Science.gov

Sample records for active core height

  1. Effects of bridge exercise on trunk core muscle activity with respect to sling height and hip joint abduction and adduction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daehee; Park, Jungseo; Lee, Sangyong

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of bridge exercise on trunk core muscle activity with respect to sling height and hip joint abduction and adduction. [Subjects] Fifteen healthy adult males participated. [Methods] In the bridge exercise, the height of the sling was set low or high during hip joint abduction and adduction. Electromyography was used to compare the differences between the muscle activities of the transverse abdominis, rectus abdominis, and erector spinae muscles. [Results] The muscle activities of the transverse abdominis, rectus abdominis, and erector spinae were significantly higher in the high sling position. Furthermore, the activities of the transverse abdominis and erector spinae were significantly higher during hip joint adduction than abduction regardless of sling height. [Conclusion] A high sling height is the most effective intervention for increasing the muscle activities of the transverse abdominis and erector spinae muscles during hip joint adduction in a bridge exercise. PMID:26180366

  2. Is height a core geometric cue for navigation? Young children's use of height in reorientation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingfen; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Di; Shao, Yi

    2015-02-01

    With respect to reorientation, children older than 1.5 to 2 years can use geometric cues (distance and left/right sense). However, because previous studies have focused mainly on the plane geometric properties, little is known about the role of information with respect to vertical dimension in children's reorientation. The current study aimed to examine whether and how 3- and 4-year-old children use height information to search for a hidden toy when disoriented in a small enclosure. In a slant-ceiling rectangular room and a slant-ceiling square room, 4-year-olds were able to use height information to reorient and search for the toy in the correct corner, whereas 3-year-olds were not able to do so. Our results suggest that children can, at least by the age of 4 years, use height information and that height is not used as early as other geometric properties that are in the core geometry system for navigation.

  3. Is height a core geometric cue for navigation? Young children's use of height in reorientation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingfen; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Di; Shao, Yi

    2015-02-01

    With respect to reorientation, children older than 1.5 to 2 years can use geometric cues (distance and left/right sense). However, because previous studies have focused mainly on the plane geometric properties, little is known about the role of information with respect to vertical dimension in children's reorientation. The current study aimed to examine whether and how 3- and 4-year-old children use height information to search for a hidden toy when disoriented in a small enclosure. In a slant-ceiling rectangular room and a slant-ceiling square room, 4-year-olds were able to use height information to reorient and search for the toy in the correct corner, whereas 3-year-olds were not able to do so. Our results suggest that children can, at least by the age of 4 years, use height information and that height is not used as early as other geometric properties that are in the core geometry system for navigation. PMID:25462036

  4. Height of warm core in very severe cyclonic storms Phailin: INSAT-3D perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, S. Indira; Prasad, V. S.; Rajagopal, E. N.; Basu, Swati

    2016-05-01

    Warm core is the characteristic that distinguishes tropical cyclones from its extra tropical counter parts, where the center of the cyclone is warmer than its environment. Two of the most common variables used to characterize the warm core are its strength and height. The strength is given by the magnitude of maximum perturbation temperature and the height is the level where the maximum perturbation temperature occurs. INSAT-3D, India's advanced weather satellite, is the first geostationary sounder over India and the surrounding Oceanic regions. INSAT-3D has 18 channel sounder with a resolution of 10 km to profile the atmospheric temperature and humidity. Brightness Temperatures (Tbs) from INSAT-3D sounder channels are used to analyze the warm core structure of Tropical cyclone Phailin (8-14 October 2013) over the North Indian Ocean. Only when the system becomes very severe cyclonic system, when the eye of the cyclone is clearer (fully cloud free), the sounder channel Tbs showed multiple maxima, with strong primary maximum in the middle level (600-500 mb) and the secondary maximum in the upper level (300-250 mb), unlike the conventional belief suggested warm core existence at 250 mb. Due to the high resolution of (10 km) INSAT-3D sounder channels, compared to the Micro wave channels (AMSU-A of 50 km resolution), the warm core structure below 10 km of the atmosphere is well resolved.

  5. Optical fiber sensor having an active core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egalon, Claudio Oliveira (Inventor); Rogowski, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An optical fiber is provided. The fiber is comprised of an active fiber core which produces waves of light upon excitation. A factor ka is identified and increased until a desired improvement in power efficiency is obtained. The variable a is the radius of the active fiber core and k is defined as 2 pi/lambda wherein lambda is the wavelength of the light produced by the active fiber core. In one embodiment, the factor ka is increased until the power efficiency stabilizes. In addition to a bare fiber core embodiment, a two-stage fluorescent fiber is provided wherein an active cladding surrounds a portion of the active fiber core having an improved ka factor. The power efficiency of the embodiment is further improved by increasing a difference between the respective indices of refraction of the active cladding and the active fiber core.

  6. Quadriceps and hamstrings prelanding myoelectric activity during landing from different heights among male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    de Britto, Morgana Alves; Carpes, Felipe P; Koutras, Georgios; Pappas, Evangelos

    2014-08-01

    ACL tear is a major concern among athletes, coaches and sports scientists. More than taking the athlete away from training and competition, ACL tear is a risk factor for early-onset of knee osteoarthritis, and, therefore addressing strategies to avoid such injury is pertinent not only for competitive athletes, but for all physically active subjects. Imbalances in the prelanding myoelectric activity of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles have been linked to ACL injuries. We investigated the effect of landing from different heights on prelanding myoelectric activity of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles in recreational athletes. Thirty recreational athletes (15 male and 15 female) performed three bilateral drop jumps from two different heights; 20cm and 40cm while myoelectric activity of the vastus medialis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris and medial hamstrings were collected. When increasing the height of drop landing tasks prelanding normalized myoelectric activity of the quadriceps was increased by 15-20% but no significant changes were found for the hamstrings. Female athletes exhibited higher activity of the medial hamstrings compared to their male counterparts. We concluded that increasing the height of drop landing tasks is associated with increased myoelectric activity of the quadriceps but not the hamstrings in recreational athletes. These differences in muscle activity may be related to increased risk for ACL injury when the height is increased. Female athletes demonstrated higher recruitment of the medial hamstrings.

  7. 12 CFR 940.3 - Core mission activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Core mission activities. 940.3 Section 940.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MISSION CORE MISSION ACTIVITIES § 940.3 Core mission activities. The following Bank activities qualify as core mission activities:...

  8. IS ACTIVE REGION CORE VARIABILITY AGE DEPENDENT?

    SciTech Connect

    Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, Harry P.

    2012-12-10

    The presence of both steady and transient loops in active region cores has been reported from soft X-ray and extreme-ultraviolet observations of the solar corona. The relationship between the different loop populations, however, remains an open question. We present an investigation of the short-term variability of loops in the core of two active regions in the context of their long-term evolution. We take advantage of the nearly full Sun observations of STEREO and Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft to track these active regions as they rotate around the Sun multiple times. We then diagnose the variability of the active region cores at several instances of their lifetime using EIS/Hinode spectral capabilities. We inspect a broad range of temperatures, including for the first time spatially and temporally resolved images of Ca XIV and Ca XV lines. We find that the active region cores become fainter and steadier with time. The significant emission measure at high temperatures that is not correlated with a comparable increase at low temperatures suggests that high-frequency heating is viable. The presence, however, during the early stages, of an enhanced emission measure in the ''hot'' (3.0-4.5 MK) and ''cool'' (0.6-0.9 MK) components suggests that low-frequency heating also plays a significant role. Our results explain why there have been recent studies supporting both heating scenarios.

  9. Ballistic stretching increases flexibility and acute vertical jump height when combined with basketball activity.

    PubMed

    Woolstenhulme, Mandy T; Griffiths, Christine M; Woolstenhulme, Emily M; Parcell, Allen C

    2006-11-01

    Stretching is often included as part of a warm-up procedure for basketball activity. However, the efficacy of stretching with respect to sport performance has come into question. We determined the effects of 4 different warm-up protocols followed by 20 minutes of basketball activity on flexibility and vertical jump height. Subjects participated in 6 weeks (2 times per week) of warm-up and basketball activity. The warm-up groups participated in ballistic stretching, static stretching, sprinting, or basketball shooting (control group). We asked 3 questions. First, what effect does 6 weeks of warm-up exercise and basketball play have on both flexibility and vertical jump height? We measured sit and reach and vertical jump height before (week -1) and after (week 7) the 6 weeks. Flexibility increased for the ballistic, static, and sprint groups compared to the control group (p < 0.0001), while vertical jump height did not change for any of the groups. Our second question was what is the acute effect of each warm-up on vertical jump height? We measured vertical jump immediately after the warm-up on 4 separate occasions during the 6 weeks (at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6). Vertical jump height was not different for any group. Finally, our third question was what is the acute effect of each warm-up on vertical jump height following 20 minutes of basketball play? We measured vertical jump height immediately following 20 minutes of basketball play at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6. Only the ballistic stretching group demonstrated an acute increase in vertical jump 20 minutes after basketball play (p < 0.05). Coaches should consider using ballistic stretching as a warm-up for basketball play, as it is beneficial to vertical jump performance.

  10. Balance control and anti‐gravity muscle activity during the experience of fear at heights

    PubMed Central

    Wuehr, Max; Kugler, Guenter; Schniepp, Roman; Eckl, Maria; Pradhan, Cauchy; Jahn, Klaus; Huppert, Doreen; Brandt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fear of heights occurs when a visual stimulus causes the apprehension of losing balance and falling. A moderate form of visual height intolerance (vHI) affects about one third of the general population and has relevant consequences for the quality of life. A quantitative evaluation of balance mechanisms in persons susceptible to vHI during height exposure is missing. VHI‐related changes in postural control were assessed by center‐of‐pressure displacements and electromyographic recordings of selected leg, arm, and neck muscles in 16 subjects with vHI while standing at heights on an emergency balcony versus standing in the laboratory at ground level. Characteristics of open‐ and closed‐loop postural control were analyzed. Body sway and muscle activity parameters were correlated with the subjective estimates of fear at heights. During height exposure, (1) open‐loop control was disturbed by a higher diffusion activity (P < 0.001) and (2) the sensory feedback threshold for closed‐loop control was lowered (P < 0.010). Altered postural control was predominantly associated with increased co‐contraction of leg muscles. Body sway and leg and neck muscle co‐contraction correlated with the severity of subjective anxiety (P < 0.050). Alterations in postural control diminished if there were nearby stationary contrasts in the visual surrounding or if subjects stood with eyes closed. The performance of a cognitive dual task also improved impaired balance. Visual heights have two behavioral effects in vHI subjects: A change occurs in (1) open‐ and closed‐loop postural control strategy and (2) co‐contraction of anti‐gravity leg and neck muscles, both of which depend on the severity of evoked fear at heights. PMID:24744901

  11. Effect of habitat and foraging height on bat activity in the coastal plain of South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Jennifer, M.; Menzel, Michael A.; Kilgo, John C.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.; McCracken, Gary F.

    2005-07-01

    A comparison of bat activity levels in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina among 5 habitat types: forested riparian areas, clearcuts, young pine plantations, mature pine plantations and pine savannas, using time expansion radio-microphones and integrated detectors to simultaneously monitor bat activity at three heights in each habitat type.

  12. Effect of table top slope and height on body posture and muscular activity pattern.

    PubMed

    Hassaïne, M; Hamaoui, A; Zanone, P-G

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of table top slope and height on body posture and muscular activity pattern. Twelve asymptomatic participants performed a 5-min reading task while sitting, in six experimental conditions manipulating the table top slope (20° backward slope, no slope) and its height (low, medium, up). EMGs recordings were taken on 9 superficial muscles located at the trunk and shoulder level, and the angular positions of the head, trunk and pelvis were assessed using an inertial orientation system. Results revealed that the sloping table top was associated with a higher activity of deltoideus pars clavicularis (P<0.05) and a smaller flexion angle of the head (P<0.05). A tentative conclusion is that a sloping table top induces a more erect posture of the head and the neck, but entails an overload of the shoulder, which might be harmful on the long run. PMID:25267452

  13. Fixed Foot Balance Training Increases Rectus Femoris Activation During Landing and Jump Height in Recreationally Active Women

    PubMed Central

    Kean, Crystal O.; Behm, David G.; Young, Warren B.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of fixed foot and functionally directed balance training on static balance time, muscle activation during landing, vertical jump height and sprint time. Twenty-four recreationally active females were tested pre- and post-training (fixed foot balance training, n= 11, functionally directed balance training, n = 7 and control group, n = 6). Experimental subjects completed either fixed foot or functionally directed balance exercises 4 times/week for 6 weeks. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to assess preparatory and reactive muscle activity of the rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), and the soleus during one- and two-foot landings following a jump. Maximum vertical jump height, static balance and 20-meter sprint times were also examined. The fixed foot balance-training group showed a 33% improvement (p < 0.05) in static balance time and 9% improvement in jump height. Neither type of training improved sprint times. Further analysis revealed significant (p < 0.05) overall (data collapsed over groups and legs) increases in reactive RF activity when landing. Independently, the fixed foot balance group showed a 33% increase in reactive RF activity (p < 0.01). Overall, there was also significantly less reactive co-activation following training (p < 0.05). It appears that fixed foot balance training for recreationally active women may provide greater RF activity when landing and increased countermovement jump height. Key points Balance training increased rectus femoris EMG activity upon landing from a stride. Fixed foot balance training improved countermovement jump height. Neither fixed foot nor functionally directed balance training elicited changes in sprint times. PMID:24198691

  14. Arch-Taping Techniques for Altering Navicular Height and Plantar Pressures During Activity

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Tim; Simon, Janet; Docherty, Carrie L.

    2015-01-01

    Context Arch tapings have been used to support the arch by increasing navicular height. Few researchers have studied navicular height and plantar pressures after physical activity. Objective To determine if taping techniques effectively support the arch during exercise. Design Crossover study. Setting Athletic training research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Twenty-five individuals (13 men, 12 women; age = 20.0 ± 1.0 years, height = 172.3 ± 6.6 cm, mass = 70.1 ± 10.2 kg) with a navicular drop of more than 8 mm (12.9 ± 3.3 mm) volunteered. Intervention(s) All individuals participated in 3 days of testing, with 1 day for each tape condition: no tape, low dye, and navicular sling. On each testing day, navicular height and plantar pressures were measured at 5 intervals: baseline; posttape; and after 5, 10, and 15 minutes of running. The order of tape condition was counterbalanced. Main Outcome Measure(s) The dependent variables were navicular height in millimeters and plantar pressures in kilopascals. Plantar pressures were divided into 5 regions: medial forefoot, lateral forefoot, lateral midfoot, lateral rearfoot, and medial rearfoot. Separate repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted for each dependent variable. Results Navicular height was higher immediately after application of the navicular-sling condition (P = .004) but was reduced after 5 minutes of treadmill running (P = .12). We observed no differences from baseline to posttape for navicular height for the low-dye (P = .30) and no-tape conditions (P = .25). Both the low-dye and navicular-sling conditions increased plantar pressures in the lateral midfoot region compared with the no-tape condition. The low-dye condition created decreased pressure in the medial and lateral forefoot regions compared with the no-tape condition. All changes were identified immediately after application and were maintained during running. No changes were noted in plantar pressures for the no

  15. [Core muscle chains activation during core exercises determined by EMG-a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Rogan, Slavko; Riesen, Jan; Taeymans, Jan

    2014-10-15

    Good core muscles strength is essential for daily life and sports activities. However, the mechanism how core muscles may be effectively triggered by exercises is not yet precisely described in the literature. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the rate of activation as measured by electromyography of the ventral, lateral and dorsal core muscle chains during core (trunk) muscle exercises. A total of 16 studies were included. Exercises with a vertical starting position, such as the deadlift or squat activated significantly more core muscles than exercises in the horizontal initial position. PMID:25305118

  16. Is Radiologic Assessment of Alveolar Crest Height Useful to Monitor Periodontal Disease Activity?

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Hattan; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Hausmann, Ernest; Scannapieco, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary While the mainstay of periodontal assessment is clinical probing, radiographic assessment is also commonly employed and has the potential to provide facile quantitative information on the status of tooth-supporting bone. This article provides a brief review of standard methods to assess periodontal structures, including basic tenants of radiograph acquisition, assessment of alveolar crest levels, and typical patterns of bone loss seen in periodontal patients. Studies of the use of computer technology to objectively assess loss of alveolar crest from standardized and non-standardized radiographs are reviewed. Several recent developments in computer-assisted quantitation of alveolar crest height are described. Although probing measurements continue to be viewed as more practical than radiographic measurements, radiographic assessment can be made quantitative and likely easier and more precise than probing for routine assessment of periodontal disease activity. PMID:26427571

  17. Superficial shoulder muscle co-activations during lifting tasks: Influence of lifting height, weight and phase.

    PubMed

    Blache, Y; Dal Maso, F; Desmoulins, L; Plamondon, A; Begon, M

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the level of co-activation of the superficial shoulder muscles during lifting movement. Boxes containing three different loads (6, 12, and 18 kg) were lifted by fourteen subjects from the waist to shoulder or eye level. The 3D kinematics and electromyograms of the three deltoids, latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major were recorded. A musculoskeletal model was used to determine direction of the moment arm of these muscles. Finally an index of muscle co-activation named the muscle focus was used to evaluate the effects of lifting height, weight lifted and phase (pulling, lifting and dropping phases) on superficial shoulder muscle coactivation. The muscle focus was lower (more co-contraction) during the dropping phase compared to the two other phases (-13%, p<0.001). This was explained by greater muscle activations and by a change in the direction of the muscle moment arm as a function of glenohumeral joint position. Consequently, the function of the shoulder superficial muscles varied with respect to the glenohumeral joint position. To increase the superficial muscle coactivation during the dropping phase may be a solution to increase glenohumeral joint stiffness.

  18. Active laser radar (lidar) for measurement of corresponding height and reflectance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froehlich, Christoph; Mettenleiter, M.; Haertl, F.

    1997-08-01

    For the survey and inspection of environmental objects, a non-tactile, robust and precise imaging of height and depth is the basis sensor technology. For visual inspection,surface classification, and documentation purposes, however, additional information concerning reflectance of measured objects is necessary. High-speed acquisition of both geometric and visual information is achieved by means of an active laser radar, supporting consistent 3D height and 2D reflectance images. The laser radar is an optical-wavelength system, and is comparable to devices built by ERIM, Odetics, and Perceptron, measuring the range between sensor and target surfaces as well as the reflectance of the target surface, which corresponds to the magnitude of the back scattered laser energy. In contrast to these range sensing devices, the laser radar under consideration is designed for high speed and precise operation in both indoor and outdoor environments, emitting a minimum of near-IR laser energy. It integrates a laser range measurement system and a mechanical deflection system for 3D environmental measurements. This paper reports on design details of the laser radar for surface inspection tasks. It outlines the performance requirements and introduces the measurement principle. The hardware design, including the main modules, such as the laser head, the high frequency unit, the laser beam deflection system, and the digital signal processing unit are discussed.the signal processing unit consists of dedicated signal processors for real-time sensor data preprocessing as well as a sensor computer for high-level image analysis and feature extraction. The paper focuses on performance data of the system, including noise, drift over time, precision, and accuracy with measurements. It discuses the influences of ambient light, surface material of the target, and ambient temperature for range accuracy and range precision. Furthermore, experimental results from inspection of buildings, monuments

  19. The influence of seat height, trunk inclination and hip posture on the activity of the superior trapezius and longissimus.

    PubMed

    Bertolaccini, Guilherme da Silva; Nakajima, Rafael Kendi; Filho, Idinei Francisco Pires de Carvalho; Paschoarelli, Luis Carlos; Medola, Fausto Orsi

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] This study was aimed at investigating the influence of seat height and body posture on the activity of the superior trapezius and longissimus muscles. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty two healthy subjects were instructed to perform a total of eight different body postures, varying according three main factors: seat height (low and high seat); trunk inclination (upright and leaning forward at 45°); and the hips in abduction and adduction. Electromyography of the superior trapezius and longissimus was collected bilaterally, and the average values were obtained and compared across all the postures. [Results] The activity of the superior trapezius and longissimus significantly changes according to the seat height and trunk inclination. For both seat heights, sitting with trunk leaning forward resulted in a significant increase in the activity of both muscles. When sitting in a high seat and the trunk leaning forward, the superior trapezius activity was significantly reduced when compared to the same posture in a low seat. [Conclusion] This study contributes to the knowledge on the influence of the body posture and seat configuration on the activity of postural muscles. Reducing the biomechanical loads on the postural muscles must be targeted in order to improve users' comfort and safety. PMID:27313381

  20. Effects of mop handle height on shoulder muscle activity and perceived exertion during floor mopping using a figure eight method

    PubMed Central

    WALLIUS, Mari-Anne; RISSANEN, Saara M.; BRAGGE, Timo; VARTIAINEN, Paavo; KARJALAINEN, Pasi A.; RÄSÄNEN, Kimmo; JÄRVELIN-PASANEN, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of mop handle height on electromyographic (EMG) activities of the shoulder muscles and perceived exertion for the shoulder area during floor mopping using a figure eight method. An experimental study with 13 cleaners was conducted using surface EMG and category ratio (CR-10) scale. EMG activity was recorded unilaterally from the upper trapezius, infraspinatus, anterior and middle deltoid muscles. Each subject performed four trials of mopping and each trial consisted of using a different mop handle height (mop adjustment at the level of shoulder, chin, nose and eye) in randomized order. EMG data were normalized to a percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC). The muscle activities were assessed by estimating the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the amplitude probability distribution function (APDF) of the EMG signals and analysed by linear mixed model analysis. Results showed that shoulder muscle activity was significantly lower when the mop handle height was adjusted to shoulder level or chin level as compared to eye level. These findings were supported by subjective ratings of exertion. It seems that mop handle height adjustment between shoulder and chin level may be recommended as a basis for figure eight mopping. PMID:26423328

  1. Hydrophobic Core Flexibility Modulates Enzyme Activity in HIV-1 Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Seema; Cai, Yufeng; Nalam, Madhavi N.L.; Bolon, Daniel N.A.; Schiffer, Celia A.

    2012-09-11

    Human immunodeficiency virus Type-1 (HIV-1) protease is crucial for viral maturation and infectivity. Studies of protease dynamics suggest that the rearrangement of the hydrophobic core is essential for enzyme activity. Many mutations in the hydrophobic core are also associated with drug resistance and may modulate the core flexibility. To test the role of flexibility in protease activity, pairs of cysteines were introduced at the interfaces of flexible regions remote from the active site. Disulfide bond formation was confirmed by crystal structures and by alkylation of free cysteines and mass spectrometry. Oxidized and reduced crystal structures of these variants show the overall structure of the protease is retained. However, cross-linking the cysteines led to drastic loss in enzyme activity, which was regained upon reducing the disulfide cross-links. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that altered dynamics propagated throughout the enzyme from the engineered disulfide. Thus, altered flexibility within the hydrophobic core can modulate HIV-1 protease activity, supporting the hypothesis that drug resistant mutations distal from the active site can alter the balance between substrate turnover and inhibitor binding by modulating enzyme activity.

  2. Applications of MODIS Fluorescent Line Height Measurements to Monitor Water Quality Trends and Algal Bloom Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Andrew; Moreno-Mardinan, Max; Ryan, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in satellite and airborne remote sensing, such as improvements in sensor and algorithm calibrations, processing techniques and atmospheric correction procedures have provided for increased coverage of remote-sensing, ocean-color products for coastal regions. In particular, for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensor calibration updates, improved aerosol retrievals and new aerosol models has led to improved atmospheric correction algorithms for turbid waters and have improved the retrieval of ocean color in coastal waters. This has opened the way for studying ocean phenomena and processes at finer spatial scales, such as the interactions at the land-sea interface, trends in coastal water quality and algal blooms. Human population growth and changes in coastal management practices have brought about significant changes in the concentrations of organic and inorganic, particulate and dissolved substances entering the coastal ocean. There is increasing concern that these inputs have led to declines in water quality and have increase local concentrations of phytoplankton, which cause harmful algal blooms. In two case studies we present MODIS observations of fluorescence line height (FLH) to 1) assess trends in water quality for Tampa Bay, Florida and 2) illustrate seasonal and annual variability of algal bloom activity in Monterey Bay, California as well as document estuarine/riverine plume induced red tide events. In a comprehensive analysis of long term (2003-2011) in situ monitoring data and satellite imagery from Tampa Bay we assess the validity of the MODIS FLH product against chlorophyll-a and a suite of water quality parameters taken in a variety of conditions throughout a large optically complex estuarine system. A systematic analysis of sampling sites throughout the bay is undertaken to understand how the relationship between FLH and in situ chlorophyll-a responds to varying conditions and to develop a near decadal trend in

  3. In-core detector activation rate for a PWR assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Todosow, M.; Eisenhart, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    The in-core detector system is the principal source of information for determining relative assembly powers, and maximum fuel rod powers in a reactor core. The detector signals are used in conjunction with pre-calculated factors, and appropriate normalizations, to obtain measured power values. Considerable reliance is placed on the accuracy of in-core detector inferred power distributions in reactor operations, and in the verification of calculational methods. The objective of this study was to compare results from standard design codes for the in-core detector activation rate (and the fission rate distribution in an assembly), to results obtained from a detailed calculation performed with a continuous energy Monte Carlo program with ENDF/B-V nuclear data.

  4. Core Muscle Activity, Exercise Preference, and Perceived Exertion during Core Exercise with Elastic Resistance versus Machine.

    PubMed

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus D; Calatayud, Joaquin; Andersen, Lars L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate core muscle activity, exercise preferences, and perceived exertion during two selected core exercises performed with elastic resistance versus a conventional training machine. Methods. 17 untrained men aged 26-67 years participated in surface electromyography (EMG) measurements of five core muscles during torso-twists performed from left to right with elastic resistance and in the machine, respectively. The order of the exercises was randomized and each exercise consisted of 3 repetitions performed at a 10 RM load. EMG amplitude was normalized (nEMG) to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). Results. A higher right erector spinae activity in the elastic exercise compared with the machine exercise (50% [95% CI 36-64] versus 32% [95% CI 18-46] nEMG) was found. By contrast, the machine exercise, compared with the elastic exercise, showed higher left external oblique activity (77% [95% CI 64-90] versus 54% [95% CI 40-67] nEMG). For the rectus abdominis, right external oblique, and left erector spinae muscles there were no significant differences. Furthermore, 76% preferred the torso-twist with elastic resistance over the machine exercise. Perceived exertion (Borg CR10) was not significantly different between machine (5.8 [95% CI 4.88-6.72]) and elastic exercise (5.7 [95% CI 4.81-6.59]). Conclusion. Torso-twists using elastic resistance showed higher activity of the erector spinae, whereas torso-twist in the machine resulted in higher activity of the external oblique. For the remaining core muscles the two training modalities induced similar muscular activation. In spite of similar perceived exertion the majority of the participants preferred the exercise using elastic resistance.

  5. Prospective study of body mass index, height, physical activity and incidence of bladder cancer in US men and women.

    PubMed

    Holick, Crystal N; Giovannucci, Edward L; Stampfer, Meir J; Michaud, Dominique S

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated prospectively the association between body mass index (BMI), height, recreational physical activity and the risk of bladder cancer among US adults. Data were used from 2 ongoing cohorts, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and the Nurses' Health Study, with 3,542,012 years of follow-up and 866 incident bladder cancer cases (men = 507; women = 359) for the anthropometric analysis and 1,890,476 years of follow-up and 706 incident bladder cancer cases (men = 502; women = 204) for the physical activity analysis. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between BMI, height, physical activity and bladder cancer risk adjusting for age, pack-years of cigarette smoking and current smoking. Estimates from each cohort were pooled using a random-effects model. We observed no association between baseline BMI and bladder cancer risk, even when we compared a BMI of > or =30 kg/m(2) to a BMI of 18-22.9 kg/m(2) [pooled multivariate (MV) RR, 1.16; 95% CI: 0.89-1.52]. A weak, but statistically significant, association was observed for the same comparison after excluding bladder cancer cases diagnosed within the first 4 years of follow-up (pooled MV RR, 1.33; 95% CI: 1.01-1.76). Height was not related to bladder cancer risk (pooled MV RR, 0.82; 95% CI: 0.65-1.03, top vs. bottom quintile). Total recreational physical activity also was not associated with the risk of bladder cancer (pooled MV RR, 0.97; 95% CI: 0.77-1.24, top vs. bottom quintile). Our findings do not support a role for BMI, height or physical activity in bladder carcinogenesis.

  6. Effects of the height of shoe heels on muscle activation of cervical and lumbar spine in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kisu; Kim, Young; Chung, Yijung; Hwang, Sujin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different height of high heels on muscle activation of the paraspinalis cervicis and erector spinae in healthy young women. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy women were recruited in this study. To examine the effects of different heights of heels on muscle activation, the paraspinalis cervicis (cervical spine) and erector spinae (lumbar spine) were measured at the time of heel strike and toe off during gait on three different conditions (barefoot, 4 cm high heels, and 10 cm high heels). There are no previous trials or reports that have evaluated this approach in patients with chronic neck pain. [Results] A significant increase in muscle activation of the paraspinalis cervicis and erector spinae at heel strike and toe off (except that of the paraspinalis cervicis at toe off in healthy subjects) was observed in the under 10 cm high heel condition as, compared to that with barefoot condition, in all the subjects. [Conclusion] The height of the high heels affects to the activation demand of the paraspinalis cervicis and erector spinae in patients with neck pain. PMID:27134392

  7. Active core rewarming avoids bioelectrical impedance changes in postanesthetic patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Postoperative hypothermia is a common cause of complications in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Hypothermia is known to elicit electrophysiological, biochemical, and cellular alterations thus leading to changes in the active and passive membrane properties. These changes might influence the bioelectrical impedance (BI). Our aim was to determine whether the BI depends on the core temperature. Methods We studied 60 patients (52 female and 8 male) age 40 to 80 years with an ASA I-II classification that had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy under balanced inhalation anesthesia. The experimental group (n = 30) received active core rewarming during the transanesthetic and postanesthesic periods. The control group (n = 30) received passive external rewarming. The BI was recorded by using a 4-contact electrode system to collect dual sets of measurements in the deltoid muscle. The body temperature, hemodynamic variables, respiratory rate, blood-gas levels, biochemical parameters, and shivering were also measured. The Mann-Whitney unpaired t-test was used to determine the differences in shivering between each group at each measurement period. Measurements of body temperature, hemodynamics variables, respiratory rate, and BI were analyzed using the two-way repeated-measures ANOVA. Results The gradual decrease in the body temperature was followed by the BI increase over time. The highest BI values (95 ± 11 Ω) appeared when the lowest values of the temperature (35.5 ± 0.5°C) were reached. The active core rewarming kept the body temperature within the physiological range (over 36.5°C). This effect was accompanied by low stable values (68 ± 3 Ω) of BI. A significant decrease over time in the hemodynamic values, respiratory rate, and shivering was seen in the active core-rewarming group when compared with the controls. The temporal course of shivering was different from those of body temperatue and BI. The control patients showed a

  8. Nuclear factor Y regulates ancient budgerigar hepadnavirus core promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhongliang; Liu, Yanfeng; Luo, Mengjun; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jing; Liu, Wei; Pan, Shaokun; Xie, Youhua

    2016-09-16

    Endogenous viral elements (EVE) in animal genomes are the fossil records of ancient viruses and provide invaluable information on the origin and evolution of extant viruses. Extant hepadnaviruses include avihepadnaviruses of birds and orthohepadnaviruses of mammals. The core promoter (Cp) of hepadnaviruses is vital for viral gene expression and replication. We previously identified in the budgerigar genome two EVEs that contain the full-length genome of an ancient budgerigar hepadnavirus (eBHBV1 and eBHBV2). Here, we found eBHBV1 Cp and eBHBV2 Cp were active in several human and chicken cell lines. A region from nt -85 to -11 in eBHBV1 Cp was critical for the promoter activity. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a putative binding site of nuclear factor Y (NF-Y), a ubiquitous transcription factor, at nt -64 to -50 in eBHBV1 Cp. The NF-Y core binding site (ATTGG, nt -58 to -54) was essential for eBHBV1 Cp activity. The same results were obtained with eBHBV2 Cp and duck hepatitis B virus Cp. The subunit A of NF-Y (NF-YA) was recruited via the NF-Y core binding site to eBHBV1 Cp and upregulated the promoter activity. Finally, the NF-Y core binding site is conserved in the Cps of all the extant avihepadnaviruses but not of orthohepadnaviruses. Interestingly, a putative and functionally important NF-Y core binding site is located at nt -21 to -17 in the Cp of human hepatitis B virus. In conclusion, our findings have pinpointed an evolutionary conserved and functionally critical NF-Y binding element in the Cps of avihepadnaviruses.

  9. Nuclear factor Y regulates ancient budgerigar hepadnavirus core promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhongliang; Liu, Yanfeng; Luo, Mengjun; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jing; Liu, Wei; Pan, Shaokun; Xie, Youhua

    2016-09-16

    Endogenous viral elements (EVE) in animal genomes are the fossil records of ancient viruses and provide invaluable information on the origin and evolution of extant viruses. Extant hepadnaviruses include avihepadnaviruses of birds and orthohepadnaviruses of mammals. The core promoter (Cp) of hepadnaviruses is vital for viral gene expression and replication. We previously identified in the budgerigar genome two EVEs that contain the full-length genome of an ancient budgerigar hepadnavirus (eBHBV1 and eBHBV2). Here, we found eBHBV1 Cp and eBHBV2 Cp were active in several human and chicken cell lines. A region from nt -85 to -11 in eBHBV1 Cp was critical for the promoter activity. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a putative binding site of nuclear factor Y (NF-Y), a ubiquitous transcription factor, at nt -64 to -50 in eBHBV1 Cp. The NF-Y core binding site (ATTGG, nt -58 to -54) was essential for eBHBV1 Cp activity. The same results were obtained with eBHBV2 Cp and duck hepatitis B virus Cp. The subunit A of NF-Y (NF-YA) was recruited via the NF-Y core binding site to eBHBV1 Cp and upregulated the promoter activity. Finally, the NF-Y core binding site is conserved in the Cps of all the extant avihepadnaviruses but not of orthohepadnaviruses. Interestingly, a putative and functionally important NF-Y core binding site is located at nt -21 to -17 in the Cp of human hepatitis B virus. In conclusion, our findings have pinpointed an evolutionary conserved and functionally critical NF-Y binding element in the Cps of avihepadnaviruses. PMID:27501758

  10. Extended active space CASSCF/MRSD CI calculations of the barrier height for the reaction O + H2 yields OH + H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1987-01-01

    The convergence of the barrier height for the O + H2 yields OH + H reaction is studied as a function of the size of the active space in the CASSCF calculation and the size of the basis set. The basis set employed in this study is described. The sources of the differences between the POL-CI and MRSD-CI calculations for barrier height are examined. It is observed that the barrier height is rapidly convergent with respect to the expansion of the active space. The effects of adding active orbitals on the barrier height are investigated. The barrier height estimated from corrected MRSD-CI data is 12.4 kcal/mol.

  11. Emission Measure Distribution and Heating of Two Active Region Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer aboard Hinode, we have studied the coronal plasma in the core of two active regions. Concentrating on the area between opposite polarity moss, we found emission measure distributions having an approximate power-law form EM/T(exp 2.4) from log T = 5.55 up to a peak at log T = 6.57. The observations are explained extremely well by a simple nanoflare model. However, in the absence of additional constraints, the observations could possibly also be explained by steady heating.

  12. Therapeutic activity of modified U1 core spliceosomal particles

    PubMed Central

    Rogalska, Malgorzata Ewa; Tajnik, Mojca; Licastro, Danilo; Bussani, Erica; Camparini, Luca; Mattioli, Chiara; Pagani, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Modified U1 snRNAs bound to intronic sequences downstream of the 5′ splice site correct exon skipping caused by different types of mutations. Here we evaluate the therapeutic activity and structural requirements of these exon-specific U1 snRNA (ExSpeU1) particles. In a severe spinal muscular atrophy, mouse model, ExSpeU1, introduced by germline transgenesis, increases SMN2 exon 7 inclusion, SMN protein production and extends life span. In vitro, RNA mutant analysis and silencing experiments show that while U1A protein is dispensable, the 70K and stem loop IV elements mediate most of the splicing rescue activity through improvement of exon and intron definition. Our findings indicate that precise engineering of the U1 core spliceosomal RNA particle has therapeutic potential in pathologies associated with exon-skipping mutations. PMID:27041075

  13. Therapeutic activity of modified U1 core spliceosomal particles.

    PubMed

    Rogalska, Malgorzata Ewa; Tajnik, Mojca; Licastro, Danilo; Bussani, Erica; Camparini, Luca; Mattioli, Chiara; Pagani, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Modified U1 snRNAs bound to intronic sequences downstream of the 5' splice site correct exon skipping caused by different types of mutations. Here we evaluate the therapeutic activity and structural requirements of these exon-specific U1 snRNA (ExSpeU1) particles. In a severe spinal muscular atrophy, mouse model, ExSpeU1, introduced by germline transgenesis, increases SMN2 exon 7 inclusion, SMN protein production and extends life span. In vitro, RNA mutant analysis and silencing experiments show that while U1A protein is dispensable, the 70K and stem loop IV elements mediate most of the splicing rescue activity through improvement of exon and intron definition. Our findings indicate that precise engineering of the U1 core spliceosomal RNA particle has therapeutic potential in pathologies associated with exon-skipping mutations. PMID:27041075

  14. Nucleus accumbens core lesions enhance two-way active avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, Nina T.; Kashtelyan, Vadim; Burton, Amanda C.; Bissonette, Gregory B.; Roesch, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of work examining nucleus accumbens core (NAc) has focused on functions pertaining to behaviors guided by appetitive outcomes. These studies have pointed to NAc as being critical for motivating behavior toward desirable outcomes. For example, we have recently shown that lesions of NAc impaired performance on a reward-guided decision-making task that required rats to choose between differently valued rewards. Unfortunately, much less is known about the role that NAc plays in motivating behavior when aversive outcomes are predicted. To address this issue we asked if NAc lesions impact performance on a two-way active avoidance task in which rats must learn to shuttle back and forth in a behavioral training box in order to avoid a footshock predicted by an auditory tone. Although bilateral NAc lesions initially impaired reward-guided decision-making, we found that the same lesions improved acquisition and retention of two-way active avoidance. PMID:24275320

  15. International renal-cell cancer study. III. Role of weight, height, physical activity, and use of amphetamines.

    PubMed

    Mellemgaard, A; Lindblad, P; Schlehofer, B; Bergström, R; Mandel, J S; McCredie, M; McLaughlin, J K; Niwa, S; Odaka, N; Pommer, W

    1995-01-27

    Although numerous studies have identified obesity or high relative weight as a risk factor for renal-cell cancer in women, the degree to which this effect is present in men remains unclear. A multicenter population-based case-control study concerning incident cases of histologically verified renal-cell cancer (n = 1,732) and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 2,309) was conducted in Australia, Denmark, Germany (2 centers), Sweden and the United States. Relative weight was estimated by the body mass index, and the association between this factor and other factors, such as height, physical activity and use of amphetamines, was measured by the relative risk estimated in logistic regression models. Body mass index was found to be a risk factor among women and, to a lesser extent, among men. A 3-fold increased risk (RR = 3.6, 95% CI = 2.3-5.7) was observed for women with a relative weight in the top 5% compared with those in the lowest quartile. Rate of weight change (estimated as weight change per annum in kilograms) appeared to be an independent risk factor among women but not among men. Physical activity and height were unrelated to risk of renal-cell cancer regardless of level of BMI, while use of amphetamines was associated with an increased risk among men, although no dose or duration effect was seen. Our findings verify the link between high relative weight and risk of renal-cell cancer, particularly among women. The mechanism that underlies this association is, however, still unclear, although the rate of weight change may play a role.

  16. Seven-core active fibre for application in telecommunication satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipowicz, Marta; Napierała, Marek; Murawski, Michał; Ostrowski, Łukasz; Szostkiewicz, Łukasz; Szymański, Michał; Tenderenda, Tadeusz; Anders, Krzysztof; Piramidowicz, Ryszard; Wójcik, Grzegorz; Makara, Mariusz; Poturaj, Krzysztof; Mergo, Paweł; Nasiłowski, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    The use of optical elements and other photonic components makes it possible to overcome telecommunication satellite's bottleneck problems such as size and weight reduction. Despite the unquestionable potential of such elements, nowadays they are not widely used in systems operating in space. This is due to many factors, including the fact that space radiation has disruptive influence on optical fibre. Namely it introduces additional radiation induced attenuation (RIA) that significantly lowers efficiency of optical fibre based systems. However, there is a possibility to produce radiation-hardened (rad-hard) components. One of them is seven core erbium-doped active fibre (MC-EDF) for fibre amplifiers in satellites that we have been developing. In this paper we present a detailed description of seven core structure design as well as experimental results. We report that average gain of 20 dB in C-band with noise figure of 5.8 dB was obtained. We also confirmed that low crosstalk value for a multicore fibre amplifier based on our fibre can be achieved.

  17. Active Heave-Compensated Coring On The New Jersey Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, D. L.; Pardey, M.; Austin, J. A.; Goff, J. A.; Alexander, C.; Christensen, B. A.; Gulick, S. P.; Fulthorpe, C. S.; Nordfjord, S.; Sommerfield, C.; Venherm, C.

    2003-12-01

    The continental shelves are of obvious scientific and strategic importance. However, the ability to cost-effectively collect core samples of continental shelf sediments has been limited by technical difficulties. Many sites of scientific interest are too shallow to be drilled by large drill ships, and they are too deep to be drilled economically from jack-up platforms. DOSECC has developed an Active Heave Compensated (AHC800) drilling system under sponsorship of the Office of Naval Research to overcome these obstacles by building a small active heave compensated drilling rig that can be used to collect high-quality core from selected vessels of opportunity. The AHC800 drilling rig is designed to collect continuous core to a total drill string length of 800 m. Water depths of 200 m and less are optimal; however, with some modification operation in deeper water is possible. The AHC800 senses vessel heave using a constantly tensioned low-stretch taut line attached to a seafloor weight. A linear position transducer is attached to this taut line and through the data acquisition system, the ship's distance from the bottom is communicated to the heave compensation computer running Labview RT operating system and object-based software language. This real-time control system is used to achieve a 10-ms control loop for both data gathering and output functions. The Labview RT system continuously controls two hydraulic cylinders that keep the heave carriage and the drill string at the same reference distance from the bottom. The AHC800 system was used on the R/V Knorr on the New Jersey continental shelf in water depths from 74 to 130 m from 25 Sep to 15 Oct 2002. The AHC800 system performed up to and beyond its design specifications. The rig was designed to compensate for 2.44 m of heave with an 8 s period. However, the Knorr's response was a 6 s period resulting in a significant increase in the required acceleration as well as a faster response time for the system as a whole

  18. Global model of the F2 layer peak height for low solar activity based on GPS radio-occultation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubin, V. N.; Karpachev, A. T.; Tsybulya, K. G.

    2013-11-01

    We propose a global median model SMF2 (Satellite Model of the F2 layer) of the ionospheric F2-layer height maximum (hmF2), based on GPS radio-occultation data for low solar activity periods (F10.7A<80). The model utilizes data provided by GPS receivers onboard satellites CHAMP (~100,000 hmF2 values), GRACE (~70,000) and COSMIC (~2,000,000). The data were preprocessed to remove cases where the absolute maximum of the electron density lies outside the F2 region. Ground-based ionospheric sounding data were used for comparison and validation. Spatial dependence of hmF2 is modeled by a Legendre-function expansion. Temporal dependence, as a function of Universal Time (UT), is described by a Fourier expansion. Inputs of the model are: geographical coordinates, month and F10.7A solar activity index. The model is designed for quiet geomagnetic conditions (Kр=1-2), typical for low solar activity. SMF2 agrees well with the International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI) in those regions, where the ground-based ionosonde network is dense. Maximal difference between the models is found in the equatorial belt, over the oceans and the polar caps. Standard deviations of the radio-occultation and Digisonde data from the predicted SMF2 median are 10-16 km for all seasons, against 13-29 km for IRI-2012. Average relative deviations are 3-4 times less than for IRI, 3-4% against 9-12%. Therefore, the proposed hmF2 model is more accurate than IRI-2012.

  19. Measuring Height.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoettle, Kenneth

    1982-01-01

    A school building was originally used while investigating the acceleration of a free-falling body due to gravity. Because it was difficult to measure time accurately over such a short distance, an alternative method using a rocket was used. Materials needed and a description of the activity are provided. (Author/JN)

  20. 40 CFR 35.6225 - Activities eligible for funding under Core Program Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Core Program Cooperative Agreements. 35.6225 Section 35.6225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Core Program Cooperative Agreements § 35.6225 Activities eligible for funding under Core Program Cooperative Agreements. (a) To be eligible for...

  1. Who Can You Turn to? Tie Activation within Core Business Discussion Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzulli, Linda A.; Aldrich, Howard

    2005-01-01

    We examine the connection between personal network characteristics and the activation of ties for access to resources during routine times. We focus on factors affecting business owners' use of their core network ties to obtain legal, loan, financial and expert advice. Owners rely more on core business ties when their core networks contain a high…

  2. Predicting Activation of Experiments Inside the Annular Core Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Joseph Isaac

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this thesis is to create a program to quickly estimate the radioactivity and decay of experiments conducted inside of the Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National Laboratories and eliminate the need for users to write code. This is achieved by model the neutron fluxes in the reactor’s central cavity where experiments are conducted for 4 different neutron spectra using MCNP. The desired neutron spectrum, experiment material composition, and reactor power level are then input into CINDER2008 burnup code to obtain activation and decay information for every isotope generated. DREAD creates all of the files required for CINDER2008 through user selected inputs in a graphical user interface and executes the program for the user and displays the resulting estimation for dose rate at various distances. The DREAD program was validated by weighing and measuring various experiments in the different spectra and then collecting dose rate information after they were irradiated and comparing it to the dose rates that DREAD predicted. The program provides results with an average of 17% higher estimates than the actual values and takes seconds to execute.

  3. Combined multi-body and finite element investigation of the effect of the seat height on acetabular implant stability during the activity of getting up.

    PubMed

    Kunze, Mario; Schaller, Andreas; Steinke, Hanno; Scholz, Roger; Voigt, Christian

    2012-02-01

    An important question in assessing the stability of a total hip arthroplasty is the effect of daily physical activities of patients. The aim of this study is to examine these effects when standing up from three different seat heights. A musculoskeletal body model has been modified to simulate the three different seat heights. The calculated muscle forces have been transferred to a finite element model of a pelvis. The pelvis model was created from a hemipelvis CT dataset. As an implant component, a metal socket with a polyethylene insert was used. A primary implantation situation was modelled. For the analysed patient activities the highest hip contact forces and the highest micromotions occur at the beginning of the motion. The results of this study show that standing up from a certain seat height can have a significant influence on the micromotions in the implant-bone interface.

  4. Extended active space CASSCF/MRSD CI calculations of the barrier height for the reaction O+H/sub 2/. -->. OH+H

    SciTech Connect

    Walch, S.P.

    1987-05-15

    The convergence of the barrier height for the O+H/sub 2/..-->..OH+H reaction has been studied as a function of the size of the active space and basis set completeness. The barrier height is rapidly convergent with respect to expansion of the active space. Addition of 2p..-->..2p' correlation terms to the active space lowers the barrier to the O+H/sub 2/ reaction by about 2.0 kcal/mol, but addition of 3d and other terms has little additional effect. Multireference singles and doubles contracted CI plus Davidson's correction calculations using a (5s5p3d2f1g/4s3p2d1f) basis set with a 5sigma2..pi.. active space lead to a barrier height of 12.7 kcal/mol. Including an estimate of the CI contraction error and basis set superposition error leads to 12.4 kcal/mol as the best estimate of the barrier height.

  5. Extended active space CASSCF/MRSD CI calculations of the barrier height for the reaction: O + H2 yields OH + H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1986-01-01

    The convergence of the barrier height for the O + H2 yields OH + H reaction was studied as a function of the size of the active space and basis set completeness. The barrier height is rapidly convergent with respect to expansion of the active space. Addition of 2p yields 2p' correlation terms to the active space lowers the barrier to the O + H2 reaction by about 2.0 kcal/mole, but addition of 3d and other terms has little additional effect. Multireference singles and doubles contracted CI plus Davidson's correction calculations using a (5s5p3d2f1g/4s3p2d1f) basis set with a 5 sigma 2 pi active space lead to a barrier height of 12.7 kcal/mole. Including an estimate of the CI contraction error and basis set superposition error leads to 12.4 kcal/mole as the best estimate of the barrier height.

  6. Electrocatalytic activity of core/shell magnetic nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Tian, Rong; Chen, Xiaojun; Xu, Xiaolong; Yao, Cheng

    2014-10-15

    Electrically active magnetic nanocomposites (EAMNCs), Au nanoparticles/self-doped polyaniline@Fe3O4 (AuNPs/SPAN@Fe3O4) with well-defined core/shell structure, were first synthesized by a simple method. The morphology and composition of the as-synthesized AuNPs/SPAN@Fe3O4 nanocomposite have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-AuNPs/SPAN@Fe3O4 biocomposites were immobilized onto the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode to construct an amperometric hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) biosensor. The effects of HRP dosage, solution pH, and the working potential on the current response toward H2O2 reduction were optimized to obtain the maximal sensitivity. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed biosensor exhibited a linear calibration response in the range of 0.05 to 0.35mM and 0.35 to 1.85mM, with a detection limit of 0.01mM (signal-to-noise ratio=3). The modified electrode could virtually eliminate the interference of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) during the detection of H2O2. Furthermore, the biosensor was applied to detect H2O2 concentration in real samples, which showed acceptable accuracy with the traditional potassium permanganate titration. PMID:25009106

  7. Single-domain intrabodies against hepatitis C virus core inhibit viral propagation and core-induced NFκB activation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ryosuke; Saito, Kenji; Matsuda, Mami; Sato, Mitsuru; Kanegae, Yumi; Shi, Guoli; Watashi, Koichi; Aizaki, Hideki; Chiba, Joe; Saito, Izumu; Wakita, Takaji; Suzuki, Tetsuro

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core plays a key role in viral particle formation and is involved in viral pathogenesis. Here, constructs for single-domain intrabodies consisting of variable regions derived from mouse mAbs against HCV core were established. Expressed single-domain intrabodies were shown to bind to HCV core, and inhibit the growth of cell culture-produced HCV derived from JFH-1 (genotype 2a) and a TH (genotype 1b)/JFH-1 chimera. Adenovirus vectors expressing intrabodies were also capable of reducing HCV propagation. Intrabody expression did not affect viral entry or genome replication of single-round infectious trans-complemented HCV particles. However, intrabody expression reduced intracellular and extracellular infectious titres in CD81-defective Huh7-25 cells transfected with the HCV genome, suggesting that these intrabodies impair HCV assembly. Furthermore, intrabody expression suppressed HCV core-induced NFκB promoter activity. These intrabodies may therefore serve as tools for elucidating the role of core in HCV pathogenesis. PMID:26861864

  8. Fast isolation of highly active photosystem II core complexes from spinach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-Gai; Xu, Tian-Hua; Liu, Cheng; Yang, Chun-Hong

    2010-09-01

    Purification of photosystem II (PSII) core complexes is a time-consuming and low-efficiency process. In order to isolate pure and active PSII core complexes in large amounts, we have developed a fast method to isolate highly active monomeric and dimeric PSII core complexes from spinach leaves by using sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. By using a vertical rotor the process was completed significantly faster compared with a swing-out rotor. In order to keep the core complexes in high activity, the whole isolation procedure was performed in the presence of glycine betain and pH at 6.3. The isolated pigment-protein complexes were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, absorption spectroscopy, 77 K fluorescence spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. Our results show that this method is a better choice for quick and efficient isolation of functionally active PSII core complexes. PMID:20738723

  9. Lipoxin A4 Stimulates Calcium-Activated Chloride Currents and Increases Airway Surface Liquid Height in Normal and Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alawi, Mazen; Costello, Richard W.; McNally, Paul; Chiron, Raphaël; Harvey, Brian J.; Urbach, Valérie

    2012-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease characterised by a deficit in epithelial Cl− secretion which in the lung leads to airway dehydration and a reduced Airway Surface Liquid (ASL) height. The endogenous lipoxin LXA4 is a member of the newly identified eicosanoids playing a key role in ending the inflammatory process. Levels of LXA4 are reported to be decreased in the airways of patients with CF. We have previously shown that in normal human bronchial epithelial cells, LXA4 produced a rapid and transient increase in intracellular Ca2+. We have investigated, the effect of LXA4 on Cl− secretion and the functional consequences on ASL generation in bronchial epithelial cells obtained from CF and non-CF patient biopsies and in bronchial epithelial cell lines. We found that LXA4 stimulated a rapid intracellular Ca2+ increase in all of the different CF bronchial epithelial cells tested. In non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia, LXA4 stimulated whole-cell Cl− currents which were inhibited by NPPB (calcium-activated Cl− channel inhibitor), BAPTA-AM (chelator of intracellular Ca2+) but not by CFTRinh-172 (CFTR inhibitor). We found, using confocal imaging, that LXA4 increased the ASL height in non-CF and in CF airway bronchial epithelia. The LXA4 effect on ASL height was sensitive to bumetanide, an inhibitor of transepithelial Cl− secretion. The LXA4 stimulation of intracellular Ca2+, whole-cell Cl− currents, conductances and ASL height were inhibited by Boc-2, a specific antagonist of the ALX/FPR2 receptor. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence for a novel role of LXA4 in the stimulation of intracellular Ca2+ signalling leading to Ca2+-activated Cl− secretion and enhanced ASL height in non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia. PMID:22662206

  10. Association of adult height and leg length with fasting plasma cortisol concentrations: evidence for an effect of normal variation in adrenocortical activity on growth.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D I W; Syddall, Holly E; Cooper, Cyrus; Hanson, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    We have evaluated the relationship between activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and adult height in adults recruited from the UK Hertfordshire Cohort Study. In a sample of 1,354 individuals, we found that height fell by 0.67 cm (95% CI 0.34-1.0) per SD (114 nmol/l) increase in fasting plasma cortisol concentrations. The association was continuous across the range of cortisol concentrations and was independent of the levels of corticosteroid binding globulin. It was of similar magnitude in men and women. In a subsample of the study available data on standing and sitting height was used to estimate trunk and leg length. Fasting plasma cortisol concentrations were found to have a much greater impact on leg length than trunk length. These findings suggest that physiological variations in adrenocortical glucocorticoid secretion in humans affect adult height. They also raise the possibility that the HPA axis may be involved in mediating resource allocation decisions and trade-offs during development perhaps by limiting physical growth to enable other competing processes.

  11. Teaching the Common Core Math Standards with Hands-On Activities, Grades 6-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muschla, Judith A.; Muschla, Gary Robert; Muschla, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The new Common Core State Standards for Mathematics have been formulated to provide students with instruction that will help them acquire a thorough knowledge of math at their grade level, which will in turn enable them to move on to higher mathematics with competence and confidence. "Hands-on Activities for Teaching the Common Core Math…

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF HEEL HEIGHT ON VERTICAL GROUND REACTION FORCE DURING LANDING TASKS IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE AND ATHLETIC COLLEGIATE FEMALES

    PubMed Central

    Carcia, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if heel height alters vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) when landing from a forward hop or drop landing. Background: Increased vGRF during landing are theorized to increase ACL injury risk in female athletes. Methods: Fifty collegiate females performed two single‐limb landing tasks while wearing heel lifts of three different sizes (0, 12 & 24 mm) attached to the bottom of a athletic shoe. Using a force plate, peak vGRF at landing was examined. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine the influence of heel height on the dependent measures. Results: Forward hop task‐ Peak vGRF (normalized for body mass) with 0 mm, 12 mm, and 24 mm lifts were 2.613±0.498, 2.616±0.497 and 2.495±0.518% BW, respectively. Significant differences were noted between 0 and 24 mm lift (p<.001) and 12 and 24 mm lifts (p=.004), but not between the 0 and 12 mm conditions (p=.927). Jump‐landing task‐ No significant differences were found in peak vGRF (p=.192) between any of the heel lift conditions. Conclusions: The addition of a 24 mm heel lift to the bottom of a sneaker significantly alters peak vGRF upon landing from a unilateral forward hop but not from a jumping maneuver. PMID:23439490

  13. Height ridges of oriented medialness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furst, Jacob David

    Shape analysis of objects is an important aspect of medical image processing. Information gained from shape analysis can be used for object segmentation, object- based registration and object visualization. One shape analysis tool is the core, defined to be a height ridge of a medial strength measure made on an image. In this dissertation I present 3D cores, defined here to be optimal scale-orientation height ridges of oriented medial strength measurements. This dissertation covers (1)a medial strength measurement, Blum- like medialness, that is robust, efficient, and insensitive to intrafigural interference, (2)a new definition for a ridge, the optimal parameter height ridge, and its properties, and (3)an algorithm, Marching Ridges, for extracting cores. The medial strength measurement uses Gaussian derivatives, so is insensitive to noise, and responds to object boundaries at points rather than on entire spheres, so is faster to calculate and less sensitive to boundaries of other image figures. The Marching Ridges algorithm uses the grid structure of the image domain to identify ridge points as zero-crossings of first derivatives and to track ridges through the image domain. I include results of this algorithm on medical images of cerebral vasculature, a skull, kidneys, and brain ventricles.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF HEEL HEIGHT ON SAGITTAL PLANE KNEE KINEMATICS DURING LANDING TASKS IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE AND ATHLETIC COLLEGIATE FEMALES

    PubMed Central

    Carcia, Christopher R.; Phelps, Amy L.; Martin, RobRoy L.; Burrows, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if heel height alters sagittal plane knee kinematics when landing from a forward hop or drop landing. Background: Knee angles close to extension during landing are theorized to increase ACL injury risk in female athletes. Methods: Fifty collegiate females performed two single-limb landing tasks while wearing heel lifts of three different sizes (0, 12 & 24 mm) attached to the bottom of a sneaker. Using an electrogoniometer, sagittal plane kinematics (initial contact [KAIC], peak flexion [KAPeak], and rate of excursion [RE]) were examined. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine the influence of heel height on the dependent measures. Results: Forward hop task- KAIC with 0 mm, 12 mm, and 24 mm lifts were 8.88±6.5, 9.38±5.8 and 11.28±7.0, respectively. Significant differences were noted between 0 and 24 mm lift (p<.001) and 12 and 24 mm lifts (p=.003), but not between the 0 and 12 mm conditions (p=.423). KAPeak with 0 mm, 12 mm, and 24 mm lifts were 47.08±10.9, 48.18±10.3 and 48.88±9.7, respectively. A significant difference was noted between 0 and 24 mm lift (p=.004), but not between the 0 and 12 mm or 12 and 24 mm conditions (p=.071 and p=.282, respectively). The RE decreased significantly from 2128/sec±52 with the 12 mm lift to 1958/sec±55 with the 24 mm lift (p=.004). RE did not differ from 0 to 12 or 0 to 24 mm lift conditions (p=.351 and p=.086, respectively). Jump-landing task- No significant differences were found in KAIC (p=.531), KAPeak (p=.741), or the RE (p=.190) between any of the heel lift conditions. Conclusions: The addition of a 24 mm heel lift to the bottom of a sneaker significantly alters sagittal plane knee kinematics upon landing from a unilateral forward hop but not from a drop jump. PMID:21904697

  15. [Height vertigo, fear of heights, acrophobia].

    PubMed

    Rennert, H

    1990-06-01

    Height vertigo (acrophobia) is a very frequent phenomenon being of interest for its physiological and psychological background, though usually only of limited significance in neuropsychiatry and otology. The different aspects as to its nature and origin are discussed. If acrophobia has developed into a conditioned reaction of avoidance with pressure of suffering, or acrophobia in persons, who have to work at heights, behavior therapeutic measures with systematic desensibilisation, starting from an imaginative training, are indicated.

  16. Core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles with enhanced catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction via core-shell Au@Ag/Pd constructions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong; Li, Chengyin; Liu, Hui; Ye, Feng; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles often exhibit improved catalytic properties due to the lattice strain created in these core-shell particles. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles from their core-shell Au@Ag/Pd parents. This strategy begins with the preparation of core-shell Au@Ag nanoparticles in an organic solvent. Then, the pure Ag shells are converted into the shells made of Ag/Pd alloy by galvanic replacement reaction between the Ag shells and Pd2+ precursors. Subsequently, the Ag component is removed from the alloy shell using saturated NaCl solution to form core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles with an Au core and a Pd shell. In comparison with the core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles upon directly depositing Pd shell on the Au seeds and commercial Pd/C catalysts, the core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles via their core-shell Au@Ag/Pd templates display superior activity and durability in catalyzing oxygen reduction reaction, mainly due to the larger lattice tensile effect in Pd shell induced by the Au core and Ag removal. PMID:26144550

  17. Rotavirus VP2 core shell regions critical for viral polymerase activation.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Sarah M; Patton, John T

    2011-04-01

    The innermost VP2 core shell of the triple-layered, icosahedral rotavirus particle surrounds the viral genome and RNA processing enzymes, including the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (VP1). In addition to anchoring VP1 within the core, VP2 is also an essential cofactor that triggers the polymerase to initiate double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) synthesis using packaged plus-strand RNA templates. The VP2 requirement effectively couples packaging with genome replication and ensures that VP1 makes dsRNA only within an assembling previrion particle. However, the mechanism by which the rotavirus core shell protein activates the viral polymerase remains very poorly understood. In the current study, we sought to elucidate VP2 regions critical for VP1-mediated in vitro dsRNA synthesis. By comparing the functions of proteins from several different rotaviruses, we found that polymerase activation by the core shell protein is specific. Through truncation and chimera mutagenesis, we demonstrate that the VP2 amino terminus, which forms a decameric, internal hub underneath each 5-fold axis, plays an important but nonspecific role in VP1 activation. Our results indicate that the VP2 residues correlating with polymerase activation specificity are located on the inner face of the core shell, distinct from the amino terminus. Based on these findings, we predict that several regions of VP2 engage the polymerase during the concerted processes of rotavirus core assembly and genome replication.

  18. Core-shell TiO2 microsphere with enhanced photocatalytic activity and improved lithium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hong; Tian, Dongxue; Liu, Lixiang; Wang, Yapeng; Guo, Yuan; Yang, Xiangjun

    2013-05-01

    Inorganic hollow core-shell spheres have attracted considerable interest due to their singular properties and wide range of potential applications. Herein a novel facile generic strategy of combining template assisted and solvothermal alcoholysis is employed to prepare core-void-shell anatase TiO2 nanoparticle aggregates with an excellent photocatalytic activity, and enhanced lithium storage in large quantities. Amorphous carbon can be loaded on the TiO2 nanoparticles uniformly under a suitably formulated ethanol/water system in the solvothermal alcoholysis process, and the subsequent calcination results of the formation of core-shell-shell anatase TiO2 nanoparticle aggregates. The intrinsic core-void-shell nature as well as high porosity of the unique nanostructures contributes greatly to the superior photocatalytic activity and improved performance as anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  19. Electrosprayed core-shell polymer-lipid nanoparticles for active component delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltayeb, Megdi; Stride, Eleanor; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2013-11-01

    A key challenge in the production of multicomponent nanoparticles for healthcare applications is obtaining reproducible monodisperse nanoparticles with the minimum number of preparation steps. This paper focus on the use of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) techniques to produce core-shell polymer-lipid structures with a narrow size distribution in a single step process. These nanoparticles are composed of a hydrophilic core for active component encapsulation and a lipid shell. It was found that core-shell nanoparticles with a tunable size range between 30 and 90 nm and a narrow size distribution could be reproducibly manufactured. The results indicate that the lipid component (stearic acid) stabilizes the nanoparticles against collapse and aggregation and improves entrapment of active components, in this case vanillin, ethylmaltol and maltol. The overall structure of the nanoparticles produced was examined by multiple methods, including transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, to confirm that they were of core-shell form.

  20. Dye-Sensitized Core/Active Shell Upconversion Nanoparticles for Optogenetics and Bioimaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang; Zhang, Yuanwei; Takle, Kendra; Bilsel, Osman; Li, Zhanjun; Lee, Hyungseok; Zhang, Zijiao; Li, Dongsheng; Fan, Wei; Duan, Chunying; Chan, Emory M; Lois, Carlos; Xiang, Yang; Han, Gang

    2016-01-26

    Near-infrared (NIR) dye-sensitized upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) can broaden the absorption range and boost upconversion efficiency of UCNPs. Here, we achieved significantly enhanced upconversion luminescence in dye-sensitized core/active shell UCNPs via the doping of ytterbium ions (Yb(3+)) in the UCNP shell, which bridged the energy transfer from the dye to the UCNP core. As a result, we synergized the two most practical upconversion booster effectors (dye-sensitizing and core/shell enhancement) to amplify upconversion efficiency. We demonstrated two biomedical applications using these UCNPs. By using dye-sensitized core/active shell UCNP embedded poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer implantable systems, we successfully shifted the optogenetic neuron excitation window to a biocompatible and deep tissue penetrable 800 nm wavelength. Furthermore, UCNPs were water-solubilized with Pluronic F127 with high upconversion efficiency and can be imaged in a mouse model.

  1. Dye-Sensitized Core/Active Shell Upconversion Nanoparticles for Optogenetics and Bioimaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang; Zhang, Yuanwei; Takle, Kendra; Bilsel, Osman; Li, Zhanjun; Lee, Hyungseok; Zhang, Zijiao; Li, Dongsheng; Fan, Wei; Duan, Chunying; Chan, Emory M; Lois, Carlos; Xiang, Yang; Han, Gang

    2016-01-26

    Near-infrared (NIR) dye-sensitized upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) can broaden the absorption range and boost upconversion efficiency of UCNPs. Here, we achieved significantly enhanced upconversion luminescence in dye-sensitized core/active shell UCNPs via the doping of ytterbium ions (Yb(3+)) in the UCNP shell, which bridged the energy transfer from the dye to the UCNP core. As a result, we synergized the two most practical upconversion booster effectors (dye-sensitizing and core/shell enhancement) to amplify upconversion efficiency. We demonstrated two biomedical applications using these UCNPs. By using dye-sensitized core/active shell UCNP embedded poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer implantable systems, we successfully shifted the optogenetic neuron excitation window to a biocompatible and deep tissue penetrable 800 nm wavelength. Furthermore, UCNPs were water-solubilized with Pluronic F127 with high upconversion efficiency and can be imaged in a mouse model. PMID:26736013

  2. Enhanced antibacterial activity of bimetallic gold-silver core-shell nanoparticles at low silver concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Madhuchanda; Sharma, Shilpa; Chattopadhyay, Arun; Ghosh, Siddhartha Sankar

    2011-12-01

    Herein we report the development of bimetallic Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) where gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) served as the seeds for continuous deposition of silver atoms on its surface. The core-shell structure and morphology were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The core-shell NPs showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus acidilactici) bacteria at low concentration of silver present in the shell, with more efficacy against Gram negative bacteria. TEM and flow cytometric studies showed that the core-shell NPs attached to the bacterial surface and caused membrane damage leading to cell death. The enhanced antibacterial properties of Au@Ag core-shell NPs was possibly due to the more active silver atoms in the shell surrounding gold core due to high surface free energy of the surface Ag atoms owing to shell thinness in the bimetallic NP structure.Herein we report the development of bimetallic Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) where gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) served as the seeds for continuous deposition of silver atoms on its surface. The core-shell structure and morphology were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The core-shell NPs showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus acidilactici) bacteria at low concentration of silver present in the shell, with more efficacy against Gram negative bacteria. TEM and flow cytometric studies showed that the core-shell NPs attached to the bacterial surface and caused membrane damage leading to cell death. The enhanced antibacterial properties of Au@Ag core-shell NPs was

  3. Down-regulation of PTEN by HCV core protein through activating nuclear factor-κB

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Rong-Qing; Feng, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Yan-Hua; Wang, Li

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is an important causative agent in HCV related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Tumor suppressor gene PTEN appears to act in the liver at the crossroad of processes controlling cell proliferation. In this study we investigated the effect of the HCV core protein on the PTEN pathway in hepatocarcinogenesis. The HCV core was transfected stably into HepG2 cell. The effect of HCV core on cell proliferation and viability were detected by 3-(4, 5)-dimethylthiahiazo-(-z-y1)-3, 5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) assay, clonogenic survival assay and Fluorescence Activating Cell Sorter (FACS) analysis. The expressions of PTEN were detected by real time RT-PCR and/or Western blot analysis, also the mechanism of down-regulation of PTEN was explored by western blot, luciferase assay and RNA interference. We found the HCV core promoted cell proliferation, survival and G2/M phase accumulation. It downregulated PTEN at mRNA and protein level and activated PTEN downstream gene Akt accompanied with NF-κB activation. Furthermore, the inhibition of HCV core by its specific shRNAs decreased the effect of growth promotion and G2/M phase arrest, inhibited the expression of nuclear p65 and increased PTEN expression. The activity of PTEN was restored when treated with NF-κB inhibitor PDTC. By luciferase assay we found that NF-κB inhibited PTEN promoter transcription activity directly in HCV core cells, while PDTC was contrary. Our study suggests that HCV proteins could modulate PTEN by activating NF-κB. Furthermore strategies designed to restore the expression of PTEN may be promising therapies for preventing HCV dependent hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:25550771

  4. 40 CFR 35.6225 - Activities eligible for funding under Core Program Cooperative Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Activities eligible for funding under Core Program Cooperative Agreements. 35.6225 Section 35.6225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...(s) to pay for studies and remediation activities); (3) Legal authorities and enforcement...

