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Sample records for active costa rican

  1. Crustal structure along the active Costa Rican volcanic arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizarralde, D.; Holbrook, W. S.; van Avendonk, H. J.; Mora Fernandez, M.; Alvarado, G. E.; Harder, S. H.

    2010-12-01

    We present results from an explosion-source seismic refraction transect along the entire active Costa Rican volcanic arc. The seismic data were acquired in 2005 as part of the TICO-CAVA experiment with the goals of delineating the basic crustal architecture of this relatively young volcanic arc, understanding magmatic emplacement processes, and estimating the bulk composition and growth rates of arc crust. The seismic transect extends ~280 km along the axis of the arc and consists of 16 shots (200 - 1200 kg) recorded by 710 seismometers. The active Costa Rican arc consists of two segments with distinct morphologies, the Guanacaste Cordillera (GC) in the north and Central Cordillera (CC) in the south. This segmentation is linked to the subducting Cocos ridge, which occurs beneath the CC and has a northern boundary roughly coincident with the arc segment boundary. Volcanoes of the GC rise from a plateau of ~500 m elevation to maximum heights of ~1500 m, while the CC volcanoes rise from ~1500 m to heights of 3500 m. The crustal structure beneath these segments is distinctly different. The entire arc is covered by a ~5-km-thick carapace with velocities of 4.5-5.8 km/s that probably represent volcaniclastics, flows and small plutons. Beneath the GC, a 1- to 2-km-thick “grainitic” layer (6.0-6.1 km/s) lies beneath the carapace. Velocities below this granitic layer suggest a somewhat more mafic composition, but they increase slowly with depth from 6.2-6.3 km/s between 6-15 km depth. Total crustal thickness beneath the GC is ~40 km, but analysis of crustal thickness is ongoing. The crust beneath Guanacaste thus has a velocity structure very similar to average continental crust, though with slightly slower velocities, perhaps due to high temperatures beneath the arc. As the arc has only been active in this location for <5 m.y., this suggests that either the earlier Neogene arc to the west substantially modified the oceanic-plateau crustal foundation here or that the

  2. Barriers to and Suggestions for a Healthful, Active Lifestyle as Perceived by Rural and Urban Costa Rican Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Garita-Arce, Carlos; Sanchez-Lopez, Marta; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the perceptions of rural and urban Costa Rican adolescents regarding which barriers and motivators affect their adoption of an active lifestyle. Design: Data were collected in focus group discussions. Participants: 108 male and female adolescents aged 12 to 18 from the 7th to 11th grades. Setting: Two urban and 1 rural high…

  3. Identification of endangered or threatened Costa Rican tree species by wood anatomy and fluorescence activity.

    PubMed

    Moya, Róger; Wiemann, Michael C; Olivares, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES) includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction) wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus) or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii) semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification.

  4. Phenolic-rich extract from the Costa Rican guava (Psidium friedrichsthalianum) pulp with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Potential for COPD therapy

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Gema; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Wu, Shi-Biao; Whalen, Kathleen; Dabo, Abdoulaye J.; Reynertson, Kurt A.; Foronjy, Robert F.; D’Armiento, Jeanine M.; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    The potential therapeutic effects of Costa Rican guava (Psidium friedrichsthalianum) extracts for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were examined. The ethyl acetate fraction displayed the highest antioxidant activity, as compared to the hexane, chloroform, and n-butanol fractions, as well as the crude extract. This fraction was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory activity response relationship against interleukin-8 (IL-8) and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression before and after treatment with cigarette smoke. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited inhibitory activity against IL-8 production and MMP-1 expression, showing the most potent inhibitory activities in both assays at 100 μg/mL, and nine compounds (1–9) were found. Phenolic compounds 1-O-trans-cinnamoyl-β-D-glucopyranose (2), ellagic acid (3), myricetin (4), quercitrin (7), and quercetin (9) were identified using standard compounds or literature reports from related species. Compounds 1, 5, 6, and 8 were tentatively identified as 1,5-dimethyl citrate (1), sinapic aldehyde 4-O-β-D-glucopyranose (5), 3,3′,4-tri-O-methylellagic acid-4′-O-D-glucopyranoside (6), and 1,3-O-diferuloylglycerol (8), All nine compounds are reported for the first time in Costa Rican guava. PMID:23790863

  5. Phenolic-rich extract from the Costa Rican guava (Psidium friedrichsthalianum) pulp with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Potential for COPD therapy.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gema; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Wu, Shi-Biao; Whalen, Kathleen; Dabo, Abdoulaye J; Reynertson, Kurt A; Foronjy, Robert F; D Armiento, Jeanine M; Kennelly, Edward J

    2013-11-15

    The potential therapeutic effects of Costa Rican guava (Psidium friedrichsthalianum) extracts for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were examined. The ethyl acetate fraction displayed the highest antioxidant activity, as compared to the hexane, chloroform, and n-butanol fractions, as well as the crude extract. This fraction was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory activity response relationship against interleukin-8 (IL-8) and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression before and after treatment with cigarette smoke. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited inhibitory activity against IL-8 production and MMP-1 expression, showing the most potent inhibitory activities in both assays at 100μg/mL, and nine compounds (1-9) were found. Phenolic compounds 1-O-trans-cinnamoyl-β-d-glucopyranose (2), ellagic acid (3), myricetin (4), quercitrin (7), and quercetin (9) were identified using standard compounds or literature reports from related species. Compounds 1, 5, 6, and 8 were tentatively identified as 1,5-dimethyl citrate (1), sinapic aldehyde 4-O-β-d-glucopyranose (5), 3,3',4-tri-O-methylellagic acid-4'-O-d-glucopyranoside (6), and 1,3-O-diferuloylglycerol (8), All nine compounds are reported for the first time in Costa Rican guava.

  6. The Exceptionally High Life Expectancy of Costa Rican Nonagenarians

    PubMed Central

    ROSERO-BIXBY, LUIS

    2008-01-01

    Robust data from a voter registry show that Costa Rican nonagenarians have an exceptionally high live expectancy. Mortality at age 90 in Costa Rica is at least 14% lower than an average of 13 high-income countries. This advantage increases with age by 1% per year. Males have an additional 12% advantage. Age-90 life expectancy for males is 4.4 years, one-half year more than any other country in the world. These estimates do not use problematic data on reported ages, but ages are computed from birth dates in the Costa Rican birth-registration ledgers. Census data confirm the exceptionally high survival of elderly Costa Ricans, especially males. Comparisons with the United States and Sweden show that the Costa Rican advantage comes mostly from reduced incidence of cardiovascular diseases, coupled with a low prevalence of obesity, as the only available explanatory risk factor. Costa Rican nonagenarians are survivors of cohorts that underwent extremely harsh health conditions when young, and their advantage might be just a heterogeneity in frailty effect that might disappear in more recent cohorts. The availability of reliable estimates for the oldest-old in low-income populations is extremely rare. These results may enlighten the debate over how harsh early-life health conditions affect older-age mortality. PMID:18939667

  7. Smoking: attitudes of Costa Rican physicians and opportunities for intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, D. W.; Knox, J. J.; Nash, C.; Jiménez, J. G.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information, using a written questionnaire, on the knowledge, smoking behaviour, and attitudes of Costa Rican physicians about smoking as a health issue. A random sample of 650 physicians was chosen from a list of active physicians; 287 of them were covered by survey between August 1993 and October 1994, and 217 (76%) responded with data for the study. While 40% of the physicians who participated were ex-smokers, 19% were current smokers; 67% of these two groups combined reported smoking in the workplace. Only 49% believed that physicians could be a nonsmoking role model; the majority (87%) had asked patients about their smoking status. The only cessation technique consistently used (90%) was counselling about the dangers of smoking. Measures such as setting a date to quit smoking and nicotine replacement were rarely recommended (< or = 2%). Nearly all the physicians (99%) considered smoking to be a major health issue. These results showed a high prevalence of smoking among Costa Rican physicians, with little recognition of the need for them to set an example as a role model. While they were knowledgeable about the health risks of smoking, they did not recommend any of the proven techniques to help their patients to quit smoking. A clear consensus for more strict tobacco regulation exists, but to date little has been done to act on this. PMID:10327710

  8. Citizenship, Wealth, and Whiteness in a Costa Rican High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the democratic rhetoric taught in a Costa Rican High School and the ways in which that rhetoric clashed with school practices that revealed hierarchies based on race, ethnicity, class, and religion. This contradiction was rendered visible through student elections, the Independence Day celebration, and civic acts. Through…

  9. Use of cholinesterase activity as a biomarker of pesticide exposure used on Costa Rican banana plantations in the native tropical fish Astyanax aeneus (Günther, 1860).

    PubMed

    Mena, F; Azzopardi, M; Pfennig, S; Ruepert, C; Tedengren, M; Castillo, L E; Gunnarsson, J S

    2014-01-01

    In Costa Rica, thousands of tones of agricultural pesticides have been used for decades and their use is continuously increasing due to intensive and expanding production of coffee, pineapple, rice, ornamental plants and bananas. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether choline esterase (ChE) activity could be used as a biomarker of exposure to pesticides in the Costa Rican native fish Astyanax aeneus (characidae). Three methods used in order to evaluate the ChE biomarker were as follows: Laboratory studies where A. aeneus was exposed to organophosphate pesticide (ethoprophos); In situ 48 hr exposure assessment using caging experiments with fish exposed upstream and downstream of banana plantations and ChE activity estimation of in fish captured directly at sites with different degrees of pesticide exposure. Results from the laboratory studies showed that ChE activity in both brain and muscle tissue was significantly lower in fish exposed to ethoprophos than in controls. Fish from the caging experiments showed no difference in ChE activity neither in brain nor in muscle tissue between the four tested sites and was attributed to the short duration of the exposure. Asignificant difference in ChE activity was determined in muscle of fish captured from Laguna Madre de Dios compared to fish from Canal Batán. Although our laboratory results revealed that ChE activity in A. aeneus was highly responsive to ethoprophos, results from field experiments were less conclusive and showed that the captured fish showed large variability in ChE activity and that more research is needed before ChE activity can be used as reliable biomarker of pesticide exposure.

  10. Agricultural "killing fields": the poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers.

    PubMed

    Sass, R

    2000-01-01

    The poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers by multinational corporations' excessive use of pesticides is not a local issue; it is embedded in a dominant ideology expressed by the phenomenon of globalization. This ideology seeps into every aspect of our social institutions--economic, political, and legal. The practice of this ideological perspective is evident in the industrialization of global agriculture and the shift from "developmentalism"--liberal welfarism, industrialization, and urbanization--to a dominant, undemocratic, global financial elite with "economism" and a neoliberal political agenda overriding the nation-state polis. A specific effect is to transform the agricultural workers of developing countries, such as Costa Rican banana workers, into politically superfluous flesh-and-blood human beings.

  11. Rates of weathering rind formation on Costa Rican basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sak, Peter B.; Fisher, Donald M.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Murphy, Katherine; Brantley, Susan L.

    2004-04-01

    ( r r = 2.9 ± 0.1 cm) is coincident with stage 5e (ca. 125 ka) and that Qt 3 (r r = 0.9 ± 0.1 cm) is consistent with OIS 3 (ca. 37 ka). These assignments yield a value of k app of 8.6 × 10 -13 cm s -1 (R 2 = 0.99). Only this value satisfies both the existing age controls and yields ages coincident with sea level maxima. Using this value, elemental weathering release fluxes across a weathering rind from Qt 2 range from 6.0 × 10 -9 mol Si m -2 s -1 to 2.5 × 10 -11 mol K m -2 s -1. The rate of rind advance for the Costa Rican terraces is 2.8 × 10 -7 m yr -1. Basalt rind formation rates in lower temperature settings described in the literature are also consistent with interface-controlled weathering with an apparent activation energy of about 50 kJ mol -1. Rates of rind formation in Costa Rica are an order of magnitude slower than reported for global averages of soil formation rates.

  12. Effect of fragmentation on the Costa Rican dry forest avifauna.

    PubMed

    Barrantes, Gilbert; Ocampo, Diego; Ramírez-Fernández, José D; Fuchs, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and changes in land use have reduced the tropical dry forest to isolated forest patches in northwestern Costa Rica. We examined the effect of patch area and length of the dry season on nestedness of the entire avian community, forest fragment assemblages, and species occupancy across fragments for the entire native avifauna, and for a subset of forest dependent species. Species richness was independent of both fragment area and distance between fragments. Similarity in bird community composition between patches was related to habitat structure; fragments with similar forest structure have more similar avian assemblages. Size of forest patches influenced nestedness of the bird community and species occupancy, but not nestedness of assemblages across patches in northwestern Costa Rican avifauna. Forest dependent species (species that require large tracts of mature forest) and assemblages of these species were nested within patches ordered by a gradient of seasonality, and only occupancy of species was nested by area of patches. Thus, forest patches with a shorter dry season include more forest dependent species.

  13. Reconnaissance of selected PPCP compounds in Costa Rican surface waters.

    PubMed

    Spongberg, Alison L; Witter, Jason D; Acuña, Jenaro; Vargas, José; Murillo, Manuel; Umaña, Gerardo; Gómez, Eddy; Perez, Greivin

    2011-12-15

    Eighty-six water samples were collected in early 2009 from Costa Rican surface water and coastal locations for the analysis of 34 pharmaceutical and personal care product compounds (PPCPs). Sampling sites included areas receiving treated and untreated wastewaters, and urban and rural runoff. PPCPs were analyzed using a combination of solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The five most frequently detected compounds were doxycycline (77%), sulfadimethoxine (43%), salicylic acid (41%), triclosan (34%) and caffeine (29%). Caffeine had the maximum concentration of 1.1 mg L(-1), possibly due to coffee bean production facilities upstream. Other compounds found in high concentrations include: doxycycline (74 μg L(-1)), ibuprofen (37 μg L(-1)), gemfibrozil (17 μg L(-1)), acetominophen (13 μg L(-1)) and ketoprofen (10 μg L(-1)). The wastewater effluent collected from an oxidation pond had similar detection and concentrations of compounds compared to other studies reported in the literature. Waters receiving runoff from a nearby hospital showed higher concentrations than other areas for many PPCPs. Both caffeine and carbamazepine were found in low frequency compared to other studies, likely due to enhanced degradation and low usage, respectively. Overall concentrations of PPCPs in surface waters of Costa Rica are inline with currently reported occurrence data from around the world, with the exception of doxycycline.

  14. Effect of fragmentation on the Costa Rican dry forest avifauna

    PubMed Central

    Barrantes, Gilbert; Ocampo, Diego; Ramírez-Fernández, José D.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and changes in land use have reduced the tropical dry forest to isolated forest patches in northwestern Costa Rica. We examined the effect of patch area and length of the dry season on nestedness of the entire avian community, forest fragment assemblages, and species occupancy across fragments for the entire native avifauna, and for a subset of forest dependent species. Species richness was independent of both fragment area and distance between fragments. Similarity in bird community composition between patches was related to habitat structure; fragments with similar forest structure have more similar avian assemblages. Size of forest patches influenced nestedness of the bird community and species occupancy, but not nestedness of assemblages across patches in northwestern Costa Rican avifauna. Forest dependent species (species that require large tracts of mature forest) and assemblages of these species were nested within patches ordered by a gradient of seasonality, and only occupancy of species was nested by area of patches. Thus, forest patches with a shorter dry season include more forest dependent species. PMID:27672498

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts of five Costa Rican medicinal plants in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Badilla, B; Mora, G; Poveda, L J

    1999-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory properties of Loasa speciosa and Loasa triphylla (Loasaceae), Urtica leptuphylla and Urera baccifera (Urticaceae), and Chaptalia nutans (Asteracene) were studied using the carregeenan induced rat paw edema model. Aqueous extracts of each plant were made according to the ethnobotanical use. The hippocratic assay was made with female rats; the dose used was 500 mg/kg i.p. and the control group received 0.5 ml of n.s.s.. All the animals treated showed hypothermia, and those treated with the extracts of Chaptalia nutans, Urera baccifera and Urtica leptuphylla showed an increased colinergic activity. Acute toxicities of the aqueous extracts were studied in mice an the mean lethal doses ranged between 1.0226 and 1.2022 g/kg. The extracts of Urera baccifera, Chaptalia nutans, Loasa speciosa and Loasa triphylla (500 mg/kg i.p.) showed an anti-inflammatory activity comparable with that of indomethacin. The extracts of U. baccifera and C. nutans, which showed the greatest anti-inflammatory activity, did not show it when used orally (500 mg/kg p.o.).

  16. The Influence of Time Spent in Outdoor Play on Daily and Aerobic Step Count in Costa Rican Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morera Castro, Maria del Rocio

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of time spent in outdoor play (i.e., on weekday and weekend days) on daily (i.e., average step count) and aerobic step count (i.e., average moderate to vigorous physical activity [MVPA] during the weekdays and weekend days) in fifth grade Costa Rican children. It was hypothesized that: (a)…

  17. Ecosystem-Level Carbon Stocks in Costa Rican Mangrove Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifuentes, M.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical mangroves provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, including atmospheric carbon sequestration. Because of their high rates of carbon accumulation, the large expected size of their total stocks (from 2 to 5 times greater than those of upland tropical forests), and the alarming rates at which they are being converted to other uses (releasing globally from 0.02 to 0.12 Pg C yr-1), mangroves are receiving increasing attention as additional tools to mitigate climate change. However, data on whole ecosystem-level carbon in tropical mangroves is limited. Here I present the first estimate of ecosystem level carbon stocks in mangrove forests of Central America. I established 28, 125 m-long, sampling transects along the 4 main rivers draining the Térraba-Sierpe National Wetland in the southern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. This area represents 39% of all remaining mangroves in the country (48300 ha). A circular nested plot was placed every 25 m along each transect. Carbon stocks of standing trees, regeneration, the herbaceous layer, litter, and downed wood were measured following internationally-developed methods compatible with IPCC "Good Practice Guidelines". In addition, total soil carbon stocks were determined down to 1 m depth. Together, these carbon estimates represent the ecosystem-carbon stocks of these forests. The average aboveground carbon stocks were 72.5 ± 3.2 MgC ha-1 (range: 9 - 241 MgC ha-1), consistent with results elsewhere in the world. Between 74 and 92% of the aboveground carbon is stored in trees ≥ 5cm dbh. I found a significant correlation between basal area of trees ≥ 5cm dbh and total aboveground carbon. Soil carbon stocks to 1 m depth ranged between 141 y 593 MgC ha-1. Ecosystem-level carbon stocks ranged from 391 MgC ha-1 to 438 MgC ha-1, with a slight increase from south to north locations. Soil carbon stocks represent an average 76% of total ecosystem carbon stocks, while trees represent only 20%. These Costa Rican mangroves

  18. Fog deposition at a windward Costa Rican cloud forest site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frumau, K. F. A.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Tobon-Marin, C.

    2010-07-01

    The hydrological importance of tropical montane cloud forests is recognized increasingly, mostly with respect to the additional water inputs provided by the capture of fog by the forest canopy compared to a non-forested situation (e.g. pasture) in the same environmental setting. The deposition of fog (interception) consists of two components, viz. advectional impaction against roughness elements in the landscape, and vertical settlement both by turbulent diffusion and by gravitational settling. Turbulent diffusion being a function of the aerodynamic roughness of the surface it is typically enhanced over forest compared to pasture. In windward montane areas fog often consists of stratus clouds being forced uphill with the cloud being "stripped" by roughness elements in the landscape. However, due to rain-generating processes these clouds rarely have fog-sized droplets only and larger drops are present as well. Under sufficiently strong wind speeds (e.g. in the trade-wind belt), drizzle-sized droplets tend to follow the terrain and behave like fog. Consequently, there is no unbiased manner in which to separate between fog and drizzle using conventional fog and rain gauges only. Similarly, hydrologically effective precipitation (inclined rainfall) is difficult to determine in mountainous areas, which complicates the determination of fog deposition using wet-canopy water budget approaches. The deposition of fog to a windward Costa Rican montane cloud forest was studied during a full hydrological year (between 1 July 2003 and 1 July 2004). Fog deposition was estimated from the wet canopy water budget as the difference between hydrologically effective precipitation and the sum of throughfall, stemflow, and interception loss. The results show that fog interception constituted a much smaller contribution at this site compared to wind-driven drizzle.

  19. Science Achievement of Costa Rican Sixth Grade Students and Its Relationship with Selected Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esquivel-Alfaro, Juan Manuel; Diaz-Solis, Sofia Maria

    This study had three purposes. First, to develop and validate a criterion-referenced test to measure science knowledge of students who finished the second cycle of the Basic General Education (6th grade). Second, to assess the performance of the entire Costa Rican population of sixth graders and, third, to analyze the results according to some…

  20. Challenges for implementing water quality monitoring and analysis on a small Costa Rican catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golcher, Christian; Cernesson, Flavie; Tournoud, Marie-George; Bonin, Muriel; Suarez, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The Costa Rican water regulatory framework (WRF) (2007), expresses the national concern about the degradation of surface water quality observed in the country since several years. Given the urgency of preserving and restoring the surface water bodies, and facing the need of defining a monitoring tool to classify surface water pollution, the Costa-Rican WRF relies on two water quality indexes: the so-called "Dutch Index" (D.I) and the Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted to Costa Rica (BMWP'CR), allowing an "easy" physicochemical and biological appraisal of the water quality and the ecological integrity of water bodies. Herein, we intend to evaluate whether the compound of water quality indexes imposed by Costa Rican legislation, is suitable to assess rivers local and global anthropogenic pressure and environmental conditions. We monitor water quality for 7 points of Liberia River (northern pacific region - Costa Rica) from March 2013 to July 2015. Anthropogenic pressures are characterized by catchment land use and riparian conditions. Environmental conditions are built from rainfall daily series. Our results show (i) the difficulties to monitor new sites following the recent implementation of the WRF; (ii) the statistical characteristics of each index; and (iii) a modelling tentative of relationships between water quality indexes and explanatory factors (land-use, riparian characteristics and climate conditions).

  1. Insurance and other socioeconomic determinants of elderly longevity in a Costa Rican panel.

    PubMed

    Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Dow, William H; Laclé, Adriana

    2005-11-01

    Official figures show that life expectancy in Costa Rica is longer than in the United States (US), in spite of the fact that per capita health expenditure is only one-tenth that of the US. To check whether this is for real and to explore some of its determinants, 900 Costa Ricans aged 60+ were followed from 1984 to 2001. Follow-up household visits were made, deaths were tracked in the national death registry, and survival status in the voting registry was double-checked. In addition, the survivors were contacted in 2002. Two-thirds of the panel had died by December 2001. Kaplan-Meier curves, life tables and Cox regression were used to analyse the panel's survival. Mortality in the panel was slightly higher than the Costa Rican average and similar to that in the US, confirming the exceptional longevity of Costa Ricans. Survival was substantially lower among unmarried men and individuals with limited autonomy at the beginning of the study. The effect of socioeconomic status is weak. Insurance effects seem to be confounded by selection biases.

  2. Costa Rican environmental service payments: The use of a financial instrument in participatory forest management.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Miriam; Dieperink, Carel; Glasbergen, Pieter

    2006-10-01

    The core element of the Costa Rican forestry policy is a financial instrument called the environmental service payment. This instrument rewards forest owners for the environmental services (the mitigation of greenhouse gases, the protection of watersheds and scenic beauty, and the development of biodiversity) their forests provide. In this article, the experiences with this new instrument are analyzed by focusing on the way interests are represented and access is granted, the openness of information exchange, whether social learning occurred, and whether decision-making authority is shared. The analysis is based on a survey conducted in the Huetar Norte Region and on in-depth interviews with the major stakeholders. The Costa Rican case indicates that financial instruments can be used to share responsibilities and that stakeholders can successfully cooperate on forest issues. It also shows that such a participatory approach is only promising if certain cultural, economic, organizational, and political conditions are met.

  3. The Galapagos-OIB signature of the central Costa Rican volcanic front: arc-hotspot interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazel, E.; Carr, M. J.; Hoernle, K.; Feigenson, M. D.; Hauff, F.; Szymanski, D.; van den Bogaard, P.

    2008-12-01

    Although most Central American magmas have a typical arc geochemical signature, magmas in southern Central America have isotopic and trace element compositions with an OIB affinity, similar to the Galapagos hotspot lavas. Our new data for Costa Rica suggest that this signature, unusual for a convergent margin, has a relatively recent origin (Late Miocene-Pliocene ca. 6 Ma). We also show that there was a transition from typical arc magmas (analogous to the modern Nicaraguan volcanic front) to OIB-like magmas. The geographic distribution of the Galapagos signature in recent lavas from southern Central America is present landward from the subduction of the Galapagos hotspot tracks (the Seamount Province and the Cocos/Coiba Ridges) at the Middle American Trench. The higher Pb isotopic ratios, relatively low Nd isotopic ratios and enriched geochemical signature of central Costa Rican magmas can be explained by arc-hotspot interaction. The isotopic ratios of central Costa Rican lavas require the subducting Seamount Province (Northern Galapagos Domain) component, whereas the isotopic ratios of the adakites and alkaline basalts from southern Costa Rica and Panama are in the geochemical range of the subducting Cocos/Coiba Ridges (Central Galapagos Domain). Geological, geochemical, and isotopic evidence collectively indicate that the relatively recent Galapagos-OIB signature in southern Central America represents a geochemical signal from subducting Galapagos hotspot tracks, which started to collide with the margin ~8 Ma ago. The Galapagos hotspot contribution decreases systematically along the volcanic front from central Costa Rica to NW Nicaragua.

  4. Primary Health Care That Works: The Costa Rican Experience.

    PubMed

    Pesec, Madeline; Ratcliffe, Hannah L; Karlage, Ami; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Gawande, Atul; Bitton, Asaf

    2017-03-01

    Long considered a paragon among low- and middle-income countries in its provision of primary health care, Costa Rica reformed its primary health care system in 1994 using a model that, despite its success, has been generally understudied: basic integrated health care teams. This case study provides a detailed description of Costa Rica's innovative implementation of four critical service delivery reforms and explains how those reforms supported the provision of the four essential functions of primary health care: first-contact access, coordination, continuity, and comprehensiveness. As countries around the world pursue high-quality universal health coverage to attain the Sustainable Development Goals, Costa Rica's experiences provide valuable lessons about both the types of primary health care reforms needed and potential mechanisms through which these reforms can be successfully implemented.

  5. The Costa Rican Jurassic to Miocene oceanic complexes: Origin, tectonics and relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denyer, Percy; Gazel, Esteban

    2009-12-01

    The occurrences of oceanic assemblages on the Pacific shore of Costa Rica are part of an intricate group of complexes with different tectonic origins. Although they are dismembered and disrupted, they are the only available inland source of information to decipher the evolution of this active margin. Six main regions are described in this paper: (1) Santa Elena Peninsula, constituted by a supra-subduction zone (Santa Elena Nappe), that is overthrusting an igneous-sedimentary Aptian-Cenomanian sequence (Santa Rosa Accretionary Complex), which includes OIB (Ocean Island Basalts) portions, (2) the Nicoya Complex, which is a Jurassic-Cretaceous chert sediment pile disrupted and detached from its original basement by multiple magmatic events that occurred during the formation of the CLIP (Caribbean Large Igneous Province), (3) the Tortugal area formed by the Tortugal Suite with OIB signature and surrounded by Nicoya Complex outcrops, (4) the Herradura Block composed of the Tulín Formation to Maastrichtian to Lower Eocene OIB accreted oceanic island and the Nicoya Complex as basement, (5) Quepos Block correlated with the Tulín Formation, (6) the Osa-Burica Block composed of the Golfito and Burica Terranes (geochemically and chronologically correlated to the Nicoya Complex), Rincón Block (Early Paleocene to Early Eocene accreted seamounts), and the Miocene Osa-Caño Accretionary Complex. The Santa Rosa Accretionary Complex together with the Tortugal Suite have OIB signatures and possibly without Galapagos hotspot geochemical affinity. These coincidences would be explained by the hypothetical existence of an "autochthonous" Cretaceous basement formed by these two regions together with the rest of the Caribbean. Costa Rican basement is constituted by several CLIP portions and seamounts accreted from the end of Cretaceous in the northwest to the Miocene in the southeast, forming the diverse oceanic occurrences of the Pacific, which are mainly connected to the Galapagos

  6. Phenolic Compounds as Antiangiogenic CMG2 Inhibitors from Costa Rican Endophytic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shugeng; Cryan, Lorna; Habeshian, Kaiane A.; Murillo, Catalina; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Rogers, Michael S.; Clardy, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Targeting and inhibiting CMG2 (Capillary Morphogenesis Gene protein 2) represents a new strategy for therapeutic agents for cancer and retinal diseases due to CMG2’s role in blood vessel growth (angiogenesis). A high throughput FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer) assay was developed for the identification of CMG2 inhibitors as anti-angiogenetic agents. Bioassay-guided separation led to the isolation and identification of two new compounds (1 and 2) from CR252M, an endophytic fungus Coccomyces proteae collected from a Costa Rican rainforest, and one known compound (3) from CR1207B (Aurapex penicillata). Secondary in vitro assays indicated anti-angiogenic activity. Compound 3 inhibited the endothelial cell migration at 52 µM, but did not show any endothelial cell antiproliferative effect at 156 µM. The structure of the two new compounds, A (1) and B (2), were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments. PMID:22910038

  7. Climate change scenario for Costa Rican montane forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmalkar, A. V.; Bradley, R. S.; Diaz, H. F.

    2008-06-01

    Tropical montane cloud forests are characterized by persistent immersion in clouds, an important source of moisture during the dry season. Future changes in temperature and precipitation could alter cloud cover at the vegetation level and seriously affect mountain ecosystems. A regional climate modeling study that focuses on changes in the distributions of temperature and precipitation in Costa Rica shows, in general, an increase in temperature and a decrease in precipitation under the A2 scenario. At high elevations, warming is amplified and future temperature distribution lies outside the range of present-day distribution. Compared to the Caribbean side, temperature changes are greater at high elevations on the Pacific side. Model results also show significant changes in precipitation amounts and variability and an increase in the altitude of cloud formation on the Pacific side that may have serious implications for mountain ecosystems in and around Costa Rica.

  8. Long-Term Association of Economic Inequality and Mortality in Adult Costa Ricans

    PubMed Central

    Modrek, Sepideh; Dow, William H.; Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Despite the large number of studies, mostly in developed economies, there is limited consensus on the health effects of inequality. Recently a related literature has examined the relationship between relative deprivation and health as a mechanism to explain the economic inequality and health relationship. This study evaluates the relationship between mortality and economic inequality, as measured by area-level Gini coefficients, as well as the relationship between mortality and relative deprivation, in the context of a middle-income country, Costa Rica. We followed a nationally representative prospective cohort of approximately 16,000 individuals aged 30 and over who were randomly selected from the 1984 census. These individuals were then linked to the Costa Rican National Death Registry until Dec. 31, 2007. Hazard models were used to estimate the relative risk of mortality for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality for two indicators: canton-level income inequality and relative deprivation based on asset ownership. Results indicate that there was an unexpectedly negative association between canton income inequality and mortality, but the relationship is not robust to the inclusion of canton fixed-effects. In contrast, we find a positive association between relative deprivation and mortality, which is robust to the inclusion of canton fixed-effects. Taken together, these results suggest that deprivation relative to those higher in a hierarchy is more detrimental to health than the overall dispersion of the hierarchy itself, within the Costa Rican context. PMID:22240449

  9. Methane Production In Forearc Sediments At The Costa Rican Convergent Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardace, D.; Morris, J. D.; Peacock, A.; White, D. C.

    2004-12-01

    Plate tectonics creates suitable habitats for deep biosphere organisms, affecting the distribution of biological communities on Earth. Subduction zones, where crustal materials return to the planetary interior through plate convergence, expose active microbial communities in subducting seafloor sediments to a fresh chemical inventory as diagenesis, metamorphic reactions, and tectonically-induced fluid flow alter sediments and surrounding porewaters. The plate interface (the decollement) experiences persistent geochemical flux of light hydrocarbon- and metal-bearing fluids from depth. This project (1) examines the habitability of the decollement zone at the Costa Rican convergent margin from a geochemical perspective, (2) uses lipid biomarkers to describe biomass distribution in sediment samples adjacent to and within the decollement, and (3) cites methanogenesis as a likely metabolic strategy employed by the resident microbial community. Sterile plugs of sediment were recovered from cores taken during Leg 205 of the Ocean Drilling Program, in the Middle America Trench off Costa Rica. Samples are from the incoming carbonate section of Site 1253 at 370-437 meters below seafloor (mbsf), in the forearc sedimentary wedge at Site 1255 at 134-145 mbsf, and around an upper fault (153-220 mbsf) and in the decollement zone (305-366 mbsf) at Site 1254. Drilling mud and fluid were sampled to monitor potential microbial contamination. Samples were immediately frozen at -80ºC. Prior to analysis, samples were freeze-dried in preparation for serial extraction of DNA and lipids. DNA was identified by fluorometry in 13 of 26 samples tested. The DNA was screened for methanogens by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), employing ME1 and ME2 primers that amplify a 0.75-kb region of the alpha-subunit gene for methyl coenzyme M reductase (MCR). Methanogen-specific genes were detected in DNA extracted from one Site 1253 sample (at 436.9 mbsf in the basal carbonates) and four Site

  10. Characterization of volatiles in Costa Rican guava [Psidium friedrichsthalianum (Berg) Niedenzu] fruit.

    PubMed

    Pino, Jorge A; Marbot, Rolando; Vázquez, Carlos

    2002-10-09

    Volatile compounds were isolated from Costa Rican guava fruit by simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction according to the Likens-Nickerson method. Compounds were identified by capillary GC-MS and sensorially characterized by sniffing-GC. One hundred and seventy-three components were identified in the aroma concentrate, from which (E)-beta-caryophyllene, alpha-terpineol, alpha-pinene, alpha-selinene, beta-selinene, delta-cadinene, 4,11-selinadiene, and alpha-copaene were found to be the major constituents. The amounts of aliphatic esters and terpenic compounds were thought to contribute to the unique flavor of this fruit.

  11. Inhibition of tumor cells interacting with stromal cells by xanthones isolated from a Costa Rican Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shugeng; McMillin, Douglas W; Tamayo, Giselle; Delmore, Jake; Mitsiades, Constantine S; Clardy, Jon

    2012-04-27

    CR1642D, an endophytic isolate of Penicillium sp. collected from a Costa Rican rainforest, was identified through a high-throughput approach to identify natural products with enhanced antitumor activity in the context of tumor-stromal interactions. Bioassay-guided separation led to the identification of five xanthones (1-5) from CR1642D. The structures of the xanthone dimer penexanthone A (1) and monomer penexanthone B (2) were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR experiments. All of the compounds were tested against a panel of tumor cell lines in the presence and absence of bone marrow stromal cells. Compound 3 was the most active, with IC(50) values of 1-17 μM, and its activity was enhanced 2-fold against tumor cell line RPMI8226 in the presence of stromal cells (IC(50) 1.2 μM, but 2.4 μM without stromal cells).

  12. Use of linkage disequilibrium approaches to map genes for bipolar disorder in the Costa Rican population

    SciTech Connect

    Escamilla, M.A.; Reus, V.I.; Smith, L.B.; Freimer, N.B.

    1996-05-31

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis provides a powerful means for screening the genome to map the location of disease genes, such as those for bipolar disorder (BP). As described in this paper, the population of the Central Valley of Costa Rica, which is descended from a small number of founders, should be suitable for LD mapping; this assertion is supported by reconstruction of extended haplotypes shared by distantly related individuals in this population suffering low-frequency hearing loss (LFHL1), which has previously been mapped by linkage analysis. A sampling strategy is described for applying LD methods to map genes for BP, and clinical and demographic characteristics of an initially collected sample are discussed. This sample will provide a complement to a previously collected set of Costa Rican BP families which is under investigation using standard linkage analysis. 42 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Accumulation of atmospheric sulfur in some Costa Rican soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, Carleton R.; Townsend, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur is one of the macronutrient elements whose sources to terrestrial ecosystems should shift from dominance by rock-weathering to atmospheric deposition as soils and underlying substrate undergo progressive weathering and leaching. However, the nature and timing of this transition is not well known. We investigated sources of sulfur to tropical rain forests growing on basalt-derived soils in the Osa Peninsula region of Costa Rica. Sulfur sources were examined using stable isotope ratios (δ34S) and compared to chemical indices of soil development. The most weathered soils, and the forests they supported, are dominated by atmospheric sulfur, while a less weathered soil type contains both rock-derived and atmospheric sulfur. Patterns of increasing δ34S with increasing soil sulfur concentration across the landscape suggest atmospheric sulfur is accumulating, and little rock-derived sulfur has been retained. Soil sulfur, minus adsorbed sulfate, is correlated with carbon and nitrogen, implying that sulfur accumulation occurs as plants and microbes incorporate sulfur into organic matter. Only the lower depth increments of the more weathered soils contained significant adsorbed sulfate. The evidence suggests a pattern of soil development in which sulfur-bearing minerals in rock, such as sulfides, weather early relative to other minerals, and the released sulfate is leached away. Sulfur added via atmospheric deposition is retained as organic matter accumulates in the soil profile. Adsorbed sulfate accumulates later, driven by changes in soil chemistry and mineralogy. These aspects of sulfur behavior during pedogenesis in this environment may hasten the transition to dominance by atmospheric sources.

  14. Factors associated with hypertension prevalence, unawareness and treatment among Costa Rican elderly

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-Chacón, Ericka; Santamaría-Ulloa, Carolina; Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Background Reliable information on the prevalence of hypertension is crucial in the development of health policies for prevention, control, and early diagnosis of this condition. This study describes the prevalence of hypertension among Costa Rican elderly, and identifies co-factors associated with its prevalence, unawareness and treatment. Methods The prevalence of hypertension is estimated for the Costa Rican elderly. Measurement error is assessed, and factors associated with high blood pressure are explored. Data for this study came from a nationally representative sample of about 2,800 individuals from CRELES (Costa Rica: Longevity and Healthy Aging Study). Two blood pressure measures were collected using digital monitors. Self reports of previous diagnosis, and medications taken were also recorded as part of the study. Results No evidence of information bias was found among interviewers, or over time. Hypertension prevalence in elderly Costa Ricans was found to be 65% (Males = 60%, Females = 69%). Twenty-five percent of the studied population did not report previous diagnoses of hypertension, but according to our measurement they had high blood pressure. The proportion of unaware men is higher than the proportion of unaware women (32% vs. 20%). The main factors associated with hypertension are: age, being overweight or obese, and family history of hypertension. For men, current smokers are 3 times more likely to be unaware of their condition than non smokers. Both men and women are less likely to be unaware of their condition if they have a family history of hypertension. Those women who are obese, diabetic, have suffered heart disease or stroke, or have been home visited by community health workers are less likely to be unaware of their hypertension. The odds of being treated are higher in educated individuals, those with a family history of hypertension, elderly with diabetes or those who have had heart disease. Conclusion Sex differences in terms of

  15. Validity of the Addiction Severity Index (adapted version) in a Costa Rican population group.

    PubMed

    Sandí Esquivel, L E; Avila Corrales, K

    1990-01-01

    Until recently, no adapted and validated instrument was available for assessing the alcohol and drug problems of individuals in Costa Rica. This article reports the results of a study performed by Costa Rica's Institute on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence in order to test an adapted version of one such instrument, the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), in a Costa Rican setting. The instrument was used to interview 100 male subjects 18 to 64 years old (51 with diagnosed alcohol or drug problems and 49 controls). In general, the subjects with previously diagnosed alcohol or drug problems were assigned substantially higher scores. More specifically, statistical analysis indicated highly significant correlations (p less than 0.001) between the type of subject (test subject or control) and the likelihood that noteworthy problems would be found in the areas of alcohol use, family/social relations, work/finances, and psychological status. Overall, the study demonstrated that the instrument was capable of distinguishing between the affected and unaffected populations, and also of gauging the severity of the problems involved and the patients' treatment needs.

  16. Use of infrared cameras for monitoring and research at Costa Rican volcanoes and thermal features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, C. J.; Mora-Amador, R.; González, G.

    2012-12-01

    Since November 2010, the Costa Rican volcanoes and hot springs began monitored and research by 5 infrared cameras, 4 steady fixed FLIR A320 and 1 portable FLIR P660. All the A320's are located on different settings depending on the volcano or the constant use. At Turrialba volcano 2 of the cameras are set permanent at the crater rim, focused on the new vents formed on January 2010 and 2012, from there at ≈500m it is possible to monitor 24/7 the temperature of the gases from the new vents plus the direction and speed of the plumes, that data helps the improve of the use of equipment like Mini-DOAS, MultiGas or FTIR; at Poás volcano the camera is permanent fixed on a bunker structure located at ≈650m from the active hyperacid hot lagoon, from there it is possible to cover the complete crater with the use of a wide angle lens, that way is safely to track phreatic eruptions, observe convective cells from the lagoon, fumaroles activity, as well as temperature, direction and speed of the gas plume. Finally the last A320 is set for temporary set up, so far is being used on places like Arenal volcano because of the changing of the pattern of the lava flows and gas plume, also at Rincón de la Vieja crater rim because so far is difficult to set up a permanent camera, and finally to do over flights on active volcanoes. The FLIR P660, it has been used to carry out periodic measurements of specific thermal spots. At Turrialba and Poás volcanoes, it is possible to get closer views, measuring more precise inaccessible high temperature fumaroles like the new vents at Turrialba or the ones at Poás dome, places that can reach temperatures of more than 600°C, also is being a lot of support to track lagoon convection cells (61°C), fumaroles migration, lagoon phreatic eruptions (130°C), and better characterization of hot springs, small hot lagoons, and mud pools, with temperatures of ≈ 90C that allow the life of extreme organisms to survive. The use of the thermal cameras

  17. Bartonellae are Prevalent and Diverse in Costa Rican Bats and Bat Flies.

    PubMed

    Judson, S D; Frank, H K; Hadly, E A

    2015-12-01

    Species in the bacterial genus, Bartonella, can cause disease in both humans and animals. Previous reports of Bartonella in bats and ectoparasitic bat flies suggest that bats could serve as mammalian hosts and bat flies as arthropod vectors. We compared the prevalence and genetic similarity of bartonellae in individual Costa Rican bats and their bat flies using molecular and sequencing methods targeting the citrate synthase gene (gltA). Bartonellae were more prevalent in bat flies than in bats, and genetic variants were sometimes, but not always, shared between bats and their bat flies. The detected bartonellae genetic variants were diverse, and some were similar to species known to cause disease in humans and other mammals. The high prevalence and sharing of bartonellae in bat flies and bats support a role for bat flies as a potential vector for Bartonella, while the genetic diversity and similarity to known species suggest that bartonellae could spill over into humans and animals sharing the landscape.

  18. Altitude and regional gradients in chronic kidney disease prevalence in Costa Rica: Data from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Harhay, Meera N.; Harhay, Michael O.; Coto-Yglesias, Fernando; Bixby, Luis Rosero

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Recent studies in Central America indicate that mortality attributable to chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rising rapidly. We sought to determine the prevalence and regional variation of CKD and the relationship of biologic and socioeconomic factors to CKD risk in the older-adult population of Costa Rica. Methods We used data from the Costa Rican Longevity and Health Aging Study (CRELES). The cohort was comprised of 2657 adults born before 1946 in Costa Rica, chosen through a sampling algorithm to represent the national population of Costa Ricans >60 years of age. Participants answered questionnaire data and completed laboratory testing. The primary outcome of this study was CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73m2. Results The estimated prevalence of CKD for older Costa Ricans was 20% (95% CI 18.5 – 21.9%). In multivariable logistic regression, older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.08 per year, 95%CI 1.07–1.10, p<0.001) was independently associated with CKD. For every 200 meters above sea level of residence, subjects’ odds of CKD increased 26% (aOR 1.26 95% CI 1.15–1.38, p<0.001). There was large regional variation in adjusted CKD prevalence, highest in Limon (40%, 95% CI 30%–50%) and Guanacaste (36%, 95% CI 26–46%) provinces. Regional and altitude effects remained robust after adjustment for socioeconomic status. Conclusions We observed large regional and altitude-related variations in CKD prevalence in Costa Rica, not explained by the distribution of traditional CKD risk factors. More studies are needed to explore the potential association of geographic and environmental exposures with the risk of CKD. PMID:26466575

  19. A recent phase of accretion along the southern Costa Rican subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangs, Nathan L.; McIntosh, Kirk D.; Silver, Eli A.; Kluesner, Jared W.; Ranero, César R.

    2016-06-01

    In 2011 we acquired a 3D seismic reflection volume across the Costa Rica margin NW of the Osa Peninsula to investigate the complex structure and the development of the seismogenic zone within the Costa Rican subduction zone in the vicinity of recent International Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) drilling. In contrast to previous interpretations, these newly acquired seismic images show that the margin wedge is composed of a layered fabric that is consistent with clastic sediments, similar to materials recovered from IODP drilling, that have been thrust and thickened into thrust-bounded folded sequences. These structures are consistent with a balanced sequence that has been frontally accreted in the context of an accretionary model. We interpret these sequences as sediment originally deposited on the subducting crust in a trench basin created by the southward migration of the Cocos-Nazca-Caribbean triple junction, and accreted during recent margin subduction that also accelerated with passage of the triple junction. The margin is composed of relatively rapidly accreted sediment that was added to the margin during a phase of accretion within the last ∼5 Ma that was probably preceded throughout the Neogene by periods of non-accretion or erosion.

  20. The Costa Rican Systenus Loew (Diptera: Dolichopodidae): rich local sympatry in an otherwise rare genus.

    PubMed

    Bickel, Daniel J

    2015-09-21

    The Costa Rican Systenus Loew (Diptera: Dolichopodidae: Medeterinae) are described, illustrated and keyed, and comprise nine new species: Systenus divericatus sp. nov., S. eboritibia sp. nov., S. emusorum sp. nov., S. flavifemoratus sp. nov., S. maculipennis sp. nov., S. naranjensis sp. nov., S. parkeri sp. nov., S. tenorio sp. nov., and S. zurqui sp. nov. Eight species are known only from Malaise traps at a locale in Guanacaste Province, in contrast to a single species collected as part of the long running INBio survey of the Costa Rican insect fauna. On a global scale, Systenus is uncommon in collections, possibly the result of its known larval tree hole habitat and adult arboreal associations, making the genus less likely to be captured by ground-level trapping. This makes the high level of sympatry at one site even more remarkable and suggesting that more cryptic species-rich arboreal faunas await discovery.

  1. Pampered sons, (wo)manly men, or do-nothing machos? Costa Rican men coming of age under neoliberalism.

    PubMed

    Mannon, Susan E; Kemp, Eagan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how young men in Costa Rica negotiate ideas of manhood under neoliberalism. We draw on interview data involving 23 men, ages 15–35, residing in one Costa Rican city. Comparing men across three different class locations, we find diverse "markers of manhood." Our data suggest an emerging globally dominant masculine ideal among an elite class of men, a declining locally dominant masculine ideal among working-class men, and a cynical, possibly counter-cultural masculine ideal among poor men. We conclude that masculinities are not only fluid, but tied to changing economic circumstances and class structures.

  2. Inhibition of Tumor Cells Interacting with Stromal Cells by Xanthones Isolated from a Costa Rican Penicillium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shugeng; McMillin, Douglas W.; Tamayo, Giselle; Delmore, Jake; Mitsiades, Constantine S.; Clardy, Jon

    2012-01-01

    CR1642D, an endophytic isolate of Penicillium sp. collected from a Costa Rican rainforest, was identified through a high-throughput approach to identify natural products with enhanced anti-tumor activity in the context of tumor-stromal interactions. Bioassay-guided separation led to the identification of five xanthones (1-5) from CR1642D. The structures of the xanthone dimer penexanthone A (1) and monomer penexanthone B (2) were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR experiments. All of the compounds were tested against a panel of tumor cell lines in the presence and absence of bone marrow stromal cells. Compound 3 was the most active, with IC50 values of 1~17 μM, and its activity was enhanced two-fold against tumor cell line RPMI8226 in the presence of stromal cells (IC50 1.2 μM, but 2.4 μM without stromal cells). PMID:22458669

  3. Microbiological contamination of enteral feeding solutions used in Costa Rican hospitals.

    PubMed

    Arias, Maria Laura; Monge, Rafael; Chávez, Carolina

    2003-09-01

    Enteral feeding is the most common and preferred modality for providing nutritional support to hospital patients with a functional gastrointestinal tract that can not satisfy their nutritional requirements. Nevertheless, enteral feeding may be an important cause of bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial contamination level of enteral feedings distributed in Costa Rican hospitals. A total of 124 samples of enteral feeding, coming from five different hospitals from San José, Costa Rica, were evaluated during the second semester of 1997 and first of 1998 for the presence and identification of total and fecal coliforms, Pseudomonas sp. and Listeria sp. A subpopulation of the Pseudomonas isolated was analyzed for their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. The concentration of Gram negative rods in the samples of enteral feeding solutions ranged from 10(3) to 10(7) CFU/mL, markedly exceeding the permissible level (10(2) CFU/mL or less). The coliforms most frequently isolated included Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coil, Serratia sp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Pseudomonas sp. was isolated in more than 70% of the samples made from commercial based solutions, fruits and vegetables. P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens were the species most frequently isolated. Listeria sp. was not isolated from enteral solutions samples. The results obtained demonstrate that it is urgent to assure strict hygiene during the preparation and handling of all enteral feed in order to avoid bacterial growth. The implementation of HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) system will be required in a near future for better quality control of enteral nutrition mixtures.

