggs, Shelley; York, Christina

    2007-01-01

    The current study employed a life events perspective to examine the relationship between attachment style and both adjustment and coping processes in adults during two specific life events involving both the loss of and a renegotiation of an attachment relationship: the launching of children from the family of origin and job loss, which represent…

  19. Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Abuse-Related Characteristics, Coping Strategies, and Attributional Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…

  20. Effects of the family environment on adolescent substance use, delinquency, and coping styles.

    PubMed

    Johnson, V; Pandina, R J

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the overall and relative contributions of a variety of family environment measures to a child's alcohol, marijuana and other drug use, delinquent activity, and dysfunctional methods of coping with problems. The family environment variables tapped aspects of parental behaviors and attitudes, parenting styles, and family harmony and cohesion. Data were collected as part of a prospective, longitudinal study that examined the acquisition and maintenance of a variety of behaviors. Data were gleaned at two points in time, spanning 3-year intervals, from subjects ranging in age from early to late adolescence. In general, alcohol use among the younger subjects was more strongly determined by the use and attitudes of the same sex parent. In contrast, among older subjects, father's alcohol use was important to the offspring's use. While models predicting illicit drug use and the extent of problems related to alcohol and marijuana use fared least well, it was generally found that hostility and lack of warmth on the part of the parents contributed most to these outcomes in subjects. Finally, hostility displayed by both parents helped to determine the incidence of delinquency among sons and the use of dysfunctional coping methods among sons and daughters.

  1. Coping style and situational appraisals as predictors of coping strategies following stressful events in sport as a function of gender and skill level.

    PubMed

    Anshel, M H; Kaissidis, A N

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine links between coping style, situational appraisals and the subsequent use of coping strategies in response to acute stress among competitive Australian basketball players (N = 190, 93 men and 97 women, ranging in age from 18 to 44 years). Regression analyses indicated that participants' approach and avoidance coping responses varied across four sport-related stressful situations. In addition, both personal and situational factors accounted for significant variation in players' approach coping responses, with situational factors better predictors of approach coping than personal dispositions. For avoidance coping, situational appraisals (i.e. perceived stress and controllability) were again better predictors than personal dispositions. The results lend credence to the interactional (contextual) model of coping in which participants' use of coping strategies is at least a partial function of situational demands.

  2. Juvenile sex offenders: Personality profile, coping styles and parental care.

    PubMed

    Margari, Francesco; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Craig, Francesco; Lafortezza, Elena; Lisi, Andrea; Pinto, Floriana; Stallone, Valentina; Pierri, Grazia; Pisani, Rossella; Zagaria, Giuseppina; Margari, Lucia; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in juvenile sex offenders showing that this population is highly heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to identify possible different profiles that could help understand the motivation behind offending, comparing 31 Juvenile Sexual Offenders (JSOs), 31 Juvenile Sexual Non Offenders (JSNOs) and 31 Juvenile Non Offenders (Control Group). A data collection form, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) or Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI) were administered to all participants. The results show that JSOs differs from JNSOs in some domains, such as living in single-parent homes, while maintain some common aspects such as academic failure and previous sexual intercourse. Moreover, JNSOs showed more abnormal personality traits, such as Authority Problems, MacAndrew Alcoholism, Acknowledgement and Alcohol-Drug Problem Proneness compared to JSOs and the Control Group, while JSOs and JNSOs use a coping strategy more oriented to Avoidance and Distraction compared to the Control group. Finally, JSOs described the relationships with fathers characterized by higher care and protection than JNSOs. These findings provide additional evidence with respect the prevention and treatment of criminal sexual behavior in adolescent.

  3. Coping styles predict responsiveness to cognitive behaviour therapy in psychosis.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Preethi; Peters, Emmanuelle R; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2011-05-30

    The study aimed to determine the clinical and neuropsychological predictors of responsiveness to cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp). Sixty patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 25 healthy individuals took part in the study. Thirty patients (25 protocol completers) received CBTp in addition to standard care (SC); 30 patients (18 protocol completers) received SC only. All patients were assessed on symptoms using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and clinical and neuropsychological function before and after CBTp. Symptoms and self-esteem improved to a greater extent in the CBTp+SC than SC control group. Greater pre-therapy coping ability and the self-reflectiveness dimension of cognitive insight at baseline predicted improvement in symptoms in the CBTp+SC group, but not the SC control group, explaining up to 21% of the variance in symptom improvement. Pre-therapy neuropsychological function, duration of illness, clinical insight and gender did not predict CBTp responsiveness. Being able to have a range of coping strategies and reflect on one's experiences while refraining from overconfidence in one's interpretations before therapy is conducive to better CBTp responsiveness. PMID:21262541

  4. Influence of Continuous Nursing on the Psychological State and Coping Style of Patients Undergoing Pacemaker Implantation

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Xin; HE, Xu; LI, Ling; HUANG, Lili; LIU, Zhaojun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients undergoing pacemaker implantation often experience anxiety and fear. As such, studies have focused on the mechanisms that relieve the negative emotions caused by the intervention. Continuous nursing is a safe and effective nursing mode. In this study, continuous nursing intervention was provided for elderly patients undergoing pacemaker implantation and an empirical investigation was performed to determine the effects of their negative emotion and disease-coping ability. Methods: Overall, 114 (68 males and 46 females) elderly patients who were undergoing pacemaker implantation from Harbin City (China), were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into two groups, namely, the control group and the intervention group, based on different nursing methods. Routine nursing was applied to the control group; continuous nursing support was provided for the intervention group from January 2014 to January 2015. The nursing results of the two groups were compared. These results were also evaluated using self-rating depression scale, self-rating anxiety scale, and trait coping style questionnaire. Result: The effects of depression and anxiety intervention were significant in the intervention group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the intervention group did not significantly differ. The coping style of the intervention group elicited significant effects. Compared with the control group, the intervention group was significantly different (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Continuous nursing can relieve the negative emotion and improve the negative coping style of patients undergoing pacemaker implantation. PMID:26576373

  5. Altered explorative strategies and reactive coping style in the FSL rat model of depression

    PubMed Central

    Magara, Salvatore; Holst, Sarah; Lundberg, Stina; Roman, Erika; Lindskog, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Modeling depression in animals is based on the observation of behaviors interpreted as analog to human symptoms. Typical tests used in experimental depression research are designed to evoke an either-or outcome. It is known that explorative and coping strategies are relevant for depression, however these aspects are generally not considered in animal behavioral testing. Here we investigate the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL), a rat model of depression, compared to the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat in three independent tests where the animals are allowed to express a more extensive behavioral repertoire. The multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) and the novel cage tests evoke exploratory behaviors in a novel environment and the home cage change test evokes social behaviors in the re-establishment of a social hierarchy. In the MCSF test, FSL rats exhibited less exploratory drive and more risk-assessment behavior compared to SD rats. When re-exposed to the arena, FSL, but not SD rats, increased their exploratory behavior compared to the first trial and displayed risk-assessment behavior to the same extent as SD rats. Thus, the behavior of FSL rats was more similar to that of SDs when the rats were familiar with the arena. In the novel cage test FSL rats exhibited a reactive coping style, consistent with the reduced exploration observed in the MCSF. Reactive coping is associated with less aggressive behavior. Accordingly, FSL rats displayed less aggressive behavior in the home cage change test. Taken together, our data show that FSL rats express altered exploratory behavior and reactive coping style. Reduced interest is a core symptom of depression, and individuals with a reactive coping style are more vulnerable to the disease. Our results support the use of FSL rats as an animal model of depression and increase our understanding of the FSL rat beyond the behavioral dimensions targeted by the traditional depression-related tests. PMID:25954168

  6. Problem-solving treatment and coping styles in primary care for minor depression.

    PubMed

    Oxman, Thomas E; Hegel, Mark T; Hull, Jay G; Dietrich, Allen J

    2008-12-01

    Research was undertaken to compare problem-solving treatment for primary care (PST-PC) with usual care for minor depression and to examine whether treatment effectiveness was moderated by coping style. PST-PC is a 6-session, manual-based, psychosocial skills intervention. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 academic, primary care clinics. Those subjects who were eligible were randomized (N = 151), and 107 subjects completed treatment (57 PST-PC, 50 usual care) and a 35-week follow-up. Analysis with linear mixed modeling revealed significant effects of treatment and coping, such that those in PST-PC improved at a faster rate and those initially high in avoidant coping were significantly more likely to have sustained benefit from PST-PC.

  7. Cue-based and algorithmic learning in common carp: A possible link to stress coping style.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Flavia Oliveira; Borcato, Fabio Luiz; Huntingford, Felicity Ann

    2015-06-01

    Common carp that had been screened for stress coping style using a standard behavioural test (response to a novel environment) were given a learning task in which food was concealed in one of two compartments, its location randomised between trials and its presence in a given compartment signalled by either a red or a yellow light. All the fish learned to find food quickly, but did so in different ways. Fifty five percent learned to use the light cue to locate food; the remainder achieved the same result by developing a fixed movement routine. To explore this variation, we related learning strategy to stress coping style. Time to find food fell identically with successive trials in carp classified as reactive or proactive, but reactive fish tended to follow the light cue and proactive fish to adopt a fixed routine. Among fish that learned to follow the light, reactive individuals took fewer trials to reach the learning criterion than did proactive fish. These results add to the growing body of information on within-species variation in learning strategies and suggest a possible influence of stress coping style on the use of associative learning as opposed to algorithmic searching during foraging.

  8. Cue-based and algorithmic learning in common carp: A possible link to stress coping style.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Flavia Oliveira; Borcato, Fabio Luiz; Huntingford, Felicity Ann

    2015-06-01

    Common carp that had been screened for stress coping style using a standard behavioural test (response to a novel environment) were given a learning task in which food was concealed in one of two compartments, its location randomised between trials and its presence in a given compartment signalled by either a red or a yellow light. All the fish learned to find food quickly, but did so in different ways. Fifty five percent learned to use the light cue to locate food; the remainder achieved the same result by developing a fixed movement routine. To explore this variation, we related learning strategy to stress coping style. Time to find food fell identically with successive trials in carp classified as reactive or proactive, but reactive fish tended to follow the light cue and proactive fish to adopt a fixed routine. Among fish that learned to follow the light, reactive individuals took fewer trials to reach the learning criterion than did proactive fish. These results add to the growing body of information on within-species variation in learning strategies and suggest a possible influence of stress coping style on the use of associative learning as opposed to algorithmic searching during foraging. PMID:25725347

  9. Do Coping Styles Moderate or Mediate the Relationship between Internalized Heterosexism and Sexual Minority Women's Psychological Distress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test tenets of both minority stress and lesbian feminist/sexual identity development theories by examining the potential moderating and mediating roles of individual coping styles (i.e., problem-solving and avoidant coping) in the relationship between internalized heterosexism and lesbian and bisexual (sexual…

  10. Coping strategies and styles of family carers of persons with enduring mental illness: a mixed methods analysis.

    PubMed

    Kartalova-O'Doherty, Yulia; Doherty, Donna Tedstone

    2008-03-01

    A qualitative exploratory study investigated the experiences and needs of family carers of persons with enduring mental illness in Ireland. The current mixed-methods secondary study used content analysis and statistical procedures to identify and explore the coping strategies emerging from the original interviews. The majority of family carers reported use of active behavioural coping strategies, sometimes combined with active cognitive or avoidance strategies. The percentage of cares reporting use of active cognitive strategies was the lowest among those whose ill relative lived in their home, and the highest among those whose relative lived independently. Participants with identified active cognitive strategies often reported that their relative was employed or in training. Participants who reported use of avoidance strategies were significantly younger than participants who did not report use of such strategies. The lowest percentage of avoidance strategies was among participants whose ill relative lived independently, whereas the highest was among carers whose relative lived in their home. The findings of this study highlight the importance of a contextual approach to studying coping styles and processes. Further research questions and methodological implications are discussed.

  11. Alcohol-Specific Coping Styles of Adult Children of Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders and Associations with Psychosocial Functioning.

    PubMed

    Drapkin, Michelle L; Eddie, David; Buffington, Angela J; McCrady, Barbara S

    2015-07-01

    Parental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been conceptualized as a chronic stressor that can lead to deleterious long-term outcomes in children of individuals with AUDs. Yet, while many individuals are detrimentally affected by their parents' problematic alcohol use, and go on to manifest psychological problems, others do not. How individuals cope with the stress of having a parent with an AUD is believed to be an important moderator of this differential outcome. This study assessed whether individuals' alcohol-specific coping styles predicted alcohol use, positive or negative life events, and depression, using a sample of 465 college students, of whom 20% were adult children of individuals with alcohol use disorders, colloquially known as adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs), and a battery of well-validated, self-report measures. Participant ACOAs reported less 'engaged' and 'total' alcohol-specific coping strategies and more 'withdrawal' alcohol-specific coping strategies than their non adult children of alcoholics (NACOAs) counterparts. Across participants, women reported more 'engaged', 'tolerant/inactive', and 'total' coping than men. Although ACOAs reported significantly more negative life events, which predicted more passive coping styles, they did not differ significantly from NACOAs on measures of problematic alcohol use or depression, supporting theories of resilience in ACOAs regardless of their alcohol-specific coping styles. For NACOAs, 'tolerant' coping predicted greater depression and alcohol-related problems; 'engaged' coping predicted fewer alcohol problems. Results suggest that ACOAs cope differently with problematic alcohol use among relatives and friends compared with NACOAs and are more likely to experience negative life events. Additionally, alcohol-related coping strategies have more predictive utility in NACOAs than ACOAs. PMID:25802055

  12. Forced and voluntary exercise counteract insulin resistance in rats: the role of coping style.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Gretha J; Barf, R Paulien; Benthem, Lambertus; van Dijk, Gertjan; Scheurink, Anton J W

    2012-06-01

    There are large individual differences in the success rates of exercise intervention programs aimed at the prevention and treatment of obesity-related disorders. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that differences in coping style may impact the success rates of these intervention programs. We tested insulin responses before and after voluntary wheel running in both passive (insulin resistant) Roman Low Avoidance (RLA) and proactive (insulin sensitive) Roman High Avoidance (RHA) rats using intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs). To control for a potential difference between voluntary and forced exercise, we also included RLA and RHA rats that were subjected to forced running. We found the following: 1) when given the opportunity to run voluntarily in a running wheel, passive RLA rats run more than proactively than RHA rats; 2) voluntary exercise leads to a normalization of insulin responses during an IVGTTs in RLA rats; and 3) there were no behavioral and physiological differences in efficacy between voluntary and forced running. We conclude that exercise, both forced and voluntary, is a successful lifestyle intervention for the treatment of hyperinsulinemia, especially in individuals with a passive coping style. PMID:22609426

  13. The effects of coping style on virtual reality enhanced videogame distraction in children undergoing cold pressor pain.

    PubMed

    Sil, Soumitri; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Thompson, Caitlin; Hahn, Amy; Herbert, Linda; Wohlheiter, Karen; Horn, Susan

    2014-02-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) enhanced interactive videogame distraction for children undergoing experimentally induced cold pressor pain and examined the role of avoidant and approach coping style as a moderator of VR distraction effectiveness. Sixty-two children (6-13 years old) underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by two cold pressor trials in which interactive videogame distraction was delivered both with and without a VR helmet in counterbalanced order. As predicted, children demonstrated significant improvement in pain tolerance during both interactive videogame distraction conditions. However, a differential response to videogame distraction with or without the enhancement of VR technology was not found. Children's coping style did not moderate their response to distraction. Rather, interactive videogame distraction with and without VR technology was equally effective for children who utilized avoidant or approach coping styles.

  14. Emotional control, styles of coping with stress and acceptance of illness among patients suffering from chronic somatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Janowski, Konrad; Kurpas, Donata; Kusz, Joanna; Mroczek, Bożena; Jedynak, Tomasz

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the associations of emotional control with sociodemographic and clinical variables in a sample of patients with a range of chronic somatic diseases. The relationships between emotional control, coping styles and adjustment to the disease were investigated. The sample consisted of 300 patients with the mean age of 54.60 ± 17.57 years. Courtauld Emotional Control Scale was used to measure the patients' tendency to suppress negative emotions, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations was used to measure coping styles and Acceptance of Illness Scale was applied to determine adjustment to the disease. Patients with neurological conditions showed significantly lower suppression of anger. Levels of emotional control were found to be related to gender, age and educational level but not to the place of residence. Task-oriented style of coping with stress correlated positively with suppression of depression and anxiety, whereas acceptance of illness correlated negatively with suppression of anger. Levels of emotional control are only weakly related to the type of diagnosis; however, some clinical samples may show lower suppression of anger. Suppression of negative emotions is weakly related to adjustment indicators such as certain coping styles and acceptance of illness.

  15. Comparing the Early Maladaptive Schemas, Attachment and Coping Styles in Opium and Stimulant Drugs Dependent Men in Kerman, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinifard, Seyed Mehdi; Kaviani, Narjes

    2015-01-01

    Background Today, the society’s need to find the roots of a few thousand-year old substance abuse and the drugs addiction crisis has increased to the extent that it has become a problem within our country. The problem of substance dependence is not only about drug abuse, but it is actually the interrelationship of the person and the dependency on drugs. This study aimed to compare early maladaptive schemas, attachment styles, and coping styles in men dependent on opiates and stimulants in Kerman, Iran. Methods This was a comparative descriptive study. The study population consisted of men dependent on opiates and stimulants who referred to addiction treatment clinics in Kerman. Therefore, 150 patients (75 opium addicted men and 75 men dependent on drugs) were selected. The participants completed the Young schema questionnaire-short form (YSQ-SF), adult attachment scale (AAS), and Young coping styles questionnaire (YCSQ). The research data were analyzed using independent t-test and SPSS software. Findings Mean age of patients using opium was 27.9 ± 3.35 years and mean age of patients using stimulant drugs was 25.6 ± 3.41 years (18-60 years old). The results showed that there was no difference between the early maladaptive schemas and coping styles in men dependent on opium and stimulants. However, there was a significant difference between attachment styles in men dependent on opium and stimulants. The mean score of avoidant and ambivalent styles in men dependent on stimulants was higher. Conclusion Knowledge on the distinctions of early maladaptive schemas, attachment styles, and coping styles in substance abuse patients helps the therapists to conduct more effective treatment strategies tailored to the type of substance used in order to provide behavior modification. PMID:26322208

  16. Primary and Secondary Control among Children Undergoing Medical Procedures: Adjustment as a Function of Coping Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisz, John R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Obtained reports of coping and goals from 33 children being treated for leukemia. Coping strategies were classified as primary control coping (attempts to alter objective conditions), secondary control coping (attempts to adjust to objective conditions), or relinquished control (no attempt to cope). Secondary control coping was positively…

  17. "You Can Try or You Can Just Give Up": The Impact of Perceived Control and Coping Style on Childhood Homesickness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Christopher A.; Weisz, John R.

    1997-01-01

    Assessed coping with homesickness, perceived control over homesickness, and adjustment among 8- to 10-year-olds spending two weeks at a summer camp. Found that children's most frequent and effective method of coping was engaging in distracting physical activity; coping by adjusting oneself to conditions increased through adolescence; and the most…

  18. Aggression and hostility in substance abusers: the relationship to abuse patterns, coping style, and relapse triggers.

    PubMed

    McCormick, R A; Smith, M

    1995-01-01

    A cohort of 3,367 substance abusers seeking treatment were administered measures of aggression and hostility including the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory and the NEO Personality Inventory Hostility Scale. Polysubstance abusers scored significantly higher on all measures of hostility and aggression, regardless of whether they abused cocaine or not. Subjects scoring higher on aggression and hostility utilized escape-avoidance, distancing, and confrontational coping styles more regularly. Subjects scoring higher on measures of aggression and hostility reported more situations that triggered their use of substances and less confidence that they could resist using when faced with such situations in the future. This was especially true for situations involving unpleasant internal states, situations involving rejection, and situations involving conflict with family and friends. The implications of these findings for clinical assessment and treatment planning are discussed.

  19. Parenting Stress and Coping Styles in Mothers and Fathers of Pre-School Children with Autism and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabrowska, A.; Pisula, E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The study examined the profile of stress in mothers and fathers of preschool children with autism, Down syndrome and typically developing children. A further aim was to assess the association between parenting stress and coping style. Methods: A total of 162 parents were examined using Holroyd's 66-item short form of Questionnaire of…

  20. Relationship of Psychological Well-Being with Perceived Stress, Coping Styles, and Social Support amongst University Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arulrajah, Annette Ananthi; Harun, Lily Mastura Haji

    The aim of this study was to: (a) explore the levels of four factors (psychological well-being, perceived stress, coping styles, and social support) among undergraduates; (b) acquire an accurate description of the demographic variables; (c) explore the relationships among the four factors after controlling for the possible intervening demographic…

  1. Coping Styles, Social Support, Relational Self-Construal, and Resilience in Predicting Students' Adjustment to University Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahat, Enes; Ilhan, Tahsin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate how well coping styles, social support, relational self-construal, and resilience characteristics predict first year university students' ability to adjust to university life. Participants consisted of 527 at-risk students attending a state university in Turkey. The Personal Information Form, Risk…

  2. Sexual Sensation Seeking, Social Stress, and Coping Styles as Predictors of HIV/STD Risk Behaviors in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teva, Inmaculada; Bermudez, Maria Paz; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether coping styles, social stress, and sexual sensation seeking were predictors of HIV/STD risk behaviours in adolescents. A representative sample of 4,456 female and male Spanish high school students aged 13 to 18 years participated. A stratified random sampling procedure was used. Self-report questionnaires…

  3. Pregnant Teens vs. Teen Mothers: Impact of Self-Image, Style of Coping, and Family Environment on Caretaking Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Marilyn; Alvarez, Aracelly

    The purpose of this ongoing study is to assess the impact of style of coping, self-image, family environment, and perceptions of parenting skills on the adaptation of adolescents to the stressors of parenthood. A total of 27 adolescent mothers and their infants, and a cohort of 16 pregnant teens, have thus far participated in the study. Each of…

  4. Cognitive Coping Style and the Effectiveness of Distraction or Sensation-Focused Instructions in Chronic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Lisa; Walsh, Jane C.; Morrison, Todd G.; O’ Gorman, David; Ruane, Nancy; Mitchell, Caroline; Carey, John J.; Coughlan, Robert; McGuire, Brian E.

    2016-01-01

    Aim This study set out to investigate whether cognitive coping strategies that match participants’ preferred coping style effectively reduce pain intensity and situational anxiety in a population of people with chronic pain. Method Chronic pain patients (N = 43) completed questionnaires on coping style, pain intensity, self-efficacy, and situational/trait anxiety. Participants were classified as Monitors (n = 16) or Blunters (n = 19) based on their Miller Behavioural Style Scale score. Participants were then provided with an audiotaped intervention in which they were instructed to focus on pain sensations or to engage in a distraction task and then to rate the pain intensity and their anxiety during and after the attentional focus and distraction conditions. The two interventions were each completed by all participants, having been presented in counterbalanced order. Results Findings revealed that Monitors’ level of anxiety decreased following a congruent (i.e., sensation-focused) intervention. No effects were obtained in terms of perceived pain. For blunters, however, their perceived levels of anxiety and pain did not attenuate following a congruent, distraction-focused intervention. Conclusion Among persons experiencing chronic pain, tailoring coping strategies to match an individual’s preferred coping style–in particular, those with a high level of monitoring–may enhance the benefit of psychological approaches to management of anxiety. PMID:27071028

  5. Effects of occupational stress, job characteristics, coping, and attributional style on the mental health and job satisfaction of university employees.

    PubMed

    Mark, George; Smith, Andrew P

    2012-01-01

    Well-being at work has been shown to be influenced by job characteristics and individual differences in coping styles. This study investigated the relationships between job demands, control, social support, efforts, rewards, coping, and attributional style in predicting anxiety, depression, and job satisfaction in a sample of 307 university employees from the UK. Results were compared to those from a sample of 120 members of the general population. Workplace demands, intrinsic and extrinsic effort, and negative coping and attributional behaviors were associated with high levels of depression and anxiety and low job satisfaction in university employees. Rewards, social support, job control, and positive coping and attributional behaviors were associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety and high job satisfaction. The study adds to the growing research on university samples by showing that a transactional approach should be adopted. This has implications for interventions and suggests that rather than just trying to change job characteristics one should identify at-risk individuals in this population and help them adopt appropriate positive coping styles. PMID:21271408

  6. Effects of occupational stress, job characteristics, coping, and attributional style on the mental health and job satisfaction of university employees.

    PubMed

    Mark, George; Smith, Andrew P

    2012-01-01

    Well-being at work has been shown to be influenced by job characteristics and individual differences in coping styles. This study investigated the relationships between job demands, control, social support, efforts, rewards, coping, and attributional style in predicting anxiety, depression, and job satisfaction in a sample of 307 university employees from the UK. Results were compared to those from a sample of 120 members of the general population. Workplace demands, intrinsic and extrinsic effort, and negative coping and attributional behaviors were associated with high levels of depression and anxiety and low job satisfaction in university employees. Rewards, social support, job control, and positive coping and attributional behaviors were associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety and high job satisfaction. The study adds to the growing research on university samples by showing that a transactional approach should be adopted. This has implications for interventions and suggests that rather than just trying to change job characteristics one should identify at-risk individuals in this population and help them adopt appropriate positive coping styles.

  7. Behavioral plasticity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with divergent coping styles: when doves become hawks.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Gomez, Maria de Lourdes; Kittilsen, Silje; Höglund, Erik; Huntingford, Felicity A; Sørensen, Christina; Pottinger, Thomas G; Bakken, Morten; Winberg, Svante; Korzan, Wayne J; Overli, Oyvind

    2008-09-01

    Consistent and heritable individual differences in reaction to challenges, often referred to as stress coping styles, have been extensively documented in vertebrates. In fish, selection for divergent post-stress plasma cortisol levels in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has yielded a low (LR) and a high responsive (HR) strain. A suite of behavioural traits is associated with this physiological difference, with LR (proactive) fish feeding more rapidly after transfer to a new environment and being socially dominant over HR (reactive) fish. Following transport from the UK to Norway, a switch in behavioural profile occurred in trout from the 3rd generation; HR fish regained feeding sooner than LR fish in a novel environment and became dominant in size-matched HR-LR pairs. One year after transport, HR fish still fed sooner, but no difference in social dominance was found. Among offspring of transported fish, no differences in feeding were observed, but as in pre-transported 3rd generation fish, HR fish lost fights for social dominance against size-matched LR opponents. Transported fish and their offspring retained their distinctive physiological profile throughout the study; HR fish showed consistently higher post-stress cortisol levels at all sampling points. Altered risk-taking and social dominance immediately after transport may be explained by the fact that HR fish lost more body mass during transport than did LR fish. These data demonstrate that some behavioural components of stress coping styles can be modified by experience, whereas behavioural plasticity is limited by genetic effects determining social position early in life story.

  8. Individual Differences in the Psychobiological Response to Psychosocial Stress (Trier Social Stress Test): The Relevance of Trait Anxiety and Coping Styles.

    PubMed

    Villada, Carolina; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of some personality traits to the physiological and psychological response to a standardized laboratory psychosocial stressor (trier social stress test). Cortisol and affective response (anxiety and mood) were analysed in a mixed-sex group composed of 35 young adults who participated in a crossover design (18 men and 17 women). After verifying a statistically significant response to the trier social stress test in all parameters studied in both sex groups, exploratory cluster analyses were carried out to identify sub-groups based on their psychophysiological responses. These analyses showed two different groups: subjects displaying lower psychological response along with higher cortisol response (cluster 1) compared with the group with high affective reactivity along with lower cortisol response (cluster 2). Interestingly, we also found significant differences in trait anxiety and coping styles when the two clusters were compared. Subjects in cluster 1 showed lower scores on trait anxiety and higher scores on active coping, whereas the subjects in the second cluster obtained higher scores on anxiety and on coping focused on emotions and mental disengagement. These findings support the importance of personality traits and coping styles in understanding the overall integrative psychobiological responsiveness to social stress.

  9. How effectively are osteopathic medical students coping with a stressful life-style?

    PubMed

    Kurtz, M E; Paulsen, R D; Ferguson, D

    1990-07-01

    Medical education has been described as an extremely intense and stressful experience. First- and second-year osteopathic medical students (N = 225) were surveyed to assess their perceptions of their own physical and psychological well-being, mechanisms they use to combat daily stress, their leisure activities, and the health-promoting behaviors in which they engage. This study found perceived physical and psychological well-being to be quite good, with more than 82% of respondents reporting "good" or "excellent" in both areas. Only 11% of students reported using tobacco, and the mean number of alcoholic drinks consumed per day was less than one. Most of the students reported that they exercised regularly and that they did not view sleep deprivation as a significant problem; however, the students did perceive the stress attributed to the demands of medical school as quite high. The primary coping behaviors they used in response to stress included humor, leisure, exercise, and social activity. Smoking, using medication, and using illicit drugs were infrequently indicated as coping strategies. From a comprehensive perspective, student perceptions indicate that they are effectively coping with the stresses of medical education. PMID:2376534

  10. Depression and Self-Concept: Personality Traits or Coping Styles in Reaction to School Retention of Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Robles-Piña, Rebecca A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether depression and self-concept could be construed as personality characteristics and/or coping styles in reaction to school retention or being held back a grade. The participants in this study were 156 urban Hispanic adolescents, ages 12–18, and of these, 51 or 33% had been retained in school. Students who had been retained reported a lower self-concept score, higher GPA, and higher rates of depression, and they were more likely to be male than students who had not been retained. The findings of this study indicated that self-concept was a personality characteristic that, due to its malleability, is also a coping style in regards to retention with this Hispanic adolescent population. PMID:21738867

  11. Predicting problematic Internet use in men and women: the contributions of psychological distress, coping style, and body esteem.

    PubMed

    Hetzel-Riggin, Melanie D; Pritchard, Jacob R

    2011-09-01

    Problematic Internet use (PIU) is becoming a prevalent and serious problem among college students. Rates of PIU are higher in men, which may be due to psychological variables, such as comorbid psychological disorders and beliefs about one's body. We examined the ability of psychological distress, coping style, and body esteem to predict levels of PIU in men and women in a sample of 425 undergraduate students (46.8 percent male; mean age = 19.0, SD = 1.7). For men, phobic anxiety, wishful thinking, and overweight preoccupation were significant predictors of increased PIU. For women, depression, keeping to oneself, and decreased tension reduction were associated with increased PIU. The findings suggest that men and women may have different psychological reasons for excessive Internet use, including different types of psychological distress and coping styles. Unlike women, men may use the Internet because of weight concerns. PMID:21342011

  12. Self-esteem and styles of coping with stress versus strategies of planning in people with psychopathic personality disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Beata; KaŸmierczak, Maria; Błażek, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Psychopathy is a notion that has been difficult to define. The operational definition of psychopathy by Hare is one of the most commonly used in psychology and it is usually identified with the scale used to measure this type of personality, which is the Psychopathy Checklist - Revision (PCL-R). PCL-R is composed of two factors: Factor 1 describes a constellation of psychopathic traits considered by many clinicians to be basic for this type of personality, and Factor 2 describes types of behaviour indicating impulsiveness, lack of stability and antisocial lifestyle. The aim of the research was to verify a hypothesis that people with psychopathic personality disorders are characterised by high self-esteem, unconstructive strategies of planning actions and non-adaptive styles of coping with stress. Material/Methods The group of participants included 30 people at the age of 22–36 convicted with a legally binding sentence. Methods were: 1. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revision (PCL-R); 2. Antisocial Personality Questionnaire (APQ); 3. Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS); 4. Generalised Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES). Results The participants were diagnosed as psychopaths (PCL-R), and more specifically – as primary psychopaths (APQ). They revealed a grandiose sense of self-worth, increased self-control, impulsive style of functioning, perceived high self-efficacy (which might be considered as a defence mechanism). Psychopaths prefer a coping style focused on emotions and avoidance. Conclusions The hypothesis was confirmed, that people with psychopathic personality disorders are characterised by high self-esteem, unconstructive strategies of planning actions and non-adaptive styles of coping with stress. PMID:22293875

  13. Genetic association of the transcription of neuroplasticity-related genes and variation in stress-coping style

    PubMed Central

    Aizawa, Saeko; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Masuda, Koji; Inoue, Ayako; Oshita, Harumi; Hirakawa, Hirofumi; Ninomiya, Taiga; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Okamoto, Kana; Kawashima, Chiwa; Nakanishi, Mari; Higuma, Haruka; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stress coping has been defined as the cognitive and behavioral efforts made to conquer, endure, or decrease external and internal demands and the conflicts between them. It has two main elements: the control or modification of the person–environment relationship causing the stress (i.e., problem-focused coping) and/or regulation of stressful feelings (i.e., emotion-focused coping). Research suggests that the expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 (NTRK2) play important roles in brain adaptation to investigate stress. To clarify the genetic basis of stress coping, we investigated the association of stress-coping strategies and social adaptation with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in neural plasticity, anxiety, and depression. Methods In 252 healthy controls (94 women; 158 men), we measured and estimated the stress-coping style using the Lazarus-type stress-coping inventory, ego aptitude scale (EAS), and social adaptation self-evaluation scale (SASS). We investigated one SNP of BDNF (rs6265, Val/Met) and five SNPs of NTRK2 (rs11140800, rs1187286, rs1867283, rs1147198, and rs10868235). Results We observed significant associations between BDNF and emotion-focused strategies, seeking social support, self-control, and distancing. We also found significant associations between NTRK2 and cognitive strategies, problem-solving, confrontive- coping, seeking social support, distancing and positive reappraisal. Significant associations were also found between BDNF and critical attitudes and between NTRK2 and all seven ego-related factors on the EAS. In the SASS, the minor allele rs1867283 of NTRK2 had a significantly higher score than the heterozygote. Conclusions These findings may provide insights into the partial effects of genetic mutations in BDNF and NTRK2 on stress tolerance and personality. PMID:26445699

  14. Coping Style Use Predicts Posttraumatic Stress and Complicated Grief Symptom Severity Among College Students Reporting a Traumatic Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnider, Kimberly R.; Elhai, Jon D.; Gray, Matt J.

    2007-01-01

    Problem-focused coping, and active and avoidant emotional coping were examined as correlates of grief and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity among 123 college students reporting the unexpected death of an immediate family member, romantic partner, or very close friend. The authors administered to participants, via the Internet, 5…

  15. Behavioral indicators of stress-coping style in rainbow trout: Do males and females react differently to novelty?

    PubMed

    Øverli, Øyvind; Sørensen, Christina; Nilsson, Göran E

    2006-03-30

    It is becoming increasingly clear that individual differences in the behavioral response to stressful situations are associated with distinct physiological profiles, and stress coping characteristics are of fundamental importance to fitness and life history. Teleost fishes display considerable variation in reproductive strategy, but sex differences in stress-coping style have not been described previously in fish. Prior to sexual maturation, the glucocorticoid response to stress is not affected by sex in salmonid fish. Nevertheless, behavior in novel and stressful situations differed between immature male and female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). When tested 1 week following transport to a new rearing facility, females resumed feeding after transfer to social isolation quicker than males. The locomotor response to acute confinement stress also varied between sexes, with females settling down and ceasing to move in a panic-like manner quicker than males. There was a strong correlation between behavior in the two test situations: individuals that readily resumed feeding behavior in a new environment also moved less in the acute stress test. Thus, the time to resume feeding after a stressful experience is a precise indicator of stress-coping style in salmonid fish, which is likely to reflect the dynamics of neuroendocrine stress responses. Furthermore, these observations could reflect a sex difference in the response to novel and stressful situations, which occur even in the absence of differences in glucocorticoid responsiveness. PMID:16455115

  16. Coping styles moderate the relationships between exposure to community violence and work-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cox, Cody B; Johnson, Jennie; Coyle, Tom

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify coping strategies used by employees exposed to community violence and their relationships to work-related outcomes. In study 1, Mexican Maquiladora employees who experienced community violence reported their coping strategies. Results identified 3 strategies: social, solitary, and maladaptive coping. In study 2, another sample completed measures of violence exposure, strain, coping, and turnover intention. Supervisors provided performance evaluations. Community violence predicted the use of all 3 strategies. Social coping lessened the effects of community violence on turnover while maladaptive strategies predicted increased psychological strain. Results indicate that workers use a variety of coping strategies in response to community violence that both lessen and magnify the effects of violence exposure and impact their psychological strain, turnover intention, and job performance. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25528686

  17. Coping styles moderate the relationships between exposure to community violence and work-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cox, Cody B; Johnson, Jennie; Coyle, Tom

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify coping strategies used by employees exposed to community violence and their relationships to work-related outcomes. In study 1, Mexican Maquiladora employees who experienced community violence reported their coping strategies. Results identified 3 strategies: social, solitary, and maladaptive coping. In study 2, another sample completed measures of violence exposure, strain, coping, and turnover intention. Supervisors provided performance evaluations. Community violence predicted the use of all 3 strategies. Social coping lessened the effects of community violence on turnover while maladaptive strategies predicted increased psychological strain. Results indicate that workers use a variety of coping strategies in response to community violence that both lessen and magnify the effects of violence exposure and impact their psychological strain, turnover intention, and job performance. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Type D personality and dietary intake: The mediating effects of coping style.

    PubMed

    Booth, Lorna; Williams, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between Type D and dietary intake and to determine whether this relationship is mediated by coping. In a cross-sectional study, 187 healthy participants completed a self-report questionnaire measuring Type D personality, dietary intake and coping. Results showed that Type D was associated with maladaptive coping and significantly less healthy food intake, including more consumption of fat and sugar, and significantly less consumption of fruit and vegetables. Regression analyses showed that this relationship was partially mediated by coping. The results suggest that Type D personality may represent a risk factor for unhealthy eating.

  19. Coupling between stress coping style and time of emergence from spawning nests in salmonid fishes: evidence from selected rainbow trout strains (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Andersson, Madelene Åberg; Khan, Uniza Wahid; Overli, Oyvind; Gjøen, Hans Magnus; Höglund, Erik

    2013-05-27

    Correlations between behavioral and physiological traits, often referred to as stress coping styles, have been demonstrated in numerous animal groups. Such trait variations often cluster in two contrasting styles, with animals characterized as either proactive or reactive. In natural populations of salmonid fishes, emergence from spawning nests, when fry establish a territory and shifts from exogenous to endogenous feeding, is a crucial niche shift with a high selection pressure. The timing of this event is correlated to behavioral and physiological traits such as aggression, boldness/shyness, dominance, and metabolic rate; resembling those of proactive and reactive stress coping styles. In farmed fish populations, however the relation between emergence and stress coping styles seems to be absent, an effect which has been related to lack of selection pressure during emergence. In the present study two rainbow trout strains genetically selected as LR (low-responsive) and HR (high-responsive) trout, characterized with proactive (LR) and reactive (HR) stress coping traits, was used to further investigate the relationship between the time of emergence and stress coping style in salmonid fishes. For this task LR and HR larvae were hatched in mixed batches, and thirty individuals from the earliest and latest 25% of emerging larvae were randomly collected. Thereafter, a line specific genetic marker was used to distinguish the proportion of LR and HR occurring in early and late fractions. The result demonstrates a higher proportion of LR fry in the early fraction in comparison to the HR fry, which emerged at a higher proportion during the late period. Early emerging individuals had larger yolk reserves at emergence, lending further support to a relationship between emergence times, yolk reserves at emergence and stress coping styles in salmonids. Smaller larval bodies in early compared to late emerging individuals suggest that this difference in yolk size reflects

  20. The role of vulnerability in stress-related insomnia, social support and coping styles on incidence and persistence of insomnia.

    PubMed

    Jarrin, Denise C; Chen, Ivy Y; Ivers, Hans; Morin, Charles M

    2014-12-01

    Individuals who are more prone to experience situational insomnia under stressful conditions may also be at greater risk to develop subsequent insomnia. While cross-sectional data exist on the link between sleep reactivity (heightened vulnerability to stress-related insomnia) and insomnia, limited data exist on its predictive value. The aim of the study was to evaluate prospectively whether sleep reactivity was associated with increased risk of incident and persistent insomnia in a population-based sample of good sleepers. Social support and coping styles were also investigated as potential moderators. Participants were 1449 adults (Mage  = 47.4 years, standard deviation = 15.1; 41.2% male) without insomnia at baseline and evaluated four times over 3 years. Sleep reactivity was measured using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST). Additional measures included depressive symptoms, the frequency and perceived impact of stressful life events, social support and coping styles. After controlling for prior sleep history, depressive symptoms, arousal predisposition, stressful life events and perceived impact, individuals with higher sleep reactivity had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.56 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-2.16], 1.41 (95% CI: 0.87-2.30) and 2.02 (95% CI: 1.30-3.15) of developing insomnia symptoms, syndrome and persistent insomnia, respectively. Social support and coping styles did not moderate these associations. Results suggest that heightened vulnerability to insomnia is associated with an increased risk of developing new-onset subsyndromal and persistent insomnia in good sleepers. Knowledge of premorbid differences is important to identify at-risk individuals, as this may help to develop more targeted prevention and intervention strategies for insomnia.