  5. Systematic mining of analog series with related core structures in multi-target activity space.

    PubMed

    Gupta-Ostermann, Disha; Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2013-08-01

    We have aimed to systematically extract analog series with related core structures from multi-target activity space to explore target promiscuity of closely related analogous. Therefore, a previously introduced SAR matrix structure was adapted and further extended for large-scale data mining. These matrices organize analog series with related yet distinct core structures in a consistent manner. High-confidence compound activity data yielded more than 2,300 non-redundant matrices capturing 5,821 analog series that included 4,288 series with multi-target and 735 series with multi-family activities. Many matrices captured more than three analog series with activity against more than five targets. The matrices revealed a variety of promiscuity patterns. Compound series matrices also contain virtual compounds, which provide suggestions for compound design focusing on desired activity profiles.

  6. Mantle compensation of active metamorphic core complexes at Woodlark rift in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Abers, Geoffrey A; Ferris, Aaron; Craig, Mitchell; Davies, Hugh; Lerner-Lam, Arthur L; Mutter, John C; Taylor, Brian

    2002-08-22

    In many highly extended rifts on the Earth, tectonic removal of the upper crust exhumes mid-crustal rocks, producing metamorphic core complexes. These structures allow the upper continental crust to accommodate tens of kilometres of extension, but it is not clear how the lower crust and underlying mantle respond. Also, despite removal of the upper crust, such core complexes remain both topographically high and in isostatic equilibrium. Because many core complexes in the western United States are underlain by a flat Moho discontinuity, it has been widely assumed that their elevation is supported by flow in the lower crust or by magmatic underplating. These processes should decouple upper-crust extension from that in the mantle. In contrast, here we present seismic observations of metamorphic core complexes of the western Woodlark rift that show the overall crust to be thinned beneath regions of greatest surface extension. These core complexes are actively being exhumed at a rate of 5-10 km Myr(-1), and the thinning of the underlying crust appears to be compensated by mantle rocks of anomalously low density, as indicated by low seismic velocities. We conclude that, at least in this case, the development of metamorphic core complexes and the accommodation of high extension is not purely a crustal phenomenon, but must involve mantle extension.

  7. Tgif1 Counterbalances the Activity of Core Pluripotency Factors in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bum-Kyu; Shen, Wenwen; Lee, Jiwoon; Rhee, Catherine; Chung, Haewon; Kim, Kun-Yong; Park, In-Hyun; Kim, Jonghwan

    2015-10-01

    Core pluripotency factors, such as Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog, play important roles in maintaining embryonic stem cell (ESC) identity by autoregulatory feedforward loops. Nevertheless, the mechanism that provides precise control of the levels of the ESC core factors without indefinite amplification has remained elusive. Here, we report the direct repression of core pluripotency factors by Tgif1, a previously known terminal repressor of TGFβ/activin/nodal signaling. Overexpression of Tgif1 reduces the levels of ESC core factors, whereas its depletion leads to the induction of the pluripotency factors. We confirm the existence of physical associations between Tgif1 and Oct4, Nanog, and HDAC1/2 and further show the level of Tgif1 is not significantly altered by treatment with an activator/inhibitor of the TGFβ/activin/nodal signaling. Collectively, our findings establish Tgif1 as an integral member of the core regulatory circuitry of mouse ESCs that counterbalances the levels of the core pluripotency factors in a TGFβ/activin/nodal-independent manner. PMID:26411691

  8. Associations between Physical Activity and Obesity Defined by Waist-To-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, On; Lee, Duck-chul; Lee, Sukho; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the associations between physical activity and the prevalence of obesity determined by waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index (BMI). Methods This is the first study to our knowledge on physical activity and obesity using a nationally representative sample of South Korean population from The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We categorized individuals into either non-obese or obese defined by WHtR and BMI. Levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were classified as ‘Inactive’, ‘Active’, and ‘Very active’ groups based on the World Health Organization physical activity guidelines. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations between physical activity and the prevalence of obesity. Results Physical activity was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of obesity using both WHtR and BMI. Compared to inactive men, odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for obesity by WHtR ≥0.50 were 0.69 (0.53–0.89) in active men and 0.76 (0.63–0.91) in very active men (p for trend = 0.007). The ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by BMI ≥25 kg/m2 were 0.78 (0.59–1.03) in active men and 0.82 (0.67–0.99) in very active men (p for trend = 0.060). The ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were 0.40 (0.15–0.98) in active men and 0.90 (0.52–1.56) in very active men (p for trend = 0.978). Compared to inactive women, the ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by WHtR ≥0.50 were 0.94 (0.75–1.18) in active women and 0.84 (0.71–0.998) in very active women (p for trend = 0.046). However, no significant associations were found between physical activity and obesity by BMI in women. Conclusions We found more significant associations between physical activity and obesity defined by WHtR than BMI. However, intervention studies are warranted to investigate and compare causal associations between physical activity and different obesity measures in various populations

  9. Penicillin Use in Meningococcal Disease Management: Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Sites, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Blain, Amy E.; Mandal, Sema; Wu, Henry; MacNeil, Jessica R.; Harrison, Lee H.; Farley, Monica M.; Lynfield, Ruth; Miller, Lisa; Nichols, Megin; Petit, Sue; Reingold, Arthur; Schaffner, William; Thomas, Ann; Zansky, Shelley M.; Anderson, Raydel; Harcourt, Brian H.; Mayer, Leonard W.; Clark, Thomas A.; Cohn, Amanda C.

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, in the Active Bacterial Core surveillance sites, penicillin was not commonly used to treat meningococcal disease. This is likely because of inconsistent availability of antimicrobial susceptibility testing and ease of use of third-generation cephalosporins. Consideration of current practices may inform future meningococcal disease management guidelines. PMID:27704009

  10. PeV Neutrinos Observed by IceCube from Cores of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2013-01-01

    I show that the high energy neutrino flux predicted to arise from active galactic nuclei cores can explain the PeV neutrinos detected by IceCube without conflicting with the constraints from the observed extragalactic cosmic-ray and gamma-ray backgrounds.

  11. Tuning upconversion through a sensitizer/activator-isolated NaYF4 core/shell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Shuai; Chen, Guanying; Shao, Wei; Qu, Junle; Prasad, Paras N.

    2015-02-01

    The ability to tune the emission color of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) will greatly enhance the scope of their applications, ranging from infrared solar cells to volumetric multiplexed bioimaging. Conventional methods to tune upconversion are to vary the type and/or the concentration of doped rare-earth ions in these nanoparticle formulations. Here, we introduce a different approach to vary the emission colors of the frequently used sensitizer/activator pairs of Yb3+/RE3+ (RE = Ho, Er, Tm) via utilization of a sensitizer/activator-isolated NaYF4 core-shell structure. We show that the typical green, yellow, and blue luminescent colors from Yb3+/Ho3+-, Yb3+/Er3+-, and Yb3+/Tm3+-co-doped NaYF4 UCNPs can be converted into the quasi-white, green, and pink blue, when corresponding core-shell structures of NaYF4:Yb3+ @NaYF4:Ho3+, NaYF4:Yb3+ @NaYF4:Er3+ and NaYF4:Yb3+ @NaYF4:Tm3+ are built. Time-resolved spectra indicate that decay lifetimes of the emission bands from the sensitizer/activator-isolated core-shell structure significantly vary from that of the sensitizer/activator-codoped NaYF4 UCNPs, verifying the strain-induced modulation of emission channels in the core-shell structure. These sensitizer-activator-isolated core-shell UCNPs have implications for a range of biophotonic or photonic applications.The ability to tune the emission color of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) will greatly enhance the scope of their applications, ranging from infrared solar cells to volumetric multiplexed bioimaging. Conventional methods to tune upconversion are to vary the type and/or the concentration of doped rare-earth ions in these nanoparticle formulations. Here, we introduce a different approach to vary the emission colors of the frequently used sensitizer/activator pairs of Yb3+/RE3+ (RE = Ho, Er, Tm) via utilization of a sensitizer/activator-isolated NaYF4 core-shell structure. We show that the typical green, yellow, and blue luminescent colors from Yb3+/Ho3+-, Yb3+/Er

  12. Tuning upconversion through a sensitizer/activator-isolated NaYF₄ core/shell structure.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shuai; Chen, Guanying; Shao, Wei; Qu, Junle; Prasad, Paras N

    2015-03-01

    The ability to tune the emission color of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) will greatly enhance the scope of their applications, ranging from infrared solar cells to volumetric multiplexed bioimaging. Conventional methods to tune upconversion are to vary the type and/or the concentration of doped rare-earth ions in these nanoparticle formulations. Here, we introduce a different approach to vary the emission colors of the frequently used sensitizer/activator pairs of Yb(3+)/RE(3+) (RE = Ho, Er, Tm) via utilization of a sensitizer/activator-isolated NaYF4 core-shell structure. We show that the typical green, yellow, and blue luminescent colors from Yb(3+)/Ho(3+)-, Yb(3+)/Er(3+)-, and Yb(3+)/Tm(3+)-co-doped NaYF4 UCNPs can be converted into the quasi-white, green, and pink blue, when corresponding core-shell structures of NaYF4:Yb(3+) @NaYF4:Ho(3+), NaYF4:Yb(3+) @NaYF4:Er(3+) and NaYF4:Yb(3+) @NaYF4:Tm(3+) are built. Time-resolved spectra indicate that decay lifetimes of the emission bands from the sensitizer/activator-isolated core-shell structure significantly vary from that of the sensitizer/activator-codoped NaYF4 UCNPs, verifying the strain-induced modulation of emission channels in the core-shell structure. These sensitizer-activator-isolated core-shell UCNPs have implications for a range of biophotonic or photonic applications.

  13. Improved oxygen reduction activity on the Ih Cu@Pt core-shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zongxian; Geng, Zhixia; Zhang, Yanxing; Wang, Jinlong; Ma, Shuhong

    2011-09-01

    The minimum energy path (MEP) for the dissociation of O 2 on the Ih Cu@Pt12 core-shell nanoparticle. Ih Cu@Pt12 is the most stable among the symmetric Cu@Pt12 core-shell isomers. O 2 prefers to be adsorbed on the Ih Cu@Pt12 with the t-b-t configuration. The Ih Cu@Pt12 has enhanced activity for O 2 dissociation and O diffusion. Ih Cu@Pt12 nanoparticle is a good candidate for being the ORR catalyst.

  14. Transcriptional Activation of the Interleukin-2 Promoter by Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein

    PubMed Central

    Bergqvist, Anders; Rice, Charles M.

    2001-01-01

    Most patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) become chronic carriers. Viruses that efficiently establish persistent infections must have effective ways of evading host defenses. In the case of HCV, little is known about how chronic infections are established or maintained. Besides hepatocytes, several reports suggest that HCV can infect T and B lymphocytes. Since T cells are essential for viral clearance, direct or indirect effects of HCV on T-cell function could influence the outcome of infection. Given that T-cell growth and differentiation require the cytokine interleukin 2 (IL-2), we asked whether HCV might modulate synthesis of IL-2. Portions of the HCV polyprotein were expressed in Jurkat cells under a variety of conditions. We found that the highly conserved HCV core protein, in combination with other stimuli, was able to dramatically activate transcription from the IL-2 promoter. The carboxy-terminal hydrophobic portion of the core protein was required for this activity. Activation was dependent on nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), occurred in cells deficient in the tyrosine kinase p56lck, and could be blocked by addition of cyclosporin A and by depletion of calcium. These results suggest that the HCV core protein can activate transcription of the IL-2 promoter through the NFAT pathway. This novel activity may have consequences for T-cell development and establishment of persistent infections. PMID:11134290

  15. Voluntary muscle activation is impaired by core temperature rather than local muscle temperature.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Melissa M; Cheung, Stephen S; Elder, Geoff C; Sleivert, Gordon G

    2006-04-01

    Fatigue during hyperthermia may be due in part to a failure of the central nervous system to fully activate the working muscles. We investigated the effects of passive hyperthermia on maximal plantar flexor isometric torque (maximal isometric voluntary contraction) and voluntary activation to determine the roles of local skin temperature, core temperature, and peripheral muscle temperature in fatigue. Nine healthy subjects were passively heated from 37.2 to 39.5 degrees C (core temperature) and then cooled back down to 37.9 degrees C using a liquid-conditioning garment, with the right leg kept at a thermoneutral temperature throughout the protocol, whereas the left leg was allowed to heat and cool. Passive heating resulted in significant decreases in torque from [mean (SD)] 172 N x m (SD 39) to 160 N x m (SD 44) and in voluntary activation from 96% (SD 2) to 91% (SD 5) in the heated leg, and maximal isometric voluntary contraction decreased similarly from 178 N xm (SD 37) to 165 N x m (SD 38) and voluntary activation from 97% (SD 2) to 94% (SD 5) in the thermoneutral leg. The initiation of cooling, which produced a rapid decrease in skin temperature and cardiovascular strain [heart rate reserve decreased from 58% (SD 12) to 31% (SD 12)], did not immediately restore either torque or voluntary activation. However, when core temperature was lowered back to normal, torque and voluntary activation were restored to baseline values. It was concluded that an increase in core temperature is a factor responsible for reducing voluntary activation during brief voluntary isometric contractions and that temperature-induced changes in the contractile properties of muscle and local thermal afferent input from the skin do not contribute significantly to the decrement in torque.

  16. Palladium–platinum core-shell icosahedra with substantially enhanced activity and durability towards oxygen reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xue; Choi, Sang-Il; Roling, Luke T.; Luo, Ming; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Chi, Miaofang; Liu, Jingyue; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Herron, Jeffrey A.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Xia, Younan

    2015-07-02

    Conformal deposition of platinum as ultrathin shells on facet-controlled palladium nanocrystals offers a great opportunity to enhance the catalytic performance while reducing its loading. Here we report such a system based on palladium icosahedra. Owing to lateral confinement imposed by twin boundaries and thus vertical relaxation only, the platinum overlayers evolve into a corrugated structure under compressive strain. For the core-shell nanocrystals with an average of 2.7 platinum overlayers, their specific and platinum mass activities towards oxygen reduction are enhanced by eight- and sevenfold, respectively, relative to a commercial catalyst. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the enhancement can be attributed to the weakened binding of hydroxyl to the compressed platinum surface supported on palladium. After 10,000 testing cycles, the mass activity of the core-shell nanocrystals is still four times higher than the commercial catalyst. Ultimately, these results demonstrate an effective approach to the development of electrocatalysts with greatly enhanced activity and durability.

  17. Surface-engineered core-shell nano-size ferrites and their antimicrobial activity

    SciTech Connect

    Baraliya, Jagdish D. Joshi, Hiren H.

    2014-04-24

    We report the results of biological study on core-shell structured MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (where M = Co, Mn, Ni) nanoparticles and influence of silica- DEG dual coating on their antimicrobial activity. Spherical MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared via a Co-precipitation method. The microstructures and morphologies of these nanoparticles were studied by x-ray diffraction and FTIR. The antimicrobial activity study carried out in nutrient agar medium with addition of antimicrobial synthesis compound which is tested for its activity against different types of bacteria.

  18. Effects of diurnal bright/dim light intensity on circadian core temperature and activity rhythms in the Japanese macaque.

    PubMed

    Takasu, Nana; Nigi, Hideo; Tokura, Hiromi

    2002-12-01

    Circadian rhythms of core temperature and activity were studied using three Japanese macaques under influences of two different light intensities during the daytime. Nocturnal core temperature and activity onset time were lower and advanced, respectively, in bright as compared to dim light. These results suggest the possibility that diurnal bright light could influence the circadian organization.

  19. ISOTROPIC HEATING OF GALAXY CLUSTER CORES VIA RAPIDLY REORIENTING ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Babul, Arif; Sharma, Prateek; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2013-05-01

    Active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets carry more than sufficient energy to stave off catastrophic cooling of the intracluster medium (ICM) in the cores of cool-core clusters. However, in order to prevent catastrophic cooling, the ICM must be heated in a near-isotropic fashion and narrow bipolar jets with P{sub jet} = 10{sup 44-45} erg s{sup -1}, typical of radio AGNs at cluster centers, are inefficient in heating the gas in the transverse direction to the jets. We argue that due to existent conditions in cluster cores, the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) will, in addition to accreting gas via radiatively inefficient flows, experience short stochastic episodes of enhanced accretion via thin disks. In general, the orientation of these accretion disks will be misaligned with the spin axis of the black holes (BHs) and the ensuing torques will cause the BH's spin axis (and therefore the jet axis) to slew and rapidly change direction. This model not only explains recent observations showing successive generations of jet-lobes-bubbles in individual cool-core clusters that are offset from each other in the angular direction with respect to the cluster center, but also shows that AGN jets can heat the cluster core nearly isotropically on the gas cooling timescale. Our model does require that the SMBHs at the centers of cool-core clusters be spinning relatively slowly. Torques from individual misaligned disks are ineffective at tilting rapidly spinning BHs by more than a few degrees. Additionally, since SMBHs that host thin accretion disks will manifest as quasars, we predict that roughly 1-2 rich clusters within z < 0.5 should have quasars at their centers.

  20. 9,400 years of cosmic radiation and solar activity from ice cores and tree rings

    PubMed Central

    Steinhilber, Friedhelm; Beer, Jürg; Brunner, Irene; Christl, Marcus; Fischer, Hubertus; Heikkilä, Ulla; Kubik, Peter W.; Mann, Mathias; McCracken, Ken G.; Miller, Heinrich; Miyahara, Hiroko; Oerter, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the temporal variation of cosmic radiation and solar activity during the Holocene is essential for studies of the solar-terrestrial relationship. Cosmic-ray produced radionuclides, such as 10Be and 14C which are stored in polar ice cores and tree rings, offer the unique opportunity to reconstruct the history of cosmic radiation and solar activity over many millennia. Although records from different archives basically agree, they also show some deviations during certain periods. So far most reconstructions were based on only one single radionuclide record, which makes detection and correction of these deviations impossible. Here we combine different 10Be ice core records from Greenland and Antarctica with the global 14C tree ring record using principal component analysis. This approach is only possible due to a new high-resolution 10Be record from Dronning Maud Land obtained within the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica in Antarctica. The new cosmic radiation record enables us to derive total solar irradiance, which is then used as a proxy of solar activity to identify the solar imprint in an Asian climate record. Though generally the agreement between solar forcing and Asian climate is good, there are also periods without any coherence, pointing to other forcings like volcanoes and greenhouse gases and their corresponding feedbacks. The newly derived records have the potential to improve our understanding of the solar dynamics and to quantify the solar influence on climate. PMID:22474348

  1. 9,400 years of cosmic radiation and solar activity from ice cores and tree rings.

    PubMed

    Steinhilber, Friedhelm; Abreu, Jose A; Beer, Jürg; Brunner, Irene; Christl, Marcus; Fischer, Hubertus; Heikkilä, Ulla; Kubik, Peter W; Mann, Mathias; McCracken, Ken G; Miller, Heinrich; Miyahara, Hiroko; Oerter, Hans; Wilhelms, Frank

    2012-04-17

    Understanding the temporal variation of cosmic radiation and solar activity during the Holocene is essential for studies of the solar-terrestrial relationship. Cosmic-ray produced radionuclides, such as (10)Be and (14)C which are stored in polar ice cores and tree rings, offer the unique opportunity to reconstruct the history of cosmic radiation and solar activity over many millennia. Although records from different archives basically agree, they also show some deviations during certain periods. So far most reconstructions were based on only one single radionuclide record, which makes detection and correction of these deviations impossible. Here we combine different (10)Be ice core records from Greenland and Antarctica with the global (14)C tree ring record using principal component analysis. This approach is only possible due to a new high-resolution (10)Be record from Dronning Maud Land obtained within the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica in Antarctica. The new cosmic radiation record enables us to derive total solar irradiance, which is then used as a proxy of solar activity to identify the solar imprint in an Asian climate record. Though generally the agreement between solar forcing and Asian climate is good, there are also periods without any coherence, pointing to other forcings like volcanoes and greenhouse gases and their corresponding feedbacks. The newly derived records have the potential to improve our understanding of the solar dynamics and to quantify the solar influence on climate.

  2. (129)I record of nuclear activities in marine sediment core from Jiaozhou Bay in China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yukun; Hou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weijian; Liu, Guangshan

    2016-04-01

    Iodine-129 has been used as a powerful tool for environmental tracing of human nuclear activities. In this work, a sediment core collected from Jiaozhou Bay, the east coast of China, in 2002 was analyzed for (129)I to investigate the influence of human nuclear activities in this region. Significantly enhanced (129)I level was observed in upper 70 cm of the sediment core, with peak values in the layer corresponding to 1957, 1964, 1974, 1986, and after 1990. The sources of (129)I and corresponding transport processes in this region are discussed, including nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds, global fallout from a large numbers of nuclear weapon tests in 1963, the climax of Chinese nuclear weapons testing in the early 1970s, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and long-distance dispersion of European reprocessing derived (129)I. The very well (129)I records of different human nuclear activities in the sediment core illustrate the potential application of (129)I in constraining ages and sedimentation rates of the recent sediment. The releases of (129)I from the European nuclear fuel reprocessing plants at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK) were found to dominate the inventory of (129)I in the Chinese sediments after 1990, not only the directly atmospheric releases of these reprocessing plants, but also re-emission of marine discharged (129)I of these reprocessing plants in the highly contaminated European seas. PMID:26821329

  3. The activated sludge ecosystem contains a core community of abundant organisms

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Aaron M; Albertsen, Mads; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Per H

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the microbial ecology of a system requires that the observed population dynamics can be linked to their metabolic functions. However, functional characterization is laborious and the choice of organisms should be prioritized to those that are frequently abundant (core) or transiently abundant, which are therefore putatively make the greatest contribution to carbon turnover in the system. We analyzed the microbial communities in 13 Danish wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal in consecutive years and a single plant periodically over 6 years, using Illumina sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA amplicons of the V4 region. The plants contained a core community of 63 abundant genus-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that made up 68% of the total reads. A core community consisting of abundant OTUs was also observed within the incoming wastewater to three plants. The net growth rate for individual OTUs was quantified using mass balance, and it was found that 10% of the total reads in the activated sludge were from slow or non-growing OTUs, and that their measured abundance was primarily because of immigration with the wastewater. Transiently abundant organisms were also identified. Among them the genus Nitrotoga (class Betaproteobacteria) was the most abundant putative nitrite oxidizer in a number of activated sludge plants, which challenges previous assumptions that Nitrospira (phylum Nitrospirae) are the primary nitrite-oxidizers in activated sludge systems with nutrient removal. PMID:26262816

  4. (129)I record of nuclear activities in marine sediment core from Jiaozhou Bay in China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yukun; Hou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weijian; Liu, Guangshan

    2016-04-01

    Iodine-129 has been used as a powerful tool for environmental tracing of human nuclear activities. In this work, a sediment core collected from Jiaozhou Bay, the east coast of China, in 2002 was analyzed for (129)I to investigate the influence of human nuclear activities in this region. Significantly enhanced (129)I level was observed in upper 70 cm of the sediment core, with peak values in the layer corresponding to 1957, 1964, 1974, 1986, and after 1990. The sources of (129)I and corresponding transport processes in this region are discussed, including nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds, global fallout from a large numbers of nuclear weapon tests in 1963, the climax of Chinese nuclear weapons testing in the early 1970s, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and long-distance dispersion of European reprocessing derived (129)I. The very well (129)I records of different human nuclear activities in the sediment core illustrate the potential application of (129)I in constraining ages and sedimentation rates of the recent sediment. The releases of (129)I from the European nuclear fuel reprocessing plants at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK) were found to dominate the inventory of (129)I in the Chinese sediments after 1990, not only the directly atmospheric releases of these reprocessing plants, but also re-emission of marine discharged (129)I of these reprocessing plants in the highly contaminated European seas.

  5. Foraminal height measurement techniques

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Kevin; Rao, Prashanth J.

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the proposed advantages of anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is restoration of disc height and hence an indirect foraminal height restoration. While this proposed advantage is often quoted in the literature, there are few robust studies demonstrating restoration of foraminal volume. Thus, this study aimed to review the literature and discuss the progression and development of foramen measurement techniques. Methods A review of the literature was performed to identify studies which reported foraminal height and dimensions following fusion surgery in cadaveric models or patients. Results Techniques in prior studies used to quantify foraminal dimensions before and after fusion operations include analysis from plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Recent studies have attempted to standardize foraminal dimension measurements with the use of orthogonal software, accelerator-based measurements and the use of multiple images for three-dimensional reconstruction of the foramen volume. Conclusions Consistent results have demonstrated significant increases in foraminal area and height following anterior lumbar interbody distraction, providing evidence that ALIF can indirectly increase foraminal height. Future studies should use standardized measurement approaches such as the Pedicle-to-Pedicle technique with CT or MRI images to determine changes in foraminal dimensions.

  6. Foraminal height measurement techniques

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Kevin; Rao, Prashanth J.

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the proposed advantages of anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is restoration of disc height and hence an indirect foraminal height restoration. While this proposed advantage is often quoted in the literature, there are few robust studies demonstrating restoration of foraminal volume. Thus, this study aimed to review the literature and discuss the progression and development of foramen measurement techniques. Methods A review of the literature was performed to identify studies which reported foraminal height and dimensions following fusion surgery in cadaveric models or patients. Results Techniques in prior studies used to quantify foraminal dimensions before and after fusion operations include analysis from plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Recent studies have attempted to standardize foraminal dimension measurements with the use of orthogonal software, accelerator-based measurements and the use of multiple images for three-dimensional reconstruction of the foramen volume. Conclusions Consistent results have demonstrated significant increases in foraminal area and height following anterior lumbar interbody distraction, providing evidence that ALIF can indirectly increase foraminal height. Future studies should use standardized measurement approaches such as the Pedicle-to-Pedicle technique with CT or MRI images to determine changes in foraminal dimensions. PMID:27683677

  7. In Situ Synthesis of Catalytic Active Au Nanoparticles onto Gibbsite-Polydopamine Core-Shell Nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jie; Mei, Shilin; Jia, He; Ott, Andreas; Ballauff, Matthias; Lu, Yan

    2015-09-01

    We report a facile method to synthesize anisotropic platelike gibbsite-polymer core-shell particles. Dopamine is self-polymerized on the surface of gibbsite nanoplates and forms a homogeneous layer on it. Transmission electron microscopy characterization of the resulting latexes demonstrates the formation of well-defined platelike core-shell particles. Reaction time and ultrasonification are found to be important factors to control the thickness of the polymer shell and avoid aggregation. Good control over the platelike morphology and 100% encapsulation efficiency have been achieved via this novel route. The resulting well-defined gibbsite-polydamine (G-PDA) core-shell nanoplates show excellent colloidal stability and can form opal-like columnar crystal with iridescent Bragg reflection after modest centrifugation. In addition, G-PDA core-shell nanoplates can serve both as reductant and stabilizer for the generation of Au nanoparticles (NPs) in situ. Au NPs with tunable size have been formed on the G-PDA particle surface, which show efficient catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and Rhodamine B (RhB) in the presence of borohydride. Such nanocatalysts can be easily deposited on silicon substrate by spin-coating due to the large contact area of platelike G-PDA particles and the strong adhesive behavior of the PDA layer. The substrate-deposited nanocatalyst can be easily recycled which show excellent reusability for the reduction of RhB. PMID:26266398

  8. Magnetite/poly(alkylcyanoacrylate) (core/shell) nanoparticles as 5-Fluorouracil delivery systems for active targeting.

    PubMed

    Arias, José L; Gallardo, Visitación; Ruiz, M A Adolfina; Delgado, Angel V

    2008-05-01

    In this article, a reproducible emulsion polymerization process is described to prepare core/shell colloidal nanospheres, loaded with 5-Fluorouracil, and consisting of a magnetic core (magnetite) and a biodegradable polymeric shell [poly(ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate), poly(butylcyanoacrylate), poly(hexylcyanoacrylate), or poly(octylcyanoacrylate)]. The heterogeneous structure of these carriers can confer them both the possibility of being used as drug delivery systems and the responsiveness to external magnetic fields, allowing an active drug targeting without a concurrent systemic distribution. Zeta potential determinations as a function of ionic strength showed that the surface behaviour of the core/shell particles is similar to that of pure cyanoacrylate particles. The first magnetization curve of both magnetite and magnetite/polymer particles demonstrated that the polymer shell reduces the magnetic responsiveness of the particles, but keeps unchanged their ferrimagnetic character. Two drug loading mechanisms were studied: absorption or entrapment in the polymeric network, and surface adsorption. We found that the acidity of the medium had significant effects on the drug absorption per unit mass of polymer, and needs to be controlled to avoid formation of macroaggregates and to reach significant 5-Fluorouracil absorption. The type of polymer and the drug concentration are also main factors determining the drug incorporation to the core/shell particles. 5-Fluorouracil release evaluations showed a biphasic profile affected by the type of polymeric shell, the type of drug incorporation and the amount of drug loaded.

  9. Human and climate impacts on Holocene fire activity recorded in polar and mountain ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrwald, Natalie; Zennaro, Piero; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Li, Quanlian; Wang, Ninglian; Power, Mitchell; Zangrando, Roberta; Gabrielli, Paolo; Thompson, Lonnie; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Fire is one of the major influences of biogeochemical change on local to hemispheric scales through emitting greenhouse gases, altering atmospheric chemistry, and changing primary productivity. Levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose) is a specific molecular that can only be produced by cellulose burning at temperatures > 300°C, comprises a major component of smoke plumes, and can be transported across > 1000 km distances. Levoglucosan is deposited on and archived in glaciers over glacial interglacial cycles resulting in pyrochemical evidence for exploring interactions between fire, climate and human activity. Ice core records provide records of past biomass burning from regions of the world with limited paleofire data including polar and low-latitude, high-altitude regions. Here, we present Holocene fire activity records from the NEEM, Greenland (77° 27'N; 51° 3'W; 2454 masl), EPICA Dome C, Antarctica (75° 06'S; 123° 21'E; 3233 masl), Kilimanjaro, Tanzania (3° 05'S, 21.2° E, 5893 masl) and the Muztagh, China (87.17° E; 36.35° N; 5780 masl ice cores. The NEEM ice core reflects boreal fire activity from both North American and Eurasian sources. Temperature is the dominant control of NEEM levoglucosan flux over decadal to millennial time scales, while droughts influence fire activity over sub-decadal timescales. Our results demonstrate the prominence of Siberian fire sources during intense multiannual droughts. Unlike the NEEM core, which incorporates the largest land masses in the world as potential fire sources, EPICA Dome C is located far from any possible fire source. However, EPICA Dome C levoglucosan concentrations are consistently above detection limits and demonstrate a substantial 1000-fold increase in fire activity beginning approximately 800 years ago. This significant and sustained increase coincides with Maori arrival and dispersal in New Zealand augmented by later European arrival in Australia. The EPICA Dome C levoglucosan profile is

  10. Height unification using GOCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, R.

    2012-12-01

    With the gravity field and steady-state ocean circulation explorer (GOCE) (preferably combined with the gravity field and climate experiment (GRACE)) a new generation of geoid models will become available for use in height determination. These models will be globally consistent, accurate (<3 cm) and with a spatial resolution up to degree and order 200, when expressed in terms of a spherical harmonic expansion. GOCE is a mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). It is the first satellite equipped with a gravitational gradiometer, in the case of GOCE it measures the gradient components Vxx , Vyy, Vzzand Vxz. The GOCE gravitational sensor system comprises also a geodetic global positioning system (GPS)-receiver, three star sensors and ion-thrusters for drag compensation in flight direction. GOCE was launched in March 2009 and will fly till the end of 2013. Several gravity models have been derived from its data, their maximum degree is typically between 240 and 250. In summer 2012 a first re-processing of all level-1b data took place. One of the science objectives of GOCE is the unification of height systems. The existing height offsets among the datum zones can be determined by least-squares adjustment. This requires several precise geodetic reference points available in each height datum zone, physical heights from spirit levelling (plus gravimetry), the GOCE geoid and, in addition, short wavelength geoid refinement from terrestrial gravity anomalies. GOCE allows for important simplifications of the functional and stochastic part of the adjustment model. The future trend will be the direct determination of physical heights (orthometric as well as normal) from precise global navigation satellite system (GNSS)-positioning in combination with a next generation combined satellite-terrestrial high-resolution geoid model.

  11. Sequences flanking the core-binding site modulate glucocorticoid receptor structure and activity.

    PubMed

    Schöne, Stefanie; Jurk, Marcel; Helabad, Mahdi Bagherpoor; Dror, Iris; Lebars, Isabelle; Kieffer, Bruno; Imhof, Petra; Rohs, Remo; Vingron, Martin; Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H

    2016-09-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binds as a homodimer to genomic response elements, which have particular sequence and shape characteristics. Here we show that the nucleotides directly flanking the core-binding site, differ depending on the strength of GR-dependent activation of nearby genes. Our study indicates that these flanking nucleotides change the three-dimensional structure of the DNA-binding site, the DNA-binding domain of GR and the quaternary structure of the dimeric complex. Functional studies in a defined genomic context show that sequence-induced changes in GR activity cannot be explained by differences in GR occupancy. Rather, mutating the dimerization interface mitigates DNA-induced changes in both activity and structure, arguing for a role of DNA-induced structural changes in modulating GR activity. Together, our study shows that DNA sequence identity of genomic binding sites modulates GR activity downstream of binding, which may play a role in achieving regulatory specificity towards individual target genes.

  12. A role for the perlecan protein core in the activation of the keratinocyte growth factor receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Ghiselli, G; Eichstetter, I; Iozzo, R V

    2001-01-01

    Perlecan, a widespread heparan sulphate (HS) proteoglycan, is directly involved in the storing of angiogenic growth factors, mostly members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) gene family. We have previously shown that antisense targeting of the perlecan gene causes a reduced growth and responsiveness to FGF7 [also known as keratinocyte growth factor (KGF)] in human cancer cells, and that the perlecan protein core interacts specifically with FGF7. In the present paper, we have investigated human colon carcinoma cells in which the perlecan gene was disrupted by targeted homologous recombination. After screening over 1000 clones, we obtained two clones heterozygous for the null mutation with no detectable perlecan, indicating that the other allele was non-functioning. The perlecan-deficient cells grew more slowly, did not respond to FGF7 with or without the addition of heparin, and were less tumorigenic than control cells. Paradoxically, the perlecan-deficient cells displayed increased FGF7 surface binding. However, the perlecan protein core was required for functional activation of the KGF receptor and downstream signalling. Because heparin could not substitute for perlecan, the HS chains are not critical for FGF7-mediated signalling in this cell system. These results provide the first genetic evidence that the perlecan protein core is a molecular entity implicated in FGF7 binding and activation of its receptor. PMID:11563979

  13. Cometary cores with multiple structure from the oort cloud and the general scheme of origin of unusually active comets

    SciTech Connect

    Davydov, V.D.

    1986-03-01

    A newly conceived scheme is constructed which synthesizes consistent solutions to several principal problems concerning multiple-core comets: a power mechanism, a place and epoch of formation of the multiple core structure, the qualitative differences between current structure and younger structure, the origin of two types of cometary orbits, and a trigger mechanism for recent ignition of cometary activity of a multiple core. This scheme uses a new explanation of the ejection of dust (including icy dust) from various cometary cores as evidence that the material of multiple-core comets may be collisionally ablated at the expense of the comet-centered orbital energy of a multitude of massive boulders (see Kosm. Issled., No. 6 (1984)). Natural mechanisms are shown which preserve this important feature of multiple cores. The concept consists of the following elements: evolution of a system of satellites of the core toward a colli sionless structure; preservation of internal kinetic energy in the collisionless system over astro nomically lengthy time scales; tidal initiation of a collisional mechanism with the first revolution of the ancient multiple core in the zone of visibility. It is possible that such revoltions correspond to the existence of especially active comets in nearly parabolic orbits. Multiple structure in the core of active short-period comets might be descended from a nearly parabolic comet (if the theory holds on perturbational multistage transformation of near-parabolic orbits into contemporary short-period orbits).

  14. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Goldsworthy, W.W.

    1958-06-01

    A differential pulse-height discriminator circuit is described which is readily adaptable for operation in a single-channel pulse-height analyzer. The novel aspect of the circuit lies in the specific arrangement of differential pulse-height discriminator which includes two pulse-height discriminators having a comnnon input and an anticoincidence circuit having two interconnected vacuum tubes with a common cathode resistor. Pulses from the output of one discriminator circuit are delayed and coupled to the grid of one of the anticoincidence tubes by a resistor. The output pulses from the other discriminator circuit are coupled through a cathode follower circuit, which has a cathode resistor of such value as to provide a long time constant with the interelectrode capacitance of the tube, to lenthen the output pulses. The pulses are then fed to the grid of the other anticoincidence tube. With such connections of the circuits, only when the incoming pulse has a pesk value between the operating levels of the two discriminators does an output pulse occur from the anticoincidence circuit.

  15. The letter height superiority illusion.

    PubMed

    New, Boris; Doré-Mazars, Karine; Cavézian, Céline; Pallier, Christophe; Barra, Julien

    2016-02-01

    Letters are identified better when they are embedded within words rather than within pseudowords, a phenomenon known as the word superiority effect (Reicher in Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 275-280, 1969). This effect is, inter alia, accounted for by the interactive-activation model (McClelland & Rumelhart in Psychological Review, 88, 375-407, 1981) through feedback from word to letter nodes. In this study, we investigated whether overactivation of features could lead to perceptual bias, wherein letters would be perceived as being taller than pseudoletters, or words would be perceived as being taller than pseudowords. In two experiments, we investigated the effects of letter and lexical status on the perception of size. Participants who had to compare the heights of letters and pseudoletters, or of words and pseudowords, indeed perceived the former stimuli as being taller than the latter. Possible alternative interpretations of this height superiority effect for letters and words are discussed. PMID:26370216

  16. Lattice-Strain Control of the Activity in Dealloyed Core-Shell Fuel Cell Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Strasser, P.; Koh, Shirlaine; Anniyev, Toyli; Greeley, Jeff; More, Karren Leslie; Yu, Chengfei; Liu, Zengcai; Kaya, Sarpa; Nordlund, Dennis; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Toney, Michael F.; Anders, Nilsson

    2010-01-01

    Electrocatalysis will play a key role in future energy conversion and storage technologies, such as water electrolysers, fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Molecular interactions between chemical reactants and the catalytic surface control the activity and efficiency, and hence need to be optimized; however, generalized experimental strategies to do so are scarce. Here we show how lattice strain can be used experimentally to tune the catalytic activity of dealloyed bimetallic nanoparticles for the oxygen-reduction reaction, a key barrier to the application of fuel cells and metal-air batteries. We demonstrate the core-shell structure of the catalyst and clarify the mechanistic origin of its activity. The platinum-rich shell exhibits compressive strain, which results in a shift of the electronic band structure of platinum and weakening chemisorption of oxygenated species. We combine synthesis, measurements and an understanding of strain from theory to generate a reactivity-strain relationship that provides guidelines for tuning electrocatalytic activity.

  17. Determining heating timescales in solar active region cores from AIA/SDO Fe XVIII images

    SciTech Connect

    Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, Harry P.

    2014-03-01

    We present a study of the frequency of transient brightenings in the core of solar active regions as observed in the Fe XVIII line component of AIA/SDO 94 Å filter images. The Fe XVIII emission is isolated using an empirical correction to remove the contribution of 'warm' emission to this channel. Comparing with simultaneous observations from EIS/Hinode, we find that the variability observed in Fe XVIII is strongly correlated with the emission from lines formed at similar temperatures. We examine the evolution of loops in the cores of active regions at various stages of evolution. Using a newly developed event detection algorithm, we characterize the distribution of event frequency, duration, and magnitude in these active regions. These distributions are similar for regions of similar age and show a consistent pattern as the regions age. This suggests that these characteristics are important constraints for models of solar active regions. We find that the typical frequency of the intensity fluctuations is about 1400 s for any given line of sight, i.e., about two to three events per hour. Using the EBTEL 0D hydrodynamic model, however, we show that this only sets a lower limit on the heating frequency along that line of sight.

  18. Structural evidence for the role of polar core residue Arg175 in arrestin activation

    PubMed Central

    Granzin, Joachim; Stadler, Andreas; Cousin, Anneliese; Schlesinger, Ramona; Batra-Safferling, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Binding mechanism of arrestin requires photoactivation and phosphorylation of the receptor protein rhodopsin, where the receptor bound phosphate groups cause displacement of the long C-tail ‘activating’ arrestin. Mutation of arginine 175 to glutamic acid (R175E), a central residue in the polar core and previously predicted as the ‘phosphosensor’ leads to a pre-active arrestin that is able to terminate phototransduction by binding to non-phosphorylated, light-activated rhodopsin. Here, we report the first crystal structure of a R175E mutant arrestin at 2.7 Å resolution that reveals significant differences compared to the basal state reported in full-length arrestin structures. These differences comprise disruption of hydrogen bond network in the polar core, and three-element interaction including disordering of several residues in the receptor-binding finger loop and the C-terminus (residues 361–404). Additionally, R175E structure shows a 7.5° rotation of the amino and carboxy-terminal domains relative to each other. Consistent to the biochemical data, our structure suggests an important role of R29 in the initial activation step of C-tail release. Comparison of the crystal structures of basal arrestin and R175E mutant provide insights into the mechanism of arrestin activation, where binding of the receptor likely induces structural changes mimicked as in R175E. PMID:26510463

  19. CHARACTERISTICS AND EVOLUTION OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD AND CHROMOSPHERIC EMISSION IN AN ACTIVE REGION CORE OBSERVED BY HINODE

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, David H.; Warren, Harry P.; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2010-09-10

    We describe the characteristics and evolution of the magnetic field and chromospheric emission in an active region core observed by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on Hinode. Consistent with previous studies, we find that the moss is unipolar, the spatial distribution of magnetic flux evolves slowly, and that the magnetic field is only moderately inclined. We also show that the field-line inclination and horizontal component are coherent, and that the magnetic field is mostly sheared in the inter-moss regions where the highest magnetic flux variability is seen. Using extrapolations from spectropolarimeter magnetograms, we show that the magnetic connectivity in the moss is different from that in the quiet Sun because most of the magnetic field extends to significant coronal heights. The magnetic flux, field vector, and chromospheric emission in the moss also appear highly dynamic but actually show only small-scale variations in magnitude on timescales longer than the cooling times for hydrodynamic loops computed from our extrapolations, suggesting high-frequency (continuous) heating events. Some evidence is found for flux (Ca II intensity) changes on the order of 100-200 G (DN) on timescales of 20-30 minutes that could be taken as indicative of low-frequency heating. We find, however, that only a small fraction (10%) of our simulated loops would be expected to cool on these timescales, and we do not find clear evidence that the flux changes consistently produce intensity changes in the chromosphere. Using observations from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS), we also determine that the filling factor in the moss is {approx}16%, consistent with previous studies and larger than the size of an SOT pixel. The magnetic flux and chromospheric intensity in most individual SOT pixels in the moss vary by less than {approx}20% and {approx}10%, respectively, on loop cooling timescales. In view of the high energy requirements of the chromosphere, we suggest that these

  20. Core-Shell Composite Hydrogels for Controlled Nanocrystal Formation and Release of Hydrophobic Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Badruddoza, Abu Zayed Md; Godfrin, P Douglas; Myerson, Allan S; Trout, Bernhardt L; Doyle, Patrick S

    2016-08-01

    Although roughly 40% of pharmaceuticals being developed are poorly water soluble, this class of drugs lacks a formulation strategy capable of producing high loads, fast dissolution kinetics, and low energy input. In this work, a novel bottom-up approach is developed for producing and formulating nanocrystals of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using core-shell composite hydrogel beads. Organic phase nanoemulsion droplets stabilized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and containing a model hydrophobic API (fenofibrate) are embedded in the alginate hydrogel matrix and subsequently act as crystallization reactors. Controlled evaporation of this composite material produces core-shell structured alginate-PVA hydrogels with drug nanocrystals (500-650 nm) embedded within the core. Adjustable loading of API nanocrystals up to 83% by weight is achieved with dissolution (of 80% of the drug) occurring in as little as 30 min. A quantitative model is also developed and experimentally validated that the drug release patterns of the fenofibrate nanocrystals can be modulated by controlling the thickness of the PVA shell and drug loading. Thus, these composite materials offer a "designer" drug delivery system. Overall, our approach enables a novel means of simultaneous controlled crystallization and formulation of hydrophobic drugs that circumvents energy intensive top-down processes in traditional manufacturing. PMID:27249402

  1. The stability and catalytic activity of W13@Pt42 core-shell structure

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Jin-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Xu; Li, Lu; Cheng, Hai-Xia; Su, Yan-Jing; Qian, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the electronic properties, structural stability and catalytic activity of the W13@Pt42 core-shell structure using the First-principles calculations. The degree of corrosion of W13@Pt42 core-shell structure is simulated in acid solutions and through molecular absorption. The absorption energy of OH for this structure is lower than that for Pt55, which inhibits the poison effect of O containing intermediate. Furthermore we present the optimal path of oxygen reduction reaction catalyzed by W13@Pt42. Corresponding to the process of O molecular decomposition, the rate-limiting step of oxygen reduction reaction catalyzed by W13@Pt42 is 0.386 eV, which is lower than that for Pt55 of 0.5 eV. In addition by alloying with W, the core-shell structure reduces the consumption of Pt and enhances the catalytic efficiency, so W13@Pt42 has a promising perspective of industrial application. PMID:27759038

  2. Early Human Activity (pre-332 BC) in Alexandria, Egypt: New findings in Eastern Harbor Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, J.; Landau, E. A.

    2005-12-01

    Historians have long postulated that a settlement called Rhakotis was present on Egypt's Mediterranean coast in the area subsequently occupied by the city of Alexandria. To date, however, the precise position of that site has not been located in the immediate area of the city founded by Alexander the Great. Also undefined are the earliest phases of occupation that pre-date Alexandria on Pharos Island and in the harbour area. A geoarchaeological project emphasizing sediment cores in Alexandria's Eastern Harbour now provides evidence of human occupation adjacent to these settings prior to establishment of Greece's great port in 332 BC. A radiocarbon-dated stratigraphic unit, defined as Middle Sand (III) and older than the 4th century BC, includes locally produced ceramics, along with rock fragments of non-local origin, and increased content of sand-sized heavy mineral and organic matter. Together, these date at least to Egypt's Late Dynastic Period (712-332 BC). Moreover, the geographic positions of core sites containing these markers indicate that early habitation occurred both at Pharos Island and on the mainland where the future Alexandria would be built. New findings in cores recovered in this marine environment are adding to knowledge of both natural processes and effects of human activity in early Alexandria.

  3. Effects of body core temperature and brain dopamine activity on timing processes in humans.

    PubMed

    Rammsayer, T H

    1997-08-22

    In a placebo-controlled study, the effects of experimentally induced increase in body core temperature and of the dopamine antagonist haloperidol on judgments of an apparent second, a speeded-tapping task, and temporal discrimination of intervals in the range of milliseconds and seconds were investigated in 40 healthy male subjects. A 0.7 degree C-increase in body core temperature due to 3-h exposure to an ambient temperature of 52 degrees C did not cause any statistically significant changes in timing tasks. Unlike heat exposure, 3 mg of haloperidol caused a pronounced impairment of performance on the temporal discrimination of intervals in the range of milliseconds and seconds (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively) as well as speeded tapping (P < 0.05). For temporal discrimination of intervals in the range of seconds, a significant interaction between ambient temperature and haloperidol could be established (P < 0.05) indicating that haloperidol caused a significant performance decrement only in subjects exposed to an ambient temperature of 28 degrees C but not in those exposed to 52 degrees C. The overall pattern of results suggests that temporal processing of intervals in the range of milliseconds can be considered a function of dopaminergic activity in the basal ganglia while temporal processing of longer intervals appears to be cognitively mediated. Furthermore, the hypothesis that timing processes in humans are modulated by changes in body core temperature could not be established.

  4. Comparison of denitrification activity measurements in groundwater using cores and natural-gradient tracer tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Garabedian, S.P.; Brooks, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    The transport of many solutes in groundwater is dependent upon the relative rates of physical flow and microbial metabolism. Quantifying rates of microbial processes under subsurface conditions is difficult and is most commonly approximated using laboratory studies with aquifer materials. In this study, we measured in situ rates of denitrification in a nitrate- contaminated aquifer using small-scale, natural-gradient tracer tests and compared the results with rates obtained from laboratory incubations with aquifer core material. Activity was measured using the acetylene block technique. For the tracer tests, co-injection of acetylene and bromide into the aquifer produced a 30 ??M increase in nitrous oxide after 10 m of transport (23-30 days). An advection-dispersion transport model was modified to include an acetylene-dependent nitrous oxide production term and used to simulate the tracer breakthrough curves. The model required a 4-day lag period and a relatively low sensitivity to acetylene to match the narrow nitrous oxide breakthrough curves. Estimates of in situ denitrification rates were 0.60 and 1.51 nmol of N2O produced cm-3 aquifer day-1 for two successive tests. Aquifer core material collected from the tracer test site and incubated as mixed slurries in flasks and as intact cores yielded rates that were 1.2-26 times higher than the tracer test rate estimates. Results with the coring-dependent techniques were variable and subject to the small- scale heterogeneity within the aquifer, while the tracer tests integrated the heterogeneity along a flow path, giving a rate estimate that is more applicable to transport at the scale of the aquifer.

  5. Episodic specificity induction impacts activity in a core brain network during construction of imagined future experiences.

    PubMed

    Madore, Kevin P; Szpunar, Karl K; Addis, Donna Rose; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-09-20

    Recent behavioral work suggests that an episodic specificity induction-brief training in recollecting the details of a past experience-enhances performance on subsequent tasks that rely on episodic retrieval, including imagining future experiences, solving open-ended problems, and thinking creatively. Despite these far-reaching behavioral effects, nothing is known about the neural processes impacted by an episodic specificity induction. Related neuroimaging work has linked episodic retrieval with a core network of brain regions that supports imagining future experiences. We tested the hypothesis that key structures in this network are influenced by the specificity induction. Participants received the specificity induction or one of two control inductions and then generated future events and semantic object comparisons during fMRI scanning. After receiving the specificity induction compared with the control, participants exhibited significantly more activity in several core network regions during the construction of imagined events over object comparisons, including the left anterior hippocampus, right inferior parietal lobule, right posterior cingulate cortex, and right ventral precuneus. Induction-related differences in the episodic detail of imagined events significantly modulated induction-related differences in the construction of imagined events in the left anterior hippocampus and right inferior parietal lobule. Resting-state functional connectivity analyses with hippocampal and inferior parietal lobule seed regions and the rest of the brain also revealed significantly stronger core network coupling following the specificity induction compared with the control. These findings provide evidence that an episodic specificity induction selectively targets episodic processes that are commonly linked to key core network regions, including the hippocampus.

  6. Palladium–platinum core-shell icosahedra with substantially enhanced activity and durability towards oxygen reduction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue; Choi, Sang-Il; Roling, Luke T.; Luo, Ming; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Chi, Miaofang; Liu, Jingyue; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Herron, Jeffrey A.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Xia, Younan

    2015-01-01

    Conformal deposition of platinum as ultrathin shells on facet-controlled palladium nanocrystals offers a great opportunity to enhance the catalytic performance while reducing its loading. Here we report such a system based on palladium icosahedra. Owing to lateral confinement imposed by twin boundaries and thus vertical relaxation only, the platinum overlayers evolve into a corrugated structure under compressive strain. For the core-shell nanocrystals with an average of 2.7 platinum overlayers, their specific and platinum mass activities towards oxygen reduction are enhanced by eight- and sevenfold, respectively, relative to a commercial catalyst. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the enhancement can be attributed to the weakened binding of hydroxyl to the compressed platinum surface supported on palladium. After 10,000 testing cycles, the mass activity of the core-shell nanocrystals is still four times higher than the commercial catalyst. These results demonstrate an effective approach to the development of electrocatalysts with greatly enhanced activity and durability. PMID:26133469

  7. Palladium–platinum core-shell icosahedra with substantially enhanced activity and durability towards oxygen reduction

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Xue; Choi, Sang-Il; Roling, Luke T.; Luo, Ming; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Chi, Miaofang; Liu, Jingyue; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Herron, Jeffrey A.; et al

    2015-07-02

    Conformal deposition of platinum as ultrathin shells on facet-controlled palladium nanocrystals offers a great opportunity to enhance the catalytic performance while reducing its loading. Here we report such a system based on palladium icosahedra. Owing to lateral confinement imposed by twin boundaries and thus vertical relaxation only, the platinum overlayers evolve into a corrugated structure under compressive strain. For the core-shell nanocrystals with an average of 2.7 platinum overlayers, their specific and platinum mass activities towards oxygen reduction are enhanced by eight- and sevenfold, respectively, relative to a commercial catalyst. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the enhancement can bemore » attributed to the weakened binding of hydroxyl to the compressed platinum surface supported on palladium. After 10,000 testing cycles, the mass activity of the core-shell nanocrystals is still four times higher than the commercial catalyst. Ultimately, these results demonstrate an effective approach to the development of electrocatalysts with greatly enhanced activity and durability.« less

  8. AWM 4: a sharp look at the core of a poor cluster stirred by AGN activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtilek, Jan

    2007-09-01

    The central regions of galaxy clusters, frequently occupied by massive elliptical galaxies with strong radio sources interacting with dense, X-ray emitting gas, are among the most interesting and physically active regions in the Universe. We here propose a deep observation of AWM 4, a poor cluster of relaxed appearance without a cooling core but with strong evidence of AGN-driven heating and gas mixing. In this unusual object we will examine the interaction between cluster gas and radio source at high resolution, measure the properties of the gas and constrain the energy budget of the radio source, and clarify the nature of the observed abundance irregularities.

  9. DIFFERENTIAL PULSE HEIGHT DISCRIMINATOR

    DOEpatents

    Test, L.D.

    1958-11-11

    Pulse-height discriminators are described, specifically a differential pulse-height discriminator which is adapted to respond to pulses of a band of amplitudes, but to reject pulses of amplitudes greater or less than tbe preselected band. In general, the discriminator includes a vacuum tube having a plurality of grids adapted to cut off plate current in the tube upon the application of sufficient negative voltage. One grid is held below cutoff, while a positive pulse proportional to the amplltude of each pulse is applled to this grid. Another grid has a negative pulse proportional to the amplitude of each pulse simultaneously applied to it. With this arrangement the tube will only pass pulses which are of sufficlent amplitude to counter the cutoff bias but not of sufficlent amplitude to cutoff the tube.

  10. Inhibition by RNA of RNase H Activity Associated with Reverse Transcriptase in Rauscher Murine Leukemia Virus Cores

    PubMed Central

    Sarngadharan, M. G.; Kalyanaraman, V. S.; Gallo, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    We reported earlier that core preparations of Rauscher murine leukemia virus, when separated on an isopycnic sucrose gradient, did not contain detectable levels of RNase H activity, while retaining high levels of reverse transcriptase activity. We reexamined this phenomenon, and the earlier observation was found to be reproducible. However, when doubly banded preparations of viral cores were solubilized and reverse transcriptase was isolated by ion-exchange chromatography, a coincident peak of a nuclease activity with the specificity of RNase H was observed, which indicated that RNase H was selectively inhibited in the core fractions. By direct activity measurements using the purified reverse transcriptase-RNase H from cores, this endogenous inhibitor has been identified as the viral RNA. Viral 70S RNA strongly inhibited RNase H activity purified either from whole virions or from prefractionated cores. Other RNAs tested that had inhibitory effects were yeast tRNA, polyadenylic acid, and polyguanylic acid. Polyuridylic acid and polyadenylic acid were moderately inhibitory, and polycytidylic acid did not inhibit the RNase H. A rabbit anti-reverse transcriptase immunoglobulin G inhibited both the reverse transcriptase and RNase H activities of the enzyme purified from cores. These data provide a rational explanation for the failure to detect RNase H activity in core preparations of Rauscher murine leukemia virus. Furthermore, these data are consistent with the idea that the RNase H and reverse transcriptase activities purified from cores reside on the same protein molecule. Possible biological implications of the observed inhibition of RNase H by RNA is discussed. PMID:81312

  11. Activity modulation of core and shell in nanozeolite@enzyme bi-functional catalyst for dynamic kinetic resolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Yan, Yueer; Wang, Wanlu; Zhang, Yahong; Tang, Yi

    2015-01-15

    A core-shell nanozeolite@enzyme bi-functional catalyst is prepared by using nanozeolite β as acidic core and immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) as enzyme shell for the purpose of dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR), and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) is used as interlayer to compart core and shell. The activities of core and shell in bi-functional catalyst are modulated to achieve the matching between racemization and kinetic resolution (KR) rates in DKR, i.e., a slow racemization rate on core while a fast KR rate on shell. Nanozeolite β with intermediate SiO2/Al2O3 ratio provides proper acid amount for racemization step. A relatively thick layer of PDDA not only improves the activity of CALB by its coverage for surface acidic sites but also limits the accessibility and diffusion of substrate towards the acidic core. The CALB shell with larger immobilized amount and higher enzyme activity offers enhanced driving force of DKR process, leading to higher conversion, selectivity and yield. The preparation and activity modulation of core-shell catalyst provide an ideal method to improve the catalytic performance of bi-functional catalyst.

  12. Active Flash: Out-of-core Data Analytics on Flash Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Boboila, Simona; Kim, Youngjae; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S; Desnoyers, Peter; Shipman, Galen M

    2012-01-01

    Next generation science will increasingly come to rely on the ability to perform efficient, on-the-fly analytics of data generated by high-performance computing (HPC) simulations, modeling complex physical phenomena. Scientific computing workflows are stymied by the traditional chaining of simulation and data analysis, creating multiple rounds of redundant reads and writes to the storage system, which grows in cost with the ever-increasing gap between compute and storage speeds in HPC clusters. Recent HPC acquisitions have introduced compute node-local flash storage as a means to alleviate this I/O bottleneck. We propose a novel approach, Active Flash, to expedite data analysis pipelines by migrating to the location of the data, the flash device itself. We argue that Active Flash has the potential to enable true out-of-core data analytics by freeing up both the compute core and the associated main memory. By performing analysis locally, dependence on limited bandwidth to a central storage system is reduced, while allowing this analysis to proceed in parallel with the main application. In addition, offloading work from the host to the more power-efficient controller reduces peak system power usage, which is already in the megawatt range and poses a major barrier to HPC system scalability. We propose an architecture for Active Flash, explore energy and performance trade-offs in moving computation from host to storage, demonstrate the ability of appropriate embedded controllers to perform data analysis and reduction tasks at speeds sufficient for this application, and present a simulation study of Active Flash scheduling policies. These results show the viability of the Active Flash model, and its capability to potentially have a transformative impact on scientific data analysis.

  13. The effect of active core exercise on fitness and foot pressure in Taekwondo club students.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seong-Deok; Sung, Dong-Hun; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The effects of core training using slings and Togus on the improvement of posture control in Taekwondo club students, that is, balance ability, were investigated. To that end, changes in the Taekwondo players' balance ability resulting from active core training for eight weeks were examined through fitness and foot pressure. [Subjects] The present study was conducted with 13 male Taekwondo players of K University in Deagu, South Korea. Once the experiment process was explained, consent was obtained from those who participated voluntarily. [Methods] Air cushions (Germany), Jumpers (Germany), and Aero-Steps (Germany) were used as lumbar stabilization exercise tools. As a method of training proprioceptive senses by stimulating somatesthesia in standing postures, the subjects performed balance squats, supine pelvic lifts, and push-up plus exercise using slings while standing on an Aero-Step and performed hip extension parallel squats (Wall Gym Ball), and standing press-ups on a Togu using their own weight. The subjects performed four sets of these isometric exercises while maintaining an exercise time per set at 30 seconds in each session and repeated this session three times per week. [Result] Left grip strength significantly increased and number of sit-ups, which indicates muscle endurance, also significantly increased after the eight weeks exercise compared with before the exercise. The values measured during the sit and reach test, which indicate flexibility, also significantly increase after the eight weeks of exercise compared with before the exercise but only in the left foot. [Conclusion] The result of present study suggest that active core exercise using Slings and Togus can be applied as a very effective exercise program for enhancing balance, which is an important physical factor for Taekwondo club students.

  14. Removing Cool Cores and Central Metallicity Peaks in Galaxy Clusters with Powerful Active Galactic Nucleus Outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fulai; Mathews, William G.

    2010-07-01

    Recent X-ray observations of galaxy clusters suggest that cluster populations are bimodally distributed according to central gas entropy and are separated into two distinct classes: cool core (CC) and non-cool core (NCC) clusters. While it is widely accepted that active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback plays a key role in offsetting radiative losses and maintaining many clusters in the CC state, the origin of NCC clusters is much less clear. At the same time, a handful of extremely powerful AGN outbursts have recently been detected in clusters, with a total energy ~1061-1062 erg. Using two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we show that if a large fraction of this energy is deposited near the centers of CC clusters, which is likely common due to dense cores, these AGN outbursts can completely remove CCs, transforming them to NCC clusters. Our model also has interesting implications for cluster abundance profiles, which usually show a central peak in CC systems. Our calculations indicate that during the CC to NCC transformation, AGN outbursts efficiently mix metals in cluster central regions and may even remove central abundance peaks if they are not broad enough. For CC clusters with broad central abundance peaks, AGN outbursts decrease peak abundances, but cannot effectively destroy the peaks. Our model may simultaneously explain the contradictory (possibly bimodal) results of abundance profiles in NCC clusters, some of which are nearly flat, while others have strong central peaks similar to those in CC clusters. A statistical analysis of the sizes of central abundance peaks and their redshift evolution may shed interesting insights on the origin of both types of NCC clusters and the evolution history of thermodynamics and AGN activity in clusters.

  15. Structure-Function Analysis of the Drosophila melanogaster Caudal Transcription Factor Provides Insights into Core Promoter-preferential Activation.

    PubMed

    Shir-Shapira, Hila; Sharabany, Julia; Filderman, Matan; Ideses, Diana; Ovadia-Shochat, Avital; Mannervik, Mattias; Juven-Gershon, Tamar

    2015-07-10

    Regulation of RNA polymerase II transcription is critical for the proper development, differentiation, and growth of an organism. The RNA polymerase II core promoter is the ultimate target of a multitude of transcription factors that control transcription initiation. Core promoters encompass the RNA start site and consist of functional elements such as the TATA box, initiator, and downstream core promoter element (DPE), which confer specific properties to the core promoter. We have previously discovered that Drosophila Caudal, which is a master regulator of genes involved in development and differentiation, is a DPE-specific transcriptional activator. Here, we show that the mouse Caudal-related homeobox (Cdx) proteins (mCdx1, mCdx2, and mCdx4) are also preferential core promoter transcriptional activators. To elucidate the mechanism that enables Caudal to preferentially activate DPE transcription, we performed structure-function analysis. Using a systematic series of deletion mutants (all containing the intact DNA-binding homeodomain) we discovered that the C-terminal region of Caudal contributes to the preferential activation of the fushi tarazu (ftz) Caudal target gene. Furthermore, the region containing both the homeodomain and the C terminus of Caudal was sufficient to confer core promoter-preferential activation to the heterologous GAL4 DNA-binding domain. Importantly, we discovered that Drosophila CREB-binding protein (dCBP) is a co-activator for Caudal-regulated activation of ftz. Strikingly, dCBP conferred the ability to preferentially activate the DPE-dependent ftz reporter to mini-Caudal proteins that were unable to preferentially activate ftz transcription themselves. Taken together, it is the unique combination of dCBP and Caudal that enables the co-activation of ftz in a core promoter-preferential manner.

  16. A Common Core for Active Conceptual Modeling for Learning from Surprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddle, Stephen W.; Embley, David W.

    The new field of active conceptual modeling for learning from surprises (ACM-L) may be helpful in preserving life, protecting property, and improving quality of life. The conceptual modeling community has developed sound theory and practices for conceptual modeling that, if properly applied, could help analysts model and predict more accurately. In particular, we need to associate more semantics with links, and we need fully reified high-level objects and relationships that have a clear, formal underlying semantics that follows a natural, ontological approach. We also need to capture more dynamic aspects in our conceptual models to more accurately model complex, dynamic systems. These concepts already exist, and the theory is well developed; what remains is to link them with the ideas needed to predict system evolution, thus enabling risk assessment and response planning. No single researcher or research group will be able to achieve this ambitious vision alone. As a starting point, we recommend that the nascent ACM-L community agree on a common core model that supports all aspects—static and dynamic—needed for active conceptual modeling in support of learning from surprises. A common core will more likely gain the traction needed to sustain the extended ACM-L research effort that will yield the advertised benefits of learning from surprises.

  17. CAN A LONG NANOFLARE STORM EXPLAIN THE OBSERVED EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ACTIVE REGION CORES?

    SciTech Connect

    Mulu-Moore, Fana M.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Warren, Harry P.

    2011-11-20

    All theories that attempt to explain the heating of the high-temperature plasma observed in the solar corona are based on short bursts of energy. The intensities and velocities measured in the cores of quiescent active regions, however, can be steady over many hours of observation. One heating scenario that has been proposed to reconcile such observations with impulsive heating models is the 'long nanoflare storm', where short-duration heating events occur infrequently on many sub-resolution strands; the emission of the strands is then averaged together to explain the observed steady structures. In this Letter, we examine the emission measure distribution predicted for such a long nanoflare storm by modeling an arcade of strands in an active region core. Comparisons of the computed emission measure distributions with recent observations indicate that the long nanoflare storm scenario implies greater than five times more 1 MK emission than is actually observed for all plausible combinations of loop lengths, heating rates, and abundances. We conjecture that if the plasma had 'super coronal' abundances, the model may be able to match the observations at low temperatures.