  4. Diketopiperazines from Costa Rican endolichenic fungus Colpoma sp. CR1465A.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seulah; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Pang, Changhyun; Clardy, Jon; Cao, Shugeng; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-05-15

    Three new diketopiperazines (1-3), cyclo(l-Pro-d-trans-Hyp) (1), cyclo(l-Pro-d-Glu) (2), and cyclo(d-Pro-d-Glu) (3) and five known diketopiperazines (4-8) were isolated from the endolichenic fungus Colpoma sp. CR1465A identified from the Costa Rican plant Henriettea tuberculosa (Melatomataceae). The structures of the new compounds 1-3 were elucidated using a combination of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR and HR-MS, and their absolute configurations were determined by a combination of NOESY analysis and Marfey's method. Cyclo(l-Pro-d-allo-Thr) (4) was recently isolated from a South China Sea marine sponge Callyspongia sp., but its NMR spectroscopic data were not reported, and cyclo(l-Pro-l-Asp) (5) was previously reported but only as a synthetic product. The NMR data assignments of compounds 4 and 5 are reported for the first time. All of the isolated compounds were tested for antifungal and antimicrobial properties.

  5. Pulse blood pressure and cardiovascular mortality in a population-based cohort of elderly Costa Ricans

    PubMed Central

    Rosero-Bixby, L; Coto-Yglesias, F; Dow, W H

    2016-01-01

    We studied the relationships between blood pressure (BP), pulse pressure (PP) and cardiovascular (CV) death in older adults using data from 2346 participants enrolled in the Costa Rican CRELES study, mean age 76 years (s.d. 10.2), 31% qualified as wide PP. All covariates included and analyzed were collected prospectively as part of a 4-year home-based follow-up; mortality was tracked for an additional 3 years, identifying 266 CV deaths. Longitudinal data revealed little change over time in systolic BP (SBP), a decline in diastolic BP, and widening of PP. Wide PP was associated with higher risk of CV death but only among individuals receiving antihypertensive drug therapy. Individuals with both wide PP and receiving therapy had 2.6 hazard rate of CV death relative to people with normal-PP plus not taking treatment (TRT), even adjusting for SBP. Increasing PP between visits was significantly associated to higher CV death independently of TRT status. SBP and DBP were not significantly associated to CV death when the effect of PP was controlled for. Conclusion: elderly hypertensive patients with wide or increasing PP, especially if receiving TRT, are the highest CV risk group, thus must be carefully assessed, monitored and treated with caution. PMID:26674758

  6. Seasoning ingredient variety, but not quality, is associated with greater intake of beans and rice among urban Costa Rican adults.

    PubMed

    Vadiveloo, Maya K; Campos, Hannia; Mattei, Josiemer

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to a variety of flavors may promote food enjoyment, but few studies have examined the relationship between food seasoning and food intake. We hypothesized that using a higher variety (number) of 11 seasonings to prepare 2 staple foods (beans, white rice) would be associated with intake of those foods in a population-based case-control study of Costa Rican adults in urban vs rural areas (n=1025), where cooking and dietary practices differ. Participants were surveyed about the variety of seasoning ingredients added when preparing beans or rice. Ingredients were also categorized by their dietary quality (healthfulness), and scores for seasoning variety and quality were created. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the association between variety and quality scores (continuously and in tertiles (T)) and intake of each staple food. Seasoning variety was positively associated with daily servings of beans (β=.02, P=.01; 1.31 and 1.23 servings/day in T2 and T3 versus 1.02 servings/day in T1, P<.05) and rice (β=.04, P=.005) in the urban areas only. No differences in ingredient quality across increasing intakes of beans or rice were noted, and the joint associations between variety and quality were not significant. In conclusion, a greater variety, but not quality, of seasoning ingredients was positively associated with intakes of beans and rice in urban Costa Rican adults. Our results suggest that increasing the variety of seasonings added to beans may be a culturally-appropriate strategy to improve intake of this healthy staple food among urban Costa Rican adults.

  7. Association of serotonin transporter promoter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) with depression in Costa Rican schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Javier; Hernández, Sandra; Quezada, Paulina; Dassori, Albana; Walss-Bass, Consuelo; Escamilla, Michael; Raventos, Henriette

    2010-07-01

    Depression and suicidal behavior are frequently observed in patients with schizophrenia. The serotonin transporter protein regulates serotonergic signaling at synapses and is encoded by a single gene (SLC6A4; Locus Link ID: 6532), located at 17q11.1-q12 with two polymorphic variants (the short and the long allele). The short allele of serotonin transporter gene has been associated with depression and suicidality in individuals who suffered negative life events and with depression in individuals with chronic psychosis.. Subjects were recruited from a genetic study of schizophrenia conducted in Costa Rica. The authors replicated their previous research, using a more narrow phenotype (only schizophrenic subjects) and a more ethnically homogenous sample (only Costa Rican schizophrenic individuals who were not included in the previous study). The authors hypothesized that subjects with at least one copy of the serotonin transporter promoter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) "s" allele would have a greater history of lifetime depression and suicidability rate than those who had an "l/l" genotype. The authors analyzed 155 subjects with a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) diagnosis of schizophrenia (73% male, age at interview 38.3, SD = 11.23). The genotype distribution was "ss" 58 (37%), "sl" 69 (45%), and "ll" 28 (18%). In the secondary analysis, the authors explored association of the "s" allele with lifetime history of suicide behavior in 173 subjects (18 more subjects than primary analysis because schizophrenic individuals were included regardless of history of depression). The authors found that subjects carrying at least one short allele had a significant increased lifetime risk for depressive syndromes (chi(2) = 5.4, df = 1, P = 0.02; odds ratio [OR] = 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-6.3). No association was found for suicidal behavior in the same sample (chi(2) = 0.928, P = 0.629). In conclusion, the genotype at the

  8. Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    1986-05-01

    This discussion of Costa Rica focuses on: geography, people and history, government, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Costa Rica. In 1985 the population totaled 2.6 million with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The infant mortality rate is 15.2/1000; life expectancy is 67.5 years for men and 71.9 years for women. Costa Rica, the 2nd smallest Central American country, is located in a narrow strip between Panama and Nicaragua. Costa Ricans are overwhelmingly of European descent. Although preominantly Spanish, there also are many Costa Ricans of German, Dutch, and Swiss origin. The indigenous Indian population numbers about 20,000, 20% fewer than inhabited Costa Rica when the Spanish first settled in 1522. Blacks, descendants of 19th century Jamaican immigrant workers, constitute a significant English-speaking minority of 30,000. Costa Rica is a democratic republic with a strong systems of checks and balances. The president and 57 legislative assembly deputies are elected for 4-year terms. Costa Rica's political system has contrasted with that of its neighbors. The nation has steadily developed and maintained democratic institutions and an orderly, constitutional process of government succession. Costa Rica faces severe challenges to its economic stability, although traditionally it is one of the strongest nations in the region. Increases in government spending in the late 1970s and higher world prices for coffee and other important Costa Rican exports stimulated the economy, creating inflationary pressure. The government is pursuing a course of disciplined management. The country is an outsponken and active member of the international community. The cordial relationship between Costa Rica and the US is based on mutual respect for democratic traditions, common goals, and a relationship free from serious political disagreement.

  9. Predicting mortality with biomarkers: a population-based prospective cohort study for elderly Costa Ricans

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about adult health and mortality relationships outside high-income nations, partly because few datasets have contained biomarker data in representative populations. Our objective is to determine the prognostic value of biomarkers with respect to total and cardiovascular mortality in an elderly population of a middle-income country, as well as the extent to which they mediate the effects of age and sex on mortality. Methods This is a prospective population-based study in a nationally representative sample of elderly Costa Ricans. Baseline interviews occurred mostly in 2005 and mortality follow-up went through December 2010. Sample size after excluding observations with missing values: 2,313 individuals and 564 deaths. Main outcome: prospective death rate ratios for 22 baseline biomarkers, which were estimated with hazard regression models. Results Biomarkers significantly predict future death above and beyond demographic and self-reported health conditions. The studied biomarkers account for almost half of the effect of age on mortality. However, the sex gap in mortality became several times wider after controlling for biomarkers. The most powerful predictors were simple physical tests: handgrip strength, pulmonary peak flow, and walking speed. Three blood tests also predicted prospective mortality: C-reactive protein (CRP), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Strikingly, high blood pressure (BP) and high total cholesterol showed little or no predictive power. Anthropometric measures also failed to show significant mortality effects. Conclusions This study adds to the growing evidence that blood markers for CRP, HbA1c, and DHEAS, along with organ-specific functional reserve indicators (handgrip, walking speed, and pulmonary peak flow), are valuable tools for identifying vulnerable elderly. The results also highlight the need to better understand an anomaly noted previously in other settings: despite the

  10. Uncovering the cultivable microbial diversity of costa rican beetles and its ability to break down plant cell wall components.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Asensio, Gabriel; Pinto-Tomas, Adrian; Rivera, Beatriz; Hernandez, Myriam; Hernandez, Carlos; Soto-Montero, Silvia; Murillo, Catalina; Sherman, David H; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle

    2014-01-01

    Coleopterans are the most diverse insect order described to date. These organisms have acquired an array of survival mechanisms through their evolution, including highly efficient digestive systems. Therefore, the coleopteran intestinal microbiota constitutes an important source of novel plant cell wall-degrading enzymes with potential biotechnological applications. We isolated and described the cultivable fungi, actinomycetes and aerobic eubacteria associated with the gut of larvae and adults from six different beetle families colonizing decomposing logs in protected Costa Rican ecosystems. We obtained 611 isolates and performed phylogenetic analyses using the ITS region (fungi) and 16S rDNA (bacteria). The majority of fungal isolates belonged to the order Hypocreales (26% of 169 total), while the majority of actinomycetes belonged to the genus Streptomyces (86% of 241 total). Finally, we isolated 201 bacteria spanning 19 different families belonging into four phyla: Firmicutes, α, β and γ-proteobacteria. Subsequently, we focused on microbes isolated from Passalid beetles to test their ability to degrade plant cell wall polymers. Highest scores in these assays were achieved by a fungal isolate (Anthostomella sp.), two Streptomyces and one Bacillus bacterial isolates. Our study demonstrates that Costa Rican beetles harbor several types of cultivable microbes, some of which may be involved in symbiotic relationships that enable the insect to digest complex polymers such as lignocellulose.

  11. Uncovering the Cultivable Microbial Diversity of Costa Rican Beetles and Its Ability to Break Down Plant Cell Wall Components

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Asensio, Gabriel; Pinto-Tomas, Adrian; Rivera, Beatriz; Hernandez, Myriam; Hernandez, Carlos; Soto-Montero, Silvia; Murillo, Catalina; Sherman, David H.; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle

    2014-01-01

    Coleopterans are the most diverse insect order described to date. These organisms have acquired an array of survival mechanisms through their evolution, including highly efficient digestive systems. Therefore, the coleopteran intestinal microbiota constitutes an important source of novel plant cell wall-degrading enzymes with potential biotechnological applications. We isolated and described the cultivable fungi, actinomycetes and aerobic eubacteria associated with the gut of larvae and adults from six different beetle families colonizing decomposing logs in protected Costa Rican ecosystems. We obtained 611 isolates and performed phylogenetic analyses using the ITS region (fungi) and 16S rDNA (bacteria). The majority of fungal isolates belonged to the order Hypocreales (26% of 169 total), while the majority of actinomycetes belonged to the genus Streptomyces (86% of 241 total). Finally, we isolated 201 bacteria spanning 19 different families belonging into four phyla: Firmicutes, α, β and γ-proteobacteria. Subsequently, we focused on microbes isolated from Passalid beetles to test their ability to degrade plant cell wall polymers. Highest scores in these assays were achieved by a fungal isolate (Anthostomella sp.), two Streptomyces and one Bacillus bacterial isolates. Our study demonstrates that Costa Rican beetles harbor several types of cultivable microbes, some of which may be involved in symbiotic relationships that enable the insect to digest complex polymers such as lignocellulose. PMID:25411842

  12. Influence of sensory and cultural perceptions of white rice, brown rice and beans by Costa Rican adults in their dietary choices.

    PubMed

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Mattei, Josiemer; Fuster, Tamara; Willett, Walter; Campos, Hannia

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the distinct perceptions towards rice and beans that may shape the consumption of these main staple foods among Costa Ricans. We aimed to identify barriers and motivators that could change the current staple into a healthier one, and assess the sensory perceptions of these foods in this population. Focus group discussions and sensory tastings of 8 traditional white or brown rice and beans preparations were conducted in 98 Costa Ricans, aged 40-65 years. Traditional habits and family support emerged as the two main drivers for current consumption. Consuming similar amounts of rice and beans, as well as unfamiliarity with brown rice, are habits engrained in the Costa Rican culture, and are reinforced in the family and community environment. Suggested strategies for consuming more brown rice and more beans included introducing them during childhood, disseminating information of their health benefits that take into account the importance of tradition, lowering the cost, increasing availability, engaging women as agents of change and for brown rice masking the perceived unpleasant sensory characteristics by incorporating them into mixed dishes. Plain brown rice received the lowest mean hedonic liking scores. The preparations rated highest for pleasant were the beans: rice 1:1 ratio regardless of the type of rice. This study identified novel strategies to motivate Costa Rican adults to adapt their food choices into healthier ones within their cultural and sensory acceptability.

  13. Promoting Distance Learners' Cognitive Engagement and Learning Outcomes: Design-Based Research in the Costa Rican National University of Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joo, K. P.; Andrés, Carmen; Shearer, Rick

    2014-01-01

    To explore effective learning design for students' cognitive engagement, a design-based case study was conducted in a quality control course in the Costa Rican National University of Distance Education between the 2011 and 2012 academic years. The course was revised for the 2012 provision in terms of the assignment structure, the number of…

  14. Profiling the venom gland transcriptomes of Costa Rican snakes by 454 pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A long term research goal of venomics, of applied importance for improving current antivenom therapy, but also for drug discovery, is to understand the pharmacological potential of venoms. Individually or combined, proteomic and transcriptomic studies have demonstrated their feasibility to explore in depth the molecular diversity of venoms. In the absence of genome sequence, transcriptomes represent also valuable searchable databases for proteomic projects. Results The venom gland transcriptomes of 8 Costa Rican taxa from 5 genera (Crotalus, Bothrops, Atropoides, Cerrophidion, and Bothriechis) of pitvipers were investigated using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. 100,394 out of 330,010 masked reads produced significant hits in the available databases. 5.165,220 nucleotides (8.27%) were masked by RepeatMasker, the vast majority of which corresponding to class I (retroelements) and class II (DNA transposons) mobile elements. BLAST hits included 79,991 matches to entries of the taxonomic suborder Serpentes, of which 62,433 displayed similarity to documented venom proteins. Strong discrepancies between the transcriptome-computed and the proteome-gathered toxin compositions were obvious at first sight. Although the reasons underlaying this discrepancy are elusive, since no clear trend within or between species is apparent, the data indicate that individual mRNA species may be translationally controlled in a species-dependent manner. The minimum number of genes from each toxin family transcribed into the venom gland transcriptome of each species was calculated from multiple alignments of reads matched to a full-length reference sequence of each toxin family. Reads encoding ORF regions of Kazal-type inhibitor-like proteins were uniquely found in Bothriechis schlegelii and B. lateralis transcriptomes, suggesting a genus-specific recruitment event during the early-Middle Miocene. A transcriptome-based cladogram supports the large divergence between A. mexicanus

  15. Hazard prioritization and risk characterization of antibiotics in an irrigated Costa Rican region used for intensive crop, livestock and aquaculture farming.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Elba; Fournier, María Luisa; García, Fernando; Molina, Andrea; Chavarría, Guadalupe; Alfaro, Margarita; Ramírez, Fernando; Rodríguez, César

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics alter the homeostasis of microbial communities and select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the wild. Thus, the accumulation of unnaturally high concentration of these substances in the environment due to their use in human activities can be regarded as a neglected form of pollution, especially in countries with agricultural-based economies. Qualitative and quantitative information on antibiotic usage in Costa Rica is scarce, hence the design and enforcement of prevention strategies and corrective measures is difficult. To address this issue, and aiming in the long run to contribute with a more rational use of pharmaceuticals in the tropics, we characterized the hazard associated with the antibiotics used during 2008 in agriculture, aquaculture, pig farming, veterinary medicine and human medicine in the major irrigation district of Costa Rica. Hazard indicators were calculated based on antibiotic use and a weighted algorithm that also considered antibiotic fate, toxicity, and resistance. Moreover, hazard quotients were computed using maximum environmental concentrations reported for Costa Rican surface waters and predicted no effect concentrations for aquatic organisms. The number of antibiotics used in the ATID during the study were n = 38 from 15 families. Antibiotic consumption was estimated at 1169-109908 g ha(-1) year(-1) and, distinctively, almost half of this figure was traced back to phenicols. Tetracyclines, with a particular contribution of oxytetracycline, were the most widely used antibiotics in agriculture and veterinary medicine. Oxytetracycline, florfenicol, chlortetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sulfamethazine, trimethoprim and tylosin, in that order showed the highest hazard indicators. Moreover, hazard quotients greater than 1 were calculated for oxacillin, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, and ciprofloxacin. Studies dealing with the ecotoxicology of tetracyclines, sulfonamides

  16. Genetic variation of introduced Hawaiian and native Costa Rican populations of an invasive tropical shrub, Clidemia hirta (Melastomataceae).

    PubMed

    Dewalt, Saara J; Hamrick, J L

    2004-08-01

    Clidemia hirta is one of the most common woody invasive plants in mesic to wet forests in Hawaii, where it was introduced around 1940. The species is relatively uncommon by comparison in its native range of Central and South America and some Caribbean Islands. We examined genetic variation in allozymes of 20 C. hirta populations on four Hawaiian Islands to determine the introduction history. For comparison, we measured genetic variation in 20 native populations across Costa Rica. Mean levels of genetic variation in Hawaiian and Costa Rican populations were low compared to other woody or introduced plants (11.5-12.5% polymorphic loci, 2.05-2.50 alleles per polymorphic locus, and 0.045-0.063 expected heterozygosity). Most genetic diversity was held within rather than among populations in both areas (G(ST) = 0.120 and 0.271 in Hawaii and Costa Rica, respectively). Hawaiian populations had a high degree of genetic similarity, and no genetic differentiation was found among the four Hawaiian Islands sampled. These patterns of genetic variation in Hawaii suggest that no intraspecific hybridization of genotypes from different parts of the native range has occurred and that introductions to the different islands came from the same or similar source populations. The low levels of genetic diversity in parts of both the native and introduced ranges suggest that genetic variation is unrelated to invasiveness in C. hirta.

  17. Tropical agricultural residues and their potential uses in fish feeds: the Costa Rican situation.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, J B; van Weerd, J H; Huisman, E A; Verreth, J A J

    2004-01-01

    In Costa Rica as many other tropical countries, the disposal problem of agricultural wastes is widely recognized but efforts to find solutions are not equal for different sectors. This study describes the situation of major agricultural residues in Costa Rica, identifying the activities with higher amounts produced and, the potential use of these residues in fish feeds. In Costa Rica, during the 1993-1994 production season, major agricultural sectors (crop and livestock) generated a total amount of 3.15-3.25 million MT of residues (classified in by-products: used residues and wastes: not used residues). Some residues are treated to turn them into valuable items or to diminish their polluting effects (e.g., the so-called by-products). About 1.56-1.63 million MT of by-products were used for different purposes (e.g. fertilization, animal feeding, fuel, substrates in greenhouses). However, the remainder (1.59-1.62 million MT) was discharged into environment causing pollution. About 1.07-1.2 million MT wastes came from major crop systems (banana, coffee, sugarcane and oil palm) whereas the remainder came from animal production systems (porcine and poultry production, slaughtering). These data are further compared to residues estimates for the 2001-2002 production season coming from the biggest crops activities. Unfortunately, most of the studied wastes contain high levels of moisture and low levels of protein, and also contain variable amounts of antinutritional factors (e.g., polyphenols, tannins, caffeine), high fibre levels and some toxic substances and pesticides. All these reasons may limit the use of these agricultural wastes for animal feeding, especially in fish feeds. The potential use of the major vegetable and animal residues in fish feeds is discussed based on their nutritional composition, on their amount available over the year and on their pollution risks. Other constraints to use these wastes in fish feeds are the extra costs of drying and, in most cases

  18. A new species of Reithrodontomys, subgenus Aporodon (Cricetidae: Neotominae), from the highlands of Costa Rica, with comments on Costa Rican and Panamanian Reithrodontomys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, Alfred L.; Carleton, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of the rodent genus Reithrodontomys (Cricetidae: Neotominae) is described from Cerro Asuncion in the western Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica. The long tail, elongate rostrum, bulbous braincase, and complex molars of the new species associate it with members of the subgenus Aporodon, tenuirostris species group. In its diminutive size and aspects of cranial shape, the new species (Reithrodontomys musseri, sp. nov.) most closely resembles R. microdon, a form known from highlands in Guatemala and Chiapas, Mexico. In the course of differentially diagnosing the new species, we necessarily reviewed the Costa Rican and Panamanian subspecies of R. mexicanus based on morphological comparisons, study of paratypes and vouchers used in recent molecular studies, and morphometric analyses. We recognize Reithrodontomys cherrii (Allen, 1891) and R. garichensis finders and Pearson, 1940, as valid species, and allocate R. mexicanus potrerograndei Goodwin, 1945, as a subjective synonym of R. brevirostris Goodwin, 1943. Critical review of museum specimens collected subsequent to Hooper's (1952) revision is needed and would do much to improve understanding of Reithrodontomys taxonomy and distribution in Middle America.

  19. Development of quantitative RNA biomarkers for detecting dioxin-like and estrogenic pollutants in Costa Rican native fish species.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A; Mena, F; Casado, M; Pinnock, M; de la Cruz, E; Barata, C; Piña, B

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the environmental impact on native species is crucial for the correct management of tropical ecosystems. The Costa Rican fish Parachromis dovii (Cichlidae) and Poecilia gillii (Poecillidae) were used as sentinel species for freshwater bodies under considerable pressure by intensive agriculture Cichlidae development. Suitable qRT-PCR probes for the quantification of hepatic mRNA levels of two stress-related genes--vitellogen in (estrogenic effects) and cytochrome P4501A(CYP1A, dioxin-like compounds)--for both species were designed and validated in experimental treatments with model effectors (17beta-estradiol and beta-naphtoflavone, respectively), demonstrating their usefulness as markers of exposure to these two kinds of pollutants. Analysis of fish transplanted across pesticide contaminated sites near Palo Verde National Park, Pacific Coast of Costa Rica did show significant changes on hepatic Cyp1A in both species. In P. dovii, Cyp1A levels were enhanced in Barbubal and in the impacted Cabuyo sites in the rainy season whereas in P. gillii fish Cyp1A transcripts were down-regulated differently across rainy and dry seasons. Vitellogen in mRNA levels in P. gillii varied between males and females with males showing always low values which indicated no estrogenic effects. Within females, vitellogenin levels varied over 100,000 fold depending on their maturation stage, further demonstrating the ability of the method to monitor changes (natural or induced) in the reproductive system of the fish.

  20. [Relationship of genetically modified crops with the environment and health of the Costa Rican human population].

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Ana M; Arrieta-Espinoza, Griselda; Sittenfeld, Ana

    2004-09-01

    Genetic engineering and the food derived from genetically modified crops (GMCs) have been the center of debate worldwide, as has occurred historically with the advent of new technologies. Questions are derived from the potential impact of GMCs to the environment and the safety of the products to the consumers. In relation to the first inquiry, practice has been oriented to a case-by-case-study, according to the own characteristics of the GMC, in order to minimize its impact in the environment. Scientific studies in diverse latitudes of the world have demonstrated that GMCs in the market showed no adverse effects related to this issue. In relation to food derived from the GMCs, rigorous evaluation protocols have been developed and approved by FAO and WHO to guarantee the innocuousness of these products. Up to the moment, no contraindications for human health have been pointed out for the products that are available today in the market. In the particular case of Costa Rica, the country has established since the 90s a regulatory biosafety framework for the management of the GMCs, safeguarding the biodiversity of the country and the health of consumers. At the same time the country has made significant public and private investments in the field that allowed the country to obtain a leading position in biosafety in the region and genetic engineering research at national research centers. Any attempt to restrict or prohibit these activities in the country, will put in risk the previously described investment, will affect the generation of new knowledge for decision making and the leadership in the field, preventing the benefits derived from this promising technology.

  1. Computer Assisted English Language Learning in Costa Rican Elementary Schools: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez-Marinelli, Horacio; Blanco, Marta; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly J.; Tong, Fuhui; Stanley, Katherine; Fan, Yinan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents first-year findings of a 25-week longitudinal project derived from a two-year longitudinal randomized trial study at the elementary school level in Costa Rica on effective computer-assisted language learning (CALL) approaches in an English as a foreign language (EFL) setting. A pre-test-post-test experimental group design was…

  2. Ancestry informative markers clarify the regional admixture variation in the Costa Rican population.

    PubMed

    Cámpos-Sanchez, Rebeca; Raventós, Henriette; Barrantes, Ramiro

    2013-10-01

    The genetic structure of Costa Rica's population is complex, both by region and by individual, due to the admixture process that started during the 15th century and historical events thereafter. Previous studies have been done mostly on Amerindian populations and the Central Valley inhabitants using various microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA markers. Here, we study for the first time a random sample from all regions of the country with ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to address the individual and regional admixture proportions. A sample of 160 male individuals was screened for 78 AIMs customized in a GoldenGate platform from Illumina. We observed that this small set of AIMs has the same power of hundreds of microsatellites and thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms to evaluate admixture, with the benefit of reducing genotyping costs. This type of investigation is necessary to explore new genetic markers useful for forensic and genetic investigation. Our data showed a mean admixture proportion of 49.2% European (EUR), 37.8% Native American (NAM), and 12.9% African (AFR), with a disproportionate admixture composition by region. In addition, when Chinese (CHB) was included as a fourth component, the proportions changed to 45.6% EUR, 33.5% NAM, 11.7% AFR, and 9.2% CHB. The admixture trend is consistent among all regions (EUR > NAM > AFR), and individual admixture estimates vary broadly in each region. Though we did not find stratification in Costa Rica's population, gene admixture should be evaluated in future genetic studies of Costa Rica, especially for the Caribbean region, as it contains the largest proportion of African ancestry (30.9%).

  3. Predominance and high antibiotic resistance of the emerging Clostridium difficile genotypes NAPCR1 and NAP9 in a Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    López-Ureña, Diana; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; Montoya-Ramírez, Mónica; del Mar Gamboa-Coronado, María; Somogyi, Teresita; Rodríguez, César; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the major causative agent of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In a 2009 outbreak of C. difficile-associated diarrhea that was recorded in a major Costa Rican hospital, the hypervirulent NAP1 strain (45%) predominated together with a local genotype variant (NAPCR1, 31%). Both strains were fluoroquinolone-resistant and the NAPCR1 genotype, in addition, was resistant to clindamycin and rifampicin. We now report on the genotypes and antibiotic susceptibilities of 68 C. difficile isolates from a major Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks. In contrast to our previous findings, no NAP1 strains were detected, and for the first time in a Costa Rican hospital, a significant fraction of the isolates were NAP9 strains (n=14, 21%). The local NAPCR1 genotype remained prevalent (n=18, 26%) and coexisted with 14 strains (21%) of classic hospital NAP types (NAP2, NAP4, and NAP6), eight new genotypes (12%), four environmental strains classified as NAP10 or NAP11 (6%), three strains without NAP designation (4%) and seven non-toxigenic strains (10%). All 68 strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 88% were resistant to clindamycin and 50% were resistant to moxifloxacin and rifampicin. Metronidazole and vancomycin susceptibilities were universal. The NAPCR1 and NAP9 strains, which have been associated with more severe clinical infections, were more resistant to antibiotics than the other strains. Altogether, our results confirm that the epidemiology of C. difficile infection is dynamic and that A−B+ strains from the NAP9 type are on the rise not only in the developed world. Moreover, our results reveal that the local NAPCR1 strains still circulate in the country without causing outbreaks but with equally high antibiotic-resistance rates and levels. PMID:27165560

  4. Higher survival drives the success of nitrogen-fixing trees through succession in Costa Rican rainforests.

    PubMed

    Menge, Duncan N L; Chazdon, Robin L

    2016-02-01

    Trees capable of symbiotic nitrogen (N) fixation ('N fixers') are abundant in many tropical forests. In temperate forests, it is well known that N fixers specialize in early-successional niches, but in tropical forests, successional trends of N-fixing species are poorly understood. We used a long-term census study (1997-2013) of regenerating lowland wet tropical forests in Costa Rica to document successional patterns of N fixers vs non-fixers, and used an individual-based model to determine the demographic drivers of these trends. N fixers increased in relative basal area during succession. In the youngest forests, N fixers grew 2.5 times faster, recruited at a similar rate and were 15 times less likely to die as non-fixers. As succession proceeded, the growth and survival disparities decreased, whereas N fixer recruitment decreased relative to non-fixers. According to our individual-based model, high survival was the dominant driver of the increase in basal area of N fixers. Our data suggest that N fixers are successful throughout secondary succession in tropical rainforests of north-east Costa Rica, and that attempts to understand this success should focus on tree survival.

  5. Estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects: A Costa Rican Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, Christopher; Sathaye, Jayant; Sanchez Azofeifa, G. Arturo

    2000-09-01

    If the Clean Development Mechanism proposed under the Kyoto Protocol is to serve as an effective means for combating global climate change, it will depend upon reliable estimates of greenhouse gas benefits. This paper sketches the theoretical basis for estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects and suggests lessons learned based on a case study of Costa Rica's Protected Areas Project, which is a 500,000 hectare effort to reduce deforestation and enhance reforestation. The Protected Areas Project in many senses advances the state of the art for Clean Development Mechanism-type forestry projects, as does the third-party verification work of SGS International Certification Services on the project. Nonetheless, sensitivity analysis shows that carbon benefit estimates for the project vary widely based on the imputed deforestation rate in the baseline scenario, e.g. the deforestation rate expected if the project were not implemented. This, along with a newly available national dataset that confirms other research showing a slower rate of deforestation in Costa Rica, suggests that the use of the 1979--1992 forest cover data originally as the basis for estimating carbon savings should be reconsidered. When the newly available data is substituted, carbon savings amount to 8.9 Mt (million tones) of carbon, down from the original estimate of 15.7 Mt. The primary general conclusion is that project developers should give more attention to the forecasting land use and land cover change scenarios underlying estimates of greenhouse gas benefits.

  6. PCSK9 variant, long-chain n-3 PUFAs, and risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction in Costa Rican Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi; Huang, Tao; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Tiange; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Dianjianyi; Campos, Hannia; Qi, Lu

    2017-03-22

    Background: Previous studies have indicated that the cardioprotective effects of long-chain (LC) n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may vary across various ethnic populations. Emerging evidence has suggested that the gene-environment interaction may partly explain such variations. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) was shown to have a mutually regulating relation with LC n-3 PUFAs and also to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Therefore, we hypothesized that certain PCSK9 genetic variants may modify the association between LC n-3 PUFA intake and CVD risk.Objective: We determined whether a PCSK9 variant (rs11206510), which has been identified for early onset myocardial infarction (MI), modified the association of LC n-3 PUFAs with nonfatal MI risk in Costa Rican Hispanics.Design: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 1932 case subjects with a first nonfatal MI and 2055 population-based control subjects who were living in Costa Rica to examine potential gene-environment interactions. Two-sided P values <0.05 were considered significant.Results: We observed a significant interaction between the PCSK9 rs11206510 genotype and LC n-3 PUFA intake on nonfatal MI risk (P-interaction = 0.012). The OR of nonfatal MI was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.98) per 0.1% increase in total energy intake from LC n-3 PUFAs in protective-allele (C-allele) carriers, whereas the corresponding OR (95% CI) in non-C-allele carriers was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.10). Similar results were observed when we examined the association between docosahexaenoic acid, which is one type of LC n-3 PUFA, and nonfatal MI risk (P-interaction = 0.003).Conclusion: LC n-3 PUFA intake is associated with a lower risk of nonfatal MI in C-allele carriers of PCSK9 rs11206510 (n = 799) but not in non-C-allele carriers (n = 3188).

  7. The role of verbal competence and multiple risk on the internalizing behavior problems of Costa Rican youth.

    PubMed

    Corapci, Feyza; Smith, Julia; Lozoff, Betsy

    2006-12-01

    This longitudinal study examined internalizing behavior problems (anxiety/depression) in early adolescence in relation to adversity in early childhood and child verbal competence. We hypothesized that verbal competence would act as a protective factor in the face of early adversity, that is, high verbal IQ would predict relatively lower internalizing problems in early adolescence primarily for those children who experienced the greatest adversity. The sample was based on 191 Costa Rican children and their mothers, who were recruited in infancy from an urban community and assessed again at 5 and 11-14 years. Families were generally lower-middle to working class. A total of 165 children (94 boys) participated in the early adolescent follow-up (mean age = 12.3 years). Internalizing problems were based on maternal report (Spanish Child Behavior Checklist). Our cumulative risk index (CRI)_of adversity in early childhood consisted of home environment quality (HOME score), socioeconomic status, maternal depressed mood (CESD), and maternal IQ. Controlling for the effects of age, gender, internalizing problems at 5 years, and verbal IQ at 5 years, there was a significant interaction between early adversity and verbal IQ at age 11-14 years in predicting internalizing problems in early adolescence. Youth with high verbal IQ had comparable levels of internalizing problems regardless of high or low adversity in early childhood. In contrast, youth with low verbal IQ received higher internalizing problem ratings if they experienced high adversity early in life. The results raise the possibility that interventions to improve verbal competence might help lower the risk of internalizing problems in the face of early adversity.

  8. New Species and Records of Costa Rican Featherwing Beetles (Coleoptera:Ptiliidae).

    PubMed

    Darby, Michael

    2016-11-02

    This paper describes a new genus and species of Acrotrichinae, Seminis factiosum gen. n., sp. n.; two new species of Nossidium: Nossidium schuelkei, n. sp. and Nossidium issyae, sp. n.; and  a new species of Ptenidium (Peruvium), Ptenidium gruenbergae  sp. n. from Costa Rica. Three further species: Ptenidium nitidum (Heer),  Petrotrichis rotundata Darby, and Bambara invisibilis Nietner are recorded as being present. With the exception of N. issyae all the insects were collected using a vehicle roof-mounted net on a single 40  kilometre drive from the east and west coasts of the Osa Peninsula by M. Schülke and B. Grünberg in 2012.

  9. An empirical evaluation of devolving administrative control to Costa Rican hospital and clinic directors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Theodore; McKee, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    In the early 2000s, Costa Rica implemented comprehensive reforms of its health care system, including devolving administrative power from the central government to some providers that remain part of the national system. In this article, we evaluate how this aspect of the reform affected clinic efficiency and population health by analyzing administrative data on regional providers and mortality rates in local areas. We compare changes in outcomes across time between areas that signed performance contracts with the central government and received limited budgetary control to those that continued to be managed directly by the central government. We believe the reform created opportunities for providers to become more efficient and effective. Our results suggest that the reform significantly decreased costs without adversely affecting quality of care or population health.

  10. An approach to investigating linkage for bipolar disorder using large Costa Rican pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Freimer, N.B.; Reus, V.I.; Vinogradov, S.

    1996-05-31

    Despite the evidence that major gene effects exist for bipolar disorder (BP), efforts to map BP loci have so far been unsuccessful. A strategy for mapping BP loci is described, focused on investigation of large pedigrees from a genetically homogenous population, that of Costa Rica. This approach is based on the use of a conservative definition of the BP phenotype in preparation for whole genome screening with polymorphic markers. Linkage simulation analyses are utilized to indicate the probability of detecting evidence suggestive of linkage, using these pedigrees. These analyses are performed under a series of single locus models, ranging form recessive to nearly dominant, utilizing both lod score and affected pedigree member analyses. Additional calculations demonstrate that with any of the models employed, most of the information for linkage derives from affected rather than unaffected individuals. 26 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. The Costa Rican Central Valley Lavina Formation: Lahar or Debris Avalanche?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, P. J.; Alvarado Induni, G. E.; Linkimer, L.

    2005-12-01

    The Lavina Formation of the Central Valley of Costa Rica consists of lava blocks floating in a volcanic mud matrix. Different authors have interpreted this deposit genetically as a lahar or debris flow deposit. Based on geomorphologic, textural, and morphometric evidence, we conclude that the origin of this deposit is a debris avalanche event that transformed into a debris flow on its path down the valley. Using aerial photographs, many debris avalanche amphitheaters are found in the western sector of the Irazu volcanic complex. However, textural and morphometric characteristics of the deposit are consistent with the source of the sector collapse being located on the west flank of the Cabeza de Vaca volcano. Three-dimensional modeling of the Lavina Formation was done using data from 213 drill cores distributed along the Central Valley area. Maps of isopaches and isohipses of the roof and floor of this stratum were created. These allowed for qualification of morphometry of the stratigraphic surfaces, characterization of the paleoslopes, and quantification of the compacted deposit volume. The data derived form the isopach and isohipse contour maps indicate that abrupt changes in the thickness of the stratum are common. Also, it illustrates the morphological differences between the roof, elongated hills in the direction of the flux, and the floor of the stratum, smooth and uniform. The morphometric, geomorphologic, and textural evidence, were used to conclude that the Lavina deposit originated as a debris avalanche event in the Cabeza de Vaca Volcano. The debris avalanche was eventually fluidized into a debris flow that spread extensively (130 km2) along the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

  12. [Type I hypersensitivity to nocturnal Lepidoptera in a Costa Rican allergic population].

    PubMed

    Sandí-Villalobos, Cindy; Jaikel-Víquez, Daniela; Riggioni-Cordero, Olman

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: en la consulta de Alergología se realiza un tamizaje rutinario con diversos alergenos, entre ellos: mohos, alimentos, cucarachas y ácaros, que logra diagnosticar a gran parte de los pacientes atendidos. Sin embargo, hay individuos con síntomas de alergia que resultan negativos en las pruebas por punción con los alergenos disponibles en el mercado. Las trampas de luz UV que se colocan en el Valle Inter-montano Central de Costa Rica para mosquitos muestran una gran cantidad de captura de lepidópteros nocturnos, lo que motivó a pensar en la importancia de la alergenicidad de este género de nivel de la región tropical húmeda. Objetivos: determinar el porcentaje de pacientes sensibilizados a los lepidópteros nocturnos y dar a conocer la importancia de estos insectos como alergenos ambientales. Material y método: análisis retrospectivo de los expedientes de la Sección de Alergología de la Clínica Médica Herediana, Heredia, Costa Rica, de febrero de 2011 a febrero de 2012 para determinar el porcentaje de pacientes alérgicos a los lepidópteros nocturnos, a los ácaros de polvo doméstico (Blomia tropicalis, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae y Tyrophagus putrescentiae) y a insectos (Periplaneta americana y Musca domestica). A su vez, se analizaron los aspectos demográficos y los síntomas de los pacientes. Resultados: se incluyeron 347 pacientes (217 mujeres y 130 hombres, 36.32 ± 18.10 años). El 63% de los pacientes eran alérgicos a los ácaros del polvo doméstico, 39% a los lepidópteros nocturnos, 28% a Periplaneta americana y 24% a Musca domestica. El 2% de los pacientes alérgicos a sólo un alergeno estaba monosensibilizado contra los alergenos de los lepidópteros nocturnos. Conclusión: se recomiendan las pruebas continuas de alergia a lepidópteros nocturnos, porque son los insectos a los que la mayoría de los pacientes estudiados tuvo alergia.

  13. Detection of antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus in Costa Rican sheep flocks

    PubMed Central

    Villagra-Blanco, R.; Dolz, G.; Montero-Caballero, D.; Romero-Zúñiga, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 359 sheep samples from 15 flocks were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus using a commercial Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Antibodies were detected in 19 (5.29%) sheep from 12 (80%) flocks. Seropositive animals were found in all analyzed regions (Central, Chorotega, Atlantic Huetar, North Huetar and Central Pacific) determining prevalence between 0.28% and 4.4%, and intra-flock positivity between 3.7% and 25.0%. The survey revealed two risk factors associated with seropositivity; introducing animals (males and females), embryos, or semen from other farms or from abroad without any sanitary certification, and flocks not having quarantine areas or separated boxes for diseased animals. No clinical signs of disease were observed in positive seroreactors. C. abortus seems to be present in Costa Rica in a very low prevalence in sheep flocks. Further studies, to isolate the bacteria are required. Finally, implementation of control measures to prevent the spread of C. abortus is recommended. PMID:26623377

  14. Detection of antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus in Costa Rican sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Villagra-Blanco, R; Dolz, G; Montero-Caballero, D; Romero-Zúñiga, J J

    2015-01-01

    A total of 359 sheep samples from 15 flocks were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus using a commercial Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Antibodies were detected in 19 (5.29%) sheep from 12 (80%) flocks. Seropositive animals were found in all analyzed regions (Central, Chorotega, Atlantic Huetar, North Huetar and Central Pacific) determining prevalence between 0.28% and 4.4%, and intra-flock positivity between 3.7% and 25.0%. The survey revealed two risk factors associated with seropositivity; introducing animals (males and females), embryos, or semen from other farms or from abroad without any sanitary certification, and flocks not having quarantine areas or separated boxes for diseased animals. No clinical signs of disease were observed in positive seroreactors. C. abortus seems to be present in Costa Rica in a very low prevalence in sheep flocks. Further studies, to isolate the bacteria are required. Finally, implementation of control measures to prevent the spread of C. abortus is recommended.

  15. Effect of a killed whole Neospora caninum tachyzoite vaccine on the crude abortion rate of Costa Rican dairy cows under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Romero, J J; Pérez, E; Frankena, K

    2004-09-02

    A standard field trial was carried out to assess the effect of a commercial Neospora-vaccine based on whole killed tachyzoites (Bovilis-Neoguard, Intervet) on the abortion rate. Eight hundred and seventy-six cows, over 2.5 months pregnant, belonging to 25 Costa Rican dairy herds, were used in the analysis. For each cow vaccinated, a cow of the same herd, breed and age category, was selected as control. The period of administration of treatments extended from June to November of 2000. The treatments were administered in two, 5-ml doses 1 month apart, the first dose given between day 75 and 90 of gestation. The incidence of abortion among all treated cows was of 16.0% (140/876). The treatment specific incidence was 11.2% (49/438) and 20.8% (91/438) for the vaccinated and the placebo group, respectively. The prevented fraction by vaccination amounted to 0.46 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.61), and the cumulative incidence ratio for the vaccinated group was 0.54. The Cox hazard ratio was 0.51(95% CI: 0.37, 0.72), meaning that the force of abortion is reduced twice in the vaccinated group. The results of this study, the first one following this type of design, shows that the killed whole Neospora caninum tachyzoite preparation had a reasonable effect on the abortion rate in Costa Rican dairy cattle.

  16. Species Effects on Stand-Level Nutrient Economy of a Costa Rican Rain Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, T. E.; Emanuel, R. E.; Tully, K.; Lawrence, D.

    2007-12-01

    In tropical ecosystems, successional forests are rapidly replacing old growth forests as the dominant forest type. This shift in successional status combined with projected changes in climate could result in a significant change in the species composition of tropical forests. How changes in species composition could affect stand-level nutrient economy is not well understood. Using species-specific leaf litter nutrient and productivity data combined with randomly generated dominance scenarios, we investigated species effects on leaf litter nutrient inputs. We conducted this research in a 1-ha secondary forest stand (30-yr in 2003) in northeastern Costa Rica. We measured senesced leaf N and P contents of the nine dominant canopy tree species within the study plot and scaled the results to the stand level using % basal area (BA) as a proxy for relative litter contribution (Sum[total leaf litterfall x % BAsp x nutrient concentrationsp]). We created different dominance scenarios using Monte Carlo generated BA distributions of the nine species. We then selected all scenarios in which one of the nine species accounted for greater than 30% of the BA. This allowed us to create communities with each of the nine species as dominant while varying the composition of the remaining tree community. Both N and P leaf litter inputs differed significantly when the dominant species changed from the current forest community. The change in N inputs was relatively small in relation to the potential change in leaf litter P inputs. P inputs decreased by 23% when Vochysia ferruginea, a shade-intolerant late pioneer species, was dominant. When Casearia arborea, a shade-tolerant species, was the dominant species there was 6% increase in leaf litter P inputs. Our results demonstrate that changes in leaf litter N and P cycling will likely occur as land use and climate change alter forest community composition.

  17. Water Vapor Exchange in a Costa Rican Lower Montane Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, R.; Miller, G. R.; Cahill, A. T.; Moore, G. W.; Aparecido, L. M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Because of high canopy interception in tropical forests, evaporation from wet canopy surfaces makes up a sizeable portion of the total water vapor flux. The modeling complexities presented by changing canopy wetness, along with a scarcity of land-atmosphere flux exchange data from tropical forests, means evapotranspiration (ET) processes have been poorly represented in the tropics in land-surface modeling schemes. To better understand tropical forest ET, we will evaluate the influence of canopy wetness and various micrometeorological data on ET partitioning and total ET flux. We have collected flux data from a lower montane forest in Costa Rica at a newly established AmeriFlux site, which notably has the highest mean annual precipitation of any site in the network. The site features a 39-m canopy tower, equipped with two eddy covariance systems (LI-7200, LI-COR), a CO2/H2O atmospheric profile system (AP200, Campbell Scientific), leaf wetness sensors (LWS, Decagon Devices), sap flow sensors, and a soil respiration chamber (LI-8100A, LI-COR) as well as an array of other micrometeorological sensors. At the site, total ET is driven primarily by available energy, and to a lesser extent, by vapor pressure deficit. Average daily latent energy fluxes peak at values of 160, 75, and 35 W m-2 for dry, partially wet, and wet canopy conditions respectively. Correlations between latent energy flux and all other variables are strongest for drier canopy conditions. Complex relationships between canopy wetness and tropical forest ET cause the environmental controls on these fluxes to be significantly different from those in other biomes. As a result, a new modeling paradigm is needed to more accurately model ET differences between tropical forests and other vegetation types.

  18. The Influence of Regional Groundwater on the Dissolved Organic Matter in Costa Rican Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, E.; Osburn, C. L.; Oviedo-Vargas, D.; Genereux, D. P.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Dierick, D.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand the role of regional groundwater in stream organic matter in two tropical watersheds in Costa Rica. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration, stable C isotopes, absorbance, and fluorescence were used to distinguish DOM sources in two adjacent watersheds, the Arboleda and the Taconazo, which are similar in size, soils, rainfall, and vegetation, yet differ because the Arboleda receives a significant input of regional groundwater that is chemically distinct from the local groundwater, whereas the Taconazo does not. Characteristics of the DOM differed largely among the two streams. Fluorescence and isotope data suggested that more degraded DOM was predominant during dry periods in the Arboleda due to the influence of regional groundwater in that stream. During wet periods, fresher soil-derived DOM was predominant in both streams, similar to the quality of DOM in the Taconazo during base flow. DOM δ13C values of the Arboleda during baseflow ranged from -23 to -34‰, while in the Taconazo values ranged from -25 to -34‰. During storm flow the ranges were smaller and more similar. The Taconazo ranged from -23 to -29‰ and the Arboleda ranged from -23 to -31‰. These differences were more noticeable at baseflow and during the dry season (December to April), suggesting that the DOM from regional groundwater entering the Arboleda had less of an impact when heavily diluted by soil DOM mobilized by precipitation. In both streams, during periods of heavy precipitation, DOM concentrations were much higher than during base flow. Further, at baseflow the Arboleda showed generally lower concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) than the Taconazo, yet export of DOC from the Arboleda watershed was far higher than from the Taconazo due to the large contribution by regional groundwater to the Arboleda water export. Results from this research emphasize the role of regional groundwater in shaping the quality of the organic

  19. Transcriptomics in the tropics: Total RNA-based profiling of Costa Rican bromeliad-associated communities

    PubMed Central

    Goffredi, Shana K.; Jang, Gene E.; Haroon, Mohamed F.