  1. Changes in coping style following traumatic brain injury and their relationship to productivity status.

    PubMed

    Dawson, D R; Cantanzaro, A M; Firestone, J; Schwartz, M; Stuss, D T

    2006-03-01

    The use of maladaptive coping strategies following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is known to be associated with increased depression and a lower productivity status. What is not known is whether coping behaviours change following TBI and if they do change whether these changes account for significant variance in outcome. Seventy-three significant others of TBI survivors were recruited at the time their friend/family member was injured and followed prospectively. They reported on their friend/family member's pre-injury and 6-month coping behaviours using the Coping with Health Injuries and Problems Scale. The use of emotional pre-occupation coping (p = .02) increased significantly and approached significance for distraction coping(p = .08). These changes in coping also accounted for significant variance (22%, p = .02) in productivity status over and above that accounted for by demographics and injury severity. Whether maladaptive coping changes can be prevented with a view to improving outcomes is a question that now needs to be explored. PMID:16646128

  2. Coping Styles and Strategies: A Comparison of Adolescent Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, Nola; Greaves, Daryl; Frydenberg, Erica

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared the results of a coping measure completed by 98 seventh through ninth grade students who were assessed as having learning disabilities with published means from the general Australian student population. The "Adolescent Coping Scale" was the measure used. The results suggested higher use by students aged 12 to…

  3. An online survey to study the relationship between patients’ health literacy and coping style and their preferences for self-management-related information

    PubMed Central

    Vosbergen, Sandra; Peek, Niels; Mulder-Wiggers, Johanna MR; Kemps, Hareld MC; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Jaspers, Monique WM; Lacroix, Joyca PW

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate patients’ preferences for message features and assess their relationships with health literacy, monitor–blunter coping style, and other patient-dependent characteristics. Methods Patients with coronary heart disease completed an internet-based survey, which assessed health literacy and monitor–blunter coping style, as well as various other patient characteristics such as sociodemographics, disease history, and explicit information preferences. To assess preferences for message features, nine text sets differing in one of nine message features were composed, and participants were asked to state their preferences. Results The survey was completed by 213 patients. For three of the nine text sets, a relationship was found between patient preference and health literacy or monitor–blunter coping style. Patients with low health literacy preferred the text based on patient experience. Patients with a monitoring coping style preferred information on short-term effects of their treatment and mentioning of explicit risks. Various other patient characteristics such as marital status, social support, disease history, and age also showed a strong association. Conclusion Individual differences exist in patients’ preferences for message features, and these preferences relate to patient characteristics such as health literacy and monitor–blunter coping style. PMID:24851044

  4. Consistent boldness behaviour in early emerging fry of domesticated Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Decoupling of behavioural and physiological traits of the proactive stress coping style.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Serrano, J; Ruiz-Gomez, M L; Gjøen, H M; Skov, P V; Huntingford, F A; Overli, O; Höglund, E

    2011-06-01

    Individual variation in the way animals cope with stressors has been documented in a number of animal groups. In general, two distinct sets of behavioural and physiological responses to stress have been described: the proactive and the reactive coping styles. Some characteristics of stress coping style seem to be coupled to the time to emerge of fry from spawning redds in natural populations of salmonid fishes. In the present study, behavioural and physiological traits of stress coping styles were compared two and five months after emergence in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), using individuals with an early or late time to emerge. Initially, compared to late emerging individuals, early emerging individuals showed a shorter time to resume feeding after transfer to rearing in isolation. Resumption of feeding after isolation was suggested to be related to boldness behaviour, rather than hunger, in the present study. This observation was repeated five months after emergence, demonstrating behavioural consistency over time in this trait. However, in other traits of proactive and reactive stress coping styles, such as social status, resting metabolism or post stress cortisol concentrations, early and late emerging individuals did not differ. Therefore, this study demonstrates that boldness in a novel environment is uncoupled from other traits of the proactive and reactive stress coping styles in farmed salmonids. It is possible that this decoupling is caused by the low competitive environment in which fish were reared. In natural populations of salmonids, however, the higher selection pressure at emergence could select for early emerging individuals with a proactive coping style.

  5. Factors associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Its Coping Styles in Parents of Preterm and Full-Term Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Maryam; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Shams, Jamal; Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Tavakolian, Samira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Birth of a premature infant and subsequent neonatal intensive care leads to psychological distress and trauma in parents. A large proportion of mothers show signs of trauma long after discharge from hospital. Fathers of premature infants are known to experience more stress than fathers of full-term infants. The sorrow experienced by parents of preterm infants is significantly higher than that experienced by parents of full-term infants because they have not been adequately prepared for the experience of birth, and need to cope with the stress caused by the clinical state and intensive care of the infant. Method: This was a descriptive-comparative study conducted in medical centers of Qom, Iran in 2012. In this study, 82 couples (164 mothers and fathers), participated in two groups as parents of preterm and full-term infants and completed demographic, midwifery, posttraumatic stress disorder, Spielberg anxiety questionnaires, and the Coping Inventory with Stressful Situation within 2 months after birth of their infant. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Fisher’s exact, Mann-Whitney, independent t tests, logistic regression, and Repeated measures ANOVA in SPSS-18 software. Results: Posttraumatic stress disorder in preterm group mothers was significantly higher than in term group mothers (P=0.03), but no significant difference in this disorder was observed between fathers in these groups. There was a significant difference in coping styles with stress between mothers in the two groups (P<0.001) and between fathers in the two groups (P<0.001). Logistic model showed a significant correlation between posttraumatic stress and housing and coping strategies with stress in mothers. Conclusion: Parents of premature infants are more exposed to psychological disorders, and there is a need to adopt educational approaches to improve parents’ coping ability with preterm infant’s circumstance. PMID:24762347

  6. Learning Style Differences in the Perceived Effectiveness of Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karns, Gary L.

    2006-01-01

    The learning style individual difference factor has long been a basis for understanding student preferences for various learning activities. Marketing educators have been advised to heavily invest in tailoring course design based on the learning style groups in their classes. A further exploration of the effects of learning style differences on…

  7. Coping style and memory specificity in adolescents and adults with histories of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Harris, Latonya S; Block, Stephanie D; Ogle, Christin M; Goodman, Gail S; Augusti, Else-Marie; Larson, Rakel P; Culver, Michelle A; Pineda, Annarheen R; Timmer, Susan G; Urquiza, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with histories of childhood trauma may adopt a nonspecific memory retrieval strategy to avoid unpleasant and intrusive memories. In a sample of 93 adolescents and adults with or without histories of child sexual abuse (CSA), we tested the hypothesis that nonspecific memory retrieval is related to an individual's general tendency to use avoidant (i.e., distancing) coping as a personal problem-solving or coping strategy, especially in victims of CSA. We also examined age differences and other individual differences (e.g., trauma-related psychopathology) as predictors of nonspecific memories. Distancing coping was significantly associated with less specific autobiographical memory. Younger age, lower vocabulary scores, and non-CSA childhood maltreatment (i.e., physical and emotional abuse) also uniquely predicted less autobiographical memory specificity, whereas trauma-related psychopathology was associated with more specific memory. Implications for the development of autobiographical memory retrieval in the context of coping with childhood maltreatment are discussed. PMID:26241375

  8. Coping style and memory specificity in adolescents and adults with histories of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Harris, Latonya S; Block, Stephanie D; Ogle, Christin M; Goodman, Gail S; Augusti, Else-Marie; Larson, Rakel P; Culver, Michelle A; Pineda, Annarheen R; Timmer, Susan G; Urquiza, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with histories of childhood trauma may adopt a nonspecific memory retrieval strategy to avoid unpleasant and intrusive memories. In a sample of 93 adolescents and adults with or without histories of child sexual abuse (CSA), we tested the hypothesis that nonspecific memory retrieval is related to an individual's general tendency to use avoidant (i.e., distancing) coping as a personal problem-solving or coping strategy, especially in victims of CSA. We also examined age differences and other individual differences (e.g., trauma-related psychopathology) as predictors of nonspecific memories. Distancing coping was significantly associated with less specific autobiographical memory. Younger age, lower vocabulary scores, and non-CSA childhood maltreatment (i.e., physical and emotional abuse) also uniquely predicted less autobiographical memory specificity, whereas trauma-related psychopathology was associated with more specific memory. Implications for the development of autobiographical memory retrieval in the context of coping with childhood maltreatment are discussed.

  9. The role of appraisal and coping style in relation with societal participation in fatigued patients with multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional multiple mediator analysis.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Lizanne Eva; Beckerman, Heleen; Collette, Emma Hubertine; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Dekker, Joost; Knoop, Hans; de Groot, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    To determine the relationship between appraisal and societal participation in fatigued patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and whether this relation is mediated by coping styles. 265 severely-fatigued MS patients. Appraisal, a latent construct, was created from the General Self-Efficacy Scale and the helplessness and acceptance subscales of the Illness Cognition Questionnaire. Coping styles were assessed using the Coping Inventory Stressful Situations (CISS21) and societal participation was assessed using the Impact on Participation and Autonomy. A multiple mediator model was developed and tested by structural equation modeling on cross-sectional data. We corrected for confounding by disease-related factors. Mediation was determined using a product-of-coefficients approach. A significant relationship existed between appraisal and participation (β = 0.21, 95 % CI 0.04-0.39). The pathways via coping styles were not significant. In patients with severe MS-related fatigue, appraisal and societal participation show a positive relationship that is not mediated by coping styles. PMID:27372714

  10. The role of appraisal and coping style in relation with societal participation in fatigued patients with multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional multiple mediator analysis.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Lizanne Eva; Beckerman, Heleen; Collette, Emma Hubertine; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Dekker, Joost; Knoop, Hans; de Groot, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    To determine the relationship between appraisal and societal participation in fatigued patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and whether this relation is mediated by coping styles. 265 severely-fatigued MS patients. Appraisal, a latent construct, was created from the General Self-Efficacy Scale and the helplessness and acceptance subscales of the Illness Cognition Questionnaire. Coping styles were assessed using the Coping Inventory Stressful Situations (CISS21) and societal participation was assessed using the Impact on Participation and Autonomy. A multiple mediator model was developed and tested by structural equation modeling on cross-sectional data. We corrected for confounding by disease-related factors. Mediation was determined using a product-of-coefficients approach. A significant relationship existed between appraisal and participation (β = 0.21, 95 % CI 0.04-0.39). The pathways via coping styles were not significant. In patients with severe MS-related fatigue, appraisal and societal participation show a positive relationship that is not mediated by coping styles.

  11. Dynamic neural activity during stress signals resilient coping.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajita; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Constable, R Todd; Seo, Dongju

    2016-08-01

    Active coping underlies a healthy stress response, but neural processes supporting such resilient coping are not well-known. Using a brief, sustained exposure paradigm contrasting highly stressful, threatening, and violent stimuli versus nonaversive neutral visual stimuli in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we show significant subjective, physiologic, and endocrine increases and temporally related dynamically distinct patterns of neural activation in brain circuits underlying the stress response. First, stress-specific sustained increases in the amygdala, striatum, hypothalamus, midbrain, right insula, and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) regions supported the stress processing and reactivity circuit. Second, dynamic neural activation during stress versus neutral runs, showing early increases followed by later reduced activation in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), left DLPFC, hippocampus, and left insula, suggested a stress adaptation response network. Finally, dynamic stress-specific mobilization of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VmPFC), marked by initial hypoactivity followed by increased VmPFC activation, pointed to the VmPFC as a key locus of the emotional and behavioral control network. Consistent with this finding, greater neural flexibility signals in the VmPFC during stress correlated with active coping ratings whereas lower dynamic activity in the VmPFC also predicted a higher level of maladaptive coping behaviors in real life, including binge alcohol intake, emotional eating, and frequency of arguments and fights. These findings demonstrate acute functional neuroplasticity during stress, with distinct and separable brain networks that underlie critical components of the stress response, and a specific role for VmPFC neuroflexibility in stress-resilient coping. PMID:27432990

  12. Personality, Coping Style and Well-Being of Parents Rearing Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glidden, L. M.; Billings, F. J.; Jobe, B. M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Parents with children with developmental disabilities (DD) encounter a variety of stressors associated with rearing their children and must develop effective coping mechanisms in order to adapt successfully to these challenges. Previous research has failed to establish the role of parental individual differences in the reported use of…

  13. A Comparison of American and Chinese Students' Perceived Stress, Coping Styles, and Health Promotion Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ying; Lindsey, Billie J.; Yin, Xiaoqin; Chen, William

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey utilized the Perceived Stress Scale, Brief COPE, and Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile II to ascertain similarities and differences between American (n=319) and Chinese (n=335) college students and between higher and lower stressed students in both samples. The results suggested the existence of a country difference in…

  14. Stress and Coping Styles Are Associated with Severe Fatigue in Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Fukuda, Sanae; Mizuno, Kei; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Fatigue is a common complaint among medical students and researchers consider it to be related to poor academic outcomes. The authors' goal in the present study was to determine whether stress and coping strategies were associated with fatigue in medical students. The study group consisted of 73 second-year healthy students attending the Osaka…

  15. Stressors, Family Environment and Coping Styles as Predictors of Educational and Psychosocial Adjustment in Palestinian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khamis, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the contributions of child and parents' sociodemographics, daily stressors, family environment, and coping strategies, to academic achievement, cognitive functioning and aggression in a sample of 600 children at the intermediate grade levels from Gaza Strip. Each of the predictor variables exhibited a different pattern…

  16. Using Learning Styles Inventories To Promote Active Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Defines active learning as students actively involved in the learning process. Suggests that to learn actively, students need to know their learning styles and engage with the subject matter. Concludes that students who know their learning styles and are allowed to choose time management methods, note-taking systems, textbook marking methods and…

  17. Associations of self-esteem, dysfunctional beliefs and coping style with depression in patients with schizophrenia: a preliminary survey.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zi-Yan; Zu, Si; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Wang, Na; Guo, Zhi-Hua; Kilbourne, Amy M; Brabban, Alison; Kingdon, David; Li, Zhan-Jiang

    2013-10-30

    Psychological models of depression in schizophrenia have proposed that cognitive structures (e.g., self-esteem, dysfunctional beliefs) may have a role in the development and maintenance of depression. However, it has not been clear what the characteristics of these cognitive structures were in people with schizophrenia and whether they have an independent association with depression, especially in those from a Chinese cultural background. The present investigation examined 133 people with schizophrenia and 50 healthy controls and indicated that compared to the controls people with schizophrenia showed lower self-esteem, higher levels of dysfunctional beliefs and negative coping styles. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that only low frustration tolerance, problem solving and self-blame were found to be the independent correlates of depression in schizophrenia. Results are discussed with the view of clinical implications of cognitive formulation and therapy for schizophrenia in China.

  18. A Survey on the Generalized Problematic Internet Use in Chinese College Students and Its Relations to Stressful Life Events and Coping Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huanhuan; Wang, Jiaqi; Wang, Li

    2009-01-01

    Problematic internet use (PIU) during the college life becomes a significant public health concern with a variety of negative outcomes. The aim of the present study was to examine the incidence of generalized PIU (GPIU) and its relationship to stressful life events and coping style among Chinese college students. Six hundred and fifty-four college…

  19. Responses to racism: a taxonomy of coping styles used by Aboriginal Australians.

    PubMed

    Mellor, David

    2004-01-01

    The author takes up the challenge from social psychologists to explore the coping responses of those who experience racism. Previous attempts to provide taxonomies of responses to racism-discrimination-oppression are reviewed. An analysis of data derived from semistructured interviews conducted with 34 Indigenous Australians that explored experiences of racism and emotional and behavioral responses is reported, and a taxonomy of coping made up of 3 broad categories is presented. The defining feature of these categories is the purpose of the responses contained therein: to defend the self, to control or contain the reaction, or to confront the racism. It is argued that this may be a more useful way to understand responses to racism than taxonomies previously proposed.

  20. Career Coping Styles: Differences in Career Attitudes among Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janeiro, Isabel N.; Marques, Jose Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    The types of difficulties associated with career attitudes were studied using Super's model of career maturity (1990) in a group of 620 Portuguese students from grades 9 and 12. A cluster analysis identified four styles with different patterns of association between time perspective, attributional beliefs, self-esteem and career attitudes. The…

  1. Perceived Self-Efficacy and Coping Styles Related to Stressful Critical Life Events

    PubMed Central

    D'Amico, Simonetta; Marano, Assunta; Geraci, Maria Angela; Legge, Emanuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study examined the personal resources, Self-efficacy and Coping Strategies, in a sample of pre-adolescents who experienced an emotionally and socially critical event, such as the earthquake of the 6th of April 2009, related to age and gender. Methods 198 pre-adolescents, 84 girls and 114 boys (Age Mean 12 years), attending Secondary School in L'Aquila meso-seismic area. The emotional, behavioural and social capacities have been assessed with specific questionnaires administered collectively ten months after the earthquake. Results Multidimensional analyses produced differentiated profiles according to gender and age: self-efficacy-perception and coping strategy profiles, based on quartiles calculations, revealed the difficulties of the subjects in estimating their ability to cope with the world of relations and emotions after the critical event. Conclusions The intervention could be specific to the cognitive, emotional and relational state of children and adolescents and differentiated before (prevention), during (intervention) and after the event (intervention and prevention). PMID:23874429

  2. An evaluation of the stress-negative affect model in explaining alcohol use: the role of components of negative affect and coping style.

    PubMed

    Dermody, Sarah Siodmok; Cheong, JeeWon; Manuck, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    The stress-negative affect model for alcohol use was examined. The mediating roles of different components of negative affect were tested in the context of coping style. Data from 1,057 drinking adults (Mage = 44.45) and 352 drinking college students (Mage = 19.07) collected during 2001-2005 and in 2010, respectively, were examined separately. Participants completed self-administered measures of alcohol use, coping strategies, negative life events, and negative affect. A structural equation modeling framework detected stress-related drinking only in the adult sample. Sadness, anger, and guilt were significant mediators and the significant pathways differed based on coping style. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed.

  3. Insecure attachment styles, relationship-drinking contexts, and marital alcohol problems: Testing the mediating role of relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Ash; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2015-09-01

    Research and theory suggest that romantic couple members are motivated to drink to cope with interpersonal distress. Additionally, this behavior and its consequences appear to be differentially associated with insecure attachment styles. However, no research has directly examined drinking to cope that is specific to relationship problems, or with relationship-specific drinking outcomes. Based on alcohol motivation and attachment theories, the current study examines relationship-specific drinking-to-cope processes over the early years of marriage. Specifically, it was hypothesized that drinking to cope with a relationship problem would mediate the associations between insecure attachment styles (i.e., anxious and avoidant) and frequencies of drinking with and apart from one's partner and marital alcohol problems in married couples. Multilevel models were tested via the actor-partner interdependence model using reports of both members of 470 couples over the first nine years of marriage. As expected, relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives mediated the effects of actor anxious attachment on drinking apart from one's partner and on marital alcohol problems, but, unexpectedly, not on drinking with the partner. No mediated effects were found for attachment avoidance. Results suggest that anxious (but not avoidant) individuals are motivated to use alcohol to cope specifically with relationship problems in certain contexts, which may exacerbate relationship difficulties associated with attachment anxiety. Implications for theory and future research on relationship-motivated drinking are discussed. PMID:25799439

  4. Type D personality parents of children with leukemia tend to experience anxiety: the mediating effects of social support and coping style.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Liu, Yang; Cai, Qing-Qing; Liu, Yi-Min; Wang, Tong; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Jing-Feng; Chen, Wei-qing; Huang, Hui

    2015-03-01

    The aims were to access anxiety and type D personality (TDP) in parents of children with leukemia, and to determine the mediating effect of social support and coping style on the relationship between TDP and anxiety. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 231 parents of children with leukemia and 261 parents of children with acute diseases in hospitals. Parents completed questionnaires on anxiety, TDP, social support, coping styles, children's clinical characteristics, and demographic characteristics. Parents of children with leukemia showed higher prevalence of anxiety (64.5% vs 40.2%, P < 0.01) and TDP (44.2% vs 24.1%, P < 0.01) compared with controls. TDP (odds ratio [OR] = 4.34, P < 0.01), lower social support (OR = 1.92, P = 0.02), and less positive coping (OR = 1.87, P = 0.02) were independently associated with anxiety. Parents with TDP showed lower social support and less positive coping, but more negative coping compared with those without. Moreover, multiple mediation analyses revealed that the significant effect of TDP on anxiety was partially mediated by social support and positive coping. In conclusion, anxiety and TDP were highly prevalent in parents of children with leukemia. The predictive factors could be used to identify those parents who are at high risk of anxiety and may also be targets for prevention and intervention.

  5. Failure to upregulate Agrp and Orexin in response to activity based anorexia in weight loss vulnerable rats characterized by passive stress coping and prenatal stress experience.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Gretha J; Liang, Nu-Chu; Lee, Richard S; Albertz, Jennifer D; Kastelein, Anneke; Moody, Laura A; Aryal, Shivani; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesize that anorexia nervosa (AN) poses a physiological stress. Therefore, the way an individual copes with stress may affect AN vulnerability. Since prenatal stress (PNS) exposure alters stress responsivity in offspring this may increase their risk of developing AN. We tested this hypothesis using the activity based anorexia (ABA) rat model in control and PNS rats that were characterized by either proactive or passive stress-coping behavior. We found that PNS passively coping rats ate less and lost more weight during the ABA paradigm. Exposure to ABA resulted in higher baseline corticosterone and lower insulin levels in all groups. However, leptin levels were only decreased in rats with a proactive stress-coping style. Similarly, ghrelin levels were increased only in proactively coping ABA rats. Neuropeptide Y (Npy) expression was increased and proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) expression was decreased in all rats exposed to ABA. In contrast, agouti-related peptide (Agrp) and orexin (Hctr) expression were increased in all but the PNS passively coping ABA rats. Furthermore, DNA methylation of the orexin gene was increased after ABA in proactive coping rats and not in passive coping rats. Overall our study suggests that passive PNS rats have innate impairments in leptin and ghrelin in responses to starvation combined with prenatal stress associated impairments in Agrp and orexin expression in response to starvation. These impairments may underlie decreased food intake and associated heightened body weight loss during ABA in the passively coping PNS rats. PMID:26907996

  6. Self-esteem, coping styles, and quality of life in polish adolescents and young adults with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Pisula, Ewa; Lukowska, Ewa; Fudalej, Piotr S

    2014-05-01

    Objectives : To evaluate self-esteem, coping styles, and health-related quality of life and their relationships in Polish adolescents and young adults with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate and related sex differences. Design and Participants : Self-report questionnaires measuring self-esteem (Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory), coping styles (Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations), and health-related quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) were completed by 48 participants with cleft lip and palate (age, 16 to 23 years; 31 males, 17 females) and 48 controls without cleft lip and palate (age, 16 to 23 years; 28 males, 20 females) matched for age, place of residence, and socioeconomic status. Results : Regarding self-esteem, individuals with cleft lip and palate scored higher on body functioning (P < .01) and defensive self-enhancement (P < .05). Self-control showed an interaction effect: Females with cleft lip and palate scored higher than controls, but males did not differ between groups (P < .05). Males with cleft lip and palate scored lower than controls in personal power but higher in body functioning (P < .05); females showed no differences between groups. The groups did not differ with regard to coping styles or quality of life, but several correlations were found between self-esteem and coping styles, and quality of life (P < .01). Conclusions : Late adolescents and young adults with and without cleft lip and palate differed little in terms of psychological adjustment measures. The higher scores in defensive self-enhancement of individuals with cleft lip and palate suggest the need for instruments measuring social approval in psychosocial adjustment research involving this group. PMID:23902271

  7. Self-esteem, coping styles, and quality of life in polish adolescents and young adults with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Pisula, Ewa; Lukowska, Ewa; Fudalej, Piotr S

    2014-05-01

    Objectives : To evaluate self-esteem, coping styles, and health-related quality of life and their relationships in Polish adolescents and young adults with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate and related sex differences. Design and Participants : Self-report questionnaires measuring self-esteem (Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory), coping styles (Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations), and health-related quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) were completed by 48 participants with cleft lip and palate (age, 16 to 23 years; 31 males, 17 females) and 48 controls without cleft lip and palate (age, 16 to 23 years; 28 males, 20 females) matched for age, place of residence, and socioeconomic status. Results : Regarding self-esteem, individuals with cleft lip and palate scored higher on body functioning (P < .01) and defensive self-enhancement (P < .05). Self-control showed an interaction effect: Females with cleft lip and palate scored higher than controls, but males did not differ between groups (P < .05). Males with cleft lip and palate scored lower than controls in personal power but higher in body functioning (P < .05); females showed no differences between groups. The groups did not differ with regard to coping styles or quality of life, but several correlations were found between self-esteem and coping styles, and quality of life (P < .01). Conclusions : Late adolescents and young adults with and without cleft lip and palate differed little in terms of psychological adjustment measures. The higher scores in defensive self-enhancement of individuals with cleft lip and palate suggest the need for instruments measuring social approval in psychosocial adjustment research involving this group.

  8. Cancer recurrence worry, risk perception, and informational-coping styles among Appalachian cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kimberly M; Shedlosky-Shoemaker, Randi; Porter, Kyle; Desimone, Philip; Andrykowski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the psychosocial impact of the threat of cancer recurrence, underserved populations, such as those from the Appalachian region, have been understudied. To examine worry and perceived risk in cancer survivors, Appalachian and non-Appalachian cancer patients at an ambulatory oncology clinic in a university hospital were surveyed. Appalachians had significantly higher worry than non-Appalachians. Cancer type and lower need for cognition were associated with greater worry. Those with missing perceived risk data were generally older, less educated, and lower in monitoring, blunting, and health literacy. Additional resources are needed to assist Appalachians and those with cancers with poor prognoses (e.g., liver cancer, pancreatic cancer) to cope with worry associated with developing cancer again. More attention for cancer prevention is critical to improve quality of life in underserved populations where risk of cancer is greater.

  9. Stress, active coping, and problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Zimmerman, Marc A; Xue, Yange; Bauermeister, Jose A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Wang, Zhenhong; Hou, Yubo

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the stress and coping mechanisms on problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents, which might be quite different from their counterparts in Western cultures. We examined risk process of stress for internalizing outcomes (i.e., psychological distress, self-acceptance) and externalizing outcomes (i.e., substance use, delinquency, violent behavior) among Chinese adolescents. We also examined John Henryism Active Coping as a protective factor in a test of resilience from the negative effects of stress. A cross-sectional survey using self-reported questionnaires was conducted in 2 urban cities in China: Beijing and Xian. Participants included 1,356 students in Grades 7 to 12 (48% male, 52% female). Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test the conceptual model. The modifying (protective) effects of John Henryism were tested in multiple-group analysis. After controlling for demographics, we found that stress was associated with decreased self-acceptance and increased psychological distress among adolescents. Higher degree of psychological distress was then associated with increased delinquent behaviors and substance use. The results also indicated that individuals who scored higher in John Henryism reported more substance use as a result of psychological distress. Overall, our results support previous research with Western samples. Although John Henryism did not serve as a protective factor between stress and its negative outcomes, the findings underscore the relevance of addressing stress and possible coping strategies among Chinese adolescents. Further research that refines the active coping tailored for Chinese adolescents is necessary to more precisely test its protective effects. PMID:24999522

  10. CHICAGO COPED ACTIVITIES--SOME COMMENTS ON STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND THE HELPING RELATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LIGHTHALL, FREDERICK F.

    THE CHICAGO COOPERATIVE PROJECT IN EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (COPED), LIKE OTHER COPED CENTERS, WAS DESIGNED TO STUDY AND FACILITATE THE PROCESS OF PLANNED CHANGE IN SCHOOL SYSTEMS. THE PROJECT IS DESCRIBED AS "EMERGENT," SLOWLY EVOLVING WITH EACH ACTIVITY ALTERING ITS DEVELOPMENT. A DISTINCTION IS MADE BETWEEN PLANNING AND PREPARATION. COPED IS…

  11. Monitoring style of coping with cancer related threats: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Roussi, Pagona; Miller, Suzanne M

    2014-10-01

    Building on the Cognitive-Social Health Information-Processing model, this paper provides a theoretically guided review of monitoring (i.e., attend to and amplify) cancer-related threats. Specifically, the goals of the review are to examine whether individuals high on monitoring are characterized by specific cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses to cancer-related health threats than individuals low on monitoring and the implications of these cognitive-affective responses for patient-centered outcomes, including patient-physician communication, decision-making and the development of interventions to promote adherence and adjustment. A total of 74 reports were found, based on 63 studies, 13 of which were intervention studies. The results suggest that although individuals high on monitoring are more knowledgeable about health threats, they are less satisfied with the information provided. Further, they tend to be characterized by greater perceived risk, more negative beliefs, and greater value of health-related information and experience more negative affective outcomes. Finally, individuals high on monitoring tend to be more demanding of the health providers in terms of desire for more information and emotional support, are more assertive during decision-making discussions, and subsequently experience more decisional regret. Psychoeducational interventions improve outcomes when the level and type of information provided is consistent with the individual's monitoring style and the demands of the specific health threat. Implications for patient-centered outcomes, in terms of tailoring of interventions, patient-provider communication, and decision-making, are discussed. PMID:24488543

  12. The Relationship between Active Coping and Trait Resilience across U.S. and Taiwanese College Student Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ming-Hui; Nishikawa, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    This study compared predictors of active coping (people's tendency to actively cope with stress) among college students in the United States and Taiwan. In both samples, trait resilience predicted active coping and mediated the effect of self-efficacy on active coping. The findings indicate that trait resilience influences college students' active…

  13. The reported pain coping strategies of pediatric burn survivors-does a correlation exist between coping style and development of anxiety disorder?

    PubMed

    Rimmer, Ruth Brubaker; Alam, Now Bahar; Bay, R Curt; Sadler, Ian J; Foster, Kevin N; Caruso, Daniel M

    2015-01-01

    Unresolved pediatric pain, both acute and chronic, has been associated with negative short- and long-term physical and mental health outcomes. This study sought to determine whether an association existed between self-reported pain coping skills and anxiety levels in a cohort of pediatric burn patients, and whether gender would influence their responses. The sample comprised burn-injured children in attendance at one of three mature burn camp sites. The self-report measures utilized included the 41-item Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders Child Version and the 39-item Pain Coping Questionnaire. Parental consent was obtained. A psychologist administered the measures. Participants included 187 youth, mean age 12.4 ± 2.4 years, girls (n = 89) boys (n = 98) with 67% reporting visible burn scars. Among boys, the use of Internalizing Coping Strategies was moderately correlated with elevated scores on Panic Disorder symptoms (r = .42, P < .001). Among girls, the use of Internalizing Coping Strategies was associated with elevated Generalized Anxiety (r = .51, P < .001), Panic Disorder (r = .46, P < .001), and Total Anxiety Symptom Scores (r = .49, P < .001). Those children who reported using Behavioral Distraction Strategies did not have any elevated anxiety scores. These findings suggest that burn-injured children, who employ Internalization as their pain coping strategy, may be more vulnerable to the development of long-term anxiety disorder, which, if left untreated may result in a negative psycho/social outcome. Applicability to Practice: Assessment of in-patient pediatric patients with the Pain Coping Questionnaire may help to identify children who are more likely to experience long-term anxiety. Future studies should seek to confirm these findings and determine whether improved pain management and early treatment of anxiety can help to diminish the long-term implications of unhelpful pain strategies and increased anxiety in burn-injured children.

  14. Active and Passive Fatigue in Simulated Driving: Discriminating Styles of Workload Regulation and Their Safety Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Saxby, Dyani J.; Matthews, Gerald; Warm, Joel S.; Hitchcock, Edward M.; Neubauer, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite the known dangers of driver fatigue, it is a difficult construct to study empirically. Different forms of task-induced fatigue may differ in their effects on driver performance and safety. Desmond and Hancock (2001) defined active and passive fatigue states that reflect different styles of workload regulation. In 2 driving simulator studies we investigated the multidimensional subjective states and safety outcomes associated with active and passive fatigue. Wind gusts were used to induce active fatigue, and full vehicle automation to induce passive fatigue. Drive duration was independently manipulated to track the development of fatigue states over time. Participants were undergraduate students. Study 1 (N = 108) focused on subjective response and associated cognitive stress processes, while Study 2 (N = 168) tested fatigue effects on vehicle control and alertness. In both studies the 2 fatigue manipulations produced different patterns of subjective response reflecting different styles of workload regulation, appraisal, and coping. Active fatigue was associated with distress, overload, and heightened coping efforts, whereas passive fatigue corresponded to large-magnitude declines in task engagement, cognitive underload, and reduced challenge appraisal. Study 2 showed that only passive fatigue reduced alertness, operationalized as speed of braking and steering responses to an emergency event. Passive fatigue also increased crash probability, but did not affect a measure of vehicle control. Findings support theories that see fatigue as an outcome of strategies for managing workload. The distinction between active and passive fatigue is important for assessment of fatigue and for evaluating automated driving systems which may induce dangerous levels of passive fatigue. PMID:24041288

  15. Take your mind off it: Coping style, serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region genotype (5-HTTLPR), and children's internalizing and externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Cline, Jessie I; Belsky, Jay; Li, Zhi; Melhuish, Edward; Lysenko, Laura; McFarquhar, Tara; Stevens, Suzanne; Jaffee, Sara R

    2015-11-01

    Individuals with the short variant of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene are more susceptible than individuals homozygous for the long allele to the effects of stressful life events on risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. We tested whether individual differences in coping style explained this increased risk for problem behavior among youth who were at both genetic and environmental risk. Participants included 279 children, ages 8-11, from the Children's Experiences and Development Study. Caregivers and teachers reported on children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and caregivers and children on children's exposure to harsh parenting and parental warmth in middle childhood, and traumatic events. Children reported how frequently they used various coping strategies. Results revealed that short/short homozygotes had higher levels of internalizing problems compared with long allele carriers and that short allele carriers had higher levels of externalizing problems compared with long/long homozygotes under conditions of high cumulative risk. Moreover, among children who were homozygous for the short allele, those who had more cumulative risk indicators less frequently used distraction coping strategies, which partly explained why they had higher levels of internalizing problems. Coping strategies did not significantly mediate Gene × Environment effects on externalizing symptoms.

  16. How integrated are behavioral and endocrine stress response traits? A repeated measures approach to testing the stress-coping style model.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Kay; Couto, Elsa; Grimmer, Andrew J; Earley, Ryan L; Canario, Adelino V M; Wilson, Alastair J; Walling, Craig A

    2015-02-01

    It is widely expected that physiological and behavioral stress responses will be integrated within divergent stress-coping styles (SCS) and that these may represent opposite ends of a continuously varying reactive-proactive axis. If such a model is valid, then stress response traits should be repeatable and physiological and behavioral responses should also change in an integrated manner along a major axis of among-individual variation. While there is some evidence of association between endocrine and behavioral stress response traits, few studies incorporate repeated observations of both. To test this model, we use a multivariate, repeated measures approach in a captive-bred population of Xiphophorus birchmanni. We quantify among-individual variation in behavioral stress response to an open field trial (OFT) with simulated predator attack (SPA) and measure waterborne steroid hormone levels (cortisol, 11-ketotestosterone) before and after exposure. Under the mild stress stimulus (OFT), (multivariate) behavioral variation among individuals was consistent with a strong axis of personality (shy-bold) or coping style (reactive-proactive) variation. However, behavioral responses to a moderate stressor (SPA) were less repeatable, and robust statistical support for repeatable endocrine state over the full sampling period was limited to 11-ketotestosterone. Although post hoc analysis suggested cortisol expression was repeatable over short time periods, qualitative relationships between behavior and glucocorticoid levels were counter to our a priori expectations. Thus, while our results clearly show among-individual differences in behavioral and endocrine traits associated with stress response, the correlation structure between these is not consistent with a simple proactive-reactive axis of integrated stress-coping style. Additionally, the low repeatability of cortisol suggests caution is warranted if single observations (or indeed repeat measures over short sampling

  17. The Impact of Child Symptom Severity on Stress among Parents of Children with ASD: The Moderating Role of Coping Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Amy M.; Leon, Scott C.; Roecker Phelps, Carolyn E.; Dunleavy, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the impact of autism severity and parental coping strategies on stress in parents of children with ASD. Children's autism symptoms and parental coping strategies (task-oriented, emotion-oriented, social diversion, and distraction) were evaluated as predictors of four types of parental stress (parent and family problems, pessimism,…

  18. Assessment and Implications of Coping Styles in Response to a Social Stressor among Early Adolescents in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, Mila; Liu, Junsheng; Coplan, Robert J.; Chen, Xinyin; Li, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to (a) examine the factor structure of the "Self-Report Coping Scale" in a sample of Chinese early adolescents and (b) explore associations between coping and socioemotional functioning in this sample. Participants were N = 569 elementary school students (307 boys) in Grades 4 to 6. Participants…

  19. Teachers' Democratic and Efficacy Beliefs and Styles of Coping with Behavioural Problems of Pupils with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almog, Orit; Shechtman, Zipora

    2007-01-01

    This study examines how teachers actually cope with behavioural problems of included students. In order to understand the impact of individual differences on teachers' coping strategies, the authors looked at the relationship between these strategies and teachers' democratic beliefs and self-efficacy. Participants were 33 teachers in Israel, who…

  20. I think therefore I om: cognitive distortions and coping style as mediators for the effects of mindfulness meditation on anxiety, positive and negative affect, and hope.

    PubMed

    Sears, Sharon; Kraus, Sue

    2009-06-01

    This study examined cognitive distortions and coping styles as potential mediators for the effects of mindfulness meditation on anxiety, negative affect, positive affect, and hope in college students. Our pre- and postintervention design had four conditions: control, brief meditation focused on attention, brief meditation focused on loving kindness, and longer meditation combining both attentional and loving kindness aspects of mindfulness. Each group met weekly over the course of a semester. Longer combined meditation significantly reduced anxiety and negative affect and increased hope. Changes in cognitive distortions mediated intervention effects for anxiety, negative affect, and hope. Further research is needed to determine differential effects of types of meditation.

  1. Sexual Stigma, Coping Styles, and Psychological Distress: A Longitudinal Study of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Steward, Wayne T.; Miège, Pierre; Hudes, Esther; Gregorich, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    The direct link between stigma against sexual minorities and psychological distress is well established. However, few studies have examined the potential mediating roles of avoidant and social support coping in the relationships between internalized and anticipated stigma associated with homosexuality and depressive symptoms and anxiety among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). We recruited a longitudinal sample of 493 MSM in Beijing, China from 2011 to 2012. Participants completed computer-based questionnaires at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. We found significant indirect effects of anticipated MSM stigma on symptoms of both depression and anxiety via avoidant coping: anticipated MSM stigma at baseline was significantly associated with avoidant coping (B = 0.523, p < 0.001) at 6 months and, conditional on anticipated MSM stigma, avoidant coping had a significant positive effect on depressive symptoms and anxiety at 12 months (B = 0.069, p = 0.001 and B=0.071, p=0.014). In contrast, no significant indirect effects of anticipated MSM stigma on either psychological distress outcome via social support coping were found. No significant indirect effects of internalized MSM stigma via either avoidant or social support coping were found. These results underscore the need for interventions that address anticipations of stigma and the use of avoidant coping techniques to manage such anticipations. PMID:26679303

  2. Active and Avoidant Coping and Coping Efficacy as Mediators of the Relation of Maternal Involvement to Depressive Symptoms among Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Prelow, Hazel M.

    2007-01-01

    Our study tested an extension of the social resource model in an urban sample of 129 African American and 114 European American adolescents. Maternal involvement was positively related to the use of active and avoidant coping strategies among youth of both ethnicities. Additionally, use of active coping strategies was related to greater coping…

  3. [The Jung model of active style of schema].

    PubMed

    Ogłodek, Ewa; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2011-12-01

    Yung was of an opinion that the borderline personality as a pathology results from the experiences of a frightened and violence-experiencing child who is left to their own devices in the hostile world. In that situation, the child, longing for safety, simultaneously experiences fear of abuse, hurt and rejection and remains distrustful. In order to understand the dramatic changes in the individual's behaviour, in case of the borderline personality disorders, Yung developed the concept, presented by Aaron Beck at the therapeutic workshops in the 1980s. Beck's concept was based upon the assumption that some pathological states expressed strong emotional states, experienced in childhood on the basis of regression. Yung presented them in the form of conceptualization in the categories of the active styles of schema. Apart from the states of regression, he also differentiated less regressive styles of schema. The style of schema should be interpreted as a pattern of experiencing, thinking and behaviour, based upon a determined set of schema, and characterized by independence from other styles.

  4. Factors associated with functioning style and coping strategies of families with a child with an autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Daryl J; Bailey, Susan R; Pearce, Julian C

    2005-05-01

    A survey of parents/caregivers of a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was conducted to examine the relationship between ASD characteristics, family functioning and coping strategies. Having a child with ASD places considerable stress on the family. Primary caregivers of a child with ASD from a regional and rural area in Victoria, Australia (N = 53) were surveyed concerning their child with ASD, family functioning (adaptability and cohesion), marital satisfaction, self-esteem and coping strategies. Results suggest that these caregivers had healthy self-esteem, although they reported somewhat lower marital happiness, family cohesion and family adaptability than did norm groups. Coping strategies were not significant predictors of these outcome variables. Results highlight the need for support programmes to target family and relationship variables as well as ASD children and their behaviours, in order to sustain the family unit and improve quality of life for parents and caregivers as well as those children.