  18. Improved Methods for Estimating Microbial Activity and Moisture Characteristic Curves in Intact Unsaturated Soil Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. N.; Baker, K. E.

    2001-12-01

    Estimation of microbial activity in soils is a complex and often difficult process. In this work, we describe several new and innovative methods we have developed to measure microbial respiration in intact cores of unsaturated soils. The ultimate goal of this work is to predict the effect of microbial activity on contaminant mobility via CO2 generation in variably saturated vadose zone soils. This goal requires estimation of the effect of available water (i.e. in pores accessible to the microbes) on the microbial activity, and thus a homogeneous distribution of substrate throughout the soil water. Prior studies have added substrate solution drop wise to the soil, and then distributed the substrate throughout the soil by mixing. While this method distributes the substrate well, it alters the in situ pore volume distribution and has been shown to result in an anomalously high degree of microbial activity shortly after mixing. Traditional methods for uniformly distributing substrate in intact unsaturated soils require days to weeks to reach equilibrium. Since the substrate would be completely consumed in this time frame, an innovative approach is being used in this study to drain intact soil cores to the desired moisture contents in a matter of hours. This approach involves the use of the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFAT). In the method, the samples are vacuum saturated under refrigeration to uniformly distribute a 14C-labeled substrate throughout the soil water, drained to various pressures in the UFA, and transferred to a sealed container and incubated. The labeled 14CO2 is then trapped and counted after incubation to determine microbial activity. Since the soil used in this study contains a high percentage of swelling clays, the cores tend to compact in the UFA, altering the macropore volume distribution. To address this alteration, we developed a correction function to correct the UFA-measured pore volume distribution at each rotational speed. Finally, the high

  19. The evolutionarily conserved core design of the catalytic activation step of the yeast spliceosome.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Patrizia; Dannenberg, Julia; Dube, Prakash; Kastner, Berthold; Stark, Holger; Urlaub, Henning; Lührmann, Reinhard

    2009-11-25

    Metazoan spliceosomes exhibit an elaborate protein composition required for canonical and alternative splicing. Thus, the minimal set of proteins essential for activation and catalysis remains elusive. We therefore purified in vitro assembled, precatalytic spliceosomal complex B, activated B(act), and step 1 complex C from the simple eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mass spectrometry revealed that yeast spliceosomes contain fewer proteins than metazoans and that each functional stage is very homogeneous. Dramatic compositional changes convert B to B(act), which is composed of approximately 40 evolutionarily conserved proteins that organize the catalytic core. Additional remodeling occurs concomitant with step 1, during which nine proteins are recruited to form complex C. The moderate number of proteins recruited to complex C will allow investigations of the chemical reactions in a fully defined system. Electron microscopy reveals high-quality images of yeast spliceosomes at defined functional stages, indicating that they are well-suited for three-dimensional structure analyses.

  20. The combined effects of electrojet strength and the geomagnetic activity (Kp-index) on the post sunset height rise of the F-layer and its role in the generation of ESF during high and low solar activity periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulasi Ram, S.; Rama Rao, P. V. S.; Prasad, D. S. V. V. D.; Niranjan, K.; Raja Babu, A.; Sridharan, R.; Devasia, C. V.; Ravindran, Sudha

    2007-10-01

    Several investigations have been carried out to identify the factors that are responsible for the day-to-day variability in the occurrence of equatorial spread-F (ESF). But the precise forecasting of ESF on a day-to-day basis is still far from reality. The nonlinear development and the sustenance of ESF/plasma bubbles is decided by the background ionospheric conditions, such as the base height of the F-layer (h'F), the electron density gradient (dN/dz), maximum ionization density (Nmax), geomagnetic activity and the neutral dynamics. There is increasing evidence in the literature during the recent past that shows a well developed Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) during the afternoon hours contributes significantly to the initiation of ESF during the post-sunset hours. Also, there exists a good correlation between the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) and the Integrated Equatorial ElectroJet (IEEJ) strength, as the driving force for both is the same, namely, the zonal electric field at the equator. In this paper, we present a linear relationship that exists between the daytime integrated equatorial electrojet (IEEJ) strength and the maximum elevated height of the F-layer during post-sunset hours (denoted as peak h'F). An inverse relationship that exists between the 6-h average Kp-index prior to the local sunset and the peak h'F of the F-layer is also presented. A systematic study on the combined effects of the IEEJ and the average Kp-index on the post-sunset, peak height of the F-layer (peak h'F), which controls the development of ESF/plasma bubbles, is carried out using the ionosonde data from an equatorial station, Trivandrum (8.47° N, 76.91° E, dip.lat. 0.5° N), an off-equatorial station, SHAR (13.6° N, 79.8° E, dip.lat. 10.8° N) and VHF scintillations (244 MHz) observed over a nearby low-latitude station, Waltair (17.7° N, 83.3° E, dip.lat. 20° N). From this study, it has been found that the threshold base height of the F-layer at the equator for

  1. Preservice Secondary Teachers' Conceptions from a Mathematical Modeling Activity and Connections to the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohlmann, Micah; Maiorca, Cathrine; Olson, Travis A.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is an essential integrated piece of the Common Core State Standards. However, researchers have shown that mathematical modeling activities can be difficult for teachers to implement. Teachers are more likely to implement mathematical modeling activities if they have their own successful experiences with such activities. This…

  2. The role of the traveling planetary wave ionospheric disturbances on the equatorial F region post-sunset height rise during the last extreme low solar activity and comparison with high solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abreu, A. J.; Fagundes, P. R.; Bolzan, M. J. A.; de Jesus, R.; Pillat, V. G.; Abalde, J. R.; Lima, W. L. C.

    2014-06-01

    This investigation studies traveling planetary wave ionospheric disturbance (TPWID) type oscillations on the modulation of the F region post-sunset height rise during the electric field pre-reversal enhancement (PRE). The studied period, from January 2009 to April 2010, occurred during the extremely low solar activity, when the averaged F10.7 was 73 [W/m2 Hz]. In addition, the results are compared with those for a high solar activity period of 2003. We present ionospheric sounding observations carried out near equatorial region (Palmas 10.2°S, 48.2°W, dip latitude 5.5°S) and low latitude region (São José dos Campos 23.2°S, 45.9°W, dip latitude 17.6°S; located under the southern crest of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly) in the Brazilian sector. The studies found that the magnitude of the electric field during PRE time and consequently the day-to-day variations of the F region virtual height at equatorial region and low latitude are modulated by waves with periods of around 3-4, 5-6, 10-15, and 24-35 days. The observations show that during low solar activity, the TPWID oscillations are lower than during high solar activity, but with the same amplitude around 200 km. The TPWID long period oscillations of around 27 days present very distinct characteristics at the equatorial region and low latitude, indicating that these regions are not directly connected. Our study also shows that the response to the TPWID short period of around 3-4, 5-6, and 10-15 days at the equatorial region and low latitude present very clear coupling during January-February, 2009, possibly due to the sudden stratospheric warming and TPWID mechanisms.

  3. [Feeding activity, spontaneous activity and body core temperature of saddle-back tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis)].

    PubMed

    Petry, H

    1991-02-01

    Eating behaviour and spontaneous activity (videometry) as well as deep body temperature (radiotelemetry) of 3 adult Saddle Back Tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis) were investigated (singly housed, environmental temperature 28 degrees C, relative air humidity 60%, light 6:00-18:00 h, drinking-water and pelleted colony diet ad lib.). The experimental animals (1 female, 2 males; 3-8 years old), born in captivity, showed only some slight individual differences within their inborn species pattern, with regard to the 3 measured parameters. The monkeys were, like wild-living individuals, strictly light-active. They moved in the day-time nearly uninterrupted without special rhythm and slept remarkably deep through the whole night. Food intake occurred during the whole day with varying intensity. The body temperature of the 3 monkeys showed individual daytime-means between 38.8-39.9 degrees C, whereby the temperature fluctuated dependent on their moving activity with a range of about +/- 0.5 degrees C. At night the body temperature of the animals averaged between 35.9-36.6 degrees C.

  4. Sequences flanking the core-binding site modulate glucocorticoid receptor structure and activity

    PubMed Central

    Schöne, Stefanie; Jurk, Marcel; Helabad, Mahdi Bagherpoor; Dror, Iris; Lebars, Isabelle; Kieffer, Bruno; Imhof, Petra; Rohs, Remo; Vingron, Martin; Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H.

    2016-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binds as a homodimer to genomic response elements, which have particular sequence and shape characteristics. Here we show that the nucleotides directly flanking the core-binding site, differ depending on the strength of GR-dependent activation of nearby genes. Our study indicates that these flanking nucleotides change the three-dimensional structure of the DNA-binding site, the DNA-binding domain of GR and the quaternary structure of the dimeric complex. Functional studies in a defined genomic context show that sequence-induced changes in GR activity cannot be explained by differences in GR occupancy. Rather, mutating the dimerization interface mitigates DNA-induced changes in both activity and structure, arguing for a role of DNA-induced structural changes in modulating GR activity. Together, our study shows that DNA sequence identity of genomic binding sites modulates GR activity downstream of binding, which may play a role in achieving regulatory specificity towards individual target genes. PMID:27581526

  5. Sequences flanking the core-binding site modulate glucocorticoid receptor structure and activity.

    PubMed

    Schöne, Stefanie; Jurk, Marcel; Helabad, Mahdi Bagherpoor; Dror, Iris; Lebars, Isabelle; Kieffer, Bruno; Imhof, Petra; Rohs, Remo; Vingron, Martin; Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H

    2016-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binds as a homodimer to genomic response elements, which have particular sequence and shape characteristics. Here we show that the nucleotides directly flanking the core-binding site, differ depending on the strength of GR-dependent activation of nearby genes. Our study indicates that these flanking nucleotides change the three-dimensional structure of the DNA-binding site, the DNA-binding domain of GR and the quaternary structure of the dimeric complex. Functional studies in a defined genomic context show that sequence-induced changes in GR activity cannot be explained by differences in GR occupancy. Rather, mutating the dimerization interface mitigates DNA-induced changes in both activity and structure, arguing for a role of DNA-induced structural changes in modulating GR activity. Together, our study shows that DNA sequence identity of genomic binding sites modulates GR activity downstream of binding, which may play a role in achieving regulatory specificity towards individual target genes. PMID:27581526

  6. Applications of MODIS Fluorescence Line Height Measurements to Monitor Water Quality Trends and Algal Bloom Activity in Coastal and Estuarine Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A.; Ryan, J. P.; Moreno-Madriñán, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Recent advances in satellite and airborne remote sensing, such as improvements in sensor and algorithm calibrations and atmospheric correction procedures have provided for increased coverage of remote-sensing, ocean color products for coastal regions. In particular, for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), calibration updates, improved aerosol retrievals, and new aerosol models have led to improved atmospheric correction algorithms for turbid waters and have improved the retrieval of ocean-color. This has opened the way for studying coastal ocean phenomena and processes at finer spatial scales. Human population growth and changes in coastal management practices have brought about significant changes in the concentrations of organic and inorganic, particulate and dissolved substances entering the coastal ocean. There is increasing concern that these inputs have led to declines in water quality and increases in local concentrations of phytoplankton, which could result in harmful algal blooms. In two case studies we present improved and validated MODIS coastal observations of fluorescence line height (FLH) to: (1) assess trends in water quality for Tampa Bay, Florida; and (2) illustrate seasonal and annual variability of algal bloom activity in Monterey Bay, California, as well as document estuarine/riverine plume induced red tide events. In a comprehensive analysis of long term (2003-2011) in situ monitoring data and imagery from Tampa Bay, we assess the validity of the MODIS FLH product against chlorophyll-a and a suite of water quality parameters taken in a variety of conditions throughout this large, optically complex estuarine system. A systematic analysis of sampling sites throughout the bay illustrates that the correlations between FLH and in situ chlorophyll-a are influenced by water quality parameters of total nitrogen, total phosphorous, turbidity and biological oxygen demand. Sites that correlated well with satellite imagery were in depths

  7. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK AND ENTROPY INJECTION IN GALAXY CLUSTER CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, Anya; Majumdar, Subhabrata; Nath, Biman B. E-mail: subha@tifr.res.in

    2013-10-20

    We make the first estimate of non-gravitational energy profiles in galaxy cluster cores (and beyond) based on observational data. Comparing the observed entropy profiles within r{sub 500}, from the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey to simulated base entropy profiles without feedback from both adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) and smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) non-radiative simulations, we estimate the amount of additional non-gravitational energy, E{sub ICM}, contained in the intracluster medium (ICM), as well as the total energy feedback, E{sub Feedback}, from active galactic nuclei (AGNs; the central AGNs in most cases) into the clusters. The total feedback energy scales with the mean spectroscopic temperature as E{sub Feedback}∝T{sub sp}{sup 2.52±0.08} and E{sub Feedback}∝T{sub sp}{sup 2.17±0.11} for the SPH and AMR baseline profiles. The mean non-gravitational energy per particle within r{sub 500} remaining in the ICM after energy lost during cooling is ε{sub ICM} = 2.8 ± 0.8 keV for the SPH theoretical relation and ε{sub ICM} = 1.7 ± 0.9 keV for the AMR theoretical relation. We use the NRAO/VLA Sky Survey source catalog to determine the radio luminosity, L{sub R} , at 1.4 GHz of the central source(s) of our sample. For T{sub sp} > 3 keV, the E{sub Feedback} correlates with L{sub R} , although with different normalization for cool-core and non-cool-core clusters. We show that AGNs could provide a significant portion of the feedback.

  8. An ionizable active-site tryptophan imparts catalase activity to a peroxidase core.

    PubMed

    Loewen, Peter C; Carpena, Xavi; Vidossich, Pietro; Fita, Ignacio; Rovira, Carme

    2014-05-21

    Catalase peroxidases (KatG's) are bifunctional heme proteins that can disproportionate hydrogen peroxide (catalatic reaction) despite their structural dissimilarity with monofunctional catalases. Using X-ray crystallography and QM/MM calculations, we demonstrate that the catalatic reaction of KatG's involves deprotonation of the active-site Trp, which plays a role similar to that of the distal His in monofunctional catalases. The interaction of a nearby mobile arginine with the distal Met-Tyr-Trp essential adduct (in/out) acts as an electronic switch, triggering deprotonation of the adduct Trp.

  9. DIAGNOSING THE TIME DEPENDENCE OF ACTIVE REGION CORE HEATING FROM THE EMISSION MEASURE. II. NANOFLARE TRAINS

    SciTech Connect

    Reep, J. W.; Bradshaw, S. J.; Klimchuk, J. A. E-mail: stephen.bradshaw@rice.edu

    2013-02-20

    The time dependence of heating in solar active regions can be studied by analyzing the slope of the emission measure distribution coolward of the peak. In a previous study we showed that low-frequency heating can account for 0% to 77% of active region core emission measures. We now turn our attention to heating by a finite succession of impulsive events for which the timescale between events on a single magnetic strand is shorter than the cooling timescale. We refer to this scenario as a 'nanoflare train' and explore a parameter space of heating and coronal loop properties with a hydrodynamic model. Our conclusions are (1) nanoflare trains are consistent with 86% to 100% of observed active region cores when uncertainties in the atomic data are properly accounted for; (2) steeper slopes are found for larger values of the ratio of the train duration {Delta} {sub H} to the post-train cooling and draining timescale {Delta} {sub C}, where {Delta} {sub H} depends on the number of heating events, the event duration and the time interval between successive events ({tau} {sub C}); (3) {tau} {sub C} may be diagnosed from the width of the hot component of the emission measure provided that the temperature bins are much smaller than 0.1 dex; (4) the slope of the emission measure alone is not sufficient to provide information about any timescale associated with heating-the length and density of the heated structure must be measured for {Delta} {sub H} to be uniquely extracted from the ratio {Delta} {sub H}/{Delta} {sub C}.

  10. Rare earth elements in core marine sediments of coastal East Malaysia by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Ahmadreza; Saion, Elias; Gharibshahi, Elham; Kamari, Halimah Mohamed; Kong, Yap Chee; Hamzah, Mohd Suhaimi; Elias, Md Suhaimi

    2016-01-01

    A study was carried out on the concentration of REEs (Dy, Sm, Eu,Yb, Lu, La and Ce) that are present in the core marine sediments of East Malaysia from three locations at South China Sea and one location each at Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea. The sediment samples were collected at a depth of between 49 and 109 m, dried, and crushed to powdery form. The entire core sediments prepared for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) were weighted approximately 0.0500 g to 0.1000 g for short irradiation and 0.1500 g to 0.2000 g for long irradiation. The samples were irradiated with a thermal neutron flux of 4.0×10(12) cm(-2) s(-1) in a TRIGA Mark II research reactor operated at 750 kW. Blank samples and standard reference materials SL-1 were also irradiated for calibration and quality control purposes. It was found that the concentration of REEs varies in the range from 0.11 to 36.84 mg/kg. The chondrite-normalized REEs for different stations suggest that all the REEs are from similar origins. There was no significant REEs contamination as the enrichment factors normalized for Fe fall in the range of 0.42-2.82. PMID:26405840

  11. Radiocarbon evidence of active endolithic microbial communities in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowski, Lori A; Wierzchos, Jacek; Davila, Alfonso F; Slater, Gregory F

    2013-07-01

    The hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert is one of the driest and most inhospitable places on Earth, where life is most commonly found in the interior of rocks (i.e., endolithic habitats). Due to the extreme dryness, microbial activity in these habitats is expected to be low; however, the rate of carbon cycling within these microbial communities remains unknown. We address this issue by characterizing the isotopic composition ((13)C and (14)C) of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and glycolipid fatty acids (GLFA) in colonized rocks from four different sites inside the hyperarid core. δ(13)C results suggest that autotrophy and/or quantitative conversion of organic matter to CO2 are the dominant processes occurring with the rock. Most Δ(14)C signatures of PLFA and GLFA were consistent with modern atmospheric CO2, indicating that endoliths are using atmospheric carbon as a primary carbon source and are also cycling carbon quickly. However, at one site the PLFA contained (14)C from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing that occurred during the 1950s and 1960s, indicating a decadal rate of carbon cycling. At the driest site (Yungay), based on the relative abundance and (14)C content of GLFA and PLFA, there was evidence of possible preservation. Hence, in low-moisture conditions, glycolipids may persist while phospholipids are preferentially hydrolyzed.

  12. Core microbial functional activities in ocean environments revealed by global metagenomic profiling analyses.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ari J S; Siam, Rania; Setubal, João C; Moustafa, Ahmed; Sayed, Ahmed; Chambergo, Felipe S; Dawe, Adam S; Ghazy, Mohamed A; Sharaf, Hazem; Ouf, Amged; Alam, Intikhab; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M; Lehvaslaiho, Heikki; Ramadan, Eman; Antunes, André; Stingl, Ulrich; Archer, John A C; Jankovic, Boris R; Sogin, Mitchell; Bajic, Vladimir B; El-Dorry, Hamza

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics-based functional profiling analysis is an effective means of gaining deeper insight into the composition of marine microbial populations and developing a better understanding of the interplay between the functional genome content of microbial communities and abiotic factors. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 24 datasets covering surface and depth-related environments at 11 sites around the world's oceans. The complete datasets comprises approximately 12 million sequences, totaling 5,358 Mb. Based on profiling patterns of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) of proteins, a core set of reference photic and aphotic depth-related COGs, and a collection of COGs that are associated with extreme oxygen limitation were defined. Their inferred functions were utilized as indicators to characterize the distribution of light- and oxygen-related biological activities in marine environments. The results reveal that, while light level in the water column is a major determinant of phenotypic adaptation in marine microorganisms, oxygen concentration in the aphotic zone has a significant impact only in extremely hypoxic waters. Phylogenetic profiling of the reference photic/aphotic gene sets revealed a greater variety of source organisms in the aphotic zone, although the majority of individual photic and aphotic depth-related COGs are assigned to the same taxa across the different sites. This increase in phylogenetic and functional diversity of the core aphotic related COGs most probably reflects selection for the utilization of a broad range of alternate energy sources in the absence of light.

  13. Radiocarbon Evidence of Active Endolithic Microbial Communities in the Hyperarid Core of the Atacama Desert

    PubMed Central

    Wierzchos, Jacek; Davila, Alfonso F.; Slater, Gregory F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert is one of the driest and most inhospitable places on Earth, where life is most commonly found in the interior of rocks (i.e., endolithic habitats). Due to the extreme dryness, microbial activity in these habitats is expected to be low; however, the rate of carbon cycling within these microbial communities remains unknown. We address this issue by characterizing the isotopic composition (13C and 14C) of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and glycolipid fatty acids (GLFA) in colonized rocks from four different sites inside the hyperarid core. δ13C results suggest that autotrophy and/or quantitative conversion of organic matter to CO2 are the dominant processes occurring with the rock. Most Δ14C signatures of PLFA and GLFA were consistent with modern atmospheric CO2, indicating that endoliths are using atmospheric carbon as a primary carbon source and are also cycling carbon quickly. However, at one site the PLFA contained 14C from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing that occurred during the 1950s and 1960s, indicating a decadal rate of carbon cycling. At the driest site (Yungay), based on the relative abundance and 14C content of GLFA and PLFA, there was evidence of possible preservation. Hence, in low-moisture conditions, glycolipids may persist while phospholipids are preferentially hydrolyzed. Key Words: Endoliths—Extremophile—Carbon isotopes—Radiocarbon—Lipids. Astrobiology 13, 607–616. PMID:23848470

  14. OUTFLOWS AND DARK BANDS AT ARCADE-LIKE ACTIVE REGION CORE BOUNDARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J. T.; Martens, P. C. H.; Tarr, L.

    2013-03-10

    Observations from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board Hinode have revealed outflows and non-thermal line broadening in low intensity regions at the edges of active regions (ARs). We use data from Hinode's EIS, Solar Dynamic Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, and the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer instrument to investigate the boundaries of arcade-like AR cores for NOAA ARs 11112, 10978, and 9077. A narrow, low intensity region that is observed at the core's periphery as a dark band shows outflows and increased spectral line broadening. This dark band is found to exist for days and appears between the bright coronal loop structures of different coronal topologies. We find a case where the dark band region is formed between the magnetic field from emerging flux and the field of the pre-existing flux. A magnetic field extrapolation indicates that this dark band is coincident with the spine lines or magnetic separatrices in the extrapolated field. This occurs over unipolar regions where the brightened coronal field is separated in connectivity and topology. This separation does not appear to be infinitesimal and an initial estimate of the minimum distance of separation is found to be Almost-Equal-To 1.5-3.5 Mm.

  15. Rare earth elements in core marine sediments of coastal East Malaysia by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Ahmadreza; Saion, Elias; Gharibshahi, Elham; Kamari, Halimah Mohamed; Kong, Yap Chee; Hamzah, Mohd Suhaimi; Elias, Md Suhaimi

    2016-01-01

    A study was carried out on the concentration of REEs (Dy, Sm, Eu,Yb, Lu, La and Ce) that are present in the core marine sediments of East Malaysia from three locations at South China Sea and one location each at Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea. The sediment samples were collected at a depth of between 49 and 109 m, dried, and crushed to powdery form. The entire core sediments prepared for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) were weighted approximately 0.0500 g to 0.1000 g for short irradiation and 0.1500 g to 0.2000 g for long irradiation. The samples were irradiated with a thermal neutron flux of 4.0×10(12) cm(-2) s(-1) in a TRIGA Mark II research reactor operated at 750 kW. Blank samples and standard reference materials SL-1 were also irradiated for calibration and quality control purposes. It was found that the concentration of REEs varies in the range from 0.11 to 36.84 mg/kg. The chondrite-normalized REEs for different stations suggest that all the REEs are from similar origins. There was no significant REEs contamination as the enrichment factors normalized for Fe fall in the range of 0.42-2.82.

  16. Nanodisco Balls: Control over Surface versus Core Loading of Diagnostically Active Nanocrystals into Polymer Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles of complex architectures can have unique properties. Self-assembly of spherical nanocrystals is a high yielding route to such systems. In this study, we report the self-assembly of a polymer and nanocrystals into aggregates, where the location of the nanocrystals can be controlled to be either at the surface or in the core. These nanospheres, when surface decorated with nanocrystals, resemble disco balls, thus the term nanodisco balls. We studied the mechanism of this surface loading phenomenon and found it to be Ca2+ dependent. We also investigated whether excess phospholipids could prevent nanocrystal adherence. We found surface loading to occur with a variety of nanocrystal types including iron oxide nanoparticles, quantum dots, and nanophosphors, as well as sizes (10–30 nm) and shapes. Additionally, surface loading occurred over a range of polymer molecular weights (∼30–3000 kDa) and phospholipid carbon tail length. We also show that nanocrystals remain diagnostically active after loading onto the polymer nanospheres, i.e., providing contrast in the case of magnetic resonance imaging for iron oxide nanoparticles and fluorescence for quantum dots. Last, we demonstrated that a fluorescently labeled protein model drug can be delivered by surface loaded nanospheres. We present a platform for contrast media delivery, with the unusual feature that the payload can be controllably localized to the core or the surface. PMID:25188401

  17. Radiocarbon evidence of active endolithic microbial communities in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowski, Lori A; Wierzchos, Jacek; Davila, Alfonso F; Slater, Gregory F

    2013-07-01

    The hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert is one of the driest and most inhospitable places on Earth, where life is most commonly found in the interior of rocks (i.e., endolithic habitats). Due to the extreme dryness, microbial activity in these habitats is expected to be low; however, the rate of carbon cycling within these microbial communities remains unknown. We address this issue by characterizing the isotopic composition ((13)C and (14)C) of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and glycolipid fatty acids (GLFA) in colonized rocks from four different sites inside the hyperarid core. δ(13)C results suggest that autotrophy and/or quantitative conversion of organic matter to CO2 are the dominant processes occurring with the rock. Most Δ(14)C signatures of PLFA and GLFA were consistent with modern atmospheric CO2, indicating that endoliths are using atmospheric carbon as a primary carbon source and are also cycling carbon quickly. However, at one site the PLFA contained (14)C from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing that occurred during the 1950s and 1960s, indicating a decadal rate of carbon cycling. At the driest site (Yungay), based on the relative abundance and (14)C content of GLFA and PLFA, there was evidence of possible preservation. Hence, in low-moisture conditions, glycolipids may persist while phospholipids are preferentially hydrolyzed. PMID:23848470

  18. Modeling active galactic nucleus feedback in cool-core clusters: The formation of cold clumps

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuan; Bryan, Greg L.

    2014-07-10

    We perform high-resolution (15-30 pc) adaptive mesh simulations to study the impact of momentum-driven active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in cool-core clusters, focusing in this paper on the formation of cold clumps. The feedback is jet-driven with an energy determined by the amount of cold gas within 500 pc of the super-massive black hole. When the intracluster medium in the core of the cluster becomes marginally stable to radiative cooling, with the thermal instability to the free-fall timescale ratio t{sub TI}/t{sub ff} < 3-10, cold clumps of gas start to form along the propagation direction of the AGN jets. By tracing the particles in the simulations, we find that these cold clumps originate from low entropy (but still hot) gas that is accelerated by the jet to outward radial velocities of a few hundred km s{sup –1}. This gas is out of hydrostatic equilibrium and so can cool. The clumps then grow larger as they decelerate and fall toward the center of the cluster, eventually being accreted onto the super-massive black hole. The general morphology, spatial distribution, and estimated Hα morphology of the clumps are in reasonable agreement with observations, although we do not fully replicate the filamentary morphology of the clumps seen in the observations, probably due to missing physics.

  19. Modeling Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback in Cool-core Clusters: The Formation of Cold Clumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Bryan, Greg L.

    2014-07-01

    We perform high-resolution (15-30 pc) adaptive mesh simulations to study the impact of momentum-driven active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in cool-core clusters, focusing in this paper on the formation of cold clumps. The feedback is jet-driven with an energy determined by the amount of cold gas within 500 pc of the super-massive black hole. When the intracluster medium in the core of the cluster becomes marginally stable to radiative cooling, with the thermal instability to the free-fall timescale ratio t TI/t ff < 3-10, cold clumps of gas start to form along the propagation direction of the AGN jets. By tracing the particles in the simulations, we find that these cold clumps originate from low entropy (but still hot) gas that is accelerated by the jet to outward radial velocities of a few hundred km s-1. This gas is out of hydrostatic equilibrium and so can cool. The clumps then grow larger as they decelerate and fall toward the center of the cluster, eventually being accreted onto the super-massive black hole. The general morphology, spatial distribution, and estimated Hα morphology of the clumps are in reasonable agreement with observations, although we do not fully replicate the filamentary morphology of the clumps seen in the observations, probably due to missing physics.

  20. Crystalline/amorphous Ni/NiO core/shell nanosheets as highly active electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiaodong; Tian, Lihong; Chen, Xiaobo

    2015-12-01

    Novel crystalline/amorphous core/shell Ni/NiO nanosheets have shown a high electrocatalytic activity in hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). In 1 M KOH, they display an HER current of 5 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 110 mV with a good stability. It is proposed that their excellent HER performance is achieved through the synergistic effect between the Ni core and the amorphous NiO shell, where the Ni core can reduce the resistance and the amorphous NiO shell can accelerate both Volmer and Heyrovsky processes to drive HER at low overpotentials.

  1. High energy neutrinos from primary cosmic rays accelerated in the cores of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Done, C.; Salamon, M. H.; Sommers, P.

    1991-01-01

    The spectra and high-energy neutrino fluxes are calculated from photomeson production in active galactic nuclei (AGN) such as quasars and Seyfert galaxies using recent UV and X-ray observations to define the photon fields and an accretion-disk shock-acceleration model for producing ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays in the AGN. Collectively AGN should produce the dominant isotropic neutrino background between 10 exp 4 and 10 exp 10 GeV. Measurement of this background could be critical in determining the energy-generation mechanism, evolution, and distribution of AGN. High-energy background spectra and spectra from bright AGN such as NGC4151 and 3C273 are predicted which should be observable with present detectors. High energy AGN nus should produce a sphere of stellar disruption around their cores which could explain their observed broad-line emission regions.

  2. Temperature Analysis of an Active Region Core Loop Using AIA and XRT Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garst, Jennifer W.; Schmelz, J.; Kimble, J.

    2012-05-01

    Data obtained on December 10, 2010 by both the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) are co-aligned and appropriately scaled in order to do a differential emission measure analysis of the combined data. This project uses Hybrid abundances from Fludra & Schmelz and atomic data from the CHIANTI atomic physics database to analyze an active region core loop and report on the multithermal analysis of the combined data set. The loop being analyzed is visible in the 94, 131, 171, 193, 211, 335 Å passbands on AIA; and the Al-thick, Ti-poly, Al-mesh, Al-poly/Ti-poly, C-Poly/Ti-poly, C-poly, Be-thin, Be-med, Al-med, and Al-poly filters on XRT. Solar physics research at the University of Memphis is supported by NSF ATM-0402729 as well as a Hinode subcontract from NASA/SAO.

  3. Activities for Challenging Gifted Learners by Increasing Complexity in the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeone, Alyssa; Caruso, Lenora; Bettle, Kailyn; Chase, Ashley; Bryson, Bridget; Schneider, Jean S.; Rule, Audrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Gifted learners need opportunities for critical and creative thinking to stretch their minds and imaginations. Strategies for increasing complexity in the four core areas of language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies were addressed using the Common Core and Iowa Core Standards through several methods. Descriptive adjective object…

  4. Negative core affect and employee silence: How differences in activation, cognitive rumination, and problem-solving demands matter.

    PubMed

    Madrid, Hector P; Patterson, Malcolm G; Leiva, Pedro I

    2015-11-01

    Employees can help to improve organizational performance by sharing ideas, suggestions, or concerns about practices, but sometimes they keep silent because of the experience of negative affect. Drawing and expanding on this stream of research, this article builds a theoretical rationale based on core affect and cognitive appraisal theories to describe how differences in affect activation and boundary conditions associated with cognitive rumination and cognitive problem-solving demands can explain employee silence. Results of a diary study conducted with professionals from diverse organizations indicated that within-person low-activated negative core affect increased employee silence when, as an invariant factor, cognitive rumination was high. Furthermore, within-person high-activated negative core affect decreased employee silence when, as an invariant factor, cognitive problem-solving demand was high. Thus, organizations should manage conditions to reduce experiences of low-activated negative core affect because these feelings increase silence in individuals high in rumination. In turn, effective management of experiences of high-activated negative core affect can reduce silence for individuals working under high problem-solving demand situations.

  5. Structure-activity relationship of lipid core peptide-based Group A Streptococcus vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Chan, Amy; Hussein, Waleed M; Ghaffar, Khairunnisa Abdul; Marasini, Nirmal; Mostafa, Ahmed; Eskandari, Sharareh; Batzloff, Michael R; Good, Michael F; Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Toth, Istvan

    2016-07-15

    Infection with Group A Streptococcus (GAS) can result in a range of different illnesses, some of which are fatal. Currently, our efforts to develop a vaccine against GAS focuses on the lipid core peptide (LCP) system, a subunit vaccine containing a lipoamino acid (LAA) moiety which allows the stimulation of systemic antibody activity. In the present study, a peptide (J14) representing the B-cell epitope from the GAS M protein was incorporated alongside a universal T-helper epitope (P25) in four LCP constructs of different spatial orientation or LAA lengths. Through structure-activity studies, it was discovered that while the alteration of the LCP orientation had a weaker effect on immunostimulation, increasing the LAA side chain length within the construct increased antibody responses in murine models. Furthermore, the mice immunised with the lead LCP construct were also able to maintain antibody activity throughout the course of five months. These findings highlight the importance of LAA moieties in the development of intranasal peptide vaccines and confirmed that its side chain length has an effect on the immunogenicity of the structure. PMID:27246859

  6. A Conserved Hydrophobic Core in Gαi1 Regulates G Protein Activation and Release from Activated Receptor.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Ali I; Lokits, Alyssa D; Gilbert, James A; Iverson, T M; Meiler, Jens; Hamm, Heidi E

    2016-09-01

    G protein-coupled receptor-mediated heterotrimeric G protein activation is a major mode of signal transduction in the cell. Previously, we and other groups reported that the α5 helix of Gαi1, especially the hydrophobic interactions in this region, plays a key role during nucleotide release and G protein activation. To further investigate the effect of this hydrophobic core, we disrupted it in Gαi1 by inserting 4 alanine amino acids into the α5 helix between residues Gln(333) and Phe(334) (Ins4A). This extends the length of the α5 helix without disturbing the β6-α5 loop interactions. This mutant has high basal nucleotide exchange activity yet no receptor-mediated activation of nucleotide exchange. By using structural approaches, we show that this mutant loses critical hydrophobic interactions, leading to significant rearrangements of side chain residues His(57), Phe(189), Phe(191), and Phe(336); it also disturbs the rotation of the α5 helix and the π-π interaction between His(57) and Phe(189) In addition, the insertion mutant abolishes G protein release from the activated receptor after nucleotide binding. Our biochemical and computational data indicate that the interactions between α5, α1, and β2-β3 are not only vital for GDP release during G protein activation, but they are also necessary for proper GTP binding (or GDP rebinding). Thus, our studies suggest that this hydrophobic interface is critical for accurate rearrangement of the α5 helix for G protein release from the receptor after GTP binding.

  7. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events.

    Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania.

    The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of

  8. Effects of the CORE Exercise Program on Pain and Active Range of Motion in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hwi-Young; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Junesun

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify the effects of the CORE exercise program on pain and active range of motion (AROM) in patients with chronic low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects with chronic low back pain were randomly allocated to two groups: the CORE group (n = 15) and the control group (n = 15). The CORE group performed the CORE exercise program for 30 minutes a day, 3 times a week, for 4 weeks, while the control group did not perform any exercise. The visual analog scale (VAS) and an algometer were used to measure pain, and pain-free AROM in the trunk was measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The CORE group showed significantly decreased VAS scores at rest and during movement and had a significantly increased pressure pain threshold in the quadratus lumborum and AROM in the trunk compared with those in the control group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the CORE exercise program is effective in decreasing pain and increasing AROM in patients with chronic low back pain. Thus, the CORE exercise program can be used to manage pain and AROM in patients with chronic low back pain.

  9. Modeling active galactic nucleus feedback in cool-core clusters: The balance between heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuan; Bryan, Greg L.

    2014-07-01

    We study the long-term evolution of an idealized cool-core galaxy cluster under the influence of momentum-driven active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback using three-dimensional high-resolution (60 pc) adaptive mesh refinement simulations. The feedback is modeled with a pair of precessing jets whose power is calculated based on the accretion rate of the cold gas surrounding the supermassive black hole (SMBH). The intracluster medium first cools into clumps along the propagation direction of the jets. As the jet power increases, gas condensation occurs isotropically, forming spatially extended structures that resemble the observed Hα filaments in Perseus and many other cool-core clusters. Jet heating elevates the gas entropy, halting clump formation. The cold gas that is not accreted onto the SMBH settles into a rotating disk of ∼10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}. The hot gas cools directly onto the disk while the SMBH accretes from its innermost region, powering the AGN that maintains a thermally balanced state for a few Gyr. The mass cooling rate averaged over 7 Gyr is ∼30 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, an order of magnitude lower than the classic cooling flow value. Medium resolution simulations produce similar results, while in low resolution runs, the cluster experiences cycles of gas condensation and AGN outbursts. Owing to its self-regulating mechanism, AGN feedback can successfully balance cooling with a wide range of model parameters. Our model also produces cold structures in early stages that are in good agreement with the observations. However, the long-lived massive cold disk is unrealistic, suggesting that additional physical processes are still needed.

  10. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of eccentric Au-titania core-shell nanoparticles by block copolymer templates.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Fu, Xiaoning; Yang, Hui

    2011-02-21

    A novel route for a preparation of eccentric Au-titania core-shell nanoparticles using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with block copolymer shells as a template is reported. AuNPs with poly(2-vinyl pyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PVP-b-PEO) block copolymer shells are first prepared by UV irradiation of the solution of PVP-b-PEO/HAuCl(4) complexes. Then the sol-gel reaction of titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) selectively on the surfaces of AuNPs leads to Au-titania core-shell composite nanoparticles. The eccentric Au-titania core-shell nanoparticles are obtained from the Au-titania core-shell composite nanoparticles by removal of organic interlayer by UV treatment. Photocatalytic activities of the resulting eccentric core-shell nanoparticles are investigated in terms of the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results show that the eccentric core-shell structures endow the catalyst with greatly enhanced photocatalytic activity. PMID:21157597

  11. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-01-21

    An anticoincidence device is described for a pair of adjacent channels of a multi-channel pulse height analyzer for preventing the lower channel from generating a count pulse in response to an input pulse when the input pulse has sufficient magnitude to reach the upper level channel. The anticoincidence circuit comprises a window amplifier, upper and lower level discriminators, and a biased-off amplifier. The output of the window amplifier is coupled to the inputs of the discriminators, the output of the upper level discriminator is connected to the resistance end of a series R-C network, the output of the lower level discriminator is coupled to the capacitance end of the R-C network, and the grid of the biased-off amplifier is coupled to the junction of the R-C network. In operation each discriminator produces a negative pulse output when the input pulse traverses its voltage setting. As a result of the connections to the R-C network, a trigger pulse will be sent to the biased-off amplifier when the incoming pulse level is sufficient to trigger only the lower level discriminator.

  12. Core-shell nanocarriers with high paclitaxel loading for passive and active targeting

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhu; Lv, Yaqi; Cao, Hui; Yao, Jing; Zhou, Jianping; He, Wei; Yin, Lifang

    2016-01-01

    Rapid blood clearance and premature burst release are inherent drawbacks of conventional nanoparticles, resulting in poor tumor selectivity. iRGD peptide is widely recognized as an efficient cell membrane penetration peptide homing to αVβ3 integrins. Herein, core-shell nanocapsules (NCs) and iRGD-modified NCs (iRGD-NCs) with high drug payload for paclitaxel (PTX) were prepared to enhance the antitumor activities of chemotherapy agents with poor water solubility. Improved in vitro and in vivo tumor targeting and penetration were observed with NCs and iRGD-NCs; the latter exhibited better antitumor activity because iRGD enhanced the accumulation and penetration of NCs in tumors. The NCs were cytocompatible, histocompatible, and non-toxic to other healthy tissues. The endocytosis of NCs was mediated by lipid rafts in an energy-dependent manner, leading to better cytotoxicity of PTX against cancer cells. In contrast with commercial product, PTX-loaded NCs (PTX-NCs) increased area under concentration-time curve (AUC) by about 4-fold, prolonged mean resident time (MRT) by more than 8-fold and reduced the elimination rate constant by greater than 68-fold. In conclusion, the present nanocarriers with high drug-loading capacity represent an efficient tumor-targeting drug delivery system with promising potential for cancer therapy. PMID:27278751

  13. Core-shell nanocarriers with high paclitaxel loading for passive and active targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhu; Lv, Yaqi; Cao, Hui; Yao, Jing; Zhou, Jianping; He, Wei; Yin, Lifang

    2016-06-01

    Rapid blood clearance and premature burst release are inherent drawbacks of conventional nanoparticles, resulting in poor tumor selectivity. iRGD peptide is widely recognized as an efficient cell membrane penetration peptide homing to αVβ3 integrins. Herein, core-shell nanocapsules (NCs) and iRGD-modified NCs (iRGD-NCs) with high drug payload for paclitaxel (PTX) were prepared to enhance the antitumor activities of chemotherapy agents with poor water solubility. Improved in vitro and in vivo tumor targeting and penetration were observed with NCs and iRGD-NCs; the latter exhibited better antitumor activity because iRGD enhanced the accumulation and penetration of NCs in tumors. The NCs were cytocompatible, histocompatible, and non-toxic to other healthy tissues. The endocytosis of NCs was mediated by lipid rafts in an energy-dependent manner, leading to better cytotoxicity of PTX against cancer cells. In contrast with commercial product, PTX-loaded NCs (PTX-NCs) increased area under concentration-time curve (AUC) by about 4-fold, prolonged mean resident time (MRT) by more than 8-fold and reduced the elimination rate constant by greater than 68-fold. In conclusion, the present nanocarriers with high drug-loading capacity represent an efficient tumor-targeting drug delivery system with promising potential for cancer therapy.

  14. Differential involvement of the shell and core subterritories of the nucleus accumbens in latent inhibition and amphetamine-induced activity.

    PubMed

    Weiner, I; Gal, G; Rawlins, J N; Feldon, J

    1996-11-01

    Latent inhibition (LI) consists of retardation in conditioning to a stimulus as a consequence of its prior non-reinforced pre-exposure. In view of findings that LI is disrupted in acute schizophrenic patients and evidence from animal experiments pointing to the involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system in this phenomenon, the present study investigated the effects of electrolytic lesions to the shell and core subterritories of the nucleus accumbens on LI in rats (Expt. 1). LI was indexed by the amount of suppression of drinking in the presence of a tone that was either pre-exposed or not prior to its pairing with reinforcement (a foot shock). Expt.2 tested the effects of the DA antagonist, haloperidol, on LI in shell- and core-lesioned animals. Expt. 3 tested the effects of shell and core lesions on spontaneous and amphetamine-induced locomotion. In Expt. 1, LI, i.e., lower suppression of drinking in the pre-exposed as compared to the non-pre-exposed animals, was obtained in the sham-operated condition. Core and shell lesions produced distinct effects on LI. Animals with core lesions developed LI, but exhibited an overall lower suppression of drinking in comparison to the sham-operated animals. In contrast, shell lesions led to a disappearance of LI. Expt. 2 replicated the differential effects of shell and core lesions on LI, although in this experiment, core lesion did not attenuate suppression of drinking. Haloperidol prevented shell-induced abolition of LI. In Expt. 3, shell- but not core-lesioned animals were more active than sham controls following amphetamine administration. These results provide evidence for functional differences between the shell and core subregions, as well as for the involvement of the mesolimbic DA system in LI. PMID:8950008

  15. Masking of the circadian rhythms of heart rate and core temperature by the rest-activity cycle in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gander, Philippa H.; Connell, Linda J.; Graeber, R. Curtis

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to estimate the magnitude of the masking effect produced in humans by alternate periods of physical activity and rest or sleep on the circadian rhythms of heart rate and core temperature. The heart rate, rectal temperature, and nondominant wrist activity were monitored in 12 male subjects during 6 days of normal routine at home and during 6 days of controlled bed-rest regimen. The comparisons of averaged waveforms for the activity, heart rate, and temperature indicated that about 45 percent of the range of the circadian heart rate rhythm during normal routine and about 14 percent of the range of the circadian temperature rhythm were attributable to the effects of activity. The smaller effect of activity on the temperature rhythm may be partially attributable to the fact that core temperature is being more rigorously conserved than heart rate, at least during moderate exercise.

  16. An active magnetic bearing with high T(sub c) superconducting coils and ferromagnetic cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.; Dirusso, E.; Provenza, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    A proof-of-feasibility demonstration showed that high-T(sub c) superconductor (HTS) coils can be used in a high-load, active magnetic bearing in LN2. A homopolar radial bearing with commercially wound HTS (Bi 2223) bias and control coils produced over 890 N (200 lb) radial load capacity (measured non-rotatings) and supported a shaft to 14,000 rpm. The goal was to show that HTS coils can operate stably with ferromagnetic cores in a feedback controlled system at a current density similar to that for Cu in LN2. The bias coil, wound with non-twisted, multifilament HTS conductor, dissipated negligible power for its direct current. The control coils, wound with monofilament HTS sheathed in Ag, dissipated negligible power for direct current. AC losses increased rapidly with frequency and quadratically with AC amplitude. Above about 2 Hz, the effective resistance of the control coils exceeds that of the silver which is in electrical parallel with the oxide superconductor. These results show that twisted multifilament conductor is not needed for stable levitation but may be desired to reduce control power for sizable dynamic loads.

  17. Lattice-Strain Control of Exceptional Activity in Dealloyed Core-Shell Fuel Cell Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Strasser, Peter

    2011-08-19

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical approach to demonstrate how lattice strain can be used to continuously tune the catalytic activity of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on bimetallic nanoparticles that have been dealloyed. The sluggish kinetics of the ORR is a key barrier to the adaptation of fuel cells and currently limits their widespread use. Dealloyed Pt-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles, however, have been shown to exhibit uniquely high reactivity for this reaction. We first present evidence for the formation of a core-shell structure during dealloying, which involves removal of Cu from the surface and subsurface of the precursor nanoparticles. We then show that the resulting Pt-rich surface shell exhibits compressive strain that depends on the composition of the precursor alloy. We next demonstrate the existence of a downward shift of the Pt d-band, resulting in weakening of the bond strength of intermediate oxygenated species due to strain. Finally, we combine synthesis, strain, and catalytic reactivity in an experimental/theoretical reactivity-strain relationship which provides guidelines for the rational design of strained oxygen reduction electrocatalysts. The stoichiometry of the precursor, together with the dealloying conditions, provides experimental control over the resulting surface strain and thereby allows continuous tuning of the surface electrocatalytic reactivity - a concept that can be generalized to other catalytic reactions.

  18. Heating Mechanisms for Intermittent Loops in Active Region Cores from AIA/SDO EUV Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadavid, A. C.; Lawrence, J. K.; Christian, D. J.; Jess, D. B.; Nigro, G.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate intensity variations and energy deposition in five coronal loops in active region cores. These were selected for their strong variability in the AIA/SDO 94 Å intensity channel. We isolate the hot Fe XVIII and Fe XXI components of the 94 Å and 131 Å by modeling and subtracting the "warm" contributions to the emission. HMI/SDO data allow us to focus on "inter-moss" regions in the loops. The detailed evolution of the inter-moss intensity time series reveals loops that are impulsively heated in a mode compatible with a nanoflare storm, with a spike in the hot 131 Å signals leading and the other five EUV emission channels following in progressive cooling order. A sharp increase in electron temperature tends to follow closely after the hot 131 Å signal confirming the impulsive nature of the process. A cooler process of growing emission measure follows more slowly. The Fourier power spectra of the hot 131 Å signals, when averaged over the five loops, present three scaling regimes with break frequencies near 0.1 min-1 and 0.7 min-1. The low frequency regime corresponds to 1/f noise; the intermediate indicates a persistent scaling process and the high frequencies show white noise. Very similar results are found for the energy dissipation in a 2D "hybrid" shell model of loop magneto-turbulence, based on reduced magnetohydrodynamics, that is compatible with nanoflare statistics. We suggest that such turbulent dissipation is the energy source for our loops.

  19. EJC core component MLN51 interacts with eIF3 and activates translation

    PubMed Central

    Chazal, Pierre-Etienne; Daguenet, Elisabeth; Wendling, Corinne; Ulryck, Nathalie; Tomasetto, Catherine; Sargueil, Bruno; Le Hir, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    The multiprotein exon junction complex (EJC), deposited by the splicing machinery, is an important constituent of messenger ribonucleoprotein particles because it participates to numerous steps of the mRNA lifecycle from splicing to surveillance via nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. By an unknown mechanism, the EJC also stimulates translation efficiency of newly synthesized mRNAs. Here, we show that among the four EJC core components, the RNA-binding protein metastatic lymph node 51 (MLN51) is a translation enhancer. Overexpression of MLN51 preferentially increased the translation of intron-containing reporters via the EJC, whereas silencing MLN51 decreased translation. In addition, modulation of the MLN51 level in cell-free translational extracts confirmed its direct role in protein synthesis. Immunoprecipitations indicated that MLN51 associates with translation-initiating factors and ribosomal subunits, and in vitro binding assays revealed that MLN51, alone or as part of the EJC, interacts directly with the pivotal eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF3. Taken together, our data define MLN51 as a translation activator linking the EJC and the translation machinery. PMID:23530232

  20. Unified height systems after GOCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, Reiner; Gruber, Thomas; Sideris, Michael; Rangelova, Elena; Woodworth, Phil; Hughes, Chris; Ihde, Johannes; Liebsch, Gunter; Rülke, Axel; Gerlach, Christian; Haagmans, Roger

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of global height unification are twofold, (1) the realization of accurate geopotential numbers C together with their standard deviation σ(C) at a selected set of stations (datum points of national height systems, geodetic fundamental stations (IERS), primary tide gauges (PSMSL) and primary reference clocks (IERS)) and (2) the determination of height off-sets between all existing regional/national height systems and one global height reference. In the future the primary method of height determination will be GPS-levelling with very stringent requirements concerning the consistency of the positioning and the gravity potential difference part. Consistency is required in terms of the applied standards (ITRF, zero tide system, geodetic reference system). Geopotential differences will be based on a next generation geopotential model combining GOCE and GRACE and a best possible collection of global terrestrial and altimetric gravity and topographic data. Ultimately, the envisaged accuracy of height unification is about 10 cm2/s2 (or 1cm). At the moment, in well surveyed regions, an accuracy of about 40 to 60 cm2/s2 (or 4 to 6cm) is attainable. Objective One can be realized by straight forward computation of geopotential numbers C, i.e. geopotential differences relative to an adopted height reference. No adjustment is required for this. Objective Two, the unification of existing height systems is achieved by employing a least-squares adjustment based on the GBVP-approach. In order to attain a non-singular solution, this requires for each included datum zone at least one geo-referenced station per zone, i.e. its ellipsoidal height h and, in addition, the corresponding physical height H (geopotential number, normal height, orthometric height, etc.). Changes in geopotential numbers of consecutive realizations reflect (1) temporal changes of station heights, (2) improvements or changes of the applied geopotential (or geoid) model and (3) improvements of the

  1. Studies of passive and active plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Sawyer Duane

    Coated nanoparticles (CNP) are core-shell particles consisting of differing layers of epsilon positive (EP) and epsilon negative (ENG) materials. The juxtaposition of these EP and ENG materials can lead to the possibility of coupling incident plane waves to surface plasmon resonances (SPR) for particles even highly subwavelength in size. We introduce standard models of the permittivities of the noble metals used in these CNPs, and propose corrections to them based on experimental data when their sizes are extremely small. Mie theory is the solution to plane wave scattering by spheres and we extend the solution here to spheres consisting of an arbitrary number of layers. We discuss the resonance behaviors of passive CNPs with an emphasis on how the Coated nanoparticles (CNP) are core-shell particles consisting of differing layers of epsilon positive (EP) and epsilon negative (ENG) materials. The juxtaposition of these EP and ENG materials can lead to the possibility of coupling incident plane waves to surface plasmon resonances (SPR) for particles even highly subwavelength in size. We introduce standard models of the permittivities of the noble metals used in these CNPs, and propose corrections to them based on experimental data when their sizes are extremely small. Mie theory is the solution to plane wave scattering by spheres and we extend the solution here to spheres consisting of an arbitrary number of layers. We discuss the resonance behaviors of passive CNPs with an emphasis on how the resonance wavelength can be tuned by controlling the material properties and radii of the various layers in the configuration. It is demonstrated that these passive CNPs have scattering cross sections much larger than their geometrical size, but their resonance strengths are attenuated because of the inherent losses in the metals.To overcome this limitation, we show how the introduction of active material into the CNPs can not only overcome these losses, but can actually lead to

  2. Soaring to New Heights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwerin, Alan

    1994-01-01

    Describes procedures for a hands-on activity for students that involves the construction of radio-controlled model sailplane (or glider) kits, exposure to basic aerodynamic theory and concepts, and some flight school on a midsized field. (ZWH)

  3. Teaching Core Content Embedded in a Functional Activity to Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability Using a Simultaneous Prompting Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karl, Jennifer; Collins, Belva C.; Hager, Karen D.; Ault, Melinda Jones

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a simultaneous prompting procedure in teaching four secondary students with moderate intellectual disability to acquire and generalize core content embedded in a functional activity. Data gathered within the context of a multiple probe design revealed that all participants learned the…

  4. The Arginine Residue within the C-Terminal Active Core of Bombyx mori Pheromone Biosynthesis-Activating Neuropeptide is Essential for Receptor Binding and Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Takeshi; Lee, Jae Min; Nagata, Koji; Matsumoto, Shogo; Tanokura, Masaru; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2012-01-01

    In most lepidopteran insects, the biosynthesis of sex pheromones is regulated by pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN). Bombyx mori PBAN (BomPBAN) consists of 33 amino acid residues and contains a C-terminus FSPRLamide motif as the active core. Among neuropeptides containing the FXPRLamide motif, the arginine (Arg, R) residue at the second position from the C-terminus is highly conserved across several neuropeptides, which can be designated as RXamide peptides. The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of the Arg residue in the BomPBAN active core. We synthesized 10-residue peptides corresponding to the C-terminal part of BomPBAN with a series of replacements at the second position from the C-terminus, termed the C2 position, and measured their efficacy in stimulating Ca2+ influx in insect cells expressing a fluorescent PBAN receptor chimera (PBANR–EGFP) using the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, Fura Red–AM. The PBAN analogs with the C2 position replaced with alanine (Ala, A), aspartic acid (Asp, D), serine (Ser, S), or l-2-aminooctanoic acid (Aoc) decreased PBAN-like activity. RC2A (SKTRYFSPALamide) and RC2D (SKTRYFSPDLamide) had the lowest activity and could not inhibit the activity of PBAN C10 (SKTRYFSPRLamide). We also prepared Rhodamine Red-labeled peptides of the PBAN analogs and examined their ability to bind PBANR. In contrast to Rhodamine Red-PBAN C10 at 100 nM, none of the synthetic analogs exhibited PBANR binding at the same concentration. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the C2 Arg residue in BomPBAN is essential for PBANR binding and activation. PMID:22654866

  5. Fluctuations in Schottky barrier heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, G. D.

    1984-02-01

    A double Schottky barrier is often formed at the grain boundary in polycrystalline semiconductors. The barrier height is shown to fluctuate in value due to the random nature of the impurity positions. The magnitude of the fluctuations is 0.1 eV, and the fluctuations cause the barrier height measured by capacitance to differ from the one measured by electrical conductivity.

  6. Study of photodynamic activity of Au@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles in vitro.

    PubMed

    Meena, K S; Dhanalekshmi, K I; Jayamoorthy, K

    2016-06-01

    Metal-semiconductor core-shell type Au@SiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by Stober's method. They were characterized by absorption, XRD, HR-TEM and EDAX techniques. The resulting modified core-shell nanoparticles shows that the formation of singlet oxygen, which was confirmed by ESR technique. The photohemolysis studies were carried out under two different experimental conditions. It is observed that the photohemolysis increases with concentration as well as light dose. Cell viability of the core-shell nanoparticles against HeLa cell lines were studied by MTT assay method. The outcomes of the present study indicate that, the Au@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles are extremely stable with a very high photodynamic efficiency under visible light illumination.

  7. Amino acids flanking the central core of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase are important in retaining enzyme activity after autoclaving.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Randhawa, Vinay; Acharya, Vishal; Singh, Kashmir; Kumar, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes are known to be denatured upon boiling, although Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase of Potentilla atrosanguinea (Pot-SOD) retains significant catalytic activity even after autoclaving (heating at 121 °C at a pressure of 1.1 kg per square cm for 20 min). The polypeptide backbone of Pot-SOD consists of 152 amino acids with a central core spanning His45 to Cys145 that is involved in coordination of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) ions. While the central core is essential for imparting catalytic activity and structural stability to the enzyme, the role of sequences flanking the central core was not understood. Experiments with deletion mutants showed that the amino acid sequences flanking the central core were important in retaining activity of Pot-SOD after autoclaving. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated the unfavorable structure of mutants due to increased size of binding pocket and enhanced negative charge on the electrostatic surface, resulting in unavailability of the substrate superoxide radical ([Formula: see text]) to the catalytic pocket. Deletion caused destabilization of structural elements and reduced solvent accessibility that further produced unfavorable structural geometry of the protein. PMID:25990646

  8. Widespread active detachment faulting and core complex formation near 13 degrees N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    PubMed

    Smith, Deborah K; Cann, Johnson R; Escartín, Javier

    2006-07-27

    Oceanic core complexes are massifs in which lower-crustal and upper-mantle rocks are exposed at the sea floor. They form at mid-ocean ridges through slip on detachment faults rooted below the spreading axis. To date, most studies of core complexes have been based on isolated inactive massifs that have spread away from ridge axes. Here we present a survey of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 13 degrees N containing a segment in which a number of linked detachment faults extend for 75 km along one flank of the spreading axis. The detachment faults are apparently all currently active and at various stages of development. A field of extinct core complexes extends away from the axis for at least 100 km. Our observations reveal the topographic characteristics of actively forming core complexes and their evolution from initiation within the axial valley floor to maturity and eventual inactivity. Within the surrounding region there is a strong correlation between detachment fault morphology at the ridge axis and high rates of hydroacoustically recorded earthquake seismicity. Preliminary examination of seismicity and seafloor morphology farther north along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge suggests that active detachment faulting is occurring in many segments and that detachment faulting is more important in the generation of ocean crust at this slow-spreading ridge than previously suspected. PMID:16871215

  9. Widespread active detachment faulting and core complex formation near 13 degrees N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    PubMed

    Smith, Deborah K; Cann, Johnson R; Escartín, Javier

    2006-07-27

    Oceanic core complexes are massifs in which lower-crustal and upper-mantle rocks are exposed at the sea floor. They form at mid-ocean ridges through slip on detachment faults rooted below the spreading axis. To date, most studies of core complexes have been based on isolated inactive massifs that have spread away from ridge axes. Here we present a survey of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 13 degrees N containing a segment in which a number of linked detachment faults extend for 75 km along one flank of the spreading axis. The detachment faults are apparently all currently active and at various stages of development. A field of extinct core complexes extends away from the axis for at least 100 km. Our observations reveal the topographic characteristics of actively forming core complexes and their evolution from initiation within the axial valley floor to maturity and eventual inactivity. Within the surrounding region there is a strong correlation between detachment fault morphology at the ridge axis and high rates of hydroacoustically recorded earthquake seismicity. Preliminary examination of seismicity and seafloor morphology farther north along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge suggests that active detachment faulting is occurring in many segments and that detachment faulting is more important in the generation of ocean crust at this slow-spreading ridge than previously suspected.

  10. The effect of trunk stabilization exercises with a swiss ball on core muscle activation in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Gil; Yong, Min Sik; Na, Sang Su

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trunk stabilization exercise on the muscle EMG activations related to core stability. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen elderly people in a geriatric hospital performed trunk stabilization exercises with a Swiss ball for 20 minutes five times per week for 8 weeks. Trunk muscle activations were measured using electromyography before and after the intervention. [Results] After the intervention, the muscle activations of the rectus abdominis, erector spinae, lateral low-back (quadratus lumborum and external oblique), and gluteus medius muscles increased significantly. [Conclusion] The trunk stabilization exercise with a Swiss ball significantly increased the muscle activities of the elderly.

  11. Controllable synthesis of ZnxCd1-xS@ZnO core-shell nanorods with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shilei; Lu, Xihong; Zhai, Teng; Gan, Jiayong; Li, Wei; Xu, Ming; Yu, Minghao; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Tong, Yexiang

    2012-07-17

    We report the synthesis of Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S@ZnO nanorod arrays via a facile two-step process and the implementation of these core-shell nanorods as an environmental friendly and recyclable photocatalyst for methyl orange degradation. The band gap of Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S@ZnO core-shell nanorods can be readily tunable by adjusting the ratio of Zn/Cd during the synthesis. These Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S@ZnO core-shell nanorods exhibit a high photocatalytic activity and good stability in the degradation of the methyl orange. Moreover, these films grown on FTO substrates make the collection and recycle of the photocatalyst easier. These findings may open new opportunities for the design of effective, stable, and easy-recyclable photocatalytic materials.

  12. Faulting processes in active faults - Evidences from TCDP and SAFOD drill core samples

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.; Wenk, H. -R.; Morales, L.; Naumann, R.; Kienast, M.; Song, S. -R.; Dresen, G.

    2014-08-20

    The microstructures, mineralogy and chemistry of representative samples collected from the cores of the San Andreas Fault drill hole (SAFOD) and the Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling project (TCDP) have been studied using optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, XRD and XRF analyses. SAFOD samples provide a transect across undeformed host rock, the fault damage zone and currently active deforming zones of the San Andreas Fault. TCDP samples are retrieved from the principal slip zone (PSZ) and from the surrounding damage zone of the Chelungpu Fault. Substantial differences exist in the clay mineralogy of SAFOD and TCDP fault gouge samples. Amorphous material has been observed in SAFOD as well as TCDP samples. In line with previous publications, we propose that melt, observed in TCDP black gouge samples, was produced by seismic slip (melt origin) whereas amorphous material in SAFOD samples was formed by comminution of grains (crush origin) rather than by melting. Dauphiné twins in quartz grains of SAFOD and TCDP samples may indicate high seismic stress. The differences in the crystallographic preferred orientation of calcite between SAFOD and TCDP samples are significant. Microstructures resulting from dissolution–precipitation processes were observed in both faults but are more frequently found in SAFOD samples than in TCDP fault rocks. As already described for many other fault zones clay-gouge fabrics are quite weak in SAFOD and TCDP samples. Clay-clast aggregates (CCAs), proposed to indicate frictional heating and thermal pressurization, occur in material taken from the PSZ of the Chelungpu Fault, as well as within and outside of the SAFOD deforming zones, indicating that these microstructures were formed over a wide range of slip rates.

  13. SASI ACTIVITY IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL NEUTRINO-HYDRODYNAMICS SIMULATIONS OF SUPERNOVA CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Hanke, Florian; Mueller, Bernhard; Wongwathanarat, Annop; Marek, Andreas; Janka, Hans-Thomas E-mail: bjmuellr@mpa-garching.mpg.de E-mail: amarek@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2013-06-10

    The relevance of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) compared to neutrino-driven convection in three-dimensional (3D) supernova-core environments is still highly controversial. Studying a 27 M{sub Sun} progenitor, we demonstrate, for the first time, that violent SASI activity can develop in 3D simulations with detailed neutrino transport despite the presence of convection. This result was obtained with the PROMETHEUS-VERTEX code with the same sophisticated neutrino treatment so far used only in one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) models. While buoyant plumes initially determine the nonradial mass motions in the postshock layer, bipolar shock sloshing with growing amplitude sets in during a phase of shock retraction and turns into a violent spiral mode whose growth is only quenched when the infall of the Si/SiO interface leads to strong shock expansion in response to a dramatic decrease of the mass accretion rate. In the phase of large-amplitude SASI sloshing and spiral motions, the postshock layer exhibits nonradial deformation dominated by the lowest-order spherical harmonics (l = 1, m = 0, {+-}1) in distinct contrast to the higher multipole structures associated with neutrino-driven convection. We find that the SASI amplitudes, shock asymmetry, and nonradial kinetic energy in three dimensions can exceed those of the corresponding 2D case during extended periods of the evolution. We also perform parameterized 3D simulations of a 25 M{sub Sun} progenitor, using a simplified, gray neutrino transport scheme, an axis-free Yin-Yang grid, and different amplitudes of random seed perturbations. They confirm the importance of the SASI for another progenitor, its independence of the choice of spherical grid, and its preferred growth for fast accretion flows connected to small shock radii and compact proto-neutron stars as previously found in 2D setups.

  14. An active homopolar magnetic bearing with high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils and ferromagnetic cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.; Dirusso, E.; Provenza, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    A proof-of-feasibility demonstration showed that high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils can be used in a high-load, active magnetic bearing in liquid nitrogen. A homopolar radial bearing with commercially wound HTS (Bi 2223) bias and control coils produced over 200 lb (890 N) radial load capacity (measured non-rotating) and supported a shaft to 14000 rpm. The goal was to show that HTS coils can operate stably with ferromagnetic cores in a feedback controlled system at a current density similar to that in Cu in liquid nitrogen. Design compromises permitted use of circular coils with rectangular cross section. Conductor improvements will eventually permit coil shape optimization, higher current density and higher bearing load capacity. The bias coil, wound with non-twisted, multifilament HTS conductor, required negligible power to carry its direct current. The control coils were wound with monofilament HTS sheathed in Ag. These dissipated negligible power for direct current (i.e. for steady radial load components). When an alternating current (AC) was added, the AC component dissipated power which increased rapidly with frequency and quadratically with AC amplitude. In fact at frequencies above about 2 hz, the effective resistance of the control coil conductor actually exceeds that of the silver which is in electrical parallel with the oxide superconductor. This is at least qualitatively understandable in the context of a Bean-type model of flux and current penetration into a Type II superconductor. Fortunately the dynamic currents required for bearing stability are of small amplitude. These results show that while twisted multifilament conductor is not needed for stable levitation, twisted multifilaments will be required to reduce control power for sizable dynamic loads, such as those due to unbalance.

  15. Heating mechanisms for intermittent loops in active region cores from AIA/SDO EUV observations

    SciTech Connect

    Cadavid, A. C.; Lawrence, J. K.; Christian, D. J.; Jess, D. B.; Nigro, G.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate intensity variations and energy deposition in five coronal loops in active region cores. These were selected for their strong variability in the AIA/SDO 94 Å intensity channel. We isolate the hot Fe XVIII and Fe XXI components of the 94 Å and 131 Å by modeling and subtracting the 'warm' contributions to the emission. HMI/SDO data allow us to focus on 'inter-moss' regions in the loops. The detailed evolution of the inter-moss intensity time series reveals loops that are impulsively heated in a mode compatible with a nanoflare storm, with a spike in the hot 131 Å signals leading and the other five EUV emission channels following in progressive cooling order. A sharp increase in electron temperature tends to follow closely after the hot 131 Å signal confirming the impulsive nature of the process. A cooler process of growing emission measure follows more slowly. The Fourier power spectra of the hot 131 Å signals, when averaged over the five loops, present three scaling regimes with break frequencies near 0.1 min{sup –1} and 0.7 min{sup –1}. The low frequency regime corresponds to 1/f noise; the intermediate indicates a persistent scaling process and the high frequencies show white noise. Very similar results are found for the energy dissipation in a 2D 'hybrid' shell model of loop magneto-turbulence, based on reduced magnetohydrodynamics, that is compatible with nanoflare statistics. We suggest that such turbulent dissipation is the energy source for our loops.