    2014-01-01

    RNA-Seq was used to examine the microbial, eukaryotic, and viral communities in water catchments (‘tanks’) formed by tropical bromeliads from Costa Rica. In total, transcripts with taxonomic affiliation to a wide array of bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, were observed, as well as RNA-viruses that appeared related to the specific presence of eukaryotes. Bacteria from 25 phyla appeared to comprise the majority of transcripts in one tank (Wg24), compared to only 14 phyla in the other (Wg25). Conversely, eukaryotes from only 16 classes comprised the majority of transcripts in Wg24, compared to 24 classes in the Wg25, revealing a greater eukaryote diversity in the latter. Given that these bromeliads had tanks of similar size (i.e. vertical oxygen gradient), and were neighboring with presumed similar light regime and acquisition of leaf litter through-fall, it is possible that pH was the factor governing these differences in bacterial and eukaryotic communities (Wg24 had a tank pH of 3.6 and Wg25 had a tank pH of 6.2). Archaeal diversity was similar in both tanks, represented by 7 orders, with the exception of Methanocellales transcripts uniquely recovered from Wg25. Based on measures of FPKG (fragments mapped per kilobase of gene length), genes involved in methanogenesis, in addition to a spirochaete flagellin gene, were among those most highly expressed in Wg25. Conversely, aldehyde dehydrogenase and monosaccharide-binding protein were among genes most highly expressed in Wg24. The ability to observe specific presence of insect, plant, and fungi-associated RNA-viruses was unexpected. As with other techniques, there are inherent biases in the use of RNA-Seq, however, these data suggest the possibility of understanding the entire community, including ecological interactions, via simultaneous analysis of microbial, eukaryotic, and viral transcripts. PMID:25755850

  20. Thermal regime of the Costa Rican convergent margin: 1. Along-strike variations in heat flow from probe measurements and estimated from bottom-simulating reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Robert N.; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Ranero, CéSar R.; Villinger, Heinrich; Barckhausen, Udo; Henke, Thomas; Mueller, Christian; Neben, Soenke

    2010-12-01

    The thermal structure of convergent margins provides information related to the tectonics, geodynamics, metamorphism, and fluid flow of active plate boundaries. We report 176 heat flow measurements made with a violin bow style probe across the Costa Rican margin at the Middle America Trench. The probe measurements are collocated with seismic reflection lines. These seismic reflection lines show widespread distribution of bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs). To extend the spatial coverage of heat flow measurements we estimate heat flow from the depth of BSRs. Comparisons between probe measurements and BSR-derived estimates of heat flow are generally within 10% and improve with distance landward of the deformation front. Together, these determinations provide new information on the thermal regime of this margin. Consistent with previous studies, the margin associated with the northern Nicoya Peninsula is remarkably cool. We define better the southern boundary of the cool region. The northern extent of the cool region remains poorly determined. A regional trend of decreasing heat flow landward of the deformation front is apparent, consistent with the downward advection of heat by the subducting Cocos Plate. High wave number variability at a scale of 5-10 km is significantly greater than the measurement uncertainty and is greater south of the northern Nicoya Peninsula. These heat flow anomalies vary between approximately 20 and 60 mW m-2 and are most likely due to localized fluid flow through mounds and faults on the margin. Simple one-dimensional models show that these anomalies are consistent with flow rates of 7-15 mm yr-1. Across the margin toe variability is significant and likely due to fluid flow through deformation structures associated with the frontal sedimentary prism.

  1. Availability Of Deep Groundwater-Derived CO2 For Plant Uptake In A Costa Rican Rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberbauer, S. F.; Genereux, D. P.; Osburn, C. L.; Dierick, D.; Oviedo Vargas, D.

    2014-12-01

    The role of export of carbon via surface waters has been increasingly appreciated as an important component of ecosystem carbon budgets. However the role of deep regional groundwater as a source of carbon to ecosystems is relatively poorly known. In a lowland rainforest in Costa Rica, inputs of elevated dissolved inorganic C (DIC) in regional groundwater greatly increase stream water C concentrations. Whether that groundwater-derived carbon represents a significant source of elevated CO2 for photosynthesis of riparian plants is unknown. We compared the concentration and δ13C of CO2 in the air above two weir-equipped streams with different inputs of high-DIC regional groundwater. The Taconazo has no inputs, whereas about 40% of stream discharge of the Arboleda is a result of regional groundwater. DIC from regional groundwater experiences little to no within-watershed sequestration and thus augments the C flux out of the watershed with stream flow and possibly the degassing flux from the stream. CO2 concentrations were recorded by Vaisala GMP343 gas analyzer over 24 hr periods above the weirs and in the splash zone below the weirs as well as at a small waterfall on the Sura, the higher order stream that the Arboleda joins, approximately 250 m downstream of the junction. Samples of air δ13C-CO2 taken from unmixed (early morning) and mixed (afternoon) canopy air were measured by mass spectrometer. Concentrations of CO2 at both sites on the Taconozo remained in the normal range of canopy storage of respiratory CO2 (< 600 ppm). In contrast, [CO2] above the Arboleda weir occasionally exceeded 1000 ppm and were generally above normal values of respiratory CO2. Values below the weir by the splash zone were often higher than 1500 ppm and occasionally exceeded 2000 ppm. At the Sura waterfall pulses of high CO2 > 1000 ppm occurred regularly throughout the day. We found higher δ13C-CO2 above the Arboleda compared to the Taconazo, consistent with an enhanced flux of

  2. Soil Carbon Dioxide and Methane Fluxes in a Costa Rican Premontane Wet Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempel, L. A.; Schade, G. W.; Pfohl, A.

    2011-12-01

    A significant amount of the global terrestrial biomass is found in tropical forests, and soil respiration is a vital part of its carbon cycling. However, data on soil trace gas flux rates in the tropics are sparse, especially from previously disturbed regions. To expand the database on carbon cycling in the tropics, this study examined soil flux rate and its variability for CO2 and CH4 in a secondary premontane wet forest south of Arenal Volcano in Costa Rica. Data were collected over a six-week period in June and July 2011 during the transition from dry to wet season. Trace gas sampling was performed at three sub-canopy sites of different elevations. The soil is of volcanic origin with a low bulk density, likely an Andisol. An average KCl pH of 4.8 indicates exchangeable aluminum is present, and a NaF pH>11 indicates the soil is dominated by short-range order minerals. Ten-inch diameter PVC rings were used as static flux chambers without soil collars. To find soil CO2 efflux rates, a battery-powered LICOR 840A CO2-H2O Gas Analyzer was used to take measurements in the field, logging CO2 concentration every ten seconds. Additionally, six, 10-mL Nylon syringes were filled with gas samples at 0, 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 minutes after closing the chambers. These samples were analyzed the same day with a SRI 8610 Gas Chromatograph for concentrations of CO2 and CH4. The average CO2 efflux calculated was 1.7±0.8E-2 g/m2/min, and did not differ between the applied analytical methods. Soil respiration depended strongly on soil moisture, with decreasing efflux rates at higher water-filled pore space values. An annual soil respiration rate of 8.5E3 g/m2/yr was estimated by applying the observed relationship between soil moisture and CO2 efflux to annual soil moisture measurements. The relatively high respiration rates could be caused by the high soil moisture and low soil bulk density, providing optimal conditions for microbial respiration. Several diurnal sampling periods at

  3. Tracking deforestation, tree plantation expansion, and forest regrowth in a Costa Rican biological corridor using a Landsat time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, M. E.; Sesnie, S.; Arroyo, J.; Walker, W. S.; Soto, C.; Chazdon, R. L.; Sanchun, A.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Wood demand and voluntary carbon markets have driven a rapid global expansion in tropical tree plantations. To effectively monitor this expansion, new remote sensing-based methods are needed that can overcome difficulties in distinguishing between tree plantations, mature forests, and forest regrowth using low-cost moderate-resolution (10-100 m) satellite sensors. The objective of this study was to accurately map changes in the area of these three forest types in northern Costa Rica using Landsat imagery spanning a 25 year period (1986-2011). We mapped forest and tree plantation cover in a fragmented tropical landscape spanning approximately 2500 km2: the San Juan-La Selva Biological Corridor (SJLSBC). In 1996, the Costa Rican government banned deforestation country-wide and concentrated payments for environmental services (PES) within Biological Corridors to promote native tree plantations and protect forests on private land. To evaluate this program's long-term success, we first tracked forest cover change over time and then distinguished between spectrally-similar forest types. We classified five dates (1986, 1996, 2001, 2005, and 2011) of multispectral Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery (30 m resolution). Using Random Forests, we classified each single-date Landsat image first to forest/nonforest and then to thirteen land cover classes (Figures 1-3). To improve mapping of reforestation, final land cover classification was constrained by forest masks integrated over the time series. Training and validation data (1932 polygons covering 2185 ha) were collected using field data and aerial photography; final accuracy analysis was conducted by withholding twenty bootstrapped samples of the training data. Overall mean change-detection accuracy for the forest mask time series was 95.1% (Kappa= 0.93) and the overall land cover accuracy for all maps was greater than 80%. For tree plantations, the inclusion of multitemporal data improved classification accuracy over single

  4. A Cross-Country Comparison of Virtual Discussion Board Use in United States and Costa Rican Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Kari; Saxon, Terrill F.; Trumble, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to compare the use of virtual discussion boards in various educational settings in the United States and Costa Rica. Participants included professors of education, in-service and pre-service teachers in the United States and Costa Rica where a survey was used that included demographic, knowledge, attitude, and…

  5. Species diversity and activity of insectivorous bats in three habitats in La Virgen de Sarapiquí, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Amanda

    2014-09-01

    Pineapple farms make up 45,000 ha of Costa Rican landscape and are the second most exported crop. This is economically beneficial for the Costa Ricans, but greatly affects the natural flora and fauna because it is such a low growing crop. This study examined the differences in insectivorous bat species diversity and activity in the habitat gradient between the forest in Tirimbina Biological Reserve in La Virgen de Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica and the nearby pineapple farm called Finca Corsicana. Over a four week period in March and April 2013, ultrasonic recorders were placed at different sites to pick up the bats' calls. Then the recordings were analyzed to identify the species. There were four families present and 19 different species. There was a significant decrease in the number of bat passes (the number of times a bat passes the recorder) in the pineapple farm (x = 22.6), in comparison to the border (x = 39.9), and the forest (x = 44.2) (p = 0.0028). Agricultural environ- ments affected and lowered bat presence. Also, a greater mean number of bats recorded between 1900-1930 hrs compared to 1730-1800 hrs, coincided with the setting of the sun and beginning of bat activity. More research is need throughout the night and the year to establish clearer patterns of bat use and activity in different habitats.

  6. Educacion Fisica in Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Donna

    1980-01-01

    The goal of Costa Rica's Department of Physical Education and Sports is the "utilization of sport, physical education, and recreation as instruments of socialization and contribution to the improved health of Costa Ricans." (JN)

  7. Biodiversity of Costa Rican salamanders: Implications of high levels of genetic differentiation and phylogeographic structure for species formation

    PubMed Central

    García-París, Mario; Good, David A.; Parra-Olea, Gabriela; Wake, David B.

    2000-01-01

    Although salamanders are characteristic amphibians in Holarctic temperate habitats, in tropical regions they have diversified evolutionarily only in tropical America. An adaptive radiation centered in Middle America occurred late in the history of a single clade, the supergenus Bolitoglossa (Plethodontidae), and large numbers of species now occur in diverse habitats. Sublineages within this clade decrease in number from the northern to southern parts of Middle America, and in Costa Rica, there are but three. Despite this phylogenetic constraint, Costa Rica has many species; the number of salamander species on one local elevational transect in the Cordillera de Talamanca may be the largest for any such transect in the world. Extraordinary variation in sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b within a clade of the genus Bolitoglossa in Costa Rica reveals strong phylogeographic structure within a single species, Bolitoglossa pesrubra. Allozymic variation in 19 proteins reveals a pattern largely concordant with the mitochondrial DNA phylogeography. More species exist than are currently recognized. Diversification occurs in restricted geographic areas and involves sharp geographic and elevational differentiation and zonation. In their degree of genetic differentiation at a local scale, these species of the deep tropics exceed the known variation of extratropical salamanders, which also differ in being less restricted in elevational range. Salamanders display “tropicality” in that although speciose, they are usually local in distribution and rare. They display strong ecological and physiological differentiation that may contribute importantly to morphological divergence and species formation. PMID:10677512

  8. Systematic observations of Volcán Turrialba, Costa Rica, with small unmanned aircraft and aerostats (UAVs): the Costa Rican Airborne Research and Technology Applications (CARTA) missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.; Abtahi, A.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Azofeifa, S.; Berthold, R.; Corrales, E.; Fuerstenau, S.; Gerardi, J.; Herlth, D.; Hickman, G.; Hunter, G.; Linick, J.; Madrigal, Y.; Makel, D.; Miles, T.; Realmuto, V. J.; Storms, B.; Vogel, A.; Kolyer, R.; Weber, K.

    2014-12-01

    For several years, the University of Costa Rica, NASA Centers (e.g., JPL, ARC, GSFC/WFF, GRC) & NASA contractors-partners have made regular in situ measurements of aerosols & gases at Turrialba Volcano in Costa Rica, with aerostats (e.g., tethered balloons & kites), & free-flying fixed wing UAVs (e.g., Dragon Eye, Vector Wing 100, DELTA 150), at altitudes up to 12.5Kft ASL within 5km of the summit. Onboard instruments included gas detectors (e.g., SO2, CO2), visible & thermal IR cameras, air samplers, temperature pressure & humidity sensors, particle counters, & a nephelometer. Deployments are timed to support bimonthly overflights of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) onboard the NASA Terra satellite (26 deployments to date). In situ observations of dilute plume SO2 concentrations (~1-20ppmv), plume dimensions, and associated temperature, pressure, & humidity profiles, validate detailed radiative transfer-based SO2 retrievals, as well as archive-wide ASTER band-ratio SO2 algorithms. Our recent UAV-based CO2 observations confirm high concentrations (e.g., ~3000ppmv max at summit jet), with 1000-1500ppmv flank values, and essentially global background CO2 levels (400ppmv) over distal surroundings. Transient Turrialba He detections (up to 20ppmv) were obtained with a small (~10kg) airborne mass spectrometer on a light aircraft—a UAV version (~3kg) will deploy there soon on the UCR DELTA 500. Thus, these platforms, though small (most payloads <500gm), can perform valuable systematic measurements of potential eruption hazards, as well as of volcano processes. Because they are economical, flexible, and effective, such platforms promise unprecedented capabilities for researchers and responders throughout Central and South America, undertaking volcanic data acquisitions uniquely suited to such small aircraft in close proximity to known hazards, or that were previously only available using full-sized manned aircraft. This work was

  9. [Parasitic infections of coyote, Canis latrans (Carnivora: Canidae) in a Costa Rican National Park and a surrounding agricultural area].

    PubMed

    Niehaus, Carmen; Valerio, Idalia; Blanco, Kinndle; Chinchilla, Misael

    2012-06-01

    As human populations expand into wild habitats with their pets and livestock, the potential spread of disease to wildlife or vice versa increases. Because, wild and domestic canids may pose as reservoirs or disseminators of infectious diseases (including parasites), coyotes (Canis latrans) may also serve as indicators of ecological health. In Costa Rica, little information exists on coyote parasites, making research necessary to identify potential zoonotic interactions. For this reason, a survey of the coyote parasites was performed in a mixed area of protected woodland and agricultural land, surrounding Irazú Volcano National Park (IVNP) in Cartago, Costa Rica. Over a one-year period, 209 fecal samples were collected directly from the ground. Collection took place on a monthly basis in a trail sectioned into three sub-areas named Irazú (closest to the volcano), potato fields (where potatoes were cultivated), and Prusia (a protected sector of IVNP). Sectioning the trail allowed separate collection and analysis of the samples, where 99 were obtained from Irazú, 11 from potato fields and 99 from Prusia. Using direct examination and mechanical concentration 36.84% positive samples containing at least one helminth were found. The presence of parasites was similar for both woodland areas (33.3% in Prusia and 37.4% in Irazú), but differed from the 63.6% observed in the potato fields. Hookworm parasites (probably Ancylostoma caninum), threadworms (possibly Strongyloides sp.), Toxocara canis, Trichuris sp. and Taenia pisiformis were identified, as well as Hymenolepis diminuta, possible spurious parasite resulting from the ingestion of rodents by coyotes. Seasonal details are discussed, concluding that wet and dry seasons affect presence of parasites. Some remarks are made on the importance of these first findings for Costa Rica, especially considering the systematic way in which the collection of samples was carried out.

  10. Paleomagnetic constraints on the tectonic evolution of the Costa Rican subduction zone: New results from sedimentary successions of IODP drill sites from the Cocos Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong-Xiang; Zhao, Xixi; Jovane, Luigi; Petronotis, Katerina E.; Gong, Zheng; Xie, Siyi

    2015-12-01

    The near-flat subduction of the Cocos Ridge (CR) along the Middle American Trench (MAT) plays a pivotal role in governing the geodynamic evolution of the central American convergent margin. Elucidating the onset of its subduction is essential to understand the tectonic evolution and seismogenesis of the Costa Rican convergent margin, a typical erosive convergent margin and modern example of a flat-slab subduction. Initial subduction of the CR has been previously investigated by examining upper plate deformation that was inferred to have resulted from the initial CR subduction. However, little attention has been paid to the extensive sedimentary archives on the CR that could hold important clues to the initial CR subduction. Drilling on the CR during IODP Expedition 344 discovered a pronounced sedimentary hiatus at Site U1381. Here we present paleomagnetic and rock magnetic results of the Cenozoic sedimentary sequences at this site that bracket the hiatus between ca. 9.61 and 1.52 Ma. We also examine the areal extent, timing, and geologic significance of the hiatus by analyzing sedimentary records from five other ODP/IODP sites on CR and Cocos plate. The analyses show that the hiatus appears to be regional and the presence/absence of the sedimentary hiatus at different locations on CR implies a link to the onset of CR shallow subduction, as a result of either bottom current erosion or CR buckling upon its initial collision at the MAT. Records directly from CR thus provide a new window to unraveling the geodynamic evolution of the central American margin.

  11. Pathogenic potential of a Costa Rican strain of 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and protective immunity against Rickettsia rickettsii.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Juan J; Moreira-Soto, Andrés; Alvarado, Gilberth; Taylor, Lizeth; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Hun, Laya; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia; Morales, Juan Alberto; Troyo, Adriana

    2015-09-01

    'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' is a spotted fever group rickettsia that is not considered pathogenic, although there is serologic evidence of possible infection in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic potential of a Costa Rican strain of 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' in guinea pigs and determine its capacity to generate protective immunity against a subsequent infection with a local strain of Rickettsia rickettsii isolated from a human case. Six guinea pigs were inoculated with 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' strain 9-CC-3-1 and two controls with cell culture medium. Health status was evaluated, and necropsies were executed at days 2, 4, and 13. Blood and tissues were processed by PCR to detect the gltA gene, and end titers of anti-'Candidatus R. amblyommii' IgG were determined by indirect immunofluorescence. To evaluate protective immunity, another 5 guinea pigs were infected with 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' (IGPs). After 4 weeks, these 5 IGPs and 3 controls (CGPs) were inoculated with pathogenic R. rickettsii. Clinical signs and titers of anti-Rickettsia IgG were determined. IgG titers reached 1:512 at day 13 post-infection with 'Candidatus R. amblyommii'. On day 2 after inoculation, two guinea pigs had enlarged testicles and 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' DNA was detected in testicles. Histopathology confirmed piogranulomatous orchitis with perivascular inflammatory infiltrate in the epididymis. In the protective immunity assay, anti-Rickettsia IgG end titers after R. rickettsii infection were lower in IGPs than in CGPs. IGPs exhibited only transient fever, while CGP showed signs of severe disease and mortality. R. rickettsii was detected in testicles and blood of CGPs. Results show that the strain 9-CC-3-1 of 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' was able to generate pathology and an antibody response in guinea pigs. Moreover, its capacity to generate protective immunity against R. rickettsii may modulate the epidemiology and severity of Rocky

  12. Assessing the association between pesticide exposure and cognitive development in rural Costa Rican children living in organic and conventional coffee farms.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chensheng; Essig, Christa; Root, Christa; Rohlman, Diane S; McDonald, Tom; Sulzbacher, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association between pesticide exposure and cognitive development among rural Costa Rican children in a cross-sectional study. Study participants aged 4-10 years included 17 children whose parents worked in La Amistad organic coffee plantation and 18 Las Mellizas children whose parents worked in their own small conventional coffee farms. Two spot-urine samples were collected from each participant and analyzed for organophosphorus and pyrethroids pesticide metabolites. We administered the computerized Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS), a figure-drawing task, and a long-term memory test to evaluate study participant's cognitive development. Although urinary pesticide metabolite levels did not vary considerably between these two groups of children, we found that Las Mellizas children performed better in BARS and the figure drawing tests than did La Amistad. The results from the linear mixed-effects models suggested that family socioeconomic status (SES) might be a significant contributor to the variation of the outcomes of the neurobehavioral tests. The effect of pesticide exposure, however, as measured in a snapshot fashion, did not play a significant role to the performance of the cognitive development evaluation. Regardless of the study limitations, needed effort should be devoted to the improvement of the SES on the La Amistad families so that their children's cognitive development would not be compromised further. Additionally, future studies should focus on addressing the limitations imposed on the snapshot assessment of pesticide exposure and on conducting cognitive development evaluation so the link between childhood pesticide exposure and their cognitive development can be thoroughly investigated.

  13. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  14. Blood parasites of two Costa Rican amphibians with comments on detection and microfilaria density associated with adult filarial worm intensity.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Valerie J; Starks, Hilary A

    2008-08-01

    The 2 objectives of this study were: (1) to compare parasite detectability in blood smears obtained from toe-clips versus the heart from amphibian hosts; and (2) to test whether microfilariae density is correlated with adult filarial worm intensity. We examined blood parasites of 2 species of amphibians, Rana vaillanti (n = 45) and Eleutherodactylus fitzingeri (n = 36), from Costa Rica collected during the summer of 2003. Separate blood smears were obtained from toe-clips and the heart during necrospy. Eight species of blood parasites were identified from R. vaillanti and 1 from E. fitzingeri. Each parasite species was counted in a 2 x 2.2-cm2 area on each blood smear, and the density of host red blood cells (RBCs) was estimated using a sub-sampling approach, allowing parasite infections to be expressed as individuals per RBC. The detection failure rate for toe-cut smears ranged from 71-100% (x = 92.3%) and from 0-9% (x = 2.4%) for heart smears, depending on parasite species. The density of RBCs was significantly higher in smears produced from heart samples and may explain the differences in detectability. Foleyellides striatus microfilariae densities (per RBC) were significantly correlated with adult female worm intensity (R2 = 0.32, P = 0.011).

  15. Pollen dispersal and genetic structure of the tropical tree Dipteryx panamensis in a fragmented Costa Rican landscape.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Thor R; Brunsfeld, Steven J; Finegan, Bryan; Waits, Lisette P

    2008-04-01

    In the face of widespread deforestation, the conservation of rainforest trees relies increasingly on their ability to maintain reproductive processes in fragmented landscapes. Here, we analysed nine microsatellite loci for 218 adults and 325 progeny of the tree Dipteryx panamensis in Costa Rica. Pollen dispersal distances, genetic diversity, genetic structure and spatial autocorrelation were determined for populations in four habitats: continuous forest, forest fragments, pastures adjacent to fragments and isolated pastures. We predicted longer but less frequent pollen movements among increasingly isolated trees. This pattern would lead to lower outcrossing rates for pasture trees, as well as lower genetic diversity and increased structure and spatial autocorrelation among their progeny. Results generally followed these expectations, with the shortest pollen dispersal among continuous forest trees (240 m), moderate distances for fragment (343 m) and adjacent pasture (317 m) populations, and distances of up to 2.3 km in isolated pastures (mean: 557 m). Variance around pollen dispersal estimates also increased with fragmentation, suggesting altered pollination conditions. Outcrossing rates were lower for pasture trees and we found greater spatial autocorrelation and genetic structure among their progeny, as well as a trend towards lower heterozygosity. Paternal reproductive dominance, the pollen contributions from individual fathers, did not vary among habitats, but we did document asymmetric pollen flow between pasture and adjacent fragment populations. We conclude that long-distance pollen dispersal helps maintain gene flow for D. panamensis in this fragmented landscape, but pasture and isolated pasture populations are still at risk of long-term genetic erosion.

  16. Active deformation near the Nicoya Peninsula, northwestern Costa Rica, between 1996 and 2010: Interseismic megathrust coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lujia; Newman, Andrew V.; Protti, Marino; GonzáLez, VíCtor; Jiang, Yan; Dixon, Timothy H.

    2012-06-01

    We use campaign and continuous GPS measurements at 49 sites between 1996 and 2010 to describe the long-term active deformation in and near the Nicoya Peninsula, northwestern Costa Rica. The observed deformation reveals partial partitioning of the Cocos-Caribbean oblique convergence into trench-parallel forearc sliver motion and less oblique thrusting on the subduction interface. The northern Costa Rican forearc translates northwestward as a whole ridge block at 11 ± 1 mm/yr relative to the stable Caribbean. The transition from the forearc to the stable Caribbean occurs in a narrow deforming zone of ˜16 km wide. Subduction thrust earthquakes take 2/3 of the trench-parallel component of the plate convergence; however, surface deformation caused by interseismic megathrust coupling is primarily trench-normal. Two fully coupled patches, one located offshore Nicoya centered at ˜15 km depth and the other located inland centered at ˜24 km depth, are identified in Nicoya with the potential to generate an Mw 7.8 1950-type earthquake. Another fully coupled patch SE of Nicoya coincides with the rupture region of the 1990 Nicoya Gulf earthquake. Interface microearthquakes, non-volcanic tremor, low-frequency earthquakes, and transient slow-slip events generally occur in the intermediately to weakly coupled regions.

  17. Asymmetric Response of Costa Rican White-Breasted Wood-Wrens (Henicorhina leucosticta) to Vocalizations from Allopatric Populations.

    PubMed

    Pegan, Teresa M; Rumelt, Reid B; Dzielski, Sarah A; Ferraro, Mary Margaret; Flesher, Lauren E; Young, Nathaniel; Class Freeman, Alexandra; Freeman, Benjamin G

    2015-01-01

    Divergence in song between allopatric populations can contribute to premating reproductive isolation in territorial birds. Song divergence is typically measured by quantifying divergence in vocal traits using audio recordings, but field playback experiments provide a more direct way to behaviorally measure song divergence between allopatric populations. The White-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucosticta; hereafter "WBWW") is an abundant Neotropical species with four mitochondrial clades (in Central America, the Darién, the Chocó and the Amazon) that are deeply divergent (~5-16% sequence divergence). We assessed the possibility that the WBWW as currently defined may represent multiple biological species by conducting both statistical analysis of vocal characters and field playback experiments within three clades (Central America, Chocó and Amazon). Our analysis of vocal traits revealed that Central American songs overlapped in acoustic space with Chocó songs, indicating vocal similarity between these two populations, but that Central American songs were largely divergent from Amazonian songs. Playback experiments in the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica revealed that Central American WBWWs typically responded aggressively to songs from the Chocó population but did not respond to playback of songs from the Amazonian population, echoing the results of the vocal trait analysis. This marked difference in behavioral response demonstrates that the songs of Central American and Amazonian WBWWs (but not Central American and Chocó WBWWs) have diverged sufficiently that Central American WBWWs no longer recognize song from Amazonian WBWWs as a signal to elicit territorial defense. This suggests that significant premating reproductive isolation has evolved between these two populations, at least from the perspective of the Central American population, and is consistent with the possibility that Central American and Amazonian populations represent distinct biological

  18. Contexts as moderators of observed interactions: a study of Costa Rican mothers and infants from differing socioeconomic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Leyendecker, B; Lamb, M E; Scholmerich, A; Fricke, D M

    1997-03-01

    20 first-born infants from low socioeconomic status (SES) families and 20 first-born infants from middle SES families in Costa Rica were observed for 12 hours when they were 14 weeks old. The goals of this study were the following: 1) to study the impact of length of observation and context on the authors measures of interactional engagement; 2) to compare the interactional experiences of the infants in the two groups in various functional (e.g. feeding, object play) and social (e.g. with mother, with mother and others) contexts. Attuned and disharmonious interactions, as well as the frequency of positive affect, soothing, and vocalization, varied considerably across the functional contexts. In addition, disharmonious interactions increased and interactional engagement decreased when mothers and infants were joined by others. Highly unstable measures of individual differences were obtained when observations were limited to 45-minute blocks, but stability increased considerably as the duration of the observations expanded. The groups did not differ with respect to amounts of time spent in various functional and social contexts, in attuned or disharmonious states, or in high levels of interactional engagement. Within some of the functional contexts, however, significant group differences in levels of attuned interactions, infant vocalization, and maternal response vocalization were found. Overall, functional and social contexts clearly moderated interactional experiences. SES effects on verbal and other interactional measures were limited to some contexts and may thus represent the infants' overall experiences quite poorly. Consequently, comparisons based on a single context may be inadequate for studies of subjects from differing socioeconomic backgrounds.

  19. Asymmetric Response of Costa Rican White-Breasted Wood-Wrens (Henicorhina leucosticta) to Vocalizations from Allopatric Populations

    PubMed Central

    Pegan, Teresa M.; Rumelt, Reid B.; Dzielski, Sarah A.; Ferraro, Mary Margaret; Flesher, Lauren E.; Young, Nathaniel; Class Freeman, Alexandra; Freeman, Benjamin G.

    2015-01-01

    Divergence in song between allopatric populations can contribute to premating reproductive isolation in territorial birds. Song divergence is typically measured by quantifying divergence in vocal traits using audio recordings, but field playback experiments provide a more direct way to behaviorally measure song divergence between allopatric populations. The White-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucosticta; hereafter “WBWW”) is an abundant Neotropical species with four mitochondrial clades (in Central America, the Darién, the Chocó and the Amazon) that are deeply divergent (~5–16% sequence divergence). We assessed the possibility that the WBWW as currently defined may represent multiple biological species by conducting both statistical analysis of vocal characters and field playback experiments within three clades (Central America, Chocó and Amazon). Our analysis of vocal traits revealed that Central American songs overlapped in acoustic space with Chocó songs, indicating vocal similarity between these two populations, but that Central American songs were largely divergent from Amazonian songs. Playback experiments in the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica revealed that Central American WBWWs typically responded aggressively to songs from the Chocó population but did not respond to playback of songs from the Amazonian population, echoing the results of the vocal trait analysis. This marked difference in behavioral response demonstrates that the songs of Central American and Amazonian WBWWs (but not Central American and Chocó WBWWs) have diverged sufficiently that Central American WBWWs no longer recognize song from Amazonian WBWWs as a signal to elicit territorial defense. This suggests that significant premating reproductive isolation has evolved between these two populations, at least from the perspective of the Central American population, and is consistent with the possibility that Central American and Amazonian populations represent distinct

  20. Genomewide linkage analysis in Costa Rican families implicates chromosome 15q14 as a candidate region for OCD.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jessica; Badner, Judith; Garrido, Helena; Sheppard, Brooke; Chavira, Denise A; Grados, Marco; Woo, Jonathan M; Doo, Pamela; Umaña, Paula; Fournier, Eduardo; Murray, Sarah Shaw; Mathews, Carol A

    2011-12-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has a complex etiology that encompasses both genetic and environmental factors. However, to date, despite the identification of several promising candidate genes and linkage regions, the genetic causes of OCD are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to conduct linkage studies of childhood-onset OCD, which is thought to have the strongest genetic etiology, in several OCD-affected families from the genetically isolated population of the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR). The authors used parametric and non-parametric approaches to conduct genome-wide linkage analyses using 5,786 single nucleotide repeat polymorphisms (SNPs) in three CVCR families with multiple childhood-onset OCD-affected individuals. We identified areas of suggestive linkage (LOD score ≥ 2) on chromosomes 1p21, 15q14, 16q24, and 17p12. The strongest evidence for linkage was on chromosome 15q14 (LOD = 3.13), identified using parametric linkage analysis with a recessive model, and overlapping a region identified in a prior linkage study using a Caucasian population. Each CVCR family had a haplotype that co-segregated with OCD across a ~7 Mbp interval within this region, which contains 18 identified brain expressed genes, several of which are potentially relevant to OCD. Exonic sequencing of the strongest candidate gene in this region, the ryanodine receptor 3 (RYR3), identified several genetic variants of potential interest, although none co-segregated with OCD in all three families. These findings provide evidence that chromosome 15q14 is linked to OCD in families from the CVCR, and supports previous findings to suggest that this region may contain one or more OCD susceptibility loci.

  1. Lack of association to a NRG1 missense polymorphism in schizophrenia or bipolar disorder in a Costa Rican population.

    PubMed

    Moon, Emily; Rollins, Brandi; Mesén, Andrea; Sequeira, Adolfo; Myers, Richard M; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J; Barchas, Jack; Jones, Edward G; Schatzberg, Alan; Bunney, William E; DeLisi, Lynn E; Byerley, William; Vawter, Marquis P

    2011-09-01

    A missense polymorphism in the NRG1 gene, Val>Leu in exon 11, was reported to increase the risk of schizophrenia in selected families from the Central Valley region of Costa Rica (CVCR). The present study investigated the relationship between three NRG1 genetic variants, rs6994992, rs3924999, and Val>Leu missense polymorphism in exon 11, in cases and selected controls from an isolated population from the CVCR. Isolated populations can have less genetic heterogeneity and increase power to detect risk variants in candidate genes. Subjects with bipolar disorder (BD, n=358), schizophrenia (SZ, n=273), or unrelated controls (CO, n=479) were genotyped for three NRG1 variants. The NRG1 promoter polymorphism (rs6994992) was related to altered expression of NRG1 Type IV in other studies. The expression of NRG1 type IV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the effect of the rs6994992 genotype on expression were explored in a postmortem cohort of BD, SZ, major depressive disorder (MDD) cases, and controls. The missense polymorphism Val>Leu in exon 11 was not significantly associated with schizophrenia as previously reported in a family sample from this population, the minor allele frequency is 4%, thus our sample size is not large enough to detect an association. We observed however an association of rs6994992 with NRG1 type IV expression in DLPFC and a significantly decreased expression in MDD compared to controls. The present results while negative do not rule out a genetic association of these SNPs with BD and SZ in CVCR, perhaps due to small risk effects that we were unable to detect and potential intergenic epistasis. The previous genetic relationship between expression of a putative brain-specific isoform of NRG1 type IV and SNP variation was replicated in postmortem samples in our preliminary study.

  2. Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of middle ear fluid pathogens in Costa Rican children with otitis media before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the National Immunization Program: acute otitis media microbiology in Costa Rican children.

    PubMed

    Abdelnour, Arturo; Arguedas, Adriano; Dagan, Ron; Soley, Carolina; Porat, Nurith; Castrejon, Maria Mercedes; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Van Dyke, Melissa K

    2015-01-01

    .7%) pre-PCV7 introduction, and 19F (27.6%), 14 (8.0%), and 35B (8.0%) post-PCV7 introduction. Following PCV7 introduction, a change in the distribution of AOM episodes caused by H. influenzae and pneumococcal serotypes included in PCV7 was observed in Costa Rican children. Pneumococcal vaccines impact should be further evaluated following broader vaccination coverage.

  3. Relationship Between Subduction Erosion, Seamount Subduction, Fluid Venting and Mound Formation on the Slope of the Costa Rican Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, C.; Klaucke, I.; Weinrebe, W.

    2006-12-01

    The oceanic crust off central Costa Rica northwest of the Cocos Ridge is dominated by chains of seamounts rising 1-2 km above the seafloor with diameters of up to 20 km. The subduction of these seamounts leads to strong indentations, scars and slides on the continental margin. A smoother segment of about 80 km width is located offshore Nicoya peninsula. The segment ends at a fracture zone which marks the transition of oceanic crust created at the Cocos-Nazca spreading center (CNS) and at the East Pacific Rise (EPR). Offshore Nicaragua the incoming EPR crust is dominated by bending related faults. To investigate the relationship between subduction erosion, fluid venting and mound formation, multibeam bathymetry and high-resolution deep-tow sidescan sonar and sediment echosounder data were acquired during R/V Sonne cruises SO163 and SO173 (2002/2003). The deep-tow system consisted of a dual-frequency 75/410 kHz sidescan sonar and a 2-12 kHz chirp sub-bottom profiler. The connection of the observed seafloor features to deeper subduction related processes is obtained by analysis of multi-channel streamer (MCS) data acquired during cruises SO81 (1992) and BGR99 (1999). Data examples and interpretations for different settings along the margin are presented. Near the Fisher seamount the large Nicoya slump failed over the flank of a huge subducted seamount. The sidescan and echosounder data permit a detailed characterization of fault patterns and fluid escape structures around the headwall of the slump. Where the fracture zone separating CNS and EPR crust subducts, the Hongo mound field was mapped in detail. Several mounds of up to 100 m height are located in line with a scar possibly created by a subducting ridge of the fracture zone. MCS data image a topographic high on the subducting oceanic crust beneath the mound field which lead to uplift and possibly enabled ascent of fluids from the subducting plate. The combined analysis of geoacoustic and seismic MCS data

  4. The Cycle of Hydration and Fluid Release in the Costa Rican Subduction Zone imaged through electromagnetic soundings: Where has all the water gone? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worzewski, T. W.; Jegen, M. D.; Kopp, H.; Brasse, H.; Taylor, W.

    2010-12-01

    lower crustal fluid accumulation could likely be caused by trapping of fluids released due to de-serpentinization processes or due to other mineral dehydration processes. While we are at the moment not able to attribute one specific process causing the anomaly based on electromagnetic data alone, this feature is however of fundamental importance. A comparison with other electromagnetic studies from subduction zones around the world reveal that such a conductivity anomaly is a global feature suggesting the presence of a global fluid sink. The derivation of quantitative fluid budgets from electrical resistivity estimates requires lab measurements. Based on very simplified assumptions we are able derive rough estimates for the amount of water being stored in the overriding plate. Relating seismic evidence as well as petrological results collected in the multi-disciplinary study on the Costa Rican subduction zone we introduce budget estimations for the water cycle in the subduction zone.

  5. Edema induced by Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) snake venom and its inhibition by Costa Rican plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Badilla, Beatriz; Chaves, Fernando; Mora, Gerardo; Poveda, Luis J

    2006-06-01

    We tested the capacity of leaf (Urera baccifera, Loasa speciosa, Urtica leptuphylla, Chaptalia nutans, and Satureja viminea) and root (Uncaria tomentosa) extracts to inhibit edema induced by Bothrops asper snake venom. Edema-forming activity was studied plethysmographically in the rat hind paw model. Groups of rats were injected intraperitoneally with various doses of each extract and, one hour later, venom was injected subcutaneously in the right hind paw. Edema was assessed at various time intervals. The edematogenic activity was inhibited in those animals that received an injection U. tomentosa, C. nutans or L. speciosa extract. The extract of U. baccifera showed a slight inhibition of the venom effect. Extract from S. viminea and, to a lesser extent that of U. leptuphylla, induced a pro-inflammatory effect, increasing the edema at doses of 250 mg/kg at one and two hours.

  6. Puerto Rican Adolescents' Disclosure and Lying to Parents about Peer and Risky Activities: Associations with Teens' Perceptions of Latino Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalobos, Myriam; Smetana, Judith G.

    2012-01-01

    Disclosure and lying to mothers and fathers about different activities, as defined within social domain theory, were examined as a function of Latino family values in 109 Puerto Rican lower socioeconomic status middle adolescents (M = 15.58 years, SD = 1.18) living in the United States. Questionnaires revealed that teens sometimes disclosed to…

  7. Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The Republic of Costa Rica is one of the most stable and strongest countries in Central America. It is bordered by Nicaragua and Panama to the north and south and the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific ocean to the east and west and has a total land size slightly smaller than West Virginia. Costa Ricans enjoy a high life expectancy and literacy rate. As well, schools have an attendance rate of nearly 100%. The predominant ethnic group is white, and the predominant spoken language is Spanish. The work force is divided up as follows: 32% agriculture, 25% industry and commerce, 38% services and government, and 5% finance and banking. The country's climate is tropical and subtropical, and the geography of Costa Rica is composed of rugged terrain, mountains, large forest areas, some lowlands and 3 volcanic mountain ranges. The great majority of Costa Ricans are of European descent with only small numbers of the indigenous Indian population surviving today. The government of Costa Rica is democratic, holding periodic elections. The electoral process is monitored by the Supreme Electoral Tribunal. Other bodies of government include the Supreme Court of Justice and the Legislative Assembly. The National Liberation Party has been in power since 1948 and represents socialist ideals. Many factors such as: an influx of enlightened leaders and officials, flexible class lines, economic prosperity and the absence of military force have allowed Costa Rica to progress and maintain a stable economy and government amidst an unstable region. Costa Rica's relations with other countries and international organizations are excellent.

  8. Puerto Rican parrot (Amazona vittata) reproductive behavior: a guideline for management of active nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    One explanation for the failure of intensively monitored Puerto Rican Parrot nests is that observers may lack the information needed to evaluate pair behavior and to recognize behaviors indicative of nest problems. I examined the behavior of Puerto Rican Parrots during eight non-problematic and six problematic nesting attempts to 1) describe behavior of pairs that experienced no notable nest problems and 2) to identify and describe behaviors associated with nest problems. I examined nest attendance, duration of attentive periods, and frequency of nest visits for both males and females, and duration of periods away from the nest for females only. Adult behavior during incubation and early chick rearing at non-problematic nests was well-defined. Females spent an average of 93.2 to 97.3% of the observation period in their nests during incubation and generally left their nests for average periods of 5 to 12 min. Female nest attendance generally declined and recesses became longer as chick rearing progressed. Males rarely entered their nests during incubation, but they generally established a regular pattern of nest visits within seven to 10 days of hatching of their young. In some cases, incidents of human disturbance to nest pairs during incubation and early chick rearing were associated with sudden changes in behavior. The key indicator of nest problems (abandonment during incubation or loss of young) was unexpected declines in female nest attendance. Declines were often accompanied by unexpected increases in female recesses or frequency of female nest visits, and sometimes by increases in male nest visits. Abandonment of nests during incubation was associated with repeated incidents of potentially disturbing activities (e.g., nest inspections). Deaths of embryos and young were associated with behaviors that allowed increased cooling of embryos.

  9. Pesticide residue analyses and biomarker responses of native Costa Rican fish of the Poeciliidae and Cichlidae families to assess environmental impacts of pesticides in Palo Verde National Park.

    PubMed

    Mena, F; Fernández San Juan, M; Campos, B; Sánchez-Avila, J; Faria, M; Pinnock, M; de la Cruz, E; Lacorte, S; Soares, A M V M; Barata, C

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide chemical residues in water samples and biomarker responses in transplanted fish were used to monitor environmental hazards of pesticides in Palo Verde National Park (Costa Rica). The Costarican fish, Parachromis dovii (Ciclhidae) and Poecilia gillii (Poecillidae), were selected as sentinel species. Contaminant analyses detected up to 15 different pesticide residues in water with hexachlobenzene (2261 ng l(-1)), phorate (473 ng l(-1)), epoxiconazole (314) and bromacil (117 ng l(-1)) being the compounds found in higher concentrations. Biomarker responses evidenced impacts on cholinesterase activities in transplanted fish at Barbudal site probably due to the presence of organophosphate insecticides such as phorate. High enzyme activities of glutathione S-transferase and catalase and elevated levels of lipid peroxides were also observed at a site impacted by rice fields (Cabuyo); those effects could be associated with the presence of hexachloro benzene and triazole fungicides. In general, P. dovii biomarkers were affected to a greater extent than those of P. gillii in fish transplanted to sites associated with agriculture, which suggests the former species is a good candidate for future surveys.

  10. The effect of variation of rainfall across different time scales on subcanopy CO2 storage and flux in a Costa Rican rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, A. T.; Miller, G. R.; Moore, G. W.; Merket, C. B.

    2014-12-01

    Precipitation intensity, amounts and timing regimes in the tropics can vary greatly over time - the classic "wet season-dry season" distinction is only one important example of rainfall variability. Vegetation response to these changes in hydrologic input can have significant impacts on ecosystem cycling rates and storage pools. We present here results on CO2 storage and fluxes from a mature tropical rainforest site in Costa Rica, taken during the transition from an abnormally dry season to an abnormally wet season. During 2014, the site underwent an atypical drought over the course of 4 months, followed by a rapid transition to an abnormally wet period. In 2014, precipitation during the dry season (Days 24-98) was 85% lower than in 2013, while it nearly doubled for the first part of the wet season (Days 99-192). This atypical set of precipitation regimes allowed a clear distinction of the effects of the hydrologic forcing on ecosystem behavior with respect to CO2 and H2O land-atmosphere fluxes. Notable differences in ecophysiological drivers were detected between the dry and the wet season. Average photosynthetically active radiation decreased by 35%; however, seasonal differences were only apparent in the top 10 m of the canopy. Average leaf wetness increased by 55%, a trend that was consistent throughout the canopy profile. While variations in these drivers resulted in detectable differences in average subcanopy water vapor concentrations (+7%), carbon dioxide concentrations remained nearly identical (-0.4%). This finding implies that in this system assimilation and evapotranspiration may be decoupled.

  11. Etiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Middle Ear Fluid Pathogens in Costa Rican Children With Otitis Media Before and After the Introduction of the 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in the National Immunization Program

    PubMed Central

    Abdelnour, Arturo; Arguedas, Adriano; Dagan, Ron; Soley, Carolina; Porat, Nurith; Mercedes Castrejon, Maria; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Van Dyke, Melissa K.

    2015-01-01

    .7%), 6B (9.7%), and 14 (9.7%) pre-PCV7 introduction, and 19F (27.6%), 14 (8.0%), and 35B (8.0%) post-PCV7 introduction. Following PCV7 introduction, a change in the distribution of AOM episodes caused by H. influenzae and pneumococcal serotypes included in PCV7 was observed in Costa Rican children. Pneumococcal vaccines impact should be further evaluated following broader vaccination coverage. PMID:25590837

  12. Subject and authorship of records related to the Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS) in BINABITROP, a comprehensive database about Costa Rican biology.

    PubMed

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Nielsen-Muñoz, Vanessa; Azofeifa-Mora, Ana Beatriz

    2013-06-01

    BINABITROP is a bibliographical database of more than 38000 records about the ecosystems and organisms of Costa Rica. In contrast with commercial databases, such as Web of Knowledge and Scopus, which exclude most of the scientific journals published in tropical countries, BINABITROP is a comprehensive record of knowledge on the tropical ecosystems and organisms of Costa Rica. We analyzed its contents in three sites (La Selva, Palo Verde and Las Cruces) and recorded scientific field, taxonomic group and authorship. We found that most records dealt with ecology and systematics, and that most authors published only one article in the study period (1963-2011). Most research was published in four journals: Biotropica, Revista de Biología Tropical/ International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation, Zootaxa and Brenesia. This may be the first study of a such a comprehensive database for any case of tropical biology literature.

  13. Assessment of gene flow from a herbicide-resistant indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) to the Costa Rican weedy rice (Oryza sativa) in Tropical America: factors affecting hybridization rates and characterization of F1 hybrids.

    PubMed

    Olguin, Elena R Sanchez; Arrieta-Espinoza, Griselda; Lobo, Jorge A; Espinoza-Esquivel, Ana M

    2009-08-01

    Herbicide-resistant rice cultivars allow selective weed control. A glufosinate indica rice has been developed locally. However, there is concern about weedy rice becoming herbicide resistant through gene flow. Therefore, assessment of gene flow from indica rice cultivars to weedy rice is crucial in Tropical America. A field trial mimicking crop-weed growing patterns was established to assess the rate of hybridization between a Costa Rican glufosinate-resistant rice line (PPT-R) and 58 weedy rice accessions belonging to six weedy rice morphotypes. The effects of overlapping anthesis, morphotype, weedy accession/PPT-R percentage, and the particular weedy accession on hybridization rates were evaluated. Weedy rice accessions with short overlapping anthesis (4-9 days) had lower average hybridization rates (0.1%) than long anthesis overlapping (10-14 days) accessions (0.3%). Hybridization also varied according to weedy rice morphotype and accession. Sativa-like morphotypes (WM-020, WM-120) hybridized more readily than intermediate (WM-023, WM-073, WM-121) and rufipogon-like (WM-329) morphotypes. No hybrids were identified in 11 of the 58 accessions analyzed, 21 accessions had hybridization rates from 0.01% to 0.09%, 21 had rates from 0.1% to 0.9%, and 5 had frequencies from 1% to 2.3%. Another field trial was established to compare the weedy rice-PPT-R F(1) hybrids with their parental lines under noncompetitive conditions. F(1) hybrids had a greater phenotypic variation. They had positive heterosis for vegetative trait and reproductive potential (number of spikelets and panicle length) traits, but negative heterosis for seed set. This study demonstrated the complexity of factors affecting hybridization rates in Tropical America and suggested that the phenotype of F(1) hybrids facilitate their identification in the rice fields.

  14. Widow and widower remarriage: an analysis in a rural 19th century Costa Rican population and a cross-cultural discussion.

    PubMed

    Madrigal, L; Ware, B; Melendez, M

    2003-12-01

    Although the topic of remarriage features saliently in the cultural anthropological literature, it is virtually absent in the biological anthropology journals. This is perplexing, given that remarriage affects the differential reproductive success of males and females in a community, and could well impact a community's population structure. In this paper, we research remarriage practices in a rural 19th century community in Costa Rica. Although we find support for the proposition that males are more likely to remarry than females, we find that widows who remarry are not all young and able to reproduce. Our findings support the cross-culturally-generated suggestion that a female's ability not to remarry is tied to her to ability to own property. Remarriage is a topic of interest to biological anthropologists from a cross-cultural and biocultural perspective.

  15. The Chemical and Isotopic Signature of Old Groundwater and Magmatic Solutes in a Costa Rican Rainforest: Evidence From Carbon, Helium, and Chlorine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, M. D.; Genereux, D. P.; Solomon, D. K.

    2008-12-01

    Major ion, 18O, and water budget data from previous hydrologic studies at a Costa Rica lowland rainforest site, La Selva Biological station at the foot of Volcan Barva, indicate the presence and mixing of two distinct groundwaters: - bedrock groundwater: relatively high-solute groundwater that represents interbasin groundwater flow into the lowland rainforest watersheds, and - local groundwater: more dilute groundwater recharged locally in the lowlands. In this study we found that C, He, and Cl concentrations and isotope data (ä13C, 14C, 3He/4He, 36Cl/Cl), in groundwater and surface water at La Selva and upslope in Braulio Carillo National Park, are strongly consistent with the mixing hypothesis and provide insight into the age and origin of the two groundwaters. Highly significant linear trends on plots of isotopic abundance vs. the inverse of concentration support the mixing of two groundwaters. High ä13C (-4.89), low 14C (7.98 pmC), high R/RA for He (6.88), and low 36Cl/Cl (17 x 10-15) of bedrock groundwater indicate that elevated C, He, and Cl concentrations in this groundwater are derived from magmatic outgassing and/or weathering of volcanic rock, most likely beneath nearby Volcan Barva. The estimated ä13C of magmatic CO2 was -2.6 , almost identical to the previously- measured ä13C of CO2 in high-temperature gases from two volcanoes in the region (-2.9 at Momotombo in Nicaragua and -2.7 at Arenal in Costa Rica). Concentrations and isotopic ratios of C, He, and Cl in local water are consistent with atmospheric/precipitation sources for He and Cl and a biogenic soil-gas CO2 source for DIC. 14C dating, using NETPATH (a geochemical mass-balance model), indicate an apparent age of bedrock groundwater in the range 2700-4300 years. Local groundwater has 14C concentrations >100 pmC, indicating the presence of anthropogenic "bomb carbon" and thus ages less than ~55 years for these samples collected in 2006. Overall the data are fully consistent with the conceptual

  16. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  17. A cryptic palm-pitviper species (Squamata: Viperidae: Bothriechis) from the Costa Rican highlands, with notes on the variation within B. nigroviridis.