  5. Factors associated with functioning style and coping strategies of families with a child with an autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Daryl J; Bailey, Susan R; Pearce, Julian C

    2005-05-01

    A survey of parents/caregivers of a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was conducted to examine the relationship between ASD characteristics, family functioning and coping strategies. Having a child with ASD places considerable stress on the family. Primary caregivers of a child with ASD from a regional and rural area in Victoria, Australia (N = 53) were surveyed concerning their child with ASD, family functioning (adaptability and cohesion), marital satisfaction, self-esteem and coping strategies. Results suggest that these caregivers had healthy self-esteem, although they reported somewhat lower marital happiness, family cohesion and family adaptability than did norm groups. Coping strategies were not significant predictors of these outcome variables. Results highlight the need for support programmes to target family and relationship variables as well as ASD children and their behaviours, in order to sustain the family unit and improve quality of life for parents and caregivers as well as those children. PMID:15857858

  6. Attachment Style, Social Support, and Coping as Psychosocial Correlates of Happiness in Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Lisa; Catalano, Denise; Sung, Connie; Phillips, Brian; Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung; Chan, Fong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the roles of attachment, social support, and coping as psychosocial correlates in predicting happiness in people with spinal cord injuries. Design: Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlation techniques. Participants: 274 individuals with spinal cord injuries. Outcome Measures: Happiness…

  7. Factors Associated with Functioning Style and Coping Strategies of Families with a Child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Daryl J.; Bailey, Susan R.; Pearce, Julian C.

    2005-01-01

    A survey of parents/caregivers of a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was conducted to examine the relationship between ASD characteristics, family functioning and coping strategies. Having a child with ASD places considerable stress on the family. Primary caregivers of a child with ASD from a regional and rural area in Victoria,…

  8. Psychosocial mechanisms of serotonin transporter’s genetic polymorphism in susceptibility to major depressive disorder: mediated by trait coping styles and interacted with life events

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanfang; Sun, Ning; Liu, Zhifen; Li, Xinrong; Yang, Chunxia; Zhang, Kerang

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of 5-HTT genetic polymorphisms related susceptibility of major depressive disorder (MDD) has not been fully understood. Two hundred MDD patients and 199 control subjects were included. A model of two binary logistical regressions with and without controlling for different psychosocial variables, was applied to investigate the possible mediation effects of psychosocial factors in contribution of 5-HTT polymorphisms in MDD development. These psychosocial variables included personality, trait coping style, life events and social support. Then, contribution of interactions between 5-HTT polymorphisms and psychosocial factors in MDD was investigated by a stepwise logistical approach. The results indicated a significant association of 5-HTT LPR with the MDD indicence, but not of VNTR genotype variances with the MDD incidence without counting effects of psychosocial factors. The ss genotype of LPR demonstrated 2.50 (95% CI: 1.11-5.62) times higher odds to develop MDD than ll genotype (p=0.026). After including psychosocial variables, the odds ratio of 5-HTT LPR ss to ll genotype dropped to 1.30 times (95% CI: 0.41-4.10) and became non-significant (p=0.658). While psychosocial variables all showed significant contributions to MDD susceptibility. Our data suggested an intermediator role of this psychosocial variable in LPR genetic pathogenesis of MDD. Whereas, 5-HTT VNTR could significantly affect MDD outcome by interacting with life events (p=0.043). In conclusion, 5-HTT LPR and VNTR polymorphisms could affect MDD susceptibility through mediation by trait coping styles and interaction with severe life events, respectively. The genetic information of 5-HTT can be potentially helpful for diagnosis and further therapy. PMID:27158415

  9. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: Interaction between coping style/personality, stress, and welfare: Relevance for domestic farm animals.

    PubMed

    Koolhaas, J M; Van Reenen, C G

    2016-06-01

    This paper will argue that understanding animal welfare and the individual vulnerability to stress-related disease requires a fundamental understanding of functional individual variation as it occurs in nature as well as the underlying neurobiology and neuroendocrinology. Ecological studies in feral populations of mice, fish, and birds start to recognize the functional significance of phenotypes that individually differ in their behavioral and neuroendocrine response to environmental challenge. Recent studies indicate that the individual variation within a species may buffer the species for strong fluctuations in the natural habitat. Similarly, evolutionary ancient behavioral trait characteristics have now been identified in a range of domestic farm animals including cattle, pigs, and horses. Individual variation in behavior can be summarized in a 3-dimensional model with coping style, emotionality, and sociality as independent dimensions. These dimensions can be considered trait characteristics that are stable over time and across situations within the individual. This conceptual model has several consequences. First, the coping style dimension is strongly associated with differential stress vulnerability. Social stress studies show that proactive individuals are resilient under stable environmental conditions but vulnerable when outcome expectancies are violated. Reactive individuals are, in fact, rather flexible and seem to adapt more easily to a changing environment. A second consequence relates to genetics and breeding. Genetic selection for one trait usually implies selection for other traits as well. It is discussed that a more balanced breeding program that takes into account biologically functional temperamental traits will lead to more robust domestic farm animals. Finally, the relationship between temperamental traits, animal production, fitness, and welfare is discussed.

  10. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: Interaction between coping style/personality, stress, and welfare: Relevance for domestic farm animals.

    PubMed

    Koolhaas, J M; Van Reenen, C G

    2016-06-01

    This paper will argue that understanding animal welfare and the individual vulnerability to stress-related disease requires a fundamental understanding of functional individual variation as it occurs in nature as well as the underlying neurobiology and neuroendocrinology. Ecological studies in feral populations of mice, fish, and birds start to recognize the functional significance of phenotypes that individually differ in their behavioral and neuroendocrine response to environmental challenge. Recent studies indicate that the individual variation within a species may buffer the species for strong fluctuations in the natural habitat. Similarly, evolutionary ancient behavioral trait characteristics have now been identified in a range of domestic farm animals including cattle, pigs, and horses. Individual variation in behavior can be summarized in a 3-dimensional model with coping style, emotionality, and sociality as independent dimensions. These dimensions can be considered trait characteristics that are stable over time and across situations within the individual. This conceptual model has several consequences. First, the coping style dimension is strongly associated with differential stress vulnerability. Social stress studies show that proactive individuals are resilient under stable environmental conditions but vulnerable when outcome expectancies are violated. Reactive individuals are, in fact, rather flexible and seem to adapt more easily to a changing environment. A second consequence relates to genetics and breeding. Genetic selection for one trait usually implies selection for other traits as well. It is discussed that a more balanced breeding program that takes into account biologically functional temperamental traits will lead to more robust domestic farm animals. Finally, the relationship between temperamental traits, animal production, fitness, and welfare is discussed. PMID:27285906

  11. Chronic pain coping styles in patients with herniated lumbar discs and coexisting spondylotic changes treated surgically: Considering clinical pain characteristics, degenerative changes, disability, mood disturbances, and beliefs about pain control

    PubMed Central

    Misterska, Ewa; Jankowski, Roman; Głowacki, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Background Pain catastrophizing, appraisals of pain control, styles of coping, and social support have been suggested to affect functioning in patients with low back pain. We investigated the relation of chronic pain coping strategies to psychological variables and clinical data, in patients treated surgically due to lumbar disc herniation and coexisting spondylotic changes. Material/Methods The average age of study participants (n=90) was 43.47 years (SD 10.21). Patients completed the Polish versions of the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42 (PL-CPCI-42), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-PL), Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ-PL), Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire (BPCQ-PL), and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ-PL). Results In the PL-CPCI-42 results, resting, guarding and coping self-statements were frequently used as coping strategies (3.96 SD 1.97; 3.72 SD 1.72; 3.47 SD 2.02, respectively). In the CSQ-PL domains, catastrophizing and praying/hoping were frequently used as coping strategies (3.62 SD 1.19). The mean score obtained from the BDI-PL was 11.86 SD 7.23, and 12.70 SD 5.49 from the RMDQ-PL. BPCQ-PL results indicate that the highest score was in the subscale measuring beliefs that powerful others can control pain (4.36 SD 0.97). Exercise correlated significantly with beliefs about internal control of pain (rs=0.22). We identified associations between radiating pain and guarding (p=0.038) and between sports recreation and guarding (p=0.013) and task persistence (p=0.041). Conclusions Back pain characteristics, depressive mood, disability, and beliefs about personal control of pain are related to chronic LBP coping styles. Most of the variables related to advancement of degenerative changes were not associated with coping efforts. PMID:24370564

  12. Is Parenting Style Related to Children's Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in Latino Families?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arredondo, Elva M.; Elder, John P.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Campbell, Nadia; Baquero, Barbara; Duerksen, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Parenting styles influence a child's risk for obesity. The goals of this study are to evaluate the influence of (i) parenting style on children's health behaviors (physical activity and dietary intake), (ii) children's sociodemographic characteristics on parenting style and on children's health behaviors and (iii) parents' sociodemographic…

  13. Psychosocial variables associated with coping of HIV-positive women diagnosed during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kotzé, Marinda; Visser, Maretha; Makin, Jenny; Sikkema, Kathleen; Forsyth, Brian

    2013-02-01

    To identify psychosocial variables related to the use of coping strategies by HIV-positive South African women diagnosed during pregnancy, structured interviews were conducted with 224 HIV-positive women at antenatal clinics over a period of 2 years. Two coping styles, active and avoidant coping, were assessed using an adapted version of the Brief COPE. Psychosocial variables associated with changes in coping over time were identified with mixed linear analysis. Increases in active coping were associated with decreasing levels of internalized stigma and depression, increasing self-esteem and positive social support, knowing someone who is living with HIV, being physically healthy and living above the poverty line. Increases in avoidant coping were associated with increasing internalized stigma and depression, lower levels of self-esteem, HIV-knowledge and lower levels of education. Recommendations are made for psychological support services to strengthen women's ability to cope and enhance their health and that of their infants.

  14. Interrelationships between Coping, School Connectedness and Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frydenberg, Erica; Care, Esther; Freeman, Elizabeth; Chan, Esther

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships between coping styles, emotional wellbeing, and school connectedness using path analysis. A total of 536 Year 8 students (241 boys and 295 girls) responded to an in-class survey and the "Adolescent Coping Scale" (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993a) as part of a larger study. Productive coping style was positively…

  15. Predicting Child Physical Activity and Screen Time: Parental Support for Physical Activity and General Parenting Styles

    PubMed Central

    Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Methods: Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70–95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Results: Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Conclusions: Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. PMID:24812256

  16. Decision-Making Styles of Active-Duty Police Officers: A Multiple-Case Occupational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Patrick Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the decision-making styles of active-duty police officers or what the consequences of not understanding those decision-making styles may be. The purpose of the study was to describe the demographics and decision-making profiles of active-duty police officers, as well as any relationships that may exist among these variables,…

  17. Helping Children Cope with Fears and Stress. Part I: Discussion and Activities. Part II: Facilitator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward H.; And Others

    How fears, phobias, anxiety and stress develop in elementary school students and how these students can be assisted in coping with fears and stress are discussed in this book. Part 1, "Discussion and Activities," contains six sections. Section 1 presents an overview of fears, and stress in children. Section 2 presents 12 fear-specific activities…

  18. How Pupils with Severe Visual Impairment Describe Coping with Reading Activities in the Norwegian Inclusive School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vik, Astrid Kristin; Lassen, Liv M.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how 11 pupils with severe visual impairment cope with reading activities in inclusive Norwegian schools. All pupils received instruction in braille and print, and used an audio-text format. Having multiple reading options provided possibilities for pupils to achieve reading skills, but also generated stress. Theories of…

  19. The relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, family environment, and caregiver coping in families of children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A; Devine, Katie A; Heckler, Charles E

    2013-12-01

    The factors that influence caregiver coping mechanism preferences after a child's diagnosis with cancer are not fully understood. This study examines the relationship between caregivers' socio-demographic characteristics and the coping strategies they use to adapt to childhood cancer. Sixty caregivers of pediatric cancer patients completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Family Environment Scale, and the COPE inventory. There were no significant differences in family environment by income or education. Caregiver educational attainment was positively associated with use of planning and active coping styles, while income was not associated with caregiver coping style. Mothers were more likely than fathers to use active coping, instrumental support, religious coping, and emotional support. Men with lower education engaged in greater substance use coping and lower planning. The findings show that educational attainment and caregiver gender influence caregiver coping styles following a pediatric cancer diagnosis and suggest that educational attainment rather than financial resources drive the association between SES and coping. Programs that address educational gaps and teach caregivers planning and active coping skills may be beneficial for parents with lower educational attainment, particularly men.

  20. Predicting Changes in Physical Activity among Adolescents: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Intention, Action Planning and Coping Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo-Soares, Vera; McIntyre, Teresa; Sniehotta, Falko F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to test the direct predictors of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), action planning and coping planning as predictors of changes in physical activity (PA) in 157 adolescents (mean age: 12). TPB measures, the Action Planning and Coping Planning Scales (APCPS) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaires were measured…

  1. The Costs and Benefits of Active Coping for Adolescents Residing in Urban Poverty.

    PubMed

    Carothers, Kristin J; Arizaga, Jessica A; Carter, Jocelyn Smith; Taylor, Jeremy; Grant, Kathryn E

    2016-07-01

    The present study addresses the lack of specificity and diversity highlighted in recent stress literature reviews by examining active coping in relationships between exposure to violence and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a sample of urban youth from predominantly low-income, African American and Latino backgrounds. Two hundred and forty-one youth (mean age at Time 1 = 13 years; 66 % female; 41 % African American, 28 % Latino, 14 % European American, 6 % Asian American, 7 % mixed/biracial, 1 % American Indian/native American, .5 % Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 2 % other) and their parents participated in this three-wave study. Hierarchical regression analyses tested for moderation, and a cross lag panel path analysis tested for mediation. The results provide greater support for active coping as a variable that changes the relationship between exposure to community violence and externalizing symptoms, or moderation, rather than one that explains or mediates it. Further, specificity did not emerge for type of psychological outcome but did emerge for gender, such that active coping exacerbated the association between exposure to community violence and both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for girls, but not boys. These findings highlight the importance of contextual and demographic factors in influencing stress and coping processes during adolescence. PMID:27138173

  2. Active Coping Reduces Reports of Pain from Childbirth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined pain and negative moods during labor in relation to instructions to monitor labor contractions and LaMaze class attendance. In Study 1, pain and negative moods showed sharp decline at Stage 2 (active labor) for women who monitored and LaMaze participants; in Study 2, LaMaze participants reported decline in pain during active labor and…

  3. Io's Diverse Styles of Volcanic Activity: Results from Galileo NIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes, R. M. C.; Smythe, W. D.; Kamp, L. W.; Doute, S.; Carlson, R.; McEwen, A.; Geissler, P.

    2001-01-01

    Observations by Galileo's Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer were used to map the thermal structure of several of Io's hot spots, revealing different styles of volcanism Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract..

  4. Parental Support Exceeds Parenting Style for Promoting Active Play in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that parenting style may directly or indirectly influence school-aged children's activity behaviour. Given that relatively fewer studies have been conducted among preschool-aged children, this study's primary purpose was to examine the direct relationships between parental support and parenting style on preschool…

  5. Personality and coping.

    PubMed

    Carver, Charles S; Connor-Smith, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Personality psychology addresses views of human nature and individual differences. Biological and goal-based views of human nature provide an especially useful basis for construing coping; the five-factor model of traits adds a useful set of individual differences. Coping-responses to adversity and to the distress that results-is categorized in many ways. Meta-analyses link optimism, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to more engagement coping; neuroticism to more disengagement coping; and optimism, conscientiousness, and agreeableness to less disengagement coping. Relations of traits to specific coping responses reveal a more nuanced picture. Several moderators of these associations also emerge: age, stressor severity, and temporal proximity between the coping activity and the coping report. Personality and coping play both independent and interactive roles in influencing physical and mental health. Recommendations are presented for ways future research can expand on the growing understanding of how personality and coping shape adjustment to stress.

  6. Incentive value, unclear task difficulty, and cardiovascular reactivity in active coping.

    PubMed

    Richter, Michael; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2007-03-01

    An experiment with 44 participants assessed the moderating effects of four levels of incentive value on cardiovascular responses in active coping. Randomly assigned to one of four different incentive conditions, participants performed a memory task without knowing its difficulty in advance. By means of successfully performing the task participants could either win no reward, 10 Swiss Francs, 20 Swiss Francs, or 30 Swiss Francs. In accordance with the theoretical predictions derived from motivational intensity theory, reactivity of systolic blood pressure and heart rate monotonically increased with incentive value. Thereby, these findings provide additional empirical evidence for the predictions of motivational intensity theory with regard to unclear task difficulty and extend recent research (Richter, M., Gendolla, G.H.E., 2006. Incentive effects on cardiovascular reactivity in active coping with unclear task difficulty. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 61, 216-225.), which was not conclusive regarding the predicted monotonic relationship between incentive value and cardiovascular reactivity under conditions of unclear task difficulty.

  7. Coping Behavior Causes Asymmetric Changes in Neuronal Activation in the Prefrontal Cortex and Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Stalnaker, Thomas A.; España, Rodrigo A.; Berridge, Craig W.

    2011-01-01

    When faced with an inescapable stressor, animals may engage in ‘coping’ behaviors, such as chewing inedible objects, that attenuate some physiological responses to the stressor. Previous evidence indicates that dopamine neurotransmission in the right prefrontal cortex is modulated by coping processes. Here we tested whether medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC) neuronal activation, as measured by Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir), was altered in rats chewing inedible objects during exposure to novelty stress. We found that chewing caused an increase in Fos-ir that was selective for the right hemisphere of the mPFC along with a decrease in Fos-ir that was selective for the right central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), a region that may regulate dopamine neurotransmission in mPFC. These observations suggest that coping during stress engages mPFC and CeA neuronal activity asymmetrically. PMID:18932226

  8. Supervision Styles in Probation and Parole: An Analysis of Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, Richard P.; West, Angela D.

    2003-01-01

    Supervision of offenders in the community remains a critical component of the correctional processes in the United States. With almost six million offenders under correctional supervision in the community, there has been relatively little attention and few resources devoted to the style and quality of supervision received by these offenders. As a…

  9. Coping with early stage breast cancer: examining the influence of personality traits and interpersonal closeness.

    PubMed

    Saita, Emanuela; Acquati, Chiara; Kayser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of 72 Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire), interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale), and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale). We hypothesized that diverse personality traits and degrees of closeness contribute to determine the coping styles shown by participants. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the five coping styles (Helplessness/Hopelessness, Anxious Preoccupation, Avoidance, Fatalism, and Fighting Spirit) using personality traits and interpersonal closeness variables (Strength of Support Relations, and Number of Support Relations) as predictors. Women who rated high on assertiveness and social anxiety were more likely to utilize active coping strategies (Fighting Spirit). Perceived strength of relationships was predictive of using an active coping style while the number of supportive relationships did not correlate with any of the coping styles. Implications for assessment of breast cancer patients at risk for negative adaptation to the illness and the development of psychosocial interventions are discussed. PMID:25699003

  10. Coping with early stage breast cancer: examining the influence of personality traits and interpersonal closeness

    PubMed Central

    Saita, Emanuela; Acquati, Chiara; Kayser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of 72 Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire), interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale), and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale). We hypothesized that diverse personality traits and degrees of closeness contribute to determine the coping styles shown by participants. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the five coping styles (Helplessness/Hopelessness, Anxious Preoccupation, Avoidance, Fatalism, and Fighting Spirit) using personality traits and interpersonal closeness variables (Strength of Support Relations, and Number of Support Relations) as predictors. Women who rated high on assertiveness and social anxiety were more likely to utilize active coping strategies (Fighting Spirit). Perceived strength of relationships was predictive of using an active coping style while the number of supportive relationships did not correlate with any of the coping styles. Implications for assessment of breast cancer patients at risk for negative adaptation to the illness and the development of psychosocial interventions are discussed. PMID:25699003

  11. Coping with early stage breast cancer: examining the influence of personality traits and interpersonal closeness.

    PubMed

    Saita, Emanuela; Acquati, Chiara; Kayser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of 72 Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire), interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale), and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale). We hypothesized that diverse personality traits and degrees of closeness contribute to determine the coping styles shown by participants. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the five coping styles (Helplessness/Hopelessness, Anxious Preoccupation, Avoidance, Fatalism, and Fighting Spirit) using personality traits and interpersonal closeness variables (Strength of Support Relations, and Number of Support Relations) as predictors. Women who rated high on assertiveness and social anxiety were more likely to utilize active coping strategies (Fighting Spirit). Perceived strength of relationships was predictive of using an active coping style while the number of supportive relationships did not correlate with any of the coping styles. Implications for assessment of breast cancer patients at risk for negative adaptation to the illness and the development of psychosocial interventions are discussed.

  12. Divergent effects of active coping on psychological distress in the context of the job demands-control-support model: the roles of job control and social support.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Akihito; Shimazu, Miyuki; Odara, Tsutomu

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of active coping on psychological distress in the context of the job demands-control-support model. Participants were 726 male nonmanagers in a large electrical company in Japan. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine whether active coping and coping resources (job control, supervisor support, and coworker support) have interaction effects on psychological distress. Active coping had an interaction effect with coworker support, whereas it did not with job control and supervisor support. Results suggest that coworker support can facilitate the effectiveness of active coping, whereas job control or supervisor support cannot.

  13. Coping with urbanization: a cardiometabolic risk? The THUSA study.

    PubMed

    Malan, Leoné; Malan, Nicolaas T; Wissing, Maria P; Seedat, Yackoob K

    2008-12-01

    An assessment of specific coping styles in rural-urban Africans is done to evaluate its contribution as cardiometabolic risk factor. In total, 608 apparently healthy Africans were included in a cross-sectional comparative study from the North-West Province in South Africa. The adapted and translated COPE Questionnaire classified participants according to their responses into active (AC) or passive (PC) copers. Fasting resting metabolic syndrome (MS) indicators using the WHO definition (glucose, high density lipoproteins, waist/hip ratio, hypertension prevalence, and triglyceride) and associated MS values, i.e. fibrinogen were obtained. The Finapres recorded resting blood pressure continuously. Co-variates for all statistical analyses included age, body mass index (BMI) and lifestyle factors (alcohol consumption, smoking habits and physical activity). The only MS values prevalent in urbanized participants were higher hypertension prevalence rates and fibrinogen (women only) compared to their rural counterparts. Adding coping styles, it was mainly the urbanized AC participants that indicated higher MS values (hypertension prevalence, glucose and fibrinogen) when compared to their rural and PC counterparts. In conclusion, urbanization is associated with enhanced blood pressure and fibrinogen (women) values only. Coping as cardiometabolic risk is accentuated in the urbanized AC group, especially the men. The urbanized AC group with their higher blood pressure values and more MS indicators appears to have behaviorally an AC style but physiologically a dissociated AC style.

  14. Active versus Passive Teaching Styles: An Empirical Study of Student Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Norbert; Cater, John James, III; Varela, Otmar

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the impact of an active teaching approach and a traditional (or passive) teaching style on student cognitive outcomes. Across two sections of an introductory business course, one class was taught in an active or nontraditional manner, with a variety of active learning exercises. The second class was taught in a passive or…

  15. Active coping, personal satisfaction, and attachment to land in older African-American farmers.

    PubMed

    Maciuba, Sandra A; Westneat, Susan C; Reed, Deborah B

    2013-05-01

    Elevated suicide mortality rates have been reported for farmers and for the elderly. Very little literature exists that looks at the health of older minority farmers. This mixed-method study describes older African-American farmers (N = 156) in the contexts of active coping, personal satisfaction from farm work, and attachment to their farmland to provide insight into the psychosocial dimensions of their mental health. Findings show that the farmers have positive perspectives on work and farm future, and strong attachment to the land. Differences were noted by gender. Nurses can use these findings to frame culturally appropriate strategies for aging farmers to maximize positive outcomes.

  16. Relationship of Coping Styles with Suicidal Behavior in Hospitalized Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients: Substance Abusers versus Non- Substance Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Safa, Mitra; Talischi, Firouzeh; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment of patients with chronic conditions requiring hospitalization requires patient acceptance and cooperation and adoption of coping strategies. Inappropriate coping strategies such as substance abuse are concerning in the course of treatment. This study sought to explore the association of coping strategies with suicidal behavior in substance abusers and non substance abuser patients with chronic pulmonary diseases namely asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Materials and Methods This comparative study was performed on 100 patients with asthma and COPD selected via convenience sampling. Subjects with and without substance abuse were separated into two groups of 50 patients each. Ways of Coping Questionnaire of Lazarus (WOCQ) and Suicide Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) were completed by them. Five Persian speaking patients rated this questionnaire to be easily understandable in the pre-test stage. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to measure the internal consistency. Results The mean (±standard deviation) age of participants was 40 (±14) years; 58% of individuals were men; 62% had chosen problem-focused coping. The most abused substances were cigarettes (78%) and opium (42%); 6% of substance abusers had thought about suicide five times or more in the past year; 5% of substance abusers had seriously attempted suicide. Tendency to commit suicide was greater in men, substance abusers and participants who had chosen emotion-focused coping strategies, based on a regression model. Average score of suicide tendency was significantly higher in substance abusers (B=2.196, P =0.007). Conclusion Chronic disease is a crisis and patients need to acquire appropriate coping strategies to deal with it, especially in substance abusers and suicidal patients. Precise recognition of coping strategies in chronic pulmonary patients with substance abuse is necessary via a team cooperation among psychiatrics, psychologists and an internal

  17. Self-Objectification and the Use of Body Image Coping Strategies: The Role of Shame in Highly Physically Active Women.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Lamarche, Larkin; Gammage, Kimberley L; Sullivan, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mediating role of body shame in the relationship between self-objectification and body image coping strategies in highly physically active university women. Bivariate correlations revealed body shame was positively related to self-objectification, appearance fixing, and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. In addition, self-objectification was positively related to appearance fixing and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. Mediation analyses showed that body shame partially mediated the relationship between self-objectification and avoidance and appearance fixing coping but did not mediate the relationship between self-objectification and positive rational acceptance. Future research should examine other potential mediators or moderators in this relationship and explore the role of positive body image framed within self-objectification theory. PMID:27029108

  18. Self-Objectification and the Use of Body Image Coping Strategies: The Role of Shame in Highly Physically Active Women.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Lamarche, Larkin; Gammage, Kimberley L; Sullivan, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mediating role of body shame in the relationship between self-objectification and body image coping strategies in highly physically active university women. Bivariate correlations revealed body shame was positively related to self-objectification, appearance fixing, and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. In addition, self-objectification was positively related to appearance fixing and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. Mediation analyses showed that body shame partially mediated the relationship between self-objectification and avoidance and appearance fixing coping but did not mediate the relationship between self-objectification and positive rational acceptance. Future research should examine other potential mediators or moderators in this relationship and explore the role of positive body image framed within self-objectification theory.

  19. Age Differences in Coping with Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Barbara J.; Revenson, Tracey A.

    While most lifespan developmental theories of personality predict age-related changes in coping, little direct evidence exists for determining whether age differences in coping style are due to intrinsic developmental processes or to age differences in the kinds of stresses encountered. To evaluate age differences in coping strategies and whether…

  20. Pain acceptance-based coping in complex regional pain syndrome Type I: daily relations with pain intensity, activity, and mood.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungkun; McCracken, Lance M; Heiby, Elaine M; Moon, Dong-Eon; Lee, Jang-Han

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the temporal patterning of pain acceptance-based coping, activity, and mood in patients with complex regional pain syndrome Type I (CRPS-I), by using a daily diary method. A total of 30 patients with CRPS-I seeking treatment in a tertiary pain management center located in Seoul, Korea participated in the study. Multilevel random effects analyses indicated that (a) engagement in pain acceptance-based coping was significantly associated with lower same-day pain and negative mood and greater same-day activity and positive mood; (b) pain acceptance-based coping predicted increases in activity on the following day; (c) greater pain intensity was significantly associated with lower same-day pain acceptance-based coping and activity and greater same-day negative mood; and (d) pain intensity did not predict pain acceptance-based coping, activity, or mood on the following day. These findings suggest that patients with CRPS-I may benefit from responding to pain with acceptance. Further study and eventual application of this process in CRPS-I may improve upon the success of current approaches to this problem. PMID:22854886

  1. [Coping with crisis as an important factor in the rehabilitation process].

    PubMed

    Clemens, K; Hack, E; Sülzer, A; Schottmann, J

    2008-03-01

    Accidents and serious illnesses are inevitably associated with an emotional crisis, based on the fact that they are followed by significant consequences. Coping with this crisis requires enormous mental adaptation. This active coping process is typically characterised by three phases: the shock phase, the coping phase in the narrow sense and the phase of successful coping versus chronification. In order to ensure a positive rehabilitation process, successful coping with the illness is necessary. It is therefore absolutely crucial to analyse individual coping styles and possible obstacles thoroughly from a psychological point of view. In order to prevent a process of chronification, relevant psychosocial factors should be considered along with the medical and occupational aspects early in the rehabilitation process. Ultimately, psychological stability is the prerequisite for successful rehabilitation.

  2. Parental knowledge of adolescent activities: links with parental attachment style and adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jason D; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Lejuez, C W; Cassidy, Jude

    2015-04-01

    Parents' knowledge of their adolescents' whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents' attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents' alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (M age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in 2-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers' and fathers' insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all 3 reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers' and fathers' attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed.

  3. Parental Knowledge of Adolescent Activities: Links with Parental Attachment Style and Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jason D.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Lejuez, C. W.; Cassidy, Jude

    2015-01-01

    Parents’ knowledge of their adolescents’ whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents’ attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents’ alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (mean age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in two-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers’ and fathers’ insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all three reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers’ and fathers’ attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed. PMID:25730406

  4. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Distance Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özkan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between physical activity levels and healthy life-style behaviors in distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University. In total, 526 distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University participated in this study voluntarily. The short form of International Physical…

  5. Task Rotation: Strategies for Differentiating Activities and Assessments by Learning Style. A Strategic Teacher PLC Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Harvey; Moirao, Daniel; Jackson, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    One of the hardest jobs in teaching is to differentiate learning activities and assessments to your students' learning styles. But you and your colleagues can learn how to do this together when each of you has this guide to the Task Rotation strategy from our ultimate guide to teaching strategies, "The Strategic Teacher". Use the guide in your…

  6. Coping behavior in normal and clinical samples: more similarities than differences?

    PubMed

    Seiffge-Krenke, I

    1993-09-01

    In our studies we tried to integrate a developmental and a clinical perspective on coping and adaptation in adolescence. Starting with a review of the author's own research, involving over 3000 12- to 20-year-olds from various cultures, the problems typical of this developmental phase and the ways of coping with these normative demands are presented. The results show that coping skills of young people in dealing with age-specific problems have so far been considerably underestimated. Their response to problems stemming from different developmental fields such as parents, peers, school or future involved three main modes of coping: Active Coping, Internal Coping and Withdrawal. Withdrawal was employed very rarely and only for certain types of problems. Age, gender and problem-specific effects in coping were found. Whereas normal adolescents most frequently choose to cope with difficulties actively by means of social resources and to think out possible solutions, risk populations appear to have a more ambivalent pattern of coping strategies with high functionality and high dysfunctionality. Even their appraisal of problems is already disturbed; they feel more readily threatened by everyday problem situations and respond more uniformly with withdrawal. Finally, similarities between the female coping style in normal samples and the more pronounced ambivalent pattern in clinical samples were discussed and related to psychopathology. PMID:8282899

  7. Promoting Immigrants' Career Happiness through Coping Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Christopher; Mejia, Olga L.

    2000-01-01

    Hypothesizes a model of acculturation, coping, and work happiness for immigrants that describes acculturation styles (integration, assimilation, separation, marginalization) and preventive and combative coping methods. Describes appropriate career counseling interventions. (SK)

  8. Children’s coping after psychological stress: choices among food, physical activity, and television

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children’s stress-coping behaviors and their determinants have not been widely studied. Some children eat more after stress and dietary restraint moderates stress eating in youth, but eating has been studied in isolation of other coping behaviors. Children may not choose to eat when stressed if othe...

  9. Words Work: Activities for Developing Vocabulary, Style, and Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnicelli, Thomas A.

    This book offers integrated activities in which students explore words and, at the same time, develop their language arts and thinking skills. The book states that this way teachers can pay more attention to word study, without sacrificing other parts of the English curriculum and without resorting to word lists and memorization. In the first…

  10. Psychological distress and coping in military cadre candidates

    PubMed Central

    Nakkas, Can; Annen, Hubert; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Soldiers must cope with stressors during both military operations and training if they are to accomplish their missions successfully and stay mentally stable. This holds true particularly for military superiors, as they bear greater responsibilities and must meet greater demands during both deployment and training. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated whether recruits chosen for further promotion at the end of basic training differed with regard to psychological distress and coping strategies from those not chosen for promotion, and whether recruits’ coping styles and distress levels were associated. Methods A total of 675 Swiss recruits took part in the study. At the beginning of basic training, recruits filled out self-rating questionnaires covering demographic data, psychological distress (depression, somatization, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility), and coping styles. Results were compared between those recruits who received a recommendation for further promotion at the end of basic training and those who did not. Results Recruits selected for promotion had lower scores for depressive symptoms and hostility, engaged more in active coping, and considered their coping to be more effective. Dysfunctional and functional coping were associated with higher and lower distress levels, respectively. Conclusion Recruits recommended for promotion exhibited less psychological distress during basic training and exhibited a socially more conducive profile of distress. They also endorsed more efficient and more prosocial coping strategies than those recruits not recommended for promotion. These cognitive–emotional features not only contribute to resilience but are also consistent with leadership research, indicating the importance of emotional stability and prosocial behavior in successful leaders. PMID:27621634

  11. Psychological distress and coping in military cadre candidates

    PubMed Central

    Nakkas, Can; Annen, Hubert; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Soldiers must cope with stressors during both military operations and training if they are to accomplish their missions successfully and stay mentally stable. This holds true particularly for military superiors, as they bear greater responsibilities and must meet greater demands during both deployment and training. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated whether recruits chosen for further promotion at the end of basic training differed with regard to psychological distress and coping strategies from those not chosen for promotion, and whether recruits’ coping styles and distress levels were associated. Methods A total of 675 Swiss recruits took part in the study. At the beginning of basic training, recruits filled out self-rating questionnaires covering demographic data, psychological distress (depression, somatization, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility), and coping styles. Results were compared between those recruits who received a recommendation for further promotion at the end of basic training and those who did not. Results Recruits selected for promotion had lower scores for depressive symptoms and hostility, engaged more in active coping, and considered their coping to be more effective. Dysfunctional and functional coping were associated with higher and lower distress levels, respectively. Conclusion Recruits recommended for promotion exhibited less psychological distress during basic training and exhibited a socially more conducive profile of distress. They also endorsed more efficient and more prosocial coping strategies than those recruits not recommended for promotion. These cognitive–emotional features not only contribute to resilience but are also consistent with leadership research, indicating the importance of emotional stability and prosocial behavior in successful leaders.

  12. Active visual search in non-stationary scenes: coping with temporal variability and uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ušćumlić, Marija; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    Objective. State-of-the-art experiments for studying neural processes underlying visual cognition often constrain sensory inputs (e.g., static images) and our behavior (e.g., fixed eye-gaze, long eye fixations), isolating or simplifying the interaction of neural processes. Motivated by the non-stationarity of our natural visual environment, we investigated the electroencephalography (EEG) correlates of visual recognition while participants overtly performed visual search in non-stationary scenes. We hypothesized that visual effects (such as those typically used in human-computer interfaces) may increase temporal uncertainty (with reference to fixation onset) of cognition-related EEG activity in an active search task and therefore require novel techniques for single-trial detection. Approach. We addressed fixation-related EEG activity in an active search task with respect to stimulus-appearance styles and dynamics. Alongside popping-up stimuli, our experimental study embraces two composite appearance styles based on fading-in, enlarging, and motion effects. Additionally, we explored whether the knowledge obtained in the pop-up experimental setting can be exploited to boost the EEG-based intention-decoding performance when facing transitional changes of visual content. Main results. The results confirmed our initial hypothesis that the dynamic of visual content can increase temporal uncertainty of the cognition-related EEG activity in active search with respect to fixation onset. This temporal uncertainty challenges the pivotal aim to keep the decoding performance constant irrespective of visual effects. Importantly, the proposed approach for EEG decoding based on knowledge transfer between the different experimental settings gave a promising performance. Significance. Our study demonstrates that the non-stationarity of visual scenes is an important factor in the evolution of cognitive processes, as well as in the dynamic of ocular behavior (i.e., dwell time and

  13. How Cognitive Styles Affect the Learning Behaviors of Online Problem-Solving Based Discussion Activity: A Lag Sequential Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sheng-Yi; Hou, Huei-Tse

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive styles play an important role in influencing the learning process, but to date no relevant study has been conducted using lag sequential analysis to assess knowledge construction learning patterns based on different cognitive styles in computer-supported collaborative learning activities in online collaborative discussions. This study…

  14. Behaviors of Students and Teachers in the Command, Practice, and Inclusion Styles of Teaching: Instruction, Feedback, and Activity Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byra, Mark; Sanchez, Beth; Wallhead, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    Validating selected theoretical assumptions associated with the Spectrum of Teaching Styles is critical to the pursuit of knowledge about effective instructional strategies. To assess these styles, a total of 77 college-aged students at one university enrolled in four physical activity classes and participated in three 50-minute lessons with…

  15. Exploring the association of John Henry active coping and education on smoking behavior and nicotine dependence among Blacks in the USA.

    PubMed

    Fernander, Anita F; Patten, Christi A; Schroeder, Darrell R; Stevens, Susanna R; Eberman, Kay M; Hurt, Richard D

    2005-02-01

    Although smoking is used as a coping tool in response to stress and Blacks have been found to report smoking more in response to stress than Whites, little research exists that has examined ethno-culturally specific constructs of stress and coping as they relate to smoking behavior and nicotine dependence among Blacks in the USA. This study explored the association between the ethno-culturally interactively defined construct of John Henryism, as well as the individual contributions of John Henry active coping and education on smoking behavior and nicotine dependence in a relatively urban-Midwestern Black population. Self-identified Black patients (n = 146) who had previously received a clinical intervention for nicotine dependence were followed to assess smoking status and John Henry active coping. Results revealed that patients with low levels of education who had low levels of John Henry active coping reported higher nicotine dependence scores than any other education by John Henry active coping group. Furthermore, low levels of John Henry active coping were associated with the use of menthol cigarettes and lower-educational level was associated with smoking greater than 20 cigarettes per day. Further community-based studies examining this construct among Black smokers in various socio-cultural contexts are needed to clarify the association between John Henry active coping and socioeconomic status on smoking behavior and nicotine dependence among Blacks.

  16. Co-activation Probability Estimation (CoPE): An approach for modeling functional co-activation architecture based on neuroimaging coordinates.

    PubMed

    Chu, Congying; Fan, Lingzhong; Eickhoff, Claudia R; Liu, Yong; Yang, Yong; Eickhoff, Simon B; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-08-15

    Recent progress in functional neuroimaging has prompted studies of brain activation during various cognitive tasks. Coordinate-based meta-analysis has been utilized to discover the brain regions that are consistently activated across experiments. However, within-experiment co-activation relationships, which can reflect the underlying functional relationships between different brain regions, have not been widely studied. In particular, voxel-wise co-activation, which may be able to provide a detailed configuration of the co-activation network, still needs to be modeled. To estimate the voxel-wise co-activation pattern and deduce the co-activation network, a Co-activation Probability Estimation (CoPE) method was proposed to model within-experiment activations for the purpose of defining the co-activations. A permutation test was adopted as a significance test. Moreover, the co-activations were automatically separated into local and long-range ones, based on distance. The two types of co-activations describe distinct features: the first reflects convergent activations; the second represents co-activations between different brain regions. The validation of CoPE was based on five simulation tests and one real dataset derived from studies of working memory. Both the simulated and the real data demonstrated that CoPE was not only able to find local convergence but also significant long-range co-activation. In particular, CoPE was able to identify a 'core' co-activation network in the working memory dataset. As a data-driven method, the CoPE method can be used to mine underlying co-activation relationships across experiments in future studies.

  17. The Depression Coping Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.

    College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…

  18. Mediating the relation between workplace stressors and distress in ID support staff: comparison between the roles of psychological inflexibility and coping styles.

    PubMed

    Kurz, A Solomon; Bethay, J Scott; Ladner-Graham, Jennifer M

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined how different patterns of coping influence psychological distress for staff members in programs serving individuals with intellectual disabilities. With a series of path models, we examined the relative usefulness of constructs (i.e., wishful thinking and psychological inflexibility) from two distinct models of coping (i.e., the transactional model and the psychological flexibility models, respectively) as mediators to explain how workplace stressors lead to psychological distress in staff serving individuals with intellectual disabilities. Analyses involved self-report questionnaires from 128 staff members (84% female; 71% African American) from a large, state-funded residential program for individuals with intellectual and physical disabilities in the southern United States of America. Cross-sectional path models using bootstrapped standard errors and confidence intervals revealed both wishful thinking and psychological inflexibility mediated the relation between workplace stressors and psychological distress when they were included in separate models. However, when both variables were included in a multiple mediator model, only psychological inflexibility remained a significant mediator. The results suggest psychological inflexibility and the psychological flexibility model may be particularly useful for further investigation on the causes and amelioration of workplace-related stress in ID settings.

  19. Resilience in Adolescents: Protective Role of Social Support, Coping Strategies, Self-Esteem, and Social Activities on Experience of Stress and Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumont, Michelle; Provost, Marc A.

    1999-01-01

    Classified 141 8th graders and 156 11th graders as well adjusted, resilient, and vulnerable, and then investigated for differences on self-esteem, social support, coping strategies, and social life. Self-esteem, problem-solving coping strategies, and antisocial and illegal activities with peers helped to discriminate the groups. (Contains 86…

  20. Divorce Matters: Coping with Stress and Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... familiar with your sources of stress and your style of coping. Take time to think about ways ... Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) ...