  16. SASI Activity in Three-dimensional Neutrino-hydrodynamics Simulations of Supernova Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanke, Florian; Müller, Bernhard; Wongwathanarat, Annop; Marek, Andreas; Janka, Hans-Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The relevance of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) compared to neutrino-driven convection in three-dimensional (3D) supernova-core environments is still highly controversial. Studying a 27 M ⊙ progenitor, we demonstrate, for the first time, that violent SASI activity can develop in 3D simulations with detailed neutrino transport despite the presence of convection. This result was obtained with the PROMETHEUS-VERTEX code with the same sophisticated neutrino treatment so far used only in one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) models. While buoyant plumes initially determine the nonradial mass motions in the postshock layer, bipolar shock sloshing with growing amplitude sets in during a phase of shock retraction and turns into a violent spiral mode whose growth is only quenched when the infall of the Si/SiO interface leads to strong shock expansion in response to a dramatic decrease of the mass accretion rate. In the phase of large-amplitude SASI sloshing and spiral motions, the postshock layer exhibits nonradial deformation dominated by the lowest-order spherical harmonics (l = 1, m = 0, ±1) in distinct contrast to the higher multipole structures associated with neutrino-driven convection. We find that the SASI amplitudes, shock asymmetry, and nonradial kinetic energy in three dimensions can exceed those of the corresponding 2D case during extended periods of the evolution. We also perform parameterized 3D simulations of a 25 M ⊙ progenitor, using a simplified, gray neutrino transport scheme, an axis-free Yin-Yang grid, and different amplitudes of random seed perturbations. They confirm the importance of the SASI for another progenitor, its independence of the choice of spherical grid, and its preferred growth for fast accretion flows connected to small shock radii and compact proto-neutron stars as previously found in 2D setups.

  17. Synthesis of bimetallic Pt-Pd core-shell nanocrystals and their high electrocatalytic activity modulated by Pd shell thickness.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujing; Wang, Zhi Wei; Chiu, Chin-Yi; Ruan, Lingyan; Yang, Wenbing; Yang, Yang; Palmer, Richard E; Huang, Yu

    2012-02-01

    Bimetallic Pt-Pd core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) are synthesized through a two-step process with controlled Pd thickness from sub-monolayer to multiple atomic layers. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalytic activity and methanol oxidation reactivity of the core-shell NCs for fuel cell applications in alkaline solution are systematically studied and compared based on different Pd thickness. It is found that the Pd shell helps to reduce the over-potential of ORR by up to 50 mV when compared to commercial Pd black, while generating up to 3-fold higher kinetic current density. The carbon monoxide poisoning test shows that the bimetallic NCs are more resistant to the CO poisoning than Pt NCs and Pt black. It is also demonstrated that the bimetallic Pt-Pd core-shell NCs can enhance the current density of the methanol oxidation reaction, lowering the over-potential by 35 mV with respect to the Pt core NCs. Further investigation reveals that the Pd/Pt ratio of 1/3, which corresponds to nearly monolayer Pd deposition on Pt core NCs, gives the highest oxidation current density and lowest over-potential. This study shows for the first time the systematic investigation of effects of Pd atomic shells on Pt-Pd bimetallic nanocatalysts, providing valuable guidelines for designing high-performance catalysts for fuel cell applications. PMID:22159178

  18. The Enzyme-mimic Activity of Ferric Nano-Core Residing in Ferritin and Its Biosensing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Zhiwen; Wu, Hong J.; Zhang, Youyu; Li, Zhaohui; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-11-15

    Ferritins are nano-scale globular protein cages encapsulating a ferric core. They widely exist in animals, plants, and microbes, playing indispensable roles in iron homeostasis. Interestingly, our study clearly demonstrates that ferritin has an enzyme-mimic activity derived from its ferric nano-core, but not the protein cage. Further study revealed that the mimic-enzyme activity of ferritin is more thermally stable and pH-tolerant compared with horseradish peroxidase. Considering the abundance of ferritin in numerous organisms, this finding may indicate a new role of ferritin in antioxidant and detoxification metabolisms. In addition, as a natural protein-caged nanoparticle with an enzyme-mimic activity, ferritin is readily conjugated with biomolecules to construct nano-biosensors, thus holds promising potential for facile and biocompatible labeling for sensitive and robust bioassays in biomedical applications.

  19. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 structures reveal a metastable open conformation fostering robust core-free basal activity.

    PubMed

    Wynn, R Max; Kato, Masato; Chuang, Jacinta L; Tso, Shih-Chia; Li, Jun; Chuang, David T

    2008-09-12

    Human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is down-regulated by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) isoforms 1-4. PDK4 is overexpressed in skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes, resulting in impaired glucose utilization. Here we show that human PDK4 has robust core-free basal activity, which is considerably higher than activity levels of other PDK isoforms stimulated by the PDC core. PDK4 binds the L3 lipoyl domain, but its activity is not significantly stimulated by any individual lipoyl domains or the core of PDC. The 2.0-A crystal structures of the PDK4 dimer with bound ADP reveal an open conformation with a wider active-site cleft, compared with that in the closed conformation epitomized by the PDK2-ADP structure. The open conformation in PDK4 shows partially ordered C-terminal cross-tails, in which the conserved DW (Asp(394)-Trp(395)) motif from one subunit anchors to the N-terminal domain of the other subunit. The open conformation fosters a reduced binding affinity for ADP, facilitating the efficient removal of product inhibition by this nucleotide. Alteration or deletion of the DW-motif disrupts the C-terminal cross-tail anchor, resulting in the closed conformation and the nearly complete inactivation of PDK4. Fluorescence quenching and enzyme activity data suggest that compounds AZD7545 and dichloroacetate lock PDK4 in the open and the closed conformational states, respectively. We propose that PDK4 with bound ADP exists in equilibrium between the open and the closed conformations. The favored metastable open conformation is responsible for the robust basal activity of PDK4 in the absence of the PDC core. PMID:18658136

  20. Jumping to New Heights: Horsemanship Activities. Level 5. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08057

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiberger-Miller, Ami

    2004-01-01

    This is the fifth in a series of five horse project activity guides for youth. Levels 1-3 focus on "horse-less" activities, while Levels 4 and 5 zero in on riding and horsemanship. Each guide has an achievement program to encourage youth to learn and develop life skills. The assistance of a horse project helper in completing the achievement…

  1. Monodisperse Ag@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles as active inhibitors for marine anticorrosion applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Sheng; Wang, Jie-Xin; Xu, Ke; Le, Yuan; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2011-04-01

    Monodisperse Ag@SiO2 core-shell structured nanoparticles were firstly utilized as a novel corrosion inhibitor for marine anticorrosion applications. The related marine anticorrosion properties were evaluated with an electrochemical noise (ECN) analysis during 2 weeks of accelerated immersion tests in natural seawater with the addition of various inorganic salts and nutriments. The experimental results indicate that the corrosion activity is markedly reduced by nearly 1-3 orders of magnitude owing to the introduction of Ag@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles into coating. The inhibition efficiency of corrosion can reach as high as about 99%. More importantly, such a coating exhibits an excellent long-term sustained marine anticorrosion effect. So it could be reasonably inferred that silver cores as active inhibitors effectively prevent the corrosion damage from microorganisms, while silica shells act as a good protection for silver nanoparticles, delay the release of silver ions, and also function as the corrosion inhibiting action for inorganic salts. Therefore, this would make monodisperse Ag@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles a potential and promising corrosion inhibitor for developing future advanced multifunctional coatings.

  2. Coincident activation of NMDA and dopamine D1 receptors within the nucleus accumbens core is required for appetitive instrumental learning.

    PubMed

    Smith-Roe, S L; Kelley, A E

    2000-10-15

    The nucleus accumbens, a brain structure ideally situated to act as an interface between corticolimbic information-processing regions and motor output systems, is well known to subserve behaviors governed by natural reinforcers. In the accumbens core, glutamatergic input from its corticolimbic afferents and dopaminergic input from the ventral tegmental area converge onto common dendrites of the medium spiny neurons that populate the accumbens. We have previously found that blockade of NMDA receptors in the core with the antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5; 5 nmol) abolishes acquisition but not performance of an appetitive instrumental learning task (Kelley et al., 1997). Because it is currently hypothesized that concurrent dopamine D(1) and glutamate receptor activation is required for long-term changes associated with plasticity, we wished to examine whether the dopamine system in the accumbens core modulates learning via NMDA receptors. Co-infusion of low doses of the D(1) receptor antagonist SCH-23390 (0.3 nmol) and AP-5 (0.5 nmol) into the accumbens core strongly impaired acquisition of instrumental learning (lever pressing for food), whereas when infused separately, these low doses had no effect. Infusion of the combined low doses had no effect on indices of feeding and motor activity, suggesting a specific effect on learning. We hypothesize that co-activation of NMDA and D(1) receptors in the nucleus accumbens core is a key process for acquisition of appetitive instrumental learning. Such an interaction is likely to promote intracellular events and gene regulation necessary for synaptic plasticity and is supported by a number of cellular models.

  3. Improvement of open and semi-open core wall system in tall buildings by closing of the core section in the last story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheyroddin, A.; Abdollahzadeh, D.; Mastali, M.

    2014-09-01

    Increasing number of tall buildings in urban population caused development of tall building structures. One of the main lateral load resistant systems is core wall system in high-rise buildings. Core wall system has two important behavioral aspects where the first aspect is related to reduce the lateral displacement by the core bending resistance and the second is governed by increasing of the torsional resistance and core warping of buildings. In this study, the effects of closed section core in the last story have been considered on the behavior of models. Regarding this, all analyses were performed by ETABS 9.2.v software (Wilson and Habibullah). Considering (a) drift and rotation of the core over height of buildings, (b) total and warping stress in the core body, (c) shear in beams due to warping stress, (d) effect of closing last story on period of models in various modes, (e) relative displacement between walls in the core system and (f) site effects in far and near field of fault by UBC97 spectra on base shear coefficient showed that the bimoment in open core is negative in the last quarter of building and it is similar to wall-frame structures. Furthermore, analytical results revealed that closed section core in the last story improves behavior of the last quarter of structure height, since closing of core section in the last story does not have significant effect on reducing base shear value in near and far field of active faults.

  4. Neural encoding of psychomotor activation in the nucleus accumbens core, but not the shell, requires cannabinoid receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Morra, Joshua T.; Glick, Stanley D.; Cheer, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to further elucidate the role of endocannabinoid signaling in methamphetamine-induced psychomotor activation. Rats were treated with bilateral, intracranial microinjections of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists rimonabant (1 μg; 1 μl) or AM251 (1 μg; 1 μl), or vehicle (1 μl), followed by intravenous methamphetamine (3 mg/kg). Antagonist pretreatment in the nucleus accumbens core, but not shell, attenuated methamphetamine-induced stereotypy, while treatment in either brain region had no effect on drug-induced locomotion. In a parallel experiment, we recorded multiple single-units in the nucleus accumbens of behaving rats treated with intravenous rimonabant (0.3 mg/kg) or vehicle, followed by methamphetamine (0.01, 0.1, 1, 3 mg/kg; cumulative dosing). We observed robust, phasic changes in neuronal firing time-locked to the onset of methamphetamine-induced locomotion and stereotypy. Stereotypy encoding was observed in the core and was attenuated by CB1 receptor antagonism, while locomotor correlates were observed uniformly across the accumbens and were not affected by rimonabant. Psychomotor activation encoding was expressed predominantly by putative fast-spiking interneurons. We therefore propose that endocannabinoid modulation of psychomotor activation is preferentially driven by CB1 receptor-dependent interneuron activity in the nucleus accumbens core. PMID:20371830

  5. A new 10Be record recovered from an Antarctic ice core: validity and limitations to record the solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baroni, Mélanie; Bard, Edouard; Aster Team

    2015-04-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides provide the only possibility to document solar activity over millennia. Carbon-14 (14C) and beryllium-10 (10Be) records are retrieved from tree rings and ice cores, respectively. Recently, 14C records have also proven to be reliable to detect two large Solar Proton Events (SPE) (Miyake et al., Nature, 2012, Miyake et al., Nat. Commun., 2013) that occurred in 774-775 A.D. and in 993-994 A.D.. The origin of these events is still under debate but it opens new perspectives for the interpretation of 10Be ice core records. We present a new 10Be record from an ice core from Dome C (Antarctica) covering the last millennium. The chronology of this new ice core has been established by matching volcanic events on the WAIS Divide ice core (WDC06A) that is the best dated record in Antarctica over the Holocene (Sigl et al., JGR, 2013, Sigl et al., Nat. Clim. Change, 2014). The five minima of solar activity (Oort, Wolf, Spörer, Maunder and Dalton) are detected and characterized by a 10Be concentration increase of ca. 20% above average in agreement with previous studies of ice cores drilled at South Pole and Dome Fuji in Antarctica (Bard et al., EPSL, 1997; Horiuchi et al., Quat. Geochrono., 2008) and at NGRIP and Dye3 in Greenland (Berggren et al., GRL, 2009). The high resolution, on the order of a year, allows the detection of the 11-year solar cycle. Sulfate concentration, a proxy for volcanic eruptions, has also been measured in the very same samples, allowing a precise comparison of both 10Be and sulfate profiles. We confirm the systematic relationship between stratospheric eruptions and 10Be concentration increases, first evidenced by observations of the stratospheric volcanic eruptions of Agung in 1963 and Pinatubo in 1991 (Baroni et al., GCA, 2011). This relationship is due to an increase in 10Be deposition linked to the role played by the sedimentation of volcanic aerosols. In the light of these new elements, we will discuss the limitations and

  6. Conservation reaches new heights.

    PubMed

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation.

  7. Conservation reaches new heights.

    PubMed

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation. PMID

  8. Olive School, Arlington Heights, Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rausch, Kathy

    1974-01-01

    Article stressed the need for a music teacher in an open school to have an openness to people and ideas. It also described the educational objectives at the Olive School in Arlington Heights, Illinois. (Author/RK)

  9. Taking America To New Heights

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is taking America to new heights with its Commercial Crew Development Round 2 (CCDev2) partners. In 2011, NASA entered into funded Space Act Agreements (SAAs) w...

  10. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activities of ZrWMoO8/Ag composites with core-shell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qinqin; Sun, Shuai; Li, Haohua; Yang, Xiaofei; Shen, Hao; Cheng, Xiaonong; Dong, Shubin

    2012-11-01

    A novel photocatalytic ZrWMoO8/Ag composite with core-shell structure was prepared. The composites were composed of ZrWMoO8 rods with negative thermal expansion (NTE) property as cores and Ag nanoparticles as shell. The resulting products were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-visible spectrophotometer (UV-vis DRS). The results showed that ZrWMoO8 rods displayed not only negative thermal expansion but also photocatalytic efficiency toward Rhodamine B (RB) degradation under UV-irradiation. The as-prepared ZrWMoO8/Ag composites exhibited a higher photocatalytic activity than that of pure ZrWMoO8, thereby implying that the ZrWMoO8/Ag interfaces promote the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and enhance the photocatalytic activity.

  11. Epigenetic heredity of human height.

    PubMed

    Simeone, Pasquale; Alberti, Saverio

    2014-06-01

    Genome-wide SNP analyses have identified genomic variants associated with adult human height. However, these only explain a fraction of human height variation, suggesting that significant information might have been systematically missed by SNP sequencing analysis. A candidate for such non-SNP-linked information is DNA methylation. Regulation by DNA methylation requires the presence of CpG islands in the promoter region of candidate genes. Seventy two of 87 (82.8%), height-associated genes were indeed found to contain CpG islands upstream of the transcription start site (USC CpG island searcher; validation: UCSC Genome Browser), which were shown to correlate with gene regulation. Consistent with this, DNA hypermethylation modules were detected in 42 height-associated genes, versus 1.5% of control genes (P = 8.0199e(-17)), as were dynamic methylation changes and gene imprinting. Epigenetic heredity thus appears to be a determinant of adult human height. Major findings in mouse models and in human genetic diseases support this model. Modulation of DNA methylation are candidate to mediate environmental influence on epigenetic traits. This may help to explain progressive height changes over multiple generations, through trans-generational heredity of progressive DNA methylation patterns.

  12. Examining English Language Arts Common Core State Standards Instruction through Cultural Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett-Tatum, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The English Language Arts Common Core State Standards and corresponding assessments brought about many changes for educators, their literacy instruction, and the literacy learning of their students. This study examined the day-to-day literacy instruction of two primary grade teachers during their first year of full CCSS implementation. Engestr?m's…

  13. Core Practices and Pedagogies of Teacher Education: A Call for a Common Language and Collective Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Morva; Kazemi, Elham; Kavanagh, Sarah Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the field of teacher education is undergoing a major shift--a turn away from a predominant focus on specifying the necessary knowledge for teaching toward specifying teaching practices that entail knowledge and doing. In this article, the authors suggest that current work on K-12 core teaching practices has the potential to shift…

  14. iGardening: Integrated Activities for Teaching in the Common Core Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavin, Amanda; Elfer, Charles J.; Roberts, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    At first glance, implementing the new Common Core Standards, with their dramatically higher learning expectations for early elementary students, may seem like a daunting task. The authors of this article think there has never been a better time for K-2 teachers to begin developing lessons that integrate all disciplines, promote higher order…

  15. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and heart rate) with distinct temporal phasing when entrained by the light/dark (LD) cycle. The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypetide (VIP) and its receptor (VPAC2) are highly expressed in the SCN. Recent studies indicate that VIPergic signaling plays an essential role in the maintenance of ongoing circadian rhythmicity by synchronizing SCN cells and by maintaining rhythmicity within individual neurons. To further increase the understanding of the role of VPAC2 signaling in circadian regulation, we implanted telemetric devices and simultaneously measured core body temperature, spontaneous activity, and heart rate in a strain of VPAC2-deficient mice and compared these observations with observations made from mice examined by wheel-running activity. The study demonstrates that VPAC2 signaling is necessary for a functional circadian clock driving locomotor activity, core body temperature, and heart rate rhythmicity, since VPAC2-deficient mice lose the rhythms in all three parameters when placed under constant conditions (of either light or darkness). Furthermore, although 24-h rhythms for three parameters are retained in VPAC2-deficient mice during the LD cycle, the temperature rhythm displays markedly altered time course and profile, rising earlier and peaking ∼4-6 h prior to that of wild-type mice. The use of telemetric devices to measure circadian locomotor activity, temperature, and heart rate, together with the classical determination of circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity, raises questions about how representative wheel-running activity may be of other behavioral parameters, especially when animals have altered circadian phenotype.

  16. Nature-inspired design of tetraindoles: Optimization of the core structure and evaluation of structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Abdu-Allah, Hajjaj H M; Huang, Shih-Ting; Chang, Tzu Ting; Chen, Chia-Ling; Wu, Han-Chung; Li, Wen-Shan

    2016-09-15

    Building on the initial successful optimization of a novel series of tetraindoles, a second generation of the compounds with changes in the core phenyl ring was synthesized to improve anticancer properties. 17 new compounds with different rigidity, planarity, symmetry and degree of conjugation of their core structures to 5-hydroxyindole units were synthesized. All the compounds were fully characterized and tested against breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). The results revealed that the core structure is required for activity and it should be aromatic, rigid, planar, symmetrical and conjugated for optimal activity. Compound 29, which has strong anticancer activity against various tumor-derived cell lines, including Mahlavu (hepatocellular), SK-HEP-1 (hepatic), HCT116 (colon), MIA PaCa-2 (pancreatic), H441 (lung papillary), A549 (lung), H460 (non-small cell lung) and CL1-5 (lung carcinoma) with IC50 values ranging from 0.19 to 3.50μM, was generated after series of successive optimizations. It was found to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in the non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice bearing xenografted MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer. PMID:27503685

  17. Chloroplast molecular chaperone-assisted refolding and reconstitution of an active multisubunit coupling factor CF1 core.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, G G; Jagendorf, A T

    1994-01-01

    The chloroplast coupling factor 1 (CF1) is composed of five kinds of subunits with a stoichiometry of alpha 3 beta 3 gamma delta epsilon. Reconstitution of a catalytically active alpha 3 beta 3 gamma core from urea-denatured subunits at a physiological pH is reported here. A restoration of approximately 90% of the CF1 ATPase activity has been observed. The reconstitution was achieved by using subunits overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and combined in the presence of MgATP, K+, and a mixture of several chloroplast molecular chaperones at pH 7.5. The combination of chaperonin 60 and chaperonin 24 failed to reconstitute the active CF1 core, as did the GroEL/GroES pair (E. coli chaperonin 60/10 homologues). Characteristics of the reconstituted ATPase were very close to those of the native complex, including methanol-reversible inhibition by the purified epsilon subunit of CF1 and sensitivity to inhibition by azide and by tentoxin. In reconstitution with a mixture of tentoxin-resistant and -sensitive beta subunits, the extent of inhibition by tentoxin depended on the proportion of sensitive subunits in the reconstitution mixture. Finally, a model for the assembly of the CF1 core alpha 3 beta 3 gamma structure is proposed. Images PMID:7972091

  18. Highly Active Pt(3)Pb and Core-Shell Pt(3)Pb-Pt Electrocatalysts for Formic Acid Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Kang Y.; Stach E.; Qi L.; Li M.; Diaz R.E.; Su D.; Adzic R.R.; Li J.; Murray C.B.

    2012-03-27

    Formic acid is a promising chemical fuel for fuel cell applications. However, due to the dominance of the indirect reaction pathway and strong poisoning effects, the development of direct formic acid fuel cells has been impeded by the low activity of existing electrocatalysts at desirable operating voltage. We report the first synthesis of Pt{sub 3}Pb nanocrystals through solution phase synthesis and show they are highly efficient formic acid oxidation electrocatalysts. The activity can be further improved by manipulating the Pt{sub 3}Pb-Pt core-shell structure. Combined experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the high activity from Pt{sub 3}Pb and the Pt-Pb core-shell nanocrystals results from the elimination of CO poisoning and decreased barriers for the dehydrogenation steps. Therefore, the Pt{sub 3}Pb and Pt-Pb core-shell nanocrystals can improve the performance of direct formic acid fuel cells at desired operating voltage to enable their practical application.

  19. Positron Emission Mammography Imaging with Low Activity Fluorodeoxyglucose and Novel Utilization in Core-needle Biopsy Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Choudhery, Sadia; Seiler, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM), a relatively novel breast imaging modality, provides certain advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including the ability to image biopsy samples. However, the radiation activity associated with PEM has remained a concern in clinical practice. We present a case of an invasive ductal carcinoma that was adequately imaged with a much lower than the standard 185 to 370 MBq activity of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. In addition, we demonstrate ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy sample imaging with PEM to assess adequacy of sampling, a strategy that has previously only been documented with vacuum-assisted biopsy samples. PMID:25709550

  20. Synthesis of bimetallic Pt-Pd core-shell nanocrystals and their high electrocatalytic activity modulated by Pd shell thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yujing; Wang, Zhi Wei; Chiu, Chin-Yi; Ruan, Lingyan; Yang, Wenbing; Yang, Yang; Palmer, Richard E.; Huang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Bimetallic Pt-Pd core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) are synthesized through a two-step process with controlled Pd thickness from sub-monolayer to multiple atomic layers. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalytic activity and methanol oxidation reactivity of the core-shell NCs for fuel cell applications in alkaline solution are systematically studied and compared based on different Pd thickness. It is found that the Pd shell helps to reduce the over-potential of ORR by up to 50mV when compared to commercial Pd black, while generating up to 3-fold higher kinetic current density. The carbon monoxide poisoning test shows that the bimetallic NCs are more resistant to the CO poisoning than Pt NCs and Pt black. It is also demonstrated that the bimetallic Pt-Pd core-shell NCs can enhance the current density of the methanol oxidation reaction, lowering the over-potential by 35 mV with respect to the Pt core NCs. Further investigation reveals that the Pd/Pt ratio of 1/3, which corresponds to nearly monolayer Pd deposition on Pt core NCs, gives the highest oxidation current density and lowest over-potential. This study shows for the first time the systematic investigation of effects of Pd atomic shells on Pt-Pd bimetallic nanocatalysts, providing valuable guidelines for designing high-performance catalysts for fuel cell applications.Bimetallic Pt-Pd core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) are synthesized through a two-step process with controlled Pd thickness from sub-monolayer to multiple atomic layers. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalytic activity and methanol oxidation reactivity of the core-shell NCs for fuel cell applications in alkaline solution are systematically studied and compared based on different Pd thickness. It is found that the Pd shell helps to reduce the over-potential of ORR by up to 50mV when compared to commercial Pd black, while generating up to 3-fold higher kinetic current density. The carbon monoxide poisoning test shows that the bimetallic NCs are more

  1. Mineral Physics Research on Earth's Core and UTeach Outreach Activities at UT Austin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Wheat, A. J.

    2011-12-01

    Comprehension of the alloying effects of major candidate light elements on the phase diagram and elasticity of iron addresses pressing issues on the composition, thermal structures, and seismic features of the Earth's core. Integrating this mineral physics research with the educational objectives of the CAREER award was facilitated by collaboration with the University of Texas at Austin's premier teaching program, UTeach. The UTeach summer outreach program hosts three one-week summer camps every year exposing K-12th graders to university level academia, emphasizing math and science initiatives and research. Each week of the camp either focuses on math, chemistry, or geology. Many of the students were underrepresented minorities and some required simultaneous translation; this is an effect of the demographics of the region, and caused some language barrier challenges. The students' opportunity to see first-hand what it is like to be on a university campus, as well as being in a research environment, such as the mineral physics lab, helps them to visualize themselves in academia in the future. A collection of displayable materials with information about deep-Earth research were made available to participating students and teachers to disseminate accurate scientific knowledge and enthusiasm. These items included a diamond anvil cell and diagrams of the diamond crystal structure, the layers of the Earth, and the phases of carbon to show that one element can have very different physical properties purely based on differences in structure. The students learned how advanced X-ray and optical laser spectroscopies are used to study properties of planetary materials in the diamond anvil cell. Stress was greatly placed on the basic mathematical relationship between force, area, and pressure, the fundamental principle involved with diamond anvil cell research. Undergraduate researchers from the lab participated in the presentations and hands-on experiments, and answered any

  2. Reaching new heights: Comparing interpretation bias modification to exposure therapy for extreme height fear

    PubMed Central

    Steinman, Shari A.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cognitive models of anxiety disorders posit that biases in interpretation maintain, and potentially cause, anxiety. This study tested whether it is possible to decrease height fear symptoms through cognitive bias modification for interpretations (CBM-I). Additionally, the clinical utility of CBM-I was tested by comparing it to an already established treatment: exposure therapy. Method Extremely height fearful (N = 110) individuals participated in the study. Acrophobic symptoms were measured before and after two sessions of CBM-I, and compared to the standard treatment for acrophobia (exposure therapy), a combination of CBM-I and exposure therapy, and a Control condition. Results In line with hypotheses, participants in the three active conditions showed greater response to treatment than the Control condition in height-relevant interpretation bias, symptoms, and behavioral avoidance on a height stressor, with few differences between the active conditions. Further, symptom change was mediated by change in interpretation bias. Conclusions Overall, findings suggest that different pathways to fear reduction (exposure vs. shifting interpretations) can lead to similar reductions in height fear. This study provides the first evidence that directly shifting cognitive processing, even with no therapist involvement, can reduce symptoms as effectively as the gold standard, therapist-directed exposure therapy. PMID:24588406

  3. The deposition of Au-Pt core-shell nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide and their catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiu; Wu, Shengnan; Jungwirth, Scott; Chen, Zhibing; Wang, Zhenghua; Wang, Lun; Li, Yongxin

    2013-07-01

    Au-Pt core-shell nanoparticles have been synthesized on a reduced graphene oxide (RGO) surface by an under-potential deposition (UPD) redox replacement technique, which involves redox replacement of a copper UPD monolayer by {{PtCl}}_{4}^{2-} that could be reduced and deposited simultaneously. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical methods have been used to characterize the graphene decorated with Au-Pt core-shell nanoparticles. The electrochemical experiments show that the materials exhibit excellent catalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction and the methanol oxidation reaction. It is believed that the high-performance of this new catalyst is due to the ultrathin Pt shell on the Au nanoparticles surface and the oxygen-containing functional groups on the RGO surface.

  4. The height premium in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Kitae

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the Indonesian Family Life Survey for the year 2007, this paper estimates that a 10 cm increase in physical stature is associated with an increase in earnings of 7.5% for men and 13.0% for women, even after controlling for an extensive set of productivity variables. When the height premium is estimated by sector, it is 12.3% for self-employed men and 18.0% for self-employed women; a height premium of 11.1% is also estimated for women in the private sector. In the public sector, however, the height premium estimate is not statistically significant for either men or women. This paper provides further evidence of discrimination based on customers' preferences for tall workers.

  5. Tree Height Calculator: An Android App for Estimating Tree Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burca, V. S.; Htet, N. M.; Huang, X.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Morelli, R.; Gourley, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Conventionally, measuring tree height requires a collection of different tools - clinometer, transit, pencil, paper, laptop computer. Results are recorded manually and entered into a spreadsheet or database for future calculation and analysis. Tree Height Calculator is a mobile Android app the integrates the various steps in this process thereby improving the accuracy and dramatically reducing the time required to go from taking measurements to analyzing data. Given the user's height and the distance from the base of the tree (which can be downloaded into the app from a server), the app uses the phone's orientation sensor to calculate the angle of elevation. A simple trigonometric formula is then used to calculate and record the tree's height in the phone's database. When the phone has a WiFi connection, the data are transmitted to a server, from where they can be downloaded directly into a spreadsheet. The application was first tested in an Environmental Science laboratory at Trinity College. On the first trial, 103 data samples were collected, stored, and uploaded to the online database with only couple of dropped data points. On the second trial, 98 data samples were gathered with no loss of data. The app combined the individual measurements taken by the students in the lab, reducing the time required to produce a graph of the class's results from days to hours.

  6. A GEOMETRICAL HEIGHT SCALE FOR SUNSPOT PENUMBRAE

    SciTech Connect

    Puschmann, K. G.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; MartInez Pillet, V. E-mail: brc@iac.e

    2010-09-10

    Inversions of spectropolarimetric observations of penumbral filaments deliver the stratification of different physical quantities in an optical depth scale. However, without establishing a geometrical height scale, their three-dimensional geometrical structure cannot be derived. This is crucial in understanding the correct spatial variation of physical properties in the penumbral atmosphere and to provide insights into the mechanism capable of explaining the observed penumbral brightness. The aim of this work is to determine a global geometrical height scale in the penumbra by minimizing the divergence of the magnetic field vector and the deviations from static equilibrium as imposed by a force balance equation that includes pressure gradients, gravity, and the Lorentz force. Optical depth models are derived from the inversion of spectropolarimetric data of an active region observed with the Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode satellite. We use a genetic algorithm to determine the boundary condition for the inference of geometrical heights. The retrieved geometrical height scale permits the evaluation of the Wilson depression at each pixel and the correlation of physical quantities at each height. Our results fit into the uncombed penumbral scenario, i.e., a penumbra composed of flux tubes with channeled mass flow and with a weaker and more horizontal magnetic field as compared with the background field. The ascending material is hotter and denser than their surroundings. We do not find evidence of overturning convection or field-free regions in the inner penumbral area analyzed. The penumbral brightness can be explained by the energy transfer of the ascending mass carried by the Evershed flow, if the physical quantities below z = -75 km are extrapolated from the results of the inversion.

  7. Fear of heights in infants?

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Karen E.; Kretch, Kari S.; LoBue, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Based largely on the famous “visual cliff” paradigm, conventional wisdom is that crawling infants avoid crossing the brink of a dangerous drop-off because they are afraid of heights. However, recent research suggests that the conventional wisdom is wrong. Avoidance and fear are conflated, and there is no compelling evidence to support fear of heights in human infants. Infants avoid crawling or walking over an impossibly high drop-off because they perceive affordances for locomotion—the relations between their own bodies and skills and the relevant properties of the environment that make an action such as descent possible or impossible. PMID:25267874

  8. The ion-induced folding of the hammerhead ribozyme: core sequence changes that perturb folding into the active conformation.

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, G S; Murchie, A I; Lilley, D M

    1996-01-01

    The hammerhead ribozyme undergoes an ion-dependent folding process into the active conformation. We find that the folding can be blocked at specific stages by changes of sequence or functionality within the core. In the the absence of added metal ions, the global structure of the hammerhead is extended, with a large angle subtended between stems I and II. No core sequence changes appear to alter this geometry, consistent with an unstructured core under these conditions. Upon addition of low concentrations of magnesium ions, the hammerhead folds by an association of stems II and III, to include a large angle between them. This stage is inhibited or altered by mutations within the oligopurine sequence lying between stems II and III, and folding is completely prevented by an A14G mutation. Further increase in magnesium ion concentration brings about a second stage of folding in the natural sequence hammerhead, involving a reorientation of stem I, which rotates around into the same direction of stem II. Because this transition occurs over the same range of magnesium ion concentration over which the hammerhead ribozyme becomes active, it is likely that the final conformation is most closely related to the active form of the structure. Magnesium ion-dependent folding into this conformation is prevented by changes at G5, notably removal of the 2'-hydroxyl group and replacement of the base by cytidine. The ability to dissect the folding process by means of sequence changes suggests that two separate ion-dependent stages are involved in the folding of the hammerhead ribozyme into the active conformation. PMID:8752086

  9. Sea Surface Height 1993 - 2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts year-to-year variability in sea surface height, and chronicles two decades of El Niño and La Niña events. It was created using NASA ocean altimetry data from 1993 to 2011, ...

  10. Active core profile and transport modification by application of Ion Bernstein Wave power in PBX-M

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, B.; Bell, R.; Batha, S.

    1995-01-01

    Application of Ion Bernstein Wave Heating (IBWH) into the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M) tokamak stabilizes sawtooth oscillations and generates peaked density profiles. A transport barrier, spatially correlated with the IBWH power deposition profile, is observed in the core of IBWH assisted neutral beam injection (NBI) discharges. A precursor to the fully developed barrier is seen in the soft x-ray data during edge localized mode (ELM) activity. Sustained IBWH operation is conducive to a regime where the barrier supports large {triangledown}n{sub e}, {triangledown}T{sub e}, {triangledown}v{sub phi}, and {triangledown}T{sub i}, delimiting the confinement zone. This regime is reminiscent of the H(high)-mode but with a confinement zone moved inwards. The core region has better than H-mode confinement while the peripheral region is L(low)-mode-like. The peaked profile enhanced NBI core deposition and increases nuclear reactivity. An increase in central T{sub i} results from {chi}{sub i} reduction (compared to H-mode) and better beam penetration. Bootstrap current fractions of up to 0.32--0.35 locally and 0.28 overall were obtained when an additional NBI burst is applied to this plasma.

  11. Au@Co0.4S core-shell nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and evaluation of photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warjri, Wandibahun; Negi, Devendra P. S.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, Au@Co0.4S core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared core-shell nanoparticles was evaluated by studying the degradation of methyl orange (MO) spectrophotometerically under visible light irradiation. Under optimum experimental conditions, 68.9% of the dye was degraded during 50 min of irradiation. Control experiments showed negligible degradation of MO in the absence of the photocatalyst under visible light irradiation. A good correlation was obtained between the concentration of the dye adsorbed on the surface of the Au@Co0.4S core-shell nanoparticles and its degradation efficiency. The as-prepared nanoparticles showed good recyclability for the degradation of MO. The mechanistic studies suggested that the valence band holes of the Co0.4S nanoparticles were scavenged by the MO molecules resulting in the degradation of the dye.

  12. PAHs in sediment cores at main river estuaries of Chaohu Lake: implication for the change of local anthropogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chen; Wu, Yaketon; Zhang, Shuo; Wu, Liang-Liang; Liang, Xiao-Guo; Chen, Tian-Hu; Zhu, Cheng-Zhu; Sojinu, Samuel O; Wang, Ji-Zhong

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in four sediment cores collected from the main river estuaries of Chaohu Lake, one of the severely polluted lakes in China. The results indicate that elevated concentrations of total PAHs (Σ28PAH) were found in the samples from the estuary of Nanfei River (ENF), considering BaP-based total toxicity equivalent (TEQ-BaP) and toxic unit (TU) results; there are potential adverse environmental implications. The total organic carbon (TOC) played an important role on the accumulation of PAHs at ENF and the estuary of Tongyang River (ETY). The predominant PAHs are high molecular weight (HMW) homologous for all samples; as a result, industrial wastewater from a steel company is expectedly the key source of PAHs in ENF, while coke consumption would be the important source of PAHs at other three sampling sites. Vertical distribution of PAHs in the sediment cores could be explained by the local social and economic activities. Furthermore, a minor variation of PAH composition in the sediment core could be justified by the stable structure of energy consumption in the Anhui Province. These results justify the need for further enhancement of industrial wastewater treatment and development of renewable energies which are the key factors on the control of PAH pollution in China.

  13. BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  14. What is the core oscillator in the speract-activated pathway of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus sperm flagellum?

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Luis U; Galindo, Blanca E; Sánchez, Daniel; Santillán, Moisés

    2012-06-01

    Sperm chemotaxis has an important role in fertilization. Most of our knowledge regarding this phenomenon comes from studies in organisms whose fertilization occurs externally, like sea urchins. Sea urchin spermatozoa respond to sperm-activating peptides, which diffuse from the egg jelly coat and interact with their receptor in the flagellum, triggering several physiological responses: changes in membrane potential, intracellular pH, cyclic nucleotide levels, and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]). In particular, flagellar [Ca2+] has been shown to oscillate. These [Ca2+] oscillations are correlated with changes in the flagellar shape and so with the regulation of the sperm swimming paths. In this study, we demonstrate, from a mathematical modeling perspective, that the reported speract-activated signaling pathway in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (speract being a sperm-activating peptide specific to this species) has the necessary elements to replicate the reported [Ca2+] oscillations. We further investigate which elements of this signaling pathway constitute the core oscillator.

  15. Active Flash: Performance-Energy Tradeoffs for Out-of-Core Processing on Non-Volatile Memory Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Boboila, Simona; Kim, Youngjae; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S; Desnoyers, Peter; Shipman, Galen M

    2012-01-01

    In this abstract, we study the performance and energy tradeoffs involved in migrating data analysis into the flash device, a process we refer to as Active Flash. The Active Flash paradigm is similar to 'active disks', which has received considerable attention. Active Flash allows us to move processing closer to data, thereby minimizing data movement costs and reducing power consumption. It enables true out-of-core computation. The conventional definition of out-of-core solvers refers to an approach to process data that is too large to fit in the main memory and, consequently, requires access to disk. However, in Active Flash, processing outside the host CPU literally frees the core and achieves real 'out-of-core' analysis. Moving analysis to data has long been desirable, not just at this level, but at all levels of the system hierarchy. However, this requires a detailed study on the tradeoffs involved in achieving analysis turnaround under an acceptable energy envelope. To this end, we first need to evaluate if there is enough computing power on the flash device to warrant such an exploration. Flash processors require decent computing power to run the internal logic pertaining to the Flash Translation Layer (FTL), which is responsible for operations such as address translation, garbage collection (GC) and wear-leveling. Modern SSDs are composed of multiple packages and several flash chips within a package. The packages are connected using multiple I/O channels to offer high I/O bandwidth. SSD computing power is also expected to be high enough to exploit such inherent internal parallelism within the drive to increase the bandwidth and to handle fast I/O requests. More recently, SSD devices are being equipped with powerful processing units and are even embedded with multicore CPUs (e.g. ARM Cortex-A9 embedded processor is advertised to reach 2GHz frequency and deliver 5000 DMIPS; OCZ RevoDrive X2 SSD has 4 SandForce controllers, each with 780MHz max frequency

  16. The Combined Strength of Thermodynamics and Comparative Planetology: Application of Activity Models to Core Formation in Terrestrial Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K. M.; Danielson, L. R.

    2015-01-01

    how large the effect of Si can be, these epsilon values correspond to activity coefficients (gamma) for As of 0.01 when XSi = 0, and up to gamma = 23 when XSi = 0.2. Combining these new results with previous determinations [5,6] of epsilon parameters for S and C for these elements allows us calculate activity of Ge, In, As, and Sb in Fe-Ni-Si-S-C-O metallic liquids. We apply this new model to sever-al terrestrial bodies such as Earth (Si-rich core), Mars (S-rich core), Moon (S-, C-, and Si-poor core), and Vesta, and examine the resulting core and mantle concentrations of these elements. Mantle concentrations of these four elements are well explained for Earth and Mars in models that call for mid-mantle equilibration between Si-bearing and S-bearing FeNi cores, respectively. Modeling results for the Moon and Vesta will also be presented.

  17. Using Indices of Fidelity to Intervention Core Components to Identify Program Active Ingredients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abry, Tashia; Hulleman, Chris S.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the active ingredients of an intervention--intervention-specific components serving as key levers of change--is crucial for unpacking the intervention black box. Measures of intervention fidelity can be used to identify specific active ingredients, yet such applications are rare. We illustrate how fidelity measures can be used to…

  18. Active and secreted IgA-coated bacterial fractions from the human gut reveal an under-represented microbiota core

    PubMed Central

    D'Auria, Giuseppe; Peris-Bondia, Francesc; Džunková, Mária; Mira, Alex; Collado, Maria Carmen; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Host-associated microbiota varies in distribution depending on the body area inhabited. Gut microbes are known to interact with the human immune system, maintaining gut homoeostasis. Thus, we studied whether secreted-IgA (S-IgA) coat specific microbial taxa without inducing strong immune responses. To do so, we fractionated gut microbiota by flow cytometry. We found that active and S-IgA-coated bacterial fractions were characterized by a higher diversity than those observed in raw faecal suspensions. A long-tail effect was observed in family distribution, revealing that rare bacteria represent up to 20% of total diversity. While Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum, the majority of its sequences were not assigned at the genus level. Finally, the single-cell-based approach enabled us to focus on active and S-IgA-coated bacteria. Thus, we revealed a microbiota core common to the healthy volunteers participating in the study. Interestingly, this core was composed mainly of low frequency taxa (e.g. Sphingomonadaceae). PMID:24343271

  19. Lipid-Core Nanocapsules Improved Antiedematogenic Activity of Tacrolimus in Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis Model.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Rossana B; Coradini, Karine; Fonseca, Francisco N; Guterres, Silvia S; Beck, Ruy C R; Pohlmann, Adriana R

    2016-02-01

    Despite significant technological advances, rheumatoid arthritis remains an incurable disease with great impact on the life quality of patients. We studied the encapsulation of tacrolimus in lipidcore nanocapsules (TAC-LNC) as a strategy to enhance its systemic anti-arthritic properties. TAC-LNC presented unimodal distribution of particles with z-average diameter of 212 +/- 11, drug content close to the theoretical value (0.80 mg mL(-1)), and 99.43% of encapsulation efficiency. An in vitro sustained release was determined for TAC-LNC with anomalous transport mechanism (n = 0.61). In vivo studies using an arthritis model induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant demonstrated that the animals treated with TAC-LNC presented a significantly greater inhibition of paw oedema after intraperitoneal administration. Furthermore, the encapsulation of TAC in lipid-core nanocapsules was potentially able to prevent hyperglycemia in the animals. In conclusion, TAC-LNC was prepared with 100% yield of nanoscopic particles having satisfactory characteristics for systemic use. This formulation represents a promising strategy to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in the near future. PMID:27433576

  20. Highly active and durable core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air battery application.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Yu, Aiping; Higgins, Drew; Li, Hui; Wang, Haijiang; Chen, Zhongwei

    2012-04-11

    A new class of core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst (CCBC) consisting of lanthanum nickelate centers supporting nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNT) has been developed for rechargeable metal-air battery application. The nanostructured design of the catalyst allows the core and corona to catalyze the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), respectively. These materials displayed exemplary OER and ORR activity through half-cell testing, comparable to state of the art commercial lanthanum nickelate (LaNiO(3)) and carbon-supported platinum (Pt/C), with added bifunctional capabilities allowing metal-air battery rechargeability. LaNiO(3) and Pt/C are currently the most accepted benchmark electrocatalyst materials for the OER and ORR, respectively; thus with comparable activity toward both of these reactions, CCBC are presented as a novel, inexpensive catalyst component for the cathode of rechargeable metal-air batteries. Moreover, after full-range degradation testing (FDT) CCBC retained excellent activity, retaining 3 and 13 times greater ORR and OER current upon comparison to state of the art Pt/C. Zinc-air battery performances of CCBC is in good agreement with the half-cell experiments with this bifunctional electrocatalyst displaying high activity and stability during battery discharge, charge, and cycling processes. Owing to its outstanding performance toward both the OER and ORR, comparable with the highest performing commercial catalysts to date for each of the respective reaction, coupled with high stability and rechargeability, CCBC is presented as a novel class of bifunctional catalyst material that is very applicable to future generation rechargeable metal-air batteries.

  1. Highly active and durable core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air battery application.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Yu, Aiping; Higgins, Drew; Li, Hui; Wang, Haijiang; Chen, Zhongwei

    2012-04-11

    A new class of core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst (CCBC) consisting of lanthanum nickelate centers supporting nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNT) has been developed for rechargeable metal-air battery application. The nanostructured design of the catalyst allows the core and corona to catalyze the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), respectively. These materials displayed exemplary OER and ORR activity through half-cell testing, comparable to state of the art commercial lanthanum nickelate (LaNiO(3)) and carbon-supported platinum (Pt/C), with added bifunctional capabilities allowing metal-air battery rechargeability. LaNiO(3) and Pt/C are currently the most accepted benchmark electrocatalyst materials for the OER and ORR, respectively; thus with comparable activity toward both of these reactions, CCBC are presented as a novel, inexpensive catalyst component for the cathode of rechargeable metal-air batteries. Moreover, after full-range degradation testing (FDT) CCBC retained excellent activity, retaining 3 and 13 times greater ORR and OER current upon comparison to state of the art Pt/C. Zinc-air battery performances of CCBC is in good agreement with the half-cell experiments with this bifunctional electrocatalyst displaying high activity and stability during battery discharge, charge, and cycling processes. Owing to its outstanding performance toward both the OER and ORR, comparable with the highest performing commercial catalysts to date for each of the respective reaction, coupled with high stability and rechargeability, CCBC is presented as a novel class of bifunctional catalyst material that is very applicable to future generation rechargeable metal-air batteries. PMID:22372510

  2. Core Muscle Activation in One-Armed and Two-Armed Kettlebell Swing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Vidar; Fimland, Marius S; Gunnarskog, Aril; Jungård, Georg-Andrè; Slåttland, Roy-Andrè; Vraalsen, Øyvind F; Saeterbakken, Atle H

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the electromyographic activity of rectus abdominis, oblique external, and lower and upper erector spinae at both sides of the truncus in 1-armed and 2-armed kettlebell swing. Sixteen healthy men performed 10 repetitions of both exercises using a 16-kg kettlebell in randomized order. For the upper erector spinae, the activation of the contralateral side during 1-armed swing was 24% greater than that of the ipsilateral side during 1-armed swing (p < 0.001) and 11% greater during 2-armed swing (p = 0.026). Furthermore, the activation in 2-armed swing was 12-16% greater than for the ipsilateral side in 1-armed swing (p < 0.001). For rectus abdominis, however, 42% lower activation of the contralateral side was observed during 1-armed swing compared with ipsilateral sides during 2-armed swing (p = 0.038) and 48% compared with the ipsilateral side during 1-armed swing (p = 0.044). Comparing the different phases of the swing, most differences in the upper erector spinae were found in the lower parts of the movement, whereas for the rectus abdominis, the differences were found during the hip extension. In contrast, similar muscle activity in the lower erector spinae and external oblique between the different conditions was observed (p = 0.055-0.969). In conclusion, performing the kettlebell swing with 1 arm resulted in greater neuromuscular activity for the contralateral side of the upper erector spinae and ipsilateral side of the rectus abdominis, and lower activation of the opposite side of the respective muscles.

  3. Growth rate controlled synthesis of hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Juan; Tian, Guohui; Chen, Yajie; Shi, Yunhan; Tian, Chungui; Pan, Kai; Fu, Honggang

    2014-01-01

    Core/shell heterostructure composite has great potential applications in photocatalytic field because the introduction of core can remarkably improve charge transport and enhance the electron-hole separation. Herein, hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell structured microspheres were prepared via a simple one-pot hydrothermal process based on different growth rate of the two kinds of sulphides. The results showed that, the as-prepared hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell heterostructure exhibits significant visible light photocatalytic activity for degradation of 2, 4-dichlorophenol. The introduction of Bi2S3 core can not only improve charge transport and enhance the electron-hole separation, but also broaden the visible light response. The hierarchical porous folwer-like shell of In2S3 could increase the specific surface area and remarkably enhanced the chemical stability of Bi2S3 against oxidation. PMID:24504084

  4. Evaluation of storing Shippingport Core II spent blanket fuel assemblies in the T Plant PWR Core II fuel pool without active cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.R.; Lanning, D.D.; Dana, C.M.; Hedengren, D.C.

    1994-10-01

    PWR Core II fuel pool chiller-off test was conducted because it appeared possible that acceptable pool-water temperatures could be maintained without operating the chillers, thus saving hundreds of thousands of dollars in maintenance and replacement costs. Test results showed that the water-cooling capability is no longer needed to maintain pool temperature below 38{degrees}C (100{degrees}F).

  5. Core Angular Momentum and the IERS Sub-Centers Activity for Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids. Part 1; Core Angular Momentum and Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Xia-Dong; Chao, Benjamin (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The part of the grant was to use recordings of seismic waves travelling through the earth's core (PKP waves) to study the inner core rotation and constraints on possible density anomalies in the fluid core. The shapes and relative arrival times of such waves associated with a common source were used to reduce the uncertainties in source location and excitation and the effect of unknown mantle structure. The major effort of the project is to assemble historical seismograms with long observing base lines. We have found original paper records of SSI earthquakes at COL between 1951 and 1966 in a warehouse of the U.S. Geological Survey office in Golden, Colorado, extending the previous measurements at COL by Song and Richards [1996] further back 15 years. Also in Alaska, the University of Alaska, Fairbanks Geophysical Institute (UAFGI) has been operating the Alaskan Seismic Network with over 100 stations since the late 1960s. Virtually complete archives of seismograms are still available at UAFGI. Unfortunately, most of the archives are in microchip form (develocorders), for which the use of waveforms is impossible. Paper seismograms (helicorders) are available for a limited number of stations, and digital recordings of analog signals started around 1989. Of the paper records obtained, stations at Gilmore Dome (GLM, very close to COL), Yukon (FYU), McKinley (MCK), and Sheep Creek Mountain (SCM) have the most complete continuous recordings.

  6. EFFECT OF ACTIVE COOLING AND α-2 ADRENOCEPTOR ANTAGONISM ON CORE TEMPERATURE IN ANESTHETIZED BROWN BEARS (URSUS ARCTOS).

    PubMed

    Ozeki, Larissa Mourad; Caulkett, Nigel; Stenhouse, Gordon; Arnemo, Jon M; Fahlman, Åsa

    2015-06-01

    Hyperthermia is a common complication during anesthesia of bears, and it can be life threatening. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of active cooling on core body temperature for treatment of hyperthermia in anesthetized brown bears (Ursus arctos). In addition, body temperature after reversal with atipamezole was also evaluated. Twenty-five adult and subadult brown bears were captured with a combination of zolazepam-tiletamine and xylazine or medetomidine. A core temperature capsule was inserted into the bears' stomach or 15 cm into their rectum or a combination of both. In six bears with gastric temperatures≥40.0°C, an active cooling protocol was performed, and the temperature change over 30 min was analyzed. The cooling protocol consisted of enemas with 2 L of water at approximately 5°C/100 kg of body weight every 10 min, 1 L of intravenous fluids at ambient temperature, water or snow on the paws or the inguinal area, intranasal oxygen supplementation, and removing the bear from direct sunlight or providing shade. Nine bears with body temperature>39.0°C that were not cooled served as control for the treated animals. Their body temperatures were recorded for 30 min, prior to administration of reversal. At the end of the anesthetic procedure, all bears received an intramuscular dose of atipamezole. In 10 bears, deep rectal temperature change over 30 min after administration of atipamezole was evaluated. The active cooling protocol used in hyperthermic bears significantly decreased their body temperatures within 10 min, and it produced a significantly greater decrease in their temperature than that recorded in the control group.

  7. Scaling and calibration of a core validation site for the soil moisture active passive mission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The calibration and validation of soil moisture remote sensing products is complicated due to the logistics of installing a long term soil moisture monitoring network in an active landscape. It is more efficient to locate these stations along agricultural field boundaries, but unfortunately this oft...

  8. Ramp Angle, Not Plateau Height, Influences Transition Strategies.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Riley C; Gottschall, Jinger S

    2016-10-01

    In a previous study, we found that participants modified how they transitioned onto and off of ramp configurations depending upon the incline. While the transition strategies were originally attributed to ramp angles, it is possible that the plateau influenced the strategies since the final surface height also differed. Ultimately, for the current study, we hypothesized that an individual's transition strategies would have significant main effects for ramp angle, but not plateau height. Twelve healthy, young adults transitioned onto 3 distinct ramp configurations, a 2.4-m ramp angled at 12.5° ending at a plateau height of 53 cm, a 1.2-m ramp angled at 23.5° ending at a plateau height of 53 cm, and a 2.4-m ramp angled at 23.5° ending at a plateau height of 99.5 cm. Kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity were measured during the stance phase before contacting the ramp. In support of our hypothesis, impact peak, active peak, and all of the muscle activity variables had a significant main effect for ramp angle, with greater vertical force peaks and muscle activity on steeper ramp transitions. These findings support our previous interpretation that individuals use estimations of ramp angle, not plateau height, to determine their transition strategies.

  9. MULTICHANNEL PULSE-HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Russell, J.T.; Lefevre, H.W.

    1958-01-21

    This patent deals with electronic computing circuits and more particularly to pulse-height analyzers used for classifying variable amplitude pulses into groups of different amplitudes. The device accomplishes this pulse allocation by by converting the pulses into frequencies corresponding to the amplitudes of the pulses, which frequencies are filtered in channels individually pretuned to a particular frequency and then detected and recorded in the responsive channel. This circuit substantially overcomes the disadvantages of prior annlyzers incorporating discriminators pre-set to respond to certain voltage levels, since small variation in component values is not as critical to satisfactory circuit operation.

  10. The 20S proteasome core, active within apoptotic exosome-like vesicles, induces autoantibody production and accelerates rejection.

    PubMed

    Dieudé, Mélanie; Bell, Christina; Turgeon, Julie; Beillevaire, Deborah; Pomerleau, Luc; Yang, Bing; Hamelin, Katia; Qi, Shijie; Pallet, Nicolas; Béland, Chanel; Dhahri, Wahiba; Cailhier, Jean-François; Rousseau, Matthieu; Duchez, Anne-Claire; Lévesque, Tania; Lau, Arthur; Rondeau, Christiane; Gingras, Diane; Muruve, Danie; Rivard, Alain; Cardinal, Héloise; Perreault, Claude; Desjardins, Michel; Boilard, Éric; Thibault, Pierre; Hébert, Marie-Josée

    2015-12-16

    Autoantibodies to components of apoptotic cells, such as anti-perlecan antibodies, contribute to rejection in organ transplant recipients. However, mechanisms of immunization to apoptotic components remain largely uncharacterized. We used large-scale proteomics, with validation by electron microscopy and biochemical methods, to compare the protein profiles of apoptotic bodies and apoptotic exosome-like vesicles, smaller extracellular vesicles released by endothelial cells downstream of caspase-3 activation. We identified apoptotic exosome-like vesicles as a central trigger for production of anti-perlecan antibodies and acceleration of rejection. Unlike apoptotic bodies, apoptotic exosome-like vesicles triggered the production of anti-perlecan antibodies in naïve mice and enhanced anti-perlecan antibody production and allograft inflammation in mice transplanted with an MHC (major histocompatibility complex)-incompatible aortic graft. The 20S proteasome core was active within apoptotic exosome-like vesicles and controlled their immunogenic activity. Finally, we showed that proteasome activity in circulating exosome-like vesicles increased after vascular injury in mice. These findings open new avenues for predicting and controlling maladaptive humoral responses to apoptotic cell components that enhance the risk of rejection after transplantation. PMID:26676607

  11. Hemocompatibility of Polyvinyl Alcohol-Gelatin Core-Shell Electrospun Nanofibers: A Novel Scaffold for Modulating Platelet Deposition and Activation

    PubMed Central

    Merkle, Valerie M.; Martin, Daniel; Hutchinson, Marcus; Tran, Phat L.; Behrens, Alana; Hossainy, Samir; Bluestein, Danny; Wu, Xiaoyi; Slepian, Marvin J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate coaxial electrospun nanofibers with gelatin in the shell and polyvinyl (PVA) in the core as a potential vascular material by determining fiber surface roughness, as well as human platelet deposition and activation under varying conditions. PVA scaffolds had the highest surface roughness (Ra = 65.5 ± 6.8 nm) but the lowest platelet deposition (34.2 ± 5.8 platelets) in comparison to gelatin nanofibers (Ra = 36.8 ± 3.0 nm & 168.9 ± 29.8 platelets) and coaxial nanofibers (1 Gel: 1 PVA coaxial – Ra = 24.0 ± 1.5 nm & 150.2 ± 17.4 platelets; 3 Gel: 1 PVA coaxial – Ra = 37.1 ± 2.8 nm & 167.8 ± 15.4 platelets). Therefore, the chemical structure of the gelatin nanofibers dominated surface roughness in platelet deposition. Due to their increased stiffness, the coaxial nanofibers had the highest platelet activation rate – rate of thrombin formation, in comparison to gelatin and PVA fibers. Our studies indicate that mechanical stiffness is a dominating factor for platelet deposition and activation, followed by biochemical moieties, and lastly surface roughness. Overall, these coaxial nanofibers are an appealing material for vascular applications by supporting cellular growth while minimizing platelet deposition and activation. PMID:25815434

  12. The Dense Core Vesicle Protein IA-2, but not IA-2β, is Required for Active Avoidance Learning

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Gilberto Nepthali; Nishimura, Takuya; Schindler, Charles Weber; Panlilio, Leigh Vincent; Notkins, Abner Louis

    2014-01-01

    The islet-antigens IA-2 and IA-2β are major autoantigens in type-1 diabetes and transmembrane proteins in dense core vesicles (DCV). Recently we showed that deletion of both IA-2 and IA-2β alters the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters and impairs behavior and learning. The present study was designed to evaluate the contribution to learning of each of these genes by using single knockout (SKO) and double knockout (DKO) mice in an active avoidance test. After 5 days of training, wild type (WT) mice showed 60–70% active avoidance responses, whereas the DKO mice showed only 10–15% active avoidance responses. The degree of active avoidance responses in the IA-2 SKO mice was similar to that of the DKO mice, but in contrast, the IA-2β SKO mice behaved like WT mice showing 60–70% active avoidance responses. Molecular studies revealed a marked decrease in the phosphorylation of the cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein (CREB) and Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II (CAMKII) in the striatum and hippocampus of the IA-2 SKO and DKO mice, but not in the IA-2β SKO mice. To evaluate the role of CREB and CAMKII in the SKO and DKO mice, GBR-12909, which selectively blocks the dopamine uptake transporter and increases CREB and CAMKII phosphorylation, was administered. GBR-12909 restored the phosphorylation of CREB and CAMKII and increased active avoidance learning in the DKO and IA-2 SKO to near the normal levels found in the WT and IA-2β SKO mice. We conclude that in the absence of the DCV protein IA-2, active avoidance learning is impaired. PMID:24662847

  13. The dense core vesicle protein IA-2, but not IA-2β, is required for active avoidance learning.

    PubMed

    Carmona, G N; Nishimura, T; Schindler, C W; Panlilio, L V; Notkins, A L

    2014-06-01

    The islet-antigens IA-2 and IA-2β are major autoantigens in type-1 diabetes and transmembrane proteins in dense core vesicles (DCV). Recently we showed that deletion of both IA-2 and IA-2β alters the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters and impairs behavior and learning. The present study was designed to evaluate the contribution to learning of each of these genes by using single knockout (SKO) and double knockout (DKO) mice in an active avoidance test. After 5 days of training, wild-type (WT) mice showed 60-70% active avoidance responses, whereas the DKO mice showed only 10-15% active avoidance responses. The degree of active avoidance responses in the IA-2 SKO mice was similar to that of the DKO mice, but in contrast, the IA-2β SKO mice behaved like WT mice showing 60-70% active avoidance responses. Molecular studies revealed a marked decrease in the phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII) in the striatum and hippocampus of the IA-2 SKO and DKO mice, but not in the IA-2β SKO mice. To evaluate the role of CREB and CAMKII in the SKO and DKO mice, GBR-12909, which selectively blocks the dopamine uptake transporter and increases CREB and CAMKII phosphorylation, was administered. GBR-12909 restored the phosphorylation of CREB and CAMKII and increased active avoidance learning in the DKO and IA-2 SKO to near the normal levels found in the WT and IA-2β SKO mice. We conclude that in the absence of the DCV protein IA-2, active avoidance learning is impaired.

  14. Exercise performance, core temperature, and metabolism after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Pohoska, E.; Turlejska, E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    Physiological effects of restricted activity (RA) and subsequent retraining have been studied. Ten male mongrel dogs performed a submaximal exercise endurance test on a treadmill during kennel control, after 8 weeks of cage confinement and after eight weeks of retraining using the same treadmill protocol 1 h/d for 6 d/week. Data obtained show that RA reduces exercise endurance, the effectiveness of exercise thermoregulation, muscle glycogen stores, and the lipolytic response to exercise and to noradrenaline stimulation.

  15. Judgments of others' heights are biased toward the height of the perceiver.

    PubMed

    Twedt, Elyssa; Crawford, L Elizabeth; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2015-04-01

    We examined how observers use one aspect of their own morphology, height, when judging the physical characteristics of other people. To address this, participants judged the heights of people as they walked past. We tested the hypothesis that differences between participant and target height account for systematic patterns of variability and bias in height estimation. Height estimate error and error variability increased as the difference between participant height and target height increased, suggesting that estimates are scaled to observers' heights. Furthermore, participants' height estimates were biased toward two standards, demonstrating classic category effects. First, estimates were biased toward participants' own heights. Second, participants biased height estimates toward the average height of the target distribution. These results support past research on using both the body and categorical information to estimate target properties but extend to real-world situations involving interactions with moving people, such as height judgments provided during eyewitness testimony. PMID:25028087

  16. Vaccinia virus entry is followed by core activation and proteasome-mediated release of the immunomodulatory effector VH1 from lateral bodies.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Florian Ingo; Bleck, Christopher Karl Ernst; Reh, Lucia; Novy, Karel; Wollscheid, Bernd; Helenius, Ari; Stahlberg, Henning; Mercer, Jason

    2013-08-15

    Host cell entry of vaccinia virus, the prototypic poxvirus, involves a membrane fusion event delivering the viral core and two proteinaceous lateral bodies (LBs) into the cytosol. Uncoating of viral cores is poorly characterized, and the composition and function of LBs remains enigmatic. We found that cytosolic cores rapidly dissociated from LBs and expanded in volume, which coincided with reduction of disulfide-bonded core proteins. We identified the abundant phosphoprotein F17, the dual-specificity phosphatase VH1, and the oxidoreductase G4 as bona fide LB components. After reaching the cytosol, F17 was degraded in a proteasome-dependent manner. Proteasome activity, and presumably LB disassembly, was required for the immediate immunomodulatory activity of VH1: dephosphorylation of STAT1 to prevent interferon-γ-mediated antiviral responses. These results reveal a mechanism used by poxviruses to deliver viral enzymes to the host cell cytosol and are likely to facilitate the identification of additional LB-resident viral effectors.

  17. Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity.

    PubMed

    Tognolini, M; Barocelli, E; Ballabeni, V; Bruni, R; Bianchi, A; Chiavarini, M; Impicciatore, M

    2006-02-23

    Essential oils extracted from different plants (Anthemis nobilis L., Artemisia dracunculus L., Cannabis sativa L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Curcuma longa L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Hypericum perforatum L., Hyssopus officinalis L., Mentha spicata L., Monarda didyma L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocotea quixos Kosterm., Origanum vulgare L., Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus silvestris L., Piper crassinervium Kunth., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Salvia sclarea L., Santolina chamaecyparissus L., Thymus vulgaris L., Zingiber officinaie L.) were screened in guinea pig and rat plasma in order to assess antiplatelet activity and inhibition of clot retraction. The oils were chemically analysed and a relationship between components and ability to affect hemostasis was evidenced. O. quixos, F. vulgaris, and A. dracunculus showed the highest antiplatelet activity against ADP, Arachidonic Acid and the Thromboxane A2 agonist U46619 (IC50, 4-132 microg ml(-1)), and a good ability to destabilize clot retraction (IC50, 19-180 microg ml(-1)). For these oils a significant correlation between antiplatelet potency and phenylpropanoids content (54-86%) was evidenced thus suggesting a key role for this moiety in the prevention of clot formation. These findings provide the rationale to take in account the antiplatelet activity in the pharmacological screening of natural products containing phenylpropanoids.

  18. Determination of uranium, thorium and potassium activity concentrations in soil cores in Araba valley, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abusini, M; Al-Ayasreh, K; Al-Jundi, J

    2008-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from six different locations in Araba valley, situated between Aqaba port and Dead sea. The samples have been analysed by using gamma-ray spectrometry. From the measured gamma-ray spectra, activity concentrations are determined for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K. The mean activity concentration for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K was found to be in the range 19 +/- 1.4 to 38.7 +/- 3, 14.3 +/- 0.8 to 35 +/- 3.2 and 94 +/- 18.9 to 762 +/- 47.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These results indicate that the mean concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the populated Araba valley are lower than those in other populated areas. On the other hand, the concentrations of the major oxides (Al(2)O(3), SiO(2), K(2)O, CaO and Fe(2)O(3)) in the samples were determined using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence. High potassium and iron content in some samples might be attributed to the active faults, which refer to the Dead sea transform fault.

  19. Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity.

    PubMed

    Tognolini, M; Barocelli, E; Ballabeni, V; Bruni, R; Bianchi, A; Chiavarini, M; Impicciatore, M

    2006-02-23

    Essential oils extracted from different plants (Anthemis nobilis L., Artemisia dracunculus L., Cannabis sativa L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Curcuma longa L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Hypericum perforatum L., Hyssopus officinalis L., Mentha spicata L., Monarda didyma L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocotea quixos Kosterm., Origanum vulgare L., Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus silvestris L., Piper crassinervium Kunth., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Salvia sclarea L., Santolina chamaecyparissus L., Thymus vulgaris L., Zingiber officinaie L.) were screened in guinea pig and rat plasma in order to assess antiplatelet activity and inhibition of clot retraction. The oils were chemically analysed and a relationship between components and ability to affect hemostasis was evidenced. O. quixos, F. vulgaris, and A. dracunculus showed the highest antiplatelet activity against ADP, Arachidonic Acid and the Thromboxane A2 agonist U46619 (IC50, 4-132 microg ml(-1)), and a good ability to destabilize clot retraction (IC50, 19-180 microg ml(-1)). For these oils a significant correlation between antiplatelet potency and phenylpropanoids content (54-86%) was evidenced thus suggesting a key role for this moiety in the prevention of clot formation. These findings provide the rationale to take in account the antiplatelet activity in the pharmacological screening of natural products containing phenylpropanoids. PMID:16274702

  20. Health physics activities in support of the thermal shield removal/disposal and core support barrel repair at the St. Lucie Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Maisler, J.J.; Buchanan, H.F.