    PubMed

    Doan, Tiffany M; Mason, Andrew J; Castoe, Todd A; Sasa, Mahmood; Parkinson, Christopher L

    2016-07-15

    Middle America is one of the most biodiverse regions in the world, harboring an exceptional number of rare and endemic species. This is especially true of Middle American cloud forests, where montane specialists occupy restricted, high-elevation ranges making them attractive candidates for investigating historical biogeography and speciation. One such highland-restricted species, the black speckled palm-pitviper (Bothriechis nigroviridis), occupies the Central, Tilarán, and Talamanca Cordilleras in Costa Rica and Panama. In this study, we investigate the genetic and morphological variation among populations of B. nigroviridis by inferring a multilocus phylogeny (21 individuals) and analyzing meristic scale characters with a principal component analysis (64 individuals). We find B. nigroviridis sensu stricto to be composed of two deeply divergent lineages, one with a restricted range in the northern and central Cordillera Talamanca and the other ranging throughout the Central, Tilarán, and Talamanca Cordilleras. Furthermore, these two lineages are morphologically distinct, with previously unrecognized differences in several characters allowing us to name and diagnose a new species B. nubestris sp. nov. We also examine the genetic and morphological variation within B. nigroviridis and discuss biogeographic hypotheses that may have led to the diversification of Bothriechis lineages.

  18. Chemical and morphological characterization of Costa Rican papaya (Carica papaya L.) hybrids and lines with particular focus on their genuine carotenoid profiles.

    PubMed

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2012-03-14

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) F1 hybrids and inbred lines grown in Costa Rica were screened for morphological and nutritionally relevant fruit traits. The qualitative composition of carotenoids showed great similarity, being mostly composed of free and esterified β-cryptoxanthins accompanied by β-carotene, lycopene, and biosynthetic precursors. High levels of (all-E)-lycopene and its isomers were distinctive for red-fleshed hybrids, whereas yellow-fleshed fruits were virtually devoid of lycopenes. Because carotenoid levels among the investigated hybrids and lines differed significantly, this study supports the hypothesis of an exploitable genetic variability, and a potential heterotic effect regarding carotenoid expression may be instrumental in papaya-breeding programs. Due to significantly higher levels of provitamin A carotenoids and coinciding high levels of total lycopene, particularly red-fleshed hybrids might represent prospective sources of these compounds. Furthermore, the nutritional value of some genotypes was boosted by substantial amounts of ascorbic acid (up to 73 mg/100 g of fresh weight), which correlated to total soluble solids (R(2) = 0.86).

  19. Puerto Rican adolescents' disclosure and lying to parents about peer and risky activities: associations with teens' perceptions of Latino values.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Myriam; Smetana, Judith G

    2012-08-01

    Disclosure and lying to mothers and fathers about different activities, as defined within social domain theory, were examined as a function of Latino family values in 109 Puerto Rican lower socioeconomic status middle adolescents (M=15.58 years, SD=1.18) living in the United States. Questionnaires revealed that teens sometimes disclosed to parents about their risky prudential (unhealthy or unsafe) and peer activities. Lying was infrequent, although greater for risky than for peer issues. In general, path analyses demonstrated that teens' greater adherence to Latino family values and trust in parents were associated with more disclosure and less lying to mothers. However, these findings were moderated by the type of issue considered and perceptions of parents' Latino family values.

  20. Recent volcano monitoring in Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, R.; Brown, G.; Rymer, H.; Barritt, S.; Randal, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Costa Rican volacno Rincon de la Vieja is loosely but mysteriously translated as the "Old Lady's Corner." It consists of six volcanic centers that form a remote elongated ridge standing some 1300m above the surrounding terraine. Geologically speaking, the Guanacaste province of northern Costa Rica consists of a series of composite volcanic cones built on a shield of ignimbrites (welded and unwelded ash flows) of Pliocene-Pleistocene age (up to 2 million years old), that themselves lie on basement crust of Cretaceious-Tertiary age (up to 90 million years old). the active volcanoes are aligned on a northwest-southeast axis parallel to the Middle American oceanic trench in the Pacific Ocean that is the site of subduction of hte Cocos oceanic plate underneath Central America.  

  1. Area Handbook for Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blutstein, Howard I.; And Others

    This handbook is an attempt to provide an integrated exposition and analysis of the dominant social, political, and economic aspects of the Costa Rican society. It is designed to give readers an understanding of the dynamics of the component elements of the society and an insight into the ideas and goals of its people. Chapters contain material…

  2. Spotlight: Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    3.5 million people lived in Costa Rica as of mid-1997. There were 24 births and 4 deaths per 1000 population, respectively, contributing to the annual natural increase rate of 2.0%. Each woman in Costa Rica bears an average of 2.8 children during her reproductive lifespan and men and women were expected to live for 73 and 78 years, respectively. Costa Rica's low infant mortality rate and high literacy and life expectancy rates set it apart from the rest of Central America. Costa Rica is also the only country in the region which maintains no standing army. About 96% of the population is White or Mestizo, 3% is Black, and 1% is indigenous Indian. More than half of the country lives in San Jose and its metropolitan area, 6% of the country's total land area. Unemployment has run near 5% over the past 2 years, but much of the labor force is underemployed. Costa Rica's economy depends upon tourism and agricultural exports such as coffee, beef, and bananas. A large Intel factory opened in 1997. The government and Costa Rican environmentalists are planning a joint campaign to reconvert 80% of Costa Rica's pasture back to forest and tree crops. About 20% of the government's budget is spent upon education and the 93% literacy rate is the highest in the region. Government health services provide low-cost contraceptives to more than 75% of users and 75% of women use some form of family planning.

  3. Puerto Rican Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapp, Edward, Ed.

    The contents of this compendium are organized in four parts, as follows. Part one, "From Education," includes the following essays: "A Positive View of Bilingualism," Bejamin Pacheco; "Puerto Rican Children and the New York City Public Schools," Luis Fuentes; "Why Puerto Rican Students Drop Out of School: An Explanatory Analysis," Alexander…

  4. Costa Rica's 'White legend': how racial narratives undermine its health care system.

    PubMed

    Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Meagher, Karen

    2011-08-01

    A dominant cultural narrative within Costa Rica describes Costa Ricans not only as different from their Central American neighbours, but it also exalts them as better: specifically, as more white, peaceful, egalitarian and democratic. This notion of Costa Rican exceptionalism played a key role in the creation of their health care system, which is based on the four core principles of equity, universality, solidarity and obligation. While the political justification and design of the current health care system does, in part, realize this ideal, we argue that the narrative of Costa Rican exceptionalism prevents the full actualization of these principles by marginalizing and excluding disadvantaged groups, especially indigenous and black citizens and the substantial Nicaraguan minority. We offer three suggestions to mitigate the self-undermining effects of the dominant national narrative: 1) encouragement and development of counternarratives; 2) support of an emerging field of Costa Rican bioethics; and 3) decoupling health and national successes.

  5. The Role of Water in Arc Magmatism in Nicaragua and Costa Rica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadofsky, S. J.; Hoernle, K.; van den Bogaard, P.

    2004-12-01

    The Central American Volcanic Arc provides an excellent opportunity to study the effect of varying subduction parameters on arc magma geochemistry. Here we examine melt inclusions trapped in olivine phenocrysts in young mafic tephras from the active arc segments in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. These segments of the subduction zone provide starkly contrasting situations with differing oceanic crustal input (East Pacific Rise vs. oceanic crust overprinted by the Galapagos hot spot) and slab dip ( ˜70° vs. ˜30° ) in Nicaragua and Costa Rica respectively. We collected major-, trace-, and volatile-element concentration data from olivine-hosted (Fo68-87) melt inclusions from volcanoes Cerro Negro, Nejapa, Masaya, and Mombacho along the volcanic front in central Nicaragua and Irazu and Arenal in Costa Rica. In Nicaragua H2O shows a general increase with decreasing Fo of the host olivine, reflecting incompatible behavior during differentiation from 1-3 wt. % in samples from Fo>85 to ˜ 5% in some of the slightly more evolved, yet still relatively undegassed, samples. This is best illustrated by samples from Mombacho and Cerro Negro. Comparison of the major element data with experimental melting studies indicates that the Nicaraguan melts with higher FeO and lower SiO2 (at similar MgO contents) could have formed at greater depths and temperatures in the presence of less water than the Costa Rican melts with higher SiO2 and lower FeO. The most primitive samples from Irazu (host olivine Fo84-89) are extremely rich in H2O (3-5 wt. %). H2O enrichment correlates with enrichment of some LILE, LREE (i.e., Ba, La, K), relative to HFSE for most samples from the Nicaraguan volcanoes. S/Nb and Cl/Nb also show some correlation with H2O/Nb in Nicaraguan samples, with some exceptions possibly related to volatile loss is the less primitive samples. These correlations are generally not present in the Costa Rican samples, thus suggesting that despite apparent larger initial water contents

  6. Costa Rica's SINEM: A Perspective from Postcolonial Institutional Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In this article I suggest that SINEM--the Costa Rican version of Venezuela's El Sistema--articulates a development discourse which legitimates neoliberal policies that govern the twenty-first-century international market, in which Costa Rica figures only as a subaltern. I contend that such articulation contributes to perpetuating notions and…

  7. Neurobrucellosis in Stranded Dolphins, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Morales, Juan-Alberto; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Baquero-Calvo, Elías; De-Miguel, María-Jesús; Marín, Clara-María; Blasco, José-María

    2008-01-01

    Ten striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, stranded along the Costa Rican Pacific coast, had meningoencephalitis and antibodies against Brucella spp. Brucella ceti was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of 6 dolphins and 1 fetus. S. coeruleoalba constitutes a highly susceptible host and a potential reservoir for B. ceti transmission. PMID:18760012

  8. Education in Costa Rica: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahab, Zaher

    Costa Rican education, although fairly successful compared to other Third World or Latin American countries, has serious problems needing action, including (1) large discrepancies between educational ideals and the realities of urban privilege, with regard to access and quality, and (2) a rote, narrow, superficial, impractical education. Other…

  9. Active Subduction on Both Coasts of Costa Rica Does not Represent an Important Tsunami Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protti, M.; Gonzalez, V.

    2007-05-01

    Costa Rica, on the southern terminus of the Middle American Trench is being affected by active subduction on both, along the Pacific coast as well as on its Caribbean coast. Three main subduction segments can be recognized along the Pacific coast: 1) under northwestern Costa Rica, off Papagayo Gulf and Nicoya peninsula, the Cocos plate is subducting under the Caribbean plate; 2) under southern Costa Rica (Osa and Burica peninsulas) the Cocos plate subducts under the Panama Block and 3) in the central Pacific coast (between Nicoya and Osa peninsulas) the Cocos plate subducts under a shear zone that marks the transition between the Caribbean and the Cocos plate. Along the Caribbean coast, south of Puerto Limon, the Caribbean plate subducts under the Panama block. Large subduction earthquakes occur under the Nicoya peninsula, Osa peninsula and south of Limon. Most of the rupture area of these large events lies below land so the deformation of the ocean floor is minimal and therefore the tsunamis they generate are small. No large subduction earthquakes occur under the central Pacific coast of Costa Rica due to the subduction of small sea mounts that act as small asperities without potential to accumulate large amounts of slip. For this reason the region between Nicoya and Osa peninsulas is not an important tsunamigenic zone.

  10. Dietary behaviors, physical activity, and cigarette smoking among pregnant Puerto Rican women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few studies have examined predictors of meeting health guidelines in pregnancy among Latina women. We assessed dietary behaviors, physical activity, and cigarette smoking in the Latina Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Study, a prospective cohort of 1231 prenatal care patients. Self-reported information...

  11. Biological Screening of Select Puerto Rican Plants for Cytotoxic and Antitumor Activities

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Karla Claudio; Rivera, Janibeth Hernández; Gutierrez, Jaymie Rivera; Rivera, Isamar Ortiz; Velez, Augusto Carvajal; Torres, Marianela Pérez; Ortiz, Mayra Pagán; Millán, Claudia A. Ospina

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and anticancer activities of extracts from 7 species of endemic and native plants from Puerto Rico. Methods The plant species selected for this study were Canella winterana, Croton discolor, Goetzea elegans, Guaiacum officinale, Pimenta racemosa, Simarouba tulae, and Thouinia striata. The dried plant material was extracted with a 1:1 mixture of CH2Cl2-MeOH. The resulting crude extract was suspended in water and extracted with solvents of different polarities. The extracts were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against Artemia salina and 3 breast cancer cell lines. Results About 50% of the extracts evaluated against Artemia salina exhibited LC50 values of less than or equal to 200 µg/mL. The strongest activity was detected in the chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of Guaiacum officinale, with lethality values below 10 µg/mL. The extracts were further evaluated for their bioactivity as possible inhibitors of several breast cancer cell lines, with the extracts from Simarouba tulae and Croton discolor showing the highest percentages of growth inhibition. The dose-effect data analysis for the crude extracts of the different plants also confirms the high cytotoxicities of Guaiacum officinale, Simarouba tulae, and Croton discolor. Conclusion Based on our results, we concluded that the Simarouba, Croton, and Guaiacum plant extracts show cytotoxic and anticancer activities that merit closer investigation in order to identify the chemical compounds responsible for these bioactivities. PMID:25856874

  12. Puerto Rican Migrant Farmworkers: An Untold Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Gloria Bonilla

    1986-01-01

    Details the history and activities in New Jersey of "El Comite de Apoyo a los Trabajadores Agricolos" (CATA) or Farmworkers' Support Committee. The Committee was founded in 1979 to help Puerto Rican migrant workers who suffer from social and political isolation and are denied basic rights. Successes, goals, and problems are noted. (PS)

  13. Tracking performance of unbalanced QPSK demodulators. II - Biphase Costas loop with active arm filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    In a Costas loop study for biphase modulation conducted by Simon and Lindsey (1977), it was demonstrated that considerable improvement in tracking performance could be obtained by employing active arm filters of the integrate-and-dump type as opposed to passive arm filters. An investigation is conducted concerning the possibility to obtain a similar performance improvement for an unbalanced quadriphase-shift-keying (QPSK) modulation. It is found that the biphase Costas loop can be used as an efficient demodulator of QPSK in cases in which the ratio of data rates is of the same order of magnitude as the inverse of the power ratio. These cases involve approximately equal signal energies in the two channels.

  14. Using Social Networks to Educate Seismology to Non-Science Audiences in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lücke, O. H.; Linkimer, L.

    2013-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high rate of seismicity with 63 damaging earthquakes in its history as a nation and 12 felt earthquakes per month on average. In Costa Rica, earthquakes are part of everyday life; hence the inhabitants are highly aware of seismic activity and geological processes. However, formal educational programs and mainstream media have not yet addressed the appropriate way of educating the public on these topics, thus myths and misconceptions are common. With the increasing influence of social networks on information diffusion, they have become a new channel to address this issue in Costa Rica. The National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN) is a joint effort between the University of Costa Rica and the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity. Since 1973, the RSN studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. Starting on January 2011 the RSN has an active Facebook Page, in which felt earthquakes are reported and information on Seismology, geological processes, scientific talks, and RSN activities are routinely posted. Additionally, RSN gets almost instantaneous feedback from RSN followers including people from all rural and urban areas of Costa Rica. In this study, we analyze the demographics, geographic distribution, reach of specific Facebook posts per topic, and the episodic growth of RSN followers related to specific seismic events. We observe that 70 % of the RSN users are between ages from 18 to 34. We consistently observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We notice that educational posts are as well 'liked' as most earthquake reports. For exceptional seismic events, we observe sudden increments in the number of RSN followers in the order of tens of thousands. For example, the May 2013 Sixaola earthquake (Mw

  15. Breast Self-Examination: Attitude and Knowledge of Female College Students from USA, Thailand, Costa Rica, and Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Noy S.; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Ding, Kele; Fernandez, Xinia; Encarnacion, Haydee

    2002-01-01

    Examined attitudes and knowledge among U.S., Thai, Costa Rican, and Puerto Rican female college students regarding breast self-examination (BSE). Students completed surveys before and after watching an instructional video on BSE. BSE practice was low in all four countries. Students considered BSE a necessary part of individual healthy behaviors.…

  16. Quality Early Childhood Education in Costa Rica? Policy, Practice, Outcomes and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco, Andrea Rolla; Arias, Melissa; Villers, Renata

    2005-01-01

    High-quality early childhood education has been shown to improve school outcomes in several developing and developed nations. The history of policy around pre-school education in Costa Rica is described as background to presenting cross-sectional data on the emergent literacy skills of low-income Costa Rican children in kindergarten, 1st and 2nd…

  17. Educational Change and Structural Adjustment: A Case Study of Costa Rica. [Working Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin; Torres, Carlos

    In the 1960s and 1970s, steady economic growth helped the Costa Rican government expand its education system rapidly. The 1979 oil shocks, the U.S. 1981-82 recession, and other factors ended this prosperity and exposed the fragility of Costa Rica's late 1970s debt-financed development. To restore economic growth, new economic policies were…

  18. Costa Rica: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-22

    trade agreements with China and Singapore, while strengthening the country’s social welfare programs. Throughout much of the electoral campaign...Ministerio Del Ambiente y Energia, “ Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas,” available at http://www.sinac.go.cr/ planificacionasp.php. 31 “Costa Rica...and reflected the polarization of the issue among the Costa Rican electorate . Trade unions, students, a variety of social movements, and the PAC

  19. Disability and Rehabilitation in Rural Costa Rica. Occasional Paper 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mezerville, Gaston

    To assist the Costa Rican Social Security Systems in designing a Rural Community Comprehensive Health Model, a study identified functional limitations among 1253 persons over age 7; assessed functional development of 293 children, ages 0-6; identified possible preventive factors of disability; and explored practices and resources in the districts…

  20. The Marine Education Programme and ESD Schools in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata-Segreda, Alejandrina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share information about the Costa Rican Marine Education Programme in relation to the quality criteria for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Schools. We found that the application of these criteria is feasible, not only to the organisation and management of schools that are looking to become ESD Schools,…

  1. CREADS, a Teacher Training Course on ESD in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Elizondo, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    After the Costa Rican government signed a commitment to implement the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), the challenge was how to put the commitment into action. Fortunately, an opportunity presented itself with an initiative called Peace with Nature (Iniciativa Paz con la Naturaleza-IPN), under which a teacher training…

  2. Costa Rica turns to the world for help.

    PubMed

    1988-07-01

    Costa Rica's current financial crisis threatens to jeopardize recent gains in health indicators, especially among the low-income population. The increasing costs of developing health services and of providing social security coverage for marginal social groups can no longer be fully met by the Costa Rican government, which has steadily allocated a high percentage of the national budget to health. Given this situation, Costa Rica has appealed for international cooperation to help meet the most urgent health needs in the country. In 1985, Costa Rica's population stood at slightly under 2.6 million, with 36% aged 16 years and older. The country remains primarily rural; only 46% of the population is centered in urban areas. Costa Rica has been described as a country that maintains a strong tradition of peace and democracy. Given its political stability, Costa Rica has been the recipient of large waves of immigrants from other Central American countries in states of social political turmoil.

  3. Seroepidemiology of chlamydia in Costa Rica.

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, K M; Barnes, R C; Oberle, M W; Rosero-Bixby, L; Schachter, J

    1990-01-01

    A population-based study of the sero-epidemiology of chlamydia was performed among a nationally representative sample of 760 Costa Rican women aged 25 to 59 years. Interviews and sera collection were completed between September 1984 and February 1985. The overall seroprevalence of chlamydial antibodies among these women was 56.1%. Women 25 to 39 years of age had a seroprevalence of 51.1%, while women 40 to 59 years of age had a seroprevalence of 64.2%. Women who reported no prior sexual activity had a seroprevalence rate of 48.6%, compared with a seroprevalence rate of 80.7% among women who reported three or more lifetime sexual partners. The geometric mean titre (GMT) of seropositive women ranged from 34.4 among the women who reported no prior sexual activity to 155.0 among the women with three or more lifetime sexual partners. Sero-positivity was more consistently associated with sexual activity than with age. Women with serological evidence of past Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) or syphilis infection were more likely to be seropositive than were women without evidence of exposure to these sexually transmitted diseases, even when controlled for age and the number of lifetime sexual partners. The seropositivity among never sexually active women indicates the probable presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections, while the high seroprevalence of chlamydial antibodies among the sexually active women suggests that sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infections represent a public health problem not previously quantified in Costa Rica. Further seroepidemiological and/or culture studies are warranted to determine the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted chlamydial infection among men and younger women. PMID:2370061

  4. Boricuas: The Puerto Ricans. Manual for Inservice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mir, Margarita; Trillas, Elba Pietri

    This document is a teachers' guide to the television series, "Boricuas: The Pureto Ricans." The manual provides additional information to help teachers understand the adjustment problems and special educational needs of Puerto Rican students. The program order is as follows: Puerto Rican studies, island of Borinquen, nineteenth century,…

  5. The Tobosi Fault: Source of the 2011-2012 Tobosi Earthquake Swarm in Central Costa Rica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, M. C.; Linkimer, L.; Montero Pohly, W. K.; Rojas, W.

    2014-12-01

    The Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt (CCRDB) is a ~100 km broad zone of deformation that marks the boundary between the Caribbean Plate and the Panama Microplate. From December 2011 to February 2012 an earthquake swarm took place on a portion of the CCRDB, near the town of Tobosi, in the Cartago province. In this study, we use data recorded by the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN: UCR-ICE) to relocate 22 of these earthquakes and calculate focal mechanisms. Additionally, we analyze the Tectonic Geomorphology of the region. Our results show a transtension structure near the town of Tobosi, which comprises at least three faults, named: the Tobosi, Tablon, and Alumbre faults. This structure is located only 5 km south of the Aguacaliente fault, which caused the deadliest earthquake in Costa Rican history on May 4, 1910 (Ms 6.4). The earthquake locations analyzed are aligned with the Tobosi Fault. The events varied in moment magnitude between 2.4 and 3.9 Mw and depths of 1 and 8 km. The largest events were felt mainly in the town of Tobosi and as far as San Jose, the capital city of Costa Rica. We found that the Tobosi fault is an active left-lateral strike-slip fault with a normal component and is the source of the Tobosi earthquake swarm. The study of active faults in Central Costa Rica is significant as it may greatly improve seismic hazards assessment for this region where most of the population and the main economic activities are concentrated.

  6. Estrogenic effects of herbal medicines from Costa Rica used for the management of menopausal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Brian J.; Frasor, Jonna; Bellows, Lauren E.; Locklear, Tracie D.; Perez, Alice; Gomez- Laurito, Jorge; Mahady, Gail. B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Outcomes from the Women's Health Initiative have demonstrated adverse effects associated with hormone therapy (HT), and have prioritized the need to develop new alternative treatments for the management of menopause and osteoporosis. To this end, we have been investigating natural herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to manage menopausal symptoms. Design Seventeen plant species were collected and extracted in Costa Rica. To establish possible mechanisms of action, and determine their potential future use for menopause or osteoporosis, the estrogenic activities of the herbal extracts were investigated in an estrogen reporter gene ERβ-CALUX® assay in U2-OS cells, and in reporter and endogenous gene assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Six of the plant extracts bound to the estrogen receptors. Four of the six extracts stimulated reporter gene expression in the ERβ-CALUX® assay. All six extracts modulated expression of endogenous genes in MCF-7 cells, with four extracts acting as estrogen agonists and two extracts, Pimenta dioica and Smilax domingensis, acting as partial agonist/antagonists by enhancing E2-stimulated pS2 mRNA expression, but reducing E2-stimulated PR and PTGES mRNA expression. Both P. dioica and S. domingensis induced a 2ERE-luciferase reporter gene in transient transfected MCF-7 cells, which was inhibited by the ER antagonist ICI 182780. Conclusions This work presents a plausible mechanism of action for many of the herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to treat menopausal symptoms. However, it further suggests that studies of safety and efficacy are needed before these herbs should be used as alternative therapies to HT. PMID:19424091

  7. The peats of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Peat has been identified in Cost Rica, and an economic analysis of energy applications for peat has been done. About 1000 km{sup 2} of Cost Rica has the potential of being covered by peat. The Talamanca Mountains and the northeastern plains contain most of the Costa Rican peat. Specific bogs have been identified by the Medio Queso River in north-central Costa Rica and near El Cairo, Moin, and the Limon airport in northeastern Costa Rica. The Medio Queso bog, which is supplying peat for use as a carrier for nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and the El Cairo bog, which has been identified as a source of horticultural peat for nearby ornamental plant farms, are of special interest. The economics of three energy applications of peat were examined -- as a fuel in large boilers, as a fuel in small boilers, and as an oil substitute in a cement plant. A facility using coal would have the same total costs as one using peat if coal prices were $45 and $30 per metric ton (used for large boilers and a cement plant, respectively). A facility using Bunker C or diesel would have the same total cost as one using peat if oil prices were $0.11, $0.08, and $0.06 per liter (used for large boilers, small boilers, and a cement plant, respectively). In all three cases, the costs for peat were comparable or less than the costs for coal and oil at 1987 prices. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Annotated Selected Puerto Rican Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bravo, Enrique R., Comp.

    This work represents an effort on the part of The Urban Center to come one step closer to the realization of its goal to further the growth of ethnic studies. After extensive consultation with educationists from within and without the Puerto Rican community, it was decided that an annotated bilingual bibliography should be published to assist and…

  9. [Determinants of fertility in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Rosero, L

    1983-08-01

    An attempt to systematize variables or factors traditionally associated with fertility, this study is not intended as a theoretical framework. 2 periods in Costa Rican fertility are recognized: one before 1960 and one after 1960. Within these periods 4 stages, each with different "key" determinants, are recognized. Until 1960, high fertility rates prevailed, with more than 6 children as total. Fluctuations were due to voluntary factors such as nuptiality and breastfeeding, and involuntary factors such as demand for less children during economic recession. Between 1960 and 1975 fertility declined. It is believed that the "key" factors in this fertility decline were on the contraceptive "offert" side rather than on the children demand side. The participation of peasants and low socioeconomic groups in the fertility decline and governmental health and family planning services are also recognized as important factors. Since the mid 70's a new stage of relative stability has been reached with an apparent convergence towards a total fertility of 3 children. How close this level is reached in the near future will depend on the control of unwanted fertility. The possibility of a 2nd fertility decline in Costa Rica depends mainly on factors which determine why couples have a 3rd child. Consequently, investigation of these factors is suggested to anticipate the future course of Costa Rican fertility. Basic fertility data are given in tables and an appendix.

  10. [The importance of genealogy applied to genetic research in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Meléndez Obando, Mauricio O

    2004-09-01

    The extensive development of genealogical studies based on archival documents has provided powerful support for genetic research in Costa Rica over the past quarter century. As a result, several questions of population history have been answered, such as those involving hereditary illnesses, suggesting additional avenues and questions as well. Similarly, the preservation of massive amounts of historical documentation highlights the major advantages that the Costa Rican population offers to genetic research.

  11. Costa Rican High Education, Its Universities and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Silvia P.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple efforts have been undertaken around the world to describe and categorize universities and systems of higher education, in the understanding that knowledge about these institutions can inform interventions which can improve educational quality and efficiency, while helping consumers--students, parents, employers, and governments--make…

  12. Asterogynins: Secondary Metabolites from a Costa Rican Endophytic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    An endophytic fungus isolated from the small palm Asterogyne martiana produced two unusual steroid-like metabolites, asterogynin A (1) and asterogynin B (2), along with the known compounds viridiol (3) and viridin (4). Asterogynins A and B were characterized by NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis. PMID:20839869

  13. Costa Rica: achievements of a heterodox health policy.

    PubMed

    Unger, Jean-Pierre; De Paepe, Pierre; Buitrón, René; Soors, Werner

    2008-04-01

    Costa Rica is a middle-income country with a strong governmental emphasis on human development. For more than half a century, its health policies have applied the principles of equity and solidarity to strengthen access to care through public services and universal social health insurance. Costa Rica's population measures of health service coverage, health service use, and health status are excellent, and in the Americas, life expectancy in Costa Rica is second only to that in Canada. Many of these outcomes can be linked to the performance of the public health care system. However, the current emphasis of international aid organizations on privatization of health services threatens the accomplishments and universality of the Costa Rican health care system.

  14. Costa Rica: Achievements of a Heterodox Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Jean-Pierre; De Paepe, Pierre; Buitrón, René; Soors, Werner

    2008-01-01

    Costa Rica is a middle-income country with a strong governmental emphasis on human development. For more than half a century, its health policies have applied the principles of equity and solidarity to strengthen access to care through public services and universal social health insurance. Costa Rica’s population measures of health service coverage, health service use, and health status are excellent, and in the Americas, life expectancy in Costa Rica is second only to that in Canada. Many of these outcomes can be linked to the performance of the public health care system. However, the current emphasis of international aid organizations on privatization of health services threatens the accomplishments and universality of the Costa Rican health care system. PMID:17901439

  15. A new tropical active serpentinization end-member discovered in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Murillo, R.; Gazel, E.; Boll, J.; Schwarzenbach, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Serpentinization is a planetary process where ultramafic rocks react with fluids with important consequences on global biogeochemical cycles through formation of H2 and CH4. Exposed sections of upper-mantle rocks on continents, where meteoric water interacts with the ultramafic rocks, provide natural laboratories to study present-day serpentinization. Here, we present geochemical evidence of active serpentinization and methane vents in the Santa Elena Ophiolite (comprising 250 km2 of ultramafic rocks) in Costa Rica. The system is sustained by peridotites with a 50% degree of serpentinization. Two alkaline spring systems were discovered. The alkaline fluids pH ranged from 11.01 to 11.18. Mean hydroxide and carbonate concentrations were 52 mg/L and 38 mg/L. Mean dissolved calcium was 104 mg/L with a maximum of 167 mg/L. These springs are also characterized by low Mg (< 1 mg/L) and K (2.35 mg/L) and relatively high Na (21.4 mg/L) and chloride (27.1 mg/L) concentrations. Average spring temperature was 29.1°C. Active CH4 vents (24.3% volume) coupled with extensive carbonate deposits (magnesite and calcite with isotopic compositions within the range of similar ultramafic hosted systems) also provide strong evidence of active serpentinization. Groundwater and alkaline spring's hydrological connectivity was explored using stable isotope as natural tracers. Isotope composition of the alkaline fluids (d18O = -7.9‰, d2H = -51.4‰) was remarkably similar to the groundwater signature from 10 deep wells (30-70 m) (d18O = -7.6‰; dD = -48.0‰) sampled in local watersheds. These results support the hypothesis that during prolonged dry periods these alkaline springs are fed by deep subsurface storage. Mean electrical conductivity of the alkaline fluids (622 uS/cm) was considerably higher than of surface waters (470 uS/cm); this significant difference may be additional evidence of active serpentinization in the area. Overall, Santa Elena's varying weather conditions between

  16. Costa Rica: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-22

    legislative elections were held in February 2006, though the presidential election was so close that the Supreme Electoral Tribunal (TSE) did not...Ambiente y Energia, “ Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas,” available at <http://www.sinac.go.cr/planificacionasp.php>. 24 Thomas L. Friedman, “(No) Drill...polarization of the issue among the Costa Rican electorate . Trade unions, students, a variety of social movements, and the PAC opposed the ratification

  17. Costa Rica: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-21

    legislative elections were held in February 2006, though the presidential election was so close that the Supreme Electoral Tribunal (TSE) did not...Del Ambiente y Energia, “ Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas,” available at http://www.sinac.go.cr/ planificacionasp.php. 25 Thomas L. Friedman, “(No...among the Costa Rican electorate . Trade unions, students, a variety of social movements, and the PAC opposed the ratification of CAFTA-DR, while

  18. Costa Rica: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-02

    and legislative elections were held in February 2006, though the presidential election was so close that the Supreme Electoral Tribunal (TSE) did not...Government seeks green credentials,” Oxford Analytica, October 21, 2008. 23 Ministerio Del Ambiente y Energia, “ Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas...CAFTA-DR. The referendum was held in October 2007 and reflected the polarization of the issue among the Costa Rican electorate . Trade unions

  19. The Design and Implementation of an In-Service EFL Teacher Training Model in the Costa Rican Public School System (El Diseño e Implementación de un Modelo de Capacitación para Docentes de Inglés en Servicio en la Educación Pública Costarricense)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Córdoba Cubillo, Patricia; Ramírez, Xinia Rodríguez; Hernández Gaubil, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    In response to the challenges of the 21st century and to the need for students in the public school system to have a higher level of English proficiency, English was declared an issue of national interest in Costa Rica in 2008. For this reason, a decree called Multilingual Costa Rica was signed by the government, setting the stage for an…

  20. ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM THE KEEL-BILLED TOUCAN (RAMPHASTOS SULFURATUS) FROM COSTA RICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pectoral muscles from a captive keel-billed toucan (Ramphastos sulfuratus) from the Costa Rican were fed to a Toxoplasma gondii-free cat and the cat shed oocysts. Laboratory mice fed these oocysts developed antibodies to T. gondii in their sera and T. gondii tissue cysts in their brains. The DNA ext...

  1. Patterns of cetacean sighting distribution in the Pacific exclusive economic zone of Costa Rica based on data collected from 1979-2001.

    PubMed

    May-Collado, Laura; Gerrodette, Tim; Calambokidis, John; Rasmussen, Kristin; Sereg, Irena

    2005-01-01

    Nineteen species of cetaceans (families Balaenopteridae, Kogiidae, Physeteridae, Ziphiidae and Delphinidae) occur in the Costa Rican Pacific Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Based on data recorded from the EEZ by the Southwest Fisheries Service Center, Cascadia Research Collective, and CIMAR between 1979-2001, we mapped the distribution of 18 cetacean species. Our results suggest that the majority of the cetacean species use primarily oceanic waters, particularly those species within the families Balaenopteridae, Kogiidae. Physeteridae and Ziphiidae. Members of the family Delphinidae showed a wide variety of distribution patterns: seven species are widespread throughout the EEZ, four appear to be exclusively pelagic, and two are primarily coastal. Overall, three cetacean species appear to have populations concentrated in coastal waters: Stenella attenuata graffmani. Tursiops truncatus, and Megaptera novaeangliae. These three may be more susceptible to human activities due to the overlap of their ranges with fishery areas (tuna and artisanal fisheries), and an uncontrolled increase of touristic whale watching activities in several parts of their range. The distribution maps represent the first comprehensive representation of cetacean species that inhabit Costa Rican Pacific waters. They provide essential base-line information that may be used to initiate conservation and management efforts of the habitats where these animals reproduce and forage.

  2. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica - an updated checklist.

    PubMed

    Cáceres González, Daniel A; Schulte, Katharina; Schmidt, Marco; Zizka, Georg

    2013-01-01

    An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica). 124 species (62.6%) grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8%) are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora), followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2%) and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%).

  3. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres González, Daniel A.; Schulte, Katharina; Schmidt, Marco; Zizka, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica). 124 species (62.6%) grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8%) are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora), followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2%) and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%). PMID:24399894

  4. Costa Rica regroups for sales kick-off.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    Cost Rica's contraceptive social marketing project is scheduled to be launched in March 1985. The project is run through a for-profit corporation, Asdecosta, which is owned by the Costa Rican International Planned Parenthood affiliate. Asdecosta was formed as a for-profit entity because Costa Rican law prohibits product sales by nonprofit groups. The US Agency for International Development (AID) will allocate US$1.2 million over a 5-year period, 1983-88. The project manager, Jorge Lopez, is an economist with considerable experience in marketing. The project has lined up a top national distributor, a packaging company, and an advertising agency for its 1st product, a condom manufactured in the US by Ansell. Asdecost's target market is projected to include 50,000-75,000 couples at its peak operating capacity. An estimated 65% of Costa Rican women have used a contraceptive method at some time. The condom, pill, and IUD are the most popular methods. Eventually, Asdecosta expects to expand its product line to include oral contraceptives. Another goal is to counter the high drop out rate among users of government and other family planning services.

  5. Costa Rica publications in the Science Citation Index Expanded: a bibliometric analysis for 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2012-12-01

    Despite of its small size, the Central American country of Costa Rica is internationally recognized as one of the world leaders in conservation and as the Central American leader in science. There have been no recent studies on the country's scientific production. The objective of this study was to analyze the Costa Rican scientific output as represented in the Science Citation Index Expanded. All documents with "Costa Rica" in the address field from 1981 to 2010 were included (total 6 801 publications). Articles (79%) were more frequent than other types of publication and were mostly in English (83%). Revista de Biología Tropical published the most articles (17%), followed by Toxicon and Turrialba (2.5%). The New England Journal of Medicine had the highest impact factor (53.484) with nine articles. Of 5 343 articles with known institutional address, 63%were internationally collaborative articles (most with the USA) with h index 91 and citation per publication 18. A total of 81% of all articles were inter-institutionally collaborative articles, led by the Universidad de Costa Rica. This reflects research and education agreements among these countries. Universidad de Costa Rica ranked top one in inter-institutionally collaborative articles, the rank of the total inter-institutionally collaborative articles, and the rank of first author articles and corresponding author articles. Studied subjects and journals in our sample are in agreement with dominant science fields and journals in Costa Rica. Articles with the highest citation were published in New England Journal of Medicine. The largest citation of medical articles reflects the general interest and wider readership of this subject. All corresponding and first authors of the high impact articles were not from Costa Rica. In conclusion, the scientific output of Costa Rican authors is strong in the areas related to conservation but the impact is higher for biomedical articles, and Costa Rican authors need to

  6. Mercury Contamination in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Haynes, A.; Balcom, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    Recent measurements of Hg in air in the central valley of Costa Rica produced some remarkably high values (up to 700 ng Hg/m3;Castillo et al., 2011), raising concerns for public health. We made a broad assessment of Hg as an environmental contaminant in Costa Rica, and sampled and analyzed lake and wetland sediment and soils to derive atmospheric Hg deposition rates. We also measured Hg(0) in air in three locations, and sampled local fish that were analyzed for Hg. We set up a sampling program of Hg in hair of Costa Ricans, sampling hair from a broad crossection of the population, in combination with dietary and personal information. The lake sediments had Hg concentrations between 34 and 316 ppb Hg, with several lakes at common natural background concentrations (20-100 ppb Hg). Some lakes showed a Hg contamination component with concentrations well above simple background values. These sediments also were very rich in organic matter, and the high Hg concentrations may be a result of Hg focusing from the watersheds into the lake depositional environments. Deduced atmospheric deposition rates of Hg range from 0.16-0.25 ng Hg/cm2 per year, which is at the low end of the global range of measured wet atmospheric deposition rates. The observed Hg concentrations in sediment and soils thus can be characterized as natural background to mildly contaminated, but nothing that would indicate Hg inventories as expected from the reported high Hg air burdens. Some of our Hg(0) in air measurements were done at the same locations as those done earlier and yielded values between 0.6-4.2 ng Hg/m3; these values are similar to the low range measurements of Castillo et al. (their night time values), but we found no evidence in 2011 for their high daytime values. The range of a few ng Hg/m3 in air is compatible with global Hg dispersion modeling. Fish tissue of Trout and Tilapia gave a range of 68-112 ppb Hg (wet weight base), well below the 300 ppb Hg EPA alert level. Overall, these

  7. Puerto Rican Women as Workers and Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez, Blanca, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Centro Bulletin" highlights recent studies by and about employed Puerto Rican and Latina women. "La mujer en el Puerto Rico del siglo XIX" (O. Jimenez de Wagenheim), in Spanish, reviews the contributions of women to Puerto Rican economic, political, and social life during the nineteenth century.…

  8. Leyendas Puertorriquenas, Adaptaciones (Puerto Rican Legends, Adaptations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Aurea; Puigdollers, Carmen

    The Puerto Rican legends presented here have been adapted for use in a bilingual education setting. They are presented in the framework of a Puerto Rican child's first visit to the island with his family. The four legends are: (1) "Carabali"; (2) "Guanina"; (3) "El Penon de las Palomas"; and (4) "La Garita del Diablo." The book is illistrated with…

  9. Dialect Acquisition among Puerto Rican Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poplack, Shana

    1978-01-01

    Describes an investigation of the nature of English dialect acquisition among bilingual Puerto Ricans. Subjects were in the sixth grade of a school in the Puerto Rican community in North Philadelphia. Results show that subjects can socially classify linguistic variants from two competing systems and use them appropriately. (Author/RM)

  10. Puerto Rican History and Culture: Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Research Corp., Bethesda, MD.

    This is a resource manual to be used by trainers in the Puerto Rican history and culture training program which helps to prepare drug abuse workers. The manual is designed to help trainers to understand the importance of geographical, historical, cultural, and racial factors in the development of the Puerto Rican nation and their impact on Puerto…

  11. Puerto Rican History and Culture: Trainer Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Research Corp., Bethesda, MD.

    This is a manual for trainers in the Puerto Rican history and culture training program which helps to prepare drug abuse workers for dealing with the Puerto Rican community. A general structural and procedural overview of the training program begins the manual. Various instructional techniques and organizational problems are discussed. The…

  12. Puerto Rican History and Culture: Participant Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Research Corp., Bethesda, MD.

    This is a manual for use by trainees in the Puerto Rican history and culture training program, which helps to prepare drug abuse workers for dealing with the Puerto Rican community. The manual is designed to help trainees understand the importance of geographical, historical, cultural, and racial factors in the development of the Puerto Rican…

  13. Effect of pesticides used in banana and pineapple plantations on aquatic ecosystems in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Diepens, Noël J; Pfennig, Sascha; Van den Brink, Paul J; Gunnarsson, Jonas S; Ruepert, Clemens; Castillo, Luisa E

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge on fate and effect of agricultural pesticides comes is mainly from temperate ecosystems. More studies are needed in tropical systems in order to assess contamination risks to nontarget endemic tropical species from the extensive use of pesticides e.g. in banana and pineapple plantations. In this study, acute laboratory toxicity tests with organophosphate pesticides ethoprophos and chlorpyrifos were conducted on two Costa Rican species, cladoceran Daphnia ambigua and fish Parachromis dovii. Tests showed that chlorpyrifos was more toxic than ethoprophos to D. ambigua and P. dovii and that D. ambigua was also more sensitive than P. dovii to both pesticides. Additionally, bioassays were performed by exposing D. magna and P. dovii to contaminated water collected from the field. Chemical analyses of field water revealed that fungicides were generally the most frequent pesticide group found, followed by insecticides/nematicides and herbicides. The bioassays and values obtained from the literature confirmed that D. magna was more sensitive to pesticide contamination than P. dovii and that D. ambigua was more sensitive than D. magna, suggesting that the native cladoceran is a more suitable test species than its temperate counterpart. Species sensitivity distributions showed no significant difference in sensitivity between tropical and temperate fish and the arthropod species exposed to chlorpyrifos in this study. Choline esterase activity (ChE) was measured in P. dovii in laboratory tests in order to assess the applicability of this biomarker. ChE inhibition in P. dovii was observed in the laboratory at levels below the LC10 of both ethoprophos and chlorpyrifos, confirming that ChE is an efficient biomarker of exposure. Both indigenous Costa Rican species used in this study were found to be suitable standard tropical test species. Further studies are needed to investigate how protective the safe environmental concentrations, derived from LC50 of native

  14. Influence of Voluntary Coffee Certifications on Cooperatives' Advisory Services and Agricultural Practices of Smallholder Farmers in Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Anna; Kraus, Eva; Sibelet, Nicole; Bosselmann, Aske Skovmand; Faure, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores how voluntary certifications influence the way cooperatives provide advisory services to their members and the influence of these services on agricultural practices. Design/Methodology/Approach: Case studies were conducted in four representative Costa Rican cooperatives interviewing twenty interviewed cooperative…

  15. Upper-Plate Earthquake Swarms Remotely Triggered by the 2012 Mw-7.6 Nicoya Earthquake, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkimer, L.; Arroyo, I. G.; Montero Pohly, W. K.; Rojas, W.

    2013-05-01

    Remotely triggered seismicity that takes place at distances greater than 1-2 fault lengths appears to be a frequent phenomenon after large earthquakes, including damaging upper-plate 5.0-to-6.0 magnitude earthquakes in Costa Rica after the large (Mw > 7.0) inter-plate earthquakes in 1983, 1990, and 1991. On September 5, 2012, an inter-plate 7.6-Mw earthquake struck the Nicoya Peninsula, triggering upper-plate seismicity in the interior of Costa Rica. In this study, we analyze the largest earthquake swarms that took place during the first five months after the Nicoya earthquake. These swarms occurred at distances of 200 to 300 km from the Nicoya source region in three different tectonic settings: the Calero Island near the Costa Rica-Nicaragua border in the backarc Caribbean region, the Cartago area in the central part of Costa Rica near the active volcanic arc, and the San Vito area in the Costa Rica-Panama border region, at the southern flank of the Talamanca Cordillera, an inactive portion of the magmatic arc. The Calero swarm with 64 2.0-to-4.2 Mw earthquakes took place from September 22 to October 9, 2012. The earthquake pattern suggests a smaller-scale fault as a possible source even though this swarm is located along the inland projection of the Hess Escarpment. The Cartago swarm with 284 2.0-to-3.7 Mw earthquakes occurred from September 5 to October 5, 2012. The location and left-lateral solution of the largest event focal mechanism suggest that the Aguacaliente fault, which caused the deadliest earthquake in Costa Rican history on May 4, 1910 (Ms 6.4), is the source of some of this triggered seismicity. The San Vito earthquake swarm with 30 2.0-to-4.5 Mw earthquakes occurred between December 9, 2012 and January 28, 2013. These earthquakes occurred in the vicinity of the San Vito and Agua Buena faults, which are located along the inland projection of the Panama Fracture Zone. Documenting remotely triggered earthquakes may provide us with insight into the

  16. Clinical relevance of Helicobacter pylori babA2 and babA2/B in Costa Rica and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Con, Sergio A; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Nishioka, Mitsuaki; Morimoto, Norihito; Sugiura, Tetsuro; Yasuda, Nobufumi; Con-Wong, Reinaldo

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) babA2, babB and a recombinant gene between babA2 and babB (babA2/B), and their role in the development of atrophic gastritis in Costa Rican and Japanese clinical isolates. METHODS: A total of 95 continuous H. pylori-positive Costa Rican (41 males and 54 females; mean age, 50.65 years; SD, ± 13.04 years) and 95 continuous H. pylori-positive Japanese (50 males and 45 females; mean age, 63.43; SD, ± 13.21 years) patients underwent upper endoscopy from October 2005 to July 2006. They were enrolled for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping of the H. pylori babA2, babB and babA2/B genes. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ2 test and the Fisher’s exact probability test and multivariate analysis was performed by logistic regression adjusting for gender and age. P < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. RESULTS: The PCR-based genotyping of 95 Costa Rican and 95 Japanese isolates showed a higher prevalence of babA2 in Japan (96.8%) than in Costa Rica (73.7%), while that of babA2/B was higher in Costa Rica (11.6%) than in Japan (1.1%). In Costa Rican isolates only, babA2 was significantly associated with atrophic gastritis (P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the status of babA2 and babA2/B shows geographic differences, and that babA2 has clinical relevance in Costa Rica. PMID:20101774

  17. Environmental hazards associated with pesticide import into Costa Rica, 1977-2009.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Elba; Bravo-Durán, Viria; Ramírez, Fernando; Castillo, Luisa E

    2014-01-01

    Raw pesticide import data from 1977 to 2009 obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture in Costa Rica were processed and analyzed. The quantity of specific active ingredients (a.i.), and chemical groups were calculated by year and presented in ten-year periods. Three sets of environmental hazard indicators were constructed: one for general pesticides exposure to monitor tendencies in time, including total quantities imported divided by significant denominators, such as hectares of protected and wetland areas. The second indicator calculates pesticide use on the Pacific or Caribbean slope. The third one is an assessment of environmental hazards intended to estimate fate and toxicity to aquatic biota. A review of Costa Rican aquatic ecosystems' contamination with pesticides is presented. The annual average import as well as the quantity of pesticides capable of reaching water bodies increased during the analyzed period. The same was observed for harmful a.i., 98% of the pesticides imported were classified as acutely toxic for fish and crustaceans and 73% for amphibians. Approximately 8.4 kg of a.i. were imported per hectare of protected areas and 24.3 kg of a.i. per hectare of wetlands. The contamination of aquatic systems over time by specific pesticides matches quite well the list of imported ones. We recommend using data of pesticide imports as a source of information to evaluate environmental risk exposure and promote changes to reduce impacts on aquatic systems.