  1. Work, food and physical activity. A qualitative study of coping strategies among men in three occupations.

    PubMed

    Wandel, Margareta; Roos, Gun

    2005-02-01

    Life style diseases contribute heavily to inequalities in health. Thus, there is a need for a better understanding of factors affecting health-related habits, such as diet and exercise, among different groups of people. In this study, the work situation is chosen as a point of departure for analyses on health-related perceptions and habits among men from three different occupations: 20 carpenters, 15 engineers and 11 drivers in Oslo, Norway. The data were collected by in depth semi-structured interviews. There were clear differences in the way men in the three types of work view food, meals, the body and physical activity. The distribution of different types of meals throughout the day was also tied to the type of work. This was linked to notions of food as fuel for immediate body functioning, vis a vis body shape and future health. The differences observed are most likely a mixture and mutual reinforcement of demands related to the work situation as well as the socio-cultural background, level of knowledge and education. Benefits at work were also different; those in higher positions (engineers) received most healthy benefits, such as fruit baskets, healthy lunches, and participation in physical activities. These may contribute to the already large differences in health practices.

  2. [Familial coping with cancer in childhood and adolescence. Possibilities for standardized assessment with a self-assessment method: results of an empirical pilot study].

    PubMed

    Goldbeck, L

    1998-10-01

    44 parents of pediatric oncology patients answered mailed questionnaires about their own coping and about their sick children's coping and bodily complaints during oncological therapy. Most of the families coped well from parents' view. The dominant coping style of the parents consisted of active, problem-focused coping strategies in combination with an optimistic basic attitude, maintainance of family cohesion and belief in god or search for a meaning of the illness. The children and adolescents used predominantly adaptive coping strategies. The parental problem-group with a predominantly maladaptive coping-style reported low family cohesion, high depression, high wishful thinking and minimization. The maladaptive children and adolescents were rated as more socially withdrawing, more irritable, less optimistic and competent as well as less compliant. Strong correlations were found between parents' and their children's coping. Problem families with a special need for psychosocial support can early be identified by the coping questionnaires used in this study. Prospective longitudinal studies with multi-methodal and multi-perspective designs should be conducted to reach a better understanding of the family coping process in case of childhood and adolescence cancer.

  3. Gender differences in psychological adaptation and coping in parents of pediatric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra-Weebers, J E; Jaspers, J P; Kamps, W A; Klip, E C

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated differences in psychological distress and coping styles between fathers and mothers of pediatric cancer patients, over a 1-year time period. Also examined were (dis)similarities in couples in distress and coping, and the relationship between (dis)similarities in coping and psychological functioning of both members of a couple. Parents (n = 124, 62 couples) were assessed at diagnosis, at 6 and 12 months. Fathers and mothers experienced higher levels of psychiatric symptomatology and psychological distress at diagnosis than men and women of a normgroup. Distress declined significantly with time. Although parents did not report more symptoms than the normgroup 12 months post-diagnosis, they still were psychologically out of balance. Contrary to findings in the general population, no differences were found between fathers and mothers in psychiatric symptoms or psychological distress on any of the measurements. Only a few gender differences in coping were found. Fathers used more active-problem focusing at diagnosis and a less palliative reaction pattern at 12 months than did mothers. Mothers used more social-support seeking on all measurements. A tendency for similarity in the use of the coping styles within couples was found. Discrepancies in coping in couples were positively related to distress in fathers at diagnosis. However, 12 months later, the more discrepant the couples were in their coping preferences the more distress the mothers indicated.

  4. Coping with Relationship Stressors: A Decade Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This review identifies key issues in research on adolescent coping with stress with parents, friends, and romantic partners during the past decade. An analysis of 78 studies revealed findings on relationship stressors and the potential links between the use of different coping styles for different relationship types. Research has confirmed…

  5. Individual attachment style modulates human amygdala and striatum activation during social appraisal.

    PubMed

    Vrticka, Pascal; Andersson, Frédéric; Grandjean, Didier; Sander, David; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2008-01-01

    Adult attachment style refers to individual personality traits that strongly influence emotional bonds and reactions to social partners. Behavioral research has shown that adult attachment style reflects profound differences in sensitivity to social signals of support or conflict, but the neural substrates underlying such differences remain unsettled. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined how the three classic prototypes of attachment style (secure, avoidant, anxious) modulate brain responses to facial expressions conveying either positive or negative feedback about task performance (either supportive or hostile) in a social game context. Activation of striatum and ventral tegmental area was enhanced to positive feedback signaled by a smiling face, but this was reduced in participants with avoidant attachment, indicating relative impassiveness to social reward. Conversely, a left amygdala response was evoked by angry faces associated with negative feedback, and correlated positively with anxious attachment, suggesting an increased sensitivity to social punishment. Secure attachment showed mirror effects in striatum and amygdala, but no other specific correlate. These results reveal a critical role for brain systems implicated in reward and threat processing in the biological underpinnings of adult attachment style, and provide new support to psychological models that have postulated two separate affective dimensions to explain these individual differences, centered on the ventral striatum and amygdala circuits, respectively. These findings also demonstrate that brain responses to face expressions are not driven by facial features alone but determined by the personal significance of expressions in current social context. By linking fundamental psychosocial dimensions of adult attachment with brain function, our results do not only corroborate their biological bases but also help understand their impact on behavior. PMID:18682729

  6. Stress, Coping and Suicide Ideation in Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Haiping; Xia, Yan; Liu, Xiaohong; Jung, Eunju

    2012-01-01

    The study was to examine 1) whether stress and coping styles could significantly predict the probability of suicide ideation; 2) and whether coping styles were mediators or moderators on the association between life stress and suicide ideation. The survey was conducted in a sample of 671 Chinese college students. Approximately twenty percent…

  7. Stress, Coping, and Suicide Risk in Psychiatric Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josepho, Sharon A.; Plutchik, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Investigated relationship between interpersonal problems, coping style, and suicide risk among 71 adult psychiatric inpatients. Patients admitted with history of suicidal attempts were compared with patients admitted for other reasons. Interpersonal problems were significantly and positively related to suicide risk. Coping style of suppression was…

  8. Coping strategies for HIV-related stigma in Liuzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Xia; Ying-Xia, Zhang; Golin, Carol E; Bu, Jin; Jin, Bu; Emrick, Catherine Boland; Nan, Zhang; Li, Ming-Qiang; Ming-Qiang, Li

    2014-02-01

    This study explores the feelings, experiences, and coping strategies of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Liuzhou, China. In a southwestern Chinese city with high HIV prevalence, we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 47 PLHIV selected to represent individuals who had acquired HIV via different acquisition routes. Many participants felt severely stigmatized; they commonly reported having very low self-esteem and feelings of despair. Based on style of coping and whether it occurred at the interpersonal or intrapersonal level, four types of coping that participants used to deal with HIV-associated stigma were identified: (1) Compassion (Passive/Avoidant-Interpersonal); (2) Hiding HIV status (Passive/Avoidant-Intrapersonal); (3) Social support (Active/Problem-focused-Interpersonal; and (4) Self-care (Active/Problem-focused-Intrapersonal). Educational and stigma-reduction interventions targeting potential social support networks for PLHIV (e.g., family, close friends, and peers) could strengthen active interpersonal PLHIV coping strategies. Interventions teaching self-care to PLHIV would encourage active intrapersonal coping, both of which may enhance PLHIV quality of life in Liuzhou, China. PMID:24337724

  9. Psychobiology of PTSD in the Acute Aftermath of Trauma: Integrating Research on Coping, HPA Function and Sympathetic Nervous System Activity

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Matthew C.; Rao, Uma

    2012-01-01

    Research on the psychobiological sequelae of trauma has typically focused on long-term alterations in individuals with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Far less is known about the nature and course of psychobiological risk factors for PTSD during the acute aftermath of trauma. In this review, we summarize data from prospective studies focusing on the relationships among sympathetic nervous system activity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function, coping strategies and PTSD symptoms during the early recovery (or non-recovery) phase. Findings from pertinent studies are integrated to inform psychobiological profiles of PTSD-risk in children and adults in the context of existing models of PTSD-onset and maintenance. Data regarding bidirectional relations between coping strategies and stress hormones is reviewed. Limitations of existing literature and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:23380312

  10. Psychobiology of PTSD in the acute aftermath of trauma: Integrating research on coping, HPA function and sympathetic nervous system activity.

    PubMed

    Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma

    2013-02-01

    Research on the psychobiological sequelae of trauma has typically focused on long-term alterations in individuals with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Far less is known about the nature and course of psychobiological risk factors for PTSD during the acute aftermath of trauma. In this review, we summarize data from prospective studies focusing on the relationships among sympathetic nervous system activity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function, coping strategies and PTSD symptoms during the early recovery (or non-recovery) phase. Findings from pertinent studies are integrated to inform psychobiological profiles of PTSD-risk in children and adults in the context of existing models of PTSD-onset and maintenance. Data regarding bidirectional relations between coping strategies and stress hormones is reviewed. Limitations of existing literature and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  11. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent girls’ physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the influences on physical activity is crucial, particularly among important target groups such as adolescent girls. This study describes cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and girls’ participation in organized sport, walking/cycling trips and objectively assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Methods Data were collected from adolescent girls (n=222) and their parents in 2004 and again in 2006. Parents self-reported their demographic characteristics and parenting style. Girls self-reported their organized sport participation and weekly walking/cycling trips, while MVPA was assessed using accelerometers. Linear regression and interaction analyses were performed. Interactions between socio-demographic factors and parenting style with organized sport, walking/cycling trips and MVPA are presented. Results There were cross-sectional associations between authoritative (B=−0.45, p=0.042) and indulgent (B=−0.56, p=0.002) parenting and the number of walking/cycling trips, and authoritarian (B=0.27, p=0.033) parenting and frequency of organized sport. Significant interactions included those between: family status, authoritative parenting and daily (p=0.048) and week day (p=0.013) MVPA; education, indulgent parenting and MVPA on weekend days (p=0.006); and, employment, authoritarian parenting and duration and frequency of organized sport (p=0.004), highlighting the complexity of these relationships. Longitudinal analyses revealed significant decreases in organized sport and MVPA, significant increases in walking/cycling trips and no significant associations between parenting and physical activity. Conclusion Parenting styles appear to influence walking and cycling trips among adolescent girls, though not physical activity within other domains. Socio-demographic characteristics interact with the relationships between parenting and physical activity. While these findings can inform the

  12. Using the Internet for Life Style Changes in Diet and Physical Activity: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Anne Holm

    2004-01-01

    Background LinkMedica-Heart is a novel Internet based program intended to support people who seek to improve their life style by means of changes in diet and physical activity. The program is currently under evaluation in a clinical study and the present study is a feasibility test of the LinkMedica-Heart Internet based program. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate LinkMedica-Heart, an Internet based program we designed for support and maintenance of patient-led life style changes. Methods The feasibility study of LinkMedica-Heart presented here is a qualitative study. Nine general practitioners were invited to participate. Each practitioner was asked to introduce LinkMedica-Heart to not less than two patients, with a maximum of five patients per practitioner. Patients and general practitioners were both asked to participate in testing the program for a period of 6 months. At the end of 6 months, evaluation meetings were held with the general practitioners, and separate interviews took place with some of the participating patients who were selected by the GPs. Results Five general practitioners and 25 patients participated in the study. The general practitioners and the patients were enthusiastic about the prospect of an Internet based life style change program. However, the program was not able to sustain patient loyalty over an extended period. The doctors found that the program was much too complicated to navigate and that the results from the program could not be trusted. The patients in contrast had fewer complaints about the program design, but found that the advice given by the program was too elaborate and detailed and, in general, did not add to the patient's knowledge on life style change. Conclusion Our study confirms that there is a need for, and a receptive attitude toward a Web-based program that supports people who want to improve their life style and health. LinkMedica-Heart in its present form does not satisfy these needs. We suggest a

  13. Changes in Coping Following Treatment for Child Molesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serran, Geris A.; Moulden, Heather; Firestone, Philip; Marshall, W. L.

    2007-01-01

    Relapse prevention theory assumes that specific coping skills deficits contribute to sexual reoffending. Recent research suggests that the general coping style of sexual offenders is also ineffective. In this study changes were examined in specific and general coping deficits following a treatment program that incorporated specific skills training…

  14. Investigation of the Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkmen, Mutlu; Ozkan, Ali; Kul, Murat; Bozkus, Taner

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship of physical activity (PA) level and healthy life-style behaviors in academic staff in Bartin University, Turkey. The short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was administered for the determination of physical activity level of academic staff. Their PA levels were…

  15. Predicting Physical Activity Outcomes During Episodes of Academic Goal Conflict: The Differential Role of Action Planning and Coping Planning.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Natasha; Gaudreau, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The moderating role of academic goal conflict in the relations between action planning (AP) and coping planning (CP) with physical activity was tested using samples of university students concurrently pursuing an academic and a physical activity goal. In Study 1 (N = 317), AP was found to positively relate to physical activity goal progress at low, but not at high, levels of goal conflict. CP trended toward being positively related to goal progress at high, but not at low levels of goal conflict. Study 2 (N = 97), using a 1-week daily diary design and measures of self-reported physical activity behavior and goal progress, showed that daily AP positively related to daily physical activity outcomes on days when students experienced lower, but not higher, levels of goal conflict relative to their average. Conversely, CP positively related to daily physical activity outcomes on days when students experienced higher, but not lower, levels of goal conflict.

  16. Endogenous opioids regulate glucocorticoid-dependent stress-coping strategies in mice.

    PubMed

    Szklarczyk, Klaudia; Korostynski, Michal; Golda, Slawomir; Piechota, Marcin; Ficek, Joanna; Przewlocki, Ryszard

    2016-08-25

    Coping skills are essential in determining the outcomes of aversive life events. Our research was aimed to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of different coping styles in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J and SWR/J. We compared the influence of a preceding stressor (0.5h of restraint) on behavioral and gene expression profiles between these two strains. The C57BL/6J strain exhibited increased conditioned fear and high immobility (passive coping). Oppositely, the SWR/J mice demonstrated low freezing and immobility, low post-restraint anxiety and considerable struggling during the forced swim test (active coping). Gene profiling in the amygdala revealed transcriptional patterns that were related to the differential stress reactivity, such as the activation of glucocorticoid-dependent genes specifically in the C57BL/6J mice. Post-restraint blood sampling for corticosterone levels confirmed the association of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation with a passive coping style. Pharmacological tools were used to modulate the stress-coping strategies. The blockade of opioid receptors (ORs) before the aversive event caused transcriptional and neuroendocrine changes in the SWR/J mice that were characteristic of the passive coping strategy. We found that treatment with a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist (dexamethasone (DEX), 4mg/kg) impaired the consolidation of fear memory in the C57BL/6J mice and that this effect was reversed by OR blockade (naltrexone (NTX), 2mg/kg). In parallel, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist (mifepristone (MIF), 20mg/kg) reversed the effect of morphine (20mg/kg) on conditioned fear in the C57BL/6J mice. Our results suggest that in mice, stress-coping strategies are determined by opioid-dependent mechanisms that modulate activity of the HPA axis. PMID:27235740

  17. Changes in Coping, Pain and Activity following Cognitive-Behavioral Training: A Randomized Clinical Trial for Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease using Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, Jeffrey; Schlenz, Alyssa; McClellan, Catherine B.; Puffer, Eve S.; Hardy, Steven; Pfeiffer, Matthew; Roberts, Carla W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined the outcomes of a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for pain in pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) using smartphones as a novel delivery method. Methods Forty-six children with SCD received CBT coping skills training using a randomized, waitlist control design. The intervention involved a single-session of CBT training and home-based practice using smartphones for eight weeks. Pre-post questionnaires between the randomized groups were used to evaluate changes in active psychological coping and negative thinking using the Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Daily diaries completed by the full sample during the treatment period were used to assess if CBT skill use was related to reductions in next day pain intensity and increases in same day functional activity. Results The pre-post group comparison suggested that youth increased active psychological coping attempts with the intervention. Daily diary data indicated that when children used CBT skills on days with higher pain, there were reductions in next day pain intensity. There was no such association between skill use and functional activity. Discussion CBT coping skills training supported via smartphones can increase coping and reduce pain intensity for children with SCD; however, additions to the study protocols are recommended in future studies. Advantages and caveats of using smartphones are also discussed. PMID:25503599

  18. Relations between different coping strategies for social stress, tumor development and neuroendocrine and immune activity in male mice.

    PubMed

    Azpiroz, A; De Miguel, Z; Fano, E; Vegas, O

    2008-07-01

    This study analyzes the effects of acute social stress and different coping strategies employed in response to it on the development of B16F10 melanoma pulmonary metastases, the activation of the HPA axis and the NKG2D receptor expression. To this end, male OF1 mice were subjected to 24h of social stress using the sensorial contact model. This model includes three 5-min sessions of direct social interaction with resident cagemates selected for consistent levels of aggression. Subjects' behavior was videotaped and assessed. Six days after the first social interaction (1st social stress), the animals were inoculated with tumor cells or vehicle, and six days later, both tumor-bearing and non tumor-bearing mice were subjected to a second 24h sensorial contact social stress session (2nd social stress). One hour after the 2nd social interaction, corticosterone levels and NKG2D receptor expression were determined. Lung metastatic foci numbers were determined 21 days after inoculation (15 days post-stress). Social stress increased the number of pulmonary metastases and the serum corticosterone level. A combination of cluster and discriminant analyses established the existence of two types of coping strategies: (1) a passive-reactive strategy characterized by subjects dedicating a greater percentage of time to submission, flee and avoidance behaviors; and (2) an active-proactive strategy, characterized by subjects dedicating a greater percentage of time to attack and non social exploration behaviors. Subjects belonging to the passive-reactive group were found to have a higher number of tumor foci, a higher level of corticosterone and a lower NKG2D receptor expression than subjects in the active-proactive group. These data indicate the relationship between different coping strategies for social stress and tumor development. PMID:18061400

  19. Development and Validation of a Q-Sort Measure of Identity Processing Style: The Identity Processing Style Q-Sort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Joe F.; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Lamke, Leanne K.; Sollie, Donna L.

    2009-01-01

    Identity styles represent strategies individuals use to explore identity-related issues. Berzonsky (Berzonsky, M. D. (1992). Identity style and coping strategies. "Journal of Personality, 60", 771-788) identified three styles: informational, normative, and diffuse. In three studies, this paper presents (a) the identity processing style Q-sort…

  20. Perceived Discrimination and Depression: Moderating Effects of Coping, Acculturation, and Ethnic Support

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Samuel; Kaspar, Violet

    2003-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effects of cultural norms and social contexts on coping processes involved in dealing with perceived racial discrimination. Cross-sectional data derived from personal interviews with Korean immigrants residing in Toronto were analyzed. Among the respondents, active, problem-focused coping styles were more effective in reducing the impacts on depression of perceived discrimination, while frequent use of passive, emotion-focused coping had debilitating mental health effects. The present findings lend greater support to a social contextual explanation than to a cultural maintenance explanation of coping processes. They also suggest that, when empowered with sufficient social resources, racial minority individuals of diverse cultural heritages are more likely to confront than to accept racial bias. PMID:12554575

  1. Optimal control of a Cope rearrangement by coupling the reaction path to a dissipative bath or a second active mode

    SciTech Connect

    Chenel, A.; Meier, C.; Dive, G.; Desouter-Lecomte, M.

    2015-01-14

    We compare the strategy found by the optimal control theory in a complex molecular system according to the active subspace coupled to the field. The model is the isomerization during a Cope rearrangement of Thiele’s ester that is the most stable dimer obtained by the dimerization of methyl-cyclopentadienenylcarboxylate. The crudest partitioning consists in retaining in the active space only the reaction coordinate, coupled to a dissipative bath of harmonic oscillators which are not coupled to the field. The control then fights against dissipation by accelerating the passage across the transition region which is very wide and flat in a Cope reaction. This mechanism has been observed in our previous simulations [Chenel et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 11273 (2012)]. We compare here, the response of the control field when the reaction path is coupled to a second active mode. Constraints on the integrated intensity and on the maximum amplitude of the fields are imposed limiting the control landscape. Then, optimum field from one-dimensional simulation cannot provide a very high yield. Better guess fields based on the two-dimensional model allow the control to exploit different mechanisms providing a high control yield. By coupling the reaction surface to a bath, we confirm the link between the robustness of the field against dissipation and the time spent in the delocalized states above the transition barrier.

  2. COPE: A Pilot Study With Urban-Dwelling Minority Sixth-Grade Youth to Improve Physical Activity and Mental Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hoying, Jacqueline; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek

    2016-10-01

    Approximately one in three preadolescents (34%) is obese/overweight and one in four (25%) experience a mental health issue. Urban youth suffer from higher rates of these problems, and at earlier ages than their peers. This study's purpose was to determine feasibility/acceptability and preliminary effects of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (Thinking, Emotion, Exercise, and Nutrition) intervention on physical activity (PA) and mental health outcomes of 11- to 13-year-olds. A one group pre- and posttest design was used in a Midwest urban middle school. Preadolescents (n = 31) who received COPE reported significant decreases in anxiety and increases in healthy lifestyle beliefs and PA. Further, preadolescents at baseline with elevated anxiety, depression, suicide risk, and below average self-concept who received COPE reported significant increases in self-concept and decreases in anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation. The COPE program is a promising intervention that can improve physical and mental health outcomes.

  3. Parental Assessment of Pain Coping in Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkitt, Chantel C.; Breau, Lynn M.; Zabalia, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Pain coping is thought to be the most significant behavioural contribution to the adjustment to pain. Little is known about how those with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) cope with pain. We describe parental reported coping styles and how coping relates to individual factors. Seventy-seven caregivers of children and adults with…

  4. Coping with Racism: What Works and Doesn't Work for Black Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Lindsey M.; Donovan, Roxanne A.; Roemer, Lizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has deleterious effects on Black Americans. However, there is minimal empirical research on the influence of gender and coping on the relationship between PRD and mental health. This study posited that coping style (i.e., problem-focused coping and avoidant coping) would moderate the relationship between PRD…

  5. The Relationship of Coping, Self-Worth, and Subjective Well-Being: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smedema, Susan Miller; Catalano, Denise; Ebener, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between various coping-related variables and the evaluation of self-worth and subjective well-being among persons with spinal cord injury. Positive coping variables included hope, proactive coping style, and sense of humor, whereas negative coping variables included perceptions of stress,…

  6. Self-Efficacy for Coping with Barriers Helps Students Stay Physically Active during Transition to Their First Year at a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined undergraduate students' physical activity during transition from high school to first-year university. Students' (N = 127) self-efficacy for coping with barriers to physical activity was investigated both as a predictor of physical activity and mediator of the relationship between pretransition and first-year physical…

  7. Influence of music with different volumes and styles on recognition activity in humans.

    PubMed

    Pavlygina, R A; Sakharov, D S; Davydov, V I; Avdonkin, A V

    2010-10-01

    The efficiency of the recognition of masked visual images (Arabic numerals) increased when accompanied by classical (62 dB) and rock music (25 dB). These changes were accompanied by increases in the coherence of potentials in the frontal areas seen on recognition without music. Changes in intercenter EEG relationships correlated with the formation a dominant at the behavioral level. When loud music (85 dB) and music of other styles was used, these changes in behavior and the EEG were not seen; however, the coherence of potentials in the temporal and motor cortex of the right hemisphere increased and the latent periods of motor reactions of the hands decreased. These results provide evidence that the "recognition" dominant is formed when there are particular ratios of the levels of excitation in the corresponding centers, which should be considered when there is a need to increase the efficiency of recognition activity in humans.

  8. Leadership Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzarella, Jo Ann; Smith, Stuart C.

    Chapter 2 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter reviews theories of leadership style--the way a leader leads. Although most experts agree that leadership style is important, they disagree concerning style components, leaders' capabilities for changing styles, the effects of personality traits on style, and the desirability of…

  9. The impact of stress and coping: Developmental changes in the transition to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M A; Levy-Shiff, R; Sohlberg, S C; Zarizki, J

    1992-08-01

    Developmental change in the impact of stressful life events and coping styles were assessed among Israeli preadolescent and adolescent boys. A school sample completed a questionnaire tapping emotionally, cognitively, and practically oriented styles of coping, along with a life event survey. Teachers reported on behavior and adjustment. Analyses revealed that coping among preadolescent males was relatively undifferentiated and of limited efficacy. The transition to adolescence saw an increased qualitative differentiation of emotionally from practically or cognitively oriented coping styles, as well as quantitatively greater use of cognitively oriented coping. Further, cognitively and practically oriented coping served as effective foils to the adverse effects of stress, whereas emotionally oriented coping was counterproductive. Discussion focused on the possible contribution of cognitive growth to coping, as well as the relative utility of adult models for the study of coping in young populations.

  10. Soft-computing base analyses of the relationship between annoyance and coping with noise and odor.

    PubMed

    Botteldooren, Dick; Lercher, Peter

    2004-06-01

    The majority of research on annoyance as an important impact of noise, odor, and other stressors on man, has regarded the person as a passive receptor. It was however recognized that this person is an active participant trying to alter a troubled person-environment relationship or to sustain a desirable one. Coping has to be incorporated. This is of particular importance in changing exposure situations. For large populations a lot of insight can be gained by looking at average effects only. To investigate changes in annoyance and effects of coping, the individual or small group has to be studied. Then it becomes imperative to recognize the inherent vagueness in perception and human behavior. Fortunately, tools have been developed over the past decades that allow doing this in a mathematically precise way. These tools are sometimes referred to by the common label: soft-computing, hence the title of this paper. This work revealed different styles of coping both by blind clustering and by (fuzzy) logical aggregation of different actions reported in a survey. The relationship between annoyance and the intensity of coping it generates was quantified after it was recognized that the possibility for coping is created by the presence of the stressor rather than the actual fact of coping. It was further proven that refinement of this relationship is possible if a person can be identified as a coper. This personal factor can be extracted from a known reaction to one stressor and be used for predicting coping intensity and style in another situation. The effect of coping on a perceived change in annoyance is quantified by a set of fuzzy linguistic rules. This closes the loop that is responsible for at least some of the dynamics of the response to a stressor. This work thus provides all essential building blocks for designing models for annoyance in changing environments. PMID:15237822

  11. An Evaluation of Gas Law Webquest Based on Active Learning Style in a Secondary School in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alias, Norlidah; DeWitt, Dorothy; Siraj, Saedah

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the PTEchLS WebQuest on Gas Laws was evaluated. It was designed for Form Four students with active learning styles. The focus of the evaluation was on the usability and effectiveness of the PTechLS WebQuest. Data were collected from interviews and students' achievement scores. Two teachers and eight students volunteered to…

  12. Latent Class Analysis of Gambling Activities in a Sample of Young Swiss Men: Association with Gambling Problems, Substance Use Outcomes, Personality Traits and Coping Strategies.

    PubMed

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Simon, Olivier; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    The study aimed to identify different patterns of gambling activities (PGAs) and to investigate how PGAs differed in gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. A representative sample of 4989 young Swiss males completed a questionnaire assessing seven distinct gambling activities, gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. PGAs were identified using latent class analysis (LCA). Differences between PGAs in gambling and substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies were tested. LCA identified six different PGAs. With regard to gambling and substance use outcomes, the three most problematic PGAs were extensive gamblers, followed by private gamblers, and electronic lottery and casino gamblers, respectively. By contrast, the three least detrimental PGAs were rare or non-gamblers, lottery only gamblers and casino gamblers. With regard to personality traits, compared with rare or non-gamblers, private and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sensation seeking. Electronic lottery and casino gamblers, private gamblers and extensive gamblers had higher levels of aggression-hostility. Extensive and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sociability, whereas casino gamblers reported lower levels of anxiety-neuroticism. Extensive gamblers used more maladaptive and less adaptive coping strategies than other groups. Results suggest that gambling is not a homogeneous activity since different types of gamblers exist according to the PGA they are engaged in. Extensive gamblers, electronic and casino gamblers and private gamblers may have the most problematic PGAs. Personality traits and coping skills may predispose individuals to PGAs associated with more or less negative outcomes.

  13. Adolescents in secure residential care: the role of active and passive coping on general well-being and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Barendregt, Charlotte S; Van der Laan, André M; Bongers, Ilja L; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-07-01

    Coping, general well-being and self-esteem play an important role during the process of adaptation to turning points in life-course. This study aimed to investigate the effect of coping on both the development of general well-being and self-esteem of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems in secure residential care. In addition, risk and protective factors were taken into account. Adolescents between the age of 16 and 18 (N = 172) were followed for 1.5 years. General well-being and self-esteem were assessed with the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, respectively. In addition, the Utrecht Coping List for Adolescents and the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth were administered. Results showed that the longitudinal relation between general well-being and self-esteem is no longer significant after adding active and passive coping to the model. The use of active coping strategies was associated with a higher self-esteem. The use of passive coping strategies was associated with a lower self-esteem and also a lower perceived general well-being. Having multiple risks in the individual and/or social/contextual domain affected the developmental pattern of general well-being. During treatment of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems in secure residential care, attention should be paid for enhancing those capabilities and skills, like coping, which help adolescents to fulfill their needs and consequently enhance their well-being. Enhancing the well-being of adolescents might in the long run decrease the chance of reoffending and/or psychiatric relapse.

  14. Assessment of nursing students' stress levels and coping strategies in operating room practice.

    PubMed

    Yildiz Findik, Ummu; Ozbas, Ayfer; Cavdar, Ikbal; Yildizeli Topcu, Sacide; Onler, Ebru

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress levels and stress coping strategies of nursing students in their first operating room experience. This descriptive study was done with 126 nursing students who were having an experience in an operating room for the first time. Data were collected by using Personal Information Form, Clinical Stress Questionnaire, and Styles of Coping Inventory. The nursing students mostly had low clinical stress levels (M = 27.56, SD = 10.76) and adopted a self-confident approach in coping with stress (M = 14.3, SD = 3.58). The nursing students generally employed a helpless/self-accusatory approach among passive patterns as their clinical stress levels increased, used a self-confident and optimistic approach among active patterns as their average age increased, and those who had never been to an operating room previously used a submissive approach among passive patterns. The results showed that low levels of stress caused the nursing students to use active patterns in coping with stress, whereas increasing levels of stress resulted in employing passive patterns in stress coping. The nursing students should be ensured to maintain low levels of stress and use active patterns in stress coping.

  15. Patterns of Coping Among Family Caregivers of Frail Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Fen; Wu, Hsueh-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Past studies have extensively examined factors associated with coping strategies that caregivers use to ameliorate distress or solve problems. While these studies have found that stressors and individual resources influence choices of coping strategies, they have tended to overlook caregivers’ social resources and have rarely considered the possibility that distinct groups of caregivers may use different sets of coping strategies. We conducted latent-class analyses to identify distinct groups of caregivers: those using no particular patterns of coping (unpatterned-coping), those centering on ameliorating distress (emotional-coping), and those focusing on both ameliorating distress and solving problems (hybrid-coping). Stressors distinguished all three coping groups, individual resources differentiated the hybrid-coping group from the emotional-coping group and the unpatterned-coping group, and social resources separated the emotional-coping group and the hybrid-coping group from the unpatterned-coping group. These findings indicate different factors contributing to caregivers’ use of different coping styles and suggest ways to better help caregivers. PMID:25651512

  16. Attitudes to concept maps as a teaching/learning activity in undergraduate health professional education: influence of preferred learning style.

    PubMed

    Laight, David W

    2004-05-01

    Concept maps that integrate and relate concepts in a nonlinear fashion are widely accepted as an educational tool that can underpin meaningful learning in medical education. However, student take-up may be affected by a number of cognitive and non-cognitive influences. In the present study, student attitudes to pre-prepared concept maps introduced in Stage 2 conjoint MPharm and BSc Pharmacology lectures were examined in relation to preferred learning styles according to the Felder-Silverman model. There was no statistically significant influence of dichotomous learning style dimension (sensing/intuitive; visual/verbal; active/reflector; sequential/global) on the self-reported utility of such concept maps to learning. However, when strength of preference was analysed within each dimension, moderate/strong verbal learners were found to be significantly less likely to self-report concept maps as useful relative to mild verbal learners. With this important exception, these data now suggest that student attitudes to concept maps are broadly not influenced by preferred learning styles and furthermore highlight the potential of concept maps to address a variety of different learning styles and thereby facilitate 'teaching to all types'. Concept maps could therefore potentially assist motivation, engagement and deep learning in medical and biomedical science education when used as a supplement to more traditional teaching/learning activities.

  17. The anti-tumor activity of pineal melatonin and cancer enhancing life styles in industrialized societies.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Christian; Bartsch, Hella

    2006-05-01

    This review discusses the potential role of the anti-tumor activity of pineal melatonin for the aetiology and prevention of cancers related to life-styles in industrialized societies, e.g. frequent long-distance flights as well as chronic night shift work leading to circadian disturbances of neuroendocrine parameters including melatonin. Experimental studies show that melatonin controls not only the growth of well-differentiated cancers, but also possesses anti-carcinogenic properties. Therefore, it is plausible that disturbances of circadian melatonin rhythmicity could be functionally involved in elevated cancer risks among aircrew members and nurses frequently working on night shifts. Due to the suppression of melatonin by light it can be assumed that too much artificial light at night could, at least in part, be responsible for generally increasing rates of e.g. breast cancer in industrialized countries. It is discussed under which conditions a transient substitutional therapy with melatonin could be justified or which forms of living could help to physiologically foster melatonin secretion to optimise control over cancerous growth and development.

  18. Tectonic history and thrust-fold deformation style of seismically active structures near Coalinga

    SciTech Connect

    Namson, J.S. ); Davis, T.L.; Lagoe, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    The stratigraphy of the Coalinga region can be divided into tectostratigraphic facies whose boundaries delineate two major tectonic events - one in the mid-Cenozoic (38-17 Ma) and one in the late Cenozoic (less than 3 Ma). The succession of these tectostratigraphic facies, and an integration of geology, subsurface well data, a seismic-reflection profile, and earthquake seismicity on a retrodeformable cross section, yield a model for the tectonic evolution of the Coalinga region. This model suggests that the structural style of both deformational events is characteristic of fold and thrust belts. The model also indicates that the causative fault of the May 2 earthquake is a ramped thrust. The results of this study, in combination with regional geologic relations, suggest that the Coalinga region is part of an active fold and thrust belt which borders the west and south sides of the San Joaquin Valley. The potential for future earthquakes due to movement of other blind thrust faults within this belt should be evaluated.

  19. Ways of coping and biomarkers of an increased atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease risk in elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    von Känel, Roland; Mausbach, Brent T; Dimsdale, Joel E; Mills, Paul J; Patterson, Thomas L; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Ziegler, Michael G; Roepke, Susan K; Allison, Matthew; Grant, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship between coping and atherothrombotic biomarkers of an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the elderly. Methods. We studied 136 elderly caregiving and noncaregiving men and women who completed the Ways of Coping Checklist to assess problem-focused coping, seeking social support (SSS), blamed self, wishful thinking, and avoidance coping. They had circulating levels of 12 biomarkers measured. We also probed for potential mediator and moderator variables (chronic stress, affect, health behavior, autonomic activity) for the relation between coping and biomarkers. Results. After controlling for demographic and CVD risk factors, greater use of SSS was associated with elevated levels of serum amyloid A (P = 0.001), C-reactive protein (CRP) (P = 0.002), vascular cellular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 (P = 0.021), and D-dimer (P = 0.032). There were several moderator effects. For instance, greater use of SSS was associated with elevated VCAM-1 (P < 0.001) and CRP (P = 0.001) levels in subjects with low levels of perceived social support and positive affect, respectively. The other coping styles were not significantly associated with any biomarker. Conclusions. Greater use of SSS might compromise cardiovascular health through atherothrombotic mechanisms, including elevated inflammation (i.e., serum amyloid A, CRP, VCAM-1) and coagulation (i.e., D-dimer) activity. Moderating variables need to be considered in this relationship.

  20. Coping strategies to manage acculturative stress: Meaningful activity participation, social support, and positive emotion among Korean immigrant adolescents in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, Sooyeon; Gopalan, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    During acculturation, Asian immigrant adolescents have numerous challenges such as language barriers, cultural and ethnic differences, different school environments, discrimination experiences, and intergroup conflicts and tension. These challenges generate acculturative stress, which negatively affects the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. This article explored how Asian immigrant adolescents perceive and cope with acculturative stress. In particular, this study examined the stress-coping strategies in the adaptation process as experienced by Korean immigrant adolescents. Three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were captured: (a) engagement in meaningful activities; (b) social support; and (c) positive emotion. This finding implies that Asian immigrant adolescents create and develop their own strategies to deal with acculturative stress, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being. This study discuss the future implications on how to improve the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. PMID:23195747

  1. Coping Strategies and Associations With Depression Among 12- to 15-Year-Old Norwegian Adolescents Involved in Bullying.

    PubMed

    Undheim, Anne Mari; Wallander, Jan; Sund, Anne Mari

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine coping styles among young adolescents involved in bullying, both as victims or aggressors, and the relationships between coping styles and depressive symptom levels. The possible moderating and mediating roles of coping in the relationships between bullying involvement and depression are also investigated. A representative community sample of 2464 adolescents was assessed. Coping styles were measured by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Analysis of variance and standard linear regression methods were applied. Adolescents being bullied or being aggressive toward others both showed more emotional coping than did noninvolved adolescents (p < 0.001). Being bullied and high emotional, low task, and high avoidant coping styles were independently related to more depressive symptoms. The association between being bullied and depressive symptoms was both moderated and partially mediated by emotional coping. PMID:26828912

  2. Coping Strategies and Associations With Depression Among 12- to 15-Year-Old Norwegian Adolescents Involved in Bullying.

    PubMed

    Undheim, Anne Mari; Wallander, Jan; Sund, Anne Mari

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine coping styles among young adolescents involved in bullying, both as victims or aggressors, and the relationships between coping styles and depressive symptom levels. The possible moderating and mediating roles of coping in the relationships between bullying involvement and depression are also investigated. A representative community sample of 2464 adolescents was assessed. Coping styles were measured by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Analysis of variance and standard linear regression methods were applied. Adolescents being bullied or being aggressive toward others both showed more emotional coping than did noninvolved adolescents (p < 0.001). Being bullied and high emotional, low task, and high avoidant coping styles were independently related to more depressive symptoms. The association between being bullied and depressive symptoms was both moderated and partially mediated by emotional coping.

  3. Impulsivity, Coping, Stress, and Problem Gambling among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Hulsey, C. Duncan

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated whether coping styles moderated the relationship between (a) impulsivity and stress and (b) stress and gambling behavior and tested whether impulsive persons who use avoidant or emotion-focused coping under high-stress conditions are most likely to gamble. Among 202 university student volunteers, 33% of men but only 3% of…

  4. Coping with Stress in the Australian Job Network: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Wendy; Goddard, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The authors attempted to identify (a) the coping strategies used by employment service case managers in Queensland, Australia, and (b) the strategies that could be beneficial in reducing the relatively high burnout levels that have been observed in this population. Significant gender differences in coping styles were found, and an association…

  5. [Life-style and cancer prevention. Activities of the Department of Cancer Prevention, Osaka Cancer Prevention and Detection Center].

    PubMed

    Oshima, A; Nakamura, M

    1990-02-01

    The role of the Department of Cancer Prevention, Osaka Cancer Prevention and Detection Center which was established in 1987 is to conduct practical research works in the area of primary prevention of cancer through life-style modification. We have so far examined the applicability and efficacy of such tools as population-based smoking cessation contest, nicotine gum, health risk appraisal and "Know Your Body" program. The outline of our activities and future plans are introduced. PMID:2313881

  6. Coping Mediates the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Carolyn; Fogarty, Gerard J.; Zeidner, Moshe; Roberts, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Research examining the relationships between performance measures of emotional intelligence (EI), coping styles, and academic achievement is sparse. Two studies were designed to redress this imbalance. In each of these studies, both EI and coping styles were significantly related to academic achievement. In Study 1, 159 community college students…

  7. Peer Victimization and Social Anxiety: An Exploration of Coping Strategies as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kelly M.; Shellman, Alison B.; Osmer, Sarah C.; Day, Susan X.; Dempsey, Allison G.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between recalled peer victimization, coping styles, and current social anxiety. College students (N = 298, 87.9% female) completed a demographic questionnaire, the Recalled Victimization Questionnaire- Revised (RVQ-R), the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE), and the Coping Styles Questionnaire (CSQ).…

  8. Carbo Reading Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of the Carbo Reading Styles Program (RSP), a comprehensive reading program that applies learning styles concepts to reading. The program uses themes, activities, and literature to help improve student performance across all subject areas. Main components of RSP include: a variety of instructional strategies to…

  9. Parenting styles and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and χ(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection. PMID:21896116

  10. Parenting styles and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and χ(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection.