    1988-02-01

    The health physics activities related to the removal and disposal of a thermal shield at a nuclear power plant and subsequent repairs to the core support barrel required increased planning relative to a normal refueling/maintenance outage. The repair of the core support barrel was a first in the nuclear power industry. Pre-job planning was of great concern because of extremely high radiation levels associated with the irradiated stainless steel thermal shield and core support barrel. ALARA techniques used in the preparation of the thermal shield for removal and shipment to the disposal site are discussed.

  1. Thermally activated post-glitch response of the neutron star inner crust and core. I. Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Bennett

    2014-07-10

    Pinning of superfluid vortices is predicted to prevail throughout much of a neutron star. Based on the idea of Alpar et al., I develop a description of the coupling between the solid and liquid components of a neutron star through thermally activated vortex slippage, and calculate the response to a spin glitch. The treatment begins with a derivation of the vortex velocity from the vorticity equations of motion. The activation energy for vortex slippage is obtained from a detailed study of the mechanics and energetics of vortex motion. I show that the 'linear creep' regime introduced by Alpar et al. and invoked in fits to post-glitch response is not realized for physically reasonable parameters, a conclusion that strongly constrains the physics of a post-glitch response through thermal activation. Moreover, a regime of 'superweak pinning', crucial to the theory of Alpar et al. and its extensions, is probably precluded by thermal fluctuations. The theory given here has a robust conclusion that can be tested by observations: for a glitch in the spin rate of magnitude Δν, pinning introduces a delay in the post-glitch response time. The delay time is t{sub d} = 7(t{sub sd}/10{sup 4} yr)((Δν/ν)/10{sup –6}) d, where t{sub sd} is the spin-down age; t{sub d} is typically weeks for the Vela pulsar and months in older pulsars, and is independent of the details of vortex pinning. Post-glitch response through thermal activation cannot occur more quickly than this timescale. Quicker components of post-glitch response, as have been observed in some pulsars, notably, the Vela pulsar, cannot be due to thermally activated vortex motion but must represent a different process, such as drag on vortices in regions where there is no pinning. I also derive the mutual friction force for a pinned superfluid at finite temperature for use in other studies of neutron star hydrodynamics.

  2. Giant spin splitting in optically active ZnMnTe/ZnMgTe core/shell nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wojnar, Piotr; Janik, Elżbieta; Baczewski, Lech T; Kret, Sławomir; Dynowska, Elżbieta; Wojciechowski, Tomasz; Suffczyński, Jan; Papierska, Joanna; Kossacki, Piotr; Karczewski, Grzegorz; Kossut, Jacek; Wojtowicz, Tomasz

    2012-07-11

    An enhancement of the Zeeman splitting as a result of the incorporation of paramagnetic Mn ions in ZnMnTe/ZnMgTe core/shell nanowires is reported. The studied structures are grown by gold-catalyst assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The near band edge emission of these structures, conspicuously absent in the case of uncoated ZnMnTe nanowires, is activated by the presence of ZnMgTe coating. Giant Zeeman splitting of this emission is studied in ensembles of nanowires with various average Mn concentrations of the order of a few percent, as well as in individual nanowires. Thus, we show convincingly that a strong spin sp-d coupling is indeed present in these structures.

  3. Feasibility study on nuclear core design for soluble boron free small modular reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Rabir, Mohamad Hairie Hah, Chang Joo; Ju, Cho Sung

    2015-04-29

    A feasibility study on nuclear core design of soluble boron free (SBF) core for small size (150MWth) small modular reactor (SMR) was investigated. The purpose of this study was to design a once through cycle SMR core, where it can be used to supply electricity to a remote isolated area. PWR fuel assembly design with 17×17 arrangement, with 264 fuel rods per assembly was adopted as the basis design. The computer code CASMO-3/MASTER was used for the search of SBF core and fuel assembly analysis for SMR design. A low critical boron concentration (CBC) below 200 ppm core with 4.7 years once through cycle length was achieved using 57 fuel assemblies having 170 cm of active height. Core reactivity controlled using mainly 512 number of 4 wt% and 960 12 wt% Gd rods.

  4. Feasibility study on nuclear core design for soluble boron free small modular reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabir, Mohamad Hairie; Hah, Chang Joo; Ju, Cho Sung

    2015-04-01

    A feasibility study on nuclear core design of soluble boron free (SBF) core for small size (150MWth) small modular reactor (SMR) was investigated. The purpose of this study was to design a once through cycle SMR core, where it can be used to supply electricity to a remote isolated area. PWR fuel assembly design with 17×17 arrangement, with 264 fuel rods per assembly was adopted as the basis design. The computer code CASMO-3/MASTER was used for the search of SBF core and fuel assembly analysis for SMR design. A low critical boron concentration (CBC) below 200 ppm core with 4.7 years once through cycle length was achieved using 57 fuel assemblies having 170 cm of active height. Core reactivity controlled using mainly 512 number of 4 wt% and 960 12 wt% Gd rods.

  5. Prospects and limitations of digital Shearography and Active Thermography in finding and rating flaws in CFRP sandwich parts with honeycomb core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, J.; Mayr, G.; Hendorfer, G.

    2012-05-01

    This work shows the prospects and limitations of the non-destructive testing methods Digital Shearography and Active Thermography when applied to CFRP sandwich parts with honeycomb cores. Two specimens with different core materials (aluminum, NOMEX) and artificial flaws such as delaminations, disbonds and inclusions of foreign material, are tested with Digital Shearography and Pulse Thermography including Pulse Phase Thermography. Both methods provide a good ability for finding and rating the flaws.

  6. Inside-out core-shell architecture: controllable fabrication of Cu2O@Cu with high activity for the Sonogashira coupling reaction.

    PubMed

    Kou, Jiahui; Saha, Amit; Bennett-Stamper, Christina; Varma, Rajender S

    2012-06-14

    Inside-out core-shell architectures (Cu(2)O@Cu) with a Cu(2)O core and a Cu shell, which are in contrast to the normally reported Cu(2)O-outside structure (Cu@Cu(2)O), were fabricated. This strategy can also be applied to construct square and hexapod Cu(2)O@Cu. The obtained Cu(2)O@Cu composite exhibits excellent catalytic activity for the Sonogashira coupling reactions.

  7. Recognition of coseismic-related microstructures and behaviour of clay minerals within the core of active fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buatier, M.; Chauvet, A.; Ritz, J.; Jolivet, M.; Bayarjargal, B.; Vitalie, M.; Vassalo, R.

    2008-12-01

    Seismogenic faults are commonly characterized by a zonation with foliated gouge and breccias surrounded by damage zone. This zonation results from co-seismic or inter-seismic deformation and fluid-rock interactions. Based on field, textural, microtextural and clay mineralogical analysis, the core zone of an active fault located in the Bogd Mongolian massif has been studied. This fault is supposed to be an ancient major ductile shear zone re-activated during the Quaternary. Field studies reveal the complexity of the fault cores with the association between fragmented/ brecciated domains and at least two generations of gouge. The first gouge presents a foliated structure. The second one is characterized by an homogeneous black, thin, fine-grained, gouge. According to field constraints, the thin gouge level can correspond to the last seismic event. Catholuminescence and SEM investigations allow to characterize the texture of each gouge and surrounding rocks. Additional measurement of grain size distribution, grain circularity, grain shape and grain fabrics allow the clear distinction between the two different gouge textures: foliated and isotropic. In the foliated gouge, mineralogical study (SEM-BSE and DRX) displays evidence of fluid-rock interactions with alteration of micas to illite/smectite and formation of kaolinite. The presence of authigenic gypsum crystals and Fe-oxyhydroxyde suggests interseismic fluid circulation in this permeable structure. The last generation of gouge with isotropic texture is clay rich and is characterized by the presence of smectite (hydrated clay mineral). The data suggest polyphase deformation with ductile structures associated with brittle deformation implying communition process. The debate concerns the mode of formation of the gouge and the origin of clay minerals.

  8. Modulation of muscle metaboreceptor activation upon sweating and cutaneous vascular responses to rising core temperature in humans.

    PubMed

    Amano, Tatsuro; Ichinose, Masashi; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Nishiyasu, Takeshi; Koga, Shunsaku; Kondo, Narihiko

    2015-06-15

    The present study investigated the role of muscle metaboreceptor activation on human thermoregulation by measuring core temperature thresholds and slopes for sweating and cutaneous vascular responses during passive heating associated with central and peripheral mechanisms. Six male and eight female subjects inserted their lower legs into hot water (43°C) while wearing a water perfusion suit on the upper body (34°C). One minute after immersion, an isometric handgrip exercise--40% of maximum voluntary contraction-was conducted for 1.5 min in both control and experimental conditions, while postexercise occlusion was performed in the experimental condition only for 9 min. The postexercise forearm occlusion during passive heating consistently stimulated muscle metaboreceptors, as implicated by significantly elevated mean arterial blood pressure throughout the experimental period (P <0.05). Stimulation of the forearm muscle metaboreceptors increased sweating and cutaneous vascular responses during passive heating, and was associated with significant reductions in esophageal temperature threshold of sweating and cutaneous vasodilation (Δ threshold, sweating: 0.33 ± 0.05 and 0.16 ± 0.04°C, cutaneous vascular conductance: 0.38 ± 0.08 and 0.16 ± 0.05°C for control and experimental groups, respectively, P < 0.05). The slopes of these responses were not different between the conditions. These results suggest that muscle metaboreceptor activation in the forearm accelerates sweating and cutaneous vasodilation during passive heating associated with a reduction in core temperature thresholds and may be related to central mechanisms controlling heat loss responses.

  9. Magnetic heating properties and neutron activation of tungsten-oxide coated biocompatible FePt core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Seemann, K M; Luysberg, M; Révay, Z; Kudejova, P; Sanz, B; Cassinelli, N; Loidl, A; Ilicic, K; Multhoff, G; Schmid, T E

    2015-01-10

    Magnetic nanoparticles are highly desirable for biomedical research and treatment of cancer especially when combined with hyperthermia. The efficacy of nanoparticle-based therapies could be improved by generating radioactive nanoparticles with a convenient decay time and which simultaneously have the capability to be used for locally confined heating. The core-shell morphology of such novel nanoparticles presented in this work involves a polysilico-tungstate molecule of the polyoxometalate family as a precursor coating material, which transforms into an amorphous tungsten oxide coating upon annealing of the FePt core-shell nanoparticles. The content of tungsten atoms in the nanoparticle shell is neutron activated using cold neutrons at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRMII) neutron facility and thereby transformed into the radioisotope W-187. The sizeable natural abundance of 28% for the W-186 precursor isotope, a radiopharmaceutically advantageous gamma-beta ratio of γβ≈30% and a range of approximately 1mm in biological tissue for the 1.3MeV β-radiation are promising features of the nanoparticles' potential for cancer therapy. Moreover, a high temperature annealing treatment enhances the magnetic moment of nanoparticles in such a way that a magnetic heating effect of several degrees Celsius in liquid suspension - a prerequisite for hyperthermia treatment of cancer - was observed. A rise in temperature of approximately 3°C in aqueous suspension is shown for a moderate nanoparticle concentration of 0.5mg/ml after 15min in an 831kHz high-frequency alternating magnetic field of 250Gauss field strength (25mT). The biocompatibility based on a low cytotoxicity in the non-neutron-activated state in combination with the hydrophilic nature of the tungsten oxide shell makes the coated magnetic FePt nanoparticles ideal candidates for advanced radiopharmaceutical applications.

  10. Differential emission measure analysis of active region cores and quiet Sun for the non-Maxwellian κ-distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackovjak, Š.; Dzifčáková, E.; Dudík, J.

    2014-04-01

    Context. The non-Maxwellian κ-distributions have been detected in the solar wind and can explain intensities of some transition region lines. Presence of such distributions in the outer layers of the solar atmosphere influences the ionization and excitation equilibrium and widens the line contribution functions. This behavior may be reflected on the reconstructed differential emission measure (DEM). Aims: We aim to investigate the influence of κ-distributions on the reconstructed DEMs. Methods: We perform DEM reconstruction for three active region cores and a quiet Sun region using the Withbroe-Sylwester method and the regularization method. Results: We find that the reconstructed DEMs depend on the value of κ. The DEMs of the active region cores show similar behavior with decreasing κ, or an increasing departure from the Maxwellian distribution. For lower κ, the peaks of the DEMs are typically shifted to higher temperatures and the DEMs themselves become more concave. This is caused by the less steep high-temperature slopes for lower κ. However, the low-temperature slopes do not change significantly even for extremely low κ. The behavior of the quiet-Sun DEM distribution is different. It becomes progressively less multithermal for lower κ with the EM-loci plots that indicate near-isothermal plasma for κ = 2. Conclusions: The κ-distributions can influence the reconstructed DEMs. The slopes of the DEM, however, do not change with κ significantly enough to produce different constraints on the heating mechanism in terms of frequency of coronal heating events.

  11. Height and skeletal morphology in relation to modern life style.

    PubMed

    Hermanussen, Michael; Scheffler, Christiane; Groth, Detlef; Aßmann, Christian

    2015-12-08

    Height and skeletal morphology strongly relate to life style. Parallel to the decrease in physical activity and locomotion, modern people are slimmer in skeletal proportions. In German children and adolescents, elbow breadth and particularly relative pelvic breadth (50th centile of bicristal distance divided by body height) have significantly decreased in recent years. Even more evident than the changes in pelvic morphology are the rapid changes in body height in most modern countries since the end-19th and particularly since the mid-20th century. Modern Japanese mature earlier; the age at take-off (ATO, the age at which the adolescent growth spurt starts) decreases, and they are taller at all ages. Preece-Baines modelling of six national samples of Japanese children and adolescents, surveyed between 1955 and 2000, shows that this gain in height is largely an adolescent trend, whereas height at take-off (HTO) increased by less than 3 cm since 1955; adolescent growth (height gain between ATO and adult age) increased by 6 cm. The effect of globalization on the modern post-war Japanese society ("community effect in height") on adolescent growth is discussed.

  12. Activation of type I interferon-dependent genes characterizes the “core response” induced by CpG DNA

    PubMed Central

    Steinhagen, Folkert; Meyer, Corinna; Tross, Debra; Gursel, Mayda; Maeda, Takahiro; Klaschik, Sven; Klinman, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic ODNs expressing CpG motifs trigger an innate immune response via TLR9. pDCs are major effectors of this response. Two structurally distinct classes of CpG ODNs have been identified that differentially activate pDCs. “K” ODNs trigger the production of TNF-α and IL-6, whereas “D” ODNs preferentially induce the secretion of IFN-α. As K and D ODNs have distinct therapeutic effects, knowledge of their shared and sequence-specific activity is of considerable importance. This work uses the CAL-1 human pDC line to analyze the effect of CpG stimulation on gene expression. Genes up-regulated by both K and D ODNs (n=92) were largely dependent on type I IFN signaling and characterized functionally by antiviral activity. K ODNs induced a short-term increase in IFN-α/β production and uniquely up-regulated genes that supported antibacterial responses. In contrast, D ODNs triggered a persistent increase in IFN-α/β production and uniquely up-regulated genes associated with metabolic functions. Thus, the core functionality of human pDCs mediated by TLR9 ligation rests on a type I IFN response that differs from the response induced by the structural elements unique to specific classes of ODNs. PMID:22750547

  13. A Conserved GPG-Motif in the HIV-1 Nef Core Is Required for Principal Nef-Activities.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bonet, Marta; Palladino, Claudia; Briz, Veronica; Rudolph, Jochen M; Fackler, Oliver T; Relloso, Miguel; Muñoz-Fernandez, Maria Angeles; Madrid, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    To find out new determinants required for Nef activity we performed a functional alanine scanning analysis along a discrete but highly conserved region at the core of HIV-1 Nef. We identified the GPG-motif, located at the 121-137 region of HIV-1 NL4.3 Nef, as a novel protein signature strictly required for the p56Lck dependent Nef-induced CD4-downregulation in T-cells. Since the Nef-GPG motif was dispensable for CD4-downregulation in HeLa-CD4 cells, Nef/AP-1 interaction and Nef-dependent effects on Tf-R trafficking, the observed effects on CD4 downregulation cannot be attributed to structure constraints or to alterations on general protein trafficking. Besides, we found that the GPG-motif was also required for Nef-dependent inhibition of ring actin re-organization upon TCR triggering and MHCI downregulation, suggesting that the GPG-motif could actively cooperate with the Nef PxxP motif for these HIV-1 Nef-related effects. Finally, we observed that the Nef-GPG motif was required for optimal infectivity of those viruses produced in T-cells. According to these findings, we propose the conserved GPG-motif in HIV-1 Nef as functional region required for HIV-1 infectivity and therefore with a potential interest for the interference of Nef activity during HIV-1 infection. PMID:26700863

  14. A Conserved GPG-Motif in the HIV-1 Nef Core Is Required for Principal Nef-Activities

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Bonet, Marta; Palladino, Claudia; Briz, Veronica; Rudolph, Jochen M.; Fackler, Oliver T.; Relloso, Miguel; Muñoz-Fernandez, Maria Angeles; Madrid, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    To find out new determinants required for Nef activity we performed a functional alanine scanning analysis along a discrete but highly conserved region at the core of HIV-1 Nef. We identified the GPG-motif, located at the 121–137 region of HIV-1 NL4.3 Nef, as a novel protein signature strictly required for the p56Lck dependent Nef-induced CD4-downregulation in T-cells. Since the Nef-GPG motif was dispensable for CD4-downregulation in HeLa-CD4 cells, Nef/AP-1 interaction and Nef-dependent effects on Tf-R trafficking, the observed effects on CD4 downregulation cannot be attributed to structure constraints or to alterations on general protein trafficking. Besides, we found that the GPG-motif was also required for Nef-dependent inhibition of ring actin re-organization upon TCR triggering and MHCI downregulation, suggesting that the GPG-motif could actively cooperate with the Nef PxxP motif for these HIV-1 Nef-related effects. Finally, we observed that the Nef-GPG motif was required for optimal infectivity of those viruses produced in T-cells. According to these findings, we propose the conserved GPG-motif in HIV-1 Nef as functional region required for HIV-1 infectivity and therefore with a potential interest for the interference of Nef activity during HIV-1 infection. PMID:26700863

  15. "Hot" Non-flaring Plasmas in Active Region Cores Heated by Single Nanoflares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Will Thomas; Cargill, Peter; Bradshaw, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    We use hydrodynamic modeling tools, including a two-fluid development of the EBTEL code, to investigate the properties expected of "hot" (i.e. between 106.7 and 107.2 K) non-flaring plasmas due to nanoflare heating in active regions. Here we focus on single nanoflares and show that while simple models predict an emission measure distribution extending well above 10 MK that is consistent with cooling by thermal conduction, many other effects are likely to limit the existence and detectability of such plasmas. These include: differential heating between electrons and ions, ionization non-equilibrium and, for short nanoflares, the time taken for the coronal density to increase. The most useful temperature range to look for this plasma, often called the "smoking gun" of nanoflare heating, lies between 1 MK and 10 MK. Signatures of the actual heating may be detectable in some instances.

  16. DIAGNOSING THE TIME-DEPENDENCE OF ACTIVE REGION CORE HEATING FROM THE EMISSION MEASURE. I. LOW-FREQUENCY NANOFLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, S. J.; Reep, J. W.; Klimchuk, J. A. E-mail: jeffrey.reep@rice.edu

    2012-10-10

    Observational measurements of active region emission measures contain clues to the time dependence of the underlying heating mechanism. A strongly nonlinear scaling of the emission measure with temperature indicates a large amount of hot plasma relative to warm plasma. A weakly nonlinear (or linear) scaling of the emission measure indicates a relatively large amount of warm plasma, suggesting that the hot active region plasma is allowed to cool and so the heating is impulsive with a long repeat time. This case is called low-frequency nanoflare heating, and we investigate its feasibility as an active region heating scenario here. We explore a parameter space of heating and coronal loop properties with a hydrodynamic model. For each model run, we calculate the slope {alpha} of the emission measure distribution EM(T){proportional_to}T {sup {alpha}}. Our conclusions are: (1) low-frequency nanoflare heating is consistent with about 36% of observed active region cores when uncertainties in the atomic data are not accounted for; (2) proper consideration of uncertainties yields a range in which as many as 77% of observed active regions are consistent with low-frequency nanoflare heating and as few as zero; (3) low-frequency nanoflare heating cannot explain observed slopes greater than 3; (4) the upper limit to the volumetric energy release is in the region of 50 erg cm{sup -3} to avoid unphysical magnetic field strengths; (5) the heating timescale may be short for loops of total length less than 40 Mm to be consistent with the observed range of slopes; (6) predicted slopes are consistently steeper for longer loops.

  17. Composite Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Spang & Company's new configuration of converter transformer cores is a composite of gapped and ungapped cores assembled together in concentric relationship. The net effect of the composite design is to combine the protection from saturation offered by the gapped core with the lower magnetizing requirement of the ungapped core. The uncut core functions under normal operating conditions and the cut core takes over during abnormal operation to prevent power surges and their potentially destructive effect on transistors. Principal customers are aerospace and defense manufacturers. Cores also have applicability in commercial products where precise power regulation is required, as in the power supplies for large mainframe computers.

  18. From tunable core-shell nanoparticles to plasmonic drawbridges: Active control of nanoparticle optical properties

    PubMed Central

    Byers, Chad P.; Zhang, Hui; Swearer, Dayne F.; Yorulmaz, Mustafa; Hoener, Benjamin S.; Huang, Da; Hoggard, Anneli; Chang, Wei-Shun; Mulvaney, Paul; Ringe, Emilie; Halas, Naomi J.; Nordlander, Peter; Link, Stephan; Landes, Christy F.

    2015-01-01

    The optical properties of metallic nanoparticles are highly sensitive to interparticle distance, giving rise to dramatic but frequently irreversible color changes. By electrochemical modification of individual nanoparticles and nanoparticle pairs, we induced equally dramatic, yet reversible, changes in their optical properties. We achieved plasmon tuning by oxidation-reduction chemistry of Ag-AgCl shells on the surfaces of both individual and strongly coupled Au nanoparticle pairs, resulting in extreme but reversible changes in scattering line shape. We demonstrated reversible formation of the charge transfer plasmon mode by switching between capacitive and conductive electronic coupling mechanisms. Dynamic single-particle spectroelectrochemistry also gave an insight into the reaction kinetics and evolution of the charge transfer plasmon mode in an electrochemically tunable structure. Our study represents a highly useful approach to the precise tuning of the morphology of narrow interparticle gaps and will be of value for controlling and activating a range of properties such as extreme plasmon modulation, nanoscopic plasmon switching, and subnanometer tunable gap applications. PMID:26665175

  19. Active Sites Implanted Carbon Cages in Core-Shell Architecture: Highly Active and Durable Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huabin; Ma, Zuju; Duan, Jingjing; Liu, Huimin; Liu, Guigao; Wang, Tao; Chang, Kun; Li, Mu; Shi, Li; Meng, Xianguang; Wu, Kechen; Ye, Jinhua

    2016-01-26

    Low efficiency and poor stability are two major challenges we encounter in the exploration of non-noble metal electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in both acidic and alkaline environment. Herein, the hybrid of cobalt encapsulated by N, B codoped ultrathin carbon cages (Co@BCN) is first introduced as a highly active and durable nonprecious metal electrocatalysts for HER, which is constructed by a bottom-up approach using metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as precursor and self-sacrificing template. The optimized catalyst exhibited remarkable electrocatalytic performance for hydrogen production from both both acidic and alkaline media. Stability investigation reveals the overcoating of carbon cages can effectively avoid the corrosion and oxidation of the catalyst under extreme acidic and alkaline environment. Electrochemical active surface area (EASA) evaluation and density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed that the synergetic effect between the encapsulated cobalt nanoparticle and the N, B codoped carbon shell played the fundamental role in the superior HER catalytic performance. PMID:26649629

  20. The genetic architecture of maize height

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Height is one of the most heritable and easily measured traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Given a pedigree or estimates of the genomic identity-by-state (IBS) among related plants, height is also accurately predictable. But, mapping alleles explaining natural variation in maize height remains a formida...

  1. Counting Young Tableaux of Bounded Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Francois; Gascon, Francis

    2000-03-01

    We show that formulas of Gessel, for the generating functions for Young standard tableaux of height bounded by k (see [2]), satisfy linear differential equations, with polynomial coefficients, equivalent to P-recurrences conjectured by Favreau, Krob and the first author (see [1]) for the number of bounded height tableaux and pairs of bounded height tableaux.

  2. Enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between core memory-task activation peaks is associated with memory impairment in MCI.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifei; Simon-Vermot, Lee; Araque Caballero, Miguel Á; Gesierich, Benno; Taylor, Alexander N W; Duering, Marco; Dichgans, Martin; Ewers, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) is altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but its predictive value for episodic memory impairment is debated. Here, we aimed to assess whether resting-state FC in core brain regions activated during memory-task functional magnetic resonance imaging is altered and predictive of memory performance in AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Twenty-three elderly cognitively healthy controls (HC), 76 aMCI subjects, and 19 AD dementia patients were included. We computed resting-state FC between 18 meta-analytically determined peak coordinates of brain activation during successful memory retrieval. Higher FC between the parahippocampus, parietal cortex, and the middle frontal gyrus was observed in both AD and mild cognitive impairment compared to HC (false-discovery rate-corrected p < 0.05). The increase in FC between the parahippocampus and middle frontal gyrus was associated with reduced episodic memory in aMCI, independent of amyloid-beta positron emission tomography binding and apolipoprotein E ε4-carrier status. In conclusion, increased parahippocampal-prefrontal FC is predictive of impaired episodic memory in aMCI and may reflect a dysfunctional change within the episodic memory-related neural network. PMID:27459924

  3. TiO2@CeOx core-shell nanoparticles as artificial enzymes with peroxidase-like activity.

    PubMed

    Artiglia, Luca; Agnoli, Stefano; Paganini, Maria Cristina; Cattelan, Mattia; Granozzi, Gaetano

    2014-11-26

    The Ce4+↔Ce3+ redox switch is at the basis of an all-inorganic catalytic cycle that is capable of mimicking the activity of several natural redox enzymes. The efficiency of these artificial enzymes (nanozymes) strongly depends on the Ce4+/Ce3+ ratio. By capitalizing on the results obtained on oxide/oxide model systems, we implemented a simple and effective procedure to obtain conformal TiO2@CeOx core-shell nanoparticles whose thickness is controlled with single-layer precision. Since the Ce3+ species are stabilized only at the interface by the electronic hybridization with the TiO2 states, the modulation of the shell thickness offers a simple method to tailor the Ce4+/Ce3+ ratio and therefore the catalytic properties. The activity of these nanoparticles as artificial peroxidase-like enzymes was tested, showing exceptional performances, even better than natural horseradish peroxidase enzyme. The main advantage with respect to other oxide/oxide nanozymes is that our nanoparticles, having a tunable Ce4+/Ce3+ ratio, are efficient already at low H2O2 concentrations.

  4. Maternal Height and Child Growth Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Addo, O. Yaw; Stein, Aryeh D.; Fall, Caroline H.; Gigante, Denise P.; Guntupalli, Aravinda M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Lee, Nanette; Norris, Shane A.; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Richter, Linda M.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between maternal height and child growth during 4 developmental periods: intrauterine, birth to age 2 years, age 2 years to mid-childhood (MC), and MC to adulthood. Study design Pooled analysis of maternal height and offspring growth using 7630 mother–child pairs from 5 birth cohorts (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa). We used conditional height measures that control for collinearity in height across periods. We estimated associations between maternal height and offspring growth using multivariate regression models adjusted for household income, child sex, birth order, and study site. Results Maternal height was associated with birth weight and with both height and conditional height at each age examined. The strongest associations with conditional heights were for adulthood and 2 years of age. A 1-cm increase in maternal height predicted a 0.024 (95% CI: 0.021-0.028) SD increase in offspring birth weight, a 0.037 (95% CI: 0.033-0.040) SD increase in conditional height at 2 years, a 0.025 (95% CI: 0.021-0.029 SD increase in conditional height in MC, and a 0.044 (95% CI: 0.040-0.048) SD increase in conditional height in adulthood. Short mothers (<150.1 cm) were more likely to have a child who was stunted at 2 years (prevalence ratio = 3.20 (95% CI: 2.80-3.60) and as an adult (prevalence ratio = 4.74, (95% CI: 4.13-5.44). There was no evidence of heterogeneity by site or sex. Conclusion Maternal height influences offspring linear growth over the growing period. These influences likely include genetic and non-genetic factors, including nutrition-related intergenerational influences on growth that prevent the attainment of genetic height potential in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:23477997

  5. MCNP LWR Core Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Noah A.

    2012-08-14

    The reactor core input generator allows for MCNP input files to be tailored to design specifications and generated in seconds. Full reactor models can now easily be created by specifying a small set of parameters and generating an MCNP input for a full reactor core. Axial zoning of the core will allow for density variation in the fuel and moderator, with pin-by-pin fidelity, so that BWR cores can more accurately be modeled. LWR core work in progress: (1) Reflectivity option for specifying 1/4, 1/2, or full core simulation; (2) Axial zoning for moderator densities that vary with height; (3) Generating multiple types of assemblies for different fuel enrichments; and (4) Parameters for specifying BWR box walls. Fuel pin work in progress: (1) Radial and azimuthal zoning for generating further unique materials in fuel rods; (2) Options for specifying different types of fuel for MOX or multiple burn assemblies; (3) Additional options for replacing fuel rods with burnable poison rods; and (4) Control rod/blade modeling.

  6. Estimating vehicle height using homographic projections

    DOEpatents

    Cunningham, Mark F; Fabris, Lorenzo; Gee, Timothy F; Ghebretati, Jr., Frezghi H; Goddard, James S; Karnowski, Thomas P; Ziock, Klaus-peter

    2013-07-16

    Multiple homography transformations corresponding to different heights are generated in the field of view. A group of salient points within a common estimated height range is identified in a time series of video images of a moving object. Inter-salient point distances are measured for the group of salient points under the multiple homography transformations corresponding to the different heights. Variations in the inter-salient point distances under the multiple homography transformations are compared. The height of the group of salient points is estimated to be the height corresponding to the homography transformation that minimizes the variations.

  7. Enhancement of Alkaline Protease Activity and Stability via Covalent Immobilization onto Hollow Core-Mesoporous Shell Silica Nanospheres

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Abdelnasser Salah Shebl; Al-Salamah, Ali A.; El-Toni, Ahmed M.; Almaary, Khalid S.; El-Tayeb, Mohamed A.; Elbadawi, Yahya B.; Antranikian, Garabed

    2016-01-01

    The stability and reusability of soluble enzymes are of major concerns, which limit their industrial applications. Herein, alkaline protease from Bacillus sp. NPST-AK15 was immobilized onto hollow core-mesoporous shell silica (HCMSS) nanospheres. Subsequently, the properties of immobilized proteases were evaluated. Non-, ethane- and amino-functionalized HCMSS nanospheres were synthesized and characterized. NPST-AK15 was immobilized onto the synthesized nano-supports by physical and covalent immobilization approaches. However, protease immobilization by covalent attachment onto the activated HCMSS–NH2 nanospheres showed highest immobilization yield (75.6%) and loading capacity (88.1 μg protein/mg carrier) and was applied in the further studies. In comparison to free enzyme, the covalently immobilized protease exhibited a slight shift in the optimal pH from 10.5 to 11.0, respectively. The optimum temperature for catalytic activity of both free and immobilized enzyme was seen at 60 °C. However, while the free enzyme was completely inactivated when treated at 60 °C for 1 h the immobilized enzyme still retained 63.6% of its initial activity. The immobilized protease showed higher Vmax, kcat and kcat/Km, than soluble enzyme by 1.6-, 1.6- and 2.4-fold, respectively. In addition, the immobilized protease affinity to the substrate increased by about 1.5-fold. Furthermore, the enzyme stability in various organic solvents was significantly enhanced upon immobilization. Interestingly, the immobilized enzyme exhibited much higher stability in several commercial detergents including OMO, Tide, Ariel, Bonux and Xra by up to 5.2-fold. Finally, the immobilized protease maintained significant catalytic efficiency for twelve consecutive reaction cycles. These results suggest the effectiveness of the developed nanobiocatalyst as a candidate for detergent formulation and peptide synthesis in non-aqueous media. PMID:26840303

  8. Enhancement of Alkaline Protease Activity and Stability via Covalent Immobilization onto Hollow Core-Mesoporous Shell Silica Nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Abdelnasser Salah Shebl; Al-Salamah, Ali A; El-Toni, Ahmed M; Almaary, Khalid S; El-Tayeb, Mohamed A; Elbadawi, Yahya B; Antranikian, Garabed

    2016-01-29

    The stability and reusability of soluble enzymes are of major concerns, which limit their industrial applications. Herein, alkaline protease from Bacillus sp. NPST-AK15 was immobilized onto hollow core-mesoporous shell silica (HCMSS) nanospheres. Subsequently, the properties of immobilized proteases were evaluated. Non-, ethane- and amino-functionalized HCMSS nanospheres were synthesized and characterized. NPST-AK15 was immobilized onto the synthesized nano-supports by physical and covalent immobilization approaches. However, protease immobilization by covalent attachment onto the activated HCMSS-NH₂ nanospheres showed highest immobilization yield (75.6%) and loading capacity (88.1 μg protein/mg carrier) and was applied in the further studies. In comparison to free enzyme, the covalently immobilized protease exhibited a slight shift in the optimal pH from 10.5 to 11.0, respectively. The optimum temperature for catalytic activity of both free and immobilized enzyme was seen at 60 °C. However, while the free enzyme was completely inactivated when treated at 60 °C for 1 h the immobilized enzyme still retained 63.6% of its initial activity. The immobilized protease showed higher V(max), k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m), than soluble enzyme by 1.6-, 1.6- and 2.4-fold, respectively. In addition, the immobilized protease affinity to the substrate increased by about 1.5-fold. Furthermore, the enzyme stability in various organic solvents was significantly enhanced upon immobilization. Interestingly, the immobilized enzyme exhibited much higher stability in several commercial detergents including OMO, Tide, Ariel, Bonux and Xra by up to 5.2-fold. Finally, the immobilized protease maintained significant catalytic efficiency for twelve consecutive reaction cycles. These results suggest the effectiveness of the developed nanobiocatalyst as a candidate for detergent formulation and peptide synthesis in non-aqueous media.

  9. Use of knee height for the estimation of body height in Thai adult women.

    PubMed

    Chumpathat, Nopphanath; Rangsin, Ram; Changbumrung, Supranee; Soonthornworasiri, Ngamphol; Durongritichai, Vanida; Kwanbunjan, Karunee

    2016-01-01

    Knee height has been the most frequently used measure for height prediction where full height is difficult to measure. The aim of this study was to develop and validate predictive equations using knee height to estimate the height of Thai women. The female participants were 18-59 years of age and lived in Bangkok or three surrounding provinces. They were assigned to one of two groups; the equation development group (n=488) and the equation validation group (n=188). Standing height and knee height were measured in duplicate using a stadiometer and a knee height calliper. Age and physical characteristics of the equation development group and the validate group were comparable. The measured heights showed a significant strongly positive correlation with the mean knee height (r=0.84, p<0.001). Mean knee height in a regression model exhibited the most accurate height prediction (adjusted R(2)=0.718, standard error of estimate=2.80), according to the equation "Height=38.1+2.45 (average knee height) - 0.051(age)". This study proposes a new height estimation equation for Thai adult women using knee height. The equation shows more estimation power than the previous studies conducted in Thailand. PMID:27440676

  10. States and the (Not So) New Standards--Where Are They Now? State Academic Standards: Activity around the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Tonette; Christie, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    States began adopting the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in 2010 after they were launched by the Council of Chief State School Officers and the National Governors Association. Five years later, policymakers in numerous states continue to debate the Common Core and related elements, such as how to assess the standards. This brief provides a…

  11. A new method based on low background instrumental neutron activation analysis for major, trace and ultra-trace element determination in atmospheric mineral dust from polar ice cores.

    PubMed

    Baccolo, Giovanni; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Delmonte, Barbara; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Nastasi, Massimiliano; Previtali, Ezio; Prata, Michele; Salvini, Andrea; Maggi, Valter

    2016-05-30

    Dust found in polar ice core samples present extremely low concentrations, in addition the availability of such samples is usually strictly limited. For these reasons the chemical and physical analysis of polar ice cores is an analytical challenge. In this work a new method based on low background instrumental neutron activation analysis (LB-INAA) for the multi-elemental characterization of the insoluble fraction of dust from polar ice cores is presented. Thanks to an accurate selection of the most proper materials and procedures it was possible to reach unprecedented analytical performances, suitable for ice core analyses. The method was applied to Antarctic ice core samples. Five samples of atmospheric dust (μg size) from ice sections of the Antarctic Talos Dome ice core were prepared and analyzed. A set of 37 elements was quantified, spanning from all the major elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe) to trace ones, including 10 (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho, Tm, Yb and Lu) of the 14 natural occurring lanthanides. The detection limits are in the range of 10(-13)-10(-6) g, improving previous results of 1-3 orders of magnitude depending on the element; uncertainties lies between 4% and 60%.

  12. A new method based on low background instrumental neutron activation analysis for major, trace and ultra-trace element determination in atmospheric mineral dust from polar ice cores.

    PubMed

    Baccolo, Giovanni; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Delmonte, Barbara; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Nastasi, Massimiliano; Previtali, Ezio; Prata, Michele; Salvini, Andrea; Maggi, Valter

    2016-05-30

    Dust found in polar ice core samples present extremely low concentrations, in addition the availability of such samples is usually strictly limited. For these reasons the chemical and physical analysis of polar ice cores is an analytical challenge. In this work a new method based on low background instrumental neutron activation analysis (LB-INAA) for the multi-elemental characterization of the insoluble fraction of dust from polar ice cores is presented. Thanks to an accurate selection of the most proper materials and procedures it was possible to reach unprecedented analytical performances, suitable for ice core analyses. The method was applied to Antarctic ice core samples. Five samples of atmospheric dust (μg size) from ice sections of the Antarctic Talos Dome ice core were prepared and analyzed. A set of 37 elements was quantified, spanning from all the major elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe) to trace ones, including 10 (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho, Tm, Yb and Lu) of the 14 natural occurring lanthanides. The detection limits are in the range of 10(-13)-10(-6) g, improving previous results of 1-3 orders of magnitude depending on the element; uncertainties lies between 4% and 60%. PMID:27154827

  13. A [Cu2O]2+ core in Cu-ZSM-5, the active site in the oxidation of methane to methanol

    PubMed Central

    Woertink, Julia S.; Smeets, Pieter J.; Groothaert, Marijke H.; Vance, Michael A.; Sels, Bert F.; Schoonheydt, Robert A.; Solomon, Edward I.

    2009-01-01

    Driven by the depletion of crude oil, the direct oxidation of methane to methanol has been of considerable interest. Promising low-temperature activity of an oxygen-activated zeolite, Cu-ZSM-5, has recently been reported in this selective oxidation and the active site in this reaction correlates with an absorption feature at 22,700 cm−1. In the present study, this absorption band is used to selectively resonance enhance Raman vibrations of this active site. 18O2 labeling experiments allow definitive assignment of the observed vibrations and exclude all previously characterized copper-oxygen species for the active site. In combination with DFT and normal coordinate analysis calculations, the oxygen activated Cu core is uniquely defined as a bent mono-(μ-oxo)dicupric site. Spectroscopically validated electronic structure calculations show polarization of the low-lying singly-occupied molecular orbital of the [Cu2O]2+ core, which is directed into the zeolite channel, upon approach of CH4. This induces significant oxyl character into the bridging O atom leading to a low transition state energy consistent with experiment and explains why the bent mono-(μ-oxo)dicupric core is highly activated for H atom abstraction from CH4. The oxygen intermediate of Cu-ZSM-5 is now the most well defined species active in the methane monooxygenase reaction. PMID:19864626

  14. A [Cu2O]2+ core in Cu-ZSM-5, the active site in the oxidation of methane to methanol.

    PubMed

    Woertink, Julia S; Smeets, Pieter J; Groothaert, Marijke H; Vance, Michael A; Sels, Bert F; Schoonheydt, Robert A; Solomon, Edward I

    2009-11-10

    Driven by the depletion of crude oil, the direct oxidation of methane to methanol has been of considerable interest. Promising low-temperature activity of an oxygen-activated zeolite, Cu-ZSM-5, has recently been reported in this selective oxidation and the active site in this reaction correlates with an absorption feature at 22,700 cm(-1). In the present study, this absorption band is used to selectively resonance enhance Raman vibrations of this active site. (18)O(2) labeling experiments allow definitive assignment of the observed vibrations and exclude all previously characterized copper-oxygen species for the active site. In combination with DFT and normal coordinate analysis calculations, the oxygen activated Cu core is uniquely defined as a bent mono-(mu-oxo)dicupric site. Spectroscopically validated electronic structure calculations show polarization of the low-lying singly-occupied molecular orbital of the [Cu(2)O](2+) core, which is directed into the zeolite channel, upon approach of CH(4). This induces significant oxyl character into the bridging O atom leading to a low transition state energy consistent with experiment and explains why the bent mono-(mu-oxo)dicupric core is highly activated for H atom abstraction from CH(4). The oxygen intermediate of Cu-ZSM-5 is now the most well defined species active in the methane monooxygenase reaction.

  15. Antiviral Activity of Gold/Copper Sulfide Core/Shell Nanoparticles against Human Norovirus Virus-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    Broglie, Jessica Jenkins; Alston, Brittny; Yang, Chang; Ma, Lun; Adcock, Audrey F.; Chen, Wei; Yang, Liju

    2015-01-01

    Human norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide in a plethora of residential and commercial settings, including restaurants, schools, and hospitals. Methods for easily detecting the virus and for treating and preventing infection are critical to stopping norovirus outbreaks, and inactivation via nanoparticles (NPs) is a more universal and attractive alternative to other physical and chemical approaches. Using norovirus GI.1 (Norwalk) virus-like particles (VLPs) as a model viral system, this study characterized the antiviral activity of Au/CuS core/shell nanoparticles (NPs) against GI.1 VLPs for the rapid inactivation of HuNoV. Inactivation of VLPs (GI.1) by Au/CuS NPs evaluated using an absorbance-based ELISA indicated that treatment with 0.083 μM NPs for 10 min inactivated ~50% VLPs in a 0.37 μg/ml VLP solution and 0.83 μM NPs for 10 min completely inactivated the VLPs. Increasing nanoparticle concentration and/or VLP-NP contact time significantly increased the virucidal efficacy of Au/CuS NPs. Changes to the VLP particle morphology, size, and capsid protein were characterized using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and Western blot analysis. The strategy reported here provides the first reported proof-of-concept Au/CuS NPs-based virucide for rapidly inactivating human norovirus. PMID:26474396

  16. Footprint of roman and modern mining activities in a sediment core from the southwestern Iberian Atlantic shelf.

    PubMed

    Mil-Homens, Mário; Vale, Carlos; Naughton, Filipa; Brito, Pedro; Drago, Teresa; Anes, Bárbara; Raimundo, Joana; Schmidt, Sabine; Caetano, Miguel

    2016-11-15

    A 5-m long sediment core (VC2B), retrieved in the Southwestern Iberian Atlantic shelf, at 96m water depth, was used to assess major changes in climate and human activities during the last 9.7kyrs. Analytical measurements included sedimentological (mean grain size, and the contents of sand, silt and clay), geochemical (major, minor, trace and rare earth elements; REEs) and chronological ((210)Pb and (14)C) parameters. Two episodes of increment of fine-grained particles, occurring at 3050BCE and 1350CE, suggest the retreat of the coast line to the present level and the beginning of a wetter phase associated with the "Little Ice Age". The North American Shale Composite (NASC)-normalized REE-pattern detected in the shelf is similar to that found in the Guadiana estuarine sediments. The possibility of this estuary as a contributor to the sediment load deposited in the adjacent coastal zone was indicated. Trace elements were significantly correlated with Al until 1850CE, pointing that grain-size rules its distribution in sediments. The depth variation of As, Cu and Pb enrichment factors relative to background values shows two periods of intense human activity that can be mainly linked to mining: (i) across the Roman Period, marked by low enrichments; and (ii) starting on the second half of the 19th century until nowadays with significantly increased enrichments, especially of Pb and Cu. In addition to As, Cu and Pb, this period is also marked by high enrichments of Hg and Zn. Despite the decrease/closure of sulphide massive deposits mining exploitation (e.g., São Domingos, Las Herrerias) during the second half of the 20th century, results showed ongoing input of Pb, Cu, As, Hg and Zn to coastal sediments. Thus, the legacy of contamination by these elements, mainly from leaching of slags and tailings, and remobilization/reworking of contaminated estuarine sediments, is still recorded in marine sediments.

  17. Footprint of roman and modern mining activities in a sediment core from the southwestern Iberian Atlantic shelf.

    PubMed

    Mil-Homens, Mário; Vale, Carlos; Naughton, Filipa; Brito, Pedro; Drago, Teresa; Anes, Bárbara; Raimundo, Joana; Schmidt, Sabine; Caetano, Miguel

    2016-11-15

    A 5-m long sediment core (VC2B), retrieved in the Southwestern Iberian Atlantic shelf, at 96m water depth, was used to assess major changes in climate and human activities during the last 9.7kyrs. Analytical measurements included sedimentological (mean grain size, and the contents of sand, silt and clay), geochemical (major, minor, trace and rare earth elements; REEs) and chronological ((210)Pb and (14)C) parameters. Two episodes of increment of fine-grained particles, occurring at 3050BCE and 1350CE, suggest the retreat of the coast line to the present level and the beginning of a wetter phase associated with the "Little Ice Age". The North American Shale Composite (NASC)-normalized REE-pattern detected in the shelf is similar to that found in the Guadiana estuarine sediments. The possibility of this estuary as a contributor to the sediment load deposited in the adjacent coastal zone was indicated. Trace elements were significantly correlated with Al until 1850CE, pointing that grain-size rules its distribution in sediments. The depth variation of As, Cu and Pb enrichment factors relative to background values shows two periods of intense human activity that can be mainly linked to mining: (i) across the Roman Period, marked by low enrichments; and (ii) starting on the second half of the 19th century until nowadays with significantly increased enrichments, especially of Pb and Cu. In addition to As, Cu and Pb, this period is also marked by high enrichments of Hg and Zn. Despite the decrease/closure of sulphide massive deposits mining exploitation (e.g., São Domingos, Las Herrerias) during the second half of the 20th century, results showed ongoing input of Pb, Cu, As, Hg and Zn to coastal sediments. Thus, the legacy of contamination by these elements, mainly from leaching of slags and tailings, and remobilization/reworking of contaminated estuarine sediments, is still recorded in marine sediments. PMID:27476726

  18. Enhanced anticancer activity of DM1-loaded star-shaped folate-core PLA-TPGS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaolong; Liang, Yong; Zhu, Yongqiang; Cai, Shiyu; Sun, Leilei; Chen, Tianyi

    2014-10-01

    The efficient delivery of therapeutic drugs into interested cells is a critical challenge to broad application of nonviral vector systems. In this research, emtansine (DM1)-loaded star-shaped folate-core polylactide- d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (FA-PLA-TPGS-DM1) copolymer which demonstrated superior anticancer activity in vitro/ vivo in comparison with linear FA-PLA-TPGS nanoparticles was applied to be a vector of DM1 for FR+ breast cancer therapy. The DM1- or coumarin 6-loaded nanoparticles were fabricated, and then characterized in terms of size, morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro drug release. And the viability of MCF-7/HER2 cells treated with FA-DM1-nanoparticles (NPs) was assessed. Severe combined immunodeficient mice carrying MCF-7/HER2 tumor xenografts were treated in several groups including phosphate-buffered saline control, DM1, DM1-NPs, and FA-DM1-NPs. The antitumor activity was then assessed by survival time and solid tumor volume. All the specimens were prepared for formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections for hematoxylin-eosin staining. The data showed that the FA-DM1-NPs could efficiently deliver DM1 into MCF-7/HER2 cells. The cytotoxicity of DM1 to MCF-7/HER2 cells was significantly increased by FA-DM1-NPs when compared with the control groups. In conclusion, the FA-DM1-NPs offered a considerable potential formulation for FR+ tumor-targeting biotherapy.

  19. SAS2H input for computing core activities of 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 weight % {sup 235}U fuel for Sequoyah Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, O.W.

    1994-08-01

    Sequoyah Nuclear Plant core activities at initial fuel enrichments of 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 wt% {sup 235}U, required in nuclear safety evaluations, were computed by the SAS2H analysis sequence and the ORIGEN-S code within the SCALE-4.2 code system.

  20. Core promoter-specific gene regulation: TATA box selectivity and Initiator-dependent bi-directionality of serum response factor-activated transcription.

    PubMed

    Xu, Muyu; Gonzalez-Hurtado, Elsie; Martinez, Ernest

    2016-04-01

    Gene-specific activation by enhancers involves their communication with the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery at the core promoter. Core promoters are diverse and may contain a variety of sequence elements such as the TATA box, the Initiator (INR), and the downstream promoter element (DPE) recognized, respectively, by the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and TBP-associated factors of the TFIID complex. Core promoter elements contribute to the gene selectivity of enhancers, and INR/DPE-specific enhancers and activators have been identified. Here, we identify a TATA box-selective activating sequence upstream of the human β-actin (ACTB) gene that mediates serum response factor (SRF)-induced transcription from TATA-dependent but not INR-dependent promoters and requires the TATA-binding/bending activity of TBP, which is otherwise dispensable for transcription from a TATA-less promoter. The SRF-dependent ACTB sequence is stereospecific on TATA promoters but activates in an orientation-independent manner a composite TATA/INR-containing promoter. More generally, we show that SRF-regulated genes of the actin/cytoskeleton/contractile family tend to have a TATA box. These results suggest distinct TATA-dependent and INR-dependent mechanisms of TFIID-mediated transcription in mammalian cells that are compatible with only certain stereospecific combinations of activators, and that a TBP-TATA binding mechanism is important for SRF activation of the actin/cytoskeleton-related gene family.

  1. Ice Core Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krim, Jessica; Brody, Michael

    2008-01-01

    What can glaciers tell us about volcanoes and atmospheric conditions? How does this information relate to our understanding of climate change? Ice Core Investigations is an original and innovative activity that explores these types of questions. It brings together popular science issues such as research, climate change, ice core drilling, and air…

  2. Making an Ice Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopaska-Merkel, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Explains an activity in which students construct a simulated ice core. Materials required include only a freezer, food coloring, a bottle, and water. This hands-on exercise demonstrates how a glacier is formed, how ice cores are studied, and the nature of precision and accuracy in measurement. Suitable for grades three through eight. (Author/PVD)

  3. Differential activation of accumbens shell and core dopamine by sucrose reinforcement with nose poking and with lever pressing.

    PubMed

    Bassareo, V; Cucca, F; Frau, R; Di Chiara, G

    2015-11-01

    In order to investigate the role of modus operandi in the changes of nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine (DA) transmission in sucrose reinforcement, extracellular DA was monitored by microdialysis in the NAc shell and core of rats trained on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule to respond for sucrose pellets by nose poking and lever pressing respectively. After training, rats were tested on three different sessions: sucrose reinforcement, extinction and passive sucrose presentation. In rats responding by nose poking dialysate DA increased in the shell but not in the core under reinforced as well as under extinction sessions. In contrast, in rats responding by lever pressing dialysate DA increased both in the accumbens shell and core under reinforced and extinction sessions. Response non-contingent sucrose presentation increased dialysate DA in the shell and core of rats trained to respond for sucrose by nose poking as well as in those trained by lever pressing. In rats trained to respond for sucrose by nose poking on a FR5 schedule dialysate DA also increased selectively in the NAc shell during reinforced responding and in both the shell and core under passive sucrose presentation. These findings, while provide an explanation for the discrepancies existing in the literature over the responsiveness of shell and core DA in rats responding for food, are consistent with the notion that NAc shell and core DA encode different aspects of reinforcement.

  4. Height and calories in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Andrew S

    2016-03-01

    This paper estimates a height production function using data from a randomized nutrition intervention conducted in rural Guatemala from 1969 to 1977. Using the experimental intervention as an instrument, the IV estimates of the effect of calories on height are an order of magnitude larger than the OLS estimates. Information from a unique measurement error process in the calorie data, counterfactuals results from the estimated model and external evidence from migration studies suggest that IV is not identifying a policy relevant average marginal impact of calories on height. The preferred, attenuation bias corrected OLS estimates from the height production function suggest that, averaging over ages, a 100 calorie increase in average daily calorie intake over the course of a year would increase height by 0.06 cm. Counterfactuals from the model imply that calories gaps in early childhood can explain at most 16% of the height gap between Guatemalan children and the US born children of Guatemalan immigrants. PMID:26656205

  5. Adult height, nutrition, and population health.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Jessica M; Subramanian, S V; Davey Smith, George; Özaltin, Emre

    2016-03-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence.

  6. The Effect of Microbial Activity on Flow and Transport of an Organic Contaminant in Naturally Fractured Chalk Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnon, S.; Adar, E.; Ronen, Z.; Yakirevich, A.; Nativ, R.

    2001-12-01

    Low-permeability rock formations, such as chalk, are being selected as hydrogeological barriers for waste disposal sites and industrial areas throughout the world. Many sites constructed on chalk formations have failed due to existing fractures. Subsurface natural or enhanced microbial activity is the main biological process that causes transformation of organic contaminants in groundwater. However, this beneficial activity may result in physical, chemical, geological and biological changes affecting the hydrological properties of the fractured domain. Whereas these effects have been extensively investigated in porous media, they are less familiar in fractured formations, the topic of this work. A set of experiments was designed to quantify 2-D flow distribution along a single fracture and to assess the effect of biodegradation on its hydraulic properties. The experiments were carried out using 20-cm diameter and 30-50-cm long chalk cores, each intersected by a single natural fracture. Flow across the fracture was defined through both direct measurements of the out flux under various (controlled) hydraulic gradients, and through 2-D multi-tracer tests. The 2-D-distribution of flow in the fracture was investigated by injecting four non-reactive tracers (fluorobenzoic acids), each along a different section of the fracture inlet. Similarly, the outflux was sampled from four vertically aligned segments at the fracture outlet. Tracer breakthrough curves, mixing ratios and fluxes were evaluated for quantitative assessment of the 2-D flow distribution within the fracture. Results from the flow experiments suggested deviation from a linear relationship between the flux and the hydraulic gradient for Reynolds numbers exceeding 8, probably due to the increase of inertial forces. In addition, although flow out of the fracture was evenly distributed along the fracture width, different mixing ratios of tracers in neighboring sections were observed probably due to hydrodynamic

  7. Study on enhanced photocatalytic activity of magnetically recoverable Fe3O4@C@TiO2 nanocomposites with core-shell nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Meng, Guihua; Wu, Jianning; Li, Deqiang; Liu, Zhiyong

    2015-08-01

    A novel and simple approach for the fabrication of Fe3O4@C@TiO2 nanocomposites with a good core-shell structure has been successfully constructed. The as-synthesized core-shell structure is composed of a magnetic core, an interlayer of carbon, and an outer TiO2 shell. In this method, the carbon middle layer could provide negatively charged for the TiO2 coating without the surfactants. The as-obtained core-shell structure composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm analyses and the magnetization measurement (SQUID). The TEM images showed that the thickness of TiO2 shell could be controlled by varying tertrabutyl titanate (TBOT) content in the ethanol/acetonitrile mixed solvents. Photocatalytic property of Fe3O4@C@TiO2 nanocomposites were evaluated by photodegradation methylene blue (MB). The results showed that the well-designed nanocomposites exhibited a higher photoactivity than Fe3O4@TiO2 nanocomposites. Moreover, this photocatalyst can be easily recovered by an external magnetic field and remain stable photocatalytic activity after five cycles. The presence of carbon interlayer can avoid the occurrence of photodissolution. Therefore, the photocatalytic activity of titania would not deteriorate seriously, which played key role for the enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  8. Effect of Silicon on Activity Coefficients of Siderophile Elements (P, Au, Pd, As, Ge, Sb, and In) in Liquid Fe, with Application to Core Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K.; Danielson, L. R.; Humayun, M.; Righter, M.; Lapen, T.; Boujibar, A.

    2016-01-01

    Earth's core contains approximately 10 percent light elements that are likely a combination of S, C, Si, and O, with Si possibly being the most abundant. Si dissolved into Fe liquids can have a large effect on the magnitude of the activity coefficient of siderophile elements (SE) in Fe liquids, and thus the partitioning behavior of those elements between core and mantle. The effect of Si can be small such as for Ni and Co, or large such as for Mo, Ge, Sb, As. The effect of Si on many siderophile elements is unknown yet could be an important, and as yet unquantified, influence on the core-mantle partitioning of SE. Here we report new experiments designed to quantify the effect of Si on the partitioning of P, Au, Pd, and many other SE between metal and silicate melt. The results will be applied to Earth, for which we have excellent constraints on the mantle siderophile element concentrations.

  9. Detection of a high brightness temperature radio core in the active-galactic-nucleus-driven molecular outflow candidate NGC 1266

    SciTech Connect

    Nyland, Kristina; Young, Lisa M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Wrobel, J. M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Davis, Timothy A.; De Zeeuw, P. T.; Deustua, Susana; Bureau, Martin

    2013-12-20

    We present new high spatial resolution Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) H I absorption and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) continuum observations of the active-galactic-nucleus-(AGN-)driven molecular outflow candidate NGC 1266. Although other well-known systems with molecular outflows may be driven by star formation (SF) in a central molecular disk, the molecular mass outflow rate of 13 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} in NGC 1266 reported by Alatalo et al. exceeds SF rate estimates from a variety of tracers. This suggests that an additional energy source, such as an AGN, may play a significant role in powering the outflow. Our high spatial resolution H I absorption data reveal compact absorption against the radio continuum core co-located with the putative AGN, and the presence of a blueshifted spectral component re-affirms that gas is indeed flowing out of the system. Our VLBA observations at 1.65 GHz reveal one continuum source within the densest portion of the molecular gas, with a diameter d < 8 mas (1.2 pc), a radio power P {sub rad} = 1.48 × 10{sup 20} W Hz{sup –1}, and a brightness temperature T {sub b} > 1.5 × 10{sup 7} K that is most consistent with an AGN origin. The radio continuum energetics implied by the compact VLBA source, as well as archival VLA continuum observations at lower spatial resolution, further support the possibility that the AGN in NGC 1266 could be driving the molecular outflow. These findings suggest that even low-level AGNs may be able to launch massive outflows in their host galaxies.

  10. Detection of a High Brightness Temperature Radio Core in the Active-galactic-nucleus-driven Molecular Outflow Candidate NGC 1266

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyland, Kristina; Alatalo, Katherine; Wrobel, J. M.; Young, Lisa M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Deustua, Susana; Bureau, Martin

    2013-12-01

    We present new high spatial resolution Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) H I absorption and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) continuum observations of the active-galactic-nucleus-(AGN-)driven molecular outflow candidate NGC 1266. Although other well-known systems with molecular outflows may be driven by star formation (SF) in a central molecular disk, the molecular mass outflow rate of 13 M ⊙ yr-1 in NGC 1266 reported by Alatalo et al. exceeds SF rate estimates from a variety of tracers. This suggests that an additional energy source, such as an AGN, may play a significant role in powering the outflow. Our high spatial resolution H I absorption data reveal compact absorption against the radio continuum core co-located with the putative AGN, and the presence of a blueshifted spectral component re-affirms that gas is indeed flowing out of the system. Our VLBA observations at 1.65 GHz reveal one continuum source within the densest portion of the molecular gas, with a diameter d < 8 mas (1.2 pc), a radio power P rad = 1.48 × 1020 W Hz-1, and a brightness temperature T b > 1.5 × 107 K that is most consistent with an AGN origin. The radio continuum energetics implied by the compact VLBA source, as well as archival VLA continuum observations at lower spatial resolution, further support the possibility that the AGN in NGC 1266 could be driving the molecular outflow. These findings suggest that even low-level AGNs may be able to launch massive outflows in their host galaxies.

  11. Measurement of nitrophenols in rain and air by two-dimensional liquid chromatography-chemically active liquid core waveguide spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ganranoo, Lucksagoon; Mishra, Santosh K; Azad, Abul K; Shigihara, Ado; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Breitbach, Zachary S; Armstrong, Daniel W; Grudpan, Kate; Rappenglueck, Bernhard

    2010-07-01

    We report a novel system to analyze atmospheric nitrophenols (NPs). Rain or air sample extracts (1 mL) are preconcentrated on a narrow bore (2 mm) aliphatic anion exchanger. In the absence of strong retention of NPs exhibited by aromatic ion exchangers, retained NPs are eluted as a plug by injection of 100 microL of 0.1 M Na(2)SO(4) on to a short (2 x 50 mm) reverse phase C-18 column packed with 2.2 mum particles. The salt plug passes through the C-18 column unretained while the NPs are separated by an ammonium acetate buffered methanol-water eluent, compatible with mass spectrometry (MS). The eluted NPs are measured with a long path Teflon AF-based liquid core waveguide (0.15 x 1420 mm) illuminated by a 403 nm light emitting diode and detected by a monolithic photodiode-operational amplifier. The waveguide is rendered chemically active by suspending it over concentrated ammonia that permeates into the lumen. The NPs ionize to the yellow anion form (lambda(max) approximately 400 nm). The separation of 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol, and 2-nitrophenol (these are the dominant NPs, typically in that order, in both rain and air of Houston and Arlington, TX, confirmed by tandem MS) takes just over 5 min with respective S/N = 3 limits of detection (LODs) of 60, 12, 30, 67, and 23 pg/mL compared to MS/MS LODs of 20, 49, 11, 20, and 210 pg/mL. Illustrative air and rain data are presented.

  12. The genetic architecture of maize height.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Jason A; Romay, Maria C; Gore, Michael A; Flint-Garcia, Sherry A; Zhang, Zhiwu; Millard, Mark J; Gardner, Candice A C; McMullen, Michael D; Holland, James B; Bradbury, Peter J; Buckler, Edward S

    2014-04-01

    Height is one of the most heritable and easily measured traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Given a pedigree or estimates of the genomic identity-by-state among related plants, height is also accurately predictable. But, mapping alleles explaining natural variation in maize height remains a formidable challenge. To address this challenge, we measured the plant height, ear height, flowering time, and node counts of plants grown in >64,500 plots across 13 environments. These plots contained >7300 inbreds representing most publically available maize inbreds in the United States and families of the maize Nested Association Mapping (NAM) panel. Joint-linkage mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), fine mapping in near isogenic lines (NILs), genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) were performed. The heritability of maize height was estimated to be >90%. Mapping NAM family-nested QTL revealed the largest explained 2.1 ± 0.9% of height variation. The effects of two tropical alleles at this QTL were independently validated by fine mapping in NIL families. Several significant associations found by GWAS colocalized with established height loci, including brassinosteroid-deficient dwarf1, dwarf plant1, and semi-dwarf2. GBLUP explained >80% of height variation in the panels and outperformed bootstrap aggregation of family-nested QTL models in evaluations of prediction accuracy. These results revealed maize height was under strong genetic control and had a highly polygenic genetic architecture. They also showed that multiple models of genetic architecture differing in polygenicity and effect sizes can plausibly explain a population's variation in maize height, but they may vary in predictive efficacy.

  13. Active layer-incorporated, spectrally tuned Au/SiO2 core/shell nanorod-based light trapping for organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Janković, Vladan; Yang, Yang Michael; You, Jingbi; Dou, Letian; Liu, Yongsheng; Cheung, Puilam; Chang, Jane P; Yang, Yang

    2013-05-28

    We demonstrate that incorporation of octadecyltrimethoxysilane (OTMS)-functionalized, spectrally tuned, gold/silica (Au/SiO2) core/shell nanospheres and nanorods into the active layer of an organic photovoltaic (OPV) device led to an increase in photoconversion efficiency (PCE). A silica shell layer was added onto Au core nanospheres and nanorods in order to provide an electrically insulating surface that does not interfere with carrier generation and transport inside the active layer. Functionalization of the Au/SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles with the OTMS organic ligand was then necessary to transfer the Au/SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles from an ethanol solution into an OPV polymer-compatible solvent, such as dichlorobenzene. The OTMS-functionalized Au/SiO2 core/shell nanorods and nanospheres were then incorporated into the active layers of two OPV polymer systems: a poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCB60M) OPV device and a poly[2,6-4,8-di(5-ethylhexylthienyl)benzo[1,2-b;3,4-b]dithiophene-alt-5-dibutyloctyl-3,6-bis(5-bromothiophen-2-yl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione] (PBDTT-DPP:PC60BM) OPV device. For the P3HT:PC60BM polymer with a band edge of ~700 nm, the addition of the core/shell nanorods with an aspect ratio (AR) of ~2.5 (extinction peak ~670 nm) resulted in a 7.1% improvement in PCE, while for the PBDTT-DPP:PC60BM polymer with a band edge of ~860 nm, the addition of core/shell nanorods with an AR of ~4 (extinction peak ~830 nm) resulted in a 14.4% improvement in PCE. The addition of Au/SiO2 core/shell nanospheres to the P3HT:PC60BM polymer resulted in a 2.7% improvement in PCE, while their addition to a PBDTT-DPP:PC60BM polymer resulted in a 9.1% improvement. The PCE and Jsc enhancements were consistent with external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements, and the EQE enhancements spectrally matched the extinction spectra of Au/SiO2 nanospheres and nanorods in both OPV polymer systems.

  14. Health, Height, Height Shrinkage, and SES at Older Ages: Evidence from China†

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Lei, Xiaoyan; Ridder, Geert; Strauss, John

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we build on the literature that examines associations between height and health outcomes of the elderly. We investigate the associations of height shrinkage at older ages with socioeconomic status, finding that height shrinkage for both men and women is negatively associated with better schooling, current urban residence, and household per capita expenditures. We then investigate the relationships between pre-shrinkage height, height shrinkage, and a rich set of health outcomes of older respondents, finding that height shrinkage is positively associated with poor health outcomes across a variety of outcomes, being especially strong for cognition outcomes. PMID:26594311

  15. Magnetic Co@g-C3N4 Core-Shells on rGO Sheets for Momentum Transfer with Catalytic Activity toward Continuous-Flow Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Shasha; Han, Guosheng; Su, Yongheng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yanyan; Wu, Xianli; Li, Baojun

    2016-06-28

    Magnetic core-shell structures provide abundant opportunities for the construction of multifunctional composites. In this article, magnetic core-shells were fabricated with Co nanoparticles (NPs) as cores and g-C3N4 as shells. In the fabrication process, the Co@g-C3N4 core-shells were anchored onto the rGO nanosheets to form a Co@g-C3N4-rGO composite (CNG-I). For hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of NaBH4 or NH3BH3, the Co NP cores act as catalytic active sites. The g-C3N4 shells protect Co NPs cores from aggregating or growing. The connection between Co NPs and rGO was strengthened by the g-C3N4 shells to prevent them from leaching or flowing away. The g-C3N4 shells also work as a cocatalyst for hydrogen generation. The magnetism of Co NPs and the shape of rGO nanosheets achieve effective momentum transfer in the external magnetic field. In the batch reactor, a higher catalytic activity was obtained for CNG-I in self-stirring mode than in magneton stirring mode. In the continuous-flow process, stable hydrogen generation was carried out with CNG-I being fixed and propelled by the external magnetic field. The separation film is unnecessary because of magnetic momentum transfer. This idea of the composite design and magnetic momentum transfer will be useful for the development of both hydrogen generation and multifunctional composite materials. PMID:27276187

  16. Magnetic Co@g-C3N4 Core-Shells on rGO Sheets for Momentum Transfer with Catalytic Activity toward Continuous-Flow Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Shasha; Han, Guosheng; Su, Yongheng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yanyan; Wu, Xianli; Li, Baojun

    2016-06-28

    Magnetic core-shell structures provide abundant opportunities for the construction of multifunctional composites. In this article, magnetic core-shells were fabricated with Co nanoparticles (NPs) as cores and g-C3N4 as shells. In the fabrication process, the Co@g-C3N4 core-shells were anchored onto the rGO nanosheets to form a Co@g-C3N4-rGO composite (CNG-I). For hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of NaBH4 or NH3BH3, the Co NP cores act as catalytic active sites. The g-C3N4 shells protect Co NPs cores from aggregating or growing. The connection between Co NPs and rGO was strengthened by the g-C3N4 shells to prevent them from leaching or flowing away. The g-C3N4 shells also work as a cocatalyst for hydrogen generation. The magnetism of Co NPs and the shape of rGO nanosheets achieve effective momentum transfer in the external magnetic field. In the batch reactor, a higher catalytic activity was obtained for CNG-I in self-stirring mode than in magneton stirring mode. In the continuous-flow process, stable hydrogen generation was carried out with CNG-I being fixed and propelled by the external magnetic field. The separation film is unnecessary because of magnetic momentum transfer. This idea of the composite design and magnetic momentum transfer will be useful for the development of both hydrogen generation and multifunctional composite materials.