  18. Registration of fatal occupational injuries in Costa Rica, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Mora, Ana Maria; Mora-Mora, Maria Gabriela; Partanen, Timo; Wesseling, Catharina

    2011-01-01

    Data on fatal occupational injuries (FOIs) for Latin America are controversial. Costa Rican national rates are inconsistent with estimates extrapolated from other countries. We reviewed the files for all possible FOIs in Costa Rica for 2005-2006 at the National Insurance Institute and at the Center of Forensic Sciences by formality/informality of work, sex, age, economic activity, occupation, and cause of death. The national mortality rate was estimated at 9.5/100,000 person-years (342 deaths). The informal/formal rate ratio was 1.06. Men's rates were over 10 times higher than women's and increased with age. The highest rates were found for transport, storage, and communication (32.1/100,000 person-years), and, by occupation, for messengers and delivery men (91.4). Leading causes of death were traffic injuries and gunshots. Recalculated rates are probably underestimates. Data limitations include the absence of systematic identification and registration among informal sector workers and other groups such as children and farm workers.

  19. [Inshore cetaceans from the North and South Pacific coast of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Fernández, Damián; Montero-Cordero, Andrea; May-Collado, Laura

    2011-03-01

    Twenty nine cetacean species occur in Costa Rican waters but extensive research has been conducted only for three species. The latter shows there is a lack of general and local information about these mammals, even when the country, has shown a remarkable growth in whale watching activities. The increasing use of marine resources in coastal areas has also developed the need to determine the occurrence of cetaceans in areas showing high tourist presence, in order to propose sound conservation measures. In this study, environmental variables were determined and subsequently related to the presence of the species recorded, out of 166 sightings, between 2005 and 2006. The species with highest proportion of sightings were Stenella attenuata (68%), followed by Megaptera novaeangliae (13%) and Tursiops truncatus (10%). The presence of spotted dolphins is related to changes in salinity and water transparency, while that of the humpback whale was related to wave height (Beaufort scale) and water temperature. The presence of seven species of cetaceans was confirmed in two coastal areas of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, from which three are present throughout the year. Environmental variables were found related to the presence of at least two species.

  20. Chemical evolution of thermal springs at Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica: Effect of volcanic activity, precipitation, seismic activity, and Earth tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, D. L.; Bundschuh, J.; Soto, G. J.; Fernández, J. F.; Alvarado, G. E.

    2006-09-01

    Arenal Volcano in NW Costa Rica, Central America has been active during the last 37 years. However, only relatively low temperature springs have been identified on its slopes with temperatures less than around 60 °C. The springs are clustered on the NE and NW slopes of the volcano, close to contacts between the recent and older volcanic products or at faults that intercept the volcano. This volcano is located in a rain forest region with annual rainfall averaging around 5 m. During the last 15 years, the temperature and chemical composition of 4 hot springs and 2 cold springs have been monitored approximately every 3 months. In addition, two more thermal sites were identified recently and sampled, as well as two boreholes located on a fault NE of the volcano. Scatter plots of chemical species such as Cl and B suggest that the waters in these discharges belong to the same aquifer with a saline end member similar to Río Tabacón at the beginning of the study period (1990) and the deeper borehole (B-2) in 2004. The waters of Quebrada Bambú and Quebrada Fría represent a more dilute end member. Both long-term (over the 15 years) and short-term or seasonal decreases in concentration and steady or decreasing temperature are noted in NW springs. Springs located at the NE show increasing temperatures and ion concentrations, except for bicarbonate that has decreased in concentration for all the springs. This behavior is likely associated with a shallow source for the solutes and heat for this aquifer. To the NW the early lavas and pyroclastic flows have been cooling down, decreasing the contribution of leaching products to the infiltrating waters. To the NE, pyroclastic flows to the N during the last decade are contributing increasing concentrations of solutes and heat throughout water infiltration and circulation within the faults and the surficial drainage that has a NE regional trend. For the short-term or seasonal variations, concentrations of chemical constituents

  1. Undeserving mothers? Shifting rationalities in the maternal healthcare of undocumented Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Sara Leon Spesny

    2015-01-01

    The case of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica is emblematic of the issues that immigration generates in host countries. Undocumented Nicaraguan women seeking maternal care constitute a key challenge to the universal coverage of Costa Rica's health system. Can the long-standing commitment to universality, solidarity and equality expressed in the legislation be translated into practice? Discourses of health professionals in Costa Rica reveal a contradiction between merit and prejudice in prenatal and delivery care. Here, I present qualitative research based on semi-structured interviews with physicians and nurses at a Costa Rican National Hospital. The data show that migrant women, rejected from primary care, do find help in emergency services, but not without difficulties, as they must engage in individual negotiations centred on their bodies. The discourses of health providers reflect an ambivalence between the perceived undeservingness of undocumented migrant women and the medical realisation that two lives are at risk. While the foetus often evokes compassion, the mother commonly provokes repression, as specific and shifting rationalities reflect new moral regimes that are applied to this population. Women are perceived as being 'illegal', 'immoral' and 'irrational', and the baby, although legally Costa Rican due to jus solis policy, embodies 'the other'. Ultimately, otherness frames perceptions of deservingness of maternal care for undocumented migrant women in Costa Rica.

  2. The Puerto Rican Family: Conflicting Roles for the Puerto Rican College Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieves, Wilfredo; Valle, Mercedes

    1982-01-01

    Focuses on the Puerto Rican family, the Puerto Rican college student, and the effects that family role and structure have on the student. Defines the family structure and role, provides examples of the college experience, and discusses the counselor's role. (Author)

  3. Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    1981-11-01

    The focus in this discussion of Costa Rica is on the following: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; statistical systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. The government of Costa Rica does not advocate direct intervention to modify the rate of population growth, largely because of its rapid decline in fertility and its moderate rate of natural increase. 5 censuses have been conducted since 1892, and the most recent census was conducted in 1973. The registration for births and deaths is complete. A National Fertility Survey was conducted in 1976 in cooperation with the World Fertility Survey. An important government priority in recent years has been the development of an institutional framework for the further integration of population factors within development plans. A National Commission on Population Policy was established in 1978. Population policy is viewed as instrumental in realizing the government's political objectives and overall development goals. The National Commission on Population Policy approved the terms of reference for a comprehensive population policy in 1979. The government considers its rate of population growth to be unsatisfactory because it remains moderately high. The crude death rate was estimated to be slightly more than 4/1000 in 1977. The government considers levels and trends of mortality to be acceptable. The crude birthrate declined to about 22.0 in 1975. The government considers levels and trends of fertility to be unsatisfactory because they are too high. The government now considers levels and trends of emigration to be significant and unsatisfactory

  4. Donde Estan los Estudiantes Puertorriquenos/os Exitosos? [Where Are the Academically Successful Puerto Rican Students?]: Success Factors of High-Achieving Puerto Rican High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antrop-Gonzalez, Rene; Velez, William; Garrett, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the 4 success factors that 10 working class Puerto Rican urban high school students attributed to their high academic achievement. These success factors were (a) the acquisition of social capital through religiosity and participation in school and community-based extracurricular activities, (b) having a strong Puerto Rican…

  5. Puerto Rican Task Force Report: Project on Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizio, Emelicia, Ed.

    A model of mental health service delivery to the low-income Puerto Rican population in areas of the mainland United States where Puerto Ricans are concentrated is presented in this report. The model, designed for use by family service agencies and other similar mental health facilities, assumes that Puerto Ricans are at great risk for mental…

  6. Costa Rica's payment for environmental services program: intention, implementation, and impact.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan Andres; Boomhower, Judson P

    2007-10-01

    We evaluated the intention, implementation, and impact of Costa Rica's program of payments for environmental services (PSA), which was established in the late 1990s. Payments are given to private landowners who own land in forest areas in recognition of the ecosystem services their land provides. To characterize the distribution of PSA in Costa Rica, we combined remote sensing with geographic information system databases and then used econometrics to explore the impacts of payments on deforestation. Payments were distributed broadly across ecological and socioeconomic gradients, but the 1997-2000 deforestation rate was not significantly lower in areas that received payments. Other successful Costa Rican conservation policies, including those prior to the PSA program, may explain the current reduction in deforestation rates. The PSA program is a major advance in the global institutionalization of ecosystem investments because few, if any, other countries have such a conservation history and because much can be learned from Costa Rica's experiences.

  7. Geochemical evidence for active tropical serpentinization in the Santa Elena Ophiolite, Costa Rica: An analog of a humid early Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Gazel, Esteban; Schwarzenbach, Esther M.; Crespo-Medina, Melitza; Schrenk, Matthew O.; Boll, Jan; Gill, Ben C.

    2014-05-01

    is a planetary process that has important consequences on geochemical cycles, supporting microbial activity through the formation of H2 and CH4 and having the potential to sequester atmospheric CO2. We present geochemical evidence of active serpentinization in the Santa Elena Ophiolite, Costa Rica which is sustained by peridotites with a degree of serpentinization less than 50% with no evidence of an internal heat source. Average spring water temperatures are 29.1°C. Two hyperalkaline spring systems were discovered, with a spring fluid pH up to 11.18. The fluids are characterized by low Mg (1.0-5.9 mg/L) and K (1.0-5.5 mg/L) and relative high Ca (29-167 mg/L), Na (16-27 mg/L), Cl (26-29 mg/L), hydroxide (41-63 mg/L), and carbonate (31-49 mg/L). Active CH4 (24.3% v/v) vents coupled with carbonate deposits (δ13CCO2 =-27 to -14‰; δ18OCO2 =-17 to - 6‰) also provide evidence for active serpentinization and carbonation. Isotope ratios of the alkaline fluids (δ18O = -7.9‰, δ2H = -51.4‰) and groundwater (δ18O = -7.6‰; δ2H = -48.0‰) suggests that, during base flow recession, springs are fed by groundwater circulation. Methanogenic Archaea, which comprises a relatively high percentage of the 16S rRNA gene tag sequences, suggests that biological methanogenesis may play a significant role in the system. Santa Elena's extreme varying weather results in a scenario that could be of significant importance for (a) improving the knowledge of conditions on a humid early Earth or Mars that had periodic changes in water supply, (b) revealing new insights on serpentinizing solute transport, and (c) modeling hydrogeochemical responses as a function of recharge.

  8. Sexual Prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos

    2014-01-01

    Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195

  9. Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    Costa Rica is a country of 51,032 sq. km with 3 million inhabitants, of whom 93% are literate. Independence was gained on September 15, 1821. The terrain consists of eastern and western coastal plains separated by a rugged, central massif, with a climate ranging from tropical to subtropical. Spanish and a Jamaican dialect of English are spoken by European, black, and indigenous ethnic groups who are overwhelmingly of Roman Catholic faith. Life expectancy is approximately 70 years. The gross domestic product is $5.6 billion, growing at a rate of 1%. Per capita income is $1810. Hydroelectric power is a natural resource of the country. Food processing, textiles, construction materials, and fertilizer, as well as banana, coffee, beef, sugarcane, and grain agriculture are areas of economic production. Manufactured goods, machinery, transportation equipment, chemicals, fuel, food, and fertilizer are imported, and bananas, coffee, beef, sugarcane, and grain are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the US, and names of principal US officials in the country.

  10. Allostatic load is associated with chronic conditions in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Josiemer; Demissie, Serkalem; Falcon, Luis M; Ordovas, Jose M

    2010-01-01

    Puerto Ricans living in the United States mainland present multiple disparities in prevalence of chronic diseases, relative to other racial and ethnic groups. Allostatic load (AL), or the cumulative wear and tear of physiological responses to stressors such as major life events, social and environmental burden, has been proposed as a possible mechanism for the inequalities observed in minority groups, but has not been studied in Puerto Ricans. The aim of this study was to determine the association of AL to six chronic diseases (abdominal obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD), arthritis and cancer) in Puerto Ricans, and to contrast AL to metabolic syndrome (MetS). Participants of the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (n=1,116, ages 45–75 years) underwent a home-based interview, where questionnaires were completed and biological samples collected. A summary definition of AL was constructed using clinically-defined cutoffs and medication use for 10 physiological parameters in different body systems. Logistic regression models were run to determine associations between AL score and disease status, controlling for age, sex, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, total fat intake and energy intake. Parallel models were also run with MetS score replacing AL. We found that increasing categories of AL score were significantly associated with abdominal obesity, hypertension, diabetes and self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) and arthritis, but not with self-reported cancer. The strength of associations of AL with all conditions, except diabetes and cancer, was similar to or larger than those of MetS score. In conclusion, Puerto Rican older adults experienced physiological dysregulation that was associated with increased odds of chronic conditions. AL was more strongly associated with most conditions, compared to MetS, suggesting that this cumulative measure may be a better predictor of disease. These results have prospective

  11. [Abnormal haemoglobins in the newborn human population of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Abarca, Gabriela; Navarrete, Marta; Trejos, Rafael; de Céspedes, Carlos; Saborío, Manuel

    2008-09-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary autosomic recessive diseases. A total of 70 943 samples of whole blood collected by heel prick in filter paper (S&S 903) from throughout Costa Rica (October 2005-October 2006) were analyzed to detect variants of hemoglobin by the iso-electric focusing technique. Eight hundred ninety one cases presented some variant, for a frecuency of 1/79. Five cases are homozygous for hemoglobin S (sickle cell disease) and one shows the double heterozygous genotype SC. In this study the S and C variants of hemoglobin, although with some local differences, are widespread all over the country. Thus, the prevention of new cases is important through the testing of hemoglobin in the Costa Rican National Newborn Screening Program, together with a Interdisciplinary National Program of Education for the disease and carrier status (AS/AC) for patients, families and medicar personnel. This is the basis for proper genetic counseling, to improve treatment and to reduce morbi-mortality.

  12. A Study of the Mental Health Treatment of the Puerto Rican Migrant. Monograph No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Jose; Inclan, Jaimie

    This ethnographic study examines the treatment of first-generation Puerto Rican migrants at a mental health center specializing in services to Hispanic Americans. Information was gathered from observation of staff activities and interviews with staff and residents of the surrounding community. The center, located in a low-income Puerto Rican…

  13. Sexual Risk Factors for HIV and Violence among Puerto Rican Women in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Claudia L.; Morrill, Allison C.; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined sexual factors for HIV risk in 1,003 women of Puerto Rican heritage who attended a community-based New York City hospital clinic. Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 73 years. Half were born in the continental United States, and half were born in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. All were sexually active within the past 90…

  14. Measuring Puerto Ricans' Perceptions of Racial Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginorio, Angela B.; Berry, Paul C.

    To measure how Puerto Ricans classify each other into racial groups by physical appearance, a stimulus set of 60 color slides was prepared. Two hundred and fifty secondary students sorted these portraits into four, three, and finally two groups. Although subjects placed both the pictures and themselves in a color continuum of racial types with…

  15. The Puerto Rican Experience: A Sociological Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordasco, Francesco; Bucchioni, Eugene

    A serious problem has presented itself to students who sought a convenient sourcebook which afforded an overview of the Puerto Rican mainland experience (with some notice of the island backgrounds), essentially compact, but dimensionally comprehensive. This documentary sourcebook is addressed to that need. It is intended as a classroom text (in a…

  16. Puerto Rican Gangs: A Historical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres-Rivera, Edil; Phan, Loan T.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the problem of gangs on the island of Puerto Rico from a historical, economical, and political perspective. Some Puerto Rican historians are convinced that the gang problem in Puerto Rico is due to the political ambiguity and human rights violations of prison inmates (F. Pico, 1998). Some social scientists believe that gangs…

  17. Geosphere-biosphere interactions in bio-activity volcanic lakes: evidences from Hule and Rìo Cuarto (Costa Rica).

    PubMed

    Cabassi, Jacopo; Tassi, Franco; Mapelli, Francesca; Borin, Sara; Calabrese, Sergio; Rouwet, Dmitri; Chiodini, Giovanni; Marasco, Ramona; Chouaia, Bessem; Avino, Rosario; Vaselli, Orlando; Pecoraino, Giovannella; Capecchiacci, Francesco; Bicocchi, Gabriele; Caliro, Stefano; Ramirez, Carlos; Mora-Amador, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Hule and Río Cuarto are maar lakes located 11 and 18 km N of Poás volcano along a 27 km long fracture zone, in the Central Volcanic Range of Costa Rica. Both lakes are characterized by a stable thermic and chemical stratification and recently they were affected by fish killing events likely related to the uprising of deep anoxic waters to the surface caused by rollover phenomena. The vertical profiles of temperature, pH, redox potential, chemical and isotopic compositions of water and dissolved gases, as well as prokaryotic diversity estimated by DNA fingerprinting and massive 16S rRNA pyrosequencing along the water column of the two lakes, have highlighted that different bio-geochemical processes occur in these meromictic lakes. Although the two lakes host different bacterial and archaeal phylogenetic groups, water and gas chemistry in both lakes is controlled by the same prokaryotic functions, especially regarding the CO2-CH4 cycle. Addition of hydrothermal CO2 through the bottom of the lakes plays a fundamental priming role in developing a stable water stratification and fuelling anoxic bacterial and archaeal populations. Methanogens and methane oxidizers as well as autotrophic and heterotrophic aerobic bacteria responsible of organic carbon recycling resulted to be stratified with depth and strictly related to the chemical-physical conditions and availability of free oxygen, affecting both the CO2 and CH4 chemical concentrations and their isotopic compositions along the water column. Hule and Río Cuarto lakes were demonstrated to contain a CO2 (CH4, N2)-rich gas reservoir mainly controlled by the interactions occurring between geosphere and biosphere. Thus, we introduced the term of bio-activity volcanic lakes to distinguish these lakes, which have analogues worldwide (e.g. Kivu: D.R.C.-Rwanda; Albano, Monticchio and Averno: Italy; Pavin: France) from volcanic lakes only characterized by geogenic CO2 reservoir such as Nyos and Monoun (Cameroon).

  18. Geosphere-Biosphere Interactions in Bio-Activity Volcanic Lakes: Evidences from Hule and Rìo Cuarto (Costa Rica)

    PubMed Central

    Cabassi, Jacopo; Tassi, Franco; Mapelli, Francesca; Borin, Sara; Calabrese, Sergio; Rouwet, Dmitri; Chiodini, Giovanni; Marasco, Ramona; Chouaia, Bessem; Avino, Rosario; Vaselli, Orlando; Pecoraino, Giovannella; Capecchiacci, Francesco; Bicocchi, Gabriele; Caliro, Stefano; Ramirez, Carlos; Mora-Amador, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Hule and Río Cuarto are maar lakes located 11 and 18 km N of Poás volcano along a 27 km long fracture zone, in the Central Volcanic Range of Costa Rica. Both lakes are characterized by a stable thermic and chemical stratification and recently they were affected by fish killing events likely related to the uprising of deep anoxic waters to the surface caused by rollover phenomena. The vertical profiles of temperature, pH, redox potential, chemical and isotopic compositions of water and dissolved gases, as well as prokaryotic diversity estimated by DNA fingerprinting and massive 16S rRNA pyrosequencing along the water column of the two lakes, have highlighted that different bio-geochemical processes occur in these meromictic lakes. Although the two lakes host different bacterial and archaeal phylogenetic groups, water and gas chemistry in both lakes is controlled by the same prokaryotic functions, especially regarding the CO2-CH4 cycle. Addition of hydrothermal CO2 through the bottom of the lakes plays a fundamental priming role in developing a stable water stratification and fuelling anoxic bacterial and archaeal populations. Methanogens and methane oxidizers as well as autotrophic and heterotrophic aerobic bacteria responsible of organic carbon recycling resulted to be stratified with depth and strictly related to the chemical-physical conditions and availability of free oxygen, affecting both the CO2 and CH4 chemical concentrations and their isotopic compositions along the water column. Hule and Río Cuarto lakes were demonstrated to contain a CO2 (CH4, N2)-rich gas reservoir mainly controlled by the interactions occurring between geosphere and biosphere. Thus, we introduced the term of bio-activity volcanic lakes to distinguish these lakes, which have analogues worldwide (e.g. Kivu: D.R.C.-Rwanda; Albano, Monticchio and Averno: Italy; Pavin: France) from volcanic lakes only characterized by geogenic CO2 reservoir such as Nyos and Monoun (Cameroon). PMID

  19. [The health system of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Sáenz, María del Rocío; Acosta, Mónica; Muiser, Jorine; Bermúdez, Juan Luis

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Costa Rican health system which provides health, water and sanitation services. The health component of the system includes a public and a private sector. The public sector is dominated by the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS), an autonomous institution in charge of financing, purchasing and delivering most of the personal health services in Costa Rica. CCSS is financed with contributions of the affiliates, employers and the state, and manages three regimes: maternity and illness insurance, disability, old age and death insurance, and a non-contributive regime. CCSS provides services in its own facilities but also contracts with private providers. The private sector includes a broad set of services offering ambulatory and hospital care. These services are financed mostly out-of-pocket, but also with private insurance premiums. The Ministry of Health is the steward of the system, in charge of strategic planning, sanitary regulation, and research and technology development. Among the recent policy innovations we can mention the establishment of the basic teams for comprehensive health care (EBAIS), the de-concentration of hospitals and public clinics, the introduction of management agreements and the creation of the Health Boards.

  20. Neotropical Bats from Costa Rica harbour Diverse Coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Soto, A; Taylor-Castillo, L; Vargas-Vargas, N; Rodríguez-Herrera, B; Jiménez, C; Corrales-Aguilar, E

    2015-11-01

    Bats are hosts of diverse coronaviruses (CoVs) known to potentially cross the host-species barrier. For analysing coronavirus diversity in a bat species-rich country, a total of 421 anal swabs/faecal samples from Costa Rican bats were screened for CoV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences by a pancoronavirus PCR. Six families, 24 genera and 41 species of bats were analysed. The detection rate for CoV was 1%. Individuals (n = 4) from four different species of frugivorous (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata and Carollia castanea) and nectivorous (Glossophaga soricina) bats were positive for coronavirus-derived nucleic acids. Analysis of 440 nt. RdRp sequences allocated all Costa Rican bat CoVs to the α-CoV group. Several CoVs sequences clustered near previously described CoVs from the same species of bat, but were phylogenetically distant from the human CoV sequences identified to date, suggesting no recent spillover events. The Glossophaga soricina CoV sequence is sufficiently dissimilar (26% homology to the closest known bat CoVs) to represent a unique coronavirus not clustering near other CoVs found in the same bat species so far, implying an even higher CoV diversity than previously suspected.

  1. Management commitments and primary care: another lesson from Costa Rica for the world?

    PubMed

    Soors, Werner; De Paepe, Pierre; Unger, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Maintained dedication to primary care has fostered a public health delivery system with exceptional outcomes in Costa Rica. For more than a decade, management commitments have been part of Costa Rican health reform. We assessed the effect of the Costa Rican management commitments on access and quality of care and on compliance with their intended objectives. We constructed seven hypotheses on opinions of primary care providers. Through a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach, we tested these hypotheses and interpreted the research findings. Management commitments consume an excessive proportion of consultation time, inflate recordkeeping, reduce comprehensiveness in primary care consultations, and induce a disproportionate consumption of hospital emergency services. Their formulation relies on norms in need of optimization, their control on unreliable sources. They also affect professionalism. In Costa Rica, management commitments negatively affect access and quality of care and pose a threat to the public service delivery system. The failures of this pay-for-performance-like initiative in an otherwise well-performing health system cast doubts on the appropriateness of pay-for-performance for health systems strengthening in less advanced environments.

  2. Bioactive Cycloperoxides Isolated from the Puerto Rican Sponge Plakortis halichondrioides.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Romero, Carlos; Ortiz, Idelisse; Vicente, Jan; Vera, Brunilda; Rodríguez, Abimael D; Nam, Sangkil; Jove, Richard

    2010-10-22

    Two new five-membered-ring polyketide endoperoxides, epiplakinic acid F methyl ester (1) and epiplakinidioic acid (3), and a peroxide-lactone, plakortolide J (2), were isolated from the Puerto Rican sponge Plakortis halichondrioides, along with two previously reported cyclic peroxides, 4 and 5. The structures of the new metabolites were determined by spectroscopic and chemical analyses. The absolute stereostructures of 1, 2, and 5 were determined by degradation reactions followed by application of Kishi's method for the assignment of absolute configuration of alcohols. Biological screening of cycloperoxides 1-5 and semisynthetic analogues 7-12 for cytotoxic activity against various human tumor cell lines revealed that compounds 3, 4, and 11 are very active. Upon assaying for antimalarial and antitubercular activity, some of the compounds tested showed strong activity against the pathogenic microbes Plasmodium falciparum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  3. Health and Reproductive Assessment of Selected Puerto Rican Parrots ( Amazona vittata ) in Captivity.

    PubMed

    Clubb, Susan; Velez, Jafet; Garner, Michael M; Zaias, Julia; Cray, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot ( Amazona vittata ) has become an iconic and high-profile conservation species. The cornerstone of the recovery plan for this critically endangered species is an active captive breeding program, management of the wild population, and a long-term reintroduction program. In 2002, 40 adult Puerto Rican parrots that had not produced viable offspring were selected for reproductive assessment at 2 aviary populations in Puerto Rico (Iguaca and Río Abajo), which are the only sources of parrots for release. The goal was to enhance reproductive potential and produce productive pairings in an attempt to augment the population growth and provide ample individuals for reintroduction. Seven Hispanolian Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) that were used as surrogate parents for the Puerto Rican parrots were also included in the study. This assessment included physical examination, endoscopic evaluation, hematologic and plasma biochemical profiles, viral screening, and hormonal assays. Results of general physical examination and hematologic and plasma biochemical testing revealed overall good health and condition of this subset of the population of Puerto Rican parrots; no major infectious diseases were found. Endoscopic examination also revealed overall good health and condition, especially of females. The apparent low fertility of male birds warrants further investigation. The findings helped to define causes of reproductive failure in the selected pairs and individual birds. New pairings resulting from the assessment helped to augment reproduction of this critically endangered species.

  4. Differentials by socioeconomic status and institutional characteristics in preventive service utilization by older persons in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Brenes-Camacho, Gilbert; Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2009-08-01

    Objective.The goals of this article are to assess the level of preventive service utilization by older persons in Costa Rica and to determine whether there are differentials in utilization across socioeconomic status (SES) and institutional characteristics. Method. Using data from the Costa Rican Study on Longevity and Healthy Aging (CRELES) project, a study of healthy aging in Costa Rica, the authors use self-reported information on preventive service utilization. The SES differentials are studied using logistic regressions. Results. Preventive services linked to cardiovascular disease prevention are frequently utilized; preventive services linked to cancer screening, vaccination, and sense impairments are not so widely used. Higher SES people are more likely to utilize most preventive services. Utilization rates among uninsured seniors are lower than among their insured peers. Home visits by community health workers are positively associated with higher utilization rates. Discussion. The SES disparities in preventive service utilization exist in Costa Rica, and institutional characteristics are positively associated with increasing utilization.

  5. Babies and belonging: reproduction, citizenship, and undocumented nicaraguan labor migrant women in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Goldade, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from an ethnographic study of 43 Nicaraguan labor migrant women in Costa Rica, among whom two thirds were undocumented. Drawing from more than a year of field research, this research explores how undocumented migrant women parlayed reproductive capacities in a context of a modernizing democratic host nation-state increasingly limited in its capacity to fulfill longstanding national ideals of "health for all." Pregnancy and postpartum periods presented unique opportunities for achieving gains related to citizenship. As the third most common migrant destination context in the Western hemisphere, Costa Rica is grappling with its dual role as a nation of emigration and immigration and is attempting to maintain its "exceptional" national identity in the face of rapid globalization. Due to the jus soli citizenship model, the health care system has become a site for struggle over inclusion in the Costa Rican nation-state.

  6. [Environmental Guarantees in the Constitution: a new ecological-political model for Costa Rica and the rest of the world].

    PubMed

    Quesada A, Gabriel

    2009-09-01

    In the last thirty years significant changes to protect the environment have been introduced in the judicial, administrative and social systems. Costa Rica is a well known international model in the field of sustainable development, and here I present a proposal for adding environmental gaurantees to the Costa Rican Constitution. One of the most important changes in the Costa Rican judicial system has been the introduction of an environmental amendment in the Constitution (Article 50). However, it is still fundamental to introduce a Title of Environmental Guarantees in the Constitution of Costa Rica, with these components: first, the State, the public and the private sector have the duty of defending the right to a safe environment; second, public domain over environmental issues, and third, the use of the environment should be regulated by scientific and technical knowledge. If current efforts succeed, Costa Rica will be the first country in the world to include Environmental Guarantees in its Constitution. This would be an example to other nations.

  7. Landscape linkages between geothermal activity and solute composition and ecological response in surface waters draining the Atlantic slope of Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pringle, Catherine M.; Rowe, Gary L.; Triska, Frank J.; Fernandez, Jose F.; West, John

    1993-01-01

    Surface waters draining three different volcanoes in Costa Rica, ranging from dormant to moderately active to explosive, have a wide range of solute compositions that partly reflects the contribution of different types of solute-rich, geothermal waters. Three major physical transport vectors affect flows of geothermally derived solutes: thermally driven convection of volcanic gases and geothermal fluids; lateral and gravity-driven downward transport of geothermal fluids; and wind dispersion of ash, gases, and acid rain. Specific vector combinations interact to determine landscape patterns in solute chemistry and biota: indicator taxa of algae and bacteria reflect factors such as high temperature, wind-driven or hydrologically transported acidity, high concentrations of various solutes, and chemical precipitation reactions. Many streams receiving geothermally derived solutes have high levels of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) (up to 400 µg liter−1), a nutrient that is typically not measured in geochemical studies of geothermal waters. Regional differences in levels of SRP and other solutes among volcanoes were typically not significant due to high local variation in solute levels among geothermally modified streams and between geothermally modified and unmodified streams on each volcano. Geothermal activity along the volcanic spine of Costa Rica provides a natural source of phosphorus, silica, and other solutes and plays an important role in determining emergent landscape patterns in the solute chemistry of surface waters and aquatic biota.

  8. Acculturation and Sociocultural Influences on Dietary Intake and Health Status among Puerto Rican Adults in Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Van Rompay, Maria I.; McKeown, Nicola M.; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen; Falcon, Luis M.; Ordovas, José M.; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown negative consequences of acculturation on lifestyle factors, health status, and dietary intake of Hispanic immigrants in the US. Despite prevalent type 2 diabetes and low socioeconomic status (SES) among Puerto Rican adults living on the US mainland, little is known about acculturation in this group. Objective We investigated associations among acculturation, lifestyle characteristics, health status, and carbohydrate nutrition in Puerto Rican adults. A secondary objective was to investigate possible confounding and/or effect modification on these associations by SES. Design Cross-sectional data from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, which included 1219 Puerto Ricans in the Boston area, aged 45–75 years. Statistical analyses Characteristics were compared using ANCOVA, linear trend and Pearson’s chi-square tests across quartiles of acculturation. Tests for interaction by poverty status were conducted. Proportional contributions of foods to intake of total carbohydrate and fiber were assessed using SAS RANK. Results Levels of acculturation were low, despite young age at first arrival to the US mainland (25.4 ± 12.3 y) and long length of stay (34.2 ± 12.2 y). Greater English language use was associated with higher SES, alcohol consumption, physical activity, better perceived health, and less central obesity. Acculturation was associated with lower legume fiber and greater cereal fiber intake. Among those above the poverty threshold, acculturation was associated with lower dietary glycemic index and starch intake, and greater fruit and non-starchy vegetable intake. Conclusions In contrast to studies with Mexican Americans, the association of acculturation with dietary quality in these Puerto Rican adults was mixed, but tended toward better carbohydrate quality. Dietary recommendations should include maintenance of traditional, healthful dietary practices including consumption of legumes, but also reduction in refined

  9. Lessons from Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borthwick, Arlene; Lobo, Irina

    2005-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the highest concentrations of computers in the Americas and is regarded as a Central American pioneer in technology development. The authors of this article describe their trip to Costa Rica, which included visits to several schools as well as to the Foundation Omar Dengo (FOD) and the Ministry of Public Education (MEP),…

  10. The Puerto Ricans: Their History, Culture, and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Adalberto, Ed.

    Articles in this book cover Puerto Rican history from the Spanish colonization to the present day experience of Puerto Ricans in the United States. Political, social, economic, cultural, and historical issues are addresed by the following authors: Edna Acosta-Belen, Frank Bonilla, Juan Manuel Carrion, Diana Christopulos, Sandra Messinger Cypess,…

  11. Puerto Ricans: Breaking Out of the Cycle of Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Jose E., Ed.

    This report contains three background papers for reports presented at the ninth annual conference of the National Puerto Rican Coalition (NPRC) in 1989 and a discussion concerning Puerto Rican Americans and the cycle of poverty originally presented at a conference. The first paper, "Beyond the Census Data: A Portrait of the Community"…

  12. Puerto Ricans in Historical and Social Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Clara E.

    This review of the literature on Puerto Ricans in historical and social science research focuses on major English-language books. The review finds that colonialism has been a major factor in, an orienting influence of, and a focus for critical writing about Puerto Ricans. In general, books published before 1970 were reflective, implicitly or…

  13. Puerto Rican Migrants on the Mainland of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Gertrude S.; Gordon, Edmund W.

    1968-01-01

    This bulletin on the Puerto Rican migrant consists primarily of (1) a review of research which examines the social science literature dealing with the island background of the Puerto Rican immigrant as well as his life on "La Vida" which questions whether the family described by Lewis is representative of slum dwellers in urban San Juan…

  14. The Ecological Effects in Acculturation of Puerto Rican Migrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Ramirez, Norma Iris

    Various studies discuss the influences on and effects of the process of adjustment to a new environment among Puerto Rican migrants to the United States mainland. In confronting cultural differences, Puerto Ricans may experience culture shock and identity problems and suffer disassociation leading to schizophrenia and hysteria, stress,…

  15. Cuento Therapy: A Culturally Sensitive Modality for Puerto Rican Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costantino, Giuseppe; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the effectiveness of a modeling therapy designed to be sensitive to Hispanic culture using cuentos (folktales) from Puerto Rican culture to present models of adaptive behavior and folktales tailored to bridge Puerto Ricans' bicultural conflict. Cuento therapy significantly reduced children's trait anxiety relative to traditional…

  16. Demography and development: the lessons of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, C F

    1980-01-01

    high. The age specific statistics that are presented fail to give any indication as to why the recent stagnation has occurred, or whether it is a passing or a long term phenomenon. The following possible explanations, which are grouped into 3 categories, are reviewed: those relating to reproductive behavior itself, policy issues, and the role of socioeconomic influences. In the area of reproductive behavior, the evidence indicates that Costa Ricans still want a fairly large family. It needs to be clarified that the Costa Rican government has never had and does not now have a program designed primarily to reduce natality. With regard to development problems, the most marked feature in the Costa Rican panorama is its internal imbalance. The social aspects of development have been given more attention than the economic.

  17. Physiogenomic analysis of the Puerto Rican population

    PubMed Central

    Ruaño, Gualberto; Duconge, Jorge; Windemuth, Andreas; Cadilla, Carmen L; Kocherla, Mohan; Villagra, David; Renta, Jessica; Holford, Theodore; Santiago-Borrero, Pedro J

    2009-01-01

    Aims Admixture in the population of the island of Puerto Rico is of general interest with regards to pharmacogenetics to develop comprehensive strategies for personalized healthcare in Latin Americans. This research was aimed at determining the frequencies of SNPs in key physiological, pharmacological and biochemical genes to infer population structure and ancestry in the Puerto Rican population. Materials & methods A noninterventional, cross-sectional, retrospective study design was implemented following a controlled, stratified-by-region, random sampling protocol. The sample was based on birthrates in each region of the island of Puerto Rico, according to the 2004 National Birth Registry. Genomic DNA samples from 100 newborns were obtained from the Puerto Rico Newborn Screening Program in dried-blood spot cards. Genotyping using a physiogenomic array was performed for 332 SNPs from 196 cardiometabolic and neuroendocrine genes. Population structure was examined using a Bayesian clustering approach as well as by allelic dissimilarity as a measure of allele sharing. Results The Puerto Rican sample was found to be broadly heterogeneous. We observed three main clusters in the population, which we hypothesize to reflect the historical admixture in the Puerto Rican population from Amerindian, African and European ancestors. We present evidence for this interpretation by comparing allele frequencies for the three clusters with those for the same SNPs available from the International HapMap project for Asian, African and European populations. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that population analysis can be performed with a physiogenomic array of cardiometabolic and neuroendocrine genes to facilitate the translation of genome diversity into personalized medicine. PMID:19374515

  18. Canine Distemper Virus in Wild Felids of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Roberto; Barrueta, Flor; Soto-Fournier, Sofía; Chavarría, Max; Monge, Otto; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Chaves, Andrea

    2016-04-28

    Several highly infectious diseases can be transmitted through feces and cause elevated mortality among carnivore species. One such infectious agent, canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae: Morbillivirus), has been reported to affect wild carnivores, among them several felid species. We screened free-ranging and captive wild carnivores in Costa Rica for CDV. Between 2006 and 2012, we collected 306 fecal samples from 70 jaguars (Panther onca), 71 ocelots ( Leopardus pardalis ), five jaguarundis (Puma yaguaroundi), 105 pumas ( Puma concolor ), five margays ( Leopardus wiedii ), 23 coyotes ( Canis latrans ), and 27 undetermined Leopardus spp. We found CDV in six individuals: one captive jaguarundi (rescued in 2009), three free-ranging ocelots (samples collected in 2012), and two free-ranging pumas (samples collected in 2007). Phylogenetic analyses were performed using sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) gene. We provide evidence of CDV in wild carnivores in Costa Rica and sequence data from a Costa Rican CDV isolate, adding to the very few sequence data available for CDV isolates from wild Central American carnivores.

  19. Constraining Source Locations of Shallow Subduction Megathrust Earthquakes in 1-D and 3-D Velocity Models - A Case Study of the 2002 Mw=6.4 Osa Earthquake, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevemeyer, I.; Arroyo, I. G.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake source locations are generally routinely constrained using a global 1-D Earth model. However, the source location might be associated with large uncertainties. This is definitively the case for earthquakes occurring at active continental margins were thin oceanic crust subducts below thick continental crust and hence large lateral changes in crustal thickness occur as a function of distance to the deep-sea trench. Here, we conducted a case study of the 2002 Mw 6.4 Osa thrust earthquake in Costa Rica that was followed by an aftershock sequence. Initial relocations indicated that the main shock occurred fairly trenchward of most large earthquakes along the Middle America Trench off central Costa Rica. The earthquake sequence occurred while a temporary network of ocean-bottom-hydrophones and land stations 80 km to the northwest were deployed. By adding readings from permanent Costa Rican stations, we obtain uncommon P wave coverage of a large subduction zone earthquake. We relocated this catalog using a nonlinear probabilistic approach using a 1-D and two 3-D P-wave velocity models. The 3-D model was either derived from 3-D tomography based on onshore stations and a priori model based on seismic refraction data. All epicentres occurred close to the trench axis, but depth estimates vary by several tens of kilometres. Based on the epicentres and constraints from seismic reflection data the main shock occurred 25 km from the trench and probably along the plate interface at 5-10 km depth. The source location that agreed best with the geology was based on the 3-D velocity model derived from a priori data. Aftershocks propagated downdip to the area of a 1999 Mw 6.9 sequence and partially overlapped it. The results indicate that underthrusting of the young and buoyant Cocos Ridge has created conditions for interpolate seismogenesis shallower and closer to the trench axis than elsewhere along the central Costa Rica margin.

  20. Export-led growth as a determinant of social development in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Lundahl, M

    1991-01-01

    Costa Rica has put considerable effort into the development of education, health care, housing and social security. In order to be sustainable, this process requires that the output of such sectors as agriculture and manufacturing expands over time. The article examines the growth of the Costa Rican economy in a long run perspective, with an emphasis on foreign trade policy. The fate of the Costa Rican economy has been highly dependent on the exports of primary products, mainly coffee and bananas, for more than a century. This, however, has created a very vulnerable economy. As a result, during the 1960s, a new development strategy emerged: production of manufactures for the Central American Common Market (CACM). At the end of the 1970s, the prices of traditional export fell and the CACM more or less collapsed. The Central American economies were thrown into an acute crisis, aggravated by faculty domestic economic policies, which also jeopardized social development. This necessitated a stabilization effort on the one hand, and the development of a new trade strategy--promotion of non-traditional exports--on the other. It would appear that both efforts have been successful, although not without difficulties.

  1. Determinants of health in seasonal migrants: coffee harvesters in Los Santos, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Loría Bolaños, Rocío; Partanen, Timo; Berrocal, Milena; Alvárez, Benjamín; Córdoba, Leonel

    2008-01-01

    In the agroexport zone of Los Santos Zone in Costa Rica, coffee is harvested by migrant labor. Most migrants are from Panama and Nicaragua. We describe migrants' housing- and service-related health determinants, with analyses of ethnicity, nationality and geography. We used interviews, observation-based assessments, and the Geographic Information System to assess a population of 8,783 seasonal migrants and 1,099 temporary dwellings at a total of 520 farms during 2004-2005. We identified determinants of poor health including widespread deficiencies in the quality of grower-provided dwellings, geographical isolation, crowding, lack of radio and television, and deficient toilets and cooking facilities. The indigenous and non-Costa Ricans shared the poorest conditions. Reluctance to use mainstream public health services was widespread, especially among foreign and indigenous migrants and the geographically isolated. Post-study, researchers organized workshops for audiences including workers, coffee producers, public officials and service providers. Topics have included migration, preventive health and hygiene, and child labor. This work was successful in convincing Costa Rican social security authorities to implement reforms that improve access to and quality of health care for the migrants. Special projects on ergonomics, psychosocial health hazards, and water quality, as well as a literacy program, are ongoing.

  2. Upper-Plate Earthquake Swarms Remotely Triggered by the 2012 Mw-7.6 Nicoya Earthquake, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkimer, L.; Arroyo, I. G.; Montero Pohly, W. K.; Lücke, O. H.

    2013-12-01

    Remotely triggered seismicity that takes place at distances greater than 1-2 fault lengths appears to be a frequent phenomenon after large earthquakes, including damaging upper-plate 5.0-to-6.0 magnitude earthquakes in Costa Rica after the large (Mw greater than 7.0) inter-plate earthquakes in 1941, 1950, 1983, 1990, and 1991. On 5 of September 2012, an inter-plate 7.6-Mw earthquake struck the Nicoya Peninsula, triggering upper-plate seismicity in the interior of Costa Rica again. The number of upper plate-earthquakes outside the Nicoya source region that were recorded by the National Seismological Network (RSN: UCR-ICE) for the six-month period after the Nicoya event was two times higher than that number of upper plate-earthquakes during the six months before it happened. We analyze the three largest upper-plate earthquake swarms that took place during the first six months after the Nicoya event. We relocate the epicenters using a double difference algorithm with a 1D velocity model (HypoDD) and using a probabilistic method with a 3D velocity model (NonLinLoc). Additionally we compute first motion focal mechanisms for the largest events. The three swarms analyzed occurred at distances of 170 to 350 km from the Nicoya source region in three different tectonic settings: the Cartago area in the central part of Costa Rica near the active volcanic arc (approximately 170 km from the source region), the Calero Island near the Costa Rica-Nicaragua border in the backarc Caribbean region (approximately 220 km), and the San Vito area in the Costa Rica-Panama border region, at the southern flank of the Talamanca Cordillera, an inactive portion of the magmatic arc (approximately 300 km). The Cartago swarm with 95 1.8-to-4.1 Mw earthquakes occurred from September 5 to October 31, 2012. The location and left-lateral solution of the largest event suggest that the Aguacaliente fault, which caused the deadliest earthquake in Costa Rican history on May 4, 1910 (Ms 6.4), is the

  3. [Trends and fluctuations in morbidity and mortality by selected causes, and economic activity: Costa Rica, Chile, and Guatemala, 1960-1986].

    PubMed

    Bravo, J; Vargas, N

    1991-08-01

    "The paper examines the relationship between medium and short-term changes in aggregate economic activity, and national morbidity and mortality rates by certain causes. Although overall mortality conditions have continued to improve during the economic crisis of the nineteen-eighties in the three countries studied, mortality by some causes...[has] discontinued [its] decline and [has] even increased [its] rates in some recent years.... The short-term changes in mortality in Costa Rica and Chile are generally lower than in Guatemala, but tend to be more systematic in their inverse relationship with economic fluctuations in the former. Many of the causes studied affect young and older adults, which are groups that have so far received little attention in evaluations of the health effects of economic crises in the region." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  4. Monitoring Puerto Rican avifauna using roadside surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pardieck, K.L.; Peterjohn, B.G.; Ralph, C. John; Rich, Terrell D.

    2005-01-01

    In 1997 we began investigating the use of roadside point counts to monitor the long-term status and trends of Puerto Rican bird populations. If such a methodology proves feasible it may provide the empirical data needed for the development of sound conservation plans for the island's avifauna in much the same way that North American Breeding Bird Survey data are used by the avian conservation prioritization process of Partners in Flight, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Canadian Wildlife Service. By the end of the 2003 field season, we will have the data needed to quantitatively evaluate the utility of the program for tracking the population trends of Puerto Rican avifauna. Here we present data from the 2001 and 2002 field seasons to demonstrate the potential utility of these data for quantifying and portraying avian distributions, abundances, and population trend estimates. In 2001, 27 of the 44 available 5-mile roadside routes (11 stops/route) were sampled between 15 April and 15 May. At each stop a 5-minute point count was conducted. The surveys detected 5,471 individuals representing 70 species. Distribution and abundance maps are depicted for seven endemic species. In 2002, 29 routes were sampled. A total of 6,252 individuals was detected representing 79 species. Significantly fewer species and individuals were detected on wet zone routes as compared to moist and dry zone routes.

  5. Pintando Tambien se Aprende. Aspectos de la Cultura Puertorriquena (One Can Also Learn From Coloring. Aspects of Puerto Rican Culture).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadilla de Ruibal, Carmen Alicia

    This workbook-style text is intended to introduce the Puerto Rican child and Spanish speaking children generally to the history, geography, customs and traditions of Puerto Rico. The introduction in the form of a teacher's guide provides objectives, suggested procedures, and additional activities. The student portion of the text is divided into…

  6. The fertility plateau in Costa Rica: a review of causes and remedies.

    PubMed

    Holl, K D; Daily, G C; Ehrlich, P R

    1993-01-01

    Costa Rica achieved a substantial reduction in its overall fertility rate in a very short period of time. The halving of the fertility rate which occurred in less than ten years in Costa Rica transpired over the course of 100 years in France and 170 in Sweden. The level of contraceptive use in Costa Rica is twice that in other Central American nations. The authors summarize the recent demographic history of Costa Rica and review factors influencing its remarkable fertility decline. They then discuss possible explanations for the ensuing fertility plateau and conclude by suggesting strategies for affecting a further decrease in fertility rates. With regard to the reasons for the fertility plateau, cultural factors, socioeconomic factors, declining government commitment and family planning services, education, and the Church are considered. To reduce the level of fertility even further, the authors recommend that the government adopt a clear population policy which could serve as a basis for other changes such as increased support of family planning programs, improvements in the educational system, increased women's status and employment opportunities, and extensive education in schools and through the mass media on the socioeconomic and environmental effects of overpopulation. It is important to increase Costa Ricans' understanding of the negative impacts of continued population growth and the role of individual family planning decisions in that growth.

  7. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.

    1982-04-01

    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  8. [Variation of thermohaline properties in the Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Brenes, C L; Léon, S; Chaves, J

    2001-12-01

    The time-space behavior of thermohaline properties of the water masses in the Gulf of Nicoya, a tropical estuary in the Costa Rican Pacific coast, was studied by sampling monthly from April 1992 to April 1993. The saline field has a seasonal maximum during April, a month before the maximum temperature is observed. Minimun values were observed during October and November, in the rainy season. A defined surface saline front is located towards the east of Negritos Islands; it is produced by the interaction of freshwater from the Tarcoles River and the oceanic waters that enter through the occidental coast of the gulf. The vertical distribution of temperature and salinity indicates a gulf whose internal area is highly stratified in the rainy season, and much less stratified, or even well mixed in the dry season. The outer area of the Gulf is stratified throughout the year.

  9. A Homozygous Mutation in GPT2 Associated with Nonsyndromic Intellectual Disability in a Consanguineous Family from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Lobo-Prada, Tanya; Sticht, Heinrich; Bogantes-Ledezma, Sixto; Ekici, Arif; Uebe, Steffen; Reis, André; Leal, Alejandro

    2017-01-28

    Intellectual disability is a highly heterogeneous disease that affects the central nervous system and impairs patients' ability to function independently. Despite multiples genes involved in the etiology of disease, most of the genetic background is yet to be discovered. We used runs of homozygosity and exome sequencing to study a large Costa Rican family with four individuals affected with severe intellectual disability and found a novel homozygous missense mutation, p. 96G>R, c. 286G>A, in all affected individuals. This gene encodes for a pyridoxal enzyme involved in the production of the neurotransmitter glutamate and is highly expressed in the white matter of brain and cerebellum. Protein modeling of GPT2 predicted that the mutation is located in a loop where the substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme, therefore, suggesting that the catalytic activity is impaired. With our report of a second mutation we fortify the importance of GPT2 as a novel cause of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic intellectual disability and support the premise that GPT2 is highly important for the neurodevelopment of the central nervous system.

  10. Ronald McDonald pregunta: "Puedes decir: 'dostortosdepurocarnederessalsaespeciallechugagueso- pepinillosycebollasenunpanconsemillasdeajonjoli'?" (Ronald McDonald Asks: "Can You Say: 'Two-All-Beef-Patties-Special-Sauce-Lettuce-Cheese-Pickles-Onions-On- A-Sesame-Seed-Bun'?" Activities in Spanish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headrick, Robert J., Jr.