  11. The arbuscular mycorrhizal Rhizophagus irregularis activates storage lipid biosynthesis to cope with the benzo[a]pyrene oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Calonne, Maryline; Fontaine, Joël; Debiane, Djouher; Laruelle, Frédéric; Grandmougin-Ferjani, Anne; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa

    2014-01-01

    The phytoremediation assisted by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could constitute an ecological and economic method to restore polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) polluted soils. Unfortunately, little is known about the PAH impact on the beneficial symbiotic AMF. Using radiolabelling experiments, our work aims to understand how benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a representative of high molecular weight PAH, acts on the AMF lipid metabolism. Our results showed decreases in the sterol precursors as well as in total phospholipid quantities, in link with the [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation decreases in these lipids. Interestingly, a concomitant increase of [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation by 29.5% into phosphatidylcholine with its content decrease in Rhizophagus irregularis extraradical mycelium was observed, suggesting a membrane regeneration. A second concomitant increase (estimated to 69%) of [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation into triacylglycerols (TAG) with the content decrease was also observed. This suggests a fungal TAG biosynthesis activation probably to offset the decrease in storage lipid content when the fungus was grown under B[a]P pollution. In addition, our findings showed that lipase activity was induced by more than 3 fold in the presence of B[a]P in comparison to the control indicating that the drop in TAG content could be a consequence of their active degradation. Taken together, our data suggest the involvement of the fungal TAG metabolism to cope B[a]P toxicity through two means: (i) by providing carbon skeletons and energy necessary for membrane regeneration and/or for B[a]P translocation and degradation as well as (ii) by activating the phosphatidic acid and hexose metabolisms which may be involved in cellular stress defence.

  12. Comparing Single Mode ODL Institutions in Asia: Management Styles, Pedagogical Activities and Educational Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Weiyuan; Jegede, Olugbemiro; Tsui, Cecelia; Ng, Fowie; Kwok, Louisa

    2002-01-01

    Reports the results of a comparative study of the 26 open universities in Asia (of 12 Asian countries/regions) conducted by the Center for Research in Distance and Adult Learning, Open University of Hong Kong. Topics explored were: gender/age distribution of the students; leadership styles; teaching and delivery model; methods and forms of student…

  13. Differences in Agency? How Adolescents from 18 Countries Perceive and Cope with Their Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Persike, Malte; Chau, Cecilia; Hendry, Leo B.; Kloepp, Marion; Terzini-Hollar, Michelle; Tam, Vicky; Naranjo, Carmen Rodriguez; Herrera, Dora; Menna, Palma; Rohail, Iffat; Veisson, Marika; Hoareau, Elsa; Luwe, Merja; Loncaric, Darko; Han, Hyeyoun; Regusch, Ludmilla

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how N = 5,126 adolescents (mean age of 15 years) from 18 countries perceive and cope with future- and school-related stress. The adolescents completed the Problem Questionnaire (PQ), which assesses stress, and the Coping Across Situations Questionnaire (CASQ), which assesses three coping styles (reflection/support-seeking,…

  14. Coping with Bullying and Victimisation among Preadolescents: The Moderating Effects of Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Panagopoulou, Paraskevi; Tsolakidou, Ioanna; Tzeliou, Evdoxia

    2015-01-01

    Bullying and victimisation may result from ineffective coping with interpersonal stressors. However, little is known about the preadolescents who are most susceptible to dysfunctional coping styles. Self-efficacy beliefs may be one source of individual differences in coping among those involved in bullying and victimisation. The purpose of the…

  15. Socioeconomic Status and Financial Coping Strategies: The Mediating Role of Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Leslie J.; Schooler, Carmi

    2007-01-01

    We examine the relations among socioeconomic status, control beliefs, and two coping styles (problem-focused vs. emotion-focused) in the context of financial stress. Findings indicate that low socioeconomic status (SES) is linked to greater use of emotion-focused financial coping and lesser use of problem-focused financial coping. The effects of…

  16. Combat health care providers and resiliency: adaptive coping mechanisms during and after deployment.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Susanne W; Shafer, Michaela; Aramanda, Larry; Hickling, Edward J; Benedek, David M

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to understand the varied health care provider responses to traumas by identifying perceptions of control and self-efficacy, appraisal styles, and postevent coping strategies in active duty military nurses and physicians deployed to combat/terrorist regions. Twenty purposively sampled military health care providers completed a descriptive questionnaire, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and a recorded semistructured interview that was later transcribed and content analyzed. Cognitive-behavioral determinants of healthy response to trauma were used to frame this descriptive interpretive study and to assist with developing a model for healthy adaptation in trauma-exposed health care providers. Participants felt they had the greatest control over their health care provider role in theater, and most expressed a belief that a sense of control and a sense of purpose were important to their coping. All used some form of social support to cope and many found calming activities that allowed for self-reflection to be helpful. Results from this analysis can be used to inform interventions and promote postevent coping behaviors that increase social support, strengthen important bonds, and enhance involvement in activities that elicit positive emotions. Health care providers experienced positive outcomes despite considerable traumatic exposure by using coping strategies that map closely to several principles of psychological first aid. This suggests a need to train all medical personnel in these concepts as they appear helpful in mitigating responses to the stress of combat-related exposures. PMID:23855421

  17. COPE: A Pilot Study With Urban-Dwelling Minority Sixth-Grade Youth to Improve Physical Activity and Mental Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hoying, Jacqueline; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek

    2016-10-01

    Approximately one in three preadolescents (34%) is obese/overweight and one in four (25%) experience a mental health issue. Urban youth suffer from higher rates of these problems, and at earlier ages than their peers. This study's purpose was to determine feasibility/acceptability and preliminary effects of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (Thinking, Emotion, Exercise, and Nutrition) intervention on physical activity (PA) and mental health outcomes of 11- to 13-year-olds. A one group pre- and posttest design was used in a Midwest urban middle school. Preadolescents (n = 31) who received COPE reported significant decreases in anxiety and increases in healthy lifestyle beliefs and PA. Further, preadolescents at baseline with elevated anxiety, depression, suicide risk, and below average self-concept who received COPE reported significant increases in self-concept and decreases in anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation. The COPE program is a promising intervention that can improve physical and mental health outcomes. PMID:27026664

  18. Style Shifts among Japanese Learners before and after Study Abroad in Japan: Becoming Active Social Agents in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwasaki, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on L2 Japanese sojourners often reported that learners overuse the plain style or haphazardly mix the plain and polite styles upon return. These styles, which are often associated with formal or informal contexts, also index complex social and situational meanings, and native speakers are reported to shift their styles to create…

  19. Innate immunity activation on biomaterial surfaces: A mechanistic model and coping strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ekdahl, Kristina N; Lambris, John D.; Elwing, Hans; Ricklin, Daniel; Nilsson, Per H.; Teramura, Yuji; Nicholls, Ian A.; Nilsson, Bo

    2011-01-01

    When an artificial biomaterial (e.g., a stent or implantable pump) is exposed to blood, plasma proteins immediately adhere to the surface, creating a new interface between the biomaterial and the blood. The recognition proteins within the complement and contact activation/coagulation cascade systems of the blood will be bound to, or inserted into, this protein film and generate different mediators that will activate polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes, as well as platelets. Under clinical conditions, the ultimate outcome of these processes may be thrombotic and inflammatory reactions, and consequently the composition and conformation of the proteins in the initial layer formed on the surface will to a large extent determine the outcome of a treatment involving the biomaterial, affecting both the functionality of the material and the patient’s life quality. This review presents models of biomaterial-induced activation processes and describes various strategies to attenuate potential adverse reactions by conjugating bioactive molecules to surfaces or by introducing nanostructures. PMID:21771620

  20. Coping with dehydration: sympathetic activation and regulation of glutamatergic transmission in the hypothalamic PVN.

    PubMed

    Bardgett, Megan E; Chen, Qing-Hui; Guo, Qing; Calderon, Alfredo S; Andrade, Mary Ann; Toney, Glenn M

    2014-06-01

    Autonomic and endocrine profiles of chronic hypertension and heart failure resemble those of acute dehydration. Importantly, all of these conditions are associated with exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) driven by glutamatergic activation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Here, studies sought to gain insight into mechanisms of disease by determining the role of PVN ionotropic glutamate receptors in supporting SNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP) during dehydration and by elucidating mechanisms regulating receptor activity. Blockade of PVN N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors reduced (P < 0.01) renal SNA and MAP in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized dehydrated (DH) (48 h water deprivation) rats, but had no effect in euhydrated (EH) controls. Blockade of PVN α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors had no effect in either group. NMDA in PVN caused dose-dependent increases of renal SNA and MAP in both groups, but the maximum agonist evoked response (Emax) of the renal SNA response was greater (P < 0.05) in DH rats. The latter was not explained by increased PVN expression of NMDA receptor NR1 subunit protein, increased PVN neuronal excitability, or decreased brain water content. Interestingly, PVN injection of the pan-specific excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) inhibitor DL-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid produced smaller sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses in DH rats, which was associated with reduced glial expression of EAAT2 in PVN. Like chronic hypertension and heart failure, dehydration increases excitatory NMDA receptor tone in PVN. Reduced glial-mediated glutamate uptake was identified as a key contributing factor. Defective glutamate uptake in PVN could therefore be an important, but as yet unexplored, mechanism driving sympathetic hyperactivity in chronic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24671240

  1. An effect of physical activity-based recreation programs on children's optimism, humor styles, and school life adjustment.

    PubMed

    Koo, Jae-Eun; Lee, Gwang-Uk

    2015-06-01

    This study puts its purpose in identifying the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on the optimism of children, humor styles, and school life adjustment. To achieve the study purpose, this study selected 190 subjects as samples were extracted targeting senior students of elementary schools who participated in the physical activity-based recreation in the metropolitan areas as of 2014. As research methods, questionnaire papers were used and reliability analysis, factor analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were conducted by utilizing SPSS 18.0 after inputting analysis data into the computer. The study results, obtained in this study are as follows: First, in terms of the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on optimism, participation frequency and participation intensity would have an effect on optimism, while participation period would have a significant effect on being positive among the sub-factors of optimism. Second, participation in physical activity-based recreation programs might have a significant effect on humor styles. Third, in terms of the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on the school life adjustment, it was demonstrated that participation period and participation intensity would have a significant effect on school life adjustment, while participation frequency would have a significant effect on regulation-observance and school life satisfaction.

  2. Styles of problem solving in suicidal individuals.

    PubMed

    Orbach, I; Bar-Joseph, H; Dror, N

    1990-01-01

    This study compared qualitative aspects of problem solving among suicide attempters, suicide ideators, and nonsuicidal patients. The subjects completed a suicidal intent scale and a problem-solving task involving three dilemmas. Problem solving was analyzed along eight qualitative categories: versatility of the various solutions, reliance on self versus others, activity versus passivity, confrontation versus avoidance, relevance of the solution to the problem, positive versus negative affect, reference to the future, and extremity of the solution. The statistical analysis yielded differences among the three groups. In general, the solutions of suicidal patients showed less versatility, more avoidance, less relevance, more negative affect, and less reference to the future than the solutions of the nonsuicidal patients. The suicide attempters and nonsuicidal patients offered more active solutions than did the suicide ideators. Our findings emphasize the importance of general coping styles, as well as energetic/motivational aspects and affective aspects of the problem-solving process. Some applications to therapy are discussed.

  3. Style Differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covault, Craig

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station Expedition 11 crew, set for liftoff Apr. 15 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, is to perform two extravehicular activities-one in Russian and the other in U.S. spacesuits, a unique combination that points up different national space-operating styles. The outgoing Expedition 10 commander, astronaut Leroy Chiao, addressed the differences in an e-mail exchange from the ISS. Chiao is well qualified to discuss these topics, having logged four shuttle-based EVAs in the American suit and two in the Russian Orlan, the most recent one Mar. 28. Chiao and Expedition 10 cosmonaut Salizhan Sharipov are to return to Earth in their own Soyuz Apr. 25.

  4. Coping with the Forced Swim Stressor: Towards Understanding an Adaptive Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    de Kloet, E. R.; Molendijk, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    In the forced swim test (FST) rodents progressively show increased episodes of immobility if immersed in a beaker with water from where escape is not possible. In this test, a compound qualifies as a potential antidepressant if it prevents or delays the transition to this passive (energy conserving) behavioural style. In the past decade however the switch from active to passive “coping” was used increasingly to describe the phenotype of an animal that has been exposed to a stressful history and/or genetic modification. A PubMed analysis revealed that in a rapidly increasing number of papers (currently more than 2,000) stress-related immobility in the FST is labeled as a depression-like phenotype. In this contribution we will examine the different phases of information processing during coping with the forced swim stressor. For this purpose we focus on the action of corticosterone that is mediated by the closely related mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the limbic brain. The evidence available suggests a model in which we propose that the limbic MR-mediated response selection operates in complementary fashion with dopaminergic accumbens/prefrontal executive functions to regulate the transition between active and passive coping styles. Upon rescue from the beaker the preferred, mostly passive, coping style is stored in the memory via a GR-dependent action in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. It is concluded that the rodent's behavioural response to a forced swim stressor does not reflect depression. Rather the forced swim experience provides a unique paradigm to investigate the mechanistic underpinning of stress coping and adaptation. PMID:27034848

  5. Superior Analgesic Effect of an Active Distraction versus Pleasant Unfamiliar Sounds and Music: The Influence of Emotion and Cognitive Style

    PubMed Central

    Garza Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene; Østergaard, Leif; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Listening to music has been found to reduce acute and chronic pain. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood; however, emotion and cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to influence the analgesic effect of music. In this study we investigated the influence of familiarity, emotional and cognitive features, and cognitive style on music-induced analgesia. Forty-eight healthy participants were divided into three groups (empathizers, systemizers and balanced) and received acute pain induced by heat while listening to different sounds. Participants listened to unfamiliar Mozart music rated with high valence and low arousal, unfamiliar environmental sounds with similar valence and arousal as the music, an active distraction task (mental arithmetic) and a control, and rated the pain. Data showed that the active distraction led to significantly less pain than did the music or sounds. Both unfamiliar music and sounds reduced pain significantly when compared to the control condition; however, music was no more effective than sound to reduce pain. Furthermore, we found correlations between pain and emotion ratings. Finally, systemizers reported less pain during the mental arithmetic compared with the other two groups. These findings suggest that familiarity may be key in the influence of the cognitive and emotional mechanisms of music-induced analgesia, and that cognitive styles may influence pain perception. PMID:22242169

  6. Superior analgesic effect of an active distraction versus pleasant unfamiliar sounds and music: the influence of emotion and cognitive style.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Eduardo A Garza; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene; Østergaard, Leif; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Listening to music has been found to reduce acute and chronic pain. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood; however, emotion and cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to influence the analgesic effect of music. In this study we investigated the influence of familiarity, emotional and cognitive features, and cognitive style on music-induced analgesia. Forty-eight healthy participants were divided into three groups (empathizers, systemizers and balanced) and received acute pain induced by heat while listening to different sounds. Participants listened to unfamiliar Mozart music rated with high valence and low arousal, unfamiliar environmental sounds with similar valence and arousal as the music, an active distraction task (mental arithmetic) and a control, and rated the pain. Data showed that the active distraction led to significantly less pain than did the music or sounds. Both unfamiliar music and sounds reduced pain significantly when compared to the control condition; however, music was no more effective than sound to reduce pain. Furthermore, we found correlations between pain and emotion ratings. Finally, systemizers reported less pain during the mental arithmetic compared with the other two groups. These findings suggest that familiarity may be key in the influence of the cognitive and emotional mechanisms of music-induced analgesia, and that cognitive styles may influence pain perception.

  7. Relationship Between Religious Coping and Suicidal Behaviors Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Molock, Sherry Davis; Puri, Rupa; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in African American adolescents and looked at whether religious participation and religious coping protected these students from suicidality. Participants were 212 African American high school students (133 females, 79 males). The results of multiple and logistic regression analyses found that hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts. Religious coping style was significantly related to suicidal behaviors: Self-directed coping was related to increased hopelessness, depression, and suicide attempts, and collaborative coping was related to increased reasons for living. Gender differences were found in symptoms of depression, religious coping style and religious participation. Results provide additional support for suicide interventions to target hopelessness and depressive symptoms and highlight the importance of examining the role of culturally salient variables, such as religious participation and religious coping style, when developing intervention programs for suicide. PMID:17080183

  8. Attachment and coping as facilitators of posttraumatic growth in Turkish university students experiencing traumatic events.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Gizem; Karanci, Nuray

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the role of attachment and coping as facilitators of posttraumatic growth (PTG) in a sample of Turkish university students who experienced traumatic life events. Participants who reported a traumatic event from a list were asked to choose the most distressing one; to answer questions related to the impact of the trauma; and to fill out measures of attachment styles, ways of coping, and PTG. PTG was regressed on gender, trauma-related factors, attachment styles, and coping styles in order to examine the associations with PTG. Felt helplessness and horror, fatalistic coping, and optimistic coping were significant predictors of PTG. Fatalistic coping partially mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and PTG. PMID:22375808

  9. Personal and situational factors that predict coping strategies for acute stress among basketball referees.

    PubMed

    Kaissidis-Rodafinos, A; Anshel, M H; Porter, A

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the ways in which coping style and situational appraisals are related to the consistency of using approach and avoidance coping strategies for skilled Australian basketball referees (n = 133) after three game-related stressful events. The events, 'making a mistake', 'aggressive reactions by coaches or players' and 'presence of important others', were determined from previous research on sources of acute stress among basketball officials. Our findings indicated that: referees exhibited consistent avoidance, but not approach, coping styles; they used more avoidance than approach strategies; and they perceived stress to be positively correlated with approach, and negatively associated with avoidance, coping strategies. These findings suggest that individual differences exist in perceptions of stress (i.e. situational appraisals), controllability and coping styles among moderately and highly skilled basketball referees. The implications for teaching cognitive and behavioural strategies for effective coping with acute stress in basketball officiating are discussed.

  10. Leadership Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Val, Carlin; Kemp, Jess

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how a group's dynamic changes under the influence of different leadership styles, and determines what leadership style works best in a large group expedition. The main question identified was "What roles can a leader play in affecting the dynamic of a large group while partaking in a field expedition?" The following research…

  11. Anxious Arousal and Anhedonic Depression Symptoms and the Frequency of Current Marijuana Use: Testing the Mediating Role of Marijuana-Use Coping Motives Among Active Users*

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kirsten A.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Leyro, Teresa M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation examined anxious arousal and anhedonic depression symptoms in relation to frequency of past-30-day marijuana use, as well as the role of marijuana-use coping motives in terms of mediating this relation. Method: The present sample included current young adult marijuana users (N = 154; 48.1% female; mean [SD] age = 20.75 [5.97] years) who were recruited via study flyers and printed advertisements in local newspapers placed throughout the Burlington, VT, community. Results: After controlling for daily cigarette smoking rate, alcohol consumption, and gender, anxious arousal symptoms, but not anhedonic depression symptoms, were significantly and uniquely associated with the frequency of marijuana use. In addition, coping motives for marijuana use mediated the relation between anxious arousal symptoms and the frequency of current marijuana use. Conclusions: These results provide novel information related to the explanatory role of marijuana-use coping motives in the relation between anxious arousal symptoms and the frequency of marijuana use among young adult active users. Clinical implications for the current findings are discussed. PMID:19515294

  12. Lesions of either anterior orbitofrontal cortex or ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in marmoset monkeys heighten innate fear and attenuate active coping behaviors to predator threat

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, Yoshiro; Kim, Charissa; Santangelo, Andrea M.; Roberts, Angela C.

    2015-01-01

    The ventral prefrontal cortex is an integral part of the neural circuitry that is dysregulated in mood and anxiety disorders. However, the contribution of its distinct sub-regions to the regulation of negative emotion are poorly understood. Recently we implicated both the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) and anterior orbitofrontal cortex (antOFC) in the regulation of conditioned fear and anxiety responses to a social stimulus, i.e., human intruder, in the marmoset monkey. In the present study we extend our investigations to determine the role of these two regions in regulating innate responses and coping strategies to a predator stimulus, i.e., a model snake. Both the vlPFC and antOFC lesioned groups exhibited enhanced anxiety-related responses to the snake in comparison to controls. Both groups also showed a reduction in active coping behavior. These results indicate that the vlPFC and antOFC contribute independently to the regulation of both innate fear and, as previously reported, conditioned fear, and highlight the importance of these regions in producing stimulus-appropriate coping responses. The finding that dysregulation in two distinct prefrontal regions produces the apparently similar behavioral phenotype of heightened negative emotion provides insight into the varied etiology that may underlie this symptom across a wide variety of neuropsychiatric conditions with implications for personalized treatment strategies. PMID:25653599

  13. Chronic sorrow and coping in families of children with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hobdell, Elizabeth F; Grant, Mitzie L; Valencia, Ignacio; Mare, Jane; Kothare, Sanjeev V; Legido, Agustin; Khurana, Divya S

    2007-04-01

    Epilepsy, a common problem in child neurology, affects the entire family. There is a potential for such psychosocial consequences as parental chronic sorrow and alterations in coping. In this study, 67 parents completed brief questionnaires about their sorrow and coping styles. Results demonstrated chronic sorrow as measured by the Adapted Burke Questionnaire (10.45 +/- 7.9). Interestingly, the total score was not significantly different between parents of children with refractory and nonrefractory epilepsy or parents of children with comorbid or without comorbid conditions. Selection of the individual item disbelief, however, was significantly increased in parents of children with nonrefractory epilepsy, and selection of the item anger was significantly increased in parents of children with comorbid conditions. Parental coping styles were similar to those reported in the normative data for the instrument used, the Coping Health Inventory for Parents (CHIP). The correlation between chronic sorrow and coping was significant between the grief component of sorrow and Coping Pattern II of the CHIP. Implications for practice include earlier identification of parental feelings of sorrow and coping styles, which may contribute to a positive outcome. PMID:17477221

  14. Coping during pregnancy: a systematic review and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Guardino, Christine M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel

    2013-01-01

    Extensive evidence documents that prenatal maternal stress predicts a variety of adverse physical and psychological health outcomes for the mother and baby. However, the importance of the ways that women cope with stress during pregnancy is less clear. We conducted a systematic review of the English-language literature on coping behaviors and coping styles in pregnancy using PsycInfo and PubMed to identify 45 cross-sectional and longitudinal studies involving 16,060 participants published between January 1990 and June 2012. Although results were often inconsistent across studies, the literature provides some evidence that avoidant coping behaviors or styles and poor coping skills in general are associated with postpartum depression, preterm birth, and infant development. Variability in study methods including differences in sample characteristics, timing of assessments, outcome variables, and measures of coping styles or behaviors may explain the lack of consistent associations. In order to advance the scientific study of coping in pregnancy, we call attention to the need for a priori hypotheses and greater use of pregnancy-specific, daily process, and skills-based approaches. There is promise in continuing this area of research, particularly in the possible translation of consistent findings to effective interventions, but only if the conceptual basis and methodological quality of research improve. PMID:24489596

  15. Psychological predictors of coping responses among Greek basketball referees.

    PubMed

    Kaissidis-Rodafinos, A; Anshel, M H

    2000-06-01

    The authors examined the effects of situational appraisals (perceived control and intensity), coping styles (monitoring and blunting), and personal dispositions (optimism and self-esteem) on the approach and avoidance coping responses of skilled Greek basketball referees (N = 162) and the consistency of their responses following 3 game-related stressful situations. In an effort to clarify the variables involved in coping and to consider the theoretical principles both within and beyond sports, the authors replicated an earlier study among Australian basketball referees (A. Kaissidis-Rodafinos, M. H. Anshel, & A. Porter, 1997). The results were equivocal: The Greek referees were not consistent in using avoidance and approach coping responses across situations. Approach coping was more predictable than avoidance coping in accounting for both situational and personal variables.

  16. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version "COPE Breve".

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Sarah V; Orsini, Mara R C A; Cavalcante, Julianna A; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M; Costa, Paulo S S; Costa, Luciane R

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts. PMID:27007646

  17. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version "COPE Breve".

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Sarah V; Orsini, Mara R C A; Cavalcante, Julianna A; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M; Costa, Paulo S S; Costa, Luciane R

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts.

  18. [Influence of music different in volume and style on human recognition activity].

    PubMed

    Pavlygina, R A; Sakharov, D S; Davydov, V I; Avdonkin, A V

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of recognition of masked visual images (Arabic numerals) under conditions of listening to classical (intensity 62 dB) or rock music (25 dB) increased. Coherence of potential in the frontal cortical region characteristic of the masked image recognition increased under conditions of listening to music. The changes in intercenter EEG relations were correlated with the formation of "the recognition dominant" at the behavioral level. Such behavioral and EEG changes were not observed during listening to louder music (85 dB) and listening to music of other styles, however, the coherence between potentials of the temporal and motor areas of the right hemisphere increased, and the latency of hand motor reactions decreased. The results suggest that the "recognition dominant" is formed under conditions of establishment of certain relations between the levels of excitation in the corresponding centers. These findings should be taken into consideration in case if it were necessary to increase the efficiency of the recognition.

  19. Chinese teachers' use of humour in coping with stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Joseph; Chan, Raymond M C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mentality of Chinese teachers regarding their use of humour in coping with stress. Specifically, the study investigated their frequency of use of humour in coping with stress as compared to other coping styles and their perceptions about the relationship of humour with other coping styles. Data were collected from a sample of 789 Chinese teachers holding teaching posts at local Hong Kong secondary schools. Based on responses made to the COPE questionnaire, there was evidence that Chinese teachers had a lower frequency of use of humour as compared to other coping styles. As suggested by the results of a factor analysis, there was a perception among Chinese teachers that the use of humour was related more closely to escaping and/or avoidance as coping strategies, but more differentiable from problem-focused/task-oriented and emotional/social coping. It is interesting to find that the results of our study echoed those of a previous crosscultural comparison between Chinese and Canadian university students, in which the Chinese university students reported less use of humour in coping with stress than did their Canadian counterparts. These results have provided some empirical support for the notion that "humor has been traditionally given little respect in Chinese culture mainly due to the Confucian emphasis on keeping proper manners in social interactions" (Yue, 2010, p. 403). As teachers in Chinese societies are regarded as persons who are full of wisdom and capable of problem-solving, it is expected that they should act as role models to their students. These social expectations on Chinese teachers could further mould their perceptions on the use of humour in coping with stress.

  20. Patterns of Coping Preference among Persons with Schizophrenia: Associations with Self-Esteem, Hope, Symptoms and Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysaker, Paul H.; Tsai, Jack; Hammoud, Kristin; Davis, Louanne W.

    2009-01-01

    Maladaptive styles of coping are believed to be a barrier to recovery from schizophrenia. In this study we obtained measures of coping for 133 persons with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A cluster analysis was then performed based on those scores and produced five distinctive coping profiles. These five groups were then compared on…

  1. Pre-Attack Stress-Load, Appraisals, and Coping in Children's Responses to the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Long, Anna C.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Appraisal and coping following a disaster are important factors in children's post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. However, little is known about predictors of disaster coping responses. This study examined stress-load, appraisals and coping styles measured prior to the September 11 terrorist attacks as predictors of 9/11-specific…

  2. The Influence of Emotional Intelligence (EI) on Coping and Mental Health in Adolescence: Divergent Roles for Trait and Ability EI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sarah K.; Humphrey, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, trait and ability emotional intelligence (EI) should mobilise coping processes to promote adaptation, plausibly operating as personal resources determining choice and/or implementation of coping style. However, there is a dearth of research deconstructing if/how EI impacts mental health via multiple coping strategies in adolescence.…

  3. Short-term group schema cognitive-behavioral therapy for young adults with personality disorders and personality disorder features: associations with changes in symptomatic distress, schemas, schema modes and coping styles.

    PubMed

    Renner, Fritz; van Goor, Michiel; Huibers, Marcus; Arntz, Arnoud; Butz, Betty; Bernstein, David

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to document the effects of a group schema cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention (SCBT-g; van Vreeswijk & Broersen, 2006) on global symptomatic distress in young adults with personality disorders or personality disorder features. We also sought to determine the stability of maladaptive schemas, schema modes, and coping responses throughout treatment as well as relations among these variables with improvement in symptomatic distress during treatment. Twenty-six young adults (mean age 22.5 years; range: 18-29 years) with a primary diagnosis of a DSM-IV Cluster-B or Cluster-C personality disorder or with personality disorder features participated in the 20-session SCBT-g protocol. Global symptomatic distress decreased substantially from pre-treatment to post-treatment (d = 0.81). Maladaptive schemas, schema modes and dysfunctional coping responses decreased with medium to large effect sizes (d's = 0.56 and 0.98, respectively), however decrease in maladaptive schemas was not significant after controlling for symptomatic distress. Adaptive schema modes increased slightly (d = 0.40) throughout treatment. Baseline levels of maladaptive schemas predicted symptomatic distress concurrently and at mid-treatment but not at post-treatment. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that SCBT-g might be an effective treatment for young adults with personality disorders or personality disorder features in terms of improvements in global symptomatic distress and underlying vulnerability.

  4. Collectivistic coping strategies for distress among Polynesian Americans.

    PubMed

    Allen, G E Kawika; Smith, Timothy B

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has shown that psychological services designed to assist clients in coping with stressful or traumatic events are more effective when aligned with clients' cultural values, practices, and worldviews. However, limited research is available regarding the preferred coping strategies of Polynesian Americans. In examining collectivistic coping styles and their association with previous distress among 94 Polynesian Americans, we found that participants were highly likely to use family support and religion/spirituality to buffer the initial and residual effects of impairment attributable to distressing events, and private emotional outlets, such as psychotherapy, very infrequently. The use of private emotional outlets was associated with lower impairment from distress, although family support was much more predictive of lower impairment and positive psychological well-being. Mental health professionals can align their services with the cultural values of Polynesian Americans by accounting for collectivistic coping styles and family dynamics.

  5. Collectivistic coping strategies for distress among Polynesian Americans.

    PubMed

    Allen, G E Kawika; Smith, Timothy B

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has shown that psychological services designed to assist clients in coping with stressful or traumatic events are more effective when aligned with clients' cultural values, practices, and worldviews. However, limited research is available regarding the preferred coping strategies of Polynesian Americans. In examining collectivistic coping styles and their association with previous distress among 94 Polynesian Americans, we found that participants were highly likely to use family support and religion/spirituality to buffer the initial and residual effects of impairment attributable to distressing events, and private emotional outlets, such as psychotherapy, very infrequently. The use of private emotional outlets was associated with lower impairment from distress, although family support was much more predictive of lower impairment and positive psychological well-being. Mental health professionals can align their services with the cultural values of Polynesian Americans by accounting for collectivistic coping styles and family dynamics. PMID:26053646

  6. Psychotic symptoms, functioning and coping in adolescents with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychotic symptoms in the context of psychiatric disorders are associated with poor functional outcomes. Environmental stressors are important in the development of psychosis; however, distress may only be pathogenic when it exceeds an individual’s ability to cope with it. Therefore, one interesting factor regarding poor functional outcomes in patients with psychotic symptoms may be poor coping. This paper aimed to address the question whether 1) psychotic symptoms are associated with poorer functioning and 2) whether poor coping moderated the association. Methods In a clinical case-clinical control study of 106 newly-referred adolescent patients with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders, coping was investigated using the Adolescents Coping Scale. Severity of impairment in socio-occupational functioning was assessed with the Children’s Global Assessment Scale. Results Patients with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders and additional psychotic symptoms (N = 50) had poorer functioning and were more likely to use avoidance-oriented coping compared to patients with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders without psychotic symptoms (N = 56). No differences were found with respect to approach-oriented coping. When stratifying for poor/good coping, only those adolescent patients with psychotic symptoms who applied poor coping (i.e. less use of approach-oriented coping styles [OR 0.24, p < 0.015] and more use of avoidance-oriented coping [OR 0.23, p < 0.034]) had poorer functioning. However, these interactions were not significant. Conclusions Non-adaptive coping and poorer functioning were more often present in adolescents with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders and additional psychotic symptoms. Due to small subgroups, our analyses could not give definitive conclusions about the question whether coping moderated the association between psychotic symptoms and functioning. Improvement of coping skills may form an important target for intervention

  7. Coping with Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Coping With Cold Sores KidsHealth > For Kids > Coping With Cold Sores ... sore." What's that? Adam wondered. What Is a Cold Sore? Cold sores are small blisters that is ...

  8. Internet Addiction and Psychosocial Maladjustment: Avoidant Coping and Coping Inflexibility as Psychological Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cecilia; Sun, Peizhen; Mak, Kwok-Kei

    2015-09-01

    This 6 month prospective study systematically tested some multivariate models that advanced the understanding of the psychological mechanisms underlying Internet addiction and psychosocial maladjustment. On the basis of previous theories, avoidant coping and coping inflexibility were proposed as underlying mechanisms. Participants were 271 Chinese undergraduates (75% women, Mage=20.49) who took part in both phases of this study. Structural equation modeling was performed to obtain the best fit models for both the cross-sectional and the prospective data. The cross-sectional model testing revealed statistically significant mediating effects for both avoidant coping (β=0.149 [95% CI 0.071-0.226], p=0.002) and coping flexibility (β=0.048 [95% CI 0.013-0.081], p=0.032). The prospective model testing further showed that avoidant coping mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and Time 2 psychosocial maladjustment (β=0.141 [95% CI 0.065-0.216], p=0.005), as well as that between coping flexibility and Time 2 psychosocial maladjustment (β=-0.096 [95% CI -0.161 to -0.031], p=0.015). This study was the first to establish theory-driven models, which unveiled an inflexible, avoidant coping style as psychological mechanisms that explained the link between Internet addiction and psychosocial maladjustment.

  9. Coping with Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuel, Gerdenio M.; And Others

    Since the incidence of cancer in this country is high and the cancer survival rates are increasing, it is important to study coping strategies in cancer patients. As survival time lengthens, coping strategies that might affect the quality of a patient's life become increasingly important. A study was conducted to examine coping strategies in newly…

  10. Life stage differences in resident coping with restart of the Three Mile Island nuclear generating facility

    SciTech Connect

    Prince-Embury, S.; Rooney, J.F.

    1990-12-01

    A study of residents who remained in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) immediately following the restart of the nuclear generating plant revealed that older residents employed a more emotion-focused coping style in the face of this event than did younger residents. Coping style was, however, unrelated to the level of psychological symptoms for these older residents, whereas demographic variables were related. Among younger residents, on the other hand, coping style was related to the level of psychological symptoms, whereas demographic variables were not. Among younger residents, emotion-focused coping was associated with more symptoms and problem-focused coping was associated with fewer symptoms, contradicting previous findings among TMI area residents.

  11. Life stage differences in resident coping with restart of the Three Mile Island nuclear generating facility.

    PubMed

    Prince-Embury, S; Rooney, J F

    1990-12-01

    A study of residents who remained in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) immediately following the restart of the nuclear generating plant revealed that older residents employed a more emotion-focused coping style in the face of this event than did younger residents. Coping style was, however, unrelated to the level of psychological symptoms for these older residents, whereas demographic variables were related. Among younger residents, on the other hand, coping style was related to the level of psychological symptoms, whereas demographic variables were not. Among younger residents, emotion-focused coping was associated with more symptoms and problem-focused coping was associated with fewer symptoms, contradicting previous findings among TMI area residents. PMID:2087105

  12. The Effectiveness of Education and Schooling Activities with Respect to Learning Styles on the Learning of Abstract and Tangible Concepts of Social Studies by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seker, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This research reviews the effects of education and schooling activities that are conducted with respect to different learning styles on the success of teaching abstract and tangible concepts of 6th Grade Social Studies, and researches whether the demographic variables (age, gender) of the students had any effect on this success levels. To do so, 2…

  13. Patterns of Teaching Style and Active Teaching: Do They Differ across Subjects in Low and High Performing Primary Schools in Kenya?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngware, Moses W.; Mutisya, Maurice; Oketch, Moses

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the patterns of teaching styles and active teaching across subjects and between low and high performing schools in an attempt to examine what accounts for differences in performance between schools which are within the same locality. It uses data collected in 72 primary schools spread across six districts in Kenya. Video…

  14. Better to bend than to break: coping strategies utilized by substance-abusing homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Dashora, Pushpanjali; Erdem, Gizem; Slesnick, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between coping styles and problem behaviors among a sample of substance-abusing homeless youth. Homeless youth (n = 268) were recruited through the only drop-in center in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Results revealed that youth with higher task-oriented coping reported less delinquent behaviors while those with higher emotion-oriented coping reported higher levels of anxiety/ depression and higher delinquency. Contrary to expectations, youth utilizing higher avoidance-oriented coping skills showed fewer HIV risk behaviors, fewer anxiety/depressive symptoms, and less frequent alcohol use. Findings emphasize the need to examine coping strategies in the context that individuals are situated.

  15. Relations among stress, coping strategies, coping motives, alcohol consumption and related problems: a mediated moderation model.

    PubMed

    Corbin, William R; Farmer, Nicole M; Nolen-Hoekesma, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Although prominent models of alcohol use and abuse implicate stress as an important motivator of alcohol consumption, research has not consistently identified a relationship between stress and drinking outcomes. Presumably stress leads to heavier alcohol consumption and related problems primarily for individuals who lack other adaptive methods for coping effectively with stressful experiences. To test this hypothesis, we examined four adaptive coping approaches (active coping, planning, suppression of competing activities, and restraint), as predictors of alcohol use and related problems as well as moderators of relations between stress and drinking outcomes in an undergraduate population (N=225). Further, we examined coping motives for drinking as potential mediators of the effects of coping strategies as well as stress by coping strategy interactions. Analyses supported both restraint and suppression of competing activities as moderators of the influence of stress on alcohol use but not problems. The stress by restraint interaction was also evident in the prediction of coping motives, and coping motives were related to higher levels of both weekly drinking and alcohol-related problems. Finally, coping motives for drinking served to mediate the stress by restraint interaction on weekly drinking. Overall, these results suggest that efforts to suppress competing activities and restrain impulsive responses in the face of stress may reduce the risk for heavy drinking during the transition from high school to college.

  16. The role of meaning-focused coping in significant loss.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingzhu; Gan, Yiqun; Tong, Jing

    2013-01-01

    When individuals face uncontrollable situations such as natural disasters, meaning-focused coping (MFC) can contribute to individuals' adjustment. The objectives of the current study were to examine the role of MFC in post-traumatic growth and to explore how three different types of coping (problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping, and MFC) affected the mental health of earthquake victims following the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that MFC had a significantly incremental value in predicting positive affect (ΔR2=7.6%, p<.01) and well-being (ΔR2=3.1%, p<.01), above and beyond problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping. In contrast, for negative affect and depression, these incremental effects were not significant. Path analysis was conducted to test the mediating role of post-traumatic growth among the three coping styles and the outcome variables (well-being, positive affect, negative affect, and depression). The results showed that post-traumatic growth mediated the path from MFC to well-being and positive affect (for positive affect: Sobel z = 3.74, p<.001; for well-being: Sobel z = 5.02, p<.001). In addition, post-traumatic growth mediated the path from problem-focused coping to depression (Sobel z = 2.21, p<.001). The hypothetical model of emotion-focused coping did not converge. PMID:22091795

  17. Personality, Life Events and Coping in the Oldest-Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared adults (n=165) in their 60s, 80s, and 100s on personality, life events, and coping. Found personality differences: centenarians scored higher on dominance, suspiciousness, and imagination. Although centenarians scored lower on active behavioral coping than other age groups, they used cognitive strategies when coping with health and family…

  18. Pain Coping Strategies and Depression in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gregory K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined role of pain episodes and active and passive pain coping strategies in predicting depression in 287 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Findings revealed pain, passive coping, and interaction between the 2 accounted for higher depression. Results also indicated that frequent use of passive pain coping strategies in face of high pain…

  19. Short communication: Potential of Fresco-style cheese whey as a source of protein fractions with antioxidant and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Tarango-Hernández, S; Alarcón-Rojo, A D; Robles-Sánchez, M; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Rodríguez-Figueroa, J C

    2015-11-01

    Recently, traditional Mexican Fresco-style cheese production has been increasing, and the volume of cheese whey generated represents a problem. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of Fresco-style cheese wheys and their potential as a source of protein fractions with antioxidant and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities. Three samples from Fresco, Panela, and Ranchero cheeses whey were physicochemically characterized. Water-soluble extracts were fractionated to obtain whey fractions with different molecular weights: 10-5, 5-3, 3-1 and <1 kDa. The results indicated differences in the lactose, protein, ash, and dry matter contents (% wt/wt) in the different Fresco-style cheese wheys. All whey fractions had antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities. The 10-5 kDa whey fraction of Ranchero cheese had the highest Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (0.62 ± 0.00 mM), and the 3-1 kDa Panela and Fresco cheese whey fractions showed the highest ACE-inhibitory activity (0.57 ± 0.02 and 0.59 ± 0.04 μg/mL 50%-inhibitory concentration values, respectively). These results suggest that Fresco-style cheese wheys may be a source of protein fractions with bioactivity, and thus could be useful ingredients in the manufacture of functional foods with increased nutritional value.

  20. Short communication: Potential of Fresco-style cheese whey as a source of protein fractions with antioxidant and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Tarango-Hernández, S; Alarcón-Rojo, A D; Robles-Sánchez, M; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Rodríguez-Figueroa, J C

    2015-11-01

    Recently, traditional Mexican Fresco-style cheese production has been increasing, and the volume of cheese whey generated represents a problem. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of Fresco-style cheese wheys and their potential as a source of protein fractions with antioxidant and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities. Three samples from Fresco, Panela, and Ranchero cheeses whey were physicochemically characterized. Water-soluble extracts were fractionated to obtain whey fractions with different molecular weights: 10-5, 5-3, 3-1 and <1 kDa. The results indicated differences in the lactose, protein, ash, and dry matter contents (% wt/wt) in the different Fresco-style cheese wheys. All whey fractions had antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities. The 10-5 kDa whey fraction of Ranchero cheese had the highest Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (0.62 ± 0.00 mM), and the 3-1 kDa Panela and Fresco cheese whey fractions showed the highest ACE-inhibitory activity (0.57 ± 0.02 and 0.59 ± 0.04 μg/mL 50%-inhibitory concentration values, respectively). These results suggest that Fresco-style cheese wheys may be a source of protein fractions with bioactivity, and thus could be useful ingredients in the manufacture of functional foods with increased nutritional value. PMID:26364114

  1. Volcanology and eruptive styles of Barren Island: an active mafic stratovolcano in the Andaman Sea, NE Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Hetu C.; Ray, Jyotiranjan S.; Bhutani, Rajneesh; Kumar, Alok; Smitha, R. S.