  17. Midland Core Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, Noel

    2000-08-14

    This report summarizes activities for this quarter in one table. Industrial users of this repository viewed and/or checked out 163 boxes of drill cores and cuttings samples from 18 wells during the quarter.

  18. Height Differences in English Dialects: Consequences for Processing and Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharinger, Mathias; Lahiri, Aditi

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the role of abstractness during the activation of a lexical representation. Abstractness and conflict are directly modeled in our approach by invoking lexical representations in terms of contrastive phonological features. In two priming experiments with English nouns differing only in vowel height of their stem vowels (e.g.,…

  19. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  20. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  1. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  2. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  3. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  4. Height and Weight of Children: United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamill, Peter V. V.; And Others

    This report contains national estimates based on findings from the Health Examination Survey in 1963-65 on height and weight measurements of children 6- to 11-years-old. A nationwide probability sample of 7,119 children was selected to represent the noninstitutionalized children (about 24 million) in this age group. Height was obtained in stocking…

  5. Raman lidar/AERI PBL Height Product

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ferrare, Richard

    2012-12-14

    Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) heights have been computed using potential temperature profiles derived from Raman lidar and AERI measurements. Raman lidar measurements of the rotational Raman scattering from nitrogen and oxygen are used to derive vertical profiles of potential temperature. AERI measurements of downwelling radiance are used in a physical retrieval approach (Smith et al. 1999, Feltz et al. 1998) to derive profiles of temperature and water vapor. The Raman lidar and AERI potential temperature profiles are merged to create a single potential temperature profile for computing PBL heights. PBL heights were derived from these merged potential temperature profiles using a modified Heffter (1980) technique that was tailored to the SGP site (Della Monache et al., 2004). PBL heights were computed on an hourly basis for the period January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2011. These heights are provided as meters above ground level.

  6. Vaccinia virus entry is followed by core activation and proteasome-mediated release of the immunomodulatory effector VH1 from lateral bodies.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Florian Ingo; Bleck, Christopher Karl Ernst; Reh, Lucia; Novy, Karel; Wollscheid, Bernd; Helenius, Ari; Stahlberg, Henning; Mercer, Jason

    2013-08-15

    Host cell entry of vaccinia virus, the prototypic poxvirus, involves a membrane fusion event delivering the viral core and two proteinaceous lateral bodies (LBs) into the cytosol. Uncoating of viral cores is poorly characterized, and the composition and function of LBs remains enigmatic. We found that cytosolic cores rapidly dissociated from LBs and expanded in volume, which coincided with reduction of disulfide-bonded core proteins. We identified the abundant phosphoprotein F17, the dual-specificity phosphatase VH1, and the oxidoreductase G4 as bona fide LB components. After reaching the cytosol, F17 was degraded in a proteasome-dependent manner. Proteasome activity, and presumably LB disassembly, was required for the immediate immunomodulatory activity of VH1: dephosphorylation of STAT1 to prevent interferon-γ-mediated antiviral responses. These results reveal a mechanism used by poxviruses to deliver viral enzymes to the host cell cytosol and are likely to facilitate the identification of additional LB-resident viral effectors. PMID:23891003

  7. Supersaturation-controlled surface structure evolution of Pd@Pt core-shell nanocrystals: enhancement of the ORR activity at a sub-10 nm scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Kun; Zheng, Weitao; Cui, Xiaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Here, we designed and implemented a facile strategy for controlling the surface evolution of Pd@Pt core-shell nanostructures by simply adjusting the volume of OH- to control the reducing ability of ascorbic acid and finally manipulating the supersaturation in the reaction system. The surface structure of the obtained Pd@Pt bimetallic nanocrystals transformed from a Pt {111} facet-exposed island shell to a conformal Pt {100} facet-exposed shell by increasing the pH value. The as-prepared well aligned Pd@Pt core-island shell nanocubes present both significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity and favorable long-term stability toward the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media.Here, we designed and implemented a facile strategy for controlling the surface evolution of Pd@Pt core-shell nanostructures by simply adjusting the volume of OH- to control the reducing ability of ascorbic acid and finally manipulating the supersaturation in the reaction system. The surface structure of the obtained Pd@Pt bimetallic nanocrystals transformed from a Pt {111} facet-exposed island shell to a conformal Pt {100} facet-exposed shell by increasing the pH value. The as-prepared well aligned Pd@Pt core-island shell nanocubes present both significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity and favorable long-term stability toward the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07940c

  8. The computation of cloud base height from paired whole-sky imaging cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Allmen, M.C.; Kegelmeyer, W.P. Jr.

    1994-03-01

    A major goal for global change studies is to improve the accuracy of general circulation models (GCMs) capable of predicting the timing and magnitude of greenhouse gas-induced global warming. Research has shown that cloud radiative feedback is the single most important effect determining the magnitude of possible climate responses to human activity. Of particular value to reducing the uncertainties associated with cloud-radiation interactions is the measurement of cloud base height (CBH), both because it is a dominant factor in determining the infrared radiative properties of clouds with respect to the earth`s surface and lower atmosphere and because CBHs are essential to measuring cloud cover fraction. We have developed a novel approach to the extraction of cloud base height from pairs of whole sky imaging (WSI) cameras. The core problem is to spatially register cloud fields from widely separated WSI cameras; this complete, triangulation provides the CBH measurements. The wide camera separation (necessary to cover the desired observation area) and the self-similarity of clouds defeats all standard matching algorithms when applied to static views of the sky. To address this, our approach is based on optical flow methods that exploit the fact that modern WSIs provide sequences of images. We will describe the algorithm and present its performance as evaluated both on real data validated by ceilometer measurements and on a variety of simulated cases.

  9. Class I TCP-DELLA interactions in inflorescence shoot apex determine plant height.

    PubMed

    Davière, Jean-Michel; Wild, Michael; Regnault, Thomas; Baumberger, Nicolas; Eisler, Herfried; Genschik, Pascal; Achard, Patrick

    2014-08-18

    Regulation of plant height, one of the most important agronomic traits, is the focus of intensive research for improving crop performance. Stem elongation takes place as a result of repeated cell divisions and subsequent elongation of cells produced by apical and intercalary meristems. The gibberellin (GA) phytohormones have long been known to control stem and internodal elongation by stimulating the degradation of nuclear growth-repressing DELLA proteins; however, the mechanism allowing GA-responsive growth is only slowly emerging. Here, we show that DELLAs directly regulate the activity of the plant-specific class I TCP transcription factor family, key regulators of cell proliferation. Our results demonstrate that class I TCP factors directly bind the promoters of core cell-cycle genes in Arabidopsis inflorescence shoot apices while DELLAs block TCP function by binding to their DNA-recognition domain. GAs antagonize such repression by promoting DELLA destruction and therefore cause a concomitant accumulation of TCP factors on promoters of cell-cycle genes. Consistent with this model, the quadruple mutant tcp8 tcp14 tcp15 tcp22 exhibits severe dwarfism and reduced responsiveness to GA action. Altogether, we conclude that GA-regulated DELLA-TCP interactions in inflorescence shoot apex provide a novel mechanism to control plant height.

  10. Kinetics of the refractive index change in the core of active fibers, doped with Yb3+ and Er3+ ions, under pulsed optical pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainov, V. V.; Ryabushkin, O. A.

    2012-03-01

    The kinetics of refractive index change (RIC) in the core of Yb3+/Er3+ fibers at a radiation wave-length lying beyond the range of resonant absorption of active ions under pulsed pumping of fiber laser has been analyzed. The measurement of RIC kinetics with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer makes it possible to separate the contributions of the electronic and thermal RIC mechanisms and determine quantitatively the temperature profile inhomogeneity in the fiber. The measured values are compared with the numerical estimates derived from the spectral properties of the active medium in order to check the modern models of RIC in active fibers.

  11. Intramolecular C-H bond activation and redox isomerization across two-electron mixed valence diiridium cores.

    SciTech Connect

    Esswein, A. J.; Veige, A. S.; Piccoli, P. M. B.; Schultz, A. J.; Nocera, D. G.; MIT

    2008-03-24

    Metal-metal cooperativity enables the reaction of carbon-based substrates at diiridium two-electron mixed valence centers. Arylation of Ir{sub 2}{sup 0,II}(tfepma){sub 3}Cl{sub 2} (1) (tfepma = bis[(bistrifluoroethoxy)phosphino]methylamine) with RMgBr (R = C{sub 6}H{sub 5} and C{sub 6}D{sub 5}) is followed by C-H bond activation to furnish the bridging benzyne complex Ir{sub 2}II,II(tfepma){sub 3}({mu}-C{sub 6}H4)(C{sub 6}H{sub 5})H (2), as the kinetic product. At ambient temperature, 2 isomerizes to Ir{sub 2}{sup I,III}(tfepma){sub 3}({mu}-C{sub 6}H4)(C{sub 6}H{sub 5})H (3) (k{sub obs} = 9.57 {+-} 0.10 x 10{sup -5} s{sup -1} at 31.8 C, {Delta}H{sup {+-}} = 21.7 {+-} 0.3 kcal/mol, {Delta}S{sup {+-}} = -7.4 {+-} 0.9 eu), in which the benzyne moiety is conserved and the Ir{sup III} center is ligated by terminal hydride and phenyl groups. The same reaction course is observed for arylation of 1 with C{sub 6}D{sub 5}MgBr to produce 2-d{sub 10} and 3-d{sub 10} accompanied by an inverse isotope effect, k{sub h}/k{sub d} = 0.44 (k{sub obs} = 2.17 {+-} 0.10 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1} in C{sub 6}D{sub 6} solution at 31.8 C, {Delta}H{sup {+-}} = 24.9 {+-} 0.7 kcal/mol, {Delta}S{sup {+-}} = -6.4 {+-} 2.4 eu). 2 reacts swiftly with hydrogen to provide Ir{sub 2}{sup II,II}(tfepma){sub 3}H{sub 4} as both the syn and anti isomers (4-syn and 4-anti, respectively). The hydrides of 4-syn were directly located by neutron diffraction analysis. X-ray crystallographic examination of 2, 2-d{sub 10}, 3, and 4-syn indicates that cooperative reactivity at the bimetallic diiridium core is facilitated by the ability of the two-electron mixed valence framework to accommodate the oxidation state changes and ligand rearrangements attendant to the reaction of the substrate.

  12. Novel of core-shell AlOOH/Cu nanostructures: Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and in vitro toxicity in Neuro-2a cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakina, O. V.; Fomenko, A. N.; Korovin, M. S.; Glazkova, E. A.; Svarovskaya, N. V.

    2016-08-01

    Core-shell micro/nanostructures were fabricated by the reaction of Al/Cu bimetallic nanoparticles with water. Al/Cu nanoparticles have been obtained using the method of simultaneous electrical explosion of a pair of the corresponding metal wires in an argon atmosphere. The nanoparticles are chemically active and interact with water at 60°C to form core-shell micro/nanostructures. The obtained products were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering and the nitrogen adsorption method. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized structures was investigated against E. coli and St. aureus. The toxic effect of these nanostructures against the Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cell line was investigated. AlOOH/Cu nanostructures are shown to inhibit cell proliferation. The AlOOH/Cu nanostructures are good candidates for medical applications.

  13. 10Be in ice at high resolution: Solar activity and climate signals observed and GCM-modeled in Law Dome ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, Joel; Heikkilä, Ulla; van Ommen, T. D.; Smith, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Changes in solar activity modulate the galactic cosmic ray flux, and in turn, the production rate of 10Be in the earth's atmosphere. The best archives of past changes in 10Be production rate are the polar ice cores. Key challenges in interpreting these archives as proxies for past solar activity lie in separating the useful solar activity (or production) signal from the interfering meteorological (or climate) signal, and furthermore, in determining the atmospheric source regions of 10Be deposited to the ice core site. In this study we use a new monthly resolution composite 10Be record, which spans the past decade, and a general circulation model (ECHAM5-HAM), to constrain both the production and climate signals in 10Be concentrations at the Law Dome ice core site, East Antarctica. This study differs from most previous work on 10Be in Antarctica due to the very high sample resolution achieved. This high resolution, through a time period where accurate instrumental measurements of solar activity and climate are available, allows us to examine the response of 10Be concentrations in ice to short-term (monthly to annual) variations in solar activity, and to short-term variations in climate, including seasonality. We find a significant correlation (r2 = 0.56, P < 0.005, n = 92) between observed 10Be concentrations and solar activity (represented by the neutron counting rate). The most pervasive climate influence is a seasonal cycle, which shows maximum concentrations in mid-to-late-summer and minimum concentrations in winter. Model results show reasonable agreement with observations; both a solar activity signal and seasonal cycle in 10Be are captured. However, the modeled snow accumulation rate is too high by approximately 60%. According to the model, the main atmospheric source region of 10Be deposited to Law Dome is the 30-90°S stratosphere (~50%), followed by the 30-90°S troposphere (~30%). An enhancement in the fraction of 10Be arriving to Law Dome from the

  14. Seat height in handrim wheelchair propulsion.

    PubMed

    van der Woude, L H; Veeger, D J; Rozendal, R H; Sargeant, T J

    1989-01-01

    To study the effect of seat height on the cardiorespiratory system and kinematics in handrim wheelchair ambulation, nine non-wheelchair users participated in a wheelchair exercise experiment on a motor-driven treadmill. The subjects conducted five progressive exercise tests. After an initial try-out test, four tests were performed at different standardized seat heights of 100, 120, 140, and 160 degrees elbow extension (subject sitting erect, hands on the rim in top-dead-center = 12.00 hrs; full extension = 180 degrees). Each test consisted of four 3-minute exercise blocks at speeds of respectively 0.55, 0.83, 1.11, and 1.39 m.s-1 (2-5 km.hr-1). Analysis of variance revealed significant effects of seat height (P less than 0.05) on gross mechanical efficiency (ME), oxygen cost, push range, and push duration, and on the ranges of motion in the different arm segments and trunk. Mean ME appeared higher at the lower seat heights of 100 and 120 degrees elbow extension. This is reflected in an enhanced oxygen consumption at seat heights of 140 and 160 degrees elbow extension. Simultaneously, the push range showed a 15 to 20 degree decrease with increasing seat height, which is reflected in a decreased push duration. In the push phase, decreases in retroflexion and abduction/adduction of the upper arm were seen. The trunk shifted further forward, and the motion range in the elbow joint shifted to extension with increasing seat height. No shifts in minimum and maximum angular velocities were seen with increasing seat height. The results showed an interrelationship between wheelchair seat height and both cardiorespiratory and kinematic parameters. With respect to the cardiorespiratory system, the optimization of the wheelchair geometry, based on functional characteristics of the user, appears beneficial.

  15. PTEN loss and chromosome 8 alterations in Gleason grade 3 prostate cancer cores predicts the presence of un-sampled grade 4 tumor: implications for active surveillance.

    PubMed

    Trock, Bruce J; Fedor, Helen; Gurel, Bora; Jenkins, Robert B; Knudsen, B S; Fine, Samson W; Said, Jonathan W; Carter, H Ballentine; Lotan, Tamara L; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2016-07-01

    Men who enter active surveillance because their biopsy exhibits only Gleason grade 3 (G3) frequently have higher grade tumor missed by biopsy. Thus, biomarkers are needed that, when measured on G3 tissue, can predict the presence of higher grade tumor in the whole prostate. We evaluated whether PTEN loss, chromosome 8q gain (MYC) and/or 8p loss (LPL) measured only on G3 cores is associated with un-sampled G4 tumor. A tissue microarray was constructed of prostatectomy tissue from patients whose prostates exhibited only Gleason score 3+3, only 3+4 or only 4+3 tumor (n=50 per group). Cores sampled only from areas of G3 were evaluated for PTEN loss by immunohistochemistry, and PTEN deletion, LPL/8p loss and MYC/8q gain by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Biomarker results were compared between Gleason score 6 vs 7 tumors using conditional logistic regression. PTEN protein loss, odds ratio=4.99, P=0.033; MYC/8q gain, odds ratio=5.36, P=0.010; and LPL/8p loss, odds ratio=3.96, P=0.003 were significantly more common in G3 cores derived from Gleason 7 vs Gleason 6 tumors. PTEN gene deletion was not statistically significant. Associations were stronger comparing Gleason 4+3 vs 6 than for Gleason 3+4 vs 6. MYC/8q gain, LPL/8p loss and PTEN protein loss measured in G3 tissue microarray cores strongly differentiate whether the core comes from a Gleason 6 or Gleason 7 tumor. If validated to predict upgrading from G3 biopsy to prostatectomy these biomarkers could reduce the likelihood of enrolling high-risk men and facilitate safe patient selection for active surveillance.

  16. PTEN loss and chromosome 8 alterations in Gleason grade 3 prostate cancer cores predicts the presence of un-sampled grade 4 tumor: implications for Active Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Trock, Bruce J.; Fedor, Helen; Gurel, Bora; Jenkins, Robert B.; Knudsen, BS; Fine, Samson W.; Said, Jonathan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Lotan, Tamara L.; De Marzo, Angelo M.

    2016-01-01

    Men who enter active surveillance because their biopsy exhibits only Gleason grade 3 (G3) frequently have higher grade tumor missed by biopsy. Thus, biomarkers are needed that, when measured on G3 tissue, can predict the presence of higher grade tumor in the whole prostate. We evaluated whether PTEN loss, chromosome 8q gain (MYC) and/or 8p loss (LPL) measured only on G3 cores is associated with un-sampled G4 tumor. A tissue microarray was constructed of prostatectomy tissue from patients whose prostates exhibited only Gleason score 3+3, only 3+4, or only 4+3 tumor (n=50 per group). Cores sampled only from areas of G3 were evaluated for PTEN loss by immunohistochemistry, and PTEN deletion, LPL/8p loss, and MYC/8q gain by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Biomarker results were compared between Gleason score 6 vs. 7 tumors using conditional logistic regression. PTEN protein loss, odds ratio=4.99, p=.033, MYC/8q gain, odds ratio=5.36, p=.010, and LPL/8p loss, odds ratio=3.96, p=.003 were significantly more common in G3 cores derived from Gleason 7 vs. Gleason 6 tumors. PTEN gene deletion was not statistically significant. Associations were stronger comparing Gleason 4+3 vs. 6 than for Gleason 3+4 vs. 6. MYC/8q gain, LPL/8p loss, and PTEN protein loss measured in G3 tissue microarray cores strongly differentiate whether the core comes from a Gleason 6 or Gleason 7 tumor. If validated to predict upgrading from G3 biopsy to prostatectomy these biomarkers could reduce the likelihood of enrolling high risk men and facilitate safe patient selection for active surveillance. PMID:27080984

  17. The Use of Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) within a Constructivist Learning Environment to Develop Core Competencies in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fire, Nancy; Casstevens, W. J.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving foundation-level practice behaviors to develop social work core competencies involves integrating learning across a curriculum. This article focuses on two phases of foundation-level course redevelopment aimed to support graduate students in accomplishing this outcome. The first phase involved restructuring the course to become a…

  18. Parameter Sensitivity Study of the Unreacted-Core Shrinking Model: A Computer Activity for Chemical Reaction Engineering Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudela, Ignacio; Bonete, Pedro; Fullana, Andres; Conesa, Juan Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The unreacted-core shrinking (UCS) model is employed to characterize fluid-particle reactions that are important in industry and research. An approach to understand the UCS model by numerical methods is presented, which helps the visualization of the influence of the variables that control the overall heterogeneous process. Use of this approach in…

  19. Low Melt Height Solidification of Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montakhab, Mehdi; Bacak, Mert; Balikci, Ercan

    2016-06-01

    Effect of a reduced melt height in the directional solidification of a superalloy has been investigated by two methods: vertical Bridgman (VB) and vertical Bridgman with a submerged baffle (VBSB). The latter is a relatively new technique and provides a reduced melt height ahead of the solidifying interface. A low melt height leads to a larger primary dendrite arm spacing but a lower mushy length, melt-back transition length, and porosity. The VBSB technique yields up to 38 pct reduction in the porosity. This may improve a component's mechanical strength especially in a creep-fatigue type dynamic loading.

  20. Circadian regulation of chloroplast transcription in Chlamydomonas is accompanied by little or no fluctuation in RPOD levels or core RNAP activity.

    PubMed

    Kawazoe, Ryo; Mahan, Kristina M; Venghaus, Brad E; Carter, Matthew L; Herrin, David L

    2012-12-01

    In Chlamydomonas growing under 24 h light-dark cycles, chloroplast transcription is under circadian clock control, and peaks early in the morning. The peak (but not trough) requires ongoing cytoplasmic translation, as it is sensitive to cycloheximide (CH). The chloroplast transcriptional apparatus in Chlamydomonas is simpler than in land plants, with only one type of RNA polymerase (RNAP, bacterial) and apparently only one sigma factor (RPOD). Core RNAP can be assayed in vitro with a non-sigma factor dependent template, and is sensitive to rifampicin. We developed a membrane-based assay for RNAP activity, and used it to determine that core activity is only weakly affected by pre-treating cells with CH. Moreover, core chloroplast RNAP activity was steady during a 24 h light-dark cycle. Levels of the sigma factor (RPOD) were examined using western blots, and found to fluctuate less than 25 % during light-dark cycles. These data indicate that circadian regulation of chloroplast transcription is distinct from regulation by sulfur availability, which involves significant changes in RPOD levels. The implications of this data for hypotheses that purport to explain the circadian control mechanism are discussed.

  1. Constructing a MoS₂ QDs/CdS Core/Shell Flowerlike Nanosphere Hierarchical Heterostructure for the Enhanced Stability and Photocatalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shijing; Zhou, Zhouming; Wu, Xiuqin; Zhu, Shuying; Bi, Jinhong; Zhou, Limin; Liu, Minghua; Wu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    MoS₂ quantum dots (QDs)/CdS core/shell nanospheres with a hierarchical heterostructure have been prepared by a simple microwave hydrothermal method. The as-prepared samples are characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, UV-VIS diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and N₂-sorption in detail. The photocatalytic activities of the samples are evaluated by water splitting into hydrogen. Results show that the as-prepared MoS₂ QDs/CdS core/shell nanospheres with a diameter of about 300 nm are composed of the shell of CdS nanorods and the core of MoS₂ QDs. For the photocatalytic reaction, the samples exhibit a high stability of the photocatalytic activity and a much higher hydrogen evolution rate than the pure CdS, the composite prepared by a physical mixture, and the Pt-loaded CdS sample. In addition, the stability of CdS has also been greatly enhanced. The effect of the reaction time on the formations of nanospheres, the photoelectric properties and the photocatalytic activities of the samples has been investigated. Finally, a possible photocatalytic reaction process has also been proposed. PMID:26891284

  2. Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The volcanic nature of the island of Bali is evident in this shaded relief image generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).

    Bali, along with several smaller islands, make up one of the 27 Provinces of Indonesia. It lies over a major subduction zone where the Indo-Australian tectonic plate collides with the Sunda plate, creating one of the most volcanically active regions on the planet.

    The most significant feature on Bali is Gunung Agung, the symmetric, conical mountain at the right-center of the image. This 'stratovolcano,' 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) high, is held sacred in Balinese culture, and last erupted in 1963 after being dormant and thought inactive for 120 years. This violent event resulted in over 1,000 deaths, and coincided with a purification ceremony called Eka Dasa Rudra, meant to restore the balance between nature and man. This most important Balinese rite is held only once per century, and the almost exact correspondence between the beginning of the ceremony and the eruption is though to have great religious significance.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter

  3. A 10,300-year-old permafrost core from the active rock glacier Lazaun, southern Ötztal Alps (South Tyrol, northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainer, Karl; Bressan, David; Dietre, Benjamin; Haas, Jean Nicolas; Hajdas, Irka; Lang, Kathrin; Mair, Volkmar; Nickus, Ulrike; Reidl, Daniel; Thies, Hansjörg; Tonidandel, David

    2015-03-01

    Two cores were drilled on rock glacier Lazaun in the southern Ötztal Alps (N Italy). The average ice content of core Lazaun I is 43 vol.% and of core Lazaun II is 22 vol.%. Radiocarbon dating of plant macrofossil remains of core Lazaun I yielded ages ranging from 8960 cal yr BP at a depth of ca. 23.5 m to 2240 cal yr BP at a depth of 2.8 m, indicating that the ice near the base is approximately 10,300 yr old. The rock glacier was intact since that time and the ice persisted even during warm periods of the Holocene. An ice-free debris layer between 16.8 and 14.7 m separates the rock glacier into two frozen bodies. Inclinometer measurements indicate that both frozen bodies are active and that deformation occurs within a shear horizon at a depth of 20-25 m at the base of the lower frozen body and to a minor extent at a depth of approximately 14 m at the base of the upper frozen body. The ice-free debris layer in the middle of the Lazaun rock glacier indicates a more than five centennial long drought period, which dates to about 4300-3740 cal yr BP.

  4. Age, height and weight of female Olympic finalists.

    PubMed

    Khosla, T; McBroom, V C

    1985-06-01

    Age, height and weight are intricately related to performance in a specific sporting activity. Optimum standards derived from 32 female Olympic finalists from two jumping events are listed as a sample from a much larger set of 824 finalists from 47 events. An example of variation is that high jumpers are taller by 6.3 cm and younger by 2.9 years than long jumpers. Conversely, considerable variation in body weight is shown for a group of finalists all with a height of 171 cm. The weights of these finalists range from 56 kg for a 400 m runner to 85 kg for a discus thrower. Many other events are listed between these examples and a number of events are found to share the same combination of height and weight (height 171 cm, weight 59-62 kg) swimming freestyle and medley, 200 m run, rowing, canoeing, volleyball and handball. These findings are expected to be of use for potential champions looking for optimum standards in specific events. They are also of use for trainers counselling athletes in the most appropriate selection of the event befitting her physique. Many sporting activities are found to be seriously biased in favour of the taller members of the population. This is a cause for concern as is the need for some remedial action. PMID:4027502

  5. Mixing-Height Time Series from Operational Ceilometer Aerosol-Layer Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotteraner, Christoph; Piringer, Martin

    2016-07-01

    A new method is described to derive mixing-height time series directly from aerosol-layer height data available from a Vaisala CL51 ceilometer. As complete as possible mixing-height time series are calculated by avoiding outliers, filling data gaps by linear interpolation, and smoothing. In addition, large aerosol-layer heights at night that can be interpreted as residual layers are not assigned as mixing heights. The resulting mixing-height time series, converted to an appropriate data format, can be used as input for dispersion calculations. Two case examples demonstrate in detail how the method works. The mixing heights calculated using ceilometer data are compared with values determined from radiosounding data at Vienna by applying the parcel, Heffter, and Richardson methods. The results of the parcel method, obtained from radiosonde profiles at noon, show the best fit to the ceilometer-derived mixing heights. For midnight radiosoundings, larger deviations between mixing heights from the ceilometer and those deduced from the potential temperature profiles of the soundings are found. We use data from two Vaisala CL51 ceilometers, operating in the Vienna area at an urban and rural site, respectively, during an overlapping period of about 1 year. In addition to the case studies, the calculated mixing-height time series are also statistically evaluated and compared, demonstrating that the ceilometer-based mixing height follows an expected daily and seasonal course.

  6. Mixing-Height Time Series from Operational Ceilometer Aerosol-Layer Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotteraner, Christoph; Piringer, Martin

    2016-11-01

    A new method is described to derive mixing-height time series directly from aerosol-layer height data available from a Vaisala CL51 ceilometer. As complete as possible mixing-height time series are calculated by avoiding outliers, filling data gaps by linear interpolation, and smoothing. In addition, large aerosol-layer heights at night that can be interpreted as residual layers are not assigned as mixing heights. The resulting mixing-height time series, converted to an appropriate data format, can be used as input for dispersion calculations. Two case examples demonstrate in detail how the method works. The mixing heights calculated using ceilometer data are compared with values determined from radiosounding data at Vienna by applying the parcel, Heffter, and Richardson methods. The results of the parcel method, obtained from radiosonde profiles at noon, show the best fit to the ceilometer-derived mixing heights. For midnight radiosoundings, larger deviations between mixing heights from the ceilometer and those deduced from the potential temperature profiles of the soundings are found. We use data from two Vaisala CL51 ceilometers, operating in the Vienna area at an urban and rural site, respectively, during an overlapping period of about 1 year. In addition to the case studies, the calculated mixing-height time series are also statistically evaluated and compared, demonstrating that the ceilometer-based mixing height follows an expected daily and seasonal course.

  7. Brief light stimulation during the mouse nocturnal activity phase simultaneously induces a decline in core temperature and locomotor activity followed by EEG-determined sleep

    PubMed Central

    Studholme, Keith M.; Gompf, Heinrich S.

    2013-01-01

    Light exerts a variety of effects on mammals. Unexpectedly, one of these effects is the cessation of nocturnal locomotion and the induction of behavioral sleep (photosomnolence). Here, we extend the initial observations in several ways, including the fundamental demonstration that core body temperature (Tc) drops substantially (about 1.5°C) in response to the light stimulation at CT15 or CT18 in a manner suggesting that the change is a direct response to light rather than simply a result of the locomotor suppression. The results show that 1) the decline of locomotion and Tc begin soon after nocturnal light stimulation; 2) the variability in the magnitude and onset of light-induced locomotor suppression is very large, whereas the variability in Tc is very small; 3) Tc recovers from the light-induced decline in advance of the recovery of locomotion; 4) under entrained and freerunning conditions, the daily late afternoon Tc increase occurs in advance of the corresponding increase in wheel running; and 5) toward the end of the subjective night, the nocturnally elevated Tc persists longer than does locomotor activity. Finally, EEG measurements confirm light-induced sleep and, when Tc or locomotion was measured, show their temporal association with sleep onset. Both EEG- and immobility-based sleep detection methods confirm rapid induction of light-induced sleep. The similarities between light-induced loss of locomotion and drop in Tc suggest a common cause for parallel responses. The photosomnolence response may be contingent upon both the absence of locomotion and a simultaneous low Tc. PMID:23364525

  8. Estimating Mixing Heights Using Microwave Temperature Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson-Gammon, John; Powell, Christina; Mahoney, Michael; Angevine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    A paper describes the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) for making measurements of the planetary boundary layer thermal structure data necessary for air quality forecasting as the Mixing Layer (ML) height determines the volume in which daytime pollution is primarily concentrated. This is the first time that an airborne temperature profiler has been used to measure the mixing layer height. Normally, this is done using a radar wind profiler, which is both noisy and large. The MTP was deployed during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study (TexAQS-2000). An objective technique was developed and tested for estimating the ML height from the MTP vertical temperature profiles. In order to calibrate the technique and evaluate the usefulness of this approach, estimates from a variety of measurements during the TexAQS-2000 were compared. Estimates of ML height were used from radiosondes, radar wind profilers, an aerosol backscatter lidar, and in-situ aircraft measurements in addition to those from the MTP.

  9. Evolutionary perspectives on human height variation.

    PubMed

    Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise

    2016-02-01

    Human height is a highly variable trait, both within and between populations, has a high heritability, and influences the manner in which people behave and are treated in society. Although we know much about human height, this information has rarely been brought together in a comprehensive, systematic fashion. Here, we present a synthetic review of the literature on human height from an explicit evolutionary perspective, addressing its phylogenetic history, development, and environmental and genetic influences on growth and stature. In addition to presenting evidence to suggest the past action of natural selection on human height, we also assess the evidence that natural and sexual selection continues to act on height in contemporary populations. Although there is clear evidence to suggest that selection acts on height, mainly through life-history processes but perhaps also directly, it is also apparent that methodological factors reduce the confidence with which such inferences can be drawn, and there remain surprising gaps in our knowledge. The inability to draw firm conclusions about the adaptiveness of such a highly visible and easily measured trait suggests we should show an appropriate degree of caution when dealing with other human traits in evolutionary perspective. PMID:25530478

  10. Petrophysical characterization of first ever drilled core samples from an active CO2 storage site, the German Ketzin Pilot Site - Comparison with long term experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Petrophysical properties like porosity and permeability are key parameters for a safe long-term storage of CO2 but also for the injection operation itself. These parameters may change during and/or after the CO2 injection due to geochemical reactions in the reservoir system that are triggered by the injected CO2. Here we present petrophysical data of first ever drilled cores from a newly drilled well at the active CO2 storage site - the Ketzin pilot site in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. By comparison with pre-injection baseline data from core samples recovered prior to injection, the new samples provide the unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of CO2 on pore size related properties of reservoir and cap rocks at a real injection site under in-situ reservoir conditions. After injection of 61 000 tons CO2, an additional well was drilled and new rock cores were recovered. In total 100 core samples from the reservoir and the overlaying caprock were investigated by NMR relaxation. Permeability of 20 core samples was estimated by nitrogen and porosity by helium pycnometry. The determined data are comparable between pre-injection and post-injection core samples. The lower part of the reservoir sandstone is unaffected by the injected CO2. The upper part of the reservoir sandstone shows consistently slightly lower NMR porosity and permeability values in the post-injection samples when compared to the pre-injection data. This upper sandstone part is above the fluid level and CO2 present as a free gas phase and a possible residual gas saturation of the cores distorted the NMR results. The potash-containing drilling fluid can also influence these results: NMR investigation of twin samples from inner and outer parts of the cores show a reduced fraction of larger pores for the outer core samples together with lower porosities and T2 times. The drill mud penetration depth can be controlled by the added fluorescent tracer. Due to the heterogeneous character of the

  11. Development of a supramolecular ensemble of an AIEE active hexaphenylbenzene derivative and Ag@Cu2O core-shell NPs: an efficient photocatalytic system for C-H activation.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Radhika; Kumar, Manoj; Bhalla, Vandana

    2016-08-01

    A supramolecular ensemble having Ag@Cu2O core-shell nanoparticles stabilized by aggregates of a hexaphenylbenzene derivative has been developed which exhibits excellent photocatalytic efficiency in reactions involving preparation of imidazole and benzimidazole derivatives via C-H activation. PMID:27464360

  12. Magnetic field activated drug delivery using thermodegradable azo-functionalised PEG-coated core-shell mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Cricq, P.; Deshayes, S.; Zink, J. I.; Kasko, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 mesoporous silica nanoparticles coated with a new thermodegradable polymer allowed the release of a model drug through heating caused by a high frequency oscillating magnetic field. The thermodegradable polymer was made of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) functionalised with azo bonds that break with an elevation of temperature.Core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 mesoporous silica nanoparticles coated with a new thermodegradable polymer allowed the release of a model drug through heating caused by a high frequency oscillating magnetic field. The thermodegradable polymer was made of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) functionalised with azo bonds that break with an elevation of temperature. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed synthesis of the polymers, core-shell nanoparticles and their functionalisation; 1H-NMR spectrum of Azo-PEG GPC, MALDI-TOF, DSC, TGA of the polymers; real time release profile; cell viability assay; release experiment set-up. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03777h

  13. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report. Volume 1: Site selection, drill plan preparation, drilling, logging, and coring operations

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Increasing Stability and Activity of Core-Shell Catalysts by Preferential Segregation of Oxide on Edges and Vertexes: Oxygen Reduction on Ti-Au@Pt/C

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, J.; Wu, L.; Kuttiyiel, K.; Goodman, K. R.; Zhang, C.; Zhu, Y.; Vukmirovic, M. B.; White, M. G.; Sasaki, K.; Adzic, R. R.

    2016-06-30

    We describe a new class of core-shell nanoparticle catalysts having edges and vertexes covered by refractory metal oxide that preferentially segregates onto these catalyst sites. The monolayer shell is deposited on the oxidefree core atoms. The oxide on edges and vertexes induces high catalyst’s stability and activity. The catalyst and synthesis are exemplified by fabrication of Au nanoparticles doped by Ti atoms that segregate as oxide onto low–coordination sites of edges and vertexes. Pt monolayer shell deposited on Au sites has the mass and specific activities for the oxygen reduction reaction about 13 and 5 times higher than those ofmore » commercial Pt/C catalysts. The durability tests show no activity loss after 10000 potential cycles from 0.6 to 1.0V. The superior activity and durability of the Ti-Au@Pt catalyst originate from protective Ti oxide located at the most dissolution-prone edge and vertex sites, and Au-supported active and stable Pt shell.« less

  15. Core Muscle Activity during TRX Suspension Exercises with and without Kinesiology Taping in Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain: Implications for Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Tam, Y. T.; Macfarlane, Duncan J.; Ng, Shamay S. M.; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Chan, Eleanor W. Y.; Guo, X.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of kinesiology taping (KT) and different TRX suspension workouts on the amplitude of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the core muscles among people with chronic low back pain (LBP). Each participant (total n = 21) was exposed to two KT conditions: no taping and taping, while performing four TRX suspension exercises: (1) hamstring curl, (2) hip abduction in plank, (3) chest press, and (4) 45-degree row. Right transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TrAIO), rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and superficial lumbar multifidus (LMF) activity was recorded with surface EMG and expressed as a percentage of the EMG amplitude recorded during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the respective muscles. Hip abduction in plank increased TrAIO, RA, and LMF EMG amplitude compared with other TRX positions (P < 0.008). Only the hamstring curl was effective in inducing a high EMG amplitude of LMF (P < 0.001). No significant difference in EMG magnitude was found between the taping and no taping conditions overall (P > 0.05). Hip abduction in plank most effectively activated abdominal muscles, whereas the hamstring curl most effectively activated the paraspinal muscles. Applying KT conferred no immediate benefits in improving the core muscle activation during TRX training in adults with chronic LBP. PMID:26185520

  16. [Vertical distribution and relationship between 210Pb(ex) activities and nutrients in sediment cores of two different eutrophication level lakes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Lei; Yang, Hao; Gu, Zhu-Jun; Zhang, Ming-Li

    2014-07-01

    The 210Pb(ex) activities and nutrient (TOC, TN and TP) contents in sediment cores of Fuxian Lake and Dianchi Lake were measured by traditional methods, as well as their vertical distribution and relationship were also comparatively analyzed in this paper. The study results indicated that the vertical distributions of 210Pb(ex) and nutrients were significantly different between Fuxian Lake and Dianchi Lake. The variation amplitude of 210Pb(ex) activities in Dianchi Lake was higher than that in Fuxian Lake. The disordered distribution characteristics of 210Pb(ex) in Dianchi Lake surface sediments were closely related to physicochemical migration of lead caused by human activities. The variation trends of nutrients in sediment cores were corresponded to local natural evolution and human activities in different historical periods. Relationship between 210Pb(ex) activities and nutrients were mainly affected by the nutrition level of lakes. The greater the lake eutrophication level was, the stronger the correlation was found. To the individual nutrient indicators, similar characteristics were shown in the two lakes, and the order was TOC > TP > TN.

  17. Core Muscle Activity during TRX Suspension Exercises with and without Kinesiology Taping in Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain: Implications for Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Tam, Y T; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Ng, Shamay S M; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Chan, Eleanor W Y; Guo, X

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of kinesiology taping (KT) and different TRX suspension workouts on the amplitude of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the core muscles among people with chronic low back pain (LBP). Each participant (total n = 21) was exposed to two KT conditions: no taping and taping, while performing four TRX suspension exercises: (1) hamstring curl, (2) hip abduction in plank, (3) chest press, and (4) 45-degree row. Right transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TrAIO), rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and superficial lumbar multifidus (LMF) activity was recorded with surface EMG and expressed as a percentage of the EMG amplitude recorded during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the respective muscles. Hip abduction in plank increased TrAIO, RA, and LMF EMG amplitude compared with other TRX positions (P < 0.008). Only the hamstring curl was effective in inducing a high EMG amplitude of LMF (P < 0.001). No significant difference in EMG magnitude was found between the taping and no taping conditions overall (P > 0.05). Hip abduction in plank most effectively activated abdominal muscles, whereas the hamstring curl most effectively activated the paraspinal muscles. Applying KT conferred no immediate benefits in improving the core muscle activation during TRX training in adults with chronic LBP.

  18. Controllable synthesis and adjustable antineoplastic activity of bovine serum albumin-conjugated PbS/Ag2S core/shell nano-composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-Jie; Yu, Xue-Hong; Cao, Ying; Zhou, Bei; Wang, Cai-Feng

    2012-08-01

    Series of mono-dispersed bovine serum albumin (BSA)-conjugated PbS/Ag(2)S core/shell nano-composites with different Pb/Ag ratios had been successfully synthesized by an ion-exchange method under the gentle conditions using BSA-conjugated PbS nano-crystals as precursors, which were prepared by a biomimetic method. Fourier transform infrared spectra analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation demonstrated that BSA was a key factor to control the morphology and size of final products. Additionally, the real-time TEM observation, X-ray powder diffraction and atomic absorption spectroscopy analysis were applied to monitor the synthesis process. The results indicated that the shell thickness and ratio of Pb to Ag could be controlled by adjusting the ion-exchange time. Both metabolic and morphological methods revealed that the proliferation of rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells could be inhibited by BSA-conjugated PbS/Ag(2)S core/shell nano-composites, and the antineoplastic activity was Pb/Ag ratio-dependent. It might be explained by a Trojan horse-type mechanism. Summarily, the present study would be helpful to find a new core/shell nano-composite with higher and controllable antineoplastic activity due to the synergistic reaction of different metal ions.

  19. 24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES FOR A BRASS GATE VALVE BODY MADE ON A CORE BOX, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  20. Love and fear of heights: the pathophysiology and psychology of height imbalance.

    PubMed

    Salassa, John R; Zapala, David A

    2009-01-01

    Individual psychological responses to heights vary on a continuum from acrophobia to height intolerance, height tolerance, and height enjoyment. This paper reviews the English literature and summarizes the physiologic and psychological factors that generate different responses to heights while standing still in a static or motionless environment. Perceptual cues to height arise from vision. Normal postural sway of 2 cm for peripheral objects within 3 m increases as eye-object distance increases. Postural sway >10 cm can result in a fall. A minimum of 20 minutes of peripheral retinal arc is required to detect motion. Trigonometry dictates that a 20-minute peripheral retinal arch can no longer be achieved in a standing position at an eye-object distance of >20 m. At this distance, visual cues conflict with somatosensory and vestibular inputs, resulting in variable degrees of imbalance. Co-occurring deficits in the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems can significantly increase height imbalance. An individual's psychological makeup, influenced by learned and genetic factors, can influence reactions to height imbalance. Enhancing peripheral vision and vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic functions may improve height imbalance. Psychotherapy may improve the troubling subjective sensations to heights.

  1. Recovery of orthometric heights from ellipsoidal heights using offsets method over Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odera, Patroba Achola; Fukuda, Yoichi

    2015-08-01

    One of the most important applications of a geoid model is a recovery of orthometric heights from ellipsoidal heights (normally obtained from GNSS). The application of the geoid model for recovering orthometric heights from ellipsoidal heights is normally achieved by fitting the geoid model to a local vertical datum. The fitting procedure is usually accomplished by least squares collocation (LSC), using planar or spherical covariance functions. This procedure warps the gravimetric geoid model onto the local vertical datum, hence the local geoid model derived by this procedure, though convenient for local applications, it is not an equipotential surface. We propose offsets method for practical orthometric height recovery from a geoid model. The proposed procedure is more realistic because it does not constrain the local geoid to be coincident to the local vertical datum. We compare the performance of plannar fitting and offsets methods over Japan using a cross-validation procedure. Results show that offsets method performs better than the normally used planar fitting in the recovery of orthometric heights from ellipsoidal heights using a geoid model. The standard deviations of the differences between established and converted orthometric heights at randomly selected GPS/levelling test points over Japan are ±4 and ±3 cm for planar fitting and offsets methods, respectively. The offsets method is therefore more appropriate for converting ellipsoidal heights to orthometric heights than the planar fitting in the area of study.

  2. Lead users’ ideas on core features to support physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a first step in the development of an internet service using participatory design

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the growing evidence of the benefits of physical activity (PA) in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the majority is not physically active enough. An innovative strategy is to engage lead users in the development of PA interventions provided over the internet. The aim was to explore lead users’ ideas and prioritization of core features in a future internet service targeting adoption and maintenance of healthy PA in people with RA. Methods Six focus group interviews were performed with a purposively selected sample of 26 individuals with RA. Data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis and quantification of participants’ prioritization of most important content. Results Six categories were identified as core features for a future internet service: up-to-date and evidence-based information and instructions, self-regulation tools, social interaction, personalized set-up, attractive design and content, and access to the internet service. The categories represented four themes, or core aspects, important to consider in the design of the future service: (1) content, (2) customized options, (3) user interface and (4) access and implementation. Conclusions This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study involving people with RA in the development of an internet service to support the adoption and maintenance of PA. Participants helped identifying core features and aspects important to consider and further explore during the next phase of development. We hypothesize that involvement of lead users will make transfer from theory to service more adequate and user-friendly and therefore will be an effective mean to facilitate PA behavior change. PMID:24655757

  3. Duck!: Scaling the height of a horizontal barrier to body height

    PubMed Central

    Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Geuss, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research shows that the body is used to scale environmental extents. We question whether the body is used to scale heights as measured by real actions (Experiments 1 and 2), or judgments about action and extent made from a single viewpoint (Experiments 3 and 4). First, participants walked under barriers either naturally or when wearing shoes or a helmet. Participants required a larger margin of safety (ducked at shorter heights) when they were made taller. In follow-up experiments, participants visually matched barrier heights and judged whether they could walk under them when wearing shoes or a helmet. Only the helmet decreased visually matched estimates; action judgments were no different when taller. The final experiment suggested that the change in matched estimates may have been due to lack of experience wearing the helmet. Overall, the results suggest that perceived height is scaled to the body and that when body height is altered, experience may moderate the rescaling of height. PMID:20601715

  4. In situ facile synthesis of Ru-based core-shell nanoparticles supported on carbon black and their high catalytic activity in the dehydrogenation of amine-boranes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Nan; Su, Jun; Hong, Xinlin; Luo, Wei; Cheng, Gongzhen

    2014-02-01

    Well-dispersed core-shell Ru@M (M=Co, Ni, Fe) nanoparticles (NPs) supported on carbon black have been synthesized via a facile in situ one-step procedure under ambient condition. Core-shell Ru@Co NPs were synthesized and characterized for the first time. The as-synthesized Ru@Co and Ru@Ni NPs exhibit superior catalytic activity in the hydrolysis of ammonia borane compared with their monometallic and alloy counterparts. The Ru@Co/C NPs are the most reactive, with a turnover frequency (TOF) value of 320 (mol H 2 min(-1)) molRu (-1) and activation energy (Ea) of 21.16 kJ mol(-1). Ru@Ni/C NPs are the next most active, whereas Ru@Fe/C NPs are almost inactive. Additionally, the as-synthesized NPs supported on carbon black exhibit higher catalytic activity than catalysts on other conventional supports, such as SiO2 and γ-Al2O3. PMID:24288206

  5. Hybrid nanocarbon as a catalyst for direct dehydrogenation of propane: formation of an active and selective core-shell sp2/sp3 nanocomposite structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Bingsen; Sun, Xiaoying; Su, Dangsheng

    2014-05-19

    Hybrid nanocarbon, comprised of a diamond core and a graphitic shell with a variable sp(2)-/sp(3)-carbon ratio, is controllably obtained through sequential annealing treatment (550-1300 °C) of nanodiamond. The formation of sp(2) carbon increases with annealing temperature and the nanodiamond surface is reconstructed from amorphous into a well-ordered, onion-like carbon structure via an intermediate composite structure--a diamond core covered by a defective, curved graphene outer shell. Direct dehydrogenation of propane shows that the sp(2)-/sp(3)-nanocomposite exhibits superior catalytic performance to that of individual nanodiamond and graphitic nanocarbon. The optimum catalytic activity of the diamond/graphene composite depends on the maximum structural defectiveness and high chemical reactivity of the ketone groups. Ketone-type functional groups anchored on the defects/vacancies are active for propene formation; nevertheless, once the oxygen functional groups are desorbed, the defects/vacancies alone might be active sites responsible for the C-H bond activation of propane. PMID:24740731

  6. Are inequalities in height narrowing? Comparing effects of social class on height in two generations

    PubMed Central

    Li, L; Manor, O; Power, C

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether social inequalities in height change across generations. Methods: The target population was from the 1958 British birth cohort, all born 3rd–9th March 1958, followed to 1991, and the offspring of one third of this population. Main outcomes were height measured at 7, 11, 16, and 33 years (cohort members) and once at 4–18 years (offspring). Multilevel models applied to associations of social class of origin with (a) child-to-adult growth trajectory (cohort members), (b) height (offspring), and (c) generational height increment. Results: Height inequalities were observed among cohort members, with differences >2.0 cm at all ages between classes I and II, and IV and V. By adulthood, the difference in mean height had declined significantly in boys and slightly in girls. A secular trend was seen between the two generations. While male offspring had a similar mean height to their fathers in classes I and II, boys in classes IV and V gained 2.1 cm (p<0.001). Height gains of female offspring were evident in all classes, with a greater gain in classes IV and V (non-significant). The social class effect on height was weaker among offspring, with a difference between classes I and II, and IV and V of less than 1 cm. Conclusions: Social inequalities in height observed among the cohort weakened substantially in the next generation due to a greater height gain among offspring from manual classes. Inequalities in childhood height have narrowed between the two generations in this study. PMID:15499054

  7. Approach for a Global Height Reference System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihde, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Hermann Drewes, Christoph Foerste, Thomas Gruber, Gunter Liebsch, Roland Pail, Laura Sanchez For Earth system monitoring the heights are main parameters for global changes. Physical heights are potential differences of the outer Earth gravity field at different positions. Long term monitoring of the vertical component of the Earth surface needs a standardized defined and realized global reference relating the geometry and the gravity field of the Earth. In the last two decades, in several working groups of the International Association of Geodesy were different concepts for definition and realization of global height reference system discussed. Furthermore, the satellite gravity missions have the Earth gravity field data basis general extended. So far, it is possible to develop the present local and regional height reference systems concepts to a global approach. The presented proposal has to be understood as a model that consider the present possibilities and actual needs for the realization of a global height reference system. It includes aspects for the combination of observations and products representing the geometry and the gravity field of the Earth.

  8. The difference between the Weil height and the canonical height on elliptic curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Joseph H.

    1990-10-01

    Estimates for the difference of the Weil height and the canonical height of points on elliptic curves are used for many purposes, both theoretical and computational. In this note we give an explicit estimate for this difference in terms of the j-invariant and discriminant of the elliptic curve. The method of proof, suggested by Serge Lang, is to use the decomposition of the canonical height into a sum of local heights. We illustrate one use for our estimate by computing generators for the Mordell-Weil group in three examples.

  9. Substrate-Triggered Activation of a Synthetic [Fe2(μ-O)2] Diamond Core for C–H Bond Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Genqiang; Pokutsa, Alexander; Que, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    An [FeIV2(μ-O)2] diamond core structure has been postulated for intermediate Q of soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO-Q), the oxidant responsible for cleaving the strong C–H bond of methane and its hydroxylation. By extension, analogous species may be involved in the mechanisms of related diiron hydroxylases and desaturases. Due to the paucity of well-defined synthetic examples, there are few, if any, mechanistic studies on the oxidation of hydrocarbon substrates by complexes with high-valent [Fe2(μ-O)2] cores. We report here that water or alcohol substrates can activate synthetic [FeIIIFeIV(μ-O)2] complexes supported by tetradentate tris(pyridyl-2-methyl)amine ligands (1 and 2) by several orders of magnitude for C–H bond oxidation. On the basis of detailed kinetic studies, it is postulated that the activation results from Lewis base attack on the [FeIIIFeIV(μ-O)2] core, resulting in the formation of a more reactive species with a [X–FeIII–O–FeIV=O] ring-opened structure (1-X, 2-X, X = OH− or OR−). Treatment of 2 with methoxide at −80 °C forms the 2-methoxide adduct in high yield, which is characterized by an S = 1/2 EPR signal indicative of an antiferromagnetically coupled [S = 5/2 FeIII/S = 2 FeIV] pair. Even at this low temperature, the complex undergoes facile intramolecular C–H bond cleavage to generate formaldehyde, showing that the terminal high-spin FeIV=O unit is capable of oxidizing a C–H bond as strong as 96 kcal mol−1. This intramolecular oxidation of the methoxide ligand can in fact be competitive with intermolecular oxidation of triphenylmethane, which has a much weaker C–H bond (DC-H 81 kcal mol−1). The activation of the [FeIIIFeIV(μ-O)2] core is dramatically illustrated by the oxidation of 9,10-dihydroanthracene by 2-methoxide, which has a second order rate constant that is 3.6 x 107-fold larger than that for the parent diamond core complex 2. These observations provide strong support for the DFT-based notion that an

  10. Dioxygen Activation by a Macrocyclic Copper Complex Leads to a Cu2O2 Core with Unexpected Structure and Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Bosch, Isaac; Cowley, Ryan E; Díaz, Daniel E; Siegler, Maxime A; Nam, Wonwoo; Solomon, Edward I; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2016-04-01

    We report the Cu(I)/O2 chemistry of complexes derived from the macrocylic ligands 14-TMC (1,4,8,11-tetramethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) and 12-TMC (1,4,7,10-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane). While [(14-TMC)Cu(I)](+) is unreactive towards dioxygen, the smaller analog [(12-TMC)Cu(I)(CH3CN)](+) reacts with O2 to give a side-on bound peroxo-dicopper(II) species ((S)P), confirmed by spectroscopic and computational methods. Intriguingly, 12-TMC as a N4 donor ligand generates (S)P species, thus in contrast with the previous observation that such species are generated by N2 and N3 ligands. In addition, the reactivity of this macrocyclic side-on peroxo-dicopper(II) differs from typical (S)P species, because it reacts only with acid to release H2O2, in contrast with the classic reactivity of Cu2O2 cores. Kinetics and computations are consistent with a protonation mechanism whereby the TMC acts as a hemilabile ligand and shuttles H(+) to an isomerized peroxo core.

  11. Recurrent mutations, including NPM1c, activate a BRD4-dependent core transcriptional program in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, M A; Gudgin, E J; Horton, S J; Giotopoulos, G; Meduri, E; Robson, S; Cannizzaro, E; Osaki, H; Wiese, M; Putwain, S; Fong, C Y; Grove, C; Craig, J; Dittmann, A; Lugo, D; Jeffrey, P; Drewes, G; Lee, K; Bullinger, L; Prinjha, R K; Kouzarides, T; Vassiliou, G S; Huntly, B J P

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that inhibition of bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) epigenetic readers may have clinical utility against acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here we validate this hypothesis, demonstrating the efficacy of the BET inhibitor I-BET151 across a variety of AML subtypes driven by disparate mutations. We demonstrate that a common ‘core' transcriptional program, which is HOX gene independent, is downregulated in AML and underlies sensitivity to I-BET treatment. This program is enriched for genes that contain ‘super-enhancers', recently described regulatory elements postulated to control key oncogenic driver genes. Moreover, our program can independently classify AML patients into distinct cytogenetic and molecular subgroups, suggesting that it contains biomarkers of sensitivity and response. We focus AML with mutations of the Nucleophosmin gene (NPM1) and show evidence to suggest that wild-type NPM1 has an inhibitory influence on BRD4 that is relieved upon NPM1c mutation and cytosplasmic dislocation. This leads to the upregulation of the core transcriptional program facilitating leukemia development. This program is abrogated by I-BET therapy and by nuclear restoration of NPM1. Finally, we demonstrate the efficacy of I-BET151 in a unique murine model and in primary patient samples of NPM1c AML. Taken together, our data support the use of BET inhibitors in clinical trials in AML. PMID:24220271

  12. Multicomponent (Ce, Cu, Ni) oxides with cage and core-shell structures: tunable fabrication and enhanced CO oxidation activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Tang, Ke; Lin, Ming; June, Lay Ting Ong; Bai, Shi-Qiang; Young, David James; Li, Xu; Yang, Yan-Zhao; Hor, T. S. Andy

    2016-05-01

    Solvothermal synthesis of Cu2O cubes from Cu(OAc)2 in ethanol provided templates for tunable formation of novel multicomponent composites: hollow CeO2-Cu2O (1), core-shell NiO@Cu2O (2) and hollow CeO2-NiO-Cu2O (3). Composites 1-3 catalyze the oxidation of CO at a lower temperature than the parent Cu2O cubes.Solvothermal synthesis of Cu2O cubes from Cu(OAc)2 in ethanol provided templates for tunable formation of novel multicomponent composites: hollow CeO2-Cu2O (1), core-shell NiO@Cu2O (2) and hollow CeO2-NiO-Cu2O (3). Composites 1-3 catalyze the oxidation of CO at a lower temperature than the parent Cu2O cubes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section: materials and characterization; synthesis of materials; catalytic test. Tables S1-S3 and Fig. S1-S8. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02383e

  13. Recurrent mutations, including NPM1c, activate a BRD4-dependent core transcriptional program in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dawson, M A; Gudgin, E J; Horton, S J; Giotopoulos, G; Meduri, E; Robson, S; Cannizzaro, E; Osaki, H; Wiese, M; Putwain, S; Fong, C Y; Grove, C; Craig, J; Dittmann, A; Lugo, D; Jeffrey, P; Drewes, G; Lee, K; Bullinger, L; Prinjha, R K; Kouzarides, T; Vassiliou, G S; Huntly, B J P

    2014-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that inhibition of bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) epigenetic readers may have clinical utility against acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here we validate this hypothesis, demonstrating the efficacy of the BET inhibitor I-BET151 across a variety of AML subtypes driven by disparate mutations. We demonstrate that a common 'core' transcriptional program, which is HOX gene independent, is downregulated in AML and underlies sensitivity to I-BET treatment. This program is enriched for genes that contain 'super-enhancers', recently described regulatory elements postulated to control key oncogenic driver genes. Moreover, our program can independently classify AML patients into distinct cytogenetic and molecular subgroups, suggesting that it contains biomarkers of sensitivity and response. We focus AML with mutations of the Nucleophosmin gene (NPM1) and show evidence to suggest that wild-type NPM1 has an inhibitory influence on BRD4 that is relieved upon NPM1c mutation and cytosplasmic dislocation. This leads to the upregulation of the core transcriptional program facilitating leukemia development. This program is abrogated by I-BET therapy and by nuclear restoration of NPM1. Finally, we demonstrate the efficacy of I-BET151 in a unique murine model and in primary patient samples of NPM1c AML. Taken together, our data support the use of BET inhibitors in clinical trials in AML.

  14. The height limit of a siphon

    PubMed Central

    Boatwright, A.; Hughes, S.; Barry, J.

    2015-01-01

    The maximum height of a siphon is generally assumed to be dependent on barometric pressure—about 10 m at sea level. This limit arises because the pressure in a siphon above the upper reservoir level is below the ambient pressure, and when the height of a siphon approaches 10 m, the pressure at the crown of the siphon falls below the vapour pressure of water causing water to boil breaking the column. After breaking, the columns on either side are supported by differential pressure between ambient and the low-pressure region at the top of the siphon. Here we report an experiment of a siphon operating at sea level at a height of 15 m, well above 10 m. Prior degassing of the water prevented cavitation. This experiment provides conclusive evidence that siphons operate through gravity and molecular cohesion. PMID:26628323

  15. The height limit of a siphon.

    PubMed

    Boatwright, A; Hughes, S; Barry, J

    2015-12-02

    The maximum height of a siphon is generally assumed to be dependent on barometric pressure-about 10 m at sea level. This limit arises because the pressure in a siphon above the upper reservoir level is below the ambient pressure, and when the height of a siphon approaches 10 m, the pressure at the crown of the siphon falls below the vapour pressure of water causing water to boil breaking the column. After breaking, the columns on either side are supported by differential pressure between ambient and the low-pressure region at the top of the siphon. Here we report an experiment of a siphon operating at sea level at a height of 15 m, well above 10 m. Prior degassing of the water prevented cavitation. This experiment provides conclusive evidence that siphons operate through gravity and molecular cohesion.

  16. The height limit of a siphon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boatwright, A.; Hughes, S.; Barry, J.

    2015-12-01

    The maximum height of a siphon is generally assumed to be dependent on barometric pressure—about 10 m at sea level. This limit arises because the pressure in a siphon above the upper reservoir level is below the ambient pressure, and when the height of a siphon approaches 10 m, the pressure at the crown of the siphon falls below the vapour pressure of water causing water to boil breaking the column. After breaking, the columns on either side are supported by differential pressure between ambient and the low-pressure region at the top of the siphon. Here we report an experiment of a siphon operating at sea level at a height of 15 m, well above 10 m. Prior degassing of the water prevented cavitation. This experiment provides conclusive evidence that siphons operate through gravity and molecular cohesion.

  17. The height of watermelons with wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feierl, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    We derive asymptotics for the moments as well as the weak limit of the height distribution of watermelons with p branches with wall. This generalizes a famous result of de Bruijn et al (1972 Graph Theory and Computing (New York: Academic) pp 15-22) on the average height of planted plane trees, and results by Fulmek (2007 Electron. J. Combin. 14 R64) and Katori et al (2008 J. Stat. Phys. 131 1067-83) on the expected value and higher moments, respectively, of the height distribution of watermelons with two branches. The asymptotics for the moments depend on the analytic behaviour of certain multidimensional Dirichlet series. In order to obtain this information, we prove a reciprocity relation satisfied by the derivatives of one of Jacobi’s theta functions, which generalizes the well-known reciprocity law for Jacobi’s theta functions.

  18. The height limit of a siphon.

    PubMed

    Boatwright, A; Hughes, S; Barry, J

    2015-01-01

    The maximum height of a siphon is generally assumed to be dependent on barometric pressure-about 10 m at sea level. This limit arises because the pressure in a siphon above the upper reservoir level is below the ambient pressure, and when the height of a siphon approaches 10 m, the pressure at the crown of the siphon falls below the vapour pressure of water causing water to boil breaking the column. After breaking, the columns on either side are supported by differential pressure between ambient and the low-pressure region at the top of the siphon. Here we report an experiment of a siphon operating at sea level at a height of 15 m, well above 10 m. Prior degassing of the water prevented cavitation. This experiment provides conclusive evidence that siphons operate through gravity and molecular cohesion. PMID:26628323

  19. DFT study of Fe-Ni core-shell nanoparticles: Stability, catalytic activity, and interaction with carbon atom for single-walled carbon nanotube growth

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhimin; Wang, Qiang Shan, Xiaoye; Zhu, Hongjun; Li, Wei-qi; Chen, Guang-hui

    2015-02-21

    Metal catalysts play an important role in the nucleation and growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). It is essential for probing the nucleation and growth mechanism of SWCNTs to fundamentally understand the properties of the metal catalysts and their interaction with carbon species. In this study, we systematically studied the stability of 13- and 55-atom Fe and Fe-Ni core-shell particles as well as these particles interaction with the carbon atoms using the density functional theory calculations. Icosahedral 13- and 55-atom Fe-Ni core-shell bimetallic particles have higher stability than the corresponding monometallic Fe and Ni particles. Opposite charge transfer (or distribution) in these particles leads to the Fe surface-shell displays a positive charge, while the Ni surface-shell exhibits a negative charge. The opposite charge transfer would induce different chemical activities. Compared with the monometallic Fe and Ni particles, the core-shell bimetallic particles have weaker interaction with C atoms. More importantly, C atoms only prefer staying on the surface of the bimetallic particles. In contrast, C atoms prefer locating into the subsurface of the monometallic particles, which is more likely to form stable metal carbides. The difference of the mono- and bimetallic particles on this issue may result in different nucleation and growth mechanism of SWCNTs. Our findings provide useful insights for the design of bimetallic catalysts and a better understanding nucleation and growth mechanism of SWCNTs.

  20. DFT study of Fe-Ni core-shell nanoparticles: Stability, catalytic activity, and interaction with carbon atom for single-walled carbon nanotube growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhimin; Wang, Qiang; Shan, Xiaoye; Li, Wei-qi; Chen, Guang-hui; Zhu, Hongjun

    2015-02-01

    Metal catalysts play an important role in the nucleation and growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). It is essential for probing the nucleation and growth mechanism of SWCNTs to fundamentally understand the properties of the metal catalysts and their interaction with carbon species. In this study, we systematically studied the stability of 13- and 55-atom Fe and Fe-Ni core-shell particles as well as these particles interaction with the carbon atoms using the density functional theory calculations. Icosahedral 13- and 55-atom Fe-Ni core-shell bimetallic particles have higher stability than the corresponding monometallic Fe and Ni particles. Opposite charge transfer (or distribution) in these particles leads to the Fe surface-shell displays a positive charge, while the Ni surface-shell exhibits a negative charge. The opposite charge transfer would induce different chemical activities. Compared with the monometallic Fe and Ni particles, the core-shell bimetallic particles have weaker interaction with C atoms. More importantly, C atoms only prefer staying on the surface of the bimetallic particles. In contrast, C atoms prefer locating into the subsurface of the monometallic particles, which is more likely to form stable metal carbides. The difference of the mono- and bimetallic particles on this issue may result in different nucleation and growth mechanism of SWCNTs. Our findings provide useful insights for the design of bimetallic catalysts and a better understanding nucleation and growth mechanism of SWCNTs.

  1. Influence of nucleotides flanking the ggaa core sequence on ets1 and ets2 DNA-binding activity and the mechanism of ets1 autoregulation.