    This booklet is intended for classroom use in first-year high school Spanish to acquaint students with the McDonald's fast food restaurants in Costa Rica. The specific objectives are for the student to: (1) discuss the similarities and differences between the American and Costa Rican McDonald's, (2) set up a miniature McDonald's in the classroom,…

  11. The use of choice experiments in the analysis of tourist preferences for ecotourism development in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Hearne, Robert R; Salinas, Zenia M

    2002-06-01

    Many nations promote nature-based tourism in order to promote the dual goals of nature conservation and income generation. To be most effective in providing services that facilitate achievement of these goals, decision makers will need to understand and incorporate tourist preferences for nature appreciation, infrastructure, use restrictions, and other attributes of national parks and protected areas. This paper presents the use of choice experiments as a mechanism to analyze preferences of national and international tourists in relation to the development of Barva Volcano Area in Costa Rica. In this section of the Braulio Carrillo National Park, managers are faced with an immediate need to plan for greatly increased visitation rates due to a new road, which will greatly improve access. Choice sets were developed in collaboration with park managers. A survey was conducted of 171 Costa Rican and 271 foreign tourists who visited Poás Volcano, a well-visited alternative site to Barva Volcano. Survey data was analyzed using conditional multinomial logit models. Results of the study demonstrate, that both sets of tourists preferred: (i) improved infrastructure; (ii) aerial trams with observation towers and picnic areas; (iii) more information; and (iv) low entrance fees. Foreign tourists demonstrated strong preferences for the inclusion of restrictions in the access to some trails, whereas Costa Ricans did not show any significant preference for restrictions. Marginal willingness-to-pay for greater information was estimated to be $1.54 for foreign tourists and $1.01 for Costa Rican visitors. The study concludes that choice experiments are a useful tool in the analyses of tourist preferences for the development of protected areas in developing countries.

  12. Successful nesting behavior of Puerto Rican parrots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.A.; Field, R.; Wilson, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed nesting behavior of five pairs of the endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) during eight successful nesting attempts. Each stage of the nesting cycle (egg laying, incubation, early chick rearing, and late chick rearing) was characterized by distinct trends or levels of behavior. During egg laying, female attentiveness to tile nest increased, and male attentiveness decreased. Throughout incubation and the first several days of early chick rearing, females were highly attentive to their nests, whereas males rarely entered the nest cavities. Female attentiveness then began to decline. Male attentiveness to the nest was sporadic until chicks were 10-12 days old. when all males began to enter their nests at least once each day. During late chick rearing, both male and female attentiveness were erratic and highly variable. Biologists may be able to use these results to identify nest problems and the need for management intervention when patterns of nest attentiveness deviate from the limits described in this study..

  13. Ground Penetrating Radar Images of Tephra Deposits Within the Active Crater and on the Crater Rim of Irazú Volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, R.; Kruse, S.; Alvarado, G.; Ramirez, C.

    2006-12-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a proven tool in a variety of volcanic settings, and offers the promise of imaging strata inaccessible to outcrops or trenching. Here we examine the imaging capabilities of GPR in the complex sequence of surge and fall deposits from the 1963-1963 eruption sequence of Irazú volcano, Costa Rica. We compare radar profiles within the active crater and on the crater rim with field observations and the generalized stratigraphic section of this eruption sequence described by Alvarado (1993). The Irazú GPR transects on the active crater, collected with 100 and 200 MHz antennas, show a strong reflector that correlates well with the base of the 1963 tephra deposits. The spectral characteristics of the traces from deposits within the active crater suggest the presence of laminated zones in which layers are too fine to be resolved individually. The profiles on the crater rim illuminate changing bed thicknesses as a function of distance from the vent, as well as the patterns of post-depositional sediment transport. The diffractions associated with volcanic blocks indicate many blocks are associated with sag features in which adjacent strata are depressed more than the height of the block.

  14. Breeding habit of the toad Bufo coccifer in Costa Rica, with a description of the tadpole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDiarmid, R.W.; Foster, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The breeding habits of Bufo coccifer were studied in northwestern Costa Rica between 1971 and 1974. This species breeds during the rainy season, at least from May through August. Males chorus from areas of shallow water. Their calls resemble those of Mexican representatives of the species in pulse rate and duration, but are closer to those of other Costa Rican and Panamanian populations in dominant frequency. Thus, our data do not clearly support recognition of Bufo cycladen as a distinct species for the Mexican populations. Amplexus is axillary, and two strings of eggs are extruded simultaneously during oviposition. Tadpoles, described for the first time in this paper, are secretive and do not aggregate. Development to metamorphosis requires about 5 weeks.

  15. Empirical findings on socioeconomic determinants of fertility differentials in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, M J; Geithman, D T

    1986-01-01

    "This paper seeks to (1) identify socioeconomic variables that are expected to generate fertility differentials; (2) hypothesize the direction and magnitude of the effect of each variable by reference to a demand-for-children model; and (3) test empirically the model using evidence from Costa Rica. The estimates are obtained from a ten-percent systematic random sample of all Costa Rican individual-family households. There are 15,924 families in the sample...." The authors specifically seek "to capture the effects of changing relative prices and available income and time constraints on parental preferences for children. Least-squares estimates show statistically significant relationships between household fertility and opportunity cost of time, parental education, occurrence of an extended family, medical care, household sanitation, economic sector of employment, and household stock of nonhuman capital."

  16. [The privatization of public services. The case of health services in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Fuentes, M

    1993-01-01

    This article analyzes the role of the State and public enterprises in the development of nations, from a particular standing point, and inquires into the privatization issue, reviewing both its concept and the possible mechanisms for its implementation. Also, emphasis is made on the selling of public enterprises as one of the several ways to privatize. Within this context, some measures for the reorganization of the Costa Rican National Health System are proposed. These measures uphold fundamental values of social justice. This article is based on a theoretical-conceptual framework from an innovative experience in health services management in Costa Rica, in which a self-managing cooperative society (a nonprofit enterprise) manages, by contract with national health care public institutions, an urban local health care system.

  17. Costa Rica. Spotlight.

    PubMed

    Haub, C; Adams, J

    1985-05-01

    Costa Rica's demographic and economic characteristics are highlighted. Costa Rica's demographic situation is unique in certain respects. Between the late 1950s and the late 1970s, the total fertility rate declined from about 7 to 4 and then stabilized instead of continuing to decline to 2 as expected. This is especially surprising since the level of contraceptive use is similar to that of most European countries. Approximately 2/3 of all couples practice contraception. It is possible that the rate will slowly decline to the expected level, but a delayed decline will ultimately produce a much larger population than initially expected. The demographic situation in Costa Rica is being carefully monitored for insights which might be useful in predicting future fertility patterns in other developing countries. The government of Costa Rica recognizes that family planning is a necessary component of maternal and child health care; however, most family planning services are provided by private organizations. In 1982, population size was 2.6 million, the crude birth rate was 30.7, the crude death rate was 3.9, infant mortality was 19.3, and the rate of natural increase was 2.7%. The population is predominantly Spanish, and the indigenous population totals only 20,000. 48% of the population is urban. Costa Rica has a relatively stable deomocratic government. It relationshiops with other countries are generally peaceful, but tensions between Nicaragua and Costa Rica are increasing. The country's economic situation deteriorated in recent years due primarily to a decline in the price of coffee, the country's principle export commodity. The trade deficit increased markedly, unemployment increased, and income fell sharply. The economic slowdown is now showing signs of a reversal. In 1983 exports, consisting primarily of coffee, bananas, beef, sugar, cane and cacao, totalled US$871 million, and imports, consisting mainly of manufactured goods and equipment, chemicals, fuel, food

  18. Social Support, Family Organizations, and Adolescent Adjustment in Low-Income Puerto Rican Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D.; Seaton, Elenor; Jacobson, Leanne; Rodriguez, Antoinette U.; Dominguez, Antonio

    Social support from kin has been discussed as an important feature of family life among Puerto Rican families. This study examines the association between kinship support, family organization, and adolescent adjustment in Puerto Rican families. (Author)

  19. Eruptive activity at Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica): Inferences from 3He/4He in fumarole gases and chemistry of the products ejected during 2014 and 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Di Piazza, Andrea; de Moor, J. Maarten; Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Avard, Geoffroy; Carapezza, Maria Luisa; Mora, Mauricio M.

    2016-11-01

    A new period of eruptive activity started at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica, in 2010 after almost 150 years of quiescence. This activity has been characterized by sporadic explosions whose frequency clearly increased since October 2014. This study aimed to identify the mechanisms that triggered the resumption of this eruptive activity and characterize the evolution of the phenomena over the past 2 years. We integrate 3He/4He data available on fumarole gases collected in the summit area of Turrialba between 1999 and 2011 with new measurements made on samples collected between September 2014 and February 2016. The results of a petrological investigation of the products that erupted between October 2014 and May 2015 are also presented. We infer that the resumption of eruptive activity in 2010 was triggered by a replenishment of the plumbing system of Turrialba by a new batch of magma. This is supported by the increase in 3He/4He values observed since 2005 at the crater fumaroles and by comparable high values in September 2014, just before the onset of the new eruptive phase. The presence of a number of fresh and juvenile glassy shards in the erupted products increased between October 2014 and May 2015, suggesting the involvement of new magma with a composition similar to that erupted in 1864-1866. We conclude that the increase in 3He/4He at the summit fumaroles since October 2015 represents strong evidence of a new phase of magma replenishment, which implies that the level of activity remains high at the volcano.

  20. Bibliometry of Costa Rica biodiversity studies published in the Revista de Biología Tropical/International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation (2000-2010): the content and importance of a leading tropical biology journal in its 60th anniversary.

    PubMed

    Nielsen-Muñoz, Vanessa; Azofeifa-Mora, Ana Beatriz; Monge-Nájera, Julián

    2012-12-01

    Central America is recognized as a mega diverse "hot-spot" and one of its smaller countries, Costa Rica, as one of the world's leaders in the study and conservation of tropical biodiversity. For this study, inspired by the 60th anniversary of the journal Revista de Biología Tropical, we tabulated all the scientific production on Costa Rican biodiversity published in Revista de Biología Tropical between 2000 and 2010. Most articles are zoological (62%) and 67% of authors had only one publication in the jounal within that period. A 54% of articles were published in English and 46% in Spanish. A 41% of articles were written in collaboration among Costa Rican institutions and 36% in collaboration with foreign institutions. The Collaboration Index was 2.53 signatures per article. Visibility in American sources was 56% in Google Scholar and 42.66% in the Web of Science, but the real visibility and impact are unknown because these sources exclude the majority of tropical journals. Revista de Biología Tropical is the main output channel for Costa Rican biology and despite its small size, Costa Rica occupies the 10th. place in productivity among Latin American countries, with productivity and impact levels that compare favorably with larger countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and Chile.

  1. Box-Jenkins analysis for shark landings in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Roger; Chavarría, Juan B

    2004-12-01

    Sharks are highly vulnerable to intense and prolonged fishery extraction. This article analyzes the data on shark landings from the artisan fishing fleet on Costa Rica's Pacific coast between 1988 and 1997. The data come from an invoicing system administered by the Costa Rican Fisheries Institute (Instituto Costarricense de la Pesca y Acuacultura, INCOPESCA). Pacific coast shark fishing during the period under study represented approximately 20% of the total national fisheries volume. According to data from the invoicing system, the Northern Pacific region was the most productive, reporting 58% of the shark catch nationwide. Within this region, shark fishing in Papagayo Gulf represented 91% and 53% of the landings by fishery region and nationwide, respectively. The mid-sized and advanced (length of boat > 10 meters) artisan fishing fleets reported 96% of the shark catches in the zone. The study of shark fisheries in the Papagayo Gulf zone is crucial for an understanding of fishery dynamics for this resource at the national level. A monthly chronological series was constructed with the landings in the Papagayo Gulf zone, and a Univariate Box-Jenkins (UBJ) Model was estimated for first-order moving averages MA(1) with a seasonal component of the Yt = lamda(t-1) + gammaS12 + a(t) type.

  2. Evaluating the Impact of Different Early Literacy Interventions on Low-Income Costa Rican Kindergarteners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolla San Francisco, Andrea; Arias, Melissa; Villers, Renata; Snow, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Grade retention has been the de facto policy for children with academic difficulties in many Latin American countries [Schiefelbein, E., & Wolff, L. (1992). "Repetition and inadequate achievement in Latin America's primary schools: a review of magnitudes, causes, relationships, and strategies." Washington, DC: World Bank.]. In Costa…

  3. Gender Differences in Achievement in Costa Rican Students: Science, Mathematics and Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esquivel, Juan Manuel; Brenes, Margarita

    Gender differences have been reported in the United States in the areas of mathematical reasoning favoring males and verbal abilities favoring females. Results from the National Assessment of Educational Progress Science Assessment also have consistently revealed small gender differences favoring males. This paper reports gender differences in…

  4. Ecological control of Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811): five years after a Costa Rican pilot project.

    PubMed

    Zeledó, Rodrigo; Rojas, Julio C; Urbina, Andrea; Cordero, Marlen; Gamboa, Sue H; Lorosa, Elias S; Alfaro, Sergio

    2008-09-01

    An ecological pilot project for the control of Triatoma dimidiata allowed a new evaluation four and five years after environmental modifications in the peridomestic areas of 20 households. It was verified that the two groups of houses, 10 case-houses and 10 control-houses, were free of insects after those periods of time. In the first group, the owners started a chicken coop in the backyard and a colony of bugs was found there without infesting the house. In the second group, the inhabitants of one house once again facilitated the conditions for the bugs to thrive in the same store room, reaffirming that man-made ecotopes facilitates colonization. This ecological control method was revealed to be reliable and sustainable and it is recommended to be applied to those situations where the vectors of Chagas disease can colonize houses and are frequent in wild ecotopes.

  5. Cracking complex taxonomy of Costa Rican moths: Anacrusis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remarkably similar forewing patterns, striking sexual dimorphism, and rampant sympatry all combine to present a taxonomically and morphologically bewildering complex of five species of Anacrusis tortricid moths in Central America: Anacrusis turrialbae Razowski, Anacrusis piriferana (Zeller), Anacrus...

  6. A new species of small-eared shrew in the Cryptotis thomasi species group from Costa Rica (Mammalia: Eulipotyphla: Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal; Timm, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new species of small-eared shrew, genus Cryptotis Pomel, 1848 (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae), from near the community of Monteverde in the Tilarán highlands of northwestern Costa Rica. The new species is immediately distinguished from all other Costa Rican shrews its large size and long tail. Morphologically, it belongs to the Cryptotis thomasi group of small-eared shrews, a clade that is more typically distributed in the Andes Cordillera and other highland regions of northern South America. The new Costa Rican species and the Panamanian endemic Cryptotis endersi Setzer, 1950 are the only two members of this species group known to occur in Central America. Like most other members of the C. thomasi group for which the postcranial skeleton has been studied, the new species tends be more ambulatory (rather than semi-fossorial) when compared with other members of the genus. Our survey efforts over several decades failed to locate a population of the new species, and we discuss its conservation status in light of its limited potential distribution in the Tilarán highlands and the significant climatic change that has been documented in the Monteverde region during the past four decades.

  7. Cancer screening participation: comparative willingness of San Juan Puerto Ricans versus New York City Puerto Ricans.

    PubMed Central

    Claudio, Cristina; Katz, Ralph V.; Green, B. Lee; Kressin, Nancy R.; Wang, Min Qi; Russell, Stefanie L.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The specific aim of this study was to determine the self-reported likelihood of New York Puerto Ricans (NYPR) and San Juan Puerto Ricans (SJPR) to participate in: 10 site-specific cancer screenings, cancer-screenings conducted by different specific persons/agencies and cancer-screening under specific conditions of what one was asked to do as a part of cancer screening. METHODS: The Cancer Screening Questionnaire (CSQ) was administered via random-digit-dial telephone interviews to 154 adults living in San Juan, PR and 155 in New York, NY. RESULTS: Although the self-reported willingness to participate across the 10 site-specific cancer screening exams was consistently high in both cities, SJPR had higher rates, as compared to NYPR for all 10 site-specific cancer screening exams in the unadjusted analyses. A similar pattern was observed regarding the influence of both "who conducts the cancer-screening exam" and "what one is asked to do in a cancer-screening exam" as factors in the willingness to participate in such exams. Adjusted multivariate analysis showed that the odds of SJPR participating in skin cancer screening as compared to NYPR, were three-fold higher to participate in skin cancer screening and were two-fold higher to participate in a cancer screening where they have to be interviewed about their alcohol habits. These two observed differences might reflect the effect of acculturation in the NYPR. PMID:17534012

  8. Lower tier toxicity risk assessment of agriculture pesticides detected on the Río Madre de Dios watershed, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Arias-Andrés, M; Rämö, R; Mena Torres, F; Ugalde, R; Grandas, L; Ruepert, C; Castillo, L E; Van den Brink, P J; Gunnarsson, J S

    2016-10-25

    Costa Rica is a tropical country with one of the highest biodiversity on Earth. It also has an intensive agriculture, and pesticide runoff from banana and pineapple plantations may cause a high toxicity risk to non-target species in rivers downstream the plantations. We performed a first tier risk assessment of the maximum measured concentrations of 32 pesticides detected over 4 years in the River Madre de Dios (RMD) and its coastal lagoon on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were plotted in order to derive HC5 values for each pesticide, i.e., hazard concentrations for 5 % of the species, often used as environmental criteria values in other countries. We also carried out toxicity tests for selected pesticides with native Costa Rican species in order to calculate risk coefficients according to national guidelines in Costa Rica. The concentrations of herbicides diuron and ametryn and insecticides carbofuran, diazinon, and ethoprophos exceeded either the HC5 value or the lower limit of its 90 % confidence interval suggesting toxic risks above accepted levels. Risk coefficients of diuron and carbofuran derived using local guidelines indicate toxicity risks as well. The assessed fungicides did not present acute toxic risks according to our analysis. Overall, these results show a possible toxicity of detected pesticides to aquatic organisms and provide a comparison of Costa Rican national guidelines with more refined methods for risk assessment based on SSDs. Further higher tier risk assessments of pesticides in this watershed are also necessary in order to consider pesticide water concentrations over time, toxicity from pesticide mixtures, and eventual effects on ecosystem functions.

  9. Puerto Rico and the Puerto Ricans: A Teaching and Resource Unit for Upper Level Spanish Students or Social Studies Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrero, Milagros

    The subject of this teaching and resource unit for Spanish students or social studies classes is Puerto Rico and the Puerto Ricans. The unit has sections dealing with the present conditions of the Puerto Ricans, their culture, and historical perspectives. The appendixes contain: (1) Demands of the Puerto Ricans, (2) Notable Puerto Ricans, (3)…

  10. Modeling a tsunami from the Nicoya, Costa Rica, seismic gap and its potential impact in Puntarenas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacón-Barrantes, Silvia E.; Protti, Marino

    2011-04-01

    Although subduction zones around the world are known to be the source of earthquakes and/or tsunamis, not all segments of these plate boundaries generate destructive earthquakes and catastrophic tsunamis. Costa Rica, in Central America, has subduction zones on both the Pacific and the Caribbean coasts and, even though large earthquakes (Mw = 7.4-7.8) occur in these convergent margins, they do not produce destructive tsunamis. The reason for this is that the seismogenic zones of the segments of the subduction zones that produce large earthquakes in Costa Rica are located beneath land (Nicoya peninsula, Osa peninsula and south of Limón) and not off shore as in most subduction zones around the world. To illustrate this particularity of Costa Rican subduction zones, we show in this work the case for the largest rupture area in Costa Rica (under the Nicoya peninsula), capable of producing Mw ˜ 7.8 earthquakes, but the tsunamis it triggers are small and present little potential for damage even to the largest port city in Costa Rica. The Nicoya seismic gap, in NW Costa Rica, has passed its ˜50-year interseismic period and therefore a large earthquake will have to occur there in the near future. The last large earthquake, in 1950 generated a tsunami which slightly affected the southwest coast of the Nicoya Peninsula. We present here a simulation to study the possible consequences that a tsunami generated by the next Nicoya earthquake could have for the city of Puntarenas. Puntarenas has a population of approximately eleven thousand people and is located on a 7.5 km long sand bar with a maximum height of 2 m above the mean sea level. This condition makes Puntarenas vulnerable to tsunamis.

  11. Survival and causes of mortality in juvenile Puerto Rican parrots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, G.D.; Arendt, W.J.; Kalina, J.

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen juvenile Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) from wild nests in 1985, 1986 and 1987 were radio monitored an average of 110 +- 15.9 (SE) d (range 4-209 d) post-fledgling. Minimum survival was 67% (n = 3) in 1985, 100% (n = 4) in 1986 and 43% (n = 7) in 1987. Most mortality (three of five deaths) occurred during the first 35 d following fledgling. A major cause of mortality was predation by raptors. This research shows that additional studies are needed to define mortality causes to juvenile and adult free-flying Puerto Rican Parrots and to develop management guidelines to increase survival.

  12. Caribbean international circulation: are Puerto Rican women tied-circulators?

    PubMed

    Conway, D; Ellis, M; Shiwdhan, N

    1990-01-01

    Aspects of migration between Puerto Rico and the United States are explored. "This examination of the multiple-movement behaviour of a sample of Puerto Rican women seeks to unravel the relations between their circulation patterns, their family and contextual situations and their declared motives for undertaking international mobility. The leading question asked in this study is whether this international mobility behaviour of Puerto Rican women is autonomous or dependent upon the movement or decision-making of others. Structural theory suggests the latter is most likely, but behavioural divergence occurs in return movement."

  13. Staggered Costas signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Avraham; Levanon, Nadav

    1986-11-01

    A radar signal, based on coherent processing of a train of staggered Costas (1984) bursts is based on a minimum number of collocation of their individual ambiguity function sidelobe peaks. The resulting ambiguity function combines qualities of both 'thumbtack' and 'bed of nails' signals. Comparison with linear-FM, V-FM, and complementary phase coded signals is given, as well as comparison with hybrid signals consisting of both phase and frequency coding.

  14. An enigmatic frog of the genus Atelopus (Family Bufonidae) from Parque Nacional Chirripó, Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jay M; Bolaños, Federico

    2009-01-01

    A distinctive new species of Atelopus is described from Parque Nacional Chirrip6 Grande, Cordillera de Talamanca (3,400-3,500 m). It closely resembles populations of the Atelopus ignescens complex from the Andes of northern Ecuador and southern Colombia. It differs most significantly from these frogs in the pattern of spiculae and coni development on the throat, chest, hands and feet. The Costa Rican species appears to be an outlier of the complex inexplicably separated geographically from its nearest allies by an over land distance of about 1,600 km.

  15. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea) in Costa Rica: a review.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramírez, Álvaro; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Corrales-Ugalde, Marco; Garrote, Octavio Esquivel

    2014-01-01

    The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990's and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species), which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic). By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific) and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin). Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the biogeographic relevance

  16. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea) in Costa Rica: a review

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Ramírez, Álvaro; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Corrales-Ugalde, Marco; Garrote, Octavio Esquivel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990’s and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species), which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic). By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific) and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin). Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the

  17. Bioenergetics and diving activity of internesting leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea at Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Bryan P; Williams, Cassondra L; Paladino, Frank V; Morreale, Stephen J; Lindstrom, R Todd; Spotila, James R

    2005-10-01

    Physiology, environment and life history demands interact to influence marine turtle bioenergetics and activity. However, metabolism and diving behavior of free-swimming marine turtles have not been measured simultaneously. Using doubly labeled water, we obtained the first field metabolic rates (FMRs; 0.20-0.74 W kg(-1)) and water fluxes (16-30% TBW day(-1), where TBW=total body water) for free-ranging marine turtles and combined these data with dive information from electronic archival tags to investigate the bioenergetics and diving activity of reproductive adult female leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea. Mean dive durations (7.8+/-2.4 min (+/-1 s.d.), bottom times (2.7+/-0.8 min), and percentage of time spent in water temperatures (Tw) < or =24 degrees C (9.5+/-5.7%) increased with increasing mean maximum dive depths (22.6+/-7.1 m; all P< or =0.001). The FMRs increased with longer mean dive durations, bottom times and surface intervals and increased time spent in Tw< or =24 degrees C (all r2> or =0.99). This suggests that low FMRs and activity levels, combined with shuttling between different water temperatures, could allow leatherbacks to avoid overheating while in warm tropical waters. Additionally, internesting leatherback dive durations were consistently shorter than aerobic dive limits calculated from our FMRs (11.7-44.3 min). Our results indicate that internesting female leatherbacks maintained low FMRs and activity levels, thereby spending relatively little energy while active at sea. Future studies should incorporate data on metabolic rate, dive patterns, water temperatures, and body temperatures to develop further the relationship between physiological and life history demands and marine turtle bioenergetics and activity.

  18. Cancer Disparities between Mainland and Island Puerto Ricans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cancer incidence is generally lower in Hispanics than non-Hispanic whites in the U.S. These data should be interpreted with caution, as Hispanics are ethnically heterogeneous. This study examined cancer rates in a single Hispanic subgroup – Puerto Ricans – and compared incidence rates among mainla...

  19. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending among Puerto Rican Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States; and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate similar…

  20. Pilot Study of Puerto Rican Junior Colleges. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Kuenzli, Pablo

    Despite an arduous effort to cope with modern Puerto Rico's societal needs, Puerto Rican junior colleges' educational offerings are inadequate and often irrelevant. The complexity and peculiarities of the junior college system in Puerto Rico cannot be fully grasped within the existing models for educational research designed for the educational…

  1. Dimensions of Career Indecision among Puerto Rican College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkin, Danya; Arbona, Consuelo; Coleman, Nicole; Ramirez, Romilia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to explore the factor structure of a Spanish version of the Career Decision Scale (CDS; Osipow, Carney, Winer, Yanico, & Koschier, 1976) with Puerto Rican college students, (b) to examine the relation of trait anxiety to the identified dimensions of career indecision, and (c) to explore differences in anxiety…

  2. Puerto Rican History, Civilization, and Culture: A Mini-Documentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This publication was compiled from a number of smaller manuscripts dealing with various aspects of Puerto Rican history, civilization, and culture. The book is designed to: (1) provide teachers of middle school and high school students with instructional material which covers all these aspects in a related sequential manner; and (2) provide…

  3. Puerto Rican Phenotype: Understanding Its Historical Underpinnings and Psychological Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Irene

    2008-01-01

    The following is a historically informed review of Puerto Rican phenotype. Geared toward educating psychologists, this review discusses how various psychological issues associated with phenotype may have arisen as a result of historical legacies and policies associated with race and racial mixing. It discusses how these policies used various…

  4. Puerto Ricans in Science and Biomedicine: Report of a Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

    Twelve divisions and institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) cosponsored this conference to examine the barriers to participation of Puerto Ricans in the United States to careers in science and biomedicine. Areas addressed during the conference included: (1) perspectives from the NIH; (2) historical and modern perspectives of…

  5. Research Issues concerning the Puerto Rican Child and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogler, Lloyd H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This journal issue is a collection of papers describing research on Hispanic families conducted at the Hispanic Research Center, Fordham University, New York. The first article, "Research Issues concerning the Puerto Rican Child and Family," by Lloyd H. Rogler, reviews two research projects on health conditions and the plight of Puerto Rican…

  6. Acculturation and Teaching Behaviors of Dominican and Puerto Rican Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planos, Ruth; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Six maternal teaching behaviors were observed among 101 low-income Puerto Rican and Dominican mothers in New York City as they engaged in a teaching task with their preschool children. Frequencies of specific teaching behaviors were related to ethnicity and acculturation but not to socioeconomic status. Implications for home-school continuity in…

  7. Social Networks and Depression among Older Puerto Ricans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Puerto Rican population has excess risk of many health problems like diabetes, cognitive impairment, physical frailty, and disability. They also exhibit high rates of depression symptoms. Research suggests that support from social networks may mediate the effects of social and environmental stre...

  8. Ladrillo and Tales of Juan Bobo: Puerto Rican Folk Tales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matos, Reinaldo; Matos, Ana

    These two illustrated elementary readers contain the Spanish and English versions of the Puerto Rican folk tales, "Ladrillo" and "Cuentos de Juan Bobo." They are part of a series of reading materials for elementary-level migrant children. These materials are intended to help the child relate to his culture, develop interest in…

  9. Acculturation and Depression among Puerto Ricans in the Mainland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Blanca M.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between acculturation and depression in a sample of 1,510 Puerto Ricans residing in the U.S. was examined. Acculturation was measured by assessing subjects' spoken, preferred, read, and written language. Depression was evaluated by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The scale yielded a three-factor structure…

  10. Appreciating Ethnic Diversity with "When I Was Puerto Rican."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggieri, Colleen A.

    2002-01-01

    Notes there are many resources available that will stimulate student thinking about the diverse people in the world. Considers Esmeralda Santiago's "When I Was Puerto Rican," and notes how it provides a great tool for helping high school students explore their understanding and appreciation of the emerging Hispanic culture. (SG)

  11. Cuentos Folkloricos as a Therapeutic Modality with Puerto Rican Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costantino, Giuseppe; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Therapeutic techniques using Puerto Rican folktales to promote identification with culturally familiar characters and themes were used with 208 children in grades K-3. Cuento therapies significantly increased WISC-R comprehension scores uniformly across grades K-3 and significantly reduced trait anxiety of first graders. (DC)

  12. Assimilation and Educational Determinants for Puerto Rican Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wargacki, Julianne M.

    To understand the problems that urban schools encounter educating Puerto Rican students, teachers must understand the history and culture of Puerto Rico, which has been a melting pot of many different cultures. North American culture became prevalent after the Spanish-American War (1898) and the passage of the Jones Act (1917), which gave U.S.…

  13. Chlorine isotope and Cl-Br fractionation in fluids of Poás volcano (Costa Rica): Insight into an active volcanic-hydrothermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Eggenkamp, H. G. M.; Martínez-Cruz, María; van Bergen, Manfred J.

    2016-10-01

    Halogen-rich volcanic fluids issued at the surface carry information on properties and processes operating in shallow hydrothermal systems. This paper reports a long-term record of Cl-Br concentrations and δ37Cl signatures of lake water and fumaroles from the active crater of Poás volcano (Costa Rica), where surface expressions of magmatic-hydrothermal activity have shown substantial periodic changes over the last decades. Both the hyperacid water of its crater lake (Laguna Caliente) and subaerial fumaroles show significant temporal variability in Cl-Br concentrations, Br/Cl ratios and δ37Cl, reflecting variations in the mode and magnitude of volatile transfer. The δ37Cl signatures of the lake, covering the period 1985-2012, show fluctuations between + 0.02 ± 0.06‰ and + 1.15 ± 0.09‰. Condensate samples from adjacent fumaroles on the southern shore, collected during the interval (2010-2012) with strong changes in gas temperature (107-763°C), display a much larger range from - 0.43 ± 0.09‰ to + 14.09 ± 0.08‰. Most of the variations in Cl isotope, Br/Cl and concentration signals can be attributed to interaction between magma-derived gas and liquid water in the volcanic-hydrothermal system below the crater. The δ37Cl were lowest and closest to magmatic values in (1) fumarolic gas that experienced little or no interaction with subsurface water and followed a relatively dry pathway, and (2) water that captured the bulk of magmatic halogen output so that no phase separation could induce fractionation. In contrast, elevated δ37Cl can be explained by partial scavenging and fractionation during subsurface gas-liquid interaction. Hence, strong Cl isotope fractionation leading to very high δ37Cl in Poás' fumaroles indicates that they followed a wet pathway. Highest δ37Cl values in the lake water were found mostly in periods when it received a significant input from subaqueous fumaroles or when high temperatures and low pH caused HCl evaporation. It is

  14. Chewing lice of genus Myrsidea (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from Turdidae (Passeriformes) of Costa Rica, with descriptions of seven new species.

    PubMed

    Kounek, Filip; Sychra, Oldrich; Capek, Miroslav; Literak, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    A total of 166 individuals from 10 bird species belonging to the family Turdidae were examined for chewing lice in Costa Rica during 2004, 2009 and 2010. A total of 12 species of the louse genus Myrsidea were collected from 54 birds, including four previously named, seven new undescribed species, and one identified as Myrsidea sp. Names, descriptions and illustrations are given for the seven new species of Myrsidea. They and their type hosts are: Myrsidea assimilis sp. nov. ex Turdus assimilis (Cabanis, 1850), M. cerrodelamuertensis sp. nov. ex Catharus gracilirostris (Salvin, 1865). M. hrabaki sp. nov. ex Myadestes melanops (Salvin, 1865), M. obsoleti sp. nov. ex Turdus obsoletus (Lawrence, 1862), M. quinchoi sp. nov. ex Catharus frantzii (Cabanis, 1861), M. tapanti sp. nov. ex Catharus fuscater (Lafresnaye, 1845), and M. tapetapersi sp. nov. ex Turdus nigrescens (Cabanis, 1861). Records of four named and one unidentified species of Myrsidea from other Costa Rican thrushes are also given and discussed.

  15. [Cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of Lepidochelys olivacea (Testudines: Cheloniidae) from the North Pacific Coast of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Orrego, Carlos Mario; Hernández Gómez, Giovanna

    2006-03-01

    Cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of Lepidochelys olivacea (Testudines: Cheloniidae) from the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The aerobic cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of 45 apparently healthy female olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) was studied at Nancite nesting beach, in Santa Rosa National Park (Costa Rican North Pacific) during July and August 2002. Bacterial samples were obtained by inserting sterile swabs directly into the cloaca and the nasal cavities of the turtles. Ninety-nine aerobic bacterial isolates, including 10 Gram-negative and 5 Gram-positive bacteria, were recovered. The most common bacteria cultured were Aeromonas spp. (13/45) and Citrobacter freundi (6/45) from cloacal samples and Bacillus spp. (32/45), Staphylococcus aureus (6/45) and Corynebacterium spp. (5/45) from nasal ducts. The results of the present study showed that the aerobic bacterial flora of nesting female olive ridleys was composed of several potential human and animal microbe pathogens.

  16. Leakage of active crater lake brine through the north flank at Rincon de la Vieja volcano, northwest Costa Rica, and implications for crater collapse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kempter, K.A.; Rowe, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Active Crater at Rincon de la Vieja volcano, Costa Rica, reaches an elevation of 1750 m and contains a warm, hyper-acidic crater lake that probably formed soon after the eruption of the Rio Blanco tephra deposit approximately 3500 years before present. The Active Crater is buttressed by volcanic ridges and older craters on all sides except the north, which dips steeply toward the Caribbean coastal plains. Acidic, above-ambient-temperature streams are found along the Active Crater's north flank at elevations between 800 and 1000 m. A geochemical survey of thermal and non-thermal waters at Rincon de la Vieja was done in 1989 to determine whether hyper-acidic fluids are leaking from the Active Crater through the north flank, affecting the composition of north-flank streams. Results of the water-chemistry survey reveal that three distinct thermal waters are found on the flanks of Rincon de la Vieja volcano: acid chloride-sulfate (ACS), acid sulfate (AS), and neutral chloride (NC) waters. The most extreme ACS water was collected from the crater lake that fills the Active Crater. Chemical analyses of the lake water reveal a hyper-acidic (pH ~ 0) chloride-sulfate brine with elevated concentrations of calcium, magnesium, aluminum, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, fluorine, and boron. The composition of the brine reflects the combined effects of magmatic degassing from a shallow magma body beneath the Active Crater, dissolution of andesitic volcanic rock, and evaporative concentration of dissolved constituents at above-ambient temperatures. Similar cation and anion enrichments are found in the above-ambient-temperature streams draining the north flank of the Active Crater. The pH of north-flank thermal waters range from 3.6 to 4.1 and chloride:sulfate ratios (1.2-1.4) that are a factor of two greater than that of the lake brine (0.60). The waters have an ACS composition that is quite different from the AS and NC thermal waters that occur along the southern flank of Rincon

  17. Leakage of Active Crater lake brine through the north flank at Rincón de la Vieja volcano, northwest Costa Rica, and implications for crater collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempter, K. A.; Rowe, G. L.

    2000-04-01

    The Active Crater at Rincón de la Vieja volcano, Costa Rica, reaches an elevation of 1750 m and contains a warm, hyper-acidic crater lake that probably formed soon after the eruption of the Rio Blanco tephra deposit approximately 3500 years before present. The Active Crater is buttressed by volcanic ridges and older craters on all sides except the north, which dips steeply toward the Caribbean coastal plains. Acidic, above-ambient-temperature streams are found along the Active Crater's north flank at elevations between 800 and 1000 m. A geochemical survey of thermal and non-thermal waters at Rincón de la Vieja was done in 1989 to determine whether hyper-acidic fluids are leaking from the Active Crater through the north flank, affecting the composition of north-flank streams. Results of the water-chemistry survey reveal that three distinct thermal waters are found on the flanks of Rincón de la Vieja volcano: acid chloride-sulfate (ACS), acid sulfate (AS), and neutral chloride (NC) waters. The most extreme ACS water was collected from the crater lake that fills the Active Crater. Chemical analyses of the lake water reveal a hyper-acidic ( pH˜0) chloride-sulfate brine with elevated concentrations of calcium, magnesium, aluminum, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, fluorine, and boron. The composition of the brine reflects the combined effects of magmatic degassing from a shallow magma body beneath the Active Crater, dissolution of andesitic volcanic rock, and evaporative concentration of dissolved constituents at above-ambient temperatures. Similar cation and anion enrichments are found in the above-ambient-temperature streams draining the north flank of the Active Crater. The pH of north-flank thermal waters range from 3.6 to 4.1 and chloride:sulfate ratios (1.2-1.4) that are a factor of two greater than that of the lake brine (0.60). The waters have an ACS composition that is quite different from the AS and NC thermal waters that occur along the southern flank of

  18. Area Assessment. Costa Rica

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    de la Muerte Oscar Aguilar R. Estereo S Sari Jo;; c Nicolasa Rojas i\\ . S e n d a s A Volcnri Irazu F.stereo Continent K. Estereo...Cart ago , Carlos La.fuente R. Runibc Volcnn I7:n2u >U;lt Vision de CT. ]•;. S i 3 t U n ■ Cerro c’c la Muerte Cad EtTiis...Quesada rL. Ultraso;: VolcSn Irazu -h Min de Cultura "■> Kaciona’:. Lii;i5n U de Costa Rica R. U n i V e I’s ’^ - San

  19. [Algal blooms of the toxigenic diatom Pseudo-Nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) in the Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Montero, Maribelle; Freer, Enrique

    2004-09-01

    Water samples were collected during a red tide event in November 2001, near San Lucas Island (Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica). Superficial temperature was 27 degrees C and water was turbid, with no fetid smell. One sample was treated with negative staining and observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM); another sample was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Samples had high concentrations of the diatom Pseudo-Nitzschia pungensf pungens (characterized by two rows of poroids in the external channel), and lower concentrations of Skeletonema costatum (chains joined by external microtubules) and Chaetoceros lorenzianus (oval apertures and long chains, having setae with distinctive transverse rows and spines). This is the first time that the first species was described producing red tides in Costa Rica. However, reports about red tides with high concentration of species like P. pungens (variety multiseries) are increasing. These species have been related to the production of domoic acid, a low molecular weight amino acid which in humans can cause amnesic intoxications with seafood. Previously, Costa Rican reports of toxic accidents only referred to seafood contaminated with Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum and Gymnodinium catenatum dinoflagellates. The increase in the number of Pseudo-Nitzschia causing harmful algae blooms is of interest for scientists around the world and must be documented. Similarly, some Chaetoceros species have been reported to be harmful to fish. We strongly recommend the establishment of a permanent surveillance program monitoring the presence of these species new at Costa Rican Pacific coast. Since the amnesic toxin is soluble in water and heat-resistant, we want to stress the possibility of having human cases of amnesic intoxication.

  20. Educational Gradients in Psychotropic Medication Use Among Older Adults in Costa Rica and the United States†

    PubMed Central

    Domino, Marisa E.; Dow, William H.; Coto-Yglesias, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Objective The relationship among education, psychiatric diagnoses and psychotropic medication use has been explored in the United States, but little is known about patterns in poorer countries, despite their high documented burden of mental illness. Educational gradients in diagnosis and psychotropic use were estimated in the United States and Costa Rica – a middle-income country with universal health insurance. Methods Analyses were conducted using data on older adults (ages 60+) in nationally representative surveys from each country: the 2005 U.S. Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (n=4788) and the 2005 Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (n=2827). Logistic regressions examined the effect of lower educational attainment, income and urban residence on diagnosis and on psychotropic medication use with and without an associated mental illness diagnosis. Results Rates of self-reported diagnoses were lower in the U.S. (12% U.S.; n=598) than in, Costa Rica (20%; n=526), but may reflect differences in survey wording. Measures of self-reported and screened depression decreased with education in both countries. Psychotropic medication use among those with diagnoses increased with education in Costa Rica only. Conclusions We find similar patterns of educational gradients in diagnosis and screening between the U.S. and Costa Rica, but different patterns of medication use by education. Differences in stigma and access to care may play an important role in explaining differences between the countries, though we did not find evidence that insurance affected educational gradients in the U.S. These analyses increase the evidence on the role of education in the use of the health care system. PMID:24932755

  1. Effectiveness of Protected Areas for Representing Species and Populations of Terrestrial Mammals in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    González-Maya, José F.; Víquez-R, Luis R.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species’ geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection. PMID:25970293

  2. Impact of Deforestation on Cloud Properties and Rainfall Over the Costa Rica-Nicaraguan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, D. K.; Nair, U. S.; Welch, R. M.; Lawton, R. O.

    2002-12-01

    The Nicaraguan-Costa Rican region in Central America exhibits the typical pattern of complex deforestation now seen throughout the tropics. The region is a mixture of lowland, mostly converted to agriculture, and mountainous regions, where pristine forests still persist. At present the northern fertile plains of Costa Rica are mostly utilized for agriculture. However in the adjacent regions of southern Nicaragua lowland forests are relatively intact. The extensive agricultural areas of northern Costa Rica is a region of discontinuity in the proposed Mesoamerican Biological Corridor which would connect the montane forests in Costa Rica to the lowland forests in Nicaragua. The present study is part of a larger study which investigates the effects of continuing lowland deforestation and associated regional climate change in Central America on the stability of the entire proposed Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. The present work focuses on the effects of land use on the formation of cloudiness, cloud properties and rainfall in the forested regions of southern Nicaragua and the deforested regions of northern Costa Rica. Land surface and cloud properties are retrieved using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data and products. The land surface properties retrieved are land surface temperature, albedo, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Available Soil Moisture fraction and surface energy fluxes. The cloud properties retrieved are cloud optical thickness and effective radii. In addition, the frequency of cumulus cloudiness on hourly basis are derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and rainfall is studied using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite products. The correlations between the surface properties, cloud properties, cumulus cloudiness and rainfall as a function of ecosystem and topography is

  3. Characterization of the Mid Summer Drought in the Central Valley of Costa Rica, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, E.

    2013-05-01

    The IAS region is characterized by climate features of unique nature, one of them is the Mid-Summer Drought (MSD) or "veranillo", an atmospheric feature rarely observed in other tropical regions. On the Pacific slope of Central America, the precipitation annual cycle is characterized by two rainfall maxima in June and September-October, an extended dry season from November to May, and a secondary precipitation minima during July-August (MSD). Three daily gauge stations records, e.g. La Argentina, Fabio Baudrit and Juan Santamaria, located in the Central Valley of Costa Rica were studied to characterize the MSD from 1937 to 2010. Among the aspects considered are the MSD duration, intensity, timing and seasonal predictability. The modulation of these aspects by climate variability sources as Equatorial Eastern Pacific and Tropical North Atlantic was lately explored, including their interannual and decadal variability. The MSD signal strongly impact social and economic life in the region like energy and the agriculture sector. Additionally, the Central Valley of Costa Rica hosts most of the Costa Rican population with the higher level of exposure and vulnerability to hydro-meteorological hazards.

  4. Development of a treatment protocol for Puerto Rican adolescents with suicidal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Torres-Dávila, Paloma; Spirito, Anthony; Polanco, Norka; Bernal, Guillermo

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents in Puerto Rico are at an increased risk for suicide attempts, though evidence-based treatments specifically for this group have not been tested. The current study was designed to develop and pilot test a culturally sensitive, manualized outpatient treatment for Puerto Rican adolescents who have experienced a suicidal crisis. The study was divided into phases. Phase 1 consisted of developing a socio-cognitive behavioral treatment for suicidal behavior. Phase 2 tested the treatment protocol in an open trial with 11 (6 male and 5 female) Puerto Rican adolescents. Active treatment had an approximate duration of 3-6 months. An initial assessment, process measures, and posttreatment assessment were completed with each participant to measure treatment feasibility as well as suicidality, symptoms, and risk factors. Participants were very satisfied with treatment and reported relevant clinical benefits. The retention rate was 73% (8 out of 11). For those who completed the treatment protocol, the goal of reducing further suicide risk was achieved; 2 showed reliable clinical changes in suicidal ideation, while 6 maintained low levels during treatment. All treatment completers had either a partial or total remission of their pretreatment diagnosis and half had reliable improvements in at least 1 risk factor. A theory-driven treatment protocol was developed according to patient's needs, but further research is needed to continue its development and to explore its efficacy.

  5. Molecular characterization of Rickettsia rickettsii isolated from human clinical samples and from the rabbit tick Haemaphysalis leporispalustris collected at different geographic zones in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Hun, Laya; Cortés, Ximena; Taylor, Lizeth

    2008-12-01

    Five strains of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae previously isolated from human clinical cases and from the tick Haemaphysalis leporispalustris were used for molecular characterization in this study to establish their genetic relationship compared with the prototype Rickettsia rickettsii strain Sheila Smith. Samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the rickettsial genes gtlA, ompA, and ompB. PCR products of the latter two genes were DNA sequenced and compared with available sequences in GenBank. The ompA partial sequences of the five Costa Rican isolates showed 100% identity to several R. rickettsii sequences available in GenBank, including the sequence of the virulent reference strain Sheila Smith, whereas the ompB partial sequences of the five Costa Rican isolates showed 99.8-100% identity to R. rickettsii sequences from GenBank. This study showed the first molecular detection of R. rickettsii isolates from Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever patients and from the rabbit tick H. leporispalustris in different geographical zones in Costa Rica.

  6. Differences in the association of cardiovascular risk factors with education: a comparison of Costa Rica (CRELES) and the USA (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Dow, William H; Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite different levels of economic development, Costa Rica and the USA have similar mortalities among adults. However, in the USA there are substantial differences in mortality by educational attainment, and in Costa Rica there are only minor differences. This contrast motivates an examination of behavioural and biological correlates underlying this difference. Methods The authors used data on adults aged 60 and above from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Ageing Study (CRELES) (n=2827) and from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n=5607) to analyse the cross-sectional association between educational level and the following risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD): ever smoked, current smoker, sedentary, high saturated fat, high carbohydrates, high calorie diet, obesity, severe obesity, large waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure and BMI. Results There were significantly fewer hazardous levels of risk biomarkers at higher levels of education for more than half (10 out of 17) of the risk factors in the USA, but for less than a third of the outcomes in Costa Rica (five out of 17). Conclusions These results are consistent with the context-specific nature of educational differences in risk factors for CVD and with a non-uniform nature of association of CVD risk factors with education within countries. Our results also demonstrate that social equity in mortality is achieved without uniform equity in all risk factors. PMID:19822554

  7. A radio voice for women. Organizing for change: Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Suarez Toro, M

    1995-01-01

    The Feminist Radio Endeavor (FIRE) was organized in Costa Rica in 1991 and broadcasts in English and Spanish for two hours every day on its own short-wave radio station, Radio for Peace International. In January 1995, FIRE discovered that the Costa Rican government planned to create a huge garbage land-fill proximate to a unique forest reserve which is the last primary forest reserve near the city of San Jose. The 100 acres of forest rests in a transitional zone between the Pacific and Atlantic coasts and hosts a wide variety of flora and fauna. On one side of the forest, a small village is situated whose inhabitants have protected the forest for decades. On the other side, the indigenous Quitirisi continue their centuries-old protection of the forest. In February, FIRE staff traveled by horseback and used walkie-talkie radios to air a live Radio Eco-tour of the forest and its neighboring village. People from over 100 countries listened to the broadcast. Within days, the staff was broadcasting live from outside the municipal building where delegates were discussing the growing protest over the dump site. The delegates emerged to announce that they would oppose the use of the road for dump trucks. FIRE then invited call-ins to their broadcast, and the lines were flooded with people expressing fears and frustration with the delegates for refusing to discuss the issues. Callers from the US stated that hearing the voices of the people affected brought the issue to life for them. To FIRE, this is the essential element of global communications.