    2009-11-01

    Barren Island (India) is a relatively little studied, little known active volcano in the Andaman Sea, and the northernmost active volcano of the great Indonesian arc. The volcano is built of prehistoric (possibly late Pleistocene) lava flows (dominantly basalt and basaltic andesite, with minor andesite) intercalated with volcaniclastic deposits (tuff breccias, and ash beds deposited by pyroclastic falls and surges), which are exposed along a roughly circular caldera wall. There are indications of a complete phreatomagmatic tephra ring around the exposed base of the volcano. A polygenetic cinder cone has existed at the centre of the caldera and produced basalt-basaltic andesite aa and blocky aa lava flows, as well as tephra, during historic eruptions (1787-1832) and three recent eruptions (1991, 1994-95, 2005-06). The recent aa flows include a toothpaste aa flow, with tilted and overturned crustal slabs carried atop an aa core, as well as locally developed tumuli-like elliptical uplifts having corrugated crusts. Based on various evidence we infer that it belongs to either the 1991 or the 1994-95 eruptions. The volcano has recently (2008) begun yet another eruption, so far only of tephra. We make significantly different interpretations of several features of the volcano than previous workers. This study of the volcanology and eruptive styles of the Barren Island volcano lays the ground for detailed geochemical-isotopic and petrogenetic work, and provides clues to what the volcano can be expected to do in the future.

  2. Community Violence Victimization and Depressed Mood: The Moderating Effects of Coping and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haden, Sara C.; Scarpa, Angela

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to (a) determine how lifetime community violence (CV) victimization, coping behavior, social support (SS), and depressed mood are related in young adults, and (b) assess whether the relationship between CV victimization and depressive reactions is moderated by perceived SS and coping style. Five hundred…

  3. Repressive Coping, Emotional Adjustment, and Cognition in People Who Have Lost Loved Ones to Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Holly A.; McNally, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that a repressive coping style is psychologically protective against the stress of trauma, yet it is unclear whether this finding generalizes to suicide bereavement. Thus, we assessed cognitive ability and mental health among individuals who lost a loved one to suicide. The results indicate that repressive coping may be…

  4. Empathy, Selfism, and Coping as Elements of the Psychology of Forgiveness: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstam, Varda; Holmes, Williams; Levine, Bethany

    2003-01-01

    This research expands understanding of forgiveness by distinguishing forgiveness from unforgiveness and their respective correlates, and examining coping style and its impact on the process of forgiveness and unforgiveness. Correlates for forgiveness and unforgiveness were distinctly different. Emotion focused coping was associated with forgiving.…

  5. Synergy between Molecular and Contextual Views of Coping among Four Ethnic Groups of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Francine; Magai, Carol; McPherson-Salandy, Renee; Milano, Kate

    2010-01-01

    The coping styles of four ethnic groups of older adults in response to negative life events were analyzed in a population-based study of 1118 residents of Brooklyn, New York. Using a molecular approach, data regarding the context of events and the corresponding coping responses was obtained. Open-ended semi-structured interviews allowed…

  6. Parenting Style, the Home Environment, and Screen Time of 5-Year-Old Children; The ‘Be Active, Eat Right’ Study

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Lydian; van Grieken, Amy; Renders, Carry M.; HiraSing, Remy A.; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we investigated associations of parenting style and the social and physical home environment on watching TV and using computers or game consoles among 5-year-old children. Methods This study uses baseline data concerning 5-year-old children (n = 3067) collected for the ‘Be active, eat right’ study. Results Children of parents with a higher score on the parenting style dimension involvement, were more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Overall, families with an authoritative or authoritarian parenting style had lower percentages of children's screen time compared to families with an indulgent or neglectful style, but no significant difference in OR was found. In families with rules about screen time, children were less likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day and more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The number of TVs and computers or game consoles in the household was positively associated with screen time, and children with a TV or computer or game console in their bedroom were more likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day or spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Conclusion The magnitude of the association between parenting style and screen time of 5-year-olds was found to be relatively modest. The associations found between the social and physical environment and children's screen time are independent of parenting style. Interventions to reduce children's screen time might be most effective when they support parents specifically with introducing family rules related to screen time and prevent the presence of a TV or computer or game console in the child's room. PMID:24533092

  7. Styles of Self-Regulation of Learning Activities of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khusainova, Rezeda M.; Ivutina, Helena P.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is largely due to changes in the country's education system in recent years, in particular--the transition to a two-tier system of education--undergraduate and graduate--the purpose of which is to improve learning efficiency. One feature of this system is to strengthen the role of independent educational activity of…

  8. Clinical Study of Student Learning Using Mastery Style versus Immediate Feedback Online Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladding, Gary; Gutmann, Brianne; Schroeder, Noah; Stelzer, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    This paper is part of a series of studies to improve the efficacy of online physics homework activities by integrating narrated animated solutions with mastery inspired exercises. In a clinical study using first- and second-year university students, the mastery group attempted question sets in four levels, with animated solutions between each…

  9. Family leadership styles and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transformational leadership is conceptualized as a set of behaviors designed to inspire, energize and motivate others to achieve higher levels of functioning, and is associated with salient health-related outcomes in organizational settings. Given (a) the similarities that exist between leadership within organizational settings and parenting within families, and (b) the importance of the family environment in the promotion of adolescent health-enhancing behaviors, the purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the cross-sectional relationships between parents’ transformational leadership behaviors and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors. Methods 857 adolescents (aged 13–15, mean age = 14.70 yrs) completed measures of transformational parenting behaviors, healthful dietary intake and leisure-time physical activity. Regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between family transformational leadership and adolescent health outcomes. A further ‘extreme group analysis’ was conducted by clustering families based on quartile splits. A MANCOVA (controlling for child gender) was conducted to examine differences between families displaying (a) HIGH levels of transformational parenting (consistent HIGH TP), (b) LOW levels of transformational parenting (consistent LOW TP), and (c) inconsistent levels of transformational parenting (inconsistent HIGH-LOW TP). Results Results revealed that adolescents’ perceptions of family transformational parenting were associated with both healthy dietary intake and physical activity. Adolescents who perceived their families to display the highest levels of transformational parenting (HIGH TP group) displayed greater healthy eating and physical activity behaviors than adolescents who perceived their families to display the lowest levels of transformational parenting behaviors (LOW TP group). Adolescents who perceived their families to display inconsistent levels of transformational

  10. Indirect and direct associations between personality and psychological distress mediated by dispositional coping.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Georgia; Kokkinos, Constantinos M; Kapsou, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the association between coping and personality, by testing the hypothesis that dispositional coping mediates the relationship between personality and psychological distress. Canonical correlations evaluated the degree of the association among personality and coping dimensions in a community sample (N = 489) from Cyprus. Results partially support the hypothesized mediation model with Agreeableness predicting distress through the full mediation of avoidant coping, expression of negative feelings and active-positive coping. Partial mediation was found for Neuroticism and Openness. Canonical correlations deciphered how coping relates to the Big Five dimensions. Neuroticism was mostly associated with maladaptive coping, whereas Conscientiousness and Extraversion with adaptive coping.

  11. Inuit-Style Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Rayma

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art activity where students create Inuit-style animals. Discusses the Inuit (Eskimo) artform in which the compositions utilize patterning and textures, such as small lines signifying fur. Explains that this project is well suited to a study of animals or to integrate with a social studies unit about Canada. (CMK)

  12. Clinical study of student learning using mastery style versus immediate feedback online activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladding, Gary; Gutmann, Brianne; Schroeder, Noah; Stelzer, Timothy

    2015-06-01

    This paper is part of a series of studies to improve the efficacy of online physics homework activities by integrating narrated animated solutions with mastery inspired exercises. In a clinical study using first- and second-year university students, the mastery group attempted question sets in four levels, with animated solutions between each attempt, until mastery was achieved on each level. This combined elements of formative assessment, the worked example effect, and mastery learning. The homework group attempted questions with immediate feedback and unlimited tries. The two groups took a similar amount of time to complete the activity. The mastery group significantly outperformed the homework group on a free response post-test that required students to show their work in solving near and far transfer problems.

  13. [Coping with chronic disease].

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Silke

    2014-03-26

    Patients suffering form chronic diseases have to deal with several problems, the illness itself only being one of them. Health care providers have to undergo a paradigm shift to be able to meet the new challenges which differ from those in acute care. From the patient's perspective, coping with a chronic disease is not a limited process, but encompasses different, often recurring phases (trajectory model). The treating physician's support may comprise the offering of information on general and specific stress factors (physical, emotional, social), empathy, respecting the individual's expertise and activating a patient's resources and self-efficacy. The amount of support given is limited by the treating physician's expert knowledge in this area. Physicians should respect their own limits and involve specialists, supervision or Balint groups.

  14. Investigation of the Activity of the Microorganisms in a Reblochon-Style Cheese by Metatranscriptomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Monnet, Christophe; Dugat-Bony, Eric; Swennen, Dominique; Beckerich, Jean-Marie; Irlinger, Françoise; Fraud, Sébastien; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The microbial communities in cheeses are composed of varying bacteria, yeasts, and molds, which contribute to the development of their typical sensory properties. In situ studies are needed to better understand their growth and activity during cheese ripening. Our objective was to investigate the activity of the microorganisms used for manufacturing a surface-ripened cheese by means of metatranscriptomic analysis. The cheeses were produced using two lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus), one ripening bacterium (Brevibacterium aurantiacum), and two yeasts (Debaryomyces hansenii and Geotrichum candidum). RNA was extracted from the cheese rinds and, after depletion of most ribosomal RNA, sequencing was performed using a short-read sequencing technology that generated ~75 million reads per sample. Except for B. aurantiacum, which failed to grow in the cheeses, a large number of CDS reads were generated for the inoculated species, making it possible to investigate their individual transcriptome over time. From day 5 to 35, G. candidum accounted for the largest proportion of CDS reads, suggesting that this species was the most active. Only minor changes occurred in the transcriptomes of the lactic acid bacteria. For the two yeasts, we compared the expression of genes involved in the catabolism of lactose, galactose, lactate, amino acids, and free fatty acids. During ripening, genes involved in ammonia assimilation and galactose catabolism were down-regulated in the two species. Genes involved in amino acid catabolism were up-regulated in G. candidum from day 14 to day 35, whereas in D. hansenii, they were up-regulated mainly at day 35, suggesting that this species catabolized the cheese amino acids later. In addition, after 35 days of ripening, there was a down-regulation of genes involved in the electron transport chain, suggesting a lower cellular activity. The present study has exemplified how

  15. Investigation of the Activity of the Microorganisms in a Reblochon-Style Cheese by Metatranscriptomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Monnet, Christophe; Dugat-Bony, Eric; Swennen, Dominique; Beckerich, Jean-Marie; Irlinger, Françoise; Fraud, Sébastien; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The microbial communities in cheeses are composed of varying bacteria, yeasts, and molds, which contribute to the development of their typical sensory properties. In situ studies are needed to better understand their growth and activity during cheese ripening. Our objective was to investigate the activity of the microorganisms used for manufacturing a surface-ripened cheese by means of metatranscriptomic analysis. The cheeses were produced using two lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus), one ripening bacterium (Brevibacterium aurantiacum), and two yeasts (Debaryomyces hansenii and Geotrichum candidum). RNA was extracted from the cheese rinds and, after depletion of most ribosomal RNA, sequencing was performed using a short-read sequencing technology that generated ~75 million reads per sample. Except for B. aurantiacum, which failed to grow in the cheeses, a large number of CDS reads were generated for the inoculated species, making it possible to investigate their individual transcriptome over time. From day 5 to 35, G. candidum accounted for the largest proportion of CDS reads, suggesting that this species was the most active. Only minor changes occurred in the transcriptomes of the lactic acid bacteria. For the two yeasts, we compared the expression of genes involved in the catabolism of lactose, galactose, lactate, amino acids, and free fatty acids. During ripening, genes involved in ammonia assimilation and galactose catabolism were down-regulated in the two species. Genes involved in amino acid catabolism were up-regulated in G. candidum from day 14 to day 35, whereas in D. hansenii, they were up-regulated mainly at day 35, suggesting that this species catabolized the cheese amino acids later. In addition, after 35 days of ripening, there was a down-regulation of genes involved in the electron transport chain, suggesting a lower cellular activity. The present study has exemplified how

  16. Investigation of the Activity of the Microorganisms in a Reblochon-Style Cheese by Metatranscriptomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Monnet, Christophe; Dugat-Bony, Eric; Swennen, Dominique; Beckerich, Jean-Marie; Irlinger, Françoise; Fraud, Sébastien; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The microbial communities in cheeses are composed of varying bacteria, yeasts, and molds, which contribute to the development of their typical sensory properties. In situ studies are needed to better understand their growth and activity during cheese ripening. Our objective was to investigate the activity of the microorganisms used for manufacturing a surface-ripened cheese by means of metatranscriptomic analysis. The cheeses were produced using two lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus), one ripening bacterium (Brevibacterium aurantiacum), and two yeasts (Debaryomyces hansenii and Geotrichum candidum). RNA was extracted from the cheese rinds and, after depletion of most ribosomal RNA, sequencing was performed using a short-read sequencing technology that generated ~75 million reads per sample. Except for B. aurantiacum, which failed to grow in the cheeses, a large number of CDS reads were generated for the inoculated species, making it possible to investigate their individual transcriptome over time. From day 5 to 35, G. candidum accounted for the largest proportion of CDS reads, suggesting that this species was the most active. Only minor changes occurred in the transcriptomes of the lactic acid bacteria. For the two yeasts, we compared the expression of genes involved in the catabolism of lactose, galactose, lactate, amino acids, and free fatty acids. During ripening, genes involved in ammonia assimilation and galactose catabolism were down-regulated in the two species. Genes involved in amino acid catabolism were up-regulated in G. candidum from day 14 to day 35, whereas in D. hansenii, they were up-regulated mainly at day 35, suggesting that this species catabolized the cheese amino acids later. In addition, after 35 days of ripening, there was a down-regulation of genes involved in the electron transport chain, suggesting a lower cellular activity. The present study has exemplified how

  17. Effective Coping Strategies Employed in African-American Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Novella Channell

    Living in a society that is quick to label and condemn, has been, and continues to be a source of pain for African-Americans. However, society's microscope has for sometime had a one dimensional lens, particularly when examining the coping styles of African-American male-female relationships within the African-American family. There exists a great…

  18. Music Listening, Coping, Peer Affiliation and Depression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Dave; Claes, Michel

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted with 418 French-Canadian adolescents from Montreal (Canada) and had three objectives: (1) to find empirical evidence that music listening in adolescence can lead to peer affiliation based upon music preferences; (2) to find out whether three styles of coping by music listening (original self-report scale: emotion-oriented,…

  19. Stress and coping among gay men: age and ethnic differences.

    PubMed

    David, Steven; Knight, Bob G

    2008-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that perceived stigmatization of sexual minority status, ethnicity, and age are associated with negative mental health outcomes, and other studies suggest that coping styles may influence these outcomes. However, no studies have examined these relationships among gay men of varying ethnicities and age groups. Three hundred eighty-three Black and White, younger, middle-aged, and older adult gay men completed measures of perceived stigmatization, coping style, and mental health outcomes. Black older adult gay men reported significantly higher levels of perceived ageism than the older White group, significantly higher levels of perceived racism than the younger Black group, significantly higher levels of homonegativity than the younger Black and the White groups, and were more likely to use disengaged coping styles than White gay men. However, Black older adult gay men did not experience significantly higher levels of negative mental health outcomes. Results suggest that further research should examine how older Black gay men, who perceive higher levels of stigma while reporting greater use of less effective coping styles, do not appear to be experiencing more negative mental health outcomes as a result.

  20. Strategies for Coping with Interpersonal Hurt: Preliminary Evidence for the Relationship between Coping and Forgiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strelan, Peter; Wojtysiak, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This study provides a preliminary empirical test suggesting a coping framework that describes the behavioral, cognitive, and emotion-focused activities related to the process that may lead to forgiveness. Among 170 participants, the study explored the coping strategies people use when they respond to an interpersonal hurt and also the general use…

  1. Conceptualizing On-the-Job Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berings, Marjolein G. M. C.; Poell, Rob F.; Simons, P. Robert-Jan

    2005-01-01

    The broad aims of this study are to gain insight into employees' on-the-job learning activities to help them improve their on-the-job learning. The authors define on-the-job learning styles and operationalize the concept to include both mental and overt learning styles and both interpersonal and intrapersonal learning styles. Organizations and…

  2. Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence.

    PubMed

    Pashler, Harold; McDaniel, Mark; Rohrer, Doug; Bjork, Robert

    2008-12-01

    The term "learning styles" refers to the concept that individuals differ in regard to what mode of instruction or study is most effective for them. Proponents of learning-style assessment contend that optimal instruction requires diagnosing individuals' learning style and tailoring instruction accordingly. Assessments of learning style typically ask people to evaluate what sort of information presentation they prefer (e.g., words versus pictures versus speech) and/or what kind of mental activity they find most engaging or congenial (e.g., analysis versus listening), although assessment instruments are extremely diverse. The most common-but not the only-hypothesis about the instructional relevance of learning styles is the meshing hypothesis, according to which instruction is best provided in a format that matches the preferences of the learner (e.g., for a "visual learner," emphasizing visual presentation of information). The learning-styles view has acquired great influence within the education field, and is frequently encountered at levels ranging from kindergarten to graduate school. There is a thriving industry devoted to publishing learning-styles tests and guidebooks for teachers, and many organizations offer professional development workshops for teachers and educators built around the concept of learning styles. The authors of the present review were charged with determining whether these practices are supported by scientific evidence. We concluded that any credible validation of learning-styles-based instruction requires robust documentation of a very particular type of experimental finding with several necessary criteria. First, students must be divided into groups on the basis of their learning styles, and then students from each group must be randomly assigned to receive one of multiple instructional methods. Next, students must then sit for a final test that is the same for all students. Finally, in order to demonstrate that optimal learning requires

  3. Coping, family social support, and psychological symptoms among student veterans.

    PubMed

    Romero, Daniel H; Riggs, Shelley A; Ruggero, Camilo

    2015-04-01

    With rising numbers of student veterans on today's college campuses, multicultural competence in college counseling centers increasingly includes an understanding of military culture and its relation to the psychological health and functioning of student veterans. Research on interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with college student veterans' mental health is scarce. The current study examines the contributions of coping style and family social support on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in a student veteran sample. We also tested the moderating role of family social support in the relationship between coping style and psychological symptoms. Data from 136 student veterans were analyzed by using path analysis. Results revealed that avoidant coping and family social support significantly predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms. Avoidant coping also significantly predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. In addition, findings indicated that family social support moderated the relationship between problem-focused coping and depression, as well as between avoidant coping and symptoms of anxiety and depression but not posttraumatic stress. Implications of results for college and university counselors are discussed.

  4. Filipino Americans and racism: A multiple mediation model of coping.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Alvin N; Juang, Linda P

    2010-04-01

    Although the literature on Asian Americans and racism has been emerging, few studies have examined how coping influences one's encounters with racism. To advance the literature, the present study focused on the psychological impact of Filipino Americans' experiences with racism and the role of coping as a mediator using a community-based sample of adults (N = 199). Two multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediating effects of active, avoidance, support-seeking, and forbearance coping on the relationship between perceived racism and psychological distress and self-esteem, respectively. Separate analyses were also conducted for men and women given differences in coping utilization. For men, a bootstrap procedure indicated that active, support-seeking, and avoidance coping were mediators of the relationship between perceived racism and psychological distress. Active coping was negatively associated with psychological distress, whereas both support seeking and avoidance were positively associated with psychological distress. A second bootstrap procedure for men indicated that active and avoidance coping mediated the relationship between perceived racism and self-esteem such that active coping was positively associated with self-esteem, and avoidance was negatively associated with self-esteem. For women, only avoidance coping had a significant mediating effect that was associated with elevations in psychological distress and decreases in self-esteem. The results highlight the importance of examining the efficacy of specific coping responses to racism and the need to differentiate between the experiences of men and women.

  5. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version “COPE Breve”

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Mara R. C. A.; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts. PMID:27007646

  6. Adolescent coping profiles differentiate reports of depression and anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Herres, Joanna

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify groups of adolescents based on their reported use of different coping strategies and compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms across the groups. Tenth and eleventh grade public school students (N=982; 51% girls; 66% Caucasian; M age=16.04, SD=0.73) completed a battery of self-report measures that assessed their use of different coping strategies, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Latent profile analysis (LPA) classified the participants into four distinct groups based on their responses on subscales of the COPE inventory (Carver et al., 1989). Groups differed in amount of coping with participants in each group showing relative preference for engaging in certain strategies over others. Disengaged copers reported the lowest amounts of coping with a preference for avoidance strategies. Independent copers reported moderate levels of coping with relatively less use of support-seeking. Social support-seeking copers and active copers reported the highest levels of coping with a particular preference for support-seeking strategies. The independent copers reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms compared to the three other groups. The Social Support Seeking and Active Coping Groups reported the highest levels of anxiety. Although distinct coping profiles were observed, findings showed that adolescents between the ages of 14 and 16 engage in multiple coping strategies and are more likely to vary in their amount of coping than in their use of specific strategies.

  7. Problem-Solving Coping and Social Support as Mediators of Academic Stress and Suicidal Ideation Among Malaysian and Indian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aqeel; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Ahmad, Roslee; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif; Mahalle, Salwa

    2016-02-01

    This study examined whether productive coping styles and social support were significant mediators of the relationship between academic stress and suicidal ideation. The survey was performed on a sample of 300 Malaysian and 300 Indian college students. The participants completed psychological assessments of productive coping styles, social support, academic stress, and suicidal ideation. Significant cultural and demographic differences emerged. Indian students reported higher suicidal ideation and academic stress than did Malaysian students, and Malaysian students received more social support and had better problem-solving coping styles than did Indian students. Overall, students who were male, non-religious, and from low-income families reported more academic stress and more suicidal ideation. Productive coping styles and overall social support strongly affected the relationship between academic stress and suicidal ideation among both countries' participants.

  8. Interrelatedness of Proactive Coping, Reactive Coping, and Learned Resourcefulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moring, John; Fuhrman, Robert; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A.

    2011-01-01

    Research has identified that coping strategies used by individuals depend on temporal locations of stressors. Dispositional attributes are also identified as predictors of coping. The current study identified commonalities of proactive coping, reactive coping, and learned resourcefulness measures. The analysis yielded three factors reflective of…

  9. Preservice Teachers' Use of Production and Reproduction Teaching Styles within Multi-Activity and Sport Education Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Mitchum; Curtner-Smith, Mathew

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of one component of physical education teacher education on preservice teachers' (PTs) use of Mosston's (1981) spectrum of teaching styles within an early field experience (EFE). Participants were two PTs who were trained to use the spectrum within a methods course and team/turn-taught…

  10. Coping strategies in schizoaffective disorder and schizophrenia: Differences and similarities.

    PubMed

    Mingrone, Cinzia; Montemagni, Cristiana; Sandei, Luisa; Bava, Irene; Mancini, Irene; Cardillo, Simona; Rocca, Paola

    2016-10-30

    Aims of the current study were to explore differences in coping between 58 patients with schizoaffective disorder (SAD) and 89 with schizophrenia (SZ) and to identify factors associated with coping in both disorders. The demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with SAD and with SZ were compared using ANOVA and χ(2). Pearson's correlations were calculated between coping styles and socio-demographic and clinical variables in each group. The significant ones were subsequently analyzed using multiple regressions. Patients with SAD used emotion oriented coping more frequently than patients 2016with SZ. In patients with SAD, self-esteem contributed to task-oriented; avolition-anhedonia (AA) to emotion-oriented; duration of illness and years of education to distraction; AA to social diversion. In patients with SZ, AA, the mental component summary score of the Short Form - 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and self-esteem contributed to emotion oriented coping; the mental component summary score of SF-36 to distraction; AA to social diversion. Our results suggest that patients with SAD and SZ use diverse coping strategies. A greater attention must be given to the presence of self-esteem and AA in individuals with both disorders. These factors are potentially modifiable from specific therapeutic interventions, which can produce effects on coping strategies.

  11. Coping strategies of long-term cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Halstead, M T; Fernsler, J I

    1994-04-01

    Cancer survival is a stressful experience requiring coping for the maintenance of equilibrium. Lazarus' Theory of Stress and Coping was the framework for this descriptive study of the use and effectiveness of coping strategies as assessed by long-term survivors of cancer. The Jalowiec Coping Scale (JCS) and a subject information sheet (SIS) were mailed to 128 potential subjects, identified by the snowball technique, who survived cancer for > 5 years, were not currently receiving therapy, and were not in a terminal stage of disease. Fifty-nine subjects with a mean survival of 13.03 years correctly completed and returned the questionnaire and were included in data analysis. Respondents were predominantly white (88.1%), female (83.7%), married (72.8%), employed as professionals (57.8%), 41-65 years of age (59.3%), and diagnosed with breast cancer (50.8%). Subjects rated optimistic, supportive, and confrontive strategies as most often used and effective. Length of survival did not result in different choices of strategies. Statistically significant differences were found in coping styles between elderly and middle-aged survivors. Results of this study increase nurses' awareness of effective coping strategies and the importance of assessment of coping in long-term survivors of cancer. The importance of social support, spirituality, and helping others is emphasized.

  12. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression.

    PubMed

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria. PMID:27547253

  13. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J. A.; Martin, Rod A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria. PMID:27547253

  14. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression.

    PubMed

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.

  15. Coping with Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulding, Kenneth

    1977-01-01

    A quantitative decline is predicted because of the leveling off of industrial production and exhaustion of resources. Coping with these conditions requires flexibility and adaptability. Delusions of certainty zero in on catastrophe. (Author/MLF)

  16. Helping Teens Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jami I.

    2003-01-01

    Considers the role of school library media specialists in helping teens cope with developmental and emotional challenges. Discusses resiliency research, and opportunities to develop programs and services especially for middle school and high school at-risk teens. (LRW)

  17. Coping with College Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160792.html Coping With College Stress Parents can help make the transition easier for ... 5, 2016 MONDAY, Sept. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Stress and anxiety are common among new college students, ...

  18. Coping with the Unthinkable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholzman, Steven C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in students. Suggests ways that teachers can help students cope with catastrophic events such as the September 11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. (PKP)

  19. Coping with Feelings

    MedlinePlus

    ... coping with emotions Learn more about these emotions: Fear After any illness, it's normal to feel afraid ... life. Every heart patient has some degree of fear, but if your fear is overwhelming, it can ...

  20. Coping with the Crunch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Examines housing strategies several college facilities managers used to cope with the problem of overcrowded residence halls. Also highlighted are tips to help facilities managers determine if their solution is to build additional housing. (GR)

  1. Caregivers--Who Copes How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Dujela, Carren

    2009-01-01

    Within gerontological caregiving research, there is a major emphasis on stresses and burdens of this role. Yet there has been little attention directed toward the coping strategies that caregivers engage in to cope with this role and the factors that influence their adoption of different coping strategies. This article examines coping strategies…

  2. NASA Johnson Style (Gangnam Style Parody)

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Johnson Style is a volunteer outreach video project created by the students of NASA's Johnson Space Center. It was created as an educational parody of Psy's Gangnam Style. The lyrics and scene...

  3. Paleoseismologic and geomorphic constraints to the deformation style and activity of the Cittanova Fault (southern Calabria, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peronace, Edoardo; Della Seta, Marta; Fredi, Paola; Galli, Paolo; Giaccio, Biagio; Messina, Paolo; Troiani, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The western side of Southern Calabria is the epicentral region of the strongest earthquakes of Italy. These are mainly generated by extensional faults which are still poorly investigated and/or parameterized. In this study, we explore the potential of the combined analysis of geomorphic markers, stream network morphometry and paleosimological investigations, aimed at identifying and time-constraining the surface effects of the Calabrian seismogenic faults. In this perspective, we presents results from i) plano-altimetric analysis of geomorphic markers related to active tectonics (such as marine and fluvial terraces), ii) paleoseismological investigations, and iii) time-dependent river basin and long-profile metrics of the Cittanova Fault (CF). The CF, responsible for the catastrophic Mw 7.0 earthquake of 5 February 1783, is a N220° striking, 30 km-long normal fault that downthrows the crystalline-metamorphic basement of the Aspromonte massif (~1000 m asl) below the Gioia Tauro Plain, to elevations of ~500-800 m bsl. Radiocarbon dating allowed us to ascribe the depostion of a major terraced alluvial fan (Cittanova-Taurianova terrace, TAC) to the early Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and to date the avulsion of the depositional top surface of TAC to 28 ka. As we have found remnants of the TAC also in the CF footwall offset by 12-17 m, we estimate a vertical slip rate of 0.6 ± 0.1 mm/yr for the past 28 ka. Paleoseismological data across the fault scarp evidenced at least three surface ruptures associated to ~Mw 7.0 paleoearthquakes prior to the 1783 event. The recurrence time (~3.2 kyr) is rather longer than other Apennine normal faults (0.3-2.4 kyr), whereas it is consistent with the low slip rate of CF for the late Upper Pleistocene (0.6 mm/yr). On a longer time scale, the spatial configuration of river basin morphometry evidenced the morphodynamic rensponse to the higher slip in the central sector of CF. Furthermore, long-profile metrics, and in particular the spatial

  4. Examining stress and coping as a mediator for internalizing symptomatology: A comparison between sexual minority and majority first-year college students.

    PubMed

    Riley, Tracey J; Kirsch, Alexandra C; Shapiro, Jenna B; Conley, Colleen S

    2016-06-01

    Sexual and gender minority (SGM) adolescents experience unique stressors and elevated internalizing symptoms. This study examines differences in coping styles between SGM and heterosexual adolescents and the potential mediating roles of stress and coping styles. Analyses indicated that SGM (N = 75) adolescents reported higher levels of internalizing symptoms (depression, anxiety, and distress), higher use of maladaptive coping styles (denial and blame), lesser use of adaptive coping styles (reframing and religion), and greater experiences of stress, compared to their heterosexual counterparts (N = 1702). Bootstrapping analyses revealed the relationship between sexual identity and internalizing symptoms measured approximately 3 months later was not mediated by stress and coping, adjusting for gender, age, and baseline symptomatology. Findings suggest that earlier adolescent differences in internalizing symptoms presage increasing symptomatology across the transition to college, and other mediators during the college transition explain the continued increases in internalizing symptoms. PMID:27055249

  5. Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…

  6. Occupational stress, coping and mental health in Jamaican police officers

    PubMed Central

    Smith, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Police are exposed to a wide range of stressors and this is especially true in developing countries such as Jamaica. Exposure to psychosocial stressors and use of maladaptive coping styles can result in mental ill-health. Aims To examine the relationship between work characteristics, coping and mental health in Jamaican police officers and to test whether work characteristics are indirectly associated with mental health outcomes through perceived job stress and job satisfaction. Methods Police officers from the Jamaican police force completed a questionnaire using a cross-sectional design. We analysed the data using hierarchical regression. Results The study group consisted of 134 police officers; the response rate was 94%. Negative work characteristics, lower levels of positive work factors and work support and emotion-focused coping styles were associated with increased levels of depression (F(8, 125) = 7.465, P < 0.001). Subjective feelings of anxiety were positively associated with negative work characteristics and emotion-focused coping (F(8, 125) = 7.586, P < 0.001). The relationship between work characteristics and mental health outcomes was mediated by perceived stress. Job satisfaction mediated the relationship between positive work characteristics and depression. Conclusions Stress management and intervention programmes should address modifiable work conditions, monitor stress levels and reduce maladaptive coping. PMID:27131386

  7. Preliminary Study on the Role of Alternative Educational Pathways in Promoting the Use of Problem-Focused Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankland, Rebecca; Franca, Lionel Riou; Genolini, Christophe M.; Guelfi, Julien-Daniel; Ionescu, Serban

    2009-01-01

    Coping styles are generally considered to be environmentally driven. Up to now, research has mainly focused on family influences. However, some studies underline the effect of educational settings on the development of problem-focused coping strategies. Consistently with previous reports on the enhancement of autonomy and problem-solving in…

  8. An economic evaluation of a self-management programme of activity, coping and education for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Dritsaki, Melina; Johnson-Warrington, Vicki; Mitchell, Katy; Singh, Sally; Rees, Karen

    2016-02-01

    The aim was to undertake a cost-utility analysis of a self-management programme of activity, coping and education (SPACE) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The analysis was conducted alongside a six-month randomized controlled trial in 30 primary care settings. The economic analysis used data from 184 patients with confirmed diagnosis of COPD, forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity ratio <0.7 and with grade 2-5 on the Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale. Participants received either a self-management programme consisting of an education manual (SPACE for COPD) and consultation or usual care. Six-month costs were estimated from the National Health Service and Personal Social Services perspective and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated based on patient responses at baseline and six months.The mean difference in costs between usual care and SPACE FOR COPD programme was -£27.18 (95% confidence interval (CI); -£122.59 to £68.25) while mean difference in QALYs was -0.10 (95% CI; -0.17 to -0.02). The results suggest that the intervention is more costly and more effective than usual care. The probability of the intervention being cost-effective was 97% at a threshold of £20,000/QALY gained. We conclude that the SPACE FOR COPD programme is cost-effective compared to usual care.

  9. En las Manos de Dios [in God's Hands]: Religious and Other Forms of Coping among Latinos with Arthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Vasquez, Elizabeth; Echeverria, Sandra E.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model concerning religious, passive, and active coping; pain; and psychological adjustment among a sample of 200 Latinos with arthritis. Respondents reported using high levels of religious coping. A path analysis indicated that religious coping was correlated with active but not with passive coping. Religious coping…

  10. Coping strategies in a sample of anxiety patients: factorial analysis and associations with psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Pozzi, Gino; Frustaci, Alessandra; Tedeschi, Daniela; Solaroli, Silvia; Grandinetti, Paolo; Di Nicola, Marco; Janiri, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between coping styles and mental disorders has received considerable attention and instruments have been developed to assess coping strategies. The measurement by means of category systems has been criticized and a functional hierarchy of action types linked to the adaptive processes is preferred. We aimed to determine which factors may exist within the Brief-COPE (Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced – COPE – Inventory) in an Italian sample of patients with anxiety disorders; and if these factors correlate with the severity of psychopathology or with other characteristics. Methods A total sample of 148 patients was recruited. The Brief-COPE inventory, the Symptom Check List 90-Revised, the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, the Zung Anxiety Status Inventory and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale were administered. Results Factor analysis of the Brief-COPE yielded nine factors accounting for 65.48% of the variance. Patients scored higher on Searching Support, followed by Acceptance, Changing Perspective, and Problem Solving. Associations between measures of psychopathology and factors of coping strategies, mostly Searching support and Avoidance, were found. Conclusions Data of the present study support a nine-factor structure of the Brief-COPE that includes five broad dimensions of coping. Psychopathology was mostly related to Searching support and Avoidance factors, showing that these strategies may reflect ineffective ways of coping; Problem solving and Changing perspective could be a valid approach to moderate anxiety/depression symptoms and psychopathology in general. PMID:26356192

  11. Benevolent sexist ideology attributed to an abusive partner decreases women's active coping responses to acts of sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Durán, Mercedes; Moya, Miguel; Megías, Jesús L

    2014-05-01

    This article describes three studies in which we explored the influence of the sexist ideology attributed to the perpetrator on women's responses to hypothetical acts of sexual assault perpetrated by male intimate partners. In Study 1 (n = 83), college women read three sexual assault scenarios in the context of an intimate relationship. The male partner's sexist ideology (benevolent, hostile, or control) was manipulated within participants. Women showed less active responses when the partner had been described as a benevolent sexist man. This effect was replicated in Study 2 (n = 103), which showed a relationship between women's less active responses and the belief that benevolent sexist men are very attracted to and interested in their partners. Study 3 (n = 130) demonstrated experimentally that women's responses are less active when they are exposed to information that indicates that the perpetrator is both high in benevolent sexism and highly attracted to his victim than when the latter information is not provided. Results suggest that sexist ideology and particularly benevolent sexism-attributed to the perpetrator in this case-is highly important in women's reactions to acts of sexual violence perpetrated by male intimate partners.

  12. [Coping psychologically with amputation].

    PubMed

    Schulz, M

    2009-02-01

    An amputation is a "tragic event" in someone's biography which causes a dramatic change in the outer appearance, the loss of mobility, independence and self esteem. The following article is about how people learn to cope with this difficult situation; with the practical problems of everyday life as well as their emotional problems. It is important for the amputees to go through the different stages of mourning: The first stage is the rejection of the situation. Repression and denial of the loss protects the patient from emotional overstrain. Confrontation is the next step: emotionally as well as mentally. "How could it happen?", (understanding the reasons why ...) "What will my future be like?", "How will I cope?" (ability of coping) "Why did it happen to me?" (sense) The last stage of coping with the amputation is to accept and deal with the new situation and to build up new self-confidence. A successful process of coping leads to a new identity. If a person fails to adapt to the new situation, he will develop an inferiority complex and fall into a depression. He might also try to look for culprit and blame the situation on someone else. About two thirds of all amputees don't cope with their amputation and become depressive. 15% develop symptoms of anxiety. Therefore it is important to offer help. The patients should get together in self helping groups and talk about their experiences and problems. If they need more intensive and individual help, they should have the opportunity to contact a psychologist. During the process of coping with their amputation the patients often alternate between optimistic and pessimistic moods. Sometimes they fall back into a negative and resigned state of mind. This is natural and part of the process as long as they find their own way to a positive attitude and view of life. PMID:19259934

  13. Control Beliefs, Coping Efforts, and Adjustment to Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Mark P.; Karoly, Paul

    1991-01-01

    Examined adaptation to chronic pain in 118 patients. Control appraisals, ignoring pain, using coping self-statements, and increasing activities were positively related to psychological functioning. Control appraisals, diverting attention, ignoring pain, and using coping self-statements were positively related to activity level for patients…

  14. Life Events, Coping, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among Chinese Adolescents Exposed to 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yuhong; Fan, Fang; Liu, Xianchen; Mo, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between negative life events, coping styles, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adolescent survivors exposed to 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China. Methods A survey was conducted in a sample of 2250 adolescent students from two schools in Dujiangyan District, a seriously damaged area, 20 kilometers away from the epicenter, 6 months after the earthquake. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographics, negative life events, coping styles, and PTSD symptoms. Results Academic pressure was the strongest predictor of adolescents' PTSD symptoms among all negative life events. Main effects of negative life events, positive coping and negative coping on PTSD symptoms were significant in both younger adolescents and older adolescents, while the moderator effects of two coping styles were found significant only within older adolescents. Conclusions Coping may play a role to moderate the relationship between post-earthquake negative life events and PTSD symptom, but the function seems to depend on the age of participants. Psychosocial coping skills training may be important in the prevention and intervention of mental health problems in adolescent survivors of traumatic earthquake. PMID:22295059

  15. Getting a Good Night's Sleep in Adolescence: Do Strategies for Coping With Stress Matter?

    PubMed

    Matthews, Karen A; Hall, Martica H; Cousins, Jennifer; Lee, Laisze

    2016-01-01

    Getting a good night's sleep is challenging for adolescents because of early school start times and adolescents' substantial social and physical changes. We tested whether key indices of sleep health are associated with usual styles of coping with stress and interpersonal conflict in healthy black and white adolescents. Two hundred forty-two (57% female, 56% black) high school students completed daily sleep diaries, questionnaires, and actigraphy across a school week. Linear regression models tested associations, independent of race, gender, and other covariates. Students who reported using disengagement coping exhibited poor sleep health. They had shorter sleep duration, more fragmented sleep, delayed sleep, and increased daytime sleepiness. Unexpectedly, positive engagement coping was related to daytime sleepiness and delayed sleep, although not in models that included disengagement coping. Coping strategies may be an important influence on adolescent sleep. Future research should evaluate the antecedent-consequent relationships among coping, sleep, and stress.

  16. Coping with copper: legacy effect of copper on potential activity of soil bacteria following a century of exposure.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Inês; Jacquiod, Samuel; Brejnrod, Asker; Holm, Peter E; Johansen, Anders; Brandt, Kristian K; Priemé, Anders; Sørensen, Søren J

    2016-11-01

    Copper has been intensively used in industry and agriculture since mid-18(th) century and is currently accumulating in soils. We investigated the diversity of potential active bacteria by 16S rRNA gene transcript amplicon sequencing in a temperate grassland soil subjected to century-long exposure to normal (∼15 mg kg(-1)), high (∼450 mg kg(-1)) or extremely high (∼4500 mg kg(-1)) copper levels. Results showed that bioavailable copper had pronounced impacts on the structure of the transcriptionally active bacterial community, overruling other environmental factors (e.g. season and pH). As copper concentration increased, bacterial richness and evenness were negatively impacted, while distinct communities with an enhanced relative abundance of Nitrospira and Acidobacteria members and a lower representation of Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were selected. Our analysis showed the presence of six functional response groups (FRGs), each consisting of bacterial taxa with similar tolerance response to copper. Furthermore, the use of FRGs revealed that specific taxa like the genus Nitrospira and several Acidobacteria groups could accurately predict the copper legacy burden in our system, suggesting a potential promising role as bioindicators of copper contamination in soils. PMID:27543319

  17. Mobile input device type, texting style and screen size influence upper extremity and trapezius muscle activity, and cervical posture while texting.