    PubMed

    Ascione, R; Thompson, D; Thomas, R; Panayiotakis, A; Ramsay, R; Tymms, M; Kola, I; Seth, A

    1992-11-01

    The Ets family of genes encode nuclear proteins that activate transcription by binding to a specific purine-rich (GGAA) ets binding sequence (EBS) present in promoters/enhancers of various genes. We have previously shown that over-expression of ets1 via transfection of ets1 expression vectors into NIH3T3 cells induced the expression of the endogenous Ets1 gene. Here we report that the autoregulation occurs as a result of the ets1 protein binding to the EBS-core located in its own promoter. In the present study, we have also identified Ets binding sites in the IL-4, G-CSF (granulocyte colony stimulating factor), and the 2'5' OAS (oligoadenylate synthetase) promoters by binding with Ets1 and Ets2 proteins using electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Interestingly, we have found that the EBS containing T nucleotides on either side of the GGAA core sequence, does not bind Ets1 or Ets2 proteins. Our findings demonstrate that the sequences surrounding the purine core - GGAA- have a profound influence on the binding of Ets proteins. PMID:21584592

  2. Orthometric height determination using optical clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, WenBin

    2013-04-01

    General relativity theory predicts that there exists a gravity frequency shift (gravitational red shift) if an electromagnetic signal propagates from one point to another point, and the frequency shift depends on the geopotential difference between these two points. Inversely, by measuring the gravity frequency shift between arbitrary two points we may determine the geopotential and consequently the orthometric height difference between these two points. To improve our previous investigations (Shen and Peng 2012), the present study provides further foundation of the optical-fiber frequency transfer approach (OFTA; Shen and Peng 2012) and describes in details how to determine the orthometric height between two points using optical clocks via optical fiber. Optical clocks have achieved a stability of 10E-17 to 10E-18. In another aspect, remote optical fiber communication (e.g. Predehl et al. 2012) demonstrates a frequency comparison accuracy at the level of 10E-18 (or better), which is equivalent to a height variation of 1cm. The quick development of time-frequency science, including the high-precise optical clocks, provides potential of determining the orthometric height between arbitrary two points which are connected by optical fiber. This study suggests that determining the orthometric height difference between two points using optical clocks via optical fiber frequency transfer communication technique is prospective and potential. The realization of the OFTA may greatly contribute to the unification of the world height system (WHS). This work was supported partly by the NSFC (grant No. 41174011), National 973 Project China (grant No. 2013CB733305), NSFC (grant No. 41210006, 41128003, 41021061, 40974015).

  3. Evidence of Inbreeding Depression on Human Height

    PubMed Central

    McQuillan, Ruth; Eklund, Niina; Pirastu, Nicola; Kuningas, Maris; McEvoy, Brian P.; Esko, Tõnu; Corre, Tanguy; Davies, Gail; Kaakinen, Marika; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Kristiansson, Kati; Havulinna, Aki S.; Gögele, Martin; Vitart, Veronique; Tenesa, Albert; Aulchenko, Yurii; Hayward, Caroline; Johansson, Åsa; Boban, Mladen; Ulivi, Sheila; Robino, Antonietta; Boraska, Vesna; Igl, Wilmar; Wild, Sarah H.; Zgaga, Lina; Amin, Najaf; Theodoratou, Evropi; Polašek, Ozren; Girotto, Giorgia; Lopez, Lorna M.; Sala, Cinzia; Lahti, Jari; Laatikainen, Tiina; Prokopenko, Inga; Kals, Mart; Viikari, Jorma; Yang, Jian; Pouta, Anneli; Estrada, Karol; Hofman, Albert; Freimer, Nelson; Martin, Nicholas G.; Kähönen, Mika; Milani, Lili; Heliövaara, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki; Räikkönen, Katri; Masciullo, Corrado; Starr, John M.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Esposito, Laura; Kolčić, Ivana; Farrington, Susan M.; Oostra, Ben; Zemunik, Tatijana; Campbell, Harry; Kirin, Mirna; Pehlic, Marina; Faletra, Flavio; Porteous, David; Pistis, Giorgio; Widén, Elisabeth; Salomaa, Veikko; Koskinen, Seppo; Fischer, Krista; Lehtimäki, Terho; Heath, Andrew; McCarthy, Mark I.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Montgomery, Grant W.; Tiemeier, Henning; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Madden, Pamela A. F.; d'Adamo, Pio; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wright, Alan F.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Dunlop, Malcolm; Rudan, Igor; Gasparini, Paolo; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Deary, Ian J.; Toniolo, Daniela; Eriksson, Johan G.; Jula, Antti; Raitakari, Olli T.; Metspalu, Andres; Perola, Markus; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Uitterlinden, André; Visscher, Peter M.; Wilson, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Stature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%–90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has been given to the potential role of recessive genetic effects. Here, we investigated genome-wide recessive effects by an analysis of inbreeding depression on adult height in over 35,000 people from 21 different population samples. We found a highly significant inverse association between height and genome-wide homozygosity, equivalent to a height reduction of up to 3 cm in the offspring of first cousins compared with the offspring of unrelated individuals, an effect which remained after controlling for the effects of socio-economic status, an important confounder (χ2 = 83.89, df = 1; p = 5.2×10−20). There was, however, a high degree of heterogeneity among populations: whereas the direction of the effect was consistent across most population samples, the effect size differed significantly among populations. It is likely that this reflects true biological heterogeneity: whether or not an effect can be observed will depend on both the variance in homozygosity in the population and the chance inheritance of individual recessive genotypes. These results predict that multiple, rare, recessive variants influence human height. Although this exploratory work focuses on height alone, the methodology developed is generally applicable to heritable quantitative traits (QT), paving the way for an investigation into inbreeding effects, and therefore genetic architecture, on a range of QT of biomedical importance. PMID:22829771

  4. Australia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Australia is the world's smallest, flattest, and (after Antarctica) driest continent, but at 7.7 million square kilometers (3.0 million square miles) it is also the sixth largest country. Its low average elevation (300 meters, or less than 1000 feet) is caused by its position near the center of a tectonic plate, where there are no volcanic or other geologic forces of the type that raise the topography of other continents. In fact Australia is the only continent without any current volcanic activity at all - the last eruption took place 1400 years ago at Mt. Gambier.

    The Australian continent is also one of the oldest land masses, with some of its erosion-exposed bedrock age dated at more than 3 billion years. More than one-fifth of the land area is desert, with more than two-thirds being classified as arid or semi-arid and unsuitable for settlement. The coldest regions are in the highlands and tablelands of Tasmania and the Australian Alps at the southeastern corner of the continent, location of Australia's highest point, Mt. Kosciusko (2228 meters, or 7310 feet.)

    Prominent features of Australia include the Lake Eyre basin, the darker green region visible in the center-right. At 16 meters (52 feet) below sea level this depression is one of the largest inland drainage systems in the world, covering more than 1.3 million square kilometers (500,000 square miles). The mountain range near the east coast is called the Great Dividing Range, forming a watershed between east and west flowing rivers. Erosion has created deep valleys, gorges and waterfalls in this range where rivers tumble over escarpments on their way to the sea.

    The crescent shaped uniform green region in the south, just left of center, is the Nullarbor Plain, a low-lying limestone plateau which is so flat that the Trans-Australian Railway runs through it in a straight line for more than 483 kilometers (300 miles).

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image

  5. Core-Shell Structural CdS@SnO₂ Nanorods with Excellent Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity for the Selective Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol to Benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya; Zhang, Ping; Tian, Baozhu; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-07-01

    Core-shell structural CdS@SnO2 nanorods (NRs) were fabricated by synthesizing SnO2 nanoparticles with a solvent-assisted interfacial reaction and further anchoring them on the surface of CdS NRs under ultrasonic stirring. The morphology, composition, and microstructures of the obtained samples were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. It was found that SnO2 nanoparticles can be tightly anchored on the surface of CdS NRs, and the thickness of SnO2 shells can be conveniently adjusted by simply changing the addition amount of SnO2 quantum dots. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum indicated that SnO2 shell layer also can enhance the visible light absorption of CdS NRs to a certain extent. The results of transient photocurrents and photoluminescence spectra revealed that the core-shell structure can effectively promote the separation rate of electron-hole pairs and prolong the lifetime of electrons. Compared with the single CdS NRs, the core-shell structural CdS@SnO2 exhibited a remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol (BA) to benzaldehyde (BAD) under visible light irradiation, attributed to the more efficient separation of electrons and holes, improved surface area, and enhanced visible light absorption of core-shell structure. The radical scavenging experiments proved that in acetonitrile solution, ·O2- and holes are the main reactive species responsible for BA to BAD transformation, and the lack of ·OH radicals is favorable to obtaining high reaction selectivity.

  6. Facile Synthesis of Core/Shell-like NiCo2O4-Decorated MWCNTs and its Excellent Electrocatalytic Activity for Methanol Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ko, Tae-Hoon; Devarayan, Kesavan; Seo, Min-Kang; Kim, Hak-Yong; Kim, Byoung-Suhk

    2016-01-01

    The design and development of an economic and highly active non-precious electrocatalyst for methanol electrooxidation is challenging due to expensiveness of the precursors as well as processes and non-ecofriendliness. In this study, a facile preparation of core-shell-like NiCo2O4 decorated MWCNTs based on a dry synthesis technique was proposed. The synthesized NiCo2O4/MWCNTs were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and selected area energy dispersive spectrum. The bimetal oxide nanoparticles with an average size of 6 ± 2 nm were homogeneously distributed onto the surface of the MWCNTs to form a core-shell-like nanostructure. The NiCo2O4/MWCNTs exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of methanol in an alkaline solution. The NiCo2O4/MWCNTs exhibited remarkably higher current density of 327 mA/cm(2) and a lower onset potential of 0.128 V in 1.0 M KOH with as high as 5.0 M methanol. The impressive electrocatalytic activity of the NiCo2O4/MWCNTs is promising for development of direct methanol fuel cell based on non-Pt catalysts. PMID:26828633

  7. Facile Synthesis of Core/Shell-like NiCo2O4-Decorated MWCNTs and its Excellent Electrocatalytic Activity for Methanol Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Tae-Hoon; Devarayan, Kesavan; Seo, Min-Kang; Kim, Hak-Yong; Kim, Byoung-Suhk

    2016-01-01

    The design and development of an economic and highly active non-precious electrocatalyst for methanol electrooxidation is challenging due to expensiveness of the precursors as well as processes and non-ecofriendliness. In this study, a facile preparation of core-shell-like NiCo2O4 decorated MWCNTs based on a dry synthesis technique was proposed. The synthesized NiCo2O4/MWCNTs were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and selected area energy dispersive spectrum. The bimetal oxide nanoparticles with an average size of 6 ± 2 nm were homogeneously distributed onto the surface of the MWCNTs to form a core-shell-like nanostructure. The NiCo2O4/MWCNTs exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of methanol in an alkaline solution. The NiCo2O4/MWCNTs exhibited remarkably higher current density of 327 mA/cm2 and a lower onset potential of 0.128 V in 1.0 M KOH with as high as 5.0 M methanol. The impressive electrocatalytic activity of the NiCo2O4/MWCNTs is promising for development of direct methanol fuel cell based on non-Pt catalysts. PMID:26828633

  8. Facile Synthesis of Core/Shell-like NiCo2O4-Decorated MWCNTs and its Excellent Electrocatalytic Activity for Methanol Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Tae-Hoon; Devarayan, Kesavan; Seo, Min-Kang; Kim, Hak-Yong; Kim, Byoung-Suhk

    2016-02-01

    The design and development of an economic and highly active non-precious electrocatalyst for methanol electrooxidation is challenging due to expensiveness of the precursors as well as processes and non-ecofriendliness. In this study, a facile preparation of core-shell-like NiCo2O4 decorated MWCNTs based on a dry synthesis technique was proposed. The synthesized NiCo2O4/MWCNTs were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and selected area energy dispersive spectrum. The bimetal oxide nanoparticles with an average size of 6 ± 2 nm were homogeneously distributed onto the surface of the MWCNTs to form a core-shell-like nanostructure. The NiCo2O4/MWCNTs exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of methanol in an alkaline solution. The NiCo2O4/MWCNTs exhibited remarkably higher current density of 327 mA/cm2 and a lower onset potential of 0.128 V in 1.0 M KOH with as high as 5.0 M methanol. The impressive electrocatalytic activity of the NiCo2O4/MWCNTs is promising for development of direct methanol fuel cell based on non-Pt catalysts.

  9. Synthesis, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of novel vanillin derived piperidin-4-one oxime esters: preponderant role of the phenyl ester substituents on the piperidin-4-one oxime core.

    PubMed

    Harini, Salakatte Thammaiah; Kumar, Honnaiah Vijay; Rangaswamy, Javarappa; Naik, Nagaraja

    2012-12-15

    The study has been achieved the efficient synthesis of vanillin derived piperidin-4-one oxime esters (5a-m) via four step reaction involved Mannich reaction of vanillin, acetone and ammonium acetate to obtain 2,6-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-piperidin-4-one 2 followed by N-methylation and oximation. Further, to enhance the biological activity of vanillin derived piperidin-4-one oxime core, esterification of 4 with substituted benzoyl chlorides in the presence of strong organic base t-BuOK accomplished a series of vanillin derived piperidin-4-one oxime esters (5a-m). The synthesized analogues are screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial studies and the preponderant effect of the phenyl ester substituents on the biological activity of piperidin-4-one oxime core was demonstrated. Among the tested compounds, 5i and 5j are emerged as outperformed antioxidants than standard Butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) whereas, compounds 5b and 5d manifested potent antibacterial and antifungal activity than standard streptomycin and fluconazole respectively.

  10. Fear of heights and mild visual height intolerance independent of alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Brandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Visual height intolerance occurs when a visual stimulus causes apprehension of losing balance and falling from some height. Affecting one-third of the population, it has a broad spectrum of symptoms, ranging from minor distress to fear of heights, which is defined as a specific phobia. Specific phobias are associated with higher alcohol consumption. This has not been specifically shown for susceptibility to the more general visual height intolerance. Methods Representative case–control study nested within a population-based cross-sectional telephone survey to assess epidemiologically 1253 individuals ≥14 years, using a questionnaire on sociodemographic data, typical symptoms, precipitating visual stimuli, and alcohol drinking patterns (overall frequency of alcohol consumption, the daily quantities, and the motives). Results Individuals susceptible or nonsusceptible to visual height intolerance showed no significant differences in drinking patterns. The daily average alcohol consumption was slightly higher in persons susceptible to visual height intolerance (4.1 g/day vs. 3.7 g/day). Of those consuming alcohol, cases and controls reported on average consuming 2.3 glasses per day. The prevalence of visual height intolerance was insignificantly higher in the small minority of those drinking 2–3 times per week versus teetotalers. Conclusions Our study does not provide evidence that visual height intolerance – contrary to various specific phobias – is significantly associated with individual alcohol consumption patterns. PMID:24392279

  11. Fear of heights and mild visual height intolerance independent of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Brandt, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Background Visual height intolerance occurs when a visual stimulus causes apprehension of losing balance and falling from some height. Affecting one-third of the population, it has a broad spectrum of symptoms, ranging from minor distress to fear of heights, which is defined as a specific phobia. Specific phobias are associated with higher alcohol consumption. This has not been specifically shown for susceptibility to the more general visual height intolerance. Methods Representative case-control study nested within a population-based cross-sectional telephone survey to assess epidemiologically 1253 individuals ≥14 years, using a questionnaire on sociodemographic data, typical symptoms, precipitating visual stimuli, and alcohol drinking patterns (overall frequency of alcohol consumption, the daily quantities, and the motives). Results Individuals susceptible or nonsusceptible to visual height intolerance showed no significant differences in drinking patterns. The daily average alcohol consumption was slightly higher in persons susceptible to visual height intolerance (4.1 g/day vs. 3.7 g/day). Of those consuming alcohol, cases and controls reported on average consuming 2.3 glasses per day. The prevalence of visual height intolerance was insignificantly higher in the small minority of those drinking 2-3 times per week versus teetotalers. Conclusions Our study does not provide evidence that visual height intolerance - contrary to various specific phobias - is significantly associated with individual alcohol consumption patterns.

  12. Real-time monitoring of disintegration activity of catalytic core domain of HIV-1 integrase using molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-wei; Zhao, Ming-ming; He, Hong-qiu; Guo, Shun-xing

    2013-09-15

    HIV-1 integrase, an essential enzyme for retroviral replication, is a validated target for anti-HIV therapy development. The catalytic core domain of integrase (IN-CCD) is capable of catalyzing disintegration reaction. In this work, a hairpin-shaped disintegration substrate was designed and validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; a molecular beacon-based assay was developed for disintegration reaction of IN-CCD. Results showed that the disintegration substrate could be recognized and catalyzed by IN-CCD, and the disintegration reaction can be monitored according to the increase of fluorescent signal. The assay can be applied to real-time detection of disintegration with advantages of simplicity, high sensitivity, and excellent specificity.

  13. Core layering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, S. A.; Rubie, D. C.; Hernlund, J. W.; Morbidelli, A.

    2015-12-01

    We have created a planetary accretion and differentiation model that self-consistently builds and evolves Earth's core. From this model, we show that the core grows stably stratified as the result of rising metal-silicate equilibration temperatures and pressures, which increases the concentrations of light element impurities into each newer core addition. This stable stratification would naturally resist convection and frustrate the onset of a geodynamo, however, late giant impacts could mechanically mix the distinct accreted core layers creating large homogenous regions. Within these regions, a geodynamo may operate. From this model, we interpret the difference between the planetary magnetic fields of Earth and Venus as a difference in giant impact histories. Our planetary accretion model is a numerical N-body integration of the Grand Tack scenario [1]—the most successful terrestrial planet formation model to date [2,3]. Then, we take the accretion histories of Earth-like and Venus-like planets from this model and post-process the growth of each terrestrial planet according to a well-tested planetary differentiation model [4,5]. This model fits Earth's mantle by modifying the oxygen content of the pre-cursor planetesimals and embryos as well as the conditions of metal-silicate equilibration. Other non-volatile major, minor and trace elements included in the model are assumed to be in CI chondrite proportions. The results from this model across many simulated terrestrial planet growth histories are robust. If the kinetic energy delivered by larger impacts is neglected, the core of each planet grows with a strong stable stratification that would significantly impede convection. However, if giant impact mixing is very efficient or if the impact history delivers large impacts late, than the stable stratification can be removed. [1] Walsh et al. Nature 475 (2011) [2] O'Brien et al. Icarus 223 (2014) [3] Jacobson & Morbidelli PTRSA 372 (2014) [4] Rubie et al. EPSL 301

  14. [Preparation and Photoluminescent Properties of Ce³⁺-Activated LaPO₄ Nanocrystals and Core/Shell Structure].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-ya; Huang, Shi-ming; Gu, Mu; Liu, Xiao-lin

    2015-11-01

    Hydrophobic, monodisperse LaPO₄: Ce³⁺ nanoparticles, LaPO₄:Ce³⁺/LaPO₄ and LaPO₄:Ce³⁺/LaPO₄: Ce³⁺/ LaPO₄ core/shell structure nanocrystals were synthesized via a high-temperature organic solution approach. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The results show that: all the samples are a monoclinic phase, Because of the size small nanoparticles, the diffraction peaks of the sample occurs width phenomenon. The LaPO₄:Ce³⁺ nano- crystals exhibits the characteristic emission of Ce³⁺ ions, the photoluminescence intensity increases first and then decreases with the increasing doping concentration of Ce³⁺ ions, and the best doping amount is 6 at %, with the increasing doping amount, the photoluminescence intensity decreases which may caused by the concentration quenching. Compared to LaPO₄:Ce³⁺ nanoparti- cles, the photoluminescence intensity of LaPO₄:Ce³⁺/LaPO₄ and LaPO₄: Ce³⁺/LaPO₄: Ce³⁺/LaPO₄ core/shell structure nanocrystals improves about 41% and 95% respectively, this may be a synergy of larger particle size of nanocrystals and surface passivation effect. FTIR spectra data shows that the absorption peak at 1545 and 1461 cm⁻¹ corresponded to the asymmetric and symmetric stretching vibration of --COO⁻, the separation, Δ, between the two peaks is 84 cm⁻¹, The mechanism of the sample surface modification by the organics might be that the oxygen atoms of the carboxyl are coordinated with the lanthunum ions by a bidentate mode.

  15. Height as a Basis for Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Wayne E.

    Based on the observation that taller males seem to have an advantage in date/mate selection, a study investigated the role that height plays in the choice of a partner. Subjects, 594 student volunteers from communication classes at a large Mid-Atlantic university, completed a questionnaire designed to assess such factors as respondent sex, present…

  16. 24 CFR 3280.104 - Ceiling heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ceiling heights. 3280.104 Section 3280.104 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  17. 24 CFR 3280.104 - Ceiling heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ceiling heights. 3280.104 Section 3280.104 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  18. 75 FR 22691 - Death of Dorothy Height

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-10248 Filed 4-29-10; 8:45 am... memory of Dorothy Height, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the...

  19. Growth hormone: health considerations beyond height gain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The therapeutic benefit of growth hormone (GH) therapy in improving height in short children is widely recognized; however, GH therapy is associated with other metabolic actions that may be of benefit in these children. Beneficial effects of GH on body composition have been documented in several dif...

  20. [Use of knee height to correct the body height of elderly Hispanics].

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, O I; Tucker, K L

    2000-03-01

    Loss of stature in certain elderly subjects can be attributed to diseases such as osteoporosis, as well as to age and generational effects. In addition, many elders cannot stand straight for accurate measurement. For these cases, total height can be estimated with regression equations based on knee height. The aims of this study were, firstly, to evaluate the applicability of regression equations based on knee height for estimation of stature and, secondly, to document the differences between measured and estimated height in a group of elderly Hispanics with postural problems (n = 166) in comparison with a group of elderly Hispanic without postural problems (n = 270). Using both, estimated and measured height, we also calculated the body mass index (BMI) of both groups of elders. Statistical analyses were done with paired t-tests, within sex and study group. Within the group with postural problems, estimated height was higher than the measured height for both men (p < or = 0.001) and women (p < or = 0.001). There were no significant differences between measured and estimated height in the group without postural problems. Furthermore, in the group with postural problems, BMI values calculated with estimated height were lower than those estimated with the measured height, and these differences were also significant for both men (p < or = 0.001) and women (p < or = 0.001). With the aging of the Latin American population, there is a need for more nutrition and health research among elders. In order to do this we need to develop and use methods and criteria appropriate for each population. PMID:11048570

  1. Height, weight, and entry earnings of female graduates in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hung-Lin

    2014-03-01

    Using a data set of Taiwanese female graduates in 2006, this study finds that height and earnings are positively correlated for full-time workers. However, it is not because tall individuals went to better colleges or received better grades (cognitive ability), not because they are gifted with superior physical strength or because they have participated in more extracurricular activities (non-cognitive ability), and not because they work in a highly paid occupation. We find that statistical discrimination (or perceptual bias) is most likely to play a role in determining the entry earnings of female graduates. In addition, we find that an estimator of the height premium for females is downward-biased if weight is omitted from the model.

  2. Height, weight, and entry earnings of female graduates in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hung-Lin

    2014-03-01

    Using a data set of Taiwanese female graduates in 2006, this study finds that height and earnings are positively correlated for full-time workers. However, it is not because tall individuals went to better colleges or received better grades (cognitive ability), not because they are gifted with superior physical strength or because they have participated in more extracurricular activities (non-cognitive ability), and not because they work in a highly paid occupation. We find that statistical discrimination (or perceptual bias) is most likely to play a role in determining the entry earnings of female graduates. In addition, we find that an estimator of the height premium for females is downward-biased if weight is omitted from the model. PMID:24462485

  3. Predicting Vertical Jump Height from Bar Velocity

    PubMed Central

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s-2). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r2 = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r2 = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key points Vertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer. The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s-2 and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement. Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance. PMID:25983572

  4. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  5. CALIOP-derived Smoke Plume Injection Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, A. J.; Winker, D. M.; Choi, H. D.; Fairlie, T. D.; Westberg, D. J.; Roller, C. M.; Pouliot, G.; Vaughan, M.; Pierce, T. E.; Trepte, C. R.; Rao, V.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning is a dominant natural and anthropogenic disturbance that feeds back to the climate system. Fire regimes, ecosystem fuels, fire severity and intensity vary widely, even within the same system, largely under the control of weather and climate. These strongly influence fire plume injection height and thus the transport of related biomass burning emissions, affecting air quality, human health and the climate system. If our knowledge of plume injection height is incorrect, transport models of those emissions will likewise be incorrect, adversely affecting our ability to analyze and predict climate feedbacks (i.e. black carbon to the Arctic, precipitation, cloud-radiation relationships) and public health (air quality forecast). Historically, plume height was based on the pioneering work of G.A. Briggs [1969; 1971] and verified with limited field campaigns. However, we currently have two satellite instruments, Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard CALIPSO (afternoon overpass) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) onboard TERRA (morning overpass), that can provide the statistics necessary to verify our assumptions and improve fire plume injection height estimates for use in both small- and large-scale models. We have developed a methodology to assess fire plume injection height using the Langley Trajectory Model (LaTM), CALIOP, Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke plume, and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly data that is capable of generating two distinct types of verification data. A single CALIOP smoke-filled aerosol envelop can be traced back to numerous fire events, and using multiple CALIOP transects from numerous days, a daily smoke plume injection height evolution from a single fire can be defined. Additionally, we have linked the smoke plumes to ecosystems and the meteorological variables that define fire weather. In concert, CALIOP and MISR data can produce the statistical knowledge

  6. Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the Beechmont Historic District, showing changes in landscaping, northeast - Southern Heights-Beechmont District Landscapes, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  7. Activation of the gab Operon in an RpoS-Dependent Manner by Mutations That Truncate the Inner Core of Lipopolysaccharide in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Joloba, Moses L.; Clemmer, Katy M.; Sledjeski, Darren D.; Rather, Philip N.

    2004-01-01

    The gab operon (gabDTPC) in Escherichia coli functions in the conversion of γ-aminobutyrate to succinate. One component of gab operon regulation involves the RpoS sigma factor, which mediates activation at high cell density. Transposon mutagenesis was used to identify new genes that regulate gab operon expression in rich media. A Tn5tmp insertion in the hldD (formerly rfaD) gene increased gabT::lacZ expression 12-fold. The hldD gene product, an ADP-l-glycerol-d-mannoheptose-6-epimerase, catalyzes the conversion of ADP-d-glycerol-d-mannoheptose to ADP-l-glycerol-d-mannoheptose, a precursor for the synthesis of inner-core lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Defined mutations in hldE, required for heptose synthesis, and waaF, required for the addition of the second heptose to the inner core, also resulted in high-level gabT::lacZ expression. The hldD, hldE, and waaF mutants exhibited a mucoid colony phenotype due to production of a colanic acid capsule. However, in the hldD::cat background, the high-level expression of gabT::lacZ was independent of the regulatory components for colanic acid synthesis (rcsA, rcsB, and rcsC) and also independent of manC (cpsB), a structural gene for colanic acid synthesis. Activation of gabT::lacZ in the hldD::cat background was dependent on the RpoS sigma factor. The hldD::cat mutation resulted in a sixfold increase in the levels of a translational RpoS-LacZ fusion and had a marginal effect on a transcriptional fusion. This study reveals a stress-induced pathway, mediated by loss of the LPS inner core, that increases RpoS translation and gab operon expression in E. coli. PMID:15576807

  8. A Novel Pyrazolopyridine with in Vivo Activity in Plasmodium berghei- and Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Mouse Models from Structure-Activity Relationship Studies around the Core of Recently Identified Antimalarial Imidazopyridazines.

    PubMed

    Le Manach, Claire; Paquet, Tanya; Brunschwig, Christel; Njoroge, Mathew; Han, Ze; Gonzàlez Cabrera, Diego; Bashyam, Sridevi; Dhinakaran, Rajkumar; Taylor, Dale; Reader, Janette; Botha, Mariette; Churchyard, Alisje; Lauterbach, Sonja; Coetzer, Theresa L; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie; Meister, Stephan; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Waterson, David; Witty, Michael J; Wittlin, Sergio; Jiménez-Díaz, María-Belén; Santos Martínez, María; Ferrer, Santiago; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Street, Leslie J; Chibale, Kelly

    2015-11-12

    Toward improving pharmacokinetics, in vivo efficacy, and selectivity over hERG, structure-activity relationship studies around the central core of antimalarial imidazopyridazines were conducted. This study led to the identification of potent pyrazolopyridines, which showed good in vivo efficacy and pharmacokinetics profiles. The lead compounds also proved to be very potent in the parasite liver and gametocyte stages, which makes them of high interest. PMID:26502160

  9. A nano-disperse ferritin-core mimetic that efficiently corrects anemia without luminal iron redox activity

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Jonathan J.; Bruggraber, Sylvaine F.A.; Faria, Nuno; Poots, Lynsey K.; Hondow, Nicole; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Latunde-Dada, Gladys O.; Simpson, Robert J.; Brown, Andy P.; Pereira, Dora I.A.

    2014-01-01

    The 2-5 nm Fe(III) oxo-hydroxide core of ferritin is less ordered and readily bioavailable compared to its pure synthetic analogue, ferrihydrite. We report the facile synthesis of tartrate-modified, nano-disperse ferrihydrite of small primary particle size, but with enlarged or strained lattice structure (~ 2.7 Å for the main Bragg peak versus 2.6 Å for synthetic ferrihydrite). Analysis indicated that co-precipitation conditions can be achieved for tartrate inclusion into the developing ferrihydrite particles, retarding both growth and crystallization and favoring stabilization of the cross-linked polymeric structure. In murine models, gastrointestinal uptake was independent of luminal Fe(III) reduction to Fe(II) and, yet, absorption was equivalent to that of ferrous sulphate, efficiently correcting the induced anemia. This process may model dietary Fe(III) absorption and potentially provide a side effect-free form of cheap supplemental iron. From the Clinical Editor Small size tartrate-modified, nano-disperse ferrihydrite was used for efficient gastrointestinal delivery of soluble Fe(III) without the risk for free radical generation in murine models. This method may provide a potentially side effect-free form iron supplementation. PMID:24394211

  10. Core-Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015 (N+1), 2020 (N+2), and 2025 (N+3) timeframes; SFW strategic thrusts and technical challenges; SFW advanced subsystems that are broadly applicable to N+3 vehicle concepts, with an indication where further noise research is needed; the components of core noise (compressor, combustor and turbine noise) and a rationale for NASA's current emphasis on the combustor-noise component; the increase in the relative importance of core noise due to turbofan design trends; the need to understand and mitigate core-noise sources for high-efficiency small gas generators; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about forthcoming updates to NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) core-noise prediction capabilities, two NRA efforts (Honeywell International, Phoenix, AZ and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, respectively) to improve the understanding of core-noise sources and noise propagation through the engine core, and an effort to develop oxide/oxide ceramic-matrix-composite (CMC) liners for broadband noise attenuation suitable for turbofan-core application. Core noise must be addressed to ensure that the N+3 noise goals are met. Focused, but long-term, core-noise research is carried out to enable the advanced high-efficiency small gas-generator subsystem, common to several N+3 conceptual designs, needed to meet NASA's technical challenges. Intermediate updates to prediction tools are implemented as the understanding of the source structure and engine-internal propagation effects is improved. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The

  11. Looking for Core Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    People who view themselves as leaders, not just managers or teachers, are innovators who focus on clarifying core values and aligning all aspects of the organization with these values to grow their vision. A vision for an organization can't be just one person's idea. Visions grow by involving people in activities that help them name and create…

  12. A High-Throughput Cell-Based Screen Identified a 2-[(E)-2-Phenylvinyl]-8-Quinolinol Core Structure That Activates p53.

    PubMed

    Bechill, John; Zhong, Rong; Zhang, Chen; Solomaha, Elena; Spiotto, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    p53 function is frequently inhibited in cancer either through mutations or by increased degradation via MDM2 and/or E6AP E3-ubiquitin ligases. Most agents that restore p53 expression act by binding MDM2 or E6AP to prevent p53 degradation. However, fewer compounds directly bind to and activate p53. Here, we identified compounds that shared a core structure that bound p53, caused nuclear localization of p53 and caused cell death. To identify these compounds, we developed a novel cell-based screen to redirect p53 degradation to the Skip-Cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex in cells expressing high levels of p53. In a multiplexed assay, we coupled p53 targeted degradation with Rb1 targeted degradation in order to identify compounds that prevented p53 degradation while not inhibiting degradation through the SCF complex or other proteolytic machinery. High-throughput screening identified several leads that shared a common 2-[(E)-2-phenylvinyl]-8-quinolinol core structure that stabilized p53. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicated that these compounds bound p53 with a KD of 200 ± 52 nM. Furthermore, these compounds increased p53 nuclear localization and transcription of the p53 target genes PUMA, BAX, p21 and FAS in cancer cells. Although p53-null cells had a 2.5±0.5-fold greater viability compared to p53 wild type cells after treatment with core compounds, loss of p53 did not completely rescue cell viability suggesting that compounds may target both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways to inhibit cell proliferation. Thus, we present a novel, cell-based high-throughput screen to identify a 2-[(E)-2-phenylvinyl]-8-quinolinol core structure that bound to p53 and increased p53 activity in cancer cells. These compounds may serve as anti-neoplastic agents in part by targeting p53 as well as other potential pathways.

  13. A High-Throughput Cell-Based Screen Identified a 2-[(E)-2-Phenylvinyl]-8-Quinolinol Core Structure That Activates p53

    PubMed Central

    Bechill, John; Zhong, Rong; Zhang, Chen; Solomaha, Elena

    2016-01-01

    p53 function is frequently inhibited in cancer either through mutations or by increased degradation via MDM2 and/or E6AP E3-ubiquitin ligases. Most agents that restore p53 expression act by binding MDM2 or E6AP to prevent p53 degradation. However, fewer compounds directly bind to and activate p53. Here, we identified compounds that shared a core structure that bound p53, caused nuclear localization of p53 and caused cell death. To identify these compounds, we developed a novel cell-based screen to redirect p53 degradation to the Skip-Cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex in cells expressing high levels of p53. In a multiplexed assay, we coupled p53 targeted degradation with Rb1 targeted degradation in order to identify compounds that prevented p53 degradation while not inhibiting degradation through the SCF complex or other proteolytic machinery. High-throughput screening identified several leads that shared a common 2-[(E)-2-phenylvinyl]-8-quinolinol core structure that stabilized p53. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicated that these compounds bound p53 with a KD of 200 ± 52 nM. Furthermore, these compounds increased p53 nuclear localization and transcription of the p53 target genes PUMA, BAX, p21 and FAS in cancer cells. Although p53-null cells had a 2.5±0.5-fold greater viability compared to p53 wild type cells after treatment with core compounds, loss of p53 did not completely rescue cell viability suggesting that compounds may target both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways to inhibit cell proliferation. Thus, we present a novel, cell-based high-throughput screen to identify a 2-[(E)-2-phenylvinyl]-8-quinolinol core structure that bound to p53 and increased p53 activity in cancer cells. These compounds may serve as anti-neoplastic agents in part by targeting p53 as well as other potential pathways. PMID:27124407

  14. A High-Throughput Cell-Based Screen Identified a 2-[(E)-2-Phenylvinyl]-8-Quinolinol Core Structure That Activates p53.

    PubMed

    Bechill, John; Zhong, Rong; Zhang, Chen; Solomaha, Elena; Spiotto, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    p53 function is frequently inhibited in cancer either through mutations or by increased degradation via MDM2 and/or E6AP E3-ubiquitin ligases. Most agents that restore p53 expression act by binding MDM2 or E6AP to prevent p53 degradation. However, fewer compounds directly bind to and activate p53. Here, we identified compounds that shared a core structure that bound p53, caused nuclear localization of p53 and caused cell death. To identify these compounds, we developed a novel cell-based screen to redirect p53 degradation to the Skip-Cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex in cells expressing high levels of p53. In a multiplexed assay, we coupled p53 targeted degradation with Rb1 targeted degradation in order to identify compounds that prevented p53 degradation while not inhibiting degradation through the SCF complex or other proteolytic machinery. High-throughput screening identified several leads that shared a common 2-[(E)-2-phenylvinyl]-8-quinolinol core structure that stabilized p53. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicated that these compounds bound p53 with a KD of 200 ± 52 nM. Furthermore, these compounds increased p53 nuclear localization and transcription of the p53 target genes PUMA, BAX, p21 and FAS in cancer cells. Although p53-null cells had a 2.5±0.5-fold greater viability compared to p53 wild type cells after treatment with core compounds, loss of p53 did not completely rescue cell viability suggesting that compounds may target both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways to inhibit cell proliferation. Thus, we present a novel, cell-based high-throughput screen to identify a 2-[(E)-2-phenylvinyl]-8-quinolinol core structure that bound to p53 and increased p53 activity in cancer cells. These compounds may serve as anti-neoplastic agents in part by targeting p53 as well as other potential pathways. PMID:27124407

  15. Effects of climate change on wave height at the coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, J.

    2003-04-01

    To make progress towards the ultimate objective of predicting coastal vulnerability to climate change, we need to predict the probability of extreme values of sea level and wave height, and their likely variation with changing climate. There is evidence of changes in sea level and wave height on various time-scales. For example, the North Atlantic Oscillation appears to be responsible for increasing wave height in the North Atlantic over recent decades. The impact of changes in wave height in the North Atlantic at the coastline in the North Sea, the Hebrides/Malin Shelf and the English Channel will be quite different. Three different, and contrasting areas are examined The effect of changing sea levels, due to global warming and changes in tides and surge height and frequency, is combined with increases in offshore wave height. Coastal wave modelling, using the WAM and SWAN wave models, provides a useful tool for examining the possible impacts of climate change at the coast. This study is part of a Tyndall Centre project which is examining the vulnerability of the UK coast to changing wave climate and sea level. These changes are likely to be especially important in low-lying areas with coastal wetlands such as the north Norfolk coast, which has been selected as a detailed case study area. In this area there are offshore shallow banks and extensive inter-tidal areas. There are transitions from upper marsh to freshwater grazing marshes, sand dunes, shingle beaches, mudflats and sandflats. Many internationally important and varied habitats are threatened by rising sea levels and changes in storminess due to potential climate change effects. Likely changes in overtopping of coastal embankments, inundation of intertidal areas, sediment transport and coastal erosion are examined. Changes in low water level may be important as well as high water. The second area of study is Christchurch Bay in the English Channel. The English Channel is exposed to swell from the North

  16. Prices, infrastructure, household characteristics and child height.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D; Strauss, J

    1992-10-01

    A Brazilian household survey, ENDEF, in 1974-75 and the 1974 Informacoes Basicas Municipais (IBM) provided data for the analysis of the impact of community services and infrastructure and household characteristics on the logarithm of child height, standardized for age and gender. The sample was comprised of 36,974 children stratified by residential location, the child's age, and the educational level of the mother. Variance and covariance matrices were estimated with the jackknife developed by Efron (1982). Household characteristics included the logarithm of per capita expenditure as a measure of household resource availability, income, and parental education. Community characteristics were local market price indices for 6 food groups (dairy products, beans, cereals, meat, fish, and sugar), level of urbanization, buildings with sewage, water, and electricity connections per capita, per capita number of buildings, and population density. Health services were measured as per capita number of hospitals and clinics and doctors and nurses, and the number of beds are hospital. Educational services include a measure of student teacher ratios, elementary school class size, and per capita number of teachers living in the community. the results show that expenditure had a positive, significant effect on the height of children 2 years and older. Expenditure was a significant determinant for literate and illiterate mothers, and not well educated mothers. The impact of maternal education was largest on the length of babies and declined with the age of the child. Father's education had not impact of length of babies. The effect of parents' education was complementary. The effect of father's education was largest when mothers had some education. Better educated parents had healthier children. Maternal rather than paternal height had an impact of the length of a baby. In the community models, prices had a significant effect on child height, in both urban and rural areas, in all

  17. Prices, infrastructure, household characteristics and child height.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D; Strauss, J

    1992-10-01

    A Brazilian household survey, ENDEF, in 1974-75 and the 1974 Informacoes Basicas Municipais (IBM) provided data for the analysis of the impact of community services and infrastructure and household characteristics on the logarithm of child height, standardized for age and gender. The sample was comprised of 36,974 children stratified by residential location, the child's age, and the educational level of the mother. Variance and covariance matrices were estimated with the jackknife developed by Efron (1982). Household characteristics included the logarithm of per capita expenditure as a measure of household resource availability, income, and parental education. Community characteristics were local market price indices for 6 food groups (dairy products, beans, cereals, meat, fish, and sugar), level of urbanization, buildings with sewage, water, and electricity connections per capita, per capita number of buildings, and population density. Health services were measured as per capita number of hospitals and clinics and doctors and nurses, and the number of beds are hospital. Educational services include a measure of student teacher ratios, elementary school class size, and per capita number of teachers living in the community. the results show that expenditure had a positive, significant effect on the height of children 2 years and older. Expenditure was a significant determinant for literate and illiterate mothers, and not well educated mothers. The impact of maternal education was largest on the length of babies and declined with the age of the child. Father's education had not impact of length of babies. The effect of parents' education was complementary. The effect of father's education was largest when mothers had some education. Better educated parents had healthier children. Maternal rather than paternal height had an impact of the length of a baby. In the community models, prices had a significant effect on child height, in both urban and rural areas, in all

  18. Stronger enhancer II/core promoter activities of hepatitis B virus isolates of B2 subgenotype than those of C2 subgenotype.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yanli; Zhou, Xueshi; Jia, Haodi; Chen, Chaoyang; Zhao, Weifeng; Zhang, Jiming; Tong, Shuping

    2016-07-27

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C causes prolonged chronic infection and increased risk for liver cancer than genotype B. Our previous work revealed lower replication capacity of wild-type genotype C2 than B2 isolates. HBV DNA replication is driven by pregenomic RNA, which is controlled by core promoter (CP) and further augmented by enhancer I (ENI) and enhancer II (ENII). DNA fragments covering these regulatory elements were amplified from B2 and C2 isolates to generate luciferase reporter constructs. As ENII is fully embedded in CP, we inserted HBV DNA fragments in the sense orientation to determine their combined activities, and in the antisense orientation to measure enhancer activities alone. Genotype B2 isolates displayed higher ENI+ENII+CP, ENII+CP, and ENII activities, but not ENI or ENI+ENII activity, than C2 isolates. The higher ENII+CP activity was partly attributable to 4 positions displaying genotype-specific variability. Exchanging CP region was sufficient to revert the replication phenotypes of several B2 and C2 clones tested. These results suggest that a weaker ENII and/or CP at least partly accounts for the lower replication capacities of wild-type C2 isolates, which could drive the subsequent acquisition of CP mutations. Such mutations increase genome replication and are implicated in liver cancer development.

  19. Stronger enhancer II/core promoter activities of hepatitis B virus isolates of B2 subgenotype than those of C2 subgenotype

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yanli; Zhou, Xueshi; Jia, Haodi; Chen, Chaoyang; Zhao, Weifeng; Zhang, Jiming; Tong, Shuping

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C causes prolonged chronic infection and increased risk for liver cancer than genotype B. Our previous work revealed lower replication capacity of wild-type genotype C2 than B2 isolates. HBV DNA replication is driven by pregenomic RNA, which is controlled by core promoter (CP) and further augmented by enhancer I (ENI) and enhancer II (ENII). DNA fragments covering these regulatory elements were amplified from B2 and C2 isolates to generate luciferase reporter constructs. As ENII is fully embedded in CP, we inserted HBV DNA fragments in the sense orientation to determine their combined activities, and in the antisense orientation to measure enhancer activities alone. Genotype B2 isolates displayed higher ENI+ENII+CP, ENII+CP, and ENII activities, but not ENI or ENI+ENII activity, than C2 isolates. The higher ENII+CP activity was partly attributable to 4 positions displaying genotype-specific variability. Exchanging CP region was sufficient to revert the replication phenotypes of several B2 and C2 clones tested. These results suggest that a weaker ENII and/or CP at least partly accounts for the lower replication capacities of wild-type C2 isolates, which could drive the subsequent acquisition of CP mutations. Such mutations increase genome replication and are implicated in liver cancer development. PMID:27461034

  20. Stronger enhancer II/core promoter activities of hepatitis B virus isolates of B2 subgenotype than those of C2 subgenotype.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yanli; Zhou, Xueshi; Jia, Haodi; Chen, Chaoyang; Zhao, Weifeng; Zhang, Jiming; Tong, Shuping

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C causes prolonged chronic infection and increased risk for liver cancer than genotype B. Our previous work revealed lower replication capacity of wild-type genotype C2 than B2 isolates. HBV DNA replication is driven by pregenomic RNA, which is controlled by core promoter (CP) and further augmented by enhancer I (ENI) and enhancer II (ENII). DNA fragments covering these regulatory elements were amplified from B2 and C2 isolates to generate luciferase reporter constructs. As ENII is fully embedded in CP, we inserted HBV DNA fragments in the sense orientation to determine their combined activities, and in the antisense orientation to measure enhancer activities alone. Genotype B2 isolates displayed higher ENI+ENII+CP, ENII+CP, and ENII activities, but not ENI or ENI+ENII activity, than C2 isolates. The higher ENII+CP activity was partly attributable to 4 positions displaying genotype-specific variability. Exchanging CP region was sufficient to revert the replication phenotypes of several B2 and C2 clones tested. These results suggest that a weaker ENII and/or CP at least partly accounts for the lower replication capacities of wild-type C2 isolates, which could drive the subsequent acquisition of CP mutations. Such mutations increase genome replication and are implicated in liver cancer development. PMID:27461034

  1. Shallow-marine sediment cores record climate variability and earthquake activity off Lisbon (Portugal) for the last 2000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrantes, F.; Lebreiro, S.; Rodrigues, T.; Gil, I.; Bartels-Jónsdóttir, H.; Oliveira, P.; Kissel, C.; Grimalt, J. O.

    2005-12-01

    Sea Surface Temperature (SST), river discharge and biological productivity have been reconstructed from a multi-proxy study of a high-temporal-resolution sedimentary sequence recovered from the Tagus deposition center off Lisbon (Portugal) for the last 2000 years. SST shows 2 °C variability on a century scale that allows the identification of the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). High Iron (Fe) and fine-sediment deposition accompanied by high n-alkane concentrations and presence of freshwater diatoms during the LIA (1300-1900 AD) (Science 292 (2001) 662) suggest augmented river discharge, whereas higher total-alkenone concentrations point to increased river-induced productivity. During the MWP (550-1300 AD) (Science 292 (2001) 662) larger mean-grain size and low values of magnetic susceptibility, and concentrations of Fe, n-alkanes, and n-alcohols are interpreted to reflect decreased runoff. At the same time, increased benthic and planktonic foraminifera abundances and presence of upwelling related diatoms point to increased oceanic productivity. On the basis of the excellent match found between the negative phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and the intensified Tagus River discharge observed for the last century, it is hypothesized that the increased influx of terrigenous material during the LIA reflects a negative NAO-like state or the occurrence of frequent extreme NAO minima. During the milder few centuries of the MWP, stronger coastal upwelling conditions are attributed to a persistent, positive NAO-like state or the frequent occurrence of extreme NAO maxima. The peak in magnetic susceptibility, centered at 90 cm composite core depth (ccd), is interpreted as the result of the well-known 1755 AD Lisbon earthquake. The Lisbon earthquake and accompanying tsunami are estimated to have caused the loss of 39 cm of sediment (355 years of record—most of the LIA) and the instantaneous deposition of a 19-cm sediment bed.

  2. Love, careers, and heights in France, 2001.

    PubMed

    Herpin, Nicolas

    2005-12-01

    Short men are less likely to be married or live in a permanent relationship than their taller counterparts. This pattern is not due to their social status. While blue-collar workers are shorter on average than managers, the effects of height on finding a mate are similar in the two social groups. Being tall is also economically advantageous for men. With identical educational attainment levels, tall men have better careers than short men as they are given greater supervisory responsibilities. In making a commitment, some women might take height into account as an anticipated indicator of future resources of the household. Choice of partner is also influenced by social norms--i.e., partners should be physically well-matched--which is more difficult for shorter men.

  3. Measuring Ice Sheet Height with ICESat-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, K.; Smith, B.; Neumann, T.; Hancock, D.

    2015-12-01

    ICESat-2 is NASA's next-generation laser altimeter, designed to measure changes in ice sheet height and sea ice freeboard. Over the ice sheets, it will use a continuous repeat-track pointing strategy to ensure that it accurately measures elevation changes along a set of reference tracks. Over most of the area of Earth's ice sheets, ICESat-2 will provide coverage with a track-to-track spacing better than ~3 km. The onboard ATLAS instrument will use a photon-counting approach to provide a global geolocated photon point cloud, which is then converted into surface-specific elevation data sets. In this presentation, we will outline our strategy for taking the low-level photon point cloud and turning it into measurements posted at 20 m along-track for a set of pre-defined reference points by (1) selecting groups of photon events (PEs) around each along-track point, (2) refining the initial PE selection by fitting selected PEs with an along-track segment model and eliminating outliers to the model, (3) applying histogram-based corrections to the surface height based on the residuals to the along-track segment model, (4) calculate error estimates based on estimates of relative contributions of signal and noise PEs to the observed PE count, and (5) determining the final location and surface height of the along-track segment. These measurements are then corrected for short-scale (100-200 m) across-track surface topography around the reference points to develop a time series of land ice heights. The resulting data products will allow us to measure ice sheet elevation change with a point-for-point accuracy of a few centimeters over Earth's ice sheets.

  4. CORE SATURATION BLOCKING OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Spinrad, R.J.

    1961-10-17

    A blocking oscillator which relies on core saturation regulation to control the output pulse width is described. In this arrangement an external magnetic loop is provided in which a saturable portion forms the core of a feedback transformer used with the thermionic or semi-conductor active element. A first stationary magnetic loop establishes a level of flux through the saturation portion of the loop. A second adjustable magnet moves the flux level to select a saturation point giving the desired output pulse width. (AEC)

  5. SAR studies on hydropentalene derivatives--Important core units of biologically active tetramic acid macrolactams and ptychanolides.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Vanessa; Mannchen, Fabian; Krebs, Michael; Park, Natja; Krüger, Claudia; Raja, Aruna; Sasse, Florenz; Baro, Angelika; Laschat, Sabine

    2014-07-01

    Structurally diverse bicyclo[3.3.0]octanes were prepared and tested for their biological activity. Both the antiproliferative activity and the results of phenotypic characterization varied with the substitution patterns. Two derivatives displayed high inhibitory (IC50 ≤3μM) activity against the L-929 cell line, but differed in their mode of action. A cluster analysis with impedance profiling data showed the two compounds in relationship to microtubule interfering compounds. In PtK2 cells treated with both derivatives a perturbing effect on the microtubular network was observed, whereas the actin cytoskeleton in incubated PtK2 cells was disturbed only by one compound. The effects on tubulin and actin polymerization could be confirmed by in vitro polymerization experiments.

  6. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height...

  7. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height...

  8. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height...

  9. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height...

  10. 47 CFR 22.1011 - Antenna height limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna height limitations. 22.1011 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1011 Antenna height limitations. The antenna height of offshore stations must not exceed 61 meters (200 feet) above mean sea level. The antenna height...

  11. Algorithmic height compression of unordered trees.

    PubMed

    Ben-Naoum, Farah; Godin, Christophe

    2016-01-21

    By nature, tree structures frequently present similarities between their sub-parts. Making use of this redundancy, different types of tree compression techniques have been designed in the literature to reduce the complexity of tree structures. A popular and efficient way to compress a tree consists of merging its isomorphic subtrees, which produces a directed acyclic graph (DAG) equivalent to the original tree. An important property of this method is that the compressed structure (i.e. the DAG) has the same height as the original tree, thus limiting partially the possibility of compression. In this paper we address the problem of further compressing this DAG in height. The difficulty is that compression must be carried out on substructures that are not exactly isomorphic as they are strictly nested within each-other. We thus introduced a notion of quasi-isomorphism between subtrees that makes it possible to define similar patterns along any given path in a tree. We then proposed an algorithm to detect these patterns and to merge them, thus leading to compressed structures corresponding to DAGs augmented with return edges. In this way, redundant information is removed from the original tree in both width and height, thus achieving minimal structural compression. The complete compression algorithm is then illustrated on the compression of various plant-like structures.

  12. Statistical Sampling of Tide Heights Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the study was to determine if it was possible to reduce the cost of verifying computational models of tidal waves and currents. Statistical techniques were used to determine the least number of samples required, in a given situation, to remain statistically significant, and thereby reduce overall project costs. Commercial, academic, and Federal agencies could benefit by applying these techniques, without the need to 'touch' every item in the population. For example, the requirement of this project was to measure the heights and times of high and low tides at 8,000 locations for verification of computational models of tidal waves and currents. The application of the statistical techniques began with observations to determine the correctness of submitted measurement data, followed by some assumptions based on the observations. Among the assumptions were that the data were representative of data-collection techniques used at the measurement locations, that time measurements could be ignored (that is, height measurements alone would suffice), and that the height measurements were from a statistically normal distribution. Sample means and standard deviations were determined for all locations. Interval limits were determined for confidence levels of 95, 98, and 99 percent. It was found that the numbers of measurement locations needed to attain these confidence levels were 55, 78, and 96, respectively.

  13. Algorithmic height compression of unordered trees.

    PubMed

    Ben-Naoum, Farah; Godin, Christophe

    2016-01-21

    By nature, tree structures frequently present similarities between their sub-parts. Making use of this redundancy, different types of tree compression techniques have been designed in the literature to reduce the complexity of tree structures. A popular and efficient way to compress a tree consists of merging its isomorphic subtrees, which produces a directed acyclic graph (DAG) equivalent to the original tree. An important property of this method is that the compressed structure (i.e. the DAG) has the same height as the original tree, thus limiting partially the possibility of compression. In this paper we address the problem of further compressing this DAG in height. The difficulty is that compression must be carried out on substructures that are not exactly isomorphic as they are strictly nested within each-other. We thus introduced a notion of quasi-isomorphism between subtrees that makes it possible to define similar patterns along any given path in a tree. We then proposed an algorithm to detect these patterns and to merge them, thus leading to compressed structures corresponding to DAGs augmented with return edges. In this way, redundant information is removed from the original tree in both width and height, thus achieving minimal structural compression. The complete compression algorithm is then illustrated on the compression of various plant-like structures. PMID:26551155

  14. Pd@Pt core-shell concave decahedra: A class of catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction with enhanced activity and durability

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Xue; Vera, Madeline; Chi, Miaofang; Xia, Younan; Luo, Ming; Huang, Hongwen; Ruditskiy, Aleksey; Park, Jinho; Bao, Shixiong; Liu, Jingyue; et al

    2015-11-13

    Here, we report a facile synthesis of multiply twinned Pd@Pt core shell concave decahedra by controlling the deposition of Pt on preformed Pd decahedral seeds. The Pt atoms are initially deposited on the vertices of a decahedral seed, followed by surface diffusion to other regions along the edges/ridges and then across the faces. Different from the coating of a Pd icosahedral seed, the Pt atoms prefer to stay at the vertices and edges/ridges of a decahedral seed even when the deposition is conducted at 200 degrees C, naturally generating a core shell structure covered by concave facets. The nonuniformity inmore » the Pt coating can be attributed to the presence of twin boundaries at the vertices, as well as the {100} facets and twin defects along the edges/ridges of a decahedron, effectively trapping the Pt adatoms at these high-energy sites. As compared to a commercial Pt/C catalyst, the Pd@Pt concave decahedra show substantial enhancement in both catalytic activity and durability toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). For the concave decahedra with 29.6% Pt by weight, their specific (1.66 mA/cm2pt) and mass (1.60 A/mg/2pt) ORR activities are enhanced by 4.4 and 6.6 times relative to those of the Pt/C catalyst (0.36 mA/cm2pt and 0.32 A/mgpt, respectively). After 10 000 cycles of accelerated durability test, the concave decahedra still exhibit a mass activity of 0.69 A/mgpt, more than twice that of the pristine Pt/C catalyst.« less

  15. Pd@Pt core-shell concave decahedra: A class of catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction with enhanced activity and durability

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xue; Vera, Madeline; Chi, Miaofang; Xia, Younan; Luo, Ming; Huang, Hongwen; Ruditskiy, Aleksey; Park, Jinho; Bao, Shixiong; Liu, Jingyue; Howe, Jane; Xie, Zhaoxiong

    2015-11-13

    Here, we report a facile synthesis of multiply twinned Pd@Pt core shell concave decahedra by controlling the deposition of Pt on preformed Pd decahedral seeds. The Pt atoms are initially deposited on the vertices of a decahedral seed, followed by surface diffusion to other regions along the edges/ridges and then across the faces. Different from the coating of a Pd icosahedral seed, the Pt atoms prefer to stay at the vertices and edges/ridges of a decahedral seed even when the deposition is conducted at 200 degrees C, naturally generating a core shell structure covered by concave facets. The nonuniformity in the Pt coating can be attributed to the presence of twin boundaries at the vertices, as well as the {100} facets and twin defects along the edges/ridges of a decahedron, effectively trapping the Pt adatoms at these high-energy sites. As compared to a commercial Pt/C catalyst, the Pd@Pt concave decahedra show substantial enhancement in both catalytic activity and durability toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). For the concave decahedra with 29.6% Pt by weight, their specific (1.66 mA/cm2pt) and mass (1.60 A/mg/2pt) ORR activities are enhanced by 4.4 and 6.6 times relative to those of the Pt/C catalyst (0.36 mA/cm2pt and 0.32 A/mgpt, respectively). After 10 000 cycles of accelerated durability test, the concave decahedra still exhibit a mass activity of 0.69 A/mgpt, more than twice that of the pristine Pt/C catalyst.

  16. Core-Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation is a technical progress report and near-term outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external work on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Noise-Aircraft Technical Challenge; the current research activities in the core-noise area, with some additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustion-noise prediction capability; the need for a core-noise diagnostic capability to generate benchmark data for validation of both high-fidelity work and improved models, as well as testing of future noise-reduction technologies; relevant existing core-noise tests using real engines and auxiliary power units; and examples of possible scenarios for a future diagnostic facility. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Noise-Aircraft Technical Challenge aims to enable concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical for enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor designs could increase

  17. Core Noise - Increasing Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustor-noise prediction capability as well as activities supporting the development of improved reduced-order, physics-based models for combustor-noise prediction. The need for benchmark data for validation of high-fidelity and modeling work and the value of a potential future diagnostic facility for testing of core-noise-reduction concepts are indicated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor

  18. Effects of BOSU ball(s) during sit-ups with body weight and added resistance on core muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Saeterbakken, Atle H; Andersen, Vidar; Jansson, June; Kvellestad, Ann C; Fimland, Marius S

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the electromyographic activity of the rectus abdominis (upper and lower part) and external oblique during sit-ups performed on BOSU ball(s). Twenty-four men participated in a familiarization session, and in the next session, they performed the experimental tests in randomized order. The sit-ups were performed with 10 repetitions with body weight and with 10 repetition maximum (10RM) using elastic bands as external resistance under 4 different conditions: (a) on a stable surface, (b) with the BOSU ball under their feet (dome side down, lower-body instability), (c) BOSU ball under the low back (dome side up, upper-body instability), and (d) with BOSU balls under both feet and the low back (dual instability). The feet were not attached to the surface. We observed that with body weight, external oblique activation was decreased by upper-body instability and dual instability by 22-24% (p = 0.002-0.006), whereas the rectus abdominis was not affected by the surface. Using 10RM loads, the upper and lower rectus abdominis activities were increased by upper body and dual instability by 21-24% compared with that for a stable surface (P ≤ 0.001-0.036). Further, lower-body instability did not affect muscle activities significantly with either load for any condition. Hence, BOSU balls under the low back can increase and decrease abdominal muscle activation depending on the load, whereas placing a BOSU ball under the feet with the dome side down had little impact.

  19. Dual delivery of active antibactericidal agents and bone morphogenetic protein at sustainable high concentrations using biodegradable sheath-core-structured drug-eluting nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yung-Hen; Lin, Chang-Tun; Yu, Yi-Hsun; Chou, Ying-Chao; Liu, Shih-Jung; Chan, Err-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed biodegradable sheath-core-structured drug-eluting nanofibers for sustainable delivery of antibiotics (vancomycin and ceftazidime) and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) via electrospinning. To prepare the biodegradable sheath-core nanofibers, we first prepared solutions of poly(d,l)-lactide-co-glycolide, vancomycin, and ceftazidime in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol and rhBMP-2 in phosphate-buffered solution. The poly(d,l)-lactide-co-glycolide/antibiotics and rhBMP-2 solutions were then fed into two different capillary tubes controlled by two independent pumps for coaxial electrospinning. The electrospun nanofiber morphology was observed under a scanning electron microscope. We further characterized the in vitro antibiotic release from the nanofibers via high-performance liquid chromatography and that of rhBMP-2 via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and alkaline phosphatase activity. We showed that the biodegradable coaxially electrospun nanofibers could release high vancomycin/ceftazidime concentrations (well above the minimum inhibition concentration [MIC]90) and rhBMP-2 for >4 weeks. These experimental results demonstrate that novel biodegradable nanofibers can be constructed with various pharmaceuticals and proteins for long-term drug deliveries. PMID:27574423

  20. Negative impact of oxygen molecular activation on Cr(VI) removal with core-shell Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Mu, Yi; Wu, Hao; Ai, Zhihui

    2015-11-15

    In this study, we demonstrate that the presence of oxygen molecule can inhibit Cr(VI) removal with core-shell Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires at neutral pH of 6.1. 100% of Cr(VI) removal was achieved by the Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires within 60 min in the anoxic condition, in contrast, only 81.2% of Cr(VI) was sequestrated in the oxic condition. Removal kinetics analysis indicated that the presence of oxygen could inhibit the Cr(VI) removal efficiency by near 3 times. XRD, SEM, and XPS analysis revealed that either the anoxic or oxic Cr(VI) removal was involved with adsorption, reduction, co-precipitation, and re-adsorption processes. More Cr(VI) was bound in a reduced state of Cr(III) in the anoxic process, while a thicker Cr(III)/Fe(III)/Cr(VI) oxyhydroxides shell, leading to inhibiting the electron transfer, was found under the oxic process. The negative impact of oxygen molecule was attributed to the oxygen molecular activation which competed with Cr(VI) adsorbed for the consumption of donor electrons from Fe(0) core and ferrous ions bound on the iron oxides surface under the oxic condition. This study sheds light on the understanding of the fate and transport of Cr(VI) in oxic and anoxic environment, as well provides helpful guide for optimizing Cr(VI) removal conditions in real applications.

  1. Dual delivery of active antibactericidal agents and bone morphogenetic protein at sustainable high concentrations using biodegradable sheath-core-structured drug-eluting nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yung-Hen; Lin, Chang-Tun; Yu, Yi-Hsun; Chou, Ying-Chao; Liu, Shih-Jung; Chan, Err-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed biodegradable sheath-core-structured drug-eluting nanofibers for sustainable delivery of antibiotics (vancomycin and ceftazidime) and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) via electrospinning. To prepare the biodegradable sheath-core nanofibers, we first prepared solutions of poly(d,l)-lactide-co-glycolide, vancomycin, and ceftazidime in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol and rhBMP-2 in phosphate-buffered solution. The poly(d,l)-lactide-co-glycolide/antibiotics and rhBMP-2 solutions were then fed into two different capillary tubes controlled by two independent pumps for coaxial electrospinning. The electrospun nanofiber morphology was observed under a scanning electron microscope. We further characterized the in vitro antibiotic release from the nanofibers via high-performance liquid chromatography and that of rhBMP-2 via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and alkaline phosphatase activity. We showed that the biodegradable coaxially electrospun nanofibers could release high vancomycin/ceftazidime concentrations (well above the minimum inhibition concentration [MIC]90) and rhBMP-2 for >4 weeks. These experimental results demonstrate that novel biodegradable nanofibers can be constructed with various pharmaceuticals and proteins for long-term drug deliveries. PMID:27574423

  2. Dual delivery of active antibactericidal agents and bone morphogenetic protein at sustainable high concentrations using biodegradable sheath-core-structured drug-eluting nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yung-Hen; Lin, Chang-Tun; Yu, Yi-Hsun; Chou, Ying-Chao; Liu, Shih-Jung; Chan, Err-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed biodegradable sheath-core-structured drug-eluting nanofibers for sustainable delivery of antibiotics (vancomycin and ceftazidime) and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) via electrospinning. To prepare the biodegradable sheath-core nanofibers, we first prepared solutions of poly(d,l)-lactide-co-glycolide, vancomycin, and ceftazidime in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol and rhBMP-2 in phosphate-buffered solution. The poly(d,l)-lactide-co-glycolide/antibiotics and rhBMP-2 solutions were then fed into two different capillary tubes controlled by two independent pumps for coaxial electrospinning. The electrospun nanofiber morphology was observed under a scanning electron microscope. We further characterized the in vitro antibiotic release from the nanofibers via high-performance liquid chromatography and that of rhBMP-2 via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and alkaline phosphatase activity. We showed that the biodegradable coaxially electrospun nanofibers could release high vancomycin/ceftazidime concentrations (well above the minimum inhibition concentration [MIC]90) and rhBMP-2 for >4 weeks. These experimental results demonstrate that novel biodegradable nanofibers can be constructed with various pharmaceuticals and proteins for long-term drug deliveries.

  3. A suggested emergency medicine boot camp curriculum for medical students based on the mapping of Core Entrustable Professional Activities to Emergency Medicine Level 1 milestones

    PubMed Central

    Lamba, Sangeeta; Wilson, Bryan; Natal, Brenda; Nagurka, Roxanne; Anana, Michael; Sule, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing number of students rank Emergency Medicine (EM) as a top specialty choice, requiring medical schools to provide adequate exposure to EM. The Core Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) for Entering Residency by the Association of American Medical Colleges combined with the Milestone Project for EM residency training has attempted to standardize the undergraduate and graduate medical education goals. However, it remains unclear as to how the EPAs correlate to the milestones, and who owns the process of ensuring that an entering EM resident has competency at a certain minimum level. Recent trends establishing specialty-specific boot camps prepare students for residency and address the variability of skills of students coming from different medical schools. Objective Our project’s goal was therefore to perform a needs assessment to inform the design of an EM boot camp curriculum. Toward this goal, we 1) mapped the core EPAs for graduating medical students to the EM residency Level 1 milestones in order to identify the possible gaps/needs and 2) conducted a pilot procedure workshop that was designed to address some of the identified gaps/needs in procedural skills. Methods In order to inform the curriculum of an EM boot camp, we used a systematic approach to 1) identify gaps between the EPAs and EM milestones (Level 1) and 2) determine what essential and supplemental competencies/skills an incoming EM resident should ideally possess. We then piloted a 1-day, three-station advanced ABCs procedure workshop based on the identified needs. A pre-workshop test and survey assessed knowledge, preparedness, confidence, and perceived competence. A post-workshop survey evaluated the program, and a posttest combined with psychomotor skills test using three simulation cases assessed students’ skills. Results Students (n=9) reported increased confidence in the following procedures: intubation (1.5–2.1), thoracostomy (1.1–1.9), and central venous

  4. Common Core: Victory Is Yours!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Jennifer L. W.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to implement the Common Core State Standards in the classroom. She presents examples and activities that will leave teachers feeling "rosy" about tackling the new standards. She breaks down important benchmarks and shows how other teachers are doing the Core--and loving it!

  5. Hemocompatibility of Poly(vinyl alcohol)-Gelatin Core-Shell Electrospun Nanofibers: A Scaffold for Modulating Platelet Deposition and Activation.