  8. Sustaining life in frontier land. Country report 2: Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Prescott-allen, R

    1993-01-01

    The Community Development Association of the fishing village of Barra del Colorado populated by Blacks embraced the Conservation Strategy for the Sustainable Development of the Plains Tortuguero covering 419,000 hectares of lowland rain forest and wetlands along the Caribbean cost of northern Costa Rica. In 1985 the government established the Barra del Colorado Wildlife Refuge. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) team visited families and identified community problems. This resulted in the establishment of a communal bank; a community fisherman's association to help obtain a boat and fishing gear; assistance to help villagers obtain title to their land; a feasibility study of a public transport link to the rest of the country; new chairs for the school; and weekly instead of monthly visits by a doctor. The Tortuguero Strategy endeavors to establish 147,000 hectares of conservation area including the Tortuguero National Park. 5000 people live in the buffer zone and 132,000 live in the neighboring western area. The strategy strives to reverse deforestation in the buffer zone by restoring forest cover to 80% of the area by 2000. The Strategy has funded the Union of Small Agricultural Producers of the Atlantic to train people in ecotourism, forestry management, and growing and selling medicinal plants. The IUCN evaluated the environmental impact of expanding banana plantations and recommended ameliorative steps which have not been implemented. The preparation of the Tortuguero Strategy started in 1990 in concert with the Natural Resources Ministry, IUCN, and the European Community. A 1992 draft document based on biophysical, socioeconomic, and legal studies is waiting for official approval. Community strategies have been launched in 2 communities, self-sustaining financing is delayed, and a draft law setting up the conservation area awaits Costa Rican legislative authorization. The strategy is for the long term, but the experience of Barra del

  9. Monitoring coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves in Costa Rica (CARICOMP).

    PubMed

    Cortés, Jorge; Fonseca, Ana C; Nivia-Ruiz, Jaime; Nielsen-Muñoz, Vanessa; Samper-Villarreal, Jimena; Salas, Eva; Martínez, Solciré; Zamora-Trejos, Priscilla

    2010-10-01

    The coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves from the Costa Rican Caribbean coast have been monitored since 1999 using the CARICOMP protocol. Live coral cover at Meager Shoal reef bank (7 to 10 m depth) at the Parque Nacional Cahuita (National Park), increased from 13.3% in 1999, to 28.2% in 2003, but decreased during the next 5 years to around 17.5%. Algal cover increased significantly since 2003 from 36.6% to 61.3% in 2008. The density of Diadema antillarum oscillated between 2 and 7ind/m2, while Echinometra viridis decreased significantly from 20 to 0.6ind/m2. Compared to other CARICOMP sites, live coral cover, fish diversity and density, and sea urchin density were low, and algal cover was intermediate. The seagrass site, also in the Parque Nacional Cahuita, is dominated by Thalassia testudinum and showed an intermediate productivity (2.7 +/- 1.15 g/m2/d) and biomass (822.8 +/- 391.84 g/m2) compared to other CARICOMP sites. Coral reefs and seagrasses at the Parque Nacional Cahuita continue to be impacted by high sediment loads from terrestrial origin. The mangrove forest at Gandoca, within the Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo (National Wildlife Refuge), surrounds a lagoon and it is dominated by the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. Productivity and flower production peak was in July. Biomass (14 kg/m2) and density (9.0 +/- 0.58 trees/100 m2) in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4 g/m2/d) was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites. This mangrove is expanding and has low human impact thus far. Management actions should be taken to protect and preserve these important coastal ecosystems.

  10. Behavior of Puerto Rican parrots during failed nesting attempts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.A.; Wilson, M.H.; Field, R.

    1997-01-01

    We compared patterns of nesting behavior of four pairs of Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) that experienced failed nesting attempts to behavior of four pairs of parrots that experienced no substantial nest problems and successfully fledged young without management intervention. Only changes in female parrots' behavior were clearly associated with nest failure. During incubation, decreases in nest attendance, increases in duration of recesses, and increases in frequency of nest entries by female parrots were associated with imminent abandonment of nests. During early chick rearing, similar behavior was associated with the loss of broods. Low nest attendance and long recesses by female parrots during incubation were also associated with successful hatching of eggs followed by death of young several days later. The behavior patterns and changes in Puerto Rican Parrot nesting behavior described in this paper may alert biologists to nest problems that might be mitigated by management intervention.

  11. San Jose, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    San Jose, capital city of Costa Rica, fills the valley between two steep mountain ranges. In this image made from data collected by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite, visible, shortwave, and near-infrared wavelengths of light that the sensor observed have been combined to produce a false-color version of the scene in which vegetation is red, urban areas are silvery gray, water is dark blue, and clouds are white. The image was captured on February 8, 2007. San Jose is in the center of the image. The Rio Torres winds through downtown San Jose. Cartago, the much smaller colonial capital, sits in the lower right corner, while the city of Alajuela appears across the river, northwest of San Jose. The cities' manmade surfaces contrast sharply with the lushly vegetated landscape surrounding the city. Greenhouses are common in the region, and their glass roofs may be the brilliant white spots around the outer edges the cities. The long, straight runway of the Tobias Bolanos International Airport is visible as a dark line southeast of Alajuela. The landscape around the two cities shown here is rugged. Steep mountain peaks cast dark shadows across their leeward slopes. Patches of dark red vegetation on the mountains north of San Jose may be rainforest. Coffee plantations also cover the slopes of the mountains around the city. February is the dry season in Costa Rica. During the rainy season, from about April to November, clouds usually block the satellite's view of this tropical location. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of Asaf Ullah and Tim Gubbels, SERVIR project.

  12. The March 25, 1990 (Mw = 7.0, ML = 6.8), earthquake at the entrance of the Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica: Its prior activity, foreshocks, aftershocks, and triggered seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protti, Marino; McNally, Karen; Pacheco, Javier; GonzáLez, Victor; Montero, Carlos; Segura, Juan; Brenes, Jorge; Barboza, Vilma; Malavassi, Eduardo; Güendel, Federico; Simila, Gerald; Rojas, Daniel; Velasco, Aaron; Mata, Antonio; Schillinger, Walter

    1995-10-01

    On March 25, 1990 a large earthquake (Mw = 7.0, ML = 6.8) occurred at the entrance of the Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica, at 1322:55.6 UTC, producing considerable damage in central Costa Rica and generating much interest about whether or not the Nicoya seismic gap (Nishenko, 1989) had broken. The local country-wide seismographic network recorded 6 years of activity prior to this large earthquake, 16 hours of foreshocks, the mainshock, and its aftershocks. This network is operated jointly by the Costa Rica Volcanological and Seismological Observatory at the National University (OVSICORI-UNA), and the Charles F. Richter Seismological Laboratory at the University of California, Santa Cruz (CFRSL-UCSC). We obtained high resolution locations from this network and located the mainshock at 9°38.5'N, 84°55.6'W (depth is 20.0 km) and the largest foreshock (Mw = 6.0, March 25, 1990, at 1316:05.8 UTC) at 9°36.4'N, 84°57.1'W (depth is 22.4 km). We find that the aftershock zone abuts the southeast boundary of the Nicoya seismic gap, suggesting that the seismic gap did not rupture. Since the installation of the local network in April 1984 to March 24, 1990, nearly 1900 earthquakes with magnitudes from 1.7 to 4.8 (318 with magnitude 3.0 or larger) have been located at the entrance of the Nicoya Gulf, one of the most active regions in Costa Rica. The March 25 earthquake occurred at the northwest edge of this region, where a sequence of foreshocks began 16 hours prior to the mainshock. The spatial-temporal distribution of aftershocks and directivity analysis of the mainshock rupture process using teleseismic records both indicate a southeast propagating rupture. The mainshock ruptured an asperity of approximately 600 km2 of area, with this area expanding to 4000 km2 after 7 days. We present evidence that suggests that the ruptured asperity is produced by the subduction of a seamount. Inversion of teleseismic broadband and long-period P and SH waves yields a thrust faulting mechanism

  13. A synopsis of the genus Ethmia Hübner in Costa Rica: biology, distribution, and description of 22 new species (Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea, Depressariidae, Ethmiinae), with emphasis on the 42 species known from Área de Conservación Guanacaste.

    PubMed

    Phillips-Rodríguez, Eugenie; Powell, Jerry A; Hallwachs, Winnie; Janzen, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    We discuss 45 Costa Rican species of Ethmia Hübner, 1819, including 23 previously described: Ethmiadelliella (Fernald), Ethmiabittenella (Busck), Ethmiafestiva Busck, Ethmiascythropa Walsingham, Ethmiaperpulchra Walsingham, Ethmiaterpnota Walsingham, Ethmiaelutella Busck, Ethmiajanzeni Powell, Ethmiaungulatella Busck, Ethmiaexornata (Zeller), Ethmiaphylacis Walsingham, Ethmiamnesicosma Meyrick, Ethmiachemsaki Powell, Ethmiabaliostola Walsingham, Ethmiaduckworthi Powell, Ethmiasandra Powell, Ethmianigritaenia Powell, Ethmiacatapeltica Meyrick, Ethmialichyi Powell, Ethmiatransversella Busck, Ethmiasimilatella Busck, Ethmiahammella Busck, Ethmialinda Busck, and 22 new species: Ethmiablaineorum, Ethmiamillerorum, Ethmiadianemillerae, Ethmiaadrianforsythi, Ethmiastephenrumseyi, Ethmiaberndkerni, Ethmiadimauraorum, Ethmiabillalleni, Ethmiaehakernae, Ethmiahelenmillerae, Ethmiajohnpringlei, Ethmialaphamorum, Ethmiapetersterlingi, Ethmialesliesaulae, Ethmiaturnerorum, Ethmianormgershenzi, Ethmianicholsonorum, Ethmiahendersonorum, Ethmiarandyjonesi, Ethmiarandycurtisi, Ethmiamiriamschulmanae and Ethmiatilneyorum. We illustrate all species and their male and female genitalia, along with distribution maps of Costa Rican localities. Immature stages are illustrated for 11 species, and food plants are listed when known. Gesneriaceae is added as a new food plant family record for Ethmia. CO1 nucleotide sequences ("DNA barcodes") were obtained for 41 of the species.

  14. Surveillance and epidemiology of occupational pesticide poisonings on banana plantations in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Vergara, A E; Fuortes, L

    1998-01-01

    A review of one year's workers' compensation records from the Costa Rican National Insurance Institute was performed in a banana plantation region to determine rates of and risk factors for agrichemical poisonings. Review of 9,060 medical records revealed that the most commonly reported agrichemical-related injuries (n=800) were chemical burns (28%) and acute intoxications (21%). Other agrichemical-related injuries included eye injuries, chemical dermatoses, and chronic fungal infections. The incidences and types of injuries differed between male and female workers and workers of different age groups. Older female workers were more likely to report chemical dermatoses. Young male workers were more likely to experience acute intoxication. These differences seem to be attributable to divisions of labor by gender and age among plantation workers.

  15. Accounting for quality in the measurement of hospital performance: evidence from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Arocena, Pablo; García-Prado, Ariadna

    2007-07-01

    This paper provides insights into how Costa Rican public hospitals responded to the pressure for increased efficiency and quality introduced by the reforms carried out over the period 1997-2001. To that purpose we compute a generalized output distance function by means of non-parametric mathematical programming to construct a productivity index, which accounts for productivity changes while controlling for quality of care. Our results show an improvement in hospital performance mainly driven by quality increases. The adoption of management contracts seems to have contributed to such enhancement, more notably for small hospitals. Further, productivity growth is primarily due to technical and scale efficiency change rather than technological change. A number of policy implications are drawn from these results.

  16. Neighborhood socioeconomic context and change in allostatic load among older Puerto Ricans: The Boston Puerto Rican health study.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Marcia P; Osypuk, Theresa L; Arevalo, Sandra; Tucker, Katherine L; Falcon, Luis M

    2015-05-01

    Neighborhood context may influence health and health disparities. However, most studies have been constrained by cross-sectional designs that limit causal inference due to failing to establish temporal order of exposure and disease. We tested the impact of baseline neighborhood context (neighborhood socioeconomic status factor at the block-group level, and relative income of individuals compared to their neighbors) on allostatic load two years later. We leveraged data from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, a prospective cohort of aging Puerto Rican adults (aged 45-75 at baseline), with change in AL modeled between baseline and the 2nd wave of follow-up using two-level hierarchical linear regression models. Puerto Rican adults with higher income, relative to their neighbors, exhibited lower AL after two years, after adjusting for NSES, age, gender, individual-level SES, length of residence, and city. After additional control for baseline AL, this association was attenuated to marginal significance. We found no significant association of NSES with AL. Longitudinal designs are an important tool to understand how neighborhood contexts influence health and health disparities.

  17. Monitoring and evaluation of contracts for health service delivery in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Abramson, W B

    2001-12-01

    The Costa Rican Social Security Fund (CCSS) has been purchasing primary health care services from the Costa Rican Cooperative, COOPESALUD. The CCSS has made significant progress in establishing performance indicators and conducting evaluations of progress against those indicators. After laying out a general framework for developing performance indicators, this paper analyzes the CCSS's evaluation of its 1998 contract with COOPESALUD in terms of objectives, performance indicators, evaluation results, and use of the evaluation results. The objectives of the COOPESALUD contract, as they are stated within the body of the contract, are to increase coverage, improve quality and increase efficiency. Contract performance is measured through three categories of indicators: organization, service delivery and quality. Service delivery targets are set in terms of volume of services based upon geographic population. A 'yes' or a 'no' rating to indicate whether a particular system is in place is used for scoring organization and quality targets. While the CCSS contract is one of the most advanced in the region, many aspects could be improved. By setting indicator targets based upon population estimates, it is difficult for the CCSS to accurately assess COOPESALUD's performance. Although the CCSS conducts periodic evaluations through formal mechanisms, and some data on volume of service delivery are available, the data gathered in all three categories do not provide the purchaser with information directly related to all of the contract objectives nor to contractor performance. The indicators spelled out in the contract, and the evaluation of those indicators, do not seek to measure quantifiable results or impact through numerical data. There are no process or result indicators in place. The evaluation results could therefore tend to be fairly superficial - based upon population coverage and not on effectiveness of treatment, quality of treatment or efficient resource use.

  18. Perspectives of Puerto Rican Adults about Heart Health and a Potential Community Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todorova, Irina L. G.; Tejada, Shirley; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Puerto Ricans are the second largest Hispanic group in the United States, and older adults have significant health disparities. Educational programs that address heart disease risk for this population have rarely been developed and implemented. Purpose: To address this gap, the Heart Healthy Initiative for Puerto Rican adults is being…

  19. Perceptions of Dominican Spanish and Dominican Self-Perception in the Puerto Rican Diaspora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budenbender, Eva-Maria Suarez

    2009-01-01

    The contact between Dominicans and Puerto Ricans is targeted for study as much for its linguistic import as for its social context. Dominican and Puerto Rican Spanish are considered varieties of Caribbean Spanish that differ only by a few phonological and syntactic patterns and a small number of lexical items. Although both varieties are heavily…

  20. Puerto Ricans in Continental United States: A Bibliography, Selected and Annotated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez, Rene

    This annotated bibliography contains approximately 900 citations of material written about Puerto Ricans residing in the mainland United States. Also included is a section listing published bibliographies that cover literature on Puerto Rico and Puerto Ricans. Citations within each section are listed in alphabetical order by author or sponsoring…

  1. The Puerto Ricans--Two Communities, One Culture. (Los Puertorriquenos--Dos Comunidades, Una Cultura.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivo, Paquita

    1980-01-01

    Puerto Rican roots stem from the ethnic mixture of Indians, Europeans, and Africans. This article describes the advent of each of the groups on the island, the historical and cultural impact each made, and the retention of heritage among Puerto Rican migrants to the U.S. (DS)

  2. Childhood Asthma Prevalence among Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans: Implications for Behavioral Intervention Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, A. Magdalena

    1995-01-01

    Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982-84, were used to examine lifetime prevalence (LTP) of childhood asthma among Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans. LTP was related to Puerto Rican ethnicity, birth outside U.S. mainland, low weight for age, male gender, poverty, urban residence, and single parenthood. Implications…

  3. The Puerto Rican Community and Natural Support Systems: Implications for the Education of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Melvin

    This report explores how service providers and educators can better understand, support, and work with Puerto Rican natural support systems through a variety of collaborative strategies. A first section presents a definition of Puerto Rican natural support systems and a discussion of how they are operationalized, and describes the following four…

  4. The Ethnic Queue in the U.S.: The Case of the Puerto Ricans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Clara

    What effects will racial and ethnic discrimination have on Puerto Ricans? Will Puerto Ricans go the route of previous immigrant groups? Or will they be like blacks? What bearings does all this have on other ethnic groups? On blacks? The examination of the historical context begins with a discussion of the origins of ethnic and racial prejudice in…

  5. Co-Evolution in an Outlying Ethnic Community: The Puerto Ricans of Hartford, Connecticut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backstrand, Jeffrey R.; Schensul, Stephen

    1982-01-01

    Utilizing a model of ethnic community/host community co-evolution, describes interactions between the host environment and the Puerto Rican community of Hartford. Proposes a model for understanding smaller Puerto Rican communities--those outside the large urban centers usually studied. (GC)

  6. Puerto Rican Women and Children: Issues in Health, Growth, and Development. Topics in Social Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamberty, Gontran, Ed.; Coll, Cynthia Garcia, Ed.

    Noting that most socioeconomic and demographic indicators are negative for Puerto Rican mothers and children, this book enhances the current knowledge about the growth and development of Puerto Rican mothers and children, and discusses the likely social origins of their suboptimal experiences. Thirteen papers are presented. The opening chapter…

  7. CONSTRUCTION OF A GENERAL GROUP TEST FOR PUERTO RICAN STUDENTS IN THE ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROCA, PABLO

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED TO DEVELOP A GROUP TEST OF GENERAL ABILITY WHICH WILL ACCURATELY ASSESS THE INTELLECTUAL CAPACITIES OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY STUDENTS IN THE PUERTO RICAN SCHOOLS. THE OBJECTIVES WERE--(1) TO DETERMINE WHAT COMMON INTELLECTUAL TASKS INDICATE MENTAL ABILITY IN SPANISH-SPEAKING PUERTO RICAN AND OTHER ENGLISH-SPEAKING AMERICAN…

  8. Puerto Rican Students in U.S. Schools. Sociocultural, Political, and Historical Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Sonia, Ed.

    This collection of papers presents scholarly writings and personal reflections on Puerto Rican students in American schools. Following "Introduction and Overview" (Sonia Nieto), there are 12 chapters in five parts. Part 1, "Historical and Sociopolitical Context," includes: (1) "Puerto Rican Students in U.S. Schools: A Brief History" (Sonia Nieto);…

  9. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among older Puerto Rican adults living in Massachusetts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There remains limited research on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Puerto Rican adults. We compared lifestyle and CVD risk factors in Puerto Rican men and women with normal fasting glucose (NFG), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), or type 2 diabetes (T2D), and investigated achievement of Am...

  10. IQ's of Puerto Rican Head Start Children on the Vane Kindergarten Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, John F.; D'Angelo, Rita

    1971-01-01

    Comparisons between Vane's standardization sample and the Puerto Rican group yielded no significant differences in full scale scores. On the Vocabulary subtest, Puerto Rican subjects earned lower mean scores; on the non-verbal subtests, they scored higher than the normative group. (Author)

  11. 27 CFR 19.415 - Marks on containers of Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits. 19.415 Section 19.415 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... of Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits. (a) Packages from Puerto Rico. When a proprietor receives... from the Virgin Islands. When a proprietor receives packages of Virgin Islands spirits on...

  12. Dominican and Puerto Rican Women in Partnerships and Their Sexual Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Claudia L.; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2007-01-01

    This study compares demographic characteristics, sexual risk factors for HIV/STI, and cultural predictors of sexual risk among 254 Dominican and 1,012 Puerto Rican women using outpatient health care in New York City. More Dominicans were born outside continental United States and were employed, whereas more Puerto Ricans were single and less…

  13. Puerto Rican Migration: The Return Flow = La Migracion Puertorriquena: El Reflujo a la Isla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivo, Paquita, Comp.

    This is a guide to materials and research on Puerto Ricans who have returned to Puerto Rico after living in the United States. Part 1 is an annotated bibliography of books, journal articles, printed documents, doctoral dissertations, master's theses, journalistic accounts, and unpublished papers on characteristics of Puerto Rican return migrants;…

  14. Overlapping Influence and Linguistic Assimilation in Second Generation Puerto Rican English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Walt

    The English spoken by second generation Puerto Ricans in Harlem is influenced by black English heard in the surrounding community, standard English used in the school, and the Spanish-influenced English used by the first generation Puerto Rican community. The study of these influences is conducted according to recently developed sociolinguistic…

  15. What about the Teachers and the Classes? Puerto Rican Students in Chicago Share Their Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Erica R.

    This paper explores Puerto Rican high school students' experiences in the Chicago Public Schools (CPS). Data were collected via individual and group interviews with Puerto Rican students, focusing on the relationships, or lack thereof, among participants and their teachers and counselors and the relevance and/or interest, or lack thereof, of…

  16. The American Pressure Cooker...The Puerto Rican on the Mainland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soy, Rosa H.; Sanchez, Isabel

    The purpose of this essay is to uncover the factors which have so greatly affected the educational and social aspect of the Puerto Rican's life in the New York metropolitan area. It is concluded that school systems are obviously not going to foster disorder or encourage criticism. The initiative is up to the community. The Puerto Rican community…

  17. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  18. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  19. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  20. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  1. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  2. Association between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and bone mineral density in older Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y livi...

  3. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Acculturation and Social Networks in Puerto Rican Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhokarh, Rajanigandha; Himmelgreen, David A.; Peng, Yu-Kuei; Segura-Perez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether acculturation and social networks influence household food insecurity in an inner-city Puerto Rican community. Methods: A survey was administered to 200 low-income female Puerto Rican caregivers with at least 1 child 12-72 months old living in Hartford, CT. Food insecurity was measured with the Radimer/Cornell Hunger…

  4. Longitudinal Development of Antisocial Behaviors in Young and Early Adolescent Puerto Rican Children at Two Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Hector R.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Shen, Sa; Loeber, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This report provides descriptive longitudinal findings over three waves of a study designed to assess the development of antisocial behaviors in young and early adolescent Puerto Rican children at two sites. Method: Through the use of standard assessment measures, representative samples of Puerto Rican children of both genders 5 to 13…

  5. Young Puerto Rican Children's Exploration of Racial Discourses within the Figured Worlds of Literature Circles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castrodad-Rodriguez, Patricia Margarita

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the racial discourses of six and seven year old Puerto Rican children participating in small group literature circles over one academic year. The main research question is "How do Puerto Rican young children in a multiage classroom construct race through dialogue within the figured worlds of literature circles?" This study…

  6. Association between BDNF-rs6265 and obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to examine a functional variant (rs6265) in the BDNF gene interacting with dietary intake modulate obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study population. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Ricans (aged 45-75 years), and examined for association with o...

  7. Home Style Puerto Rican: A Study of Language Maintenance and Use in New England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urzua, Alfredo; Gomez, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    This study explores Spanish language maintenance in Southbridge, Massachusetts, a suburban town with a vibrant Puerto Rican community. The investigation focuses on the extent to which Southbridge Puerto Ricans use Spanish and English at home, and their attitudes toward Spanish language maintenance. Survey data, especially the impact of factors…

  8. Informal Unions among Mainland Puerto Ricans: Cohabitation or an Alternative to Legal Marriage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landale, Nancy S.; Fennelly, Katherine

    1992-01-01

    Examined meaning of informal unions among mainland Puerto Rican women. Compared characteristics of women in informal unions to those of single and married women; assessed whether Puerto Rican women defined their informal unions as nonmarital cohabitation or form of marriage; and examined predictors of women's definitions of informal unions. Found…

  9. Cuento Therapy. Folktales as a Culturally Sensitive Psychotherapy for Puerto Rican Children. Monograph No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantino, Giuseppe; And Others

    A seven-year project developing and testing cuento therapy, a form of child psychotherapy in which Puerto Rican mothers recount to their children folktales taken from Puerto Rican culture, is described and evaluated in this monograph. Chapter 1 explains how the research presented in later chapters fits into substantially broader patterns of…

  10. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rainwater, Thomas R; Wu, Ted H; Finger, Adam G; Cañas, Jaclyn E; Yu, Lu; Reynolds, Kevin D; Coimbatore, Gopal; Barr, Brady; Platt, Steven G; Cobb, George P; Anderson, Todd A; McMurry, Scott T

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n=25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n=6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  11. The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K

    2014-12-01

    Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97 g/100 g; p < 0.05) while Popeye's and KFC had the highest (1.57 g/100 g; p < 0.05). Significant variations in mean salt content were observed between categories. Salads had a mean salt content of 0.45 g/100 g while sauces had 2.16 g/100 g (p < 0.05). Wide variation in salt content was also seen within food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 g/100 g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains.

  12. [Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica, the microcrustacea: Copepoda (Crustacea: Maxillopoda)].

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramírez, A

    2001-12-01

    This report is part of a series that summarizes the species and localities of Costa Rican marine taxa. A review of the literature on copepods, both pelagic and benthic for the Pacific and Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, includes eighty species. Sixty seven pelagic species have been found, distributed between sixteen calanoid, one cyclopoid, three harparticoid and four poecilostomatoid families. Moreover, thirteen benthonic species distributed into six families, all harparticoids, are reported. Among the pelagic families, Pontellidae has six species, while Paracalanidae and Eucalanidae had five each. Other families, like Calanidae, Pseudodiaptomidae and Acartiidae had four species and most families only one. Forty five species are reported only for the Pacific coast, thirteen for the Caribbean coast, only nine species occurred in both coasts; being a direct consequence of the more intensive research effort in the Pacific. Pelagic copepod biodiversity reflects different oceanographic conditions in both coasts. Typical estuarine species were found in the lower region of the Gulf of Nicoya, while a mixture of estuarine and oceanic species were found in Golfo Dulce. Diversity in the Caribbean, specially at the Cahuita coral reef is lower in comparison with the copepod diversity found in other regions in the Caribbean sea. This may be due to the high sediment resuspension rate characteristic of the Cahuita coral reef, which could affect the reproduction of many holozooplankters, specially copepods. Although sixty seven pelagic copepod species appears to be in low numbers, in terms of specific biodiversity it is as high when compared to numbers found in other tropical areas. Thirteen species are reported in the literature, all harparticoids. Five species, three sub-species and one genera were new to science. Balacopsylla is reported for the first time from a neotropical regions, while the genus Karllangia, represented by two coexisting species in the Caribbean coast

  13. Nest guarding from observation blinds: strategy for improving Puerto Rican parrot nest success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of 17 yr of nestguarding from observation blinds for increasing reproductive success of the endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) is described. As personnel and time allowed, active nests were guarded part-time during the nest site exploration and selection s stage of the breeding cycle, and part-time to full-time when a nest contained eggs or chicks. Biologists identified nine categories of threat to the success of parrot nests. Since 1973, a minimum of 20 nests, which otherwise would have failed, successfully produced fledglings as a direct result of nest guarding and intervention. Nest success averaged 66% with nest guarding compared to an estimated 38% without guarding. Nest guarding from blinds can help maintain a wild population of a critically endangered species while other management techniques are being developed to stimulate population growth.

  14. First record of the genus Venanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) in Mesoamerica, with the description of two new species from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Triana, Jose L; Whitfield, James B; Smith, M Alex; Hallwachs, Winnie; Janzen, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    The New World genus Venanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) is a small group of parasitoid wasps that includes two Nearctic and seven Neotropical species. Here two additional species, authored by Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, are described from Costa Rica: V.johnnyrosalesi sp. n. from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) and V.randallgarciai sp. n. from Area de Conservación Cordillera Volcanica Central. They represent the first record of the genus for Mesoamerica. A previous key to all known Venanus (Whitfield et al. 2011) is modified to include the new species. The Costa Rican species were collected at altitudes of 1,400-1,460 m, but nothing is known of their biology. DNA barcodes were obtained for both species and are included as part of the description along with extensive photos. This paper is part of a series inventorying the diversity of Microgastrinae in ACG.

  15. First record of the genus Venanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) in Mesoamerica, with the description of two new species from Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, James B; Smith, M. Alex; Hallwachs, Winnie; Janzen, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The New World genus Venanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) is a small group of parasitoid wasps that includes two Nearctic and seven Neotropical species. Here two additional species, authored by Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, are described from Costa Rica: V. johnnyrosalesi sp. n. from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) and V. randallgarciai sp. n. from Area de Conservación Cordillera Volcanica Central. They represent the first record of the genus for Mesoamerica. A previous key to all known Venanus (Whitfield et al. 2011) is modified to include the new species. The Costa Rican species were collected at altitudes of 1,400–1,460 m, but nothing is known of their biology. DNA barcodes were obtained for both species and are included as part of the description along with extensive photos. This paper is part of a series inventorying the diversity of Microgastrinae in ACG. PMID:25425941

  16. Situation of Drug Information Centers and Services in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Victoria; Gomez, Carolina; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    PAHO establishes guidelines that must be met by drug information centers (DIC) and the drug information services (DIS). Objective To describe the operations, activities, and resources of the DICs and the DISs affiliated with public institutions of Costa Rica, and their adjustment to the provisions set forth by the PAHO. Methods Descriptive study conducted in May 2003. The officers in charge of each of the seven public DICs or DISs in Costa Rica were interviewed, and inquiries were made regarding aspects of the structure and process of their centers. Results In Costa Rica there are seven public drug information units, that is, four DICs and three DISs. One of the DICs is located in this university, and the remaining six centers and services are in located in hospitals. Five of the centers do not have the primary sources required by the PAHO. Fifteen out of the 36 tertiary sources recommended are not available in any of the centers. 100% of the information units carry out four main activities: answering inquiries from the hospital community, answering inquiries from users outside the hospital, implementing education programs for patients and risk groups, and rotation programs for student training. Conclusions The activities developed by the DISs and the DICs in Costa Rica are similar to each other; they respond not only to the PAHO’s guidelines, but they also have similarities with the activities and operations of other DICs worldwide. Primary, secondary, and tertiary bibliographical support must be strengthened. PMID:25246999

  17. [Bacteriological evaluation of goat milk and cheese distributed in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Araya, Viviana; Gallo, Leslie; Quesada, Carlos; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2008-06-01

    In the last years, there has been an increase in the production, industrialization and consumption of goat's milk and derivate products, including cheese, worldwide. Nevertheless, in Costa Rica there is no study of these products, reason why the objective of this work was to determine the microbiological characteristics of goat's milk and fresh cheese distributed in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, in order to evaluate its impact in the economical field and as a potential risk for Public Health. A total of 25 raw goat's milk samples, obtained by manual milking from 5 different producers tested in five different dates and 15 cheese samples, elaborated with pasteurized milk, commercially available and coming from three different producers were analyzed. The study included the analysis of spoilage bacteria (total aeobic count and lactic bacteria count), indicators of hygiene (total coliforms), fecal contamination (fecal coliforms), manipulation (Staphylococcus aureus) and pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp). High results were obtained for the total aerobic count and lactic bacteria count of the milk and cheese samples, showing a reduced shelf life. Total coliforms, in limits beyond the established ones by the Costa Rican legislation for human consumption raw milk, were found in 100% of milk samples, as well as for fecal coliforms in 76% of them. All cheese samples, except one, were negative for these indicators, suggesting good manufacturing practices. S. aureus counts were low and both Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were not isolated from samples analyzed.

  18. Preliminary review of biomass energy options in Costa Rica and the national alcohol fuel program. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.L.

    1981-01-30

    For an agricultural, oil-importing country such as Costa Rica, the use of biomass as a source of transportation fuels is a topic of great interest. This analysis is intended to assist the Costa Rican government and USAID/CR to identify possible biomass energy projects. While emphasis is on technologies for converting biomass into liquid fuels, agronomic issues and alternative energy options are also explored. Costa Rica plans to build six facilities for converting biomass (primarily sugarcane, supplemented by molasses, cassava, and banana wastes) to hydrous ethanol. The following issues relating to biomass conversion technologies are identified: use of hydroelectrically powered drives in sugarcane processing to allow use of bagasse as a fuel; possible sources and costs of energy for converting starch crops like cassava to ethanol; the optimal method for treating stillage; and the feasibility of using fermentation reactors. No definitive recommendation on the scale of ethanol production is made due to the lack of an environmental impact assessment. Finally, with regard to nonalcohol renewable energy, several ideas warrant consideration: electrically powered mass transit; electric cars; vehicle-mounted gasifiers operating on wood chips or pelletized fuels produced from excess bagasse; anaerobic digestion of animal manure and other agricultural wastes; and energy recovery from municipal solid wastes.

  19. Biculturality among Puerto Rican adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cortés, D E; Rogler, L H; Malgady, R G

    1994-10-01

    Identified the concept of acculturation as a cornerstone of immigration research, while questioning assumptions about zero-sum cultural change in acculturation scales and in procedures assessing biculturality. Involvements in the host society culture and the culture of origin should be assessed separately in order to reflect the complexities of the cultural interactions immigrants and their offspring experience. To evaluate this prescription, we convened focus groups of Puerto Rican adults to discuss their cultural experiences in Puerto Rico and in the United States. Discussions were content analyzed to develop acculturation items. Factor analysis of the responses of 403 first- and second-generation adults yielded two general factors, involvement in American culture and involvement in Puerto Rican culture, which demonstrated modest reliability, relative independence, and moderate correlations with traditional acculturation scale validators. Results of the study challenge the assumption of mutual cultural exclusivity in acculturative change; enable the measurement of degree of biculturality; and provide future directions for the assessment of acculturation in domains other than language usage. The concept of acculturation is integrated with recent formulations in community psychology which advocate a deeper and more extensive commitment to studying the implications of cultural phenomena and greater focus on the growing cultural diversity in the United States.

  20. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Acculturation Stress Among Puerto Rican Substance Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Kevin P.; Swendsen, Joel D.; Dierker, Lisa; Canino, Glorisa; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2007-01-01

    Background Although acculturation to the United States has been associated with an increase in substance, mood, and anxiety disorders in Latino populations, few studies have examined this concept relative to comorbidity among these syndromes. Methods This study: (1) compares the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among Puerto Ricans with substance use disorders living in San Juan (Puerto Rico) to those who have migrated to New Haven (Connecticut); and (2) examines the association between acculturation-related stress and the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among those who have migrated to New Haven. Results Lifetime levels of nearly all comorbid psychiatric disorders among respondents with substance use disorders (SUD) was generally similar across sites. However, the risk of any co-occurring psychiatric disorder was higher among SUD cases in New Haven who reported high levels of total acculturation stress and family-specific acculturation stress. These findings were generally accounted for by associations between affective disorders and high scores on these indicators of acculturation stress. Conclusions The overall prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity are remarkably similar among Puerto Rican substance abusers whether they live in San Juan or have migrated to New Haven, thereby demonstrating robustness to differences in geographic location. Nevertheless, the degree of acculturation-related family stress is positively associated with co-occurring substance and psychiatric disorders, particularly affective disorders. Intervention in family strain related to the acculturation process may diminish the development of comorbid mental disorders and assist in implementing successful treatment of substance abuse. PMID:17543714

  1. The Neuropsychological Performance of Nondemented Puerto Rican Nonagenarians

    PubMed Central

    Carrión-Baralt, José R.; Meléndez-Cabrero, Josefina; Schnaider Beeri, Michal; Sano, Mary; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims While the oldest old are the fastest growing segment of the US population, normative neuropsychological data for nondemented oldest old Spanish speakers are nonexistent. This study sought to evaluate the neuropsychological performance of nondemented nonagenarians residing in Puerto Rico and to compare their results with those of a similar English-speaking sample from New York. Methods We studied 81 subjects who had a complete CERAD neuropsychological assessment in Spanish. We used multiple regression analysis to predict performance on the CERAD battery and ANCOVA to compare the Puerto Rico and New York samples. Results In 10 out of the 13 neuropsychological tests administered, education was a significant predictor of performance. There were significant differences between the Puerto Rico and New York groups only in the Trail Making Tests. Conclusions In this Puerto Rican sample, education was the strongest predictor of neuropsychological performance, which is consistent with previous studies. When education level is properly accounted for, the performance of Puerto Rican nonagenarians in the CERAD battery does not differ from the performance of US English-speaking nonagenarians. PMID:19293568

  2. Checklist and identification key of Anomalini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae) of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Filippini, Valentina; Micó, Estefanía; Galante, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A checklist and identification key for the species of the tribe Anomalini in Costa Rica are presented. The Anomalini species are important economically, as they have larvae that are or can become agricultural pests, as well as ecologically, having potential as bioindicators. In spite of their importance and richness, identification tools for the group in the Neotropics remain scarce. The Costa Rican fauna comprises six genera (Anomala, Anomalorhina, Callistethus, Epectinaspis, Moroniella, and Strigoderma) and a total of 120 species. Anomala contusa Filippini, Micó, Galante, 2015 is proposed as a synonym of Anomala inbio (Ramírez-Ponce, Bitar, Curoe 2014); Anomala limon nom. n. is proposed as a new name for Anomala inbio Filippini, Galante, Micó, 2015, a homonym of Anomala inbio (Ramírez-Ponce, Bitar, Curoe, 2014); Anomala cinaedias nom. n. is proposed as a new name for Anomala chloropyga Ohaus, 1897, a homonym of Anomala chloropyga Burmeister, 1844; and Anomala chrysomelina is moved to the genus Callistethus. PMID:27833420

  3. Molecular characterization and genetic diversity of Jatropha curcas L. in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Mayorga, Marcela; Fuchs, Eric J; Hernández, Eduardo J; Herrera, Franklin; Hernández, Jesús; Moreira, Ileana; Arnáez, Elizabeth; Barboza, Natalia M

    2017-01-01

    We estimated the genetic diversity of 50 Jatropha curcas samples from the Costa Rican germplasm bank using 18 EST-SSR, one G-SSR and nrDNA-ITS markers. We also evaluated the phylogenetic relationships among samples using nuclear ribosomal ITS markers. Non-toxicity was evaluated using G-SSRs and SCARs markers. A Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree and a Maximum Likelihood (ML) tree were constructed using SSR markers and ITS sequences, respectively. Heterozygosity was moderate (He = 0.346), but considerable compared to worldwide values for J. curcas. The PIC (PIC = 0.274) and inbreeding coefficient (f =  - 0.102) were both low. Clustering was not related to the geographical origin of accessions. International accessions clustered independently of collection sites, suggesting a lack of genetic structure, probably due to the wide distribution of this crop and ample gene flow. Molecular markers identified only one non-toxic accession (JCCR-24) from Mexico. This work is part of a countrywide effort to characterize the genetic diversity of the Jatropha curcas germplasm bank in Costa Rica.

  4. Molecular characterization and genetic diversity of Jatropha curcas L. in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Mayorga, Marcela; Fuchs, Eric J.; Hernández, Eduardo J.; Herrera, Franklin; Hernández, Jesús; Moreira, Ileana; Arnáez, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    We estimated the genetic diversity of 50 Jatropha curcas samples from the Costa Rican germplasm bank using 18 EST-SSR, one G-SSR and nrDNA-ITS markers. We also evaluated the phylogenetic relationships among samples using nuclear ribosomal ITS markers. Non-toxicity was evaluated using G-SSRs and SCARs markers. A Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree and a Maximum Likelihood (ML) tree were constructed using SSR markers and ITS sequences, respectively. Heterozygosity was moderate (He = 0.346), but considerable compared to worldwide values for J. curcas. The PIC (PIC = 0.274) and inbreeding coefficient (f =  − 0.102) were both low. Clustering was not related to the geographical origin of accessions. International accessions clustered independently of collection sites, suggesting a lack of genetic structure, probably due to the wide distribution of this crop and ample gene flow. Molecular markers identified only one non-toxic accession (JCCR-24) from Mexico. This work is part of a countrywide effort to characterize the genetic diversity of the Jatropha curcas germplasm bank in Costa Rica. PMID:28289556

  5. The impact of hospital management reforms on absenteeism in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    García-Prado, Ariadna; Chawla, Mukesh

    2006-03-01

    The reduction of high levels of absenteeism among health care workers was one the objectives of the reforms undertaken to improve public hospital performance during the 1990s in Costa Rica. This paper attempts to assess the impact of changes in reimbursement methods and organizational reform on absence rates among health care personnel in Costa Rican public hospitals for the period 1995-2001. Our results show the reforms to have had a negative impact on absenteeism, which increased throughout the considered period. Results further indicate that the policy of not substituting absentee workers, which was introduced through the reforms, did not work as expected in a permissive environment in which peer pressure mechanisms were lacking. In addition, the explicit incentives for workers included in the reforms were retained and used at facility level. There is a pressing need in the future for control and disciplinary mechanisms for health care personnel and for the introduction of absence rates as an explicit goal to be monitored and evaluated.

  6. Gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasites of Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni sloths in captivity from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sibaja-Morales, Karen D; de Oliveira, Jaqueline B; Jiménez Rocha, Ana E; Hernández Gamboa, Jorge; Prendas Gamboa, Jorge; Arroyo Murillo, Francisco; Sandí, Janet; Nuñez, Yessenia; Baldi, Mario

    2009-03-01

    Sloths may serve as host to a wide range of parasites. However, there is little information available on the types of parasites that affect Costa Rica's sloth population. During a 1-yr period, 65 specimens of Costa Rican sloth species (Choloepus hoffmanni; n = 56) and Bradypus variegates; n = 9) from a local zoo were sampled. Fecal samples were evaluated using two different diagnostic techniques, Sheather's flotation and sedimentation. Concurrently, these sloths were examined for ectoparasites. Gastrointestinal parasites were found in 14 sloths (21.5%), from which 13 animals were C. hoffmanni and one was B. variegatus. Gastrointestinal parasites were recognized as Coccidia 71.4% (10/14), Cestoda 21.4% (3/14), and Spiruroidea 7.1% (1/14). Coccidia and cestodes were seen in C. hoffmanni, and spirurids were identified in B. variegatus. Among 27 sloths examined, only six had dermal problems (five C. hoffmanni and two B. variegatus). Ectoparasites recovered were Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari, Sarcoptidae) mites and Amblyomma varium (Acari, Ixodidae) ticks. This is the first time that cestode strobilae and nematode eggs are reported in sloth feces and that Monezia benedeni and L. leptocephalus were found in captive sloths.

  7. The Nicoya region of Costa Rica: a high longevity island for elderly males

    PubMed Central

    Dow, William H.; Rehkopf, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable data show that the Nicoyan region of Costa Rica is a hot spot of high longevity. A survival follow-up of 16,300 elderly Costa Ricans estimated a Nicoya death rate ratio (DRR) for males 1990–2011 of 0.80 (0.69–0.93 CI). For a 60-year-old Nicoyan male, the probability of becoming centenarian is seven times that of a Japanese male, and his life expectancy is 2.2 years greater. This Nicoya advantage does not occur in females, is independent of socio-economic conditions, disappears in out-migrants and comes from lower cardiovascular (CV) mortality (DRR = 0.65). Nicoyans have lower levels of biomarkers of CV risk; they are also leaner, taller and suffer fewer disabilities. Two markers of ageing and stress—telomere length and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate—are also more favourable. The Nicoya diet is prosaic and abundant in traditional foods like rice, beans and animal protein, with low glycemic index and high fibre content. PMID:25426140

  8. Evaluation model for developing, implementing, and assessing conservation education programs: Examples from Belize and Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Susan K.

    1991-03-01

    Evaluation of conservation education programs can: (1) provide accountability in demonstrating a program's worth, (2) offer an opportunity for receiving feedback and improving programs, (3) further our understanding of the process of program development, and (4) promote conservation education by substantiating claims about its benefits. The Planning-Process-Product systems evaluation model provides feedback needed for making decisions about the development, implementation, and outcome of a program. Planning evaluation was useful in assessing the needs, goals, opportunities, and constraints of a number of programs in Costa Rica and Belize, such as a forestry education project and a zoo outreach program. It provided a basis for making planning decisions incorporating specific objectives, such as the reforestation of a region or a change in knowledge and attitudes in program participants. Process evaluation provided a Costa Rican sustainable development program with feedback during its implementation and enabled it to modify and improve its newsletter for local farmers and its ecology classes for school children. Product evaluation assessed project accomplishments, such as the 700,000 raised by the Children's Rainforest group and the 20 miles of riparian land under conservation management as part of the Belize Community Baboon Sanctuary project. Outcomes are compared with the programs original monetary or land management objectives to determine the success of the programs and to provide feedback for improvement.

  9. Metabolic control in a nationally representative diabetic elderly sample in Costa Rica: patients at community health centers vs. patients at other health care settings

    PubMed Central

    Brenes-Camacho, Gilbert; Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Background Costa Rica, like other developing countries, is experiencing an increasing burden of chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus (DM), especially among its elderly population. This article has two goals: (1) to assess the level of metabolic control among the diabetic population age ≥ 60 years old in Costa Rica, and (2) to test whether diabetic elderly patients of community health centers differ from patients in other health care settings in terms of the level of metabolic control. Methods Data come from the project CRELES, a nationally representative study of people aged 60 and over in Costa Rica. This article analyzes a subsample of 542 participants in CRELES with self-reported diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Odds ratios of poor levels of metabolic control at different health care settings are computed using logistic regressions. Results Lack of metabolic control among elderly diabetic population in Costa Rica is described as follows: 37% have glycated hemoglobin ≥ 7%; 78% have systolic blood pressure ≥ 130 mmHg; 66% have diastolic blood pressure ≥ 80 mmHg; 48% have triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl; 78% have LDL ≥ 100 mg/dl; 70% have HDL ≤ 40 mg/dl. Elevated levels of triglycerides and LDL were higher in patients of community health centers than in patients of other clinical settings. There were no statistical differences in the other metabolic control indicators across health care settings. Conclusion Levels of metabolic control among elderly population with DM in Costa Rica are not that different from those observed in industrialized countries. Elevated levels of triglycerides and LDL at community health centers may indicate problems of dyslipidemia treatment among diabetic patients; these problems are not observed in other health care settings. The Costa Rican health care system should address this problem, given that community health centers constitute a means of democratizing access to primary health care to underserved and poor areas. PMID

  10. Breast Cancer Characteristics and Survival in a Hispanic Population of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Srur-Rivero, Nadia; Cartin-Brenes, Mayra

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Breast cancer characteristics may vary according to the patient’s ethnic group. The goal of this cohort study was to evaluate the characteristics of a group of Costa Rican breast cancer patients and their relationship with survival. METHODS Age, stage, tumor grade, immunohistochemistry, lymphovascular invasion, recurrence, and survival data on 199 Hispanic patients with breast cancer diagnosis, treated between January 2009 and May 2010, were collected from a single institution in San Jose, Costa Rica. The data were statistically analyzed for significance. RESULTS Median age at diagnosis was 53 years. With a median follow-up of 46.5 months, there was an 88% overall survival rate. Thirty-seven percent of the patients (p < 0.001) were at stages III and IV during diagnosis. The hormone receptor human epidermal receptor negative phenotype (HR−HER2−) (p < 0.001) was present in 17% of the cases. In a multivariate analysis, local (risk ratio, RR: 7.2; confidence interval, CI 95%: 3.8–7.6; p = 0.06) and distant recurrence (RR: 14.9; CI 95%: 7.7–28.9; p = 0.01) showed the strongest association with the probability of death from the disease. Patients with HR−HER2− phenotype tumors reported more local recurrences (p = 0.04), a higher tumor grade (p < 0.01), and lower overall survival than patients with other breast cancer phenotypes (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Although this study analyzes a modest number of cases, it is an initial insight into factors that may contribute to differences in breast cancer outcomes among Hispanic women in Costa Rica. The higher proportion of triple negative tumors, advanced stage, and younger median age at diagnosis could contribute to the inferior prognostic described among Hispanic women. There may be a different distribution of tumor subtypes compared to non-Hispanic white women. Further studies are necessary to confirm such findings. PMID:25125980

  11. Southern Costa Rica: an Island-arc Segment That Behaves Like a Doubly Vergent Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, C.; Winsemann, J.

    2007-12-01

    Southern Central America is a Mesosoic/Cenozoic island-arc that evolved from the subduction of the Farallón Plate below the Caribbean Plate. The southern Costa Rican land-bridge comprises deformed fore-arc and back-arc basins in the west and east, respectively, separated by the up to 3.8 km high Talamanca Range. The structure of the southern Central American island-arc is similar to doubly vergent and asymmetric orogens. The deformed fore-arc basin in the west and the Limon fold-and-thrust belt in the east can be interpreted as pro-wedge and retro-wedge, respectively. The Talamanca Range represents the uplifted block in between. The pro-wedge is wider and has a lower slope angle than the retro-wedge. The uplift of the Talamanca Range is probably related to a system of conjugate shear zones. Precipitation is unevenly distributed, with orographic effects concentrating precipitation in SW Costa Rica, which has caused pro-wedge denudation, leading to exhumation of granitic rocks at in the interior of the mountain range. The large-scale structure of the Central American island-arc in southern Costa Rica can be described using models of continental collision zones. Previous studies attributed the deformation and uplift pattern to the subduction/collision of the Cocos Ridge. Another reasonable driving mechanism for the evolution of such an orogen in an oceanic island-arc setting is the basal traction due to long-term subduction of the Cocos Plate at a very low angle.

  12. Development of the Inventario de Comportamiento Escolar (IDCE) for Puerto Rican Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The "Inventario de Comportamiento Escolar" is a teacher rating inventory for the assessment of Puerto Rican children, particularly those with a behavior pattern indicative of attention deficit disorder, learning disabilities, or academic underachievement. (JHZ)

  13. Comparison of Bender-Gestalt and WISC Correlations for Puerto Rican, White and Negro Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmorale, Ann M.; Brown, Fred

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated whether a positive relationship between Bender-Gestalt performance and intelligence test scores would be found for Puerto Rican children and, as well, the generalizability of previous results obtained with Negro children. (Author/RK)

  14. Performance of Negro and Puerto Rican Head Start Children on the Vane Kindergarten Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, John F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    The data of the present study supplement those given by Vane and also provide a context in which to assess the differential abilities of Negro and Puerto Rican Head Start Children on verbal and performance tasks. (Author)

  15. Family life among mainland Puerto Ricans in New York City slums.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Rohde, I

    1976-01-01

    Puerto Rican families who migrated to New York City in the 1950s are threatened by a system of impersonal relationships and norms which are at odds with their traditional values. Puerto Rican families have a tendency to have many children. A woman must have a child as soon as possible after marriage to show the community and her husband that she is fertile. They are forbidden by their husbands to use contraceptives, and most Puerto Rican men refuse to use contraceptives because of a machismo complex. Many of the women resort to sterilization. Common-law marriages are found frequently among the lower socioeconomic families. Mainland Puerto Rican families find problems trying to raise girls as virgins and boys with sexual freedom. The daughters want to adopt the dominant pattern of mainland society.