    PubMed

    Kietrys, David M; Gerg, Michael J; Dropkin, Jonathan; Gold, Judith E

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of input device type, texting style, and screen size on upper extremity and trapezius muscle activity and cervical posture during a short texting task in college students. Users of a physical keypad produced greater thumb, finger flexor, and wrist extensor muscle activity than when texting with a touch screen device of similar dimensions. Texting on either device produced greater wrist extensor muscle activity when texting with 1 hand/thumb compared with both hands/thumbs. As touch screen size increased, more participants held the device on their lap, and chose to use both thumbs less. There was also a trend for greater finger flexor, wrist extensor, and trapezius muscle activity as touch screen size increased, and for greater cervical flexion, although mean differences for cervical flexion were small. Future research can help inform whether the ergonomic stressors observed during texting are associated with musculoskeletal disorder risk. PMID:25959323

  18. Personality types and coping style in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kidachi, Ruriko; Kikuchi, Atsuhiro; Nishizawa, Yoshiko; Hiruma, Tomiharu; Kaneko, Sunao

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information that would enable caregivers to provide the necessary psychological care for hemodialysis patients. A total of 608 hemodialysis patients completed the questionnaire of the Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness-Five Factor Inventory and were subsequently classified by personality types using cluster analysis. In comparison to the norms for the general Japanese adult population, the four-dimensional average of extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness among hemodialysis patients was significantly lower (P < 0.001), especially for openness. The openness score correlated with each of the following: age (P < 0.001), employment (P < 0.01), and diabetes (P < 0.001). Four personality types were defined based on these dimensions. High scores for agreeableness, extroversion and conscientiousness characterized the agreeable type (22.6%). The patients in this type will likely accept their own experiences in a positive manner. Submissive types (22.0%) received the lowest scores for conscientiousness, though extroversion, openness, and agreeableness were also low. It is necessary to enhance a sense of independence and responsibility in patients with submissive type personalities. Sensitive types (21.5%) were characterized by the highest neuroticism scores and low scores for the other four dimensions. The patients in this type were likely to be persistent with changes in conditions. The last type was the balanced type (33.9%), which was defined by scores within mean range. In clinical practice, it is particularly important that the submissive and sensitive types should receive appropriate mental health care.

  19. Positivity Coping Style and Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara, M. Dolores; Bermudez, Jose; Perez-Garcia, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescence is a period when at-risk health behaviors often begin, such as tobacco and alcohol use; thus, it is a critical period for implementing preventive strategies. Method: In this context, 106 adolescents took part in this research (54 females and 52 males; mean age for both groups = 14.10). The main objectives were to first…

  20. Assessing the Role of Attachment to God, Meaning, and Religious Coping as Mediators in the Grief Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Melissa M.; Chan, Keith T.

    2012-01-01

    Research has examined the relationship of styles of attachment to others and meaning with grief and the stress-related growth process. Less has been written on styles of attachment to God and patterns of religious coping and how these constructs may impact adjustment in persons dealing with loss. This study examines the roles of attachment to God,…

  1. Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents: Their Roles and Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucowski, Richard; Hayden, Robert R.

    When children are raised in an environment where alcoholism is prominent, certain dysfunctional responses are learned as a way to cope with the challenge of that environment. This study was conducted to examine the learning styles of adult children of alcoholics. Subjects were college freshmen and self-identified adult children of alcoholics…

  2. Coping with Stress in the Principalship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Donald G.

    1997-01-01

    Reports responses of 643 public school principals in British Columbia to a survey on coping with administrative stress. Principals who set realistic goals, approach problems optimistically and objectively, engage in spiritual-growth activities, take minivacations, and are actively involved in their communities are likely to be in better health and…

  3. Personality, life events and coping in the oldest-old.

    PubMed

    Martin, P; Poon, L W; Clayton, G M; Lee, H S; Fulks, J S; Johnson, M A

    1992-01-01

    This paper compares older adults in their sixties, eighties, and 100s on personality, experience of life events, and coping. A secondary goal was to test a structural model of adaptation. Participants (165) filled out a personality inventory, life-event lists, and coping and mental health measures. Results revealed differences in personality: centenarians scored higher on dominance, suspiciousness, and imagination. While centenarians scored lower on active behavioral coping than other age groups, they used cognitive strategies when coping with health and family events. Results from the structural equation model indicated that extraversion and anxiety predicted morale and mental health.

  4. Impact of Age, and Cognitive and Coping Resources on Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trouillet, Raphael; Doan-Van-Hay, Loane-Martine; Launay, Michel; Martin, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data…

  5. Workload, capacity for coping and psychological and physical outcomes amongst home helps in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Arts, S. E. J.; Kerkstra, A.; van Der Zee, J.; Huyer Abu-Saad, H.

    1999-03-01

    Owing to many developments and changes in home care in the Netherlands, a national study was carried out. One of the aims was to examine the differences between the six categories of home help in the Netherlands regarding workload, pressure of work and capacity for coping. A total of 474 home helps from six categories participated in the study. A structured questionnaire, based on the components of the research model, was used, which consisted of existing scales regarding workload (organizational and job characteristics, working conditions), psychological and physical outcomes (job satisfaction, burnout, health) and capacity for coping (social support, leadership style, coping strategies). Workload, specifically organizational and job characteristics are scored low by alpha helps and, to a lesser degree, by A home helps. The higher categories of home help experienced relatively bad working conditions. Home helps, except for alpha helps, are, on the whole, quite satisfied with their work, which is one of the psychological and physical outcomes. The higher categories of home help (C, D and E carers) experienced high feelings of emotional exhaustion. Health, absenteeism and back problems did not differ significantly amongst home helps. When looking at capacity for coping, traditional home helps (A to E) received more social support. The subordinate categories of home help dealt less actively with their problems and sought less social support than the other categories. Alpha helps are not employed by the organization and this might cause low organizational and job characteristics, and little social support. Their satisfaction scores suggest that they would like to see their low organizational involvement changed. The higher categories of home help, who carry out many psychosocial tasks, have higher emotional and mental workload and high burnout scores. B, C and D carers, who perform personal care and have to adhere to strict planning, experience extreme time pressure

  6. Creation and validation of the personal blogging style scale.

    PubMed

    Baker, James R; Moore, Susan M

    2011-06-01

    A review of blog literature suggests that blogs may have many social and emotional benefits. In particular, there is the suggestion that blogging may have benefits in the forms of coping, insight and growth, catharsis, as a free space to communicate, through feedback, through recognition, and in social support. However, while there have been numerous studies on the potential motivations for and effects of blogging, little quantitative research has been conducted on defining the manner in which one experiences blogging. Thus rather than focusing on motivation for blogging, the present study examined the way in which bloggers perceived and experienced their activity, that is, their blogging style. A 16-item Personal Blogging Style Scale (PBSS) was created after a factor analysis of 25 sample items. Participants were 182 experienced bloggers. The PBSS classifies user experiences by four independent and unique subscales: Therapeutic Blogging, Self-Censoring Blogging, Connected Blogging, and Substitution Blogging. Reliability and validity evidence were presented for the subscales of the measure.

  7. Coping with Crises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Janet

    1982-01-01

    Coping with Crises is a home economics course in a rural school in Missouri. It includes experiences designed to increase the individual's ability to deal with stress and covers communication, popularity, loneliness, divorce, death and dying, mental illness, and rejection. (SK)

  8. Coping with Computing Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Richard D.

    Elements of computing success of Iona College, the challenges it currently faces, and the strategies conceived to cope with future computing needs are discussed. The college has mandated computer literacy for students and offers nine degrees in the computerized information system/management information system areas. Since planning is needed in…

  9. Coping by Caring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidstone, Sheila S.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a Texas elementary school's efforts to cope with the special needs of Kenneth, a fourth grader slowly dying of kidney cancer. Besides learning their subjects like other students, Kenneth's classmates learned how to care. Every student volunteered to be Kenneth's assistant and was enriched by the boy's positive attitude and determination…

  10. Incarceration, Coping, and Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Bonnie E.; Cervera, Neil J.

    1991-01-01

    Examined effects of incarceration on family life among 63 inmates and 38 inmate wives. Contrasted those who participated in Family Reunion (conjugal visits) Program with nonparticipants. Found that coping was in normal range for both groups of inmates and wives and, except for measures of wives' passive appraisal, did not differ according to…

  11. Coping with Traumatic Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramonte, Michael R.

    This workshop seeks to train persons interested in counseling those who have suffered traumatic loss. The training comes about in part by the participants' introspection into their own past trauma reactions and the coping strategies they used. They also learn from the shared experiences of other participants. The goals of this workshop are to 1)…

  12. Psychosocial coping resources in elementary school-age children of divorce.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, L

    1994-10-01

    The psychosocial coping resources of elementary school-age children living in the sole custody of a divorced single parent were compared with those of their peers living with nondivorced parents. Children of divorced parents were found to have lower levels of self-efficacy, self-esteem, and social support, and less effectual coping styles. Contact with the noncustodial parent was found to have a positive influence on their attitudes toward divorce. PMID:7847571

  13. Psychosocial coping resources in elementary school-age children of divorce.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, L

    1994-10-01

    The psychosocial coping resources of elementary school-age children living in the sole custody of a divorced single parent were compared with those of their peers living with nondivorced parents. Children of divorced parents were found to have lower levels of self-efficacy, self-esteem, and social support, and less effectual coping styles. Contact with the noncustodial parent was found to have a positive influence on their attitudes toward divorce.

  14. The receptor for urokinase-plasminogen activator (uPAR) controls plasticity of cancer cell movement in mesenchymal and amoeboid migration style.

    PubMed

    Margheri, Francesca; Luciani, Cristina; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Giannoni, Elisa; Laurenzana, Anna; Biagioni, Alessio; Chillà, Anastasia; Chiarugi, Paola; Fibbi, Gabriella; Del Rosso, Mario

    2014-03-30

    The receptor for the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR) is up-regulated in malignant tumors. Historically the function of uPAR in cancer cell invasion is strictly related to its property to promote uPA-dependent proteolysis of extracellular matrix and to open a path to malignant cells. These features are typical of mesenchymal motility. Here we show that the full-length form of uPAR is required when prostate and melanoma cancer cells convert their migration style from the "path generating" mesenchymal to the "path finding" amoeboid one, thus conferring a plasticity to tumor cell invasiveness across three-dimensional matrices. Indeed, in response to a protease inhibitors-rich milieu, prostate and melanoma cells activated an amoeboid invasion program connoted by retraction of cell protrusions, RhoA-mediated rounding of the cell body, formation of a cortical ring of actin and a reduction of Rac-1 activation. While the mesenchymal movement was reduced upon silencing of uPAR expression, the amoeboid one was almost completely abolished, in parallel with a deregulation of small Rho-GTPases activity. In melanoma and prostate cancer cells we have shown uPAR colocalization with β1/β3 integrins and actin cytoskeleton, as well integrins-actin co-localization under both mesenchymal and amoeboid conditions. Such co-localizations were lost upon treatment of cells with a peptide that inhibits uPAR-integrin interactions. Similarly to uPAR silencing, the peptide reduced mesenchymal invasion and almost abolished the amoeboid one. These results indicate that full-length uPAR bridges the mesenchymal and amoeboid style of movement by an inward-oriented activity based on its property to promote integrin-actin interactions and the following cytoskeleton assembly. PMID:24681666

  15. The receptor for urokinase-plasminogen activator (uPAR) controls plasticity of cancer cell movement in mesenchymal and amoeboid migration style

    PubMed Central

    Taddei, Maria Letizia; Giannoni, Elisa; Laurenzana, Anna; Biagioni, Alessio; Chillà, Anastasia; Chiarugi, Paola; Fibbi, Gabriella; Rosso1, Mario Del

    2014-01-01

    The receptor for the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR) is up-regulated in malignant tumors. Historically the function of uPAR in cancer cell invasion is strictly related to its property to promote uPA-dependent proteolysis of extracellular matrix and to open a path to malignant cells. These features are typical of mesenchymal motility. Here we show that the full-length form of uPAR is required when prostate and melanoma cancer cells convert their migration style from the “path generating” mesenchymal to the “path finding” amoeboid one, thus conferring a plasticity to tumor cell invasiveness across three-dimensional matrices. Indeed, in response to a protease inhibitors-rich milieu, prostate and melanoma cells activated an amoeboid invasion program connoted by retraction of cell protrusions, RhoA-mediated rounding of the cell body, formation of a cortical ring of actin and a reduction of Rac-1 activation. While the mesenchymal movement was reduced upon silencing of uPAR expression, the amoeboid one was almost completely abolished, in parallel with a deregulation of small Rho-GTPases activity. In melanoma and prostate cancer cells we have shown uPAR colocalization with β1/β3 integrins and actin cytoskeleton, as well integrins-actin co-localization under both mesenchymal and amoeboid conditions. Such co-localizations were lost upon treatment of cells with a peptide that inhibits uPAR-integrin interactions. Similarly to uPAR silencing, the peptide reduced mesenchymal invasion and almost abolished the amoeboid one. These results indicate that full-length uPAR bridges the mesenchymal and amoeboid style of movement by an inward-oriented activity based on its property to promote integrin-actin interactions and the following cytoskeleton assembly. PMID:24681666

  16. COPE: A Pilot Study with Urban-Dwelling Minority Sixth-Grade Youth to Improve Physical Activity and Mental Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoying, Jacqueline; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek

    2016-01-01

    Approximately one in three preadolescents (34%) is obese/overweight and one in four (25%) experience a mental health issue. Urban youth suffer from higher rates of these problems, and at earlier ages than their peers. This study's purpose was to determine feasibility/acceptability and preliminary effects of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for…

  17. Children's Coping with Academic Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raftery-Helmer, Jacquelyn N.; Grolnick, Wendy S.

    2016-01-01

    There is little consensus on how to conceptualize coping after perceived failure and less is known about the contextual resources that may support or undermine the use of specific coping strategies. This study examined parenting in relation to coping using the framework of self-determination theory and examined the motivational processes through…

  18. Children Coping with Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Lissette M.

    Children who live with chronic illness are confronted with challenges that frequently force them to cope in myriad ways. The ways in which children face chronic illness are summarized in this literature review. Also covered, are how the effects of family can influence coping strategies and how family members, especially parents, cope with their…

  19. Sickle Cell Disease Pain: Relation of Coping Strategies to Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Karen M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined pain coping strategies in 79 adult sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. Results revealed that coping strategies factors were important predictors of pain and adjustment. Subjects high on Negative Thinking and Passive Adherence had more severe pain, were less active and more distressed, and used more health services. Individuals high on…

  20. Hardiness, coping, and burnout in the nursing workplace.

    PubMed

    Simoni, P S; Paterson, J J

    1997-01-01

    Relationships among hardiness, coping approach, and burnout were studied in a sample of 440 nurses. Within each of the coping approaches used, subjects with greater hardiness reported less stress in the form of burnout than did those with less hardiness (F = 36.21, df = 1, P = .001). Subjects using direct-active coping (changing the stressor, confronting the stressor, finding positive aspects in the situation) had the lowest burnout scores, and those using direct-inactive coping (ignoring the stressor, avoiding the stressor, leaving the stressor) had the highest (t = 2.267, df = 437, P < .012). chi 2 analysis identified independence between hardiness and coping approach. Analysis of variance identified no interaction between hardiness and coping behavior categories for burnout; however, the lowest burnout scores were encountered among nurses with greater hardiness who used direct-active coping behaviors. These findings suggest that both hardiness and direct-active coping approaches can be used independently or in concert to reduce burnout. Rationale is provided for preparing practitioners to engage in problem-solving approaches, assertive interaction, and active and direct methods of conflict resolution. PMID:9167407

  1. Cognitive Distortions, Coping Behavior, and Depression in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Nancy J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This study explored the relationship of cognitive distortions and coping strategies to depression in college students. A measure of cognitive distortions (the Interpretation Inventory) and a measure of strategies for coping with depression (the Active Checklist) were developed and used for this study. Results are discussed. (CJ)

  2. Coping and psychological distress of Chinese parents of children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cheng, P; Tang, C S

    1995-02-01

    Coping and correlates of psychological distress of Chinese parents of children with Down syndrome were examined and compared to parents of children with language delays or no disabilities. Individual parent scores were used for analyses, with groups and gender of child and parent as independent factors. Down syndrome group parents reported the most frequent use of avoidance coping style, followed by parents of the language delay and no disabilities groups. Compared to parents in the no disabilities group, the other parents reported a higher level of psychological distress, were less optimistic, felt less self-efficacious, and engaged in more frequent use of self-reliance coping style. Main effects for parent gender revealed that mothers engaged in more frequent use of self-reliance, avoidance, and seeking social support coping styles. Mothers also reported a higher level of distress but lower levels of optimism and self-mastery. Intercorrelations among variables showed that avoidance coping style and self-mastery emerged as the two robust correlates of parental distress.

  3. Stress and coping among parents of handicapped children: a multidimensional approach.

    PubMed

    Frey, K S; Greenberg, M T; Fewell, R R

    1989-11-01

    The relations of child characteristics, family social network, parent belief systems, and coping styles to parent outcome were examined with parents of 48 young handicapped children. Child characteristics predicted mothers' and fathers' parenting stress and fathers' psychological distress. Parental belief systems predicted all three parent outcomes for mothers and fathers. Coping styles predicted psychological distress and fathers' family adjustment. Social network predicted family adjustment and fathers' psychological distress. Psychological distress was low in mothers who had either a positive belief system or a noncritical family network. Findings support the value of a multidimensional examination of family characteristics that mediate the impact of a child's handicap.

  4. Relationship of resilience to personality, coping, and psychiatric symptoms in young adults.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Sills, Laura; Cohan, Sharon L; Stein, Murray B

    2006-04-01

    Developing a comprehensive understanding of resilience across the lifespan is potentially important for mental health promotion, yet resilience has been vastly understudied compared to disease and vulnerability. The present study investigated the relationship of resilience to personality traits, coping styles, and psychiatric symptoms in a sample of college students. Measures included the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, NEO Five Factor Inventory, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and Brief Symptom Inventory. Results supported hypotheses regarding the relationship of resilience to personality dimensions and coping styles. Resilience was negatively associated with neuroticism, and positively related to extraversion and conscientiousness. Coping styles also predicted variance in resilience above and beyond the contributions of these personality traits. Task-oriented coping was positively related to resilience, and mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and resilience. Emotion-oriented coping was associated with low resilience. Finally, resilience was shown to moderate the relationship between a form of childhood maltreatment (emotional neglect) and current psychiatric symptoms. These results augment the literature that seeks to better define resilience and provide evidence for the construct validity of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale.

  5. Coping with breast cancer over time and situation.

    PubMed

    Heim, E; Augustiny, K F; Schaffner, L; Valach, L

    1993-07-01

    This study examines the variability and stability of coping in cancer subjects over time and situation. In a prospective longitudinal design 74 breastcancer patients have been followed for 3-5 yr at 3-6 monthly intervals. A variety of measures related to coping and adjustment were taken. This report limits itself to the findings of an instrument developed for this study, the Bernese Coping Modes in which 26 coping modes were rated by observers. Results confirm arguments in favour of both variability and stability in coping activity over time and situation. Two measures support stability: rank values and a multivariate measure (MDS) with three constant dimensions: (1) support and acceptance; (2) denial; (3) diversion by thought and action. Evidence for variability is: the potential range of coping modes and a large variety of additional modes at most observation times. Subsequently time measures of coping were attributed to eight predefined illness stages as distinct clinical situations. Thus variability or richness of coping further increased. The implications of these findings for measurement in coping research are discussed.

  6. Black Canadians' Coping Responses to Racial Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Justine; Kuo, Ben C. H.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a cultural coping framework, the present study examined coping responses to racial discrimination among 190 Black Canadians. The study assessed the respondents' coping with both general (i.e., problem- and emotion-focused coping) and Africultural coping strategies (i.e., spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping)…

  7. Integrating Coping Behavior in Family Stress Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCubbin, Hamilton I.

    Traditional approaches to family stress theory have underscored the importance of the family as a reactor to stress, as a manager of resources within the family system. In contrast, the active process of employing coping strategies within the family and in transactions with the community have received limited consideration in both research and…

  8. Style in Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.

  9. Prevalence, sociodemographic factors, psychological distress, and coping strategies related to compulsive buying: a cross sectional study in Galicia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Compulsive buying has become a serious problem affecting a growing number of people in contemporary consumer societies. Nevertheless, research examining its prevalence in representative samples from the general population is still scarce and mainly focused on the exploration of sociodemographic factors, neglecting other aspects like psychological distress and coping styles. Therefore, this study intends to contribute to the cumulative knowledge by assessing compulsive buying prevalence in a representative sample from the general population in the region of Galicia, in Spain. Sociodemographic determinants, psychological symptoms, and coping strategies are also analyzed to clarify their role in this phenomenon. Methods A random routes procedure was employed in the recruitment of the sample which was comprised of 2159 participants who were classified as either compulsive buyers or non-compulsive buyers. Both groups were compared regarding sociodemographic determinants, symptoms, and coping strategies through chi-square tests or analyses of variance. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine which of these determinants might play a part in the make up of a risk profile for compulsive buying. Results Estimated prevalence of compulsive buying was 7.1%. Compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers differed significantly in sex and age, with women and younger people showing a higher propensity for this phenomenon. Individuals with compulsive buying presented significantly higher scores on all the psychological symptoms considered. They also employed passive-avoidance coping strategies much more frequently and active strategies of problem solving and cognitive restructuring much less frequently. The logistic regression analysis results confirmed that being female, experiencing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and obsession-compulsion, and employing the passive-avoidance coping strategies of problem avoidance, wishful thinking, and self

  10. Stress and coping in fathers of newborns: comparisons of planned versus unplanned pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Clinton, J F; Kelber, S T

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this survey was to identify stresses and coping styles in fathers of newborns, and to explore if these vary according to pregnancy planning. Data from 69 subjects were collected using the Ireton Personal Inventory and the Jalowiec Coping Scale. The most common and least often sources of stress or worry were reported. Fathers' predominant mode of coping was problem oriented. Compared to fathers with planned pregnancies, fathers with unplanned pregnancies were found to be significantly more stressed about numerous issues as well as feeling powerless in adapting to the arrival of a new infant. Implications for practice and research are explored. PMID:8225809

  11. Coping behaviour after shipwreck.

    PubMed

    Henderson, S; Bostock, T

    1977-07-01

    A description is given of the coping behaviour of seven men who survived a shipwreck and were not rescued until 13 days later. The principal behaviours shown by the men were attachment ideation, drive to survive, modelling, prayer and hope. Particular attention is paid to the first of these, and consideration given to its likely origins in behavioural evolution. It is proposed as a hitherto inadequately recognized coping behaviour. A follow-up examination 12 to 24 months later showed that five of the seven men available had developed substantial psychiatric disorder, while by contrast one was not only well but claimed to have been enriched by the experience. Exposure to extreme adversity or disaster may have long-term effects on mental health. Further longitudinal studies of disaster victims are necessary for the design of informed after-care.

  12. Coping, stress, and personality in Spanish nursing students: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fornés-Vives, Joana; Garcia-Banda, Gloria; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Rosales-Viladrich, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the dominant stress coping style in nursing students, its relationships with stressful life events and personality traits, and the students' changes during their academic training. A non-experimental two-wave longitudinal design was carried out in 199 nursing students recruited from three Spanish nursing schools. The Stressful Life Events Scale, NEO-FFI, and COPE questionnaire were administered at the beginning (T1) and end (T2) of their nursing studies. Descriptive statistics, Anova(s), NPar tests, and Pearson correlations were carried out. Results show that nursing students' dominant coping style was emotion-focused coping, both at T1 and T2. Highly significant correlations between emotional coping and the neuroticism trait were found. Coping, stress, and personality changed positively during the training program. At T2, the use of problem-focused strategies increased, and participants became more extroverted, agreeable, and conscientious. Coping and personality changes experienced by nursing students throughout their degree program seem to mirror the professional competences needed by future licensed nurses.

  13. Learning to cope with stress: psychobiological mechanisms of stress resilience.

    PubMed

    Cabib, Simona; Campus, Paolo; Colelli, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Stress is the main non-genetic source of psychopathology. Therefore, the identification of neurobiological bases of resilience, the resistance to pathological outcomes of stress, is a most relevant topic of research. It is an accepted view that resilient individuals are those who do not develop helplessness, or other depression-like phenotypes, following a history of stress. In the present review, we discuss the phenotypic differences between mice of the inbred C57BL/6J and DBA/2J strains that could be associated with the strain-specific resistance to helplessness observable in DBA/2J mice. The reviewed results support the hypothesis that resilience to stress-promoted helplessness develops through interactions between a specific genetic makeup and a history of stress, and is associated with an active coping style, a bias toward the use of stimulus-response learning, and specific adaptive changes of mesoaccumbens dopamine transmission under stress. Finally, evidence that compulsivity represents a side effect of the neuroadaptive processes fostering resistance to develop depressive-like phenotypes under stress is discussed.

  14. Examining Behavioural Coping Strategies as Mediators between Work-Family Conflict and Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    2015-01-01

    We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict. PMID:25695097

  15. Coping in the Cyberworld: Program Implementation and Evaluation--A Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Cecilia Wing Chi; Frydenberg, Erica

    2009-01-01

    As increasing numbers of adolescents become involved in online activities, many also become victims of cyberharassment. This pilot project investigates how a program teaching coping skills (Best of Coping program, BOC) and a program teaching cybersafety (Cyber Savvy Teens program, CST) can optimise adolescents' capacity to cope online.…

  16. Coping with stress and quality of life in women with stress urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Adamczuk, Jolanta; Szymona-Pałkowska, Katarzyna; Robak, Jacek Marcin; Rykowska-Górnik, Katarzyna; Steuden, Stanisława

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Urinary incontinence (UI) involves uncontrolled leakage of urine through the urethra as a result of damage to its sphincter muscle and a disturbed function of the urogenital diaphragm within the pelvis minor. The symptoms of UI radically impair psychological, somatic, and social functioning. The aim of each disease stress coping process is to reduce the impact of harmful agents as well as the acquisition of necessary preventive measures in order to combat the disorder. Aim of the study was to assess the relationship between coping styles used when dealing with stress associated with disease and the quality of life. Material and methods The study was carried out at an outpatients’ clinic located in the Lublin Province (eastern Poland), covering 150 women with diagnosed stress urinary incontinence, aged between 32 and 79. The following methods were used: (a) Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (Endler, Parker) to assess coping styles, (b) CASP-19 scale (Higgins, Hyde, Wiggins, Blade) to measure the overall quality of life, and (c) Urinary Incontinence Life Quality Scale (Szymona-Pałkowska, Kraczkowski). Results The preferred style in the studied group of women was Task-Oriented Coping. This style is associated with a low score on the Independence from Symptoms scale and low Control, being simultaneously correlated with Autonomy and Self-Realisation. Emotion-Oriented Coping is associated with low psychological, physical and social well-being, as well as with little independence from the disease symptoms, little pleasure and self-realisation, but it gives a sense of internal control. Avoidance-Oriented Coping does not significantly correlate with any of the Overall Quality of Life dimensions. Conclusions Women suffering from UI tend to try to solve their problem by means of cognitive transformation. In their situation, clinging to the problem turns out to be a depressing factor and entails a lower quality of their life. PMID:26528106

  17. Maladaptive coping strategies and glaucoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Ellen E.; Lesk, Mark R.; Harasymowycz, Paul; Desjardins, Daniel; Flores, Veronica; Kamga, Hortence; Li, Gisèle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The identification of modifiable risk factors for glaucoma progression is needed. Our objective was to determine whether maladaptive coping styles are associated with recent glaucoma progression or worse visual field mean deviation. A hospital-based case–control study was conducted in the Glaucoma Service of Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital in Montreal, Canada. Patients with primary open angle glaucoma or normal tension glaucoma with ≥4 years of follow-up and ≥5 Humphrey visual fields were included. Cases had recent visual field progression as defined according to the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial pattern change probability maps. Controls had stable visual fields. The Brief Cope questionnaire, a 28-item questionnaire about 14 different ways of coping with the stress of a chronic disease, was asked. Questions were also asked about demographic and medical factors, and the medical chart was examined. Outcomes included glaucoma progression (yes, no) and visual field mean deviation. Logistic and linear regressions were used. A total of 180 patients were included (82 progressors and 98 nonprogressors). Although none of the 14 coping scales were associated with glaucoma progression (P > 0.05), higher denial was correlated with worse visual field mean deviation (r = −0.173, P = 0.024). In a linear regression model including age, sex, education, depression, intraocular pressure, and family history of glaucoma, greater levels of denial (β = −1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] −2.32, −0.41), Haitian ethnicity (β = −7.78, 95% CI −12.52, −3.04), and the number of glaucoma medications (β = −1.20, 95% CI −2.00, −0.38) were statistically significantly associated with visual field mean deviation. The maladaptive coping mechanism of denial was a risk factor for worse visual field mean deviation. Further prospective research will be required to verify the pathways by which denial may exert an effect on glaucomatous visual

  18. Maladaptive coping strategies and glaucoma progression.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Ellen E; Lesk, Mark R; Harasymowycz, Paul; Desjardins, Daniel; Flores, Veronica; Kamga, Hortence; Li, Gisèle

    2016-08-01

    The identification of modifiable risk factors for glaucoma progression is needed. Our objective was to determine whether maladaptive coping styles are associated with recent glaucoma progression or worse visual field mean deviation.A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in the Glaucoma Service of Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital in Montreal, Canada. Patients with primary open angle glaucoma or normal tension glaucoma with ≥4 years of follow-up and ≥5 Humphrey visual fields were included. Cases had recent visual field progression as defined according to the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial pattern change probability maps. Controls had stable visual fields. The Brief Cope questionnaire, a 28-item questionnaire about 14 different ways of coping with the stress of a chronic disease, was asked. Questions were also asked about demographic and medical factors, and the medical chart was examined. Outcomes included glaucoma progression (yes, no) and visual field mean deviation. Logistic and linear regressions were used.A total of 180 patients were included (82 progressors and 98 nonprogressors). Although none of the 14 coping scales were associated with glaucoma progression (P > 0.05), higher denial was correlated with worse visual field mean deviation (r = -0.173, P = 0.024). In a linear regression model including age, sex, education, depression, intraocular pressure, and family history of glaucoma, greater levels of denial (β = -1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.32, -0.41), Haitian ethnicity (β = -7.78, 95% CI -12.52, -3.04), and the number of glaucoma medications (β = -1.20, 95% CI -2.00, -0.38) were statistically significantly associated with visual field mean deviation.The maladaptive coping mechanism of denial was a risk factor for worse visual field mean deviation. Further prospective research will be required to verify the pathways by which denial may exert an effect on glaucomatous visual field loss. PMID:27583929

  19. The inter-relationship between mood, self-esteem and response styles in adolescent offspring of bipolar parents: an experience sampling study.

    PubMed

    Pavlickova, Hana; Turnbull, Oliver H; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Bentall, Richard P

    2015-02-28

    The response styles theory of depression (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) proposes three main strategies individuals employ in response to low mood: rumination, active coping (distraction and problem-solving) and risk taking. Although recent research has suggested this theory has utility in understanding the symptoms of bipolar disorder (BD), the role of these processes in conferring vulnerability to the condition is poorly understood. Twenty-three adolescent children of patients with BD and 25 offspring of well parents completed the Experience Sampling Method (ESM; Csikszentmihalyi and Larson, 1987) diary for six days. Longitudinal analyses were carried out to examine inter-relationships between mood, self-esteem and response styles. Increased negative as well as positive mood resulted in greater rumination in both groups. Low self-esteem triggered greater risk-taking at the subsequent time point in the at-risk group, while negative affect instigated increased active coping in the control group. In both groups, engagement in risk-taking improved mood at the subsequent time point, whilst rumination dampened self-esteem. Differential longitudinal associations between mood, self-esteem and response styles between at-risk and control children suggest early psychological vulnerability in the offspring of BD parents, with important indications for early intervention.

  20. The inter-relationship between mood, self-esteem and response styles in adolescent offspring of bipolar parents: an experience sampling study.

    PubMed

    Pavlickova, Hana; Turnbull, Oliver H; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Bentall, Richard P

    2015-02-28

    The response styles theory of depression (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) proposes three main strategies individuals employ in response to low mood: rumination, active coping (distraction and problem-solving) and risk taking. Although recent research has suggested this theory has utility in understanding the symptoms of bipolar disorder (BD), the role of these processes in conferring vulnerability to the condition is poorly understood. Twenty-three adolescent children of patients with BD and 25 offspring of well parents completed the Experience Sampling Method (ESM; Csikszentmihalyi and Larson, 1987) diary for six days. Longitudinal analyses were carried out to examine inter-relationships between mood, self-esteem and response styles. Increased negative as well as positive mood resulted in greater rumination in both groups. Low self-esteem triggered greater risk-taking at the subsequent time point in the at-risk group, while negative affect instigated increased active coping in the control group. In both groups, engagement in risk-taking improved mood at the subsequent time point, whilst rumination dampened self-esteem. Differential longitudinal associations between mood, self-esteem and response styles between at-risk and control children suggest early psychological vulnerability in the offspring of BD parents, with important indications for early intervention. PMID:25529261

  1. Exploring Non-Traditional Adult Undergraduate Student Persistence and Non-Persistence in Higher Education: A Stress and Coping Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroney, Barbara R.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores persistence and non-persistence among adult undergraduate students with particular focus on these students' lives, their stressors, their coping resources including academic supports, and their styles of coping. The study approaches the issue of non-persistence not as a personal failure but rather as a consequence of multiple…

  2. En las Manos de Dios [in God’s Hands]: Religious and Other Forms of Coping Among Latinos With Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Abraído-Lanza, Ana F.; Vásquez, Elizabeth; Echeverría, Sandra E.

    2013-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model concerning religious, passive, and active coping; pain; and psychological adjustment among a sample of 200 Latinos with arthritis. Respondents reported using high levels of religious coping. A path analysis indicated that religious coping was correlated with active but not with passive coping. Religious coping was directly related to psychological well-being. Passive coping was associated with greater pain and worse adjustment. The effects of active coping on pain, depression, and psychological well-being were entirely indirect, mediated by acceptance of illness and self-efficacy. These findings warrant more research on the mechanisms that mediate the relationship between coping and health. This study contributes to a growing literature on religious coping among people with chronic illness, as well as contributing to a historically under-studied ethnic group. PMID:14756618

  3. Student Learning Styles in Advanced Instrumental Music Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhukov, Katie

    2007-01-01

    Despite a large body of research into learning styles from cognitive, personality and activity perspectives, the definition of learning style is still unclear. The assessment instruments commonly in use have methodological problems. The learning styles of conservatorium instrumentalists are scarcely known and are best studied using an…

  4. Competence in coping with stress in adolescents from three regions of the world.

    PubMed

    Persike, Malte; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2012-07-01

    The ways adolescents develop and use strategies to cope with stress vary according to cultural scripts and values. This cross-sectional study tested the impact of region and gender on adolescents' stress perceptions and coping styles. A total sample of 10,941 adolescents (51.3% female) from 20 countries completed questionnaires on stress and coping behaviors in four domains (school, parents, peers, and romantic relationships). Standardized samples of n = 200 were drawn from each country, resulting in a sample of N = 4,000 adolescents (mean age 15.18, SD = 1.76, balanced gender distribution). Based on the results of discriminant analysis, the adolescents could be grouped into three world regions (Western, Eastern/Asian, and Southern). Results revealed that levels of perceived stressfulness of issues in different domains were universally similar among adolescents from all three regions. Parent- and school-related stress received the highest rankings, and peer- and romance-related stress the lowest. Differences emerged with respect to coping style, depending on region and gender. Coping styles characterized by negotiating, seeking support, and emotional outlet were used more often by adolescents from the Western region than those from the Eastern/Asian or Southern regions. Females in all regions had higher rates in the use of negotiating and seeking support than males did. Adolescents from all countries, despite regional variations, exhibited more emotional outlet in response to conflicts with parents than with peers or romantic partners. Overall, adolescents from all regions of the world demonstrated an impressive level of coping competencies, as only about one fifth of all coping responses involved the use of withdrawal and denial. The findings are discussed with respect to how the effects of globalization and changing societal expectations may have contributed to similar levels of perceived stressfulness and increased coping agency in adolescents in different

  5. The impact of social stress during adolescence or adulthood and coping strategy on cognitive function of female rats.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Kevin; Barry, Mark; Plona, Zachary; Ho, Andrew; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Valentino, Rita J

    2015-06-01

    The age of stressor exposure can determine its neurobehavioral impact. For example, exposure of adolescent male rats to resident-intruder stress impairs cognitive flexibility in adulthood. The current study examined the impact of this stressor in female rats. Rats were exposed to resident-intruder stress during early adolescence (EA), mid-adolescence (MA) or adulthood (Adult). They were tested in an operant strategy-shifting task for side discrimination (SD), reversal learning (REV) and strategy set-shifting (SHIFT) the following week. Performance varied with age, stress and coping style. MA and EA rats performed SD and SHIFT better than other ages, respectively. Social stress impaired performance in rats depending on their coping strategy as determined by a short (SL) or long (LL) latency to become subordinate. SL rats were impaired in SD and REV, whereas EA-LL rats were impaired in SHIFT. These impairing effects of female adolescent stress did not endure into adulthood. Strategy set-shifting performance for female adolescents was positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation as indicated by c-fos expression suggesting that this region is engaged during task performance. This contrasts with the inverse relationship between these indices reported for male adolescent rats. Together, the results demonstrate that social stress produces cognitive impairments for female rats that depend on age and coping style but unlike males, the impairing effects of female adolescent social stress are immediate and do not endure into adulthood. Sex differences in the impact of adolescent social stress on cognition may reflect differences in mPFC engagement during the task.

  6. Investigating coping strategies and social support among Canadian melanoma patients: A survey approach.

    PubMed

    Kalbfleisch, Melanie; Cyr, Annette; Gregorio, Nancy; Nyhof-Young, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Complex support needs are involved in coping with a diagnosis of melanoma. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived social support levels and utilization of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies by Canadian melanoma patients. The impact of social support level on coping strategy utilization was also examined. Social support and coping strategies were assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) and the 28-item Brief COPE, respectively. Perceived levels of emotional/informational support were significantly lower than affectionate support and positive social interaction. Acceptance, active coping, and use of emotional support were the most frequently utilized coping strategies. Patients with higher perceived levels of social support had significantly higher adaptive coping scores than patients with lower levels of social support. Health care professionals have an important role in promoting awareness of and access to emotional and informational support resources in order to improve perceived social support levels. PMID:26642495

  7. Burden among male Alzheimer's caregivers: effects of distinct coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Jennifer R; Wilks, Scott E; Lovelace, Lauren L; Chen, Zibei; Spivey, Christina A

    2015-05-01

    Focusing on the understudied, increasing population of male Alzheimer's disease (AD) caregivers, the purpose of this study was to identify their likelihood of utilizing 3 coping strategies (task focused, emotion focused, and avoidance focused) and to examine the effects of each coping strategy on caregiving burden. Data were collected from 138 male AD caregivers in southern United States, including geographically proportional representation of African Americans in the sample. Stepwise regression revealed effects of each coping strategy on caregiving burden, controlling for demographics. The sample reported high burden. Task focused was the highest reported coping strategy. Yet, regression models indicated no significant effect of task-focused coping on burden outcomes. Emotion-focused and avoidance-focused coping each showed significant proportional effects on burden. Implications suggest that emotion- and avoidance-focused coping among male AD caregivers may be maladaptive, that is, reinforcing burden. Male AD caregivers may benefit from more task-focused coping, such as planning and active problem solving. PMID:25267930

  8. Coping, daily hassles and behavior and emotional problems in adolescents with high-functioning autism/Asperger's Disorder.

    PubMed

    Khor, Angela S; Melvin, Glenn A; Reid, Sophie C; Gray, Kylie M

    2014-03-01

    Although daily hassles and coping are associated with behavior and emotional problems in non-clinical populations, few studies have investigated these relationships in individuals with high-functioning autism/Asperger's Disorder (HFASD). This study examined the relationships between daily hassles, coping and behavior and emotional problems in adolescents with HFASD. Thirty-one adolescents with HFASD completed questionnaires assessing their coping and behavior and emotional problems, and completed an Ecological Momentary Assessment run via a mobile phone application on their coping and daily hassles. Parents completed questionnaires of the adolescents' daily hassles, coping, and behavior and emotional problems. The disengagement coping style was associated with significantly higher levels of behavior and emotional problems regardless of respondent or methodology, suggesting it may be a valuable target for intervention.

  9. Burden, coping and needs for support of caregivers for patients with a bipolar disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van der Voort, T Y G; Goossens, P J J; van der Bijl, J J

    2007-10-01

    This study was aimed to highlight the factors which influence experienced burden, coping and needs for support of caregivers for patients with a bipolar disorder. Research articles meeting content and methodological quality criteria from January 1995 through October 2005 were reviewed. High objective and subjective burden is experienced by these caregivers. Subjective burden is extremely influenced by illness beliefs. High burden is associated more with severity of symptoms (than diagnosis), difficulties in the relationship with patient, lack of support and stigma. Coping is influenced by appraisal and burden. Different phases in the process of caregiving require different coping mechanisms. Little research is available on effectiveness of coping mechanisms and needs for support. Suggestions are nevertheless found in the literature for professional support. Caregivers of patients with a bipolar disorder experience high burden and try to cope in different ways. Little research is available on coping styles and needs for support. However, recommendations can be made to increase support for these caregivers.