    PubMed

    Merkle, Valerie M; Martin, Daniel; Hutchinson, Marcus; Tran, Phat L; Behrens, Alana; Hossainy, Samir; Sheriff, Jawaad; Bluestein, Danny; Wu, Xiaoyi; Slepian, Marvin J

    2015-04-22

    In this study, we evaluate coaxial electrospun nanofibers with gelatin in the shell and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in the core as a potential vascular material by determining fiber surface roughness, as well as human platelet deposition and activation under varying conditions. PVA scaffolds had the highest surface roughness (Ra=65.5±6.8 nm) but the lowest platelet deposition (34.2±5.8 platelets) in comparison to gelatin nanofibers (Ra=36.8±3.0 nm and 168.9±29.8 platelets) and coaxial nanofibers (1 Gel:1 PVA coaxial, Ra=24.0±1.5 nm and 150.2±17.4 platelets. 3 Gel:1 PVA coaxial, Ra=37.1±2.8 nm and 167.8±15.4 platelets). Therefore, the chemical structure of the gelatin nanofibers dominated surface roughness in platelet deposition. Due to their increased stiffness, the coaxial nanofibers had the highest platelet activation rate, rate of thrombin formation, in comparison to gelatin and PVA fibers. Our studies indicate that mechanical stiffness is a dominating factor for platelet deposition and activation, followed by biochemical signals, and lastly surface roughness. Overall, these coaxial nanofibers are an appealing material for vascular applications by supporting cellular growth while minimizing platelet deposition and activation. PMID:25815434

  6. Different Regulation of the p53 Core Domain Activities 3′-to-5′ Exonuclease and Sequence-Specific DNA Binding

    PubMed Central

    Janus, Friedemann; Albrechtsen, Nils; Knippschild, Uwe; Wiesmüller, Lisa; Grosse, Frank; Deppert, Wolfgang

    1999-01-01

    In this study we further characterized the 3′-5′ exonuclease activity intrinsic to wild-type p53. We showed that this activity, like sequence-specific DNA binding, is mediated by the p53 core domain. Truncation of the C-terminal 30 amino acids of the p53 molecule enhanced the p53 exonuclease activity by at least 10-fold, indicating that this activity, like sequence-specific DNA binding, is negatively regulated by the C-terminal basic regulatory domain of p53. However, treatments which activated sequence-specific DNA binding of p53, like binding of the monoclonal antibody PAb421, which recognizes a C-terminal epitope on p53, or a higher phosphorylation status, strongly inhibited the p53 exonuclease activity. This suggests that at least on full-length p53, sequence-specific DNA binding and exonuclease activities are subject to different and seemingly opposing regulatory mechanisms. Following up the recent discovery in our laboratory that p53 recognizes and binds with high affinity to three-stranded DNA substrates mimicking early recombination intermediates (C. Dudenhoeffer, G. Rohaly, K. Will, W. Deppert, and L. Wiesmueller, Mol. Cell. Biol. 18:5332–5342), we asked whether such substrates might be degraded by the p53 exonuclease. Addition of Mg2+ ions to the binding assay indeed started the p53 exonuclease and promoted rapid degradation of the bound, but not of the unbound, substrate, indicating that specifically recognized targets can be subjected to exonucleolytic degradation by p53 under defined conditions. PMID:10022902

  7. Core Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core noise area. Recent work1 on the turbine-transmission loss of combustor noise is briefly described, two2,3 new NRA efforts in the core-noise area are outlined, and an effort to develop CMC-based acoustic liners for broadband noise reduction suitable for turbofan-core application is delineated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project's Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries.

  8. Unprecedented photocatalytic activity of carbon coated/MoO3 core-shell nanoheterostructurs under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffar, Iqra; Warsi, Muhammad Farooq; Shahid, Muhammad; Shakir, Imran

    2016-05-01

    We reveal that nano-scale carbon layer deposited by hydrothermal process on molybdenum oxide (MoO3) nanowires surface significantly improve the light absorption range. Furthermore, the graphene-carbon coated MoO3 nanocopmosite (rGO/C-MoO3 nanocomposite) exhibits excellent chemical stability and enhanced photocatalytic activity for methylene blue in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation compared to the bare MoO3 nanowires and carbon coated MoO3 nanowires (C-MoO3 nanowires). The enhanced photocatalytic activity of rGO/C-MoO3 nanocomposite could be attributed to the extended light absorption range, better adsorptivity of dye molecules and efficient separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. Overall, this work provides new insights that the as synthesized rGO/C-MoO3 nanocomposite can be efficiently used as high performance photocatalysts to improve the environmental protection issues under visible light irradiation.

  9. AJUBA LIM Proteins Limit Hippo Activity in Proliferating Cells by Sequestering the Hippo Core Kinase Complex in the Cytosol

    PubMed Central

    Jagannathan, Radhika; Schimizzi, Gregory V.; Zhang, Kun; Loza, Andrew J.; Yabuta, Norikazu; Nojima, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo pathway controls organ growth and is implicated in cancer development. Whether and how Hippo pathway activity is limited to sustain or initiate cell growth when needed is not understood. The members of the AJUBA family of LIM proteins are negative regulators of the Hippo pathway. In mammalian epithelial cells, we found that AJUBA LIM proteins limit Hippo regulation of YAP, in proliferating cells only, by sequestering a cytosolic Hippo kinase complex in which LATS kinase is inhibited. At the plasma membranes of growth-arrested cells, AJUBA LIM proteins do not inhibit or associate with the Hippo kinase complex. The ability of AJUBA LIM proteins to inhibit YAP regulation by Hippo and to associate with the kinase complex directly correlate with their capacity to limit Hippo signaling during Drosophila wing development. AJUBA LIM proteins did not influence YAP activity in response to cell-extrinsic or cell-intrinsic mechanical signals. Thus, AJUBA LIM proteins limit Hippo pathway activity in contexts where cell proliferation is needed. PMID:27457617

  10. Comparing remotely sensed Pictometry Web-based height estimates with in situ clinometer and laser range finder height estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Daniel R.; Hung, I.-Kuai; Kulhavy, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Heights of 30 light poles were measured with a telescopic height pole. Clinometer and laser range finder in situ estimated light pole height was compared to Pictometry estimated light pole height using hyperspatial 4-in. (10.2-cm) multispectral imagery within a Web-based interface. Average percent agreement between light pole height and clinometer and laser range finder estimated that light pole height ranged from 3.97% to 3.79% for clinometer and laser range finder estimated light pole height, respectively. Average percent agreement between light pole height and Pictometry estimated light pole height at image magnification factors of 100%, 125%, 150%, 200%, and 300% magnification ranged from 1.77% to 2.39%. Root-mean-square error (RMSE) between light pole height and clinometer and laser range finder estimated that light pole height ranged from 0.22 to 0.20 m for clinometer and laser range finder estimated light pole height, respectively. RMSE between light pole height and Pictometry estimated light pole height ranged from 0.10 to 0.14 m. An analysis of variance between absolute errors of light pole height estimate by different techniques indicated that Pictometry was significantly more accurate than both clinometer and laser range finder light pole height estimates.

  11. A multi-proxy lake core record from Lago Lungo, Rieti Basin, Lazio, Italy and its relation to human activities in the catchment during the last century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Paula; Tunno, Irene; Mensing, Scott; Piovesan, Gianluca

    2016-04-01

    The lakes of the Rieti Basin have experienced extensive human modification dating back to pre-Roman times, yet lake archives indicate that the most profound changes to the aquatic ecosystem have occurred during the last century. Analysis of the upper ˜120 cm segment of a sediment core from Lago Lungo, dating back to ˜1830 CE, show changes in water quality and hydrologic inflow largely attributed to 20th century reclamation and land use activities. Lago Lungo is a shallow, small, eutrophic, hard water lake situated in an intermontaine alluvial plain ˜90 km NE of Rome. It is one of several remnant lakes in a poorly drained wetland area fed by numerous springs. Reclamation activities over the last century have substantially altered the drainage network affecting water delivery to the lakes and their connectivity. There are 3 interesting signals in the core. First, small Stephanodiscus species, associated with hypereutrophic conditions, appear after 1950, peak ˜1990, and may be attributed to increased use of chemical fertilizers and intensification of local agriculture. Elemental proxies from scanning XRF data (abundances of Ti, Si/Ti, and Ca) are consistent with increased eutrophication starting ˜1950. A decline in Stephanodicsus after 1990 reflects some improvement to the water quality following the lake's incorporation into a nature preserve and creation of a narrow vegetation buffer. Intermittent water quality measurements from 1982 onward corroborate the changes in trophic status interpreted from the core record. Second, a large change in the core stratigraphy, elemental geochemistry, and diatom composition occurs ˜1940 and is associated with several major reclamation efforts, including the rerouting of the Santa Susanna channel, which redirected large volumes of artesian inflows away from the lakes and estuarine system. Upstream, dams on the Turano and Salto rivers were also constructed, further affecting hydrological inflows into the basin. From ˜1900

  12. Core-shell Fe3O4@MIL-101(Fe) composites as heterogeneous catalysts of persulfate activation for the removal of Acid Orange 7.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xinxin; Guo, Weilin; Li, Xianghui; Zhou, Haihong; Wang, Ruiqin

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a novel core-shell Fe3O4@MIL-101 (MIL stands for Materials of Institute Lavoisier) composite was successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method and was fully characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The composite was introduced as a catalyst to generate powerful radicals from persulfate for the removal of Acid Orange 7 in an aqueous solution. Effects of the central metal ions of MIL-101, amino group content of MIL-101, and pH were evaluated in batch experiments. It was found that both hydroxyl and sulfate radicals were generated; importantly, sulfate radicals were speculated to serve as the dominant active species in the catalytic oxidation of Acid Orange 7. In addition, a possible mechanism was proposed. This study provides new physical insights for the rational design of advanced metal-organic frameworks (MOF)-based catalysts for improved environmental remediation. PMID:27098883

  13. Pt-Decorated PdCo@Pd/C Core-Shell Nanoparticles with Enhanced Stability and Electrocatalytic Activity for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Deli; Xin, Huolin L.; Yu, Yingchao; Wang, Hongsen; Rus, Eric; Muller, David A.; Abruña, Héctor D.

    2010-11-24

    A simple method for the preparation of PdCo@Pd core-shell nanoparticles supported on carbon based on an adsorbate-induced surface segregation effect has been developed. The stability of these PdCo@Pd nanoparticles and their electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) were enhanced by decoration with a small amount of Pt deposited via a spontaneous displacement reaction. The facile method described herein is suitable for large-scale, lower-cost production and significantly lowers the Pt loading and thus the cost. The as-prepared PdCo@Pd and Pd-decorated PdCo@Pd nanocatalysts have a higher methanol tolerance than Pt/C in the ORR and are promising cathode catalysts for fuel cell applications.

  14. Once-daily budesonide MMX in active, mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis: results from the randomised CORE II study

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Simon P L; Danese, Silvio; Kupcinskas, Limas; Alexeeva, Olga; D'Haens, Geert; Gibson, Peter R; Moro, Luigi; Jones, Richard; Ballard, E David; Masure, Johan; Rossini, Matteo; Sandborn, William J

    2014-01-01

    Objective Budesonide MMX is a novel oral formulation of budesonide that uses Multi-Matrix System (MMX) technology to extend release to the colon. This study compared the efficacy of budesonide MMX with placebo in patients with active, mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis (UC). Design Patients were randomised 1:1:1:1 to receive budesonide MMX 9 mg or 6 mg, or Entocort EC 9 mg (budesonide controlled ileal-release capsules; reference arm) or placebo once daily for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was combined clinical and endoscopic remission, defined as UC Disease Activity Index score ≤1 with a score of 0 for rectal bleeding and stool frequency, no mucosal friability on colonoscopy, and a ≥1-point reduction in endoscopic index score from baseline. Results 410 patients were evaluated for efficacy. Combined clinical and endoscopic remission rates with budesonide MMX 9 mg or 6 mg, Entocort EC and placebo were 17.4%, 8.3%, 12.6% and 4.5%, respectively. The difference between budesonide MMX 9 mg and placebo was significant (OR 4.49; 95% CI 1.47 to 13.72; p=0.0047). Budesonide MMX 9 mg was associated with numerically higher rates of clinical (42.2% vs 33.7%) and endoscopic improvement (42.2% vs 31.5%) versus placebo. The rate of histological healing (16.5% vs 6.7%; p=0.0361) and proportion of patients with symptom resolution (23.9% vs 11.2%; p=0.0220) were significantly higher for budesonide MMX 9 mg than placebo. Adverse event profiles were similar across groups. Conclusion Budesonide MMX 9 mg was safe and more effective than placebo at inducing combined clinical and endoscopic remission in patients with active, mild-to-moderate UC. PMID:23436336

  15. Extended core for motor/generator

    DOEpatents

    Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2006-08-22

    An extended stator core in a motor/generator can be utilized to mitigate losses in end regions of the core and a frame of the motor/generator. To mitigate the losses, the stator core can be extended to a length substantially equivalent to or greater than a length of a magnetically active portion in the rotor. Alternatively, a conventional length stator core can be utilized with a shortened magnetically active portion to mitigate losses in the motor/generator. To mitigate the losses in the core caused by stator winding, the core can be extended to a length substantially equivalent or greater than a length of stator winding.

  16. Extended core for motor/generator

    DOEpatents

    Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2005-05-10

    An extended stator core in a motor/generator can be utilized to mitigate losses in end regions of the core and a frame of the motor/generator. To mitigate the losses, the stator core can be extended to a length substantially equivalent to or greater than a length of a magnetically active portion in the rotor. Alternatively, a conventional length stator core can be utilized with a shortened magnetically active portion to mitigate losses in the motor/generator. To mitigate the losses in the core caused by stator winding, the core can be extended to a length substantially equivalent or greater than a length of stator winding.

  17. Relative efficiencies of the 7 rheumatoid arthritis Core Data Set measures to distinguish active from control treatments in 9 comparisons from clinical trials of 5 agents.

    PubMed

    Pincus, T; Richardson, B; Strand, V; Bergman, M J

    2014-01-01

    The 7 Core Data Set measures to assess rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were analysed for their relative efficiencies to distinguish active from control treatments in 9 comparisons of 5 agents, methotrexate, leflunomide, infliximab, adalimumab, and abatacept, in 8 clinical trials. Among the 7 measures, levels of relative efficiencies were in a similar range, highest for the physician global estimate, followed by, in order, patient global estimate, physical function on a health assessment questionnaire (HAQ), pain, swollen joint count (SJC), an acute phase reactant laboratory test - erythrocyte sedimentation (ESR) or C-reactive protein (CRP), and tender joint count (TJC). Comparisons of only 3 measures, SJC and ESR/CRP (regarded as optimal indicators of inflammation) and HAQ function (regarded as most likely to be affected by joint damage and therefore least reversible) indicated relative efficiencies for HAQ function at least as great as for SJC or ESR/CRP, although 8 of the nine comparisons involved patients with disease duration > 6.9 years. The findings indicate a strong rationale for a Core Data Set of 7 measures, as no single measure was clearly superior in relative efficiency in all clinical trials. At the same time, 'objective' laboratory ESR/CRP, TJC and SJC were not superior to 'subjective' global estimates of the physician or patient or patient self-report measures of physical function or pain, to differentiate active from control treatments. The findings challenge a traditional view that laboratory and clinical examination findings are more robust than patient self-report scores and physician global estimates to assess and monitor RA patients.

  18. Mercury's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peale, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    In determining Mercury's core structure from its rotational properties, the location of Cassini state 1 is crucial. Convincing radar evidence indicates that the mantle rests on a liquid layer (Margot et al. 2005), but there are no empirical constraints on the moment of inertia C/MR2, which constraints must wait for the determination of the gravitational coefficients J2 and C22 from the MESSENGER orbiting spacecraft, and an accurate determination of the obliquity of the Cassini state. Tidal and core-mantle dissipation drive the spin to the Cassini state with a time scale O(105) years, so the spin should occupy the Cassini state and thereby define its obliquity---unless there has been a recent excitation of a free precession of the spin. Another way the spin might be displaced from the Cassini state is if the variations in the orbital elements, which change the position of the Cassini state, cause the spin axis to lag behind as it attempts to follow the state. Fortunately, the solid angle the spin axis encloses as it precesses around the Cassini state is an adiabatic invariant, and it is conserved if the orbital element variations are slow compared to the precession rate. As the precession period is O(1000) years, and the time scales of orbital parameter variations are O(105) years, the spin axis should remain very close to the Cassini state if it were ever close. But how close is close? The increasing precision of the radar and eventual spacecraft measurements warrants a check on the likely proximity of the spin axis to the Cassini state. By numerically following the positions of the spin axis and Cassini state with orbital parameters varying with time scales and amplitudes comparable to the real variations, we show that the spin should remain within 1″ of the Cassini state once dissipative torques bring it there. The current spin axis position should thus define the Cassini state sufficiently to put reasonably tight constraints on the core structure

  19. Quantification of gait changes in subjects with visual height intolerance when exposed to heights

    PubMed Central

    Schniepp, Roman; Kugler, Günter; Wuehr, Max; Eckl, Maria; Huppert, Doreen; Huth, Sabrina; Pradhan, Cauchy; Jahn, Klaus; Brandt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Visual height intolerance (vHI) manifests as instability at heights with apprehension of losing balance or falling. We investigated contributions of visual feedback and attention on gait performance of subjects with vHI. Materials and Methods: Sixteen subjects with vHI walked over a gait mat (GAITRite®) on a 15-m-high balcony and at ground-level. Subjects walked at different speeds (slow, preferred, fast), during changes of the visual input (gaze straight/up/down; eyes open/closed), and while doing a cognitive task. An rmANOVA with the factors “height situation” and “gait condition” was performed. Subjects were also asked to estimate the height of the balcony over ground level. The individual estimates were used for correlations with the gait parameters. Results: Study participants walked slower at heights, with reduced cadence and stride length. The double support phases were increased (all p < 0.01), which correlated with the estimated height of the balcony (R2 = 0.453, p < 0.05). These changes were still present when walking with upward gaze or closure of the eyes. Under the conditions walking and looking down to the floor of the balcony, during dual-task and fast walking, there were no differences between the gait performance on the balcony and at ground-level. Discussion: The found gait changes are features of a cautious gait control. Internal, cognitive models with anxiety play an important role for vHI; gait was similarly affected when the visual perception of the depth was prevented. Improvement by dual task at heights may be associated by a reduction of the anxiety level. Conclusion: It is conceivable that mental distraction by dual task or increasing the walking speed might be useful recommendations to reduce the imbalance during locomotion in subjects susceptible to vHI. PMID:25538595

  20. MULTI-CHANNEL PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Boyer, K.; Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-11-25

    An improved multi-channel pulse height analyzer of the type where the device translates the amplitude of each pulse into a time duration electrical quantity which is utilized to control the length of a train of pulses forwarded to a scaler is described. The final state of the scaler for any one train of pulses selects the appropriate channel in a magnetic memory in which an additional count of one is placed. The improvement consists of a storage feature for storing a signal pulse so that in many instances when two signal pulses occur in rapid succession, the second pulse is preserved and processed at a later time.

  1. DNA stabilization at the Bacillus subtilis PolX core--a binding model to coordinate polymerase, AP-endonuclease and 3'-5' exonuclease activities.

    PubMed

    Baños, Benito; Villar, Laurentino; Salas, Margarita; de Vega, Miguel

    2012-10-01

    Family X DNA polymerases (PolXs) are involved in DNA repair. Their binding to gapped DNAs relies on two conserved helix-hairpin-helix motifs, one located at the 8-kDa domain and the other at the fingers subdomain. Bacterial/archaeal PolXs have a specifically conserved third helix-hairpin-helix motif (GFGxK) at the fingers subdomain whose putative role in DNA binding had not been established. Here, mutagenesis at the corresponding residues of Bacillus subtilis PolX (PolXBs), Gly130, Gly132 and Lys134 produced enzymes with altered DNA binding properties affecting the three enzymatic activities of the protein: polymerization, located at the PolX core, 3'-5' exonucleolysis and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP)-endonucleolysis, placed at the so-called polymerase and histidinol phosphatase domain. Furthermore, we have changed Lys192 of PolXBs, a residue moderately conserved in the palm subdomain of bacterial PolXs and immediately preceding two catalytic aspartates of the polymerization reaction. The results point to a function of residue Lys192 in guaranteeing the right orientation of the DNA substrates at the polymerization and histidinol phosphatase active sites. The results presented here and the recently solved structures of other bacterial PolX ternary complexes lead us to propose a structural model to account for the appropriate coordination of the different catalytic activities of bacterial PolXs.

  2. HCV core protein inhibits polarization and activity of both M1 and M2 macrophages through the TLR2 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qianqian; Wang, Yang; Zhai, Naicui; Song, Hongxiao; Li, Haijun; Yang, Yang; Li, Tianyang; Guo, Xiaolin; Chi, Baorong; Niu, Junqi; Crispe, Ian Nicholas; Su, Lishan; Tu, Zhengkun

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) establishes persistent infection in most infected patients, and eventually causes chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in some patients. Monocytes and macrophages provide the first line of defense against pathogens, but their roles in HCV infection remains unclear. We have reported that HCV core protein (HCVc) manipulates human blood-derived dendritic cell development. In the present study, we tested whether HCVc affects human blood-derived monocyte differentiating into macrophages. Results showed that HCVc inhibits monocyte differentiation to either M1 or M2 macrophages through TLR2, associated with impaired STATs signaling pathway. Moreover, HCVc inhibits phagocytosis activity of M1 and M2 macrophages, M1 macrophage-induced autologous and allogeneic CD4+ T cell activation, but promotes M2 macrophage-induced autologous and allogeneic CD4+ T cell activation. In conclusion, HCVc inhibits monocyte-derived macrophage polarization via TLR2 signaling, leading to dysfunctions of both M1 and M2 macrophages in chronic HCV infected patients. This may contribute to the mechanism of HCV persistent infection, and suggest that blockade of HCVc might be a novel therapeutic approach to treating HCV infection. PMID:27786268

  3. Phosphoproteomic analysis of protein kinase C signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals Slt2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent phosphorylation of eisosome core components.

    PubMed

    Mascaraque, Victoria; Hernáez, María Luisa; Jiménez-Sánchez, María; Hansen, Rasmus; Gil, Concha; Martín, Humberto; Cid, Víctor J; Molina, María

    2013-03-01

    The cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway of the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been thoroughly studied as a paradigm of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. It consists of a classic MAPK module comprising the Bck1 MAPK kinase kinase, two redundant MAPK kinases (Mkk1 and Mkk2), and the Slt2 MAPK. This module is activated under a variety of stimuli related to cell wall homeostasis by Pkc1, the only member of the protein kinase C family in budding yeast. Quantitative phosphoproteomics based on stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture is a powerful tool for globally studying protein phosphorylation. Here we report an analysis of the yeast phosphoproteome upon overexpression of a PKC1 hyperactive allele that specifically activates CWI MAPK signaling in the absence of external stimuli. We found 82 phosphopeptides originating from 43 proteins that showed enhanced phosphorylation in these conditions. The MAPK S/T-P target motif was significantly overrepresented in these phosphopeptides. Hyperphosphorylated proteins provide putative novel targets of the Pkc1-cell wall integrity pathway involved in diverse functions such as the control of gene expression, protein synthesis, cytoskeleton maintenance, DNA repair, and metabolism. Remarkably, five components of the plasma-membrane-associated protein complex known as eisosomes were found among the up-regulated proteins. We show here that Pkc1-induced phosphorylation of the eisosome core components Pil1 and Lsp1 was not exerted directly by Pkc1, but involved signaling through the Slt2 MAPK module.

  4. Magnetic core-shell nano-TiO2/Al2O3/NiFe2O4 microparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Jing, Mao-Xiang; Han, Chong; Wang, Zhou; Shen, Xiang-Qian

    2013-07-01

    The core-shell nano-TiO2/Al2O3/NiFe2O4 microparticles of 5-8 microm were prepared by the heterogeneous precipitation followed by calcination treatment. The morphologies, structure, crystalline phase, and magnetic property were characterized by optical biomicroscopy (OBM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) respectively. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degrading methyl orange solution either under UV light and sunlight. The results indicate that the nano-TiO2 layer consists of needle-like nanoparticles and the intermediate layer of Al2O3 avoids the nano-TiO2 agglomeration, shedding and uneven loading. The nano-TiO2/Al2O3/NiFe2O4 composite particles show high magnetization of 31.5 emu/g and enhanced photocatalytic activity to completely degrade 50 mg/L methyl orange solution either under UV light and sun light. The enhanced activity of the composite is attributed to the unique structure, insulation effect of Al2O3 intermediate layer and the hybrid effect of anatase TiO2 and NiFe2O4. The obtained catalyst may be magnetically separable and useful for many practical applications due to the improved photocatalytic properties under sunlight. PMID:23901515

  5. Inference of Heating Properties from "Hot" Non-flaring Plasmas in Active Region Cores. I. Single Nanoflares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, W. T.; Cargill, P. J.; Bradshaw, S. J.

    2016-09-01

    The properties that are expected of “hot” non-flaring plasmas due to nanoflare heating in active regions are investigated using hydrodynamic modeling tools, including a two-fluid development of the Enthalpy Based Thermal Evolution of Loops code. Here we study a single nanoflare and show that while simple models predict an emission measure distribution extending well above 10 MK, which is consistent with cooling by thermal conduction, many other effects are likely to limit the existence and detectability of such plasmas. These include: differential heating between electrons and ions, ionization non-equilibrium, and for short nanoflares, the time taken for the coronal density to increase. The most useful temperature range to look for this plasma, often called the “smoking gun” of nanoflare heating, lies between 106.6 and 107 K. Signatures of the actual heating may be detectable in some instances.

  6. QSAR of Tryptanthrin Analogs via Tunneling Barrier Height Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriraman, Krishnan

    A new class of potential therapeutic agents, namely indolo[2,1-b]quinazolin-6,12- dione (tryptanthrin), and its analogues, have generated interest due to their broad spectrum of activity against a variety of pathogenic organisms. Little is known about the mechanism of action of tryptanthrins at the cellular and molecular levels. One method that has been employed to understand mechanisms of action and predict biological activities is quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR). Since previous tryptanthrin studies could not clearly identify the pharmacophore, it was proposed to measure barrier height (BH) energy values for preparing a QSAR vs. IC50 values from the literature. The BH energy values were measured using barrier height spectroscopy which is performed using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Topography images (7 x 7 nm size) for tryptanthrin and three of its analogs namely 8-fluorotryptanthrin, 4-aza-8-fluorotryptanthrin, and 4-aza-8-chlorotryptanthrin were collected. Both HOMO and LUMO were collected at an applied bias of +/- 0.8 V and 0.1 nA. Excellent positive bias images (LUMO) of tryptanthrin were collected in which individual molecules and their lobes could be clearly recognized. A comparison with the density functional theory (DFT) calculated image of the LUMO resulted in an excellent match. An interesting outcome of the tryptanthrin LUMO imaging was the arrangement of molecules (parallel alignments) in the image which was explained by considering the intermolecular forces. Excellent BH images with sub-molecular resolution for 4-aza-8-fluorotryptanthrin were observed. BH values were calculated for each of the various lobes in the molecule from the BH image. Preliminary QSAR training sets were constructed using literature values of IC50 for W-2 and D-6 strains of Plasmodium falciparum as well as Leishmanai donovani versus average measured molecular barrier heights. The correlations were found to be fair for all the three pathogens. The

  7. Satellite images analysis for shadow detection and building height estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liasis, Gregoris; Stavrou, Stavros

    2016-09-01

    Satellite images can provide valuable information about the presented urban landscape scenes to remote sensing and telecommunication applications. Obtaining information from satellite images is difficult since all the objects and their surroundings are presented with feature complexity. The shadows cast by buildings in urban scenes can be processed and used for estimating building heights. Thus, a robust and accurate building shadow detection process is important. Region-based active contour models can be used for satellite image segmentation. However, spectral heterogeneity that usually exists in satellite images and the feature similarity representing the shadow and several non-shadow regions makes building shadow detection challenging. In this work, a new automated method for delineating building shadows is proposed. Initially, spectral and spatial features of the satellite image are utilized for designing a custom filter to enhance shadows and reduce intensity heterogeneity. An effective iterative procedure using intensity differences is developed for tuning and subsequently selecting the most appropriate filter settings, able to highlight the building shadows. The response of the filter is then used for automatically estimating the radiometric property of the shadows. The customized filter and the radiometric feature are utilized to form an optimized active contour model where the contours are biased to delineate shadow regions. Post-processing morphological operations are also developed and applied for removing misleading artefacts. Finally, building heights are approximated using shadow length and the predefined or estimated solar elevation angle. Qualitative and quantitative measures are used for evaluating the performance of the proposed method for both shadow detection and building height estimation.

  8. Discrimination of cello string height: musicianship and sex.

    PubMed

    Kolodziej, Ilka; Ackermann, Bronwen J; Adams, Roger D

    2007-04-01

    The aim was to investigate differences by sex and music expertise in performance of a manual proprioceptive skill. Active left hand finger-movement discrimination for differences in string height was examined in a position similar to cello playing. Men and women who were experienced cellists and nonmusicians made active string depression movements and then made absolute judgments regarding which of five string positions were presented. Although no main effect was significant, analysis yielded a sex x musicianship crossover interaction (F(1,51) = 8.4, p = .006) wherein the female cellists performed better than the female nonmusicians, and the reverse occurred for males. These significant differences in active movement discrimination across sex and musicianship may be important in further understanding focal hand dystonia, a disorder wherein the interaction of sex and expertise is observed as a strong preponderance in experienced male musicians.

  9. Higher Height, Higher Ability: Judgment Confidence as a Function of Spatial Height Perception

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Wang, Fei; Li, Shu

    2011-01-01

    Based on grounded cognition theories, the current study showed that judgments about ability were regulated by the subjects' perceptions of their spatial height. In Experiment 1, we found that after seeing the ground from a higher rather than lower floor, people had higher expectations about their performance on a knowledge test and assigned themselves higher rank positions in a peer comparison evaluation. In Experiment 2, we examined the boundary conditions of the spatial height effects and showed that it could still occur even if we employed photos rather than actual building floors to manipulate the perceptions of spatial heights. In addition, Experiment 2 excluded processing style as an explanation for these observations. In Experiment 3, we investigated a potential mechanism for the spatial height effect by manipulating the scale direction in the questionnaire. Consequently, consistent with our representational dependence account, the effect of spatial heights on ability judgments was eliminated when the mental representation of ability was disturbed by a reverse physical representation. These results suggest that people's judgments about their ability are correlated with their spatial perception. PMID:21818299

  10. Direct Binding of Hepatitis C Virus Core to gC1qR on CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells Leads to Impaired Activation of Lck and Akt

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhi Qiang; Eisen-Vandervelde, Audrey; Waggoner, Stephen N.; Cale, Evan M.; Hahn, Young S.

    2004-01-01

    Complement plays a pivotal role in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. It has been shown that the binding of C1q, a natural ligand of gC1qR, on T cells inhibits their proliferation. Here, we demonstrate that direct binding of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) core to gC1qR on T cells leads to impaired Lck/Akt activation and T-cell function. The HCV core associates with the surface of T cells specifically via gC1qR, as this binding is inhibited by the addition of either anti-gC1qR antibody or soluble gC1qR. The binding affinity constant of core protein for gC1qR, as determined by BIAcore analysis, is 3.8 × 10−7 M. The specificity of the HCV core-gC1qR interaction is confirmed by reduced core binding on Molt-4 T cells treated with gC1qR-silencing small interfering RNA and enhanced core binding on GPC-16 guinea pig cells transfected with human gC1qR. Interestingly, gC1qR is expressed at higher levels on CD8+ than on CD4+ T cells, resulting in more severe core-induced suppression of the CD8+-T-cell population. Importantly, T-cell receptor-mediated activation of the Src kinases Lck and ZAP-70 but not Fyn and the phosphorylation of Akt are impaired by the HCV core, suggesting that it inhibits the very early events of T-cell activation. PMID:15163734

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF CORE MUSCULATURE ENGAGEMENT ON HIP AND KNEE KINEMATICS IN WOMEN DURING A SINGLE LEG SQUAT

    PubMed Central

    Shirey, Matthew; Hurlbutt, Matthew; Johansen, Nicole; King, Gregory W.; Wilkinson, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Excessive frontal plane motion and valgus torques have been linked to knee injuries, particularly in women. Studies have investigated the role of lower extremity musculature, yet few have studied the activation of trunk or “core” musculature on hip and knee kinematics. Therefore, this study evaluated the influence of intentional core engagement on hip and knee kinematics during a single leg squat. Methods: Participants (n = 14) performed a single leg squat from a 6 inch step under 2 conditions: core intentionally engaged (CORE) and no intentional core engagement (NOCORE). Participants were also evaluated for core activation ability using Sahrmann's model, and the resulting scores were used to divide participants into low (LOWCORE) and high scoring (HIGHCORE) groups. All trials were captured using 3-D motion analysis, and data were normalized for height and time. Paired t-tests and repeated measures, mixed model MANOVAs were used to assess condition and group differences. Results: The CORE condition, compared to NOCORE, was characterized by smaller right [t(13) = 3.03, p = .01] and left [t(13) = 3.04, p = .01] hip frontal plane displacement and larger knee flexion range of motion [t(13) = 3.08, p = .009]. Subsequent MANOVAs and follow-up analyses revealed that: (1) the CORE condition demonstrated smaller right and left hip medial-lateral displacement in the LOWCORE group (p = .001), but not in the HIGHCORE group; (2) the CORE condition showed larger overall knee flexion range of motion across LOWCORE and HIGHCORE groups (p = .021); and (3) the HIGHCORE group exhibited less knee varus range of motion across CORE and NOCORE conditions (p = .028). Conclusions: Intentional core activation influenced hip and knee kinematics during single leg squats, with greater positive effect noted in the LOWCORE group. These findings may have implications for preventing and rehabilitating knee injuries among women. Level of Evidence: 2B, Cohort laboratory study

  12. Using infrasound to constrain ash plume height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Oliver; De Angelis, Silvio; Lavallée, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Airborne volcanic ash advisories are currently based on analyses of satellite imagery with relatively low temporal resolution, and numerical simulations of atmospheric plume dispersion. These simulations rely on key input parameters such as the maximum height of eruption plumes and the mass eruption rate at the vent, which remain loosely constrained. In this study, we present a proof-of-concept workflow that incorporates the analysis of volcanic infrasound with numerical modelling of volcanic plume rise in a realistic atmosphere. We analyse acoustic infrasound records from two explosions during the 2009 eruption of Mt. Redoubt, USA, that produced plumes reaching heights of 12-14 km. We model the infrasonic radiation at the source under the assumptions of linear acoustic theory and calculate variations in mass ejection velocity at the vent. The estimated eruption velocities serve as the input for numerical models of plume rise. The encouraging results highlight the potential for infrasound measurements to be incorporated into numerical modelling of ash dispersion, and confirm their value for volcano monitoring operations.

  13. Meniscus height controlled convective self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Satyan; Crosby, Alfred

    Convective self-assembly techniques based on the 'coffee-ring effect' allow for the fabrication of materials with structural hierarchy and multi-functionality across a wide range of length scales. The coffee-ring effect describes deposition of non-volatiles at the edge of droplet due to capillary flow and pattern formations due to pinning and de-pinning of meniscus with the solvent evaporation. We demonstrate a novel convective self-assembly method which uses a piezo-actuated bending motion for driving the de-pinning step. In this method, a dilute solution of nanoparticles or polymers is trapped by capillary forces between a blade and substrate. As the blade oscillates with a fixed frequency and amplitude and the substrate translates at a fixed velocity, the height of the capillary meniscus oscillates. The meniscus height controls the contact angle of three phase contact line and at a critical angle de-pinning occurs. The combination of convective flux and continuously changing contact angle drives the assembly of the solute and subsequent de-pinning step, providing a direct means for producing linear assemblies. We demonstrate a new method for convective self-assembly at an accelerated rate when compared to other techniques, with control over deposit dimensions. Army Research Office (W911NF-14-1-0185).

  14. Latest Adjustment of the Argentine Height System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñón, D. A.; Cimbaro, S. R.; Sanchez, R. E.

    2013-05-01

    For over 70 years the National Geographic Institute of Argentina (NGI) has conducted a systematic project to building benchmarks throughout the country, which have been measured with spirit leveling and gravimetry techniques. The measurements were undertaken on a total of approximately 18,000 benchmarks, which define the High Precision Leveling Network of Argentina. The first adjustment of this network took place in 1971. This assignment was given to the Defense Mapping Agency of the United States of America (DMA). Leveling lines that were built and measured after the year 1971 were adjusted to this original network. It was of great importance to perform a new adjustment calculation with modern techniques to update the entire network. Some modern tools worth mentioning are: gravity interpolation using prediction method and topographic correction calculation by the Hammer method using SRTM model. All historical field books were digitalized to retrieve the information corresponding to the spirit leveling, from which it was then possible to calculate geopotential difference between the nodes, using the gravity acceleration values over the benchmarks. Subsequently, by the method of least squares it was possible to calculate the geopotential numbers of the nodes, and then the orthometric height of all the benchmarks. The recommendations of the Working Group III of SIRGAS (Geodetic Reference System for the Americas) were taken into account in relation to this task. The development of this paper shows the results that have been obtained so far in the development of the New Height System for Argentina.

  15. Optimal inflatable space towers of high height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonkin, A.

    Author suggested, developed theory, and computed some projects of an optimal inflatable space tower of the heights some hundreds km. These towers can be used for tourism, scientist observation of space, Earth surface, Earth weather, Earth top atmosphere, and for radio, TV, communication transmissions. These towers can be used for launching of the space ships and Earth s atellites. The computed projects not expensive, do not request rockets. They need only in thin strong films composed from the artificial fibers and fabricated by a current industry. Towers can be built by a current technology. Towers can be explored (for tourism, communication, etc.) in a time of the construction process and give a profit, self- financing for further constriction. They can permanent increase their height. The tower design does not request a work at the high altitudes. All construction works will be making at the Earth surface. Author suggests the transport system for this tower of a high capability, which does not request a power energy issue. The small engine (only for a friction compensation) is located at the Earth surface. The tower is separated on sections and has a special protection of a case of a damage. It is considered also the problems of security, control, repair, etc. of the suggested towers. The author has also solved additional problems, which appear in these projects and which can look as difficult for the given proposal and current technology. The author is prepared to discuss the problems with serious organizations, which want to research and develop these projects.

  16. Torch height control helps fabricator raise productivity

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    For high-speed, high-quality plate cutting with oxyfuel, several control factors are widely recognized to affect cut quality. Flame type and flame adjustment are critical factors. Matching the correct torch tip size and oxygen pressure setting to the precise material composition and exact thickness of the steel plate are essential. Control settings for preheating the fuel and for torch travel speed are equally important. A high-performance drive system is another essential part of the equation. Precisely matched to the exact size, weight and configuration of the gantry or cantilever machine, the right motor and drive combination can provide smoother x-y axis movement for cleaner cuts, less slag and less overall scrap. With the advent of the torch height control sensor for cantilever and gantry machines, there is a new element to consider in the quality equation. These torch-mounted sensor systems are helping some fabricators improve cut quality by making it easier for machine operators to maintain an optimum and consistent distance between the torch tip and the steel plate. Used by many fabricators in Europe for well over a decade, torch height control sensors are beginning to show their value in the United States.

  17. Rain height statistics for satellite communication in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandeep, J. S.

    2008-09-01

    The calculation of fade margin required for 99.99% of the time availability of satellite link requires the knowledge of rain height. There is a shortage of results on rain height over Malaysian equatorial stations. The results on rain height in relation to 0 °C isotherm height (Hi) over four stations are presented. The variations of 0 °C isotherm heights for two monsoon seasons have been studied based on an analysis of radiosonde. The exceedence probability statistics of rain height are compared between the two seasons.

  18. Vowel category dependence of the relationship between palate height, tongue height, and oral area.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Pizza, Shamala; Alwan, Abeer; Cha, Jul Setsu; Haker, Katherine

    2003-06-01

    This article evaluates intertalker variance of oral area, logarithm of the oral area, tongue height, and formant frequencies as a function of vowel category. The data consist of coronal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences and acoustic recordings of 5 talkers, each producing 11 different vowels. Tongue height (left, right, and midsagittal), palate height, and oral area were measured in 3 coronal sections anterior to the oropharyngeal bend and were subjected to multivariate analysis of variance, variance ratio analysis, and regression analysis. The primary finding of this article is that oral area (between palate and tongue) showed less intertalker variance during production of vowels with an oral place of articulation (palatal and velar vowels) than during production of vowels with a uvular or pharyngeal place of articulation. Although oral area variance is place dependent, percentage variance (log area variance) is not place dependent. Midsagittal tongue height in the molar region was positively correlated with palate height during production of palatal vowels, but not during production of nonpalatal vowels. Taken together, these results suggest that small oral areas are characterized by relatively talker-independent vowel targets and that meeting these talker-independent targets is important enough that each talker adjusts his or her own tongue height to compensate for talker-dependent differences in constriction anatomy. Computer simulation results are presented to demonstrate that these results may be explained by an acoustic control strategy: When talkers with very different anatomical characteristics try to match talker-independent formant targets, the resulting area variances are minimized near the primary vocal tract constriction. PMID:14697000

  19. Variation in height and knee height in adolescents in Merida, Mexico, by head of household employment level and family income.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Vázquez, Adriana; Azcorra, Hugo; Falfán, Ina; Dickinson, Federico

    2013-05-01

    Variation in height among young adults has been linked to the living conditions of different social groups. The aim of this study was to measure variation in the height and knee height of young adults by head of household employment level and family income. The sample comprised 180 individuals (90 girls) aged 16 and 17 years living in the city of Merida, Mexico. Height and knee height were measured by anthropometry, and individuals' family social and economic data collected from their mothers. Variation in these measurements was analysed by three categories of employment and family income terciles. One-way ANOVAs were done by sex to compare mean height and knee height by employment and family income. Coefficients of variation were calculated and a Bartlett test applied. Significant differences in height and knee height were observed only between family income terciles. Both sexes were taller at the highest levels of family income (p<0.05) and men had the highest (p<0.05) knee height. Highest family income individuals exhibited the least variation in height and knee height. Similarity in socioeconomic conditions for families in the lowest family income tercile and with employee heads of household was not associated with lower variation of height and knee height.

  20. Height, weight and body mass index (BMI) in psychiatrically ill US Armed Forces personnel

    PubMed Central

    WYATT, R. J.; HENTER, I. D.; MOJTABAI, R.; BARTKO, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background In both psychiatrically ill and psychiatrically healthy adults, the connection between health and individuals’ height and weight has long been examined. Specifically, research on the idea that individuals with certain body types were prone to particular psychiatric diseases has been explored sporadically for centuries. The hypothesis that psychiatrically ill individuals were shorter and weighed less than psychiatrically healthy counterparts would correspond with the neurodevelopmental model of psychiatric disease. Method To evaluate possible links between psychiatric illness and physique, the height, weight and BMI of 7514 patients and 85 940 controls were compared. All subjects were part of the National Collaborative Study of Early Psychosis and Suicide (NCSEPS). Patients were US military active duty personnel hospitalized for either bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, or schizophrenia and controls were psychiatrically-healthy US military active duty personnel matched for date of entry into the service. Results No consistent differences in height, weight or BMI were found between patients and controls, or between patient groups. Some weak ANOVA differences were found between age at the time of entering active duty and weight, as well as BMI, but not height. Conclusions Unlike most previous studies that have looked at the links between height and psychiatric illness, this study of the NCSEPS cohort found that, at entry into the US Armed Forces, there were no consistent decreases in height for patients with bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder or schizophrenia compared with a large control group. Furthermore, there were no consistent differences for weight or BMI. PMID:12622316

  1. A tale of two eras: Pliocene-Pleistocene unroofing of Cenozoic and late Archean zircons from active metamorphic core complexes, Solomon Sea, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Ireland, Trevor R.

    1995-11-01

    U/Pb ion microprobe analyses of zircons from gneisses and granodiorites exposed in the D'Entrecasteaux Islands, and from conglomerate sections of the Goodenough No. 1 well in the adjacent Trobriand Basin, provide constraints on the age of magmatism, peak metamorphism, and nature of rocks unroofed during initial stages of metamorphic core complex formation in the Solomon Sea. The youngest populations of zircons from felsic gneisses and granodiorites indicate late Pliocene 206Pb*/238U ages. No inherited zircons were identified in the granodiorites, and the 206Pb*/238U ages (1.65 ± 0.18 Ma; 1.98 ± 0.08 Ma [2σ]) are interpreted as crystallization ages. These synkinematically emplaced granodiorites, intruded into actively extending continental crust, are some of the youngest known granitoids currently exposed at the Earth' surface. Zircon ages from felsic gneisses (2.63 ± 0.16 Ma; 2.72 ± 0.28 Ma [2σ]) are interpreted to date zircon growth subsequent to eclogite facies metamorphism. Felsic gneiss samples also contained zircon xenocrysts from Cretaceous-Miocene protoliths. In striking contrast, zircons from igneous and metamorphic clasts from the Goodenough No. 1 well indicate a single population with a 207Pb*/206/Pb* age of 2781 ± 9 Ma (2σ). We speculate that they are derived from basement rocks unroofed during initial stages of development of the D&Entrecasteaux metamorphic core complexes. These results provide the first direct evidence for the existence of Archean protoliths in the basement rocks of southeastern Papua New Guinea.

  2. Mineralogical and petrological investigations of rocks cored from depths higher than 440m during the CFDDP drilling activities at the Campi Flegrei caldera (southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mormone, Angela; Piochi, Monica; Balassone, Giuseppina; Carlino, Stefano; Somma, Renato; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The Campi Flegrei caldera is one of the highest-risk volcanic areas on the Earth and the drilling exploiting activities carried by the Azienda Geologica Italiana Petroli (AGIP) and the Società Anonima Forze Endogene Napoletane (SAFEN) since the '40 have produced the main constrains to the definition of the subsurface structure of the caldera. The eastern part of the caldera represents among the least known in the area in terms of both volcanic and geothermal evolution. Recently, in the 2012, the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP) allowed performing a 506m hole in this sector of the caldera, i.e. in the Bagnoli Plain, where the western districts of the Neapolitan city developed. Here, we present the preliminary results from mineralogical, geochemical and petrological investigations of drilling core samples collected at -443 m and -506 m of depths. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microanalysis by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) together with investigations by back-scattered electron mode (SEM-BSE), and powder X-Ray diffraction (XRD) allowed: 1) defining the primary sample lithology; 2) examining the features of both primary and secondary minerals; 3) describing the relationships among texture and secondary mineralization. Sr isotope analyses were furthermore performed on separated feldspars. Density measurements were also carried out on the bottom core. The investigated samples are representative of strongly altered, massive pyroclastic tuffs, which made of a chaotic ashy to sandy matrix including low crystalline juvenile scoria and pumice fragments. Textural features of secondary mineralization are consistent with circulation of hydrothermal fluids as the results of a wide geothermal resource in the caldera. Comparing the paleo-temperature inferred by authigenic minerals occurrence and the temperature measured at the bottom hole (~60°C) during geophysical logs, we suggest the cooling of the hydrothermal system in the eastern sector of the caldera.

  3. Assessing Eruption Column Height in Ancient Flood Basalt Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Self, Stephen; Schmidt, Anja; Hunter, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    A buoyant plume model is used to explore the ability of flood basalt eruptions to inject climate-relevant gases into the stratosphere. An example from the 1986 Izu-Oshima basaltic fissure eruption validates the model's ability to reproduce the observed maximum plume heights of 12-16 km above sea level, sustained above fire-fountains. The model predicts maximum plume heights of 13-17 km for source widths of between 4-16 m when 32% (by mass) of the erupted magma is fragmented and involved in the buoyant plume (effective volatile content of 6 wt%). Assuming that the Miocene-age Roza eruption (part of the Columbia River Basalt Group) sustained fire-fountains of similar height to Izu-Oshima (1.6 km above the vent), we show that the Roza eruption could have sustained buoyant ash and gas plumes that extended into the stratosphere at approximately 45 deg N. Assuming 5 km long active fissure segments and 9000 Mt of SO2 released during explosive phases over a 10-15 year duration, the approximately 180 km of known Roza fissure length could have supported approximately 36 explosive events/phases, each with a duration of 3-4 days. Each 5 km fissure segment could have emitted 62 Mt of SO2 per day into the stratosphere while actively fountaining, the equivalent of about three 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions per day. Each fissure segment could have had one to several vents, which subsequently produced lava without significant fountaining for a longer period within the decades-long eruption. Sensitivity of plume rise height to ancient atmospheric conditions is explored. Although eruptions in the Deccan Traps (approximately 66 Ma) may have generated buoyant plumes that rose to altitudes in excess of 18 km, they may not have reached the stratosphere because the tropopause was substantially higher in the late Cretaceous. Our results indicate that some flood basalt eruptions, such as Roza, were capable of repeatedly injecting large masses of SO2 into the stratosphere. Thus sustained

  4. Unravelling the limits to tree height: a major role for water and nutrient trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Michael D

    2012-05-01

    Competition for light has driven forest trees to grow exceedingly tall, but the lack of a single universal limit to tree height indicates multiple interacting environmental limitations. Because soil nutrient availability is determined by both nutrient concentrations and soil water, water and nutrient availabilities may interact in determining realised nutrient availability and consequently tree height. In SW Australia, which is characterised by nutrient impoverished soils that support some of the world's tallest forests, total [P] and water availability were independently correlated with tree height (r = 0.42 and 0.39, respectively). However, interactions between water availability and each of total [P], pH and [Mg] contributed to a multiple linear regression model of tree height (r = 0.72). A boosted regression tree model showed that maximum tree height was correlated with water availability (24%), followed by soil properties including total P (11%), Mg (10%) and total N (9%), amongst others, and that there was an interaction between water availability and total [P] in determining maximum tree height. These interactions indicated a trade-off between water and P availability in determining maximum tree height in SW Australia. This is enabled by a species assemblage capable of growing tall and surviving (some) disturbances. The mechanism for this trade-off is suggested to be through water enabling mass-flow and diffusive mobility of P, particularly of relatively mobile organic P, although water interactions with microbial activity could also play a role.

  5. Carbon nanotubes/heteroatom-doped carbon core-sheath nanostructures as highly active, metal-free oxygen reduction electrocatalysts for alkaline fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Sa, Young Jin; Park, Chiyoung; Jeong, Hu Young; Park, Seok-Hee; Lee, Zonghoon; Kim, Kyoung Taek; Park, Gu-Gon; Joo, Sang Hoon

    2014-04-14

    A facile, scalable route to new nanocomposites that are based on carbon nanotubes/heteroatom-doped carbon (CNT/HDC) core-sheath nanostructures is reported. These nanostructures were prepared by the adsorption of heteroatom-containing ionic liquids on the walls of CNTs, followed by carbonization. The design of the CNT/HDC composite allows for combining the electrical conductivity of the CNTs with the catalytic activity of the heteroatom-containing HDC sheath layers. The CNT/HDC nanostructures are highly active electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction and displayed one of the best performances among heteroatom-doped nanocarbon catalysts in terms of half-wave potential and kinetic current density. The four-electron selectivity and the exchange current density of the CNT/HDC nanostructures are comparable with those of a Pt/C catalyst, and the CNT/HDC composites were superior to Pt/C in terms of long-term durability and poison tolerance. Furthermore, an alkaline fuel cell that employs a CNT/HDC nanostructure as the cathode catalyst shows very high current and power densities, which sheds light on the practical applicability of these new nanocomposites.

  6. Core-shell N-doped active carbon fiber@graphene composites for aqueous symmetric supercapacitors with high-energy and high-power density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qinxing; Bao, Rongrong; Xie, Chao; Zheng, Anran; Wu, Shihua; Zhang, Yufeng; Zhang, Renwei; Zhao, Peng

    2016-06-01

    Graphene wrapped nitrogen-doped active carbon fibers (ACF@GR) of a core-shell structure were successfully prepared by a simple dip-coating method using natural silk as template. Compared to pure silk active carbon, the as-prepared ACF@GR composites exhibit high specific surface area in a range of 1628-2035 m2 g-1, as well as superior energy storage capability, an extremely high single-electrode capacitance of 552.8 F g-1 was achieved at a current density of 0.1 A g-1 in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. The assembled aqueous symmetric supercapacitors are capable of deliver both high energy density and high power density, for instance, 17.1 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 50.0 W kg-1, and 12.2 Wh kg-1 at 4.7 kW kg-1 with a retention rate of 71.3% for ACF@GR1-based supercapacitor.

  7. The core domain of Aquifex aeolicus tRNA (m7G46) methyltransferase has the methyl-transfer activity to tRNA.

    PubMed

    Tomikawa, Chie; Hori, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    Transfer RNA (m(7)G46) methyltransferase [TrmB] catalyses the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to the N(7)-atom of guanine at position 46 in tRNA. TrmB proteins from thermophilic bacteria such as Aquifex aeolicus have a long C-terminal region as compared to those from mesophilic bacteria. Further, N-terminal region observed in TrmB proteins from mesophiles is missing in A. aeolicus TrmB. Therefore, we considered that this distinct C-terminal region in A. aeolicus TrmB might compensate the N-terminal region in mesophile TrmB and function as a part of tRNA binding site. To confirm this idea, we deleted the C-terminal region by introduction of the stop codon at position 202. To our surprise, methyl-transfer assay using yeast tRNA(Phe) transcript clearly showed that the resultant mutant protein (Glu202Stop) had an enzymatic activity. Thus, the core domain of the A. aeolicus TrmB has a methyl-transfer activity.

  8. A core functional region of the RFP1 promoter from Chinese wild grapevine is activated by powdery mildew pathogen and heat stress.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yihe; Xu, Weirong; Wang, Jie; Wang, Lei; Yao, Wenkong; Xu, Yan; Ding, Jiahua; Wang, Yuejin

    2013-01-01

    RING-finger proteins (RFP) function as ubiquitin ligases and play key roles in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little information is available on the regulation of RFP expression. Here, we isolate and characterize the RFP promoter sequence from the disease-resistant Chinese wild grape Vitis pseudoreticulata accession Baihe-35-1. Promoter-GUS fusion assays revealed that defense signaling molecules, powdery mildew infection, and heat stress induce VpRFP1 promoter activity. By contrast, the RFP1 promoter isolated from Vitis vinifera was only slightly induced by pathogen infection and heat treatment. By promoter deletion analysis, we found that the -148 bp region of the VpRFP1 promoter was the core functional promoter region. We also found that, in Arabidopsis, VpRFP1 expressed under its own promoter activated defense-related gene expression and improved disease resistance, but the same construct using the VvRFP1 promoter slightly improve disease resistance. Our results demonstrated that the -148 bp region of the VpRFP1 promoter plays a key role in response to pathogen and heat stress, and suggested that expression differences between VpRFP1 and VvRFP1 may be key for the differing disease resistance phenotypes of the two Vitis genotypes.

  9. An Overview of Project CORES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Bill J.

    This paper describes the activities of Project Covert and Overt Responses to Education Simulation (CORES) designed to provide an identity for students and faculty desiring to engage in simulation-related research and development activities. Activities for investigating the use of simulation are in the directions of administrative decision making,…

  10. 47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... No minimum antenna height above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications will...=Height Above Average Terrain measured in meters. The boundaries specified are to be used to determine...

  11. 47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... No minimum antenna height above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications will...=Height Above Average Terrain measured in meters. The boundaries specified are to be used to determine...

  12. 47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... No minimum antenna height above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications will...=Height Above Average Terrain measured in meters. The boundaries specified are to be used to determine...

  13. Dynamics of core accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Ruffert, Maximilian

    2013-02-01

    We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of gas flowing around a planetary core of mass Mpl = 10M⊕ embedded in a near Keplerian background flow, using a modified shearing box approximation. We assume an ideal gas behaviour following an equation of state with a fixed ratio of the specific heats, γ = 1.42, consistent with the conditions of a moderate-temperature background disc with solar composition. No radiative heating or cooling is included in the models. We employ a nested grid hydrodynamic code implementing the `Piecewise Parabolic Method' with as many as six fixed nested grids, providing spatial resolution on the finest grid comparable to the present-day diameters of Neptune and Uranus. We find that a strongly dynamically active flow develops such that no static envelope can form. The activity is not sensitive to plausible variations in the rotation curve of the underlying disc. It is sensitive to the thermodynamic treatment of the gas, as modelled by prescribed equations of state (either `locally isothermal' or `locally isentropic') and the temperature of the background disc material. The activity is also sensitive to the shape and depth of the core's gravitational potential, through its mass and gravitational softening coefficient. Each of these factors influences the magnitude and character of hydrodynamic feedback of the small-scale flow on the background, and we conclude that accurate modelling of such feedback is critical to a complete understanding of the core accretion process. The varying flow pattern gives rise to large, irregular eruptions of matter from the region around the core which return matter to the background flow: mass in the envelope at one time may not be found in the envelope at any later time. No net mass accretion into the envelope is observed over the course of the simulation and none is expected, due to our neglect of cooling. Except in cases of very rapid cooling however, as defined by locally isothermal or

  14. Dynamics of core accretion

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Ruffert, Maximilian

    2012-12-21

    In this paper, we perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of gas flowing around a planetary core of mass Mpl = 10M⊕ embedded in a near Keplerian background flow, using a modified shearing box approximation. We assume an ideal gas behaviour following an equation of state with a fixed ratio of the specific heats, γ = 1.42, consistent with the conditions of a moderate-temperature background disc with solar composition. No radiative heating or cooling is included in the models. We employ a nested grid hydrodynamic code implementing the ‘Piecewise Parabolic Method’ with as many as six fixed nested grids, providing spatial resolutionmore » on the finest grid comparable to the present-day diameters of Neptune and Uranus. We find that a strongly dynamically active flow develops such that no static envelope can form. The activity is not sensitive to plausible variations in the rotation curve of the underlying disc. It is sensitive to the thermodynamic treatment of the gas, as modelled by prescribed equations of state (either ‘locally isothermal’ or ‘locally isentropic’) and the temperature of the background disc material. The activity is also sensitive to the shape and depth of the core's gravitational potential, through its mass and gravitational softening coefficient. Each of these factors influences the magnitude and character of hydrodynamic feedback of the small-scale flow on the background, and we conclude that accurate modelling of such feedback is critical to a complete understanding of the core accretion process. The varying flow pattern gives rise to large, irregular eruptions of matter from the region around the core which return matter to the background flow: mass in the envelope at one time may not be found in the envelope at any later time. No net mass accretion into the envelope is observed over the course of the simulation and none is expected, due to our neglect of cooling. Except in cases of very rapid cooling however, as

  15. Dynamics of core accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Ruffert, Maximilian

    2012-12-21

    In this paper, we perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of gas flowing around a planetary core of mass Mpl = 10M embedded in a near Keplerian background flow, using a modified shearing box approximation. We assume an ideal gas behaviour following an equation of state with a fixed ratio of the specific heats, γ = 1.42, consistent with the conditions of a moderate-temperature background disc with solar composition. No radiative heating or cooling is included in the models. We employ a nested grid hydrodynamic code implementing the ‘Piecewise Parabolic Method’ with as many as six fixed nested grids, providing spatial resolution on the finest grid comparable to the present-day diameters of Neptune and Uranus. We find that a strongly dynamically active flow develops such that no static envelope can form. The activity is not sensitive to plausible variations in the rotation curve of the underlying disc. It is sensitive to the thermodynamic treatment of the gas, as modelled by prescribed equations of state (either ‘locally isothermal’ or ‘locally isentropic’) and the temperature of the background disc material. The activity is also sensitive to the shape and depth of the core's gravitational potential, through its mass and gravitational softening coefficient. Each of these factors influences the magnitude and character of hydrodynamic feedback of the small-scale flow on the background, and we conclude that accurate modelling of such feedback is critical to a complete understanding of the core accretion process. The varying flow pattern gives rise to large, irregular eruptions of matter from the region around the core which return matter to the background flow: mass in the envelope at one time may not be found in the envelope at any later time. No net mass accretion into the envelope is observed over the course of the simulation and none is expected, due to our neglect of cooling. Except in cases of very rapid cooling

  16. 15 Years of Wave Height Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, P.

    2006-07-01

    Over the past fiffteen years there has been a continuous interplay between ocean wave forecasting and altimeter data resulting in improvemen ts in both. The prospect of global observations of wind and waves gave a significan t stimulus to wave model development, while the need to have reliab le wav e predictions stimu lated the d evelopment of altimeter wind and wave products. This p aper covers the following: - Altimeter W ave Height D ata Assimilation of altimeter wave height data is of vital importance for the quality of the wave analysis and ocean wave forecasting. In addition, these data are a great h elp in diagnosing wave model problems. Furthermore th ey have great value in ob taining a g lobal wave climato logy. -Altimeter W ind Sp eed D ata Wind speed data are important for mon itor ing the quality of modelled surface w ind. Recen tly, the 'classical' W itter and Ch elton (1991) retriev al algorithm for wind speed (σ0 = ƒ(U10))has been extended by includ ing sea state eff ects and has been in troduced for Jason. On the other hand, th e classical scheme was improved by Abdalla (2006) and introduced for ENVISAT. Th e Abdalla algorithm is shown to perform better, however . Altimeter w indspeed data h ave the potential to be of great value in hurricane conditions as w ell. -Tsunamis An altimeter can ind eed observe tsunami even ts, but there is doubt th at this may be of value for an early warning system.

  17. Core Stability Training for Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Huxel Bliven, Kellie C.; Anderson, Barton E.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Enhancing core stability through exercise is common to musculoskeletal injury prevention programs. Definitive evidence demonstrating an association between core instability and injury is lacking; however, multifaceted prevention programs including core stabilization exercises appear to be effective at reducing lower extremity injury rates. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for epidemiologic, biomechanic, and clinical studies of core stability for injury prevention (keywords: “core OR trunk” AND “training OR prevention OR exercise OR rehabilitation” AND “risk OR prevalence”) published between January 1980 and October 2012. Articles with relevance to core stability risk factors, assessment, and training were reviewed. Relevant sources from articles were also retrieved and reviewed. Results: Stabilizer, mobilizer, and load transfer core muscles assist in understanding injury risk, assessing core muscle function, and developing injury prevention programs. Moderate evidence of alterations in core muscle recruitment and injury risk exists. Assessment tools to identify deficits in volitional muscle contraction, isometric muscle endurance, stabilization, and movement patterns are available. Exercise programs to improve core stability should focus on muscle activation, neuromuscular control, static stabilization, and dynamic stability. Conclusion: Core stabilization relies on instantaneous integration among passive, active, and neural control subsystems. Core muscles are often categorized functionally on the basis of stabilizing or mobilizing roles. Neuromuscular control is critical in coordinating this complex system for dynamic stabilization. Comprehensive assessment and training require a multifaceted approach to address core muscle strength, endurance, and recruitment requirements for functional demands associated with daily activities, exercise, and sport. PMID:24427426

  18. 50 CFR 648.50 - Shell-height standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shell-height standard. 648.50 Section 648... Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.50 Shell-height standard. (a) Minimum shell height. The minimum shell height for in-shell scallops that may be landed, or possessed at or after landing, is 3.5 inches (8.9...

  19. Technique for determining midlatitude O+/H+ transition heights from topside ionograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Phillip A.; Benson, Robert F.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.

    2006-12-01

    The midlatitude O+/H+ transition height (where the H+ and O+ number densities are equal) is of importance because it is where the topside altitude distribution of the dominant ions transitions from the ionospheric F region into the plasmasphere, which is considered the inner region of the magnetosphere. This transition height can be determined by fitting ionospheric topside sounder-derived electron density (Ne) profiles to analytical H+ and O+ functions. There are four variables involved in this process, two involving ion number densities and two involving the electron temperature Te. The density variables are the H+ density at the height of the satellite and the O+ density at the base of the profile (taken as 400 km). The temperature variables have been treated using different approaches. In an earlier investigation, diffusive equilibrium ion density profiles, based on an earlier Titheridge height-varying electron temperature function, were used to fit the Ne profiles in which the electron temperature Te and the Te altitude gradient at a base height of 400 km, denoted by T0 and G0, respectively, were free variables. In the present work, T0 and G0 are constrained by using a later Titheridge empirical temperature model. Alternatively, when in situ Langmuir probe Te determinations are available, the problem reduces to one with only one free temperature variable. All three of these approaches, using Titheridge's revised height-varying electron temperature function, are applied to a sequence of midlatitude ISIS 2-derived Ne profiles obtained during a period of prolonged high magnetic activity. The results indicate that in the inner plasmasphere, where the transition height is slowly varying, the approach based on the two free Te parameters (T0 and G0) agrees well with the one using the Langmuir probe input. In the region where the transition height is rapidly increasing, however, the approach based on the empirical temperature model produced the most consistent results

  20. Mutation in the LPS outer core biosynthesis gene, galU, affects LPS interaction with the RTX toxins ApxI and ApxII and cytolytic activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1.

    PubMed

    Ramjeet, Mahendrasingh; Cox, Andrew D; Hancock, Mark A; Mourez, Michael; Labrie, Josée; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Jacques, Mario

    2008-10-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and Apx toxins are major virulence factors of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, a pathogen of the respiratory tract of pigs. Here, we evaluated the effect of LPS core truncation in haemolytic and cytotoxic activities of this microorganism. We previously generated a highly attenuated galU mutant of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 that has an LPS molecule lacking the GalNAc-Gal II-Gal I outer core residues. Our results demonstrate that this mutant exhibits wild-type haemolytic activity but is significantly less cytotoxic to porcine alveolar macrophages. However, no differences were found in gene expression and secretion of the haemolytic and cytotoxic toxins ApxI and ApxII, both secreted by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. This suggests that the outer core truncation mediated by the galU mutation affects the toxins in their cytotoxic activities. Using both ELISA and surface plasmon resonance binding assays, we demonstrate a novel interaction between LPS and the ApxI and ApxII toxins via the core oligosaccharide. Our results indicate that the GalNAc-Gal II-Gal I trisaccharide of the outer core is fundamental to mediating LPS/Apx interactions. The present study suggests that a lack of binding between LPS and ApxI/II affects the cytotoxicity and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:18713318

  1. 47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Effective antenna height. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna height. The effective height of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...

  2. 47 CFR 73.211 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.211... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.211 Power and antenna height requirements. (a... Class C and C0 stations is 100 kW. (2) Class C0 stations must have an antenna height above...

  3. 47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.232 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna height limits. (a)(1) Base... radiated power (EIRP) with an antenna height up to 300 meters HAAT, except as described in paragraph...

  4. 47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.232 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna height limits. (a)(1) Base... radiated power (EIRP) with an antenna height up to 300 meters HAAT, except as described in paragraph...

  5. 47 CFR 73.614 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.614... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.614 Power and antenna height requirements.... No minimum antenna height above average terrain is specified. (b) Maximum power. Applications...

  6. 47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Effective antenna height. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna height. The effective height of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...

  7. 47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effective antenna height. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna height. The effective height of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...

  8. 47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna height limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna height except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...

  9. 47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna height limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna height except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...

  10. 47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna height limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna height except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...

  11. 47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.232 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna height limits. (a)(1) Base... radiated power (EIRP) with an antenna height up to 300 meters HAAT, except as described in paragraph...

  12. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  13. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  14. 47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.232 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna height limits. (a)(1) Base... radiated power (EIRP) with an antenna height up to 300 meters HAAT, except as described in paragraph...

  15. 47 CFR 24.132 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.132 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.132 Power and antenna height limits. (a) Stations... unlimited in antenna height except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section. (d)(1) MTA and...

  16. 47 CFR 80.763 - Effective antenna height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective antenna height. 80.763 Section 80.763... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.763 Effective antenna height. The effective height of the antenna is the vertical distance between the center of the...

  17. 47 CFR 73.211 - Power and antenna height requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power and antenna height requirements. 73.211... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.211 Power and antenna height requirements. (a... Class C and C0 stations is 100 kW. (2) Class C0 stations must have an antenna height above...

  18. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  19. 47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

  20. 47 CFR 24.232 - Power and antenna height limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power and antenna height limits. 24.232 Section... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.232 Power and antenna height limits. (a)(1) Base... radiated power (EIRP) with an antenna height up to 300 meters HAAT, except as described in paragraph...