  10. The Effects of Bag Style on Muscle Activity of the Trapezius, Erector Spinae and Latissimus Dorsi During Walking in Female University Students

    PubMed Central

    Hardie, Rebecca; Haskew, Rachel; Harris, Joel; Hughes, Gerwyn

    2015-01-01

    Back pain is common in adolescents which has been associated with carrying a bag. However, there is little research examining the effects of bag style in female adolescents. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of different bag conditions on muscle activity of the trapezius, erector spinae and latissimus dorsi muscles in female university students during walking. Twelve female university students walked on a treadmill for 5 minutes at 1.1 m/s during five conditions; control, 1 strapped rucksack, 2 strapped rucksack, ipsilateral shoulder strap and contralateral shoulder strap, each containing 10% bodyweight. Electromyography for the trapezius, erector spinae and latissimus dorsi was recorded for the last 30 s of each condition. Two-way ANOVA and paired t-tests were used to identify differences between right and left muscles and between bag conditions. Results showed that muscle activity of the left trapezius was significantly higher than the right trapezius during the 1 strap rucksack condition. For the left trapezius, the 2 strapped rucksack and the control condition had significantly lower muscle activity compared to the 1 strapped rucksack and the ipsilateral shoulder strap. For the left erector spinae muscle, there was significantly greater muscle activity when wearing the contralateral shoulder strap compared to the control. For the right erector spinae, significantly lower muscle activity was observed when wearing the 2 strapped rucksack compared to the ipsilateral shoulder strap and contralateral shoulder strap. There were no significant differences in muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi muscles between any of the bag conditions. These findings suggest that a two strapped rucksack should be used when carrying loads to reduce spinal muscle activity which may, in turn, reduce reports of back pain in female adolescents. PMID:25964808

  11. The Social Networks of Employed Couples: The Role They Play in Coping with Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Leigh A.; Anderson, Elaine A.

    As growing numbers of families are being supported by two employed parents, it becomes increasingly important that clinicians and researchers understand the factors affecting how successfully families cope with the demands of this life style. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the structure of spouses' social…

  12. Individual Differences in Adolescent Health Symptoms: The Effects of Gender and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G.S.; Pritchard, M.E.; Revalee, B.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that adult men and women experience different types and severities of physical and psychological health symptoms. This study examined whether in the case of adolescents these reported gender differences in physical and psychological health symptoms could actually be the result of differences in coping styles. Five…

  13. Coping with Stress. The Best of ERIC on Educational Management, Number 50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    The twelve items in this annotated bibliography are entries in the ERIC system intended to help administrators in coping with stress. The publications cited deal with causes of stress, how to manage stress, how to make life style changes, how to recognize stressors, and work patterns associated with Type A behavior. The publications listed also…

  14. Classroom Management and Teachers' Coping Strategies: Inside Classrooms in Australia, China and Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romi, Shlomo; Lewis, Ramon; Roache, Joel

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the degree to which recently reported relationships between the classroom management techniques and coping styles of Australian teachers apply in two other national settings: China and Israel. Little is known about which teacher characteristics relate to their approach to classroom management, although researchers in Australia…

  15. The Stress-Illness Paradigm: Relationship to Social Interest and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarski, John J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined the stress and illness paradigm by considering influences of social interest and coping styles on three measures of health status: overall health, somatic symptoms, and energy level. Subjects (N=109) included office workers, nurses, and graduate students. Found social interest and daily hassles explained significant amounts of variance on…

  16. Exploring Physical Activity Behaviour of Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: A Qualitative Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, Linda; Allen, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Identify facilitators and barriers to physical activity (PA), and explore the utility of Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) and Transactional Model of Stress and Coping (TMSC) in understanding PA behaviour among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods Thirteen participants from a clinical trial were interviewed and classified as physically active, sometimes active, or inactive based on the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II. Interviews were analysed using analytical induction, which consisted of coding data into pre-established categories and then exploring similarities and differences between groups. Pre-established coding categories were constructs from SCT (i.e. environment, expectations, self-efficacy, and self-regulation) and TMSC (i.e. stress appraisal and coping style). Results Inactive and active participants differed in their self-regulation skills, self-efficacy, and coping styles. Common barriers to PA included symptoms and the physical and social environment. Facilitators of PA included strong self-regulation skills, confidence to overcome symptoms to engage in PA (i.e. barrier self-efficacy), and positive coping styles. Conclusion Results from this pilot study suggest that PA interventions will need to implement multiple strategies that target self-efficacy, social environment, and coping styles. We found SCT and TMSC useful in understanding PA behaviour among persons with MS; however, a limitation to these theories is that they are not explicit in the relationship between health and cognitions. Future research will need to explore how to incorporate models of health and function into existing behaviour change theories. PMID:19479491

  17. Riding the tide of emotions with mindfulness: Mindfulness, affect dynamics, and the mediating role of coping.

    PubMed

    Keng, Shian-Ling; Tong, Eddie M W

    2016-08-01

    Little research has examined ways in which mindfulness is associated with affect dynamics, referring to patterns of affect fluctuations in daily life. Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), the present study examined the associations between trait mindfulness and several types of affect dynamics, namely affect variability, affect inertia, affect switch, and affect instability. Three hundred ninety undergraduate students from Singapore reported their current emotions and coping styles up to 19 times per day across 2 days. Results showed that trait mindfulness correlated negatively with variability, instability, and inertia of negative affect and positively with negative-to-positive affect switch. These relationships were independent of openness, habitual reappraisal, habitual suppression, depression, and self-esteem. Importantly, lower maladaptive coping was found to mediate these relationships. The study suggests that trait mindfulness independently promotes adaptive patterns of affective experiences in daily life by inhibiting maladaptive coping styles. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. A Review of Laboratory Instruction Styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domin, Daniel S.

    1999-04-01

    Constructivism views learning as a process in which the individual actively constructs new knowledge structures through interactions with the environment. Altering the learning environment may result in changes in learning outcomes. The style of instruction imposed upon the learner is just one type of external influence within the learning environment; different styles of instruction, therefore, may lead to different learning outcomes. Through a review of the literature, this paper asserts that four distinct styles of laboratory instruction have been utilized throughout the history of chemistry education: expository (traditional), inquiry, discovery, and problem-based. Although these instructional styles share many commonalities and oftentimes their labels are used interchangeably, each style is unique and can be distinguished from the others by a set of three descriptors: outcome, approach, and procedure. This taxonomy of laboratory instruction styles, in which the distinguishing features of each style are highlighted, is presented along with current research findings, to establish a research agenda that measures the effectiveness of each style of instruction against the desired learning outcomes.

  19. Occupational stress and coping strategies among emergency department nurses of China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dong-Mei; Sun, Ning; Hong, Su; Fan, Yu-ying; Kong, Fan-ying; Li, Qiu-jie

    2015-08-01

    Emergency department(ED) nurses work in a rapidly changing environment with patients that have wide variety of conditions. Occupational stress in emergency department nurses is a common problem. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between coping strategies and occupational stress among ED nurses in China. A correlational, cross-sectional design was adopted. Two questionnaires were given to a random sample of 127 ED nurses registered at the Heilongjiang Nurses' Association. Data were collected from the nurses that worked in the ED of five general hospitals in Harbin China. Occupational stress and coping strategies were measured by two questionnaires. A multiple regression model was applied to analyze the relationship between stress and coping strategies. The stressors of ED nurses mainly come from the ED specialty of nursing (2.97±0.55), workload and time distribution (2.97±0.58). The mean score of positive coping strategies was 2.19±0.35, higher than the norm (1.78±0.52). The mean score of negative coping strategies was 1.20±0.61, lower than the norm (1.59±0.66), both had significant statistical difference (P<0.001). Too much documents work, criticism, instrument equipment shortage, night shift, rank of professional were the influence factors about occupational stress to positive coping styles. Too much documents work, and medical insurance for ED nurses were the influential factors on occupational stress to negative coping styles. This study identified several factors associated with occupational stress in ED nurses. These results could be used to guide nurse managers of ED nurses to reduce work stress. The managers could pay more attention to the ED nurse's coping strategies which can further influence their health state and quality of nursing care. Reducing occupational stress and enhancing coping strategies are vital not only for encouraging nurses but also for the future of nursing development.

  20. Occupational stress and coping strategies among emergency department nurses of China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dong-Mei; Sun, Ning; Hong, Su; Fan, Yu-ying; Kong, Fan-ying; Li, Qiu-jie

    2015-08-01

    Emergency department(ED) nurses work in a rapidly changing environment with patients that have wide variety of conditions. Occupational stress in emergency department nurses is a common problem. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between coping strategies and occupational stress among ED nurses in China. A correlational, cross-sectional design was adopted. Two questionnaires were given to a random sample of 127 ED nurses registered at the Heilongjiang Nurses' Association. Data were collected from the nurses that worked in the ED of five general hospitals in Harbin China. Occupational stress and coping strategies were measured by two questionnaires. A multiple regression model was applied to analyze the relationship between stress and coping strategies. The stressors of ED nurses mainly come from the ED specialty of nursing (2.97±0.55), workload and time distribution (2.97±0.58). The mean score of positive coping strategies was 2.19±0.35, higher than the norm (1.78±0.52). The mean score of negative coping strategies was 1.20±0.61, lower than the norm (1.59±0.66), both had significant statistical difference (P<0.001). Too much documents work, criticism, instrument equipment shortage, night shift, rank of professional were the influence factors about occupational stress to positive coping styles. Too much documents work, and medical insurance for ED nurses were the influential factors on occupational stress to negative coping styles. This study identified several factors associated with occupational stress in ED nurses. These results could be used to guide nurse managers of ED nurses to reduce work stress. The managers could pay more attention to the ED nurse's coping strategies which can further influence their health state and quality of nursing care. Reducing occupational stress and enhancing coping strategies are vital not only for encouraging nurses but also for the future of nursing development. PMID:26165974

  1. Leadership styles and theories.

    PubMed

    Giltinane, Charlotte Louise

    It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice. PMID:23905259

  2. Leadership styles and theories.

    PubMed

    Giltinane, Charlotte Louise

    It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice.

  3. Development of the Coping Flexibility Scale: Evidence for the Coping Flexibility Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2012-01-01

    "Coping flexibility" was defined as the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping) and produce and implement an alternative coping strategy (i.e., adaptive coping). The Coping Flexibility Scale (CFS) was developed on the basis of this definition. Five studies involving approximately 4,400 Japanese college…

  4. Coping Strategies and Locus of Control in Childhood Leukemia: A Multi-Center Research.

    PubMed

    Polizzi, Concetta; Fontana, Valentina; Perricone, Giovanna; D'Angelo, Paolo; Jankovic, Momcilo; Taormina, Calogero; Nichelli, Francesca; Burgio, Sofia

    2015-05-25

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a very distressing experience for children and requires a special effort of adjustment. Therefore, it seems to be crucial to explore coping resources for the experienced risk condition. In this sense, the study focuses on coping strategies and locus of control in children with ALL during the treatment phase, and on their possible relation. The correlation between children and maternal coping strategies is also investigated. The participants involved were an experimental group of 40 children with ALL and their mothers, and 30 healthy children as the control group. The tools used were: the Child Behavioral Style Scale and the Monitor-Blunter Style Scale to assess the coping strategies of children and mothers; the locus of Control Scale for Children to analyze the children's perception of controlling the events. Both children with ALL and their mothers resorted to monitoring coping strategies with a statistically significant rate of occurrence (children: M=17.8, SD=3.8; mothers: M=10.48, SD=3.4). The data concerning the locus of control show this tendency towards internal causes (M=53.1, SD=4.7). There were statistically significant correlations between monitoring coping strategies and external locus of control (r=0.400, P<0.05). The results gained from the control group are almost equivalent. The outcomes show several interesting resources of the psychological functioning of children as well as of their mothers.

  5. Coping Strategies and Locus of Control in Childhood Leukemia: A Multi-Center Research.

    PubMed

    Polizzi, Concetta; Fontana, Valentina; Perricone, Giovanna; D'Angelo, Paolo; Jankovic, Momcilo; Taormina, Calogero; Nichelli, Francesca; Burgio, Sofia

    2015-05-25

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a very distressing experience for children and requires a special effort of adjustment. Therefore, it seems to be crucial to explore coping resources for the experienced risk condition. In this sense, the study focuses on coping strategies and locus of control in children with ALL during the treatment phase, and on their possible relation. The correlation between children and maternal coping strategies is also investigated. The participants involved were an experimental group of 40 children with ALL and their mothers, and 30 healthy children as the control group. The tools used were: the Child Behavioral Style Scale and the Monitor-Blunter Style Scale to assess the coping strategies of children and mothers; the locus of Control Scale for Children to analyze the children's perception of controlling the events. Both children with ALL and their mothers resorted to monitoring coping strategies with a statistically significant rate of occurrence (children: M=17.8, SD=3.8; mothers: M=10.48, SD=3.4). The data concerning the locus of control show this tendency towards internal causes (M=53.1, SD=4.7). There were statistically significant correlations between monitoring coping strategies and external locus of control (r=0.400, P<0.05). The results gained from the control group are almost equivalent. The outcomes show several interesting resources of the psychological functioning of children as well as of their mothers. PMID:26266029

  6. Coping Strategies and Locus of Control in Childhood Leukemia: A Multi-Center Research

    PubMed Central

    Polizzi, Concetta; Fontana, Valentina; Perricone, Giovanna; D’Angelo, Paolo; Jankovic, Momcilo; Taormina, Calogero; Nichelli, Francesca; Burgio, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a very distressing experience for children and requires a special effort of adjustment. Therefore, it seems to be crucial to explore coping resources for the experienced risk condition. In this sense, the study focuses on coping strategies and locus of control in children with ALL during the treatment phase, and on their possible relation. The correlation between children and maternal coping strategies is also investigated. The participants involved were an experimental group of 40 children with ALL and their mothers, and 30 healthy children as the control group. The tools used were: the Child Behavioral Style Scale and the Monitor-Blunter Style Scale to assess the coping strategies of children and mothers; the locus of Control Scale for Children to analyze the children’s perception of controlling the events. Both children with ALL and their mothers resorted to monitoring coping strategies with a statistically significant rate of occurrence (children: M=17.8, SD=3.8; mothers: M=10.48, SD=3.4). The data concerning the locus of control show this tendency towards internal causes (M=53.1, SD=4.7). There were statistically significant correlations between monitoring coping strategies and external locus of control (r=0.400, P<0.05). The results gained from the control group are almost equivalent. The outcomes show several interesting resources of the psychological functioning of children as well as of their mothers. PMID:26266029

  7. Intergenerational Child Abuse and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robboy, Juliet; Anderson, Kristen G.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) but few have examined the intergenerational effects of poly-victimization and maladaptive coping. The purpose of this investigation was to examine patterns of maltreatment and maladaptive coping among second-generation CSA survivors. It is hypothesized that: (a) maternal…

  8. Coping Resources of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Allen L.

    Coping resources are what people bring to situations (as opposed to what they do) that enable them to deal with stressors more effectively, allow them to recover faster, or experience fewer or less intense symptoms upon exposure to stressors. The Coping Resources Inventory (CRI) measures resources in the following domains: cognitive, social,…

  9. Age Differences and Changes of Coping Behavior in Three Age Groups: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Kliegel, Matthias; Rott, Christoph; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With increasing age, older adults are more likely to be challenged by an increasing number of physical, functional and social losses. As a result, coping with losses becomes a central theme in very late life. This study investigated age differences and age changes in active behavioral, active cognitive and avoidance coping and related coping to…

  10. Coping strategies and self-stigma in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Holubova, Michaela; Prasko, Jan; Hruby, Radovan; Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Marackova, Marketa; Slepecky, Milos; Gubova, Terezia

    2016-01-01

    Background Maladaptive coping strategies may adversely disturb the overall functioning of people with mental disorders. Also, self-stigma is considered a maladaptive psychosocial phenomenon that can affect many areas of patient life. It has a negative impact on self-image, and may lead to dysphoria, social isolation, reduced adherence, using of negative coping strategies, and lower quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between coping strategies and self-stigma among persons with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. Subjects and methods A total of 104 clinically stable outpatients with chronic schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic and clinical data were recorded. Patients were examined by psychiatrists with the Stress Coping Style Questionnaire, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, and the Clinical Global Impression scale. Correlation and multiple-regression analyses were performed to discover contributing factors to self-stigma. Results Positive coping strategies were used by patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders to the same extent as in the healthy population. Negative coping strategies were overused by these patients. There were significant associations between self-stigma, severity of the disorder, and coping strategies in schizophrenia. The ability to use positive coping strategies was connected with lower self-stigma. Use of negative coping strategies predominantly increased the self-stigma of patients with schizophrenia. Conclusion This study revealed a significant association among self-stigma, severity of the disorder, and coping strategies in individuals suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Thinking about coping strategies and self-stigma in practice may play a significant role in understanding people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, especially for mental health professionals. PMID:27445463

  11. Differential Impact of Medical Status, Maternal Coping, and Marital Satisfaction on Coping with Childhood Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevon, Michael A.; And Others

    This study was conducted to examine the influence of medical, psychological, and familial factors on the coping of pediatric cancer patients. Participants were 36 pediatric cancer patients and their families under active treatment at Roswell Park Memorial Institute, a comprehensive cancer research and treatment center in Buffalo, New York. The…

  12. The Role of Religious Coping Strategies in Predicting Depression among a Sample of Women with Fertility Problems in Shiraz

    PubMed Central

    Aflakseir, Abdulaziz; Mahdiyar, Mansoureh

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the most common mental health problems among women with infertility problems is depression. Research has shown that religious beliefs and practices can help people to cope with difficult situations. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of different religious coping strategies in predicting depression in a group of infertile women in Shiraz. Methods: A total of 72 women with fertility problems were recruited from several private infertility clinics in Shiraz using convenience sampling. The participants completed the research questionnaires including Beck Depression Inventory and Religious Coping Scale. The Religious Coping Scale consists of five dimensions including practice, active, passive, benevolent reappraisal and negative religious coping. Descriptive statistics (frequency percentage, mean and standard deviation), Pearson’s correlation and simultaneous multiple regression analysis were used for data analysis using SPSS version 16. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The present study showed that about 30% of women with fertility problems experienced the symptoms of depression. The findings also indicated that the most commonly used religious coping strategy was practice religious coping, while the least commonly used religious coping strategies were passive and negative religious coping. The findings also showed that active religious coping, practice religious coping and benevolent reappraisal coping predicted depression reduction. Conclusion: This study highlights the effect of religious coping on depression reduction of women with fertility problems. In other words, women who used religious coping strategies were less likely to experience depression symptoms. PMID:27141467

  13. Coping With Droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaporozec, Alexander

    This book is a collection of selected papers from the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Droughts entitled “Drought Impact Control Technology,” held at the National Laboratory of Civil Engineering in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 1980. The editors of the book have chosen a nontraditional but successful approach to presenting the papers. Instead of including a verbatim proceedings of the institute, they assembled 21 papers presented by 14 of the institute's lecturers, reshaped and synthesized them, and supplemented them by five new papers that cover obvious gaps in topics. The result is enlightening reading and a more or less complete presentation of the subject. The edited material in the book was arranged around three central themes related to efforts needed to cope with or manage the droughts. In the process, the identity of individual contributors has been preserved.

  14. Coping with chronic social stress in mice: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/ sympathetic-adrenal-medullary axis activity, behavioral changes and effects of antalarmin treatment: implications for the study of stress-related psychopathologies.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Tejada, Joana; Arregi, Amaia; Gómez-Lázaro, Eneritz; Vegas, Oscar; Azpiroz, Arantza; Garmendia, Larraitz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the individual differences that lead to the development of psychopathological changes in response to chronic social stress. We also assessed the ability of an antagonist of the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptors to reverse the effects of stress. Male adult mice were exposed to repeated defeat experiences for 21 days using a sensorial contact model. After 18 days of defeat, two groups of subjects were established (active and passive), according to their behaviors during social confrontation. Antalarmin treatment was given for 4 and 6 days. The results corroborated previous data indicating that subjects who adopted a passive coping strategy had higher corticosterone levels after 21 days of defeat and decreased resting levels 3 days later. Moreover, they showed higher resting expression levels of hypothalamic CRH than their active counterparts. On day 24, the experimental animals were subjected to another social defeat to determine whether the stress response remained. The increase in corticosterone and hypothalamic CRH levels was similar for all of the stressed subjects, but the passive subjects also had a greater CRH response in the amygdala. Passive subjects had decreased levels of adrenal dopamine β-hydroxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase and plasma adrenaline compared to the active subjects, and lower plasma noradrenaline levels than manipulated controls. The passive profile of physiological changes in both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axes has been associated with changes related to mood disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. The active coping profile is characterized by similar corticosterone resting levels to controls and increased SAM activity. Both profiles showed alterations in the novel palatable and forced swimming tests, with the passive profile being the most vulnerable to the effects of stress in this last test. Pharmacological

  15. Physical Education Lesson Content and Teacher Style and Elementary Students' Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Stellino, Megan Babkes; Beets, Michael W.; Beighle, Aaron; Johnson, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity levels among American children are increasing at an alarming rate, due in part to a lack of regular physical activity (PA). Physical education (PE) is one way to facilitate student PA. The overarching PA goal for physical educators is 50% PA for students. Self-determination theory suggests that PA levels in PE and a variety of other…

  16. Assessment and management of chemical coping in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Del Fabbro, Egidio

    2014-06-01

    Chemical coping is a working definition that describes patients' intake of opioids on a scale that spans the range between normal nonaddictive opioid use for pain all the way to opioid addiction. Most patients will fall somewhere between the two extremes in using opioid analgesics to cope with their psychological or spiritual distress. The degree to which patients use their medications in a maladaptive manner will determine their susceptibility to drug toxicity and harm. When there are no obvious cancer-related causes for increased pain intensity, chemical coping and other patient-related factors such as delirium, somatization, and depression should be considered. As part of the initial evaluation of patients with cancer-related pain, a brief screening tool such as the CAGE questionnaire should be used to identify patients who may be at risk for chemical coping. Identifying patients at risk will allow clinicians to avoid unnecessary opioid toxicity, control pain, and improve quality of life. A structured approach for managing opioid use should be adopted, including standardized documentation, opioid treatment agreements, urine drug screens, frequent visits, and restricted quantities of breakthrough opioids. All patients at risk should receive brief motivational interviewing with an objective, nonjudgmental, and empathic style that includes personalized feedback, particularly about markers of risk or harm. For chemical copers approaching the addiction end of the spectrum, with evidence of compulsive use and destructive behavior, referral should be made to substance abuse specialists. PMID:24799476

  17. Style and Sociolinguistic Variation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Penelope, Ed.; Rickford, John R., Ed.

    This collection of papers by leading experts from a range of disciplines is divided into four sections. Section 1, "Anthropological Approaches," includes: (1) "'Style' as Distinctiveness: The Culture and Ideology of Linguistic Differentiation" (Judith T. Irvine); (2) "Variety, Style-Shifting, and Ideology" (Susan Ervin-Tripp); (3) "The Ethnography…

  18. Library Automation Style Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.

    This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…

  19. Executive function does not predict coping with symptoms in stable patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Maarten; Krabbendam, Lydia; Delespaul, Philippe; Huistra, Karola; Walraven, Wil; van Os, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Background Associations between coping with and control over psychotic symptoms were examined using the Maastricht Assessment of Coping Strategies-24, testing the hypothesis that the cognitive domain of executive functioning predicted quality and quantity of coping. Methods MACS-24 was administered to 32 individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. For each of 24 symptoms, experience of distress, type of coping and the resulting degree of perceived control were assessed. Coping types were reduced to two contrasting coping categories: symptomatic coping (SC) and non-symptomatic coping (NSC; combining active problem solving, passive illness behaviour, active problem avoiding, and passive problem avoiding). Cognitive functioning was assessed using the GIT (Groninger Intelligence Test), the Zoo map (BADS: Behavioural Assessment of Dysexecutive function), Stroop-test and Trail making. Results Cognitive function was not associated with frequency of coping, nor did cognitive function differentially predict SC or NSC. Cognitive function similarly was not associated with symptom distress or level of perceived control over the symptom. Conclusion There was no evidence that cognitive function predicts quantity or quality of coping with symptoms in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Variation in the realm of emotion regulation and social cognition may be more predictive of coping with psychotic symptoms. PMID:18510757

  20. Depression and ways of coping with stress: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Orzechowska, Agata; Zajączkowska, Marlena; Talarowska, Monika; Gałecki, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Background Coping with stress is defined as all activities undertaken by a human in a stressful situation. The effect of stress on depression, its role in triggering the subsequent phases of the disease, and the factors that mediate the stress-depression relationship become more and more often subjects of research in psychiatry and psychology. Factors important for the formation of depressive symptoms and disease progression are significantly associated with coping strategies used in the face of stress. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the most popular strategies of coping with stress in people with depression in comparison to healthy subjects. Material/Methods Initial research was carried on 80 patients aged from 20 to 66 years with a diagnosis of depression. The control group consisted of 30 healthy subjects aged 22 to 57 years. Analysis of the most popular strategies of coping with stress was performed with the Multiphasic Inventory for Measuring Coping (COPE) by Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub. Results In contrast with healthy people, patients with depression in stressful situations more often use strategies based on avoidance and denial and have more difficulties in finding positive aspects of stressful events. Conclusions Depression may be an important factor in the negative assessment of one’s own ability to cope with difficult situations and can aggravate a tendency to perceive stressful events as overwhelming. PMID:24270182

  1. Coping Behavior of International Late Adolescent Students in Selected Australian Educational Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Shahrill, Masitah; Mundia, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Using the Adolescent Coping Scale, ACS (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993) we surveyed 45 randomly selected foreign adolescents in Australian schools. The coping strategies used most by the participants were: focus on solving the problem; seeking relaxing diversions; focusing on the positive; seeking social support; worry; seeking to belong; investing in close friends; wishful thinking; and keep to self (Table 4). With regard to coping styles, the most widely used was the productive coping followed by non-productive coping while the least used style was reference to others (Table 4). In terms of both genders the four coping strategies used most often were: work hard to achieve; seeking relaxing diversions; focus on solving the problem; and focus on the positive (Table 5). The most noticeable gender difference was the use of the physical recreation coping strategy in which male students engaged more (Fig 1). The usage of four coping strategies (solving problem; work hard; focus on positive; and social support) was higher for students who have been away from family more than once as compared to those who have been away once only while the usage of seeking relaxing diversions was higher for the first timers (Table 6). No significant differences were obtained on the sample’s performance on the ACS subscales by gender (Table 7), frequency of leaving own country (Table 8), country of origin (Table 9), and length of stay in Australia (Table 11). However, foundation students scored significantly higher on the reference to others variable than their secondary school peers (Table 10). We recommended counseling for students with high support needs and further large-scale mixed-methods research to gain additional insights. PMID:24373267

  2. Coping behavior of international late adolescent students in selected Australian educational institutions.

    PubMed

    Shahrill, Masitah; Mundia, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Using the Adolescent Coping Scale, ACS (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993) we surveyed 45 randomly selected foreign adolescents in Australian schools. The coping strategies used most by the participants were: focus on solving the problem; seeking relaxing diversions; focusing on the positive; seeking social support; worry; seeking to belong; investing in close friends; wishful thinking; and keep to self (Table 4). With regard to coping styles, the most widely used was the productive coping followed by non-productive coping while the least used style was reference to others (Table 4). In terms of both genders the four coping strategies used most often were:  work hard to achieve; seeking relaxing diversions; focus on solving the problem; and focus on the positive (Table 5). The most noticeable gender difference was the use of the physical recreation coping strategy in which male students engaged more (Fig 1). The usage of four coping strategies (solving problem; work hard; focus on positive; and social support) was higher for students who have been away from family more than once as compared to those who have been away once only while the usage of seeking relaxing diversions was higher for the first timers (Table 6). No significant differences were obtained on the sample's performance on the ACS subscales by gender (Table 7), frequency of leaving own country (Table 8), country of origin (Table 9), and length of stay in Australia (Table 11). However, foundation students scored significantly higher on the reference to others variable than their secondary school peers (Table 10). We recommended counseling for students with high support needs and further large-scale mixed-methods research to gain additional insights. PMID:24373267

  3. [Snacking behavior among elementary and junior high school students and its relationship to stress-coping].

    PubMed

    Shimai, S; Kawabata, T; Nishioka, N; Haruki, T

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate current problems of snacking behavior and their relationship to stress coping among 1,486 fourth through ninth grade students from 10 elementary schools and six junior high schools. An anonymous self-completed questionnaire was utilized which included items about 1) selection of snack foods, which were classified into healthy, popular, complementary and western-style snacks, 2) problems of snacking behavior, which included external and emotional eating scores, and 3) stress coping scale. The stress coping scale contained two sub-scales; problem-focused and emotion-focused coping. The results were as follows: 1) Students who frequently went without breakfast did not select healthy foods, i.e., fruits and dairy products, but popular snacks, i.e., potato chips, pop corn and sweet beverage. 2) Both external and emotional eating scores increased by age in girls but was not apparent in boys. 3) Students who preferred either western-style or popular snacks showed higher score of external and emotional eating. 4) The score of problem-focused coping was positively correlated with preference for health snacks, but emotion-focused coping was positively correlated with external and emotional eating scores. The close relationship between snack food selection and problematic aspects of eating behavior suggests that modification of eating behavior is necessary to develop healthy snack habits in early adolescents. Also, it is interesting that snacking behavior is closely related to stress coping, which suggested the behavioral intervention for healthy eating habit should be included in development of stress-coping skills against various kinds of demands in life.

  4. DEPRESSIVE AND POSTTRAUMATIC SYMPTOMS AMONG WOMEN SEEKING PROTECTION ORDERS AGAINST INTIMATE PARTNERS: RELATIONS TO COPING STRATEGIES AND PERCEIVED RESPONSES TO ABUSE DISCLOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Flicker, Sharon M.; Cerulli, Catherine; Swogger, Marc T.; Talbot, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationship of abuse-specific coping strategies and perceived responses to abuse disclosure to symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress among 131 women seeking a protection order against an intimate partner. Disengagement, denial, and self-blame coping strategies, as well as blaming of the participant by others, were associated with greater depressive and posttraumatic symptoms. None of the strategies of coping or responses to abuse disclosure were negatively related to depressive or posttraumatic stress symptoms. Findings suggest that mental health providers may find it useful to address these negative styles of coping while public education campaigns should target victim-blaming. PMID:22735315

  5. Job control and social support as coping resources in job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Akihito; Shimazu, Miyuki; Odahara, Tsutomu

    2004-04-01

    This study examined the effects of active coping on job satisfaction in the context of the job demands-control-support model. Participants were 867 employees (811 men and 56 women, M age = 35.2 yr.) of a large electrical company in Japan. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis examined whether effects of active coping on job satisfaction might depend on the extent of coping resources, such as job control or social support (supervisor and coworker). Analysis showed that the effect of active coping on job satisfaction depended on the extent of coworkers' support, not on job control and supervisors' support.

  6. Modulatory effects of defense and coping on stress-induced changes in endocrine and immune parameters.

    PubMed

    Olff, M; Brosschot, J F; Godaert, G; Benschop, R J; Ballieux, R E; Heijnen, C J; de Smet, M B; Ursin, H

    1995-01-01

    We examined whether habitual defense and coping affect the response of hormones (ACTH. cortisol, prolactin. endorphins, and noradrenaline) and immune parameters (numbers of T cells. B cells. natural killer [NK] cells, and proliferative responses to mitogens or antigens) to an acute laboratory stressor (i.e., solving a 3-dimensional puzzle and explaining it to a confederate) in 86 male high school teachers. Defense and coping were assessed by Kragh's tachistoscopic Defense Mechanism Test (a measure of perceptual defense) and by 4 questionnaire-based coping styles assessing instrumental mastery-oriented coping, emotion-focused coping, cognitive defense, and defensive hostility. The laboratory stressor per se caused a relative increase in immunological (in particular NK cells) and endocrine (cortisol, prolactin) parameters. Defense and coping, however, significantly codetermined the response to the stressor. In particular, instrumental mastery-oriented coping and perceptual defense were related to stress-induced changes in numbers of B cells and in the pituitary-adrenal hormones. The results indicate that the impact of a mild psychological stressor on the immune and endocrine system depends to a considerable extent on the specific ways people deal with stressors.

  7. Hurricane! Coping With Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifland, Jonathan

    A new AGU book, Hurricane! Coping With Disaster, analyzes the progress made in hurricane science and recounts how advances in the field have affected the public's and the scientific community's understanding of these storms. The book explores the evolution of hurricane study, from the catastrophic strike in Galveston, Texas in 1900—still the worst natural disaster in United States history—to today's satellite and aircraft observations that track a storm's progress and monitor its strength. In this issue, Eos talks with Robert Simpson, the books' senior editor.Simpson has studied severe storms for more than 60 years, including conducting one of the first research flights through a hurricane in 1945. He was the founding director of the (U.S.) National Hurricane Research Project and has served as director of the National Hurricane Center. In collaboration with Herbert Saffir, Simpson helped design and implement the Saffir/Simpson damage potential scale that is widely used to identify potential damage from hurricanes.

  8. The relationship between perceived parenting styles and resilience during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kritzas, Natasha; Grobler, Adelene Ann

    2005-01-01

    Objective - The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between perceived parenting styles and resilience in adolescence. Method - The respondents were a sample of 360 English speaking subjects, with a mean age of 17.6 years. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to investigate this relationship. The criterion variables included sense of coherence and problem-focused, emotion-focused and dysfunctional coping strategies. The predictor variables included six scales. Results - Authoritative parenting provided the most significant contribution to the explanation of the variance in resilience for black and white adolescents, and both genders. Surprisingly, the findings suggest that there is a positive relationship between fathers' authoritarian styles and emotion-focused coping strategies in white adolescent learners. In contrast, other researchers found that authoritarian and harsh parental styles are closely related to psychological disturbance. Conclusions - The identified relationships between the criterion and predictor variables found in this study for both black and white adolescents of both genders have distinct and far-reaching implications for envisaged interventions. A future study might also investigate the present study qualitatively. Further research will be necessary to enhance and develop appropriate parenting styles that facilitate resilience in adolescent children. Making use of more sophisticated methodologies, paying greater attention to the interaction between internal and external circumstances and refining theories to make specific predictions about how input variables influence components, should be considered in future.

  9. Coping and Suicidality among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.; Carroll, Michelle R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of coping strategies employed by homeless youth upon suicidal ideation, suicide attempts on the streets, and feeling trapped/helpless. Coping strategies examined in the analysis included problem-focused and avoidant coping, along with several coping strategies identified in previous exploratory qualitative studies.…

  10. Validation of the Mindful Coping Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharaldsen, Kjersti B.; Bru, Edvin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop and validate a self-report measure of mindfulness and coping, the mindful coping scale (MCS). Dimensions of mindful coping were theoretically deduced from mindfulness theory and coping theory. The MCS was empirically evaluated by use of factor analyses, reliability testing and nomological network validation.…

  11. Novelty-seeking and avoidant coping strategies are associated with academic stress in Korean medical students.

    PubMed

    An, Hoyoung; Chung, Seockhoon; Park, Jangho; Kim, Seong-Yoon; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, Ki-Soo

    2012-12-30

    High levels of stress and depression in medical students is raising concern. In this study, we sought to identify coping strategies and other factors influencing academic stress in medical students. We enrolled 157 students from the University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Korea, in November, 2010. We used the Medical Stress Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory, Hamilton Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Coping Response Inventory to assess psychological parameters. We used Pearson's correlation and linear regression analyses to analyze the data. Novelty-seeking, self-directedness, cooperativeness, coping strategy, and depression scale scores all correlated significantly with stress level. Linear regression analysis indicated that students who are novelty-seeking, likely to use avoidant coping strategies, and unlikely to use active-cognitive and active-behavioral strategies tend to have higher stress levels. Reduction of stress in medical students may be achieved through evaluation of coping strategies and personality features and use of interventions to promote active coping strategies.

  12. Thinking Styles: Teaching and Learning Styles in Graduate Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Tricia A.; Lesh, Jennifer J.; Trocchio, Jennie S.; Wolman, Clara

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between two intellectual styles approaches: Sternberg's thinking styles of teachers and Felder and Silverman's learning styles. Ninety-five graduate students majoring in special education, reading, educational leadership and curriculum, and elementary education completed the Thinking Styles in Teaching…

  13. Thirst Is Associated with Suppression of Habenula Output and Active Stress Coping: Is there a Role for a Non-canonical Vasopressin-Glutamate Pathway?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Limei; Hernández, Vito S.; Vázquez-Juárez, Erika; Chay, Freya K.; Barrio, Rafael A.

    2016-01-01

    Water-homeostasis is a fundamental physiological process for terrestrial life. In vertebrates, thirst drives water intake, but the neuronal circuits that connect the physiology of water regulation with emotional context are poorly understood. Vasopressin (VP) is a prominent messenger in this circuit, as well as L-glutamate. We have investigated the role of a VP circuit and interaction between thirst and motivational behaviors evoked by life-threatening stimuli in rats. We demonstrate a direct pathway from hypothalamic paraventricular VP-expressing, glutamatergic magnocellular neurons to the medial division of lateral habenula (LHbM), a region containing GABAergic neurons. In vivo recording and juxtacellular labeling revealed that GABAergic neurons in the LHbM had locally branching axons, and received VP-positive axon terminal contacts on their dendrites. Water deprivation significantly reduced freezing and immobility behaviors evoked by innate fear and behavioral despair, respectively, accompanied by decreased Fos expression in the lateral habenula. Our results reveal a novel VP-expressing hypothalamus to the LHbM circuit that is likely to evoke GABA-mediated inhibition in the LHbM, which promotes escape behavior during stress coping. PMID:27065810

  14. Attributional Style as a Predictor of Academic Success for Students with Learning Disabilities and/or Attention Deficit Disorder in Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tominey, Matthew F.

    This report discusses a study of 31 postsecondary students (20 males and 11 females) with learning disabilities (LD) and/or with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that examined college achievement and attributional styles. Students completed a combined Academic Attributional Style and Coping with Academic Failures Questionnaire.…

  15. A study of the learning styles of undergraduate social work students.

    PubMed

    Massey, Margaret G; Kim, Suk-Hee; Mitchell, Courtney

    2011-05-01

    This study examines the learning styles of students in social work classes at Norfolk State University. Knowledge of learning styles can enhance the ability of faculty to build on student experiences and construct new learning opportunities. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory was administered to identify each student's dominate learning style. The theoretical underpinning is experiential learning, which supports the concept that learning styles are developed through experiences. The results indicated that diverging and accommodating learning styles occurred most often. Students with these styles learn best in classes where activities include lectures, role playing exercises, discussions, opportunities to practice skills, and reflection.

  16. Programming with Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, James

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the elements of programming style, considering capitalization, variables, constants, format, GOTO statements, user friendliness, and clarity. Although Pascal is used as the example, the information provided is applicable to any programming language. (JN)

  17. Supervision: Substance and Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellerman, Saul W.

    1976-01-01

    Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)

  18. Intermediate decollement activation in response to the basal friction variation and its effect on folding style in the Zagros fold-thrust belt, an analogue modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzipour-Saein, Ali; Koyi, Hemin

    2016-09-01

    Although the role of various basal and intermediate decollement levels on structural style is well documented individually in many folded terrains, the interaction between basal and intermediate decollements is poorly constrained. This study uses results of two scaled sand-box models shortened from one end to study the variation in structural development in response to varying basal friction and its consequent interaction with intermediate decollement horizons. Two models with similar incompetent intermediate decollement, but with different basal friction (with and without a thick basal decollement), were prepared analogous for the eastern and the western parts of the Razak basement fault in the Fars Region of the eastern part of the Zagros fold thrust belt (ZFTB). Combined results of scaled models with geological observations are used to argue that the basal decollement friction characteristics govern propagation of deformation front. In addition, model results, analogues to north-south direction, show that deformation complexity and disharmonic folding exist in the section where the intermediate decollement has been activated in response to the shortening without the basal decollement (throughout the western part of the Razak basement fault where less thickness of the Hormuz series as the basal decollement has been documented compared to its eastern part). In other words, the complexity in deformation is less portrayed along sections where basal friction beneath the model decreases (e.g. the eastern part of the Razak basement fault). We argue here that, in addition to other parameters (not presented in this study) interaction of intermediate decollement levels with basal decollement friction characteristics could explain decoupling between structures within the sedimentary column of the Fars Region of the eastern part of the Zagros fold thrust belt.

  19. Attitudes, Administrative Styles, and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, J. Stanley

    1984-01-01

    The literature on administrative style is reviewed. Attention is directed to four basic concepts of administrative style: (1) the structured, classical, traditional model; (2) the participatory or employee-involved operation; (3) a more behavioral scientific style; and (4) the situational or environmental style. These ideas are more fully…

  20. Children's Responses to Literary Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henze, Mary Vance

    This study undertook to determine (1) whether teaching sixth grade children elements of style would increase their pleasure in listening to "The Hobbit," (2) whether children who learned the most about style would respond the most positively to Tolkien's style, and (3) what children's preferences would be for selected examples of Tolkien's style.…