  16. Seismic refraction studies of volcanic crust in Costa Rica and of critical zones in the southern Sierra Nevada, California and Laramie Range, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Jorden L.

    This work demonstrates the utility of seismic refraction surveys to understanding geologic processes at a range of scales. Each chapter presents subsurface maps of seismic p-wave velocities, which vary due to contrasts in elastic material properties. In the following chapters we examine seismic p-wave velocity variations that result from volcanic and tectonic processes within Earth's crust and chemical and physical weathering processes within Earth's near-surface environment. Chapter one presents results from an across-arc wide-angle seismic refraction survey of the Costa Rican volcanic front. These results support the hypothesis that juvenile continental crust may form along volcanic island arcs if built upon relatively thick substrates (i.e., large igneous provinces). Comparisons of velocity-depth functions show that velocities within the active arc of Costa Rica are lower than other modern island arcs (i.e., volcanic arcs built upon oceanic crust) and within the high-velocity extreme of bulk continental crust. Chapter two shows that physical processes can dominate over chemical processes in generating porosity in the deep critical zone and outlines a new framework for interpreting subsurface chemical and physical weathering at the landscape scale. Direct measurements of saprolite from boreholes at the Southern Sierra Nevada Critical Zone Observatory show that, contrary to convention, saprolite may experience high levels of volumetric strain (>35%) and uniform mass loss in the upper 11 m. By combining observations from boreholes and seismic refraction surveys we create a map of volumetric strain across the landscape. Variations in inferred volumetric strain are consistent with opening-mode fracture patterns predicted by topographic and tectonic stress models. Chapter three is a characterization of fracture distribution in the deep critical zone from geophysical and borehole observations in the Laramie Mountains, Wyoming. Data from core and down-hole acoustic

  17. Organochlorine chemicals and neurodegeneration among elderly subjects in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Mora, A.M.; Barr, D.B.; Juncos, J.; Roman, N.; Wesseling, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background We previously screened 400 elderly Costa Ricans for neurodegenerative disease. Those reporting occupational pesticide exposure (18%) had an increased Parkinson’s disease (PD) risk (OR 2.57, 95% CI 0.91–7.26), and worse cognition (Mini-Mental States Exam (MMSE) 24.5 versus 25.9 points, p=0.01). We subsequently measured long-lasting organochlorine pesticides (β-HCH, DDE, DDT, and dieldrin) in a sub-sample (n=89). Dieldrin and β-HCH have been linked to PD, and DDE to Alzheimer’s disease. Methods We ran regression models for MMSE and tremor-at-rest to assess associations with pesticides in 89 subjects. Results The percent of β-HCH, DDE, DDT (parent compound for DDE), and dieldrin above their limit of detection (LOD) were 100%, 93%, 75%, and 57%, respectively. Tremor-at-rest was found in 21 subjects, and the mean MMSE was 25. Those who reported occupational pesticide exposure (n=36) had more detectable dieldrin samples (p=0.005), and higher mean levels of dieldrin (p=0.01), than those not reporting exposure. Other pesticides did not differ between those with and without self-reported occupational exposure. There was a positive but non-significant trend of higher risk for tremor-at-rest with higher dieldrin (p=0.10 for linear trend). Neither DDE nor DDT showed a relationship with MMSE. However, after excluding two outliers with the lowest MMSE scores, higher DDT levels showed some modest association with lower MMSE (p=0.09 for linear trend). Conclusions Our data are limited by small sample size. However, dieldrin was high in our population, has been previously linked to PD, and could be partly responsible for the excess PD risk seen in our population. PMID:25173053

  18. Masculinity and gender roles among Puerto Rican men: machismo on the U.S. mainland.

    PubMed

    Torres, J B

    1998-01-01

    The literature on masculinity and gender roles in American life has mostly over-looked Latino men, or has stereotyped them by means of a distorted concept of machismo. A reconceptualization of masculinity and machismo among Puerto Rican men is presented, based on a multidimensional view of their historical and current sociocultural reality. Relevant clinical and social services for Puerto Rican men are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.

  19. [Costa acro-kerato-elastoidosis].

    PubMed

    Boudghène-Stambouli, O; Merad-Boudia, A; Benkalfat, M R; Khedim, A

    1993-01-01

    We report 2 cases of acrokeratoelastoidosis of Costa observed in two sisters born of unaffected first cousins. The lesions were lenticular papules, either white or of normal skin colour, which were isolated or arranged in groups of plaques crossed by the natural furrows and located on the thenar eminences, the lateral edges of the hands and fingers and the back of the interphalangeal joints. On the feet, the lesions, located on the lateral edges, the plantar arch and the heel, were much more keratotic and appeared to be translucent. Hyperhidrosis was noted in only one of the two patients. Histological examination showed, beneath an acanthotic and hyperkeratotic epidermis, a reduced elastic network with shorter and thinner fibres in the middle dermis. These are two typical but rough cases of acrokeratoelastoidosis of Costa. The mode of transmission of this disease (autosomal recessive?) seems to be unusual compared with the data found in the literature (dominant, or sporadic cases).

  20. Proposed Expansion of Acme Landfill Operations, Contra Costa, County, California. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    for example, plastic beverage bottles, cardboard, wood, yardwastes, textiles , rubber, and leather. In addition to traditional activities, a central...a 6000-foot-long dredged channel. The 200-acre parcel is crossed with a number of drainage ditches, constructed by the Contra Costa Mosquito ...incoming flow at the high tide. It is the only point of discharge for flood water and is maintained by the Contra Costa Mosquito Abatement District

  1. Fungal Exposure, Atopy, and Asthma Exacerbations in Puerto Rican Children

    PubMed Central

    Blatter, Joshua; Forno, Erick; Brehm, John; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Alvarez, María; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Thorne, Peter S.; Metwali, Nervana; Canino, Glorisa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Glucan is a component of the fungal cell wall that is used as a marker of fungal exposure. Little is known about indoor glucan, atopy, and asthma exacerbations among children living in tropical environments such as Puerto Rico. Our objective was to examine whether glucan exposure is associated with degree of atopy or visits to the emergency department (ED)/urgent care for asthma in Puerto Rican children. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 317 children aged 6 to 14 years with (cases, n = 160) and without (control subjects, n = 157) asthma in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Our primary outcomes were the number of positive skin tests to allergens (range, 0–15) and (in cases only) having had at least one visit to the ED/urgent care for asthma in the prior year. Levels of glucan, endotoxin, peptidoglycan, and five allergens (Der p 1, Bla g 2, Fel d 1, Can f 1, and Mus m 1) were measured in samples of house dust. Linear or logistic regression was used for the multivariate analysis. Measurements and Main Results: In a multivariate analysis adjusting for case-control status, mouse allergen, and other covariates, children exposed to glucan levels in the second and third quartiles had approximately two more positive skin tests than those in the lowest quartile (P < 0.01 in both instances). Among children with asthma, exposure to the highest quartile of glucan was associated with nearly ninefold greater odds of one or more visits to the ED/urgent care for asthma (95% confidence interval for adjusted odds ratio, 2.7–28.4; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Our results suggest that indoor fungal exposure leads to an increased degree of atopy and visits to the ED/urgent care for asthma in Puerto Rican children. PMID:24915164

  2. Parental psychosocial stress and asthma morbidity in Puerto Rican twins

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Nancy E.; Bunyavanich, Supinda; Silberg, Judy L.; Canino, Glorisa; Rosner, Bernard A.; Celedón, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about paternal psychosocial factors and childhood asthma. Objective To examine the link between maternal and paternal psychosocial stress and asthma outcomes in young children. Methods Parents of 339 pairs of Puerto Rican twins were interviewed individually about their own psychosocial stress and about asthma in their children at age 1 and again about their child’s asthma at age 3. Fathers were asked about symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anti-social behavior. Mothers were asked about depressive symptoms. Outcomes assessed in children included recent asthma symptoms, oral steroid use and hospitalizations for asthma in the prior year, and asthma diagnosis. Generalized estimated equation models were used for the multivariate analysis of parental psychosocial stress and asthma morbidity in childhood. Results After multivariable adjustment, paternal PTSD symptoms, depression, and anti-social behavior were each associated with increased asthma symptoms at age 1 (e.g., OR =1.08 for each 1-point increase in PTSD score, 95% CI=1.03–1.14). Maternal depressive symptoms were associated with an increased risk of asthma hospitalizations at age 1 year. At age 3 years, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with asthma diagnosis and hospitalizations for asthma (OR for each 1-point increase in symptoms=1.16, 95% CI=1.00–1.36]). In an analysis combining 1 and 3 year outcomes, paternal depression was associated with oral steroid use, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with asthma hospitalizations and asthma diagnosis, and parental depression was associated with hospitalizations for asthma. Conclusions Both paternal and maternal psychosocial factors may influence asthma morbidity in young Puerto Rican children. PMID:21194742

  3. Thirteen new Costa Rican species belonging to the genus Triraphis Ruthe (Braconidae: Rogadinae) with their host records.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Alejandro A; Shaw, Scott R

    2015-01-08

    Thirteen new species belonging to the genus Triraphis Ruthe are described and illustrated: Triraphis baios sp. nov., T. balteus sp. nov., T. chinusi sp. nov., T. cortazari sp. nov., T. defectus sp. nov., T. guarusa sp. nov., T. huidobroi sp. nov., T. ikelosops sp. nov., T. melasops sp. nov., T. paraholos sp. nov., T. proxilus sp. nov., T. simphlex sp. nov. and T. willei sp. nov. The lepidopteran hosts were feeding on 17 genera of plants within 16 families. Two families of Lepidoptera are reported as new hosts for Triraphis: Acraga sp. (Dalceridae) parasitized by T. paraholos sp. nov. and Norape sp. (Megalopygidae) by T. guarusa sp. nov. Moreover, four Triraphis species are treated as new combinations under the genus Triraphis sensu van Achterberg: Triraphis areatus (Cresson) comb. n., T. fasciipennis (Cresson) comb. n., T. fusciceps (Cresson) comb. n. and T. ornatus (Cresson) comb. n.. 

  4. Simulation of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emissions from tropical primary forests in the Costa Rican Atlantic Zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Shu-Guang; Reiners, William A.; Keller, Michael; Schimel, Davis S.

    2000-01-01

    WFPS is the dominant determinant of the fraction of gross N mineralization that is emitted from the soil as N2O and NO. If WFPS were not limiting during part of the year, this fraction would be 4.2%. With some periods of lower WFPS, the realized fraction is 2.2%. Because of the strong relationships between N2O and NO emission rates and rainfall and its derivative, WFPS, these moisture variables can be used to scale up nitrogen trace gas fluxes from sites to larger spatial scales.

  5. Catalog of crater lakes from Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, C. J.; Mora-Amador, R.; González, G.

    2010-12-01

    Costa Rica has a diversity of volcanic crater lakes that can be classified into two groups: hot and cold lakes. The country contains at least 5% of the world's hot lakes. Costa Rica has 2 hot hyperacidic lakes, both of them on active volcanoes, the Rincón de la Vieja (38.0°C, pH = 0 - 1) and the Poás Laguna Caliente (36.1°C - 56°C, pH = 0.55 - 0.74), nowadays the Poás hot lake is the most active crater lake in the world, with more than 200 eruptions only on 2010. One of the most studied cold crater lakes is Irazú (13°C, pH = 3.5), that used to contain bubbling and clear areas of upwelling involving CO2 liberation and subaqueous fumaroles with temperatures up to 50°C, but since 2005 the lake presents an important descend until April 2010 when it disappeared. On February 9, 2003, Irazú's lake underwent a drastic change of color, from clear green to mustard with reddish loops, similar to the color of the waters of Lake Nyos after the gas burst of August 1986. Other studied cold lakes include Botos, Chato, and Tenorio, all at the summit of Quaternary volcanoes as well as Barva and Danta, located in recent pyroclastic cones. Some cold lakes are located in Holocene maar-type explosion craters, among them are Congo, Bosque Alegre, Hule, and Río Cuarto. These last two have undergone repeated rapid reddish color changes over the last 10 years, in association with fish kills and the liberation of apparently sulfurous scents. On March 2010, University of Costa Rica was the host of the 7th Workshop on Volcanic Lakes, part of the Commission of Volcanic Lakes of the IAVCEI, 51 participants from 14 countries attended the workshop; they presented 27 talks and 17 posters, also they visited and sample 4 of the lakes mentioned above (Botos, Irazú, Río Cuarto and Hule). Level of Study: 1: few or no data, 2: regular, 3: acceptable

  6. Translating research into action: a case study on trans fatty acid research and nutrition policy in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Lindsay, Ana C; Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Greaney, Mary L; Campos, Hannia; Peterson, Karen E

    2007-11-01

    Mounting epidemiologic evidence worldwide has fostered policy regulation of industrially made trans fatty acids (TFA) in several developed countries. Despite country-specific evidence about the effects of TFA on cardiovascular disease in Costa Rica, policy regulation has yet to occur. This qualitative study uses a conceptual framework to identify factors that may impede or promote the process of translation of scientific evidence about TFA into policy in the specific context of Costa Rica. We used single case-study methodology to integrate two sources of data: review of relevant internal documents and in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 21 respondents purposively sampled from three sectors: the cooking oil and food industries, research and academia, and government entities. Content analysis, guided by a conceptual framework of research utilization, revealed 68 emergent themes divided across four categories of analysis. In brief, study participants perceived the political context suitable for discussing policies related to healthy fats. Nevertheless, TFA regulation was not part of the Costa Rican political agenda. Barriers perceived by respondents that impede knowledge translation included: (1) lack of awareness of in-country scientific studies on health effects of TFA; (2) lack of consensus or information about policy options (nutrition labelling, dietary guidelines, legislative mandates); (3) perceived distrust and disparate attitudes between sectors, believed by study participants to result in (4) limited collaboration across sectors. Commissioned task forces and other mechanisms to foster research engagement and facilitate sustained interaction and systematic collaboration among government, food industry and researcher sectors appear crucial in the consideration and adoption of nutrition policy in Costa Rica and other emerging economies.

  7. [The bathymetry of Coco's Island, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Lizano, O G

    2001-12-01

    The bathymetry of Coco's Island (UNESCO Natural and Cultural World Patrimony), located approximately 500 km from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, is not well known. It has a high marine biodiversity and also represents a meeting site for many species traveling throughout the Pacific Ocean. The insular shelf is irregular in extension and also in bathymetric features. The northeast limit is defined by the 109.8-128.1 m contours (60-70 fathoms) while the 183 m contour (100 fathoms) practically defines the rest of the island, from which the depth gradient is steep. The maximum extension is to the northeast with a longitude of 13 km. In this context the present limits of the marine park (5 km), are insufficient to protect the whole insular shelf. Current regulation should be modified to prevent fishing activities less than 15 km from the Island.

  8. The Puerto Rican parrot reintroduction program: sustainable management of the aviary population.

    PubMed

    Earnhardt, Joanne; Vélez-Valentín, Jafet; Valentin, Ricardo; Long, Sarah; Lynch, Colleen; Schowe, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The cornerstone of the recovery plan for the critically endangered Puerto Rican parrot (Amazona vitatta) is an actively managed, long-term reintroduction program. One captive population distributed across two aviaries in Puerto Rico is the sole source for release but its ability to persist as a managed resource has not been evaluated since 1989. We conducted an assessment for sustainable management of the aviary population while harvesting for release. To assess demographic rates such as population growth, vital rates, and age/sex structure, we compiled a studbook database on all living, dead, and released individuals in the aviary population. Using an individual-based risk assessment model we applied population specific data based on the management period from 1993 to 2012 to simulate future aviary population dynamics and evaluate future potential production. We modeled four potential management strategies to harvest parrots for proposed releases; these scenarios vary the number of parrots and the life stage. Our simulations revealed that the aviary population can be simultaneously managed for sustainability and harvesting of parrots for release. However, without cautious management, overharvesting can jeopardize sustainability of the aviary population. Our analysis of the aviary breeding program provides a rare opportunity to review progress relative to conservation program objectives after four decades of active management. The successful growth of the aviary population and its ability to serve as a sustainable source for reintroductions supports the 1973 decision to build a breeding program from a small population of 13 parrots.

  9. The peats of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Obando A, L.; Malavassi R, L.; Ramirez E, O. ); Cohen, A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Raymond, R. Jr.; Thayer, G.R. )

    1991-04-01

    The objectives of this investigation were: (1) to locate potential peat deposits in Costa Rica; (2) to estimate as closely as possible by representative sampling the amount of peat present in each deposit, and (3) to make a preliminary evaluation of the quality of the peat in each deposit. With information from soil maps and a 3-week survey of Costa Rica, it is estimated that a potential area of about 1000 km{sup 2} is covered by peat. Most of the peat area (about 830 km{sup 2}) is in northeastern Costa Rica in the Tortuguero area. An aerial survey identified the potential peat areas by the exclusive presence of the Yolillo palm. The next largest potential area of peat (about 175 km{sup 2}) is in the cloud-covered areas of the Talamanca Mountains. Some reconnaissance has been done in the Talamanca Mountains, and samples of the peat indicate that it is very similar to the sphagnum peat moss found in Canada and the northern US. Smaller bogs have been discovered at Medio Queso, El Cairo, Moin, and the Limon airport. Two bogs of immediate interest are Medio Queso and El Cairo. The Medio Queso bog has been extensively sampled and contains about 182,000 metric tons (dry) of highly decomposed peat, which is being used as a carrier for nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The El Cairo bog is sparsely sampled and contains about 1,300,000 metric tons of slightly decomposed dry peat. Plans are to use this peat in horticultural applications on nearby farms. 10 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Puerto Ricans and Higher Education Policies. Volume 1: Issues of Scholarship, Fiscal Policies and Admissions. Higher Education Task Force Discussion Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Camille, Ed.; Bosque-Perez, Ramon, Ed.

    This volume explores issues of scholarship, fiscal policies, and admissions in the higher education of Puerto Ricans, with the emphasis on Puerto Ricans on the U.S. mainland and a particular focus on Puerto Rican admissions to the City University of New York. The first paper, "The Centro's Models of Scholarship: Present Challenges to Twenty…

  11. A New Destination for "The Flying Bus"?: The Implications of Orlando-Rican Migration for Luis Rafael Sanchez's "La guagua aerea"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreneche, Gabriel Ignacio; Lombardi, Jane; Ramos-Flores, Hector

    2012-01-01

    Puerto Rican author Luis Rafael Sanchez's "La guagua aerea" explores the duality, hybridity, and fluidity of US-Puerto Rican identity through the frequent travel of migrants between New York City (the traditional destination city for Puerto Rican migrants) and the island. In recent years, however, the "flying bus" has adopted a…

  12. Helium and Carbon Relationships in Geothermal Fluids From the Central American arc in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, A. M.; Hilton, D. R.; Fischer, T. P.; Zimmer, M. M.; Alvarado, G.

    2001-12-01

    A fundamental aim of arc-related studies is to quantify the flux of elements from the various subduction zone reservoirs: a) the mantle wedge, b) the overlying arc crust through which the magmas erupt and c) both the oceanic basement and sedimentary veneer of the subducting slab. In the case of estimating the CO2 mass balance at convergent margins, one approach has been to couple CO2 and He measurements (isotopes and relative abundances) which allows both identification and quantitative assessment of the various contributors to the magmatic output. The Central American arc presents a unique opportunity to consider the He-C approach given prior studies which show dramatic variations in the angle of subduction, the amount and type of sediments subducted and the crustal thickness. The Costa Rica subduction zone is particularly intriguing due to the pronounced steepening of the down-going slab to the north and the occurrence of carbonate rich sediments on the down-going plate. Here, we report 3He/4He ratios, He, Ne, and CO2 abundances as well as δ 13C values for volatiles from the volcanic output along the Costa Rican segment utilising fumaroles, geothermal wells, water springs and bubbling hot springs. The results from our study show the following: 1) 3He/4He ratios of the southern volcanoes (Turrialba, Irazu and Poas) are slightly higher (6.9-8.1 RA) than those of Miravalles and Rincon de la Vieja in the north (5.1-6.8 RA), 2) water spring samples show poor preservation of magmatic gases (low 3He/4He; very high CO2/3He) relative to other sampling media, 3) CO2/3He ratios range from 9.9-27 x 109 in the south to 13-78 x 109 in the north, and 4) δ 13C values trend from isotopically heavier values in the north ( ~ -1.0 ‰ at Rincon de la Vieja) to lighter more MORB-like values in the south ( ~ -6.1 ‰ at Poas volcano). The He-CO2 relationships are consistent with a large input of marine carbonate/limestone carbon to magma sources in Costa Rica. The average ratio of

  13. Feeding Practices and Expectations among Middle-Class Anglo and Puerto Rican Mothers of 12-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Pamela A.; Harwood, Robin L.; Schoelmerich, Axel

    2001-01-01

    Investigated differences in beliefs and practices about infant feeding among middle class Anglo and Puerto Rican mothers. Interviews and observations indicated that Anglo mothers reported earlier attainment of self-feeding and more emphasis on child rearing goals related to self-maximization. Puerto Rican mothers reported later attainment of…

  14. Peer Norms and Sharing of Injection Paraphernalia among Puerto Rican Injection Drug Users in New York and Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andia, Jonny F.; Deren, Sherry; Robles, Rafaela R.; Kang, Sung-Yeon; Colon, Hector M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the influence of peer norms on sharing of injection paraphernalia (e.g., indirect sharing behaviors, including sharing of cookers, cotton, rinse water and back/front loading) among Puerto Rican injection drug users (IDUs) in Bayamon, Puerto Rico, and East Harlem, New York City. Data were collected from 873 Puerto Rican IDUs…

  15. Carbohydrate nutrition differs by diabetes status and is associated with dyslipidemia in Boston Puerto Rican adults without diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puerto Rican adults have a greater prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and lower HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) than the general U.S. population. Carbohydrate nutrition may play a role in this disparity. Cross-sectional analyses included data from 1219 Puerto Ricans aged 45-75 y enrolled in the Boston Puer...

  16. Does Americanization Have Adverse Effects on Health? Stress, Health Habits, and Infant Health Outcomes among Puerto Ricans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landale, Nancy S.; Oropesa, R. S.; Llanes, Daniel; Gorman, Bridget K.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of data from the Puerto Rican Maternal and Infant Health Study found that recent migrants to the U.S. mainland experienced fewer stressful life events and engaged in fewer negative health behaviors during pregnancy than U.S.-born Puerto Rican women. Recent migrants also exhibited better infant health outcomes than childhood migrants or…

  17. Pride Against Prejudice: Work in the Lives of Older Black and Young Puerto Rican Workers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Dean

    Selected and edited from approximately 100 lengthy open-ended interviews with older black men and women and young Puerto Rican men and women in New York City and Newark, New Jersey, transcripts are presented in which 12 of the older black men and women and six of the young Puerto Ricans describe their work experiences and how they were related to…

  18. Identification of phthalate esters in the serum of young Puerto Rican girls with premature breast development.

    PubMed Central

    Colón, I; Caro, D; Bourdony, C J; Rosario, O

    2000-01-01

    Premature breast development (thelarche) is the growth of mammary tissue in girls younger than 8 years of age without other manifestations of puberty. Puerto Rico has the highest known incidence of premature thelarche ever reported. In the last two decades since this serious public health anomaly has been observed, no explanation for this phenomenon has been found. Some organic pollutants, including pesticides and some plasticizers, can disrupt normal sexual development in wildlife, and many of these have been widely used in Puerto Rico. This investigation was designed to identify pollutants in the serum of Puerto Rican girls with premature thelarche. A method for blood serum analysis was optimized and validated using pesticides and phthalate esters as model compounds of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Recovery was > 80% for all compounds. We performed final detection by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We analyzed 41 serum samples from thelarche patients and 35 control samples. No pesticides or their metabolite residues were detected in the serum of the study or control subjects. Significantly high levels of phthalates [dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl, and di-(2-ethylhexyl)] and its major metabolite mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were identified in 28 (68%) samples from thelarche patients. Of the control samples analyzed, only one showed significant levels of di-isooctyl phthalate. The phthalates that we identified have been classified as endocrine disruptors. This study suggests a possible association between plasticizers with known estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity and the cause of premature breast development in a human female population. PMID:11017896

  19. Factors associated with Breast Cancer in Puerto Rican women

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Luisa; Alvarez-Garriga, Carolina; Matta, Jaime; Ortiz, Carmen; Vergne, Yeidyly; Vargas, Wanda; Acosta, Heidi; Ramírez, Jonathan; Perez-Mayoral, Julyann; Bayona, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer afflicting Puerto Rican women and accounts for more cancer-related deaths in this population than any other cancer. Methods Demographic, anthropometric, family history, and lifestyle data, as well as DNA repair capacity (DRC), were compared in 465 BC cases and 661 controls. Crude and multiple logistic regression-derived adjusted odds ratios were used as indicators of the associations between BC and the variables under study. Results A low DRC level, aging (> 61 years), family history of BC, and low education level had statistically significant associations with increased BC risk. Endometriosis, full-term pregnancy at an earlier age, higher parity, hysterectomy before age 50, multivitamin and calcium intake, and longer duration of breastfeeding significantly decreased BC risk. Conclusions This study discusses the major risk factors for BC in Puerto Rico (PR). Because many of these findings represent modifiable risk factors, they can translate into public health initiatives to lower BC risk. In addition, the possibility of using DRC as a simple screening tool for BC risk is explored. PMID:24206792

  20. Home range and movements of juvenile Puerto Rican parrots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, G.D.; Arendt, W.J.; Kalina, J.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    We studied home range and movements of 15 radio-marked, juvenile Puerto Rican parrots (Amazona vittata) fledging from wild nests during summer and fall, 1985-87. When juvenile parrots remained in the nest valley, home ranges during 1986 (.hivin.x = 32 .+-. 10 [SE] ha, n = 4) were larger (P = 0.0079) than during 1987 (.hivin.x = 13 .+-. 6 ha, n = 5). After radio-marked parrots integrated into adult flocks, home ranges during 1986 (.hivin.x = 1,075 .+-. 135 ha, n = 3) were similar (P = 0.10) to 1987 (.hivin.x = 416 .+-. 62 ha, n = 2). Juvenile parrots restricted their movements to nest valleys an average of 58 .+-. 29 days following fledging. After joining adult flocks, juvenile parrots routinely flew between the east and west slopes of the Luquillo Mountains but did not exhibit a seaonal pattern of movement. We recommend that captive-raised, juvenile parrots used in release programs be .gtoreq. 5 months old to ensure they are mature enough to integrate into wild flocks.

  1. Lytopylus Förster (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae) species from Costa Rica, with an emphasis on specimens reared from caterpillars in Area de Conservación Guanacaste

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Michael J.; Clutts, Stephanie; Tucker, Erika M.; Janzen, Daniel; Hallwachs, Winnie; Dapkey, Tanya; Smith, M. Alex

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Twelve species of Costa Rican Lytopylus are treated; these include all species reared from Lepidoptera caterpillars in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica, over 32 years of caterpillar inventory, as well as two species recorded in the literature as occurring in Costa Rica. Ten new species are described, i.e., Lytopylus bradzlotnicki, Lytopylus colleenhitchcockae, Lytopylus gregburtoni, Lytopylus jessicadimauroae, Lytopylus jessiehillae, Lytopylus mingfangi, Lytopylus rebeccashapleyae, Lytopylus robpringlei, Lytopylus sandraberriosae, Lytopylus vaughntani. The following species are transferred to Lytopylus: Metriosoma flavicalcar Enderlein 1920 to Lytopylus flavicalcar comb. n.; Bassus macadamiae Briceño and Sharkey 2000 to Lytopylus macadamiae comb. n.; Metriosoma bicarinatum Enderlein 1920 to Lytopylus bicarinatum comb. n.; Metriosoma brasiliense Enderlein 1920 to Lytopylus brasiliense comb. n.; Bassus tayrona Campos 2007 to Lytopylus tayrona comb. n.; Microdus femoratus Cameron 1887 to Lytopylus femoratus comb. n.; Microdus melanocephalus Cameron 1887 to Lytopylus melanocephalus comb. n.; Bassus pastranai Blanchard 1952 to Lytopylus pastranai comb. n.; Agathis nigrobalteata Cameron 1911 to Lytopylus nigrobalteatus comb. n. Two keys to species of Lytopylus are presented, one interactive and the other static. PMID:22259290

  2. A characterization of Guyana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) whistles from Costa Rica: the importance of broadband recording systems.

    PubMed

    May-Collado, Laura J; Wartzok, Douglas

    2009-02-01

    Knowledge of the whistle structure in Guyana dolphins comes mostly from Brazilian populations where recordings have been made using limited bandwidth systems (18 and 24 kHz). In Brazil, Guyana dolphin whistle frequency span is 1.34-23.89 kHz, but authors have suggested that limits of their recording system may underestimate frequency span. Whistles of Guyana dolphins from Costa Rica were studied using a broadband recording system. How bandwidth limitations affect the understanding of whistle structure and species classification between sympatric dolphin species was evaluated. In addition, whistles were compared to Brazilian populations. Guyana dolphin whistle frequency span was 1.38 up to 48.40 kHz, greater than previously reported. Bandwidth limitations explained 89% of the whistle variation between studies, and increase in bandwidth improved the whistle classification of Guyana dolphins. Whistle duration and minimum frequency were the most important variables in dolphin species classification. Finally, after accounting for differences in recording systems, Costa Rican Guyana dolphins whistled with significantly higher frequency than Brazilian populations, providing evidence for a postulated increase in frequency from south to north. The study concludes that equipment with an upper frequency limit of at least 50 kHz (150 kHz for harmonics) is required to capture the entire whistle repertoire of the Guyana dolphin.

  3. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-12-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old from public schools participate in science clubs outside of their regular school schedule. A comparison study was performed between different groups, in order to assess GLOBE's applicability as a learning science atmosphere and the motivation and interest it generates in students toward science. Internationally applied scales were used as tools for measuring such indicators, adapted to the Costa Rican context. The results provide evidence statistically significant that the students perceive the GLOBE atmosphere as an enriched environment for science learning in comparison with the traditional science class. Moreover, students feel more confident, motivated and interested in science than their peers who do not participate in the project. However, the results were not statistically significant in this last respect.

  4. The nightmares of Puerto Ricans: an embodied 'altered states of consciousness' perspective.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, C Jeffrey

    2009-06-01

    This article examines nightmare narratives collected as part of a person-centered ethnographic study of altered states of consciousness (ASCs) and supernaturalism in a mainland Puerto Rican community in the late 1990s. Utilizing a descriptive backdrop informed by cross-cultural studies of ASCs and highlighting the relevance of recent insights from the cognitive sciences of religion and from the anthropology of embodiment or cultural phenomenology, I examine the lived experience and psychocultural elaboration of diverse Puerto Rican nightmare events. Taking the nightmare to be a trauma in its waking-nightmare sense (i.e., through the extreme fright caused by sleep paralysis) as well as an intrusive, traumatic memory in its posttraumatic sense (i.e., a reliving of trauma themes in dreams), I show how the perceptual and interpretive processes evoked by intensely affective ASCs both inform and are informed by Puerto Rican religious and spiritualistic orientations and values.

  5. [Public health programs have greatly reduced infant mortality in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    The spectacular decline of infant mortality in Costa Rica from 68/1000 live births in 1970 to 20/1000 in 1980 was largely due to the implementation of public health programs in the 1970s. The abrupt decline was even more notable because deaths of infants constituted the major health problem of the country during the 1960s, accounting for 40% of all registered deaths. Socioeconomic development and reduced fertility contributed to the reduction, but 3/4 of the improvement can be attributed to extension of primary health care to previously unserved rural populations and to better secondary health care, according to a study by the Costa Rican demographer Luis Rosero Bixby. The programs targeted at less privileged groups substantially reduced class and geographic differentials in infant mortality. Infant mortality began to decline at an accelerating rate in 1972, coinciding with the first national health plan and the law of universal social security in 1971, the transfer of public hospitals to the social security system and promulgation of a general health law in 1973, and application of the rural health program in 1973 and community health program in 1976. By 1980, home services reached 60% of the population and immunization programs were in place for measles and diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. There was a doubling of outpatient services and a tripling of hours contracted by doctors between 1970-80. Also in 1980, 78% of the Costa Rican population was fully covered by health insurance. After 1972, infant mortality declined from all causes except complications of pregnancy and congenital anomalies. The decline was most rapid for deaths due to prematurity, illnesses avoidable by vaccination, and illnesses such as septicemia and meningitis in which prompt diagnosis and treatment can be lifesaving. Although impressive gains were made in neonatal mortality, the main share of the decline between 1970-80 was in postneonatal mortality. Reductions in deaths due to diarrheal

  6. Gratitude and longing: Meanings of health in aging for Puerto Rican adults in the mainland.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Irina L G; Guzzardo, Mariana T; Adams, Wallis E; Falcón, Luis M

    2015-12-01

    Puerto Rican adults in the United States mainland live with socioeconomic and health disparities. To understand their contextual experience of aging, we interviewed participants in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. Through a Thematic Analysis we identify themes and tensions: normalization and acceptance of aging; gratitude; the importance of aging within social networks; longing to return to Puerto Rico at older age. We address the tensions between 'acceptance' and fatalismo as a cultural belief, and a function of structural barriers. The experience of aging is discussed in the context of Puerto Rico's history and continued dependence on the United States.

  7. Exploratory study of the role of family in the treatment of eating disorders among Puerto Ricans

    PubMed Central

    Guadalupe-Rodríguez, Elizabeth; Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2012-01-01

    In Latino culture, the family is a major source of social support. We explored the needs and the role of the Puerto Rican eating disorders patient’s family in the treatment process by conducting a focus group with five close relatives of youth with eating disorders. Qualitative analyses indicated the need to integrate the family into treatment and to provide management guidelines to assist with the resolution of situations that emerge frequently during recovery. These results underscored the importance of developing and incorporating psychosocial interventions that include family support and guidance for relatives of Puerto Rican youth patients with eating disorders. PMID:24971160

  8. Ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce embayments, Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Molina-Ureña, H

    1996-12-01

    Ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted in December (rainy season), 1993 and February (dry season), 1994, during the RV Victor Hensen German-Costa Rican Expedition to the Gulf of Nicoya and Gulfo Dulce, Costa Rica. Samples from the inner, central, and outer areas of each gulf were collected in oblique tows with a bongo net of 0.6 m mouth diameter, 2.5 m long and 1000-micron mesh. A total of 416 fish larvae of 22 families were sorted out of 14 samples. Stations of both the maximum (11) and the minimum (1) family richness were located in Golfo Dulce. Mean total larval abundances were 124.9 and 197.2 individuals 10 m-2 for the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce, respectively, while mean larval densities ranged from 95.3 larvae 10 m-2 in December to 236.7 larvae 10 m-2 in February. However, no statistical differences between gulfs or seasons were detected, due to the high within-group variability. Cluster Analysis, Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS), and non-parametric tests showed two well-defined major groups: (1) the Gulf of Nicoya neritic assemblage, represented by Engraulids, Sciaenids, and Gobiids (inner and central stations), and (2) the oceanic assemblage, dominated by Myctophids, Bregmacerotids, Ophiidids, and Trichiurids (outer stations off the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce). A third, although less defined group, was an Ophichthid-dominated assemblage (typical in areas nearby coral or rocky reefs). These assemblages closely resemble the clusters based upon adult fish data of the beamtrawl catches of the same cruise. This publication is the first to report on the ichthyoplankton community of Golfo Dulce.

  9. Maternal history, sensitization to allergens, and current wheezing, rhinitis, and eczema among children in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Soto-Quiros, Manuel E; Silverman, Edwin K; Hanson, Lars A; Weiss, Scott T; Celedón, Juan C

    2002-04-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema in Latin American countries. We investigated the relation between potential risk factors and current wheezing, allergic rhinitis, and eczema among 208 Costa Rican children aged 10-13 years participating in phase II of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). The geometric mean ( +/- SD) serum total IgE level of children with current wheezing was significantly higher than that of children without current wheezing (533.8 +/- 5.2 vs. 144.7 +/- 6.0 IU/mL, P < 0.01). In a multivariate analysis, a maternal history of asthma, skin test reactivity (STR) to house dust mites, and STR to Alternaria were significantly associated with current wheezing. Children who had a maternal history of asthma had 2.4 times higher odds of current wheezing than those without maternal history of asthma (95% CI for OR = 1.1-5.3). Sensitization to either house dust mite or Alternaria was associated with 3.3 times increased odds of current wheezing (95% CI for OR for STR to dust mite = 1.6-6.7; 95% CI for OR for STR to Alternaria = 1.1-11.0). In a multivariate analysis, STR to house dust mite and STR to cat dander were significantly associated with allergic rhinitis, and a maternal history of eczema and STR to dog dander were associated with eczema in the child. The interaction between familial factors and lifestyle changes resulting from social reforms implemented 60 years ago may explain the high prevalence of atopic diseases in Costa Rica.

  10. Thermal Studies at the Middle America Trench Offshore Costa Rica and Nankai Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. N.; Solomon, E. A.; Spinelli, G. A.; Scientific Team of IODP Drilling Expedition 334

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of the temperature distribution at convergent margins is important to understanding physical and chemical processes such as fluid flow, diagenesis, and faulting mechanics in the forearc region. Seafloor probe measurements offer an economical method for obtaining transects of heat flow across the forearc and along strike. Because these measurements only prick the seafloor they are sensitive to near seafloor processes such as bottom water temperature variations, deformation, and shallow fluid circulation and, although important in their own right, can obfuscate thermal inferences at depth. Ocean drilling provides access to deeper environments where downhole tools, acoustic measurements, and logging technologies can provide important scientific insight. We review recent heat flow results from the Costa Rica and Nankai convergent margins emphasizing ocean drilling transects where measurements of heat flow are available from seafloor probe and ocean drilling. Heat flow measurements offshore the erosive Costa Rican margin show strong along strike variations that reflect different styles of fluid flow and have important impacts on forearc processes. Along both the Nicoya and CRISP drilling transects, heat flow from seafloor probes and ocean drilling are consistent and indicate hydrothermal circulation prior to and after subduction. Fluid flow advects heat from deeper along the subduction thrust and deposits it near the seafloor cooling and warming these regions, respectively. The accretionary Nankai trough also shows important along strike changes in heat flow related to the age of oceanic crust at the trench. Heat flow and geochemical results are consistent with basement fluid flow at the Muroto transect but are more ambiguous at the NanTroSEIZE transect.

  11. Late Tertiary/Quaternary volcanics of southern Costa Rica and northern Panama

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, A.; Byerly, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    The recent tectonic evolution of the Isthmus of Panama is marked by a complexity imparted by a subduction zone - magmatic arc, a transform plate boundary, and the attempted subduction of an aseismic ridge. In northern Panama andesites form the morphologically young Chiriqui stratovolcano, while in southern Costa Rica they are found interbedded with thick lahars. Two groups of andesites occur in the region. One is low in Si and K (Group I); the other high in Si and K (Group II). The Panamanian andesites belong to both the groups, while Costa Rican andesites are restricted to Group II. Group I andesites are glassy, plagioclase-phyric (An45 rims), and contain abundant augite (Wo46En46Fs8) and magnetite. Rare, resorbed olivine (Fo82) and amphibole are occasionally observed. The Group II andesites have similar mineralogy but also contain abundant pargasitic hornblende and minor orthopyroxene or pigeonite. Xenoliths are common in the Group II andesites of Chiriqui Volcano. Two types of xenoliths are recognized. Cumulate-textured, hornblende gabbro xenoliths vary from nearly pure plagioclase to nearly pure amphibole. These gabbroic xenoliths contain plagioclase (An90 cores to An53 rims), augite, and pargasitic hornblende often displaying the same reaction products as found in the andesites. These xenoliths are interpreted as cognate. These andesites are all characterized by high alkalis and alkali earths; Group II have over 1500 ppm Ba and 1000 ppm Sr. They are apparently produced by partial melting of a highly metasomatised mantle followed by high-pressure fractionation dominated by hornblende.

  12. Marine biodiversity baseline for Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica: published records

    PubMed Central

    Cortés, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The diversity of tropical marine organisms has not been studied as intensively as the terrestrial biota worldwide. Additionally, marine biodiversity research in the tropics lags behind other regions. The 43,000 ha Sector Marino of Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG, Marine Sector of Guanacaste Conservation Area), on the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica is no exception. For more than four decades, the terrestrial flora and fauna has been studied continuously. The ACG marine biodiversity was studied in the 1930’s by expeditions that passed through the area, but not much until the 1990’s, except for the marine turtles. In the mid 1990’s the Center for Research in Marine Science and Limnology (CIMAR) of the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR) initiated the exploration of the marine environments and organisms of ACG. In 2015, ACG, in collaboration with CIMAR, started the BioMar project whose goal is to inventory the species of the marine sector of ACG (BioMar ACG project). As a baseline, here I have compiled the published records of marine ACG species, and found that 594 marine species have been reported, representing 15.5% of the known species of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The most diverse groups were the crustaceans, mollusks and cnidarians comprising 71.7% of the ACG species. Some taxa, such as mangroves and fish parasites are well represented in ACG when compared to the rest of the Costa Rican coast but others appear to be greatly underrepresented, for example, red algae, polychaetes, copepods, equinoderms, and marine fishes and birds, which could be due to sampling bias. Thirty species have been originally described with specimens from ACG, and 89 species are not known from other localities on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica except ACG. Most of the sampling has been concentrated in a few localities in Sector Marino, Playa Blanca and Islas Murciélago, and in the nearby waters of Bahía Santa Elena. In an effort to fill this gap, CIMAR is

  13. Pesticide poisonings in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, C; Castillo, L; Elinder, C G

    1993-08-01

    A descriptive epidemiologic study, conducted in Costa Rica, investigated the incidence of pesticide poisonings with special attention to agricultural workers and occupational exposure. Information from three national registers (occupational accident and disease reports, hospitalizations, and deaths) were used. During 1986, 1800 occupational accidents caused by pesticides were reported; between 1980 and 1986 altogether 3330 persons were hospitalized and 429 died. Cholinesterase inhibitors caused 71% of the reported occupational accidents, 63% of the hospitalizations, and 36% of the deaths. Paraquat caused 21% of the occupational accidents, 24% of the hospitalizations, and 60% of the deaths. Hospitalizations and deaths were 13 and 11 times, respectively, more frequent among agricultural workers than among the rest of the population. High-risk groups for occupational poisonings included agricultural workers aged 15-29 years, female workers, and banana plantation workers. The yearly incidence of symptomatic occupational pesticide poisonings among agricultural workers was estimated at 4.5%.

  14. Costa Rica saves infants' lives.

    PubMed

    Rosero-Bixby, L

    1988-01-01

    Even though Costa Rica is underdeveloped economically, life expectancy has been increasing over the past decade and the illiteracy rate was only 7% in 1984. Infant mortality rates have plummeted since 1972 when the 1st national health plan and social security were instituted (pre-1972: 2.3% annual reduction in infant mortality; 1972-1980: 13% decline annually). Decreased risk in the 1st postnatal month of life was responsible for 34% of the decrease from 1972-1980. Control of disease, especially diarrhea and acute respiratory infection, accounted for most of the decline (51%). Immunizations accounted for 8%, prevention of infectious diseases for 10%, control of malnutrition for 5%, and control of death due to premature birth for 14% of the decrease in mortality. Infant death due to pregnancy and delivery complications and congenital defects did not decrease during this period. Socioeconomic conditions normally influence survival rates strongly, but socioeconomic change in Costa Rica during 1970-1980 accounted for only 1/3 of the reduction in infant mortality. These improvements included an increase in the number of educated women, economic growth and decline in fertility (a decrease from 7.6 to 3.4 births between 1960-1980). The majority of the reduction stemmed from utilization of family planning techniques and the reduction of health risk factors. By 1980, the health program initiated in the 1970's provided primary care to 60% of the population, immunized 95% of the children against poliomyelitis, diptheria, pertussis, tetanus, and measles, and by 1984, provided almost all households with a sewage system. Analyses of the impact of socioeconomic development, fertility regulation, hospital care, outpatient services, and primary health care on infant mortality showed that, before 1970, those areas with better economies had a lower mortality rate, and after 1970, the economy and mortality rate had become independent variables. Furthermore, the introduction of health

  15. The McGill-Costa Rica Project

    PubMed Central

    Davis, M. William L.; Haggerty, Jeannie; Filion-Laporte, Liliane

    1992-01-01

    In 1987, health authorities in Costa Rica started a training program in family and community medicine and requested assistance from the Department of Family Medicine at McGill University. The authors outline the health care system in Costa Rica and the background of the project. The design, implementation, and progress of the project to date are discussed. The problems associated with this kind of project and its future are also discussed. Imagesp1152-a PMID:21221332

  16. Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults123

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Falcon, Luis M; Wilde, Parke E; Tucker, Katherine L

    2009-01-01

    Background: Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 Puerto Ricans aged 45–75 y living in Massachusetts in relation to cognitive function performances. Design: Food security was assessed with the US Household Food Security Scale. Cognitive function was measured to capture general cognition with a battery of 7 tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning (verbal memory), digit span (attention), clock drawing and figure copying (visual-spatial ability), and Stroop and verbal fluency tests (fluency executive functioning). Results: The overall prevalence of food insecurity during the past 12 mo was 12.1%; 6.1% of the subjects reported very low food security. Food insecurity was inversely associated with global cognitive performance, as assessed by the MMSE score. The adjusted difference in the MMSE score was −0.90 (95% CI: −1.6, −0.19; P for trend = 0.003) for a comparison of participants with very low food security with those who were food secure, after adjustment for age, smoking, education, poverty status, income, acculturation, plasma homocysteine, alcohol, diabetes, and hypertension. Food insecurity was significantly associated with lower scores for word-list learning, percentage retention, letter fluency, and digit span backward tests. Conclusions: Very low food security was prevalent among the study subjects and was associated with lower cognitive performance. Further studies, both observational and experimental, are warranted to clarify the direction of causality in this association. PMID:19225117

  17. Population assessment of the American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus (Crocodilia: Crocodylidae) on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Mauger, Laurie A; Velez, Elizabeth; Cherkiss, Michael S; Brien, Matthew L; Boston, Michael; Mazzotti, Frank J; Spotila, James R

    2012-12-01

    The American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus, is widely distributed in the American neotropics. It is endangered throughout most of its range and is listed as vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Natural Fauna and Flora (IUCN) and on Appendix I of the Convention for the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES). Despite this listing, there are few published reports on population status throughout most of its range. We investigated the status of the C. acutus, at several locations along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. We carried out spotlight and nesting surveys from 2007-2009 along the Costa Rican Pacific coast in four distinct areas, coastal areas of Las Baulas (N=40) and Santa Rosa (N=9) National Parks and the Osa Conservation Area (N=13), and upriver in Palo Verde National Park (N=11). We recorded crocodile locations and standard environmental data at each observation. Encounter rates, population structure, distribution within each area and data on successful nesting (presence of hatchlings, nests, etc) were determined. We attempted to capture all crocodiles to record standard morphometrics. A total of 586 crocodiles were observed along 185.8km of survey route. The majority of animals encountered (54.9%) were either hatchlings (<0.5m) or juveniles (0.5-1.25m). The average non-hatchling encounter rate per survey for the Pacific coast was 3.1 crocodiles/km, with individual encounter rates ranging from 1.2 crocodiles/km to 4.3 crocodiles/ km in Las Baulas National Park and the Osa Conservation Area respectively. Distribution of size classes within the individual locations did not differ with the exception of Santa Rosa and Las Baulas National Parks, where hatchlings were found in water with lower salinities. These were the first systematic surveys in several of the areas studied and additional work is needed to further characterize the American crocodile population in Costa Rica.

  18. A cross-cultural comparison of adaptation to chronic pain among Anglo-Americans and native Puerto Ricans.

    PubMed

    Bates, M S; Rankin-Hill, L; Sanchez-Ayendez, M; Mendez-Bryan, R

    1995-02-01

    Using quantitative and qualitative data from studies in New England and Puerto Rico, we compare the chronic pain experiences of Anglo-Americans and native Puerto Ricans. We also compare adaptation to chronic pain between and within these two groups. Positive adaptation is defined as the process of adjustment in behavior and attitudes which facilitates resumption and continuation of a life defined by the subject as meaningful and worthwhile. Our case studies and quantitative analyses demonstrate that successful adaptation is associated with a reduction in depression, tension, and worry; and the realistic continuation of family, social, and work roles. Our analyses also demonstrate that the factors most often associated with adaptation are cultural (meanings and standards), psychosocial (social support, age, socioeconomic status, psychological coping style), the cultural context of care (providers' world views), and the political and economic circumstances under which compensation and rehabilitation are sought. Our quantitative analyses show significant inter- and intra-cultural group differences in pain intensity and emotional responses to the pain. However, despite higher pain intensity and more emotional responses among Puerto Ricans, there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding interference in daily activities. The two groups simply appear to experience chronic pain differently. We propose that the difference is not positive or negative in itself--it is simply a different reality which should be evaluated from an emic perspective and not through the cultural lens of the outside provider or researcher. Intra-group analyses are essential because they provide insight into the standards, norms, and variations within specific cultural groups.

  19. Stressors over the life course and neuroendocrine system dysregulation in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Gersten, Omer; Dow, William H.; Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A key aspect of the increasingly popular allostatic load (AL) framework is that stressors experienced over the entire life course result in physiological dysregulation. Although core to AL theory, this idea has been little tested and where it has been tested the results have been mixed. Methods We analyze the CRELES, a new, cross-sectional, and nationally representative survey of older Costa Rican men and women (ages 60-109). The survey was conducted in 2004-2006 and has a sample size of 2,827. This paper focuses on the relation between a variety of stressors experienced over the life course and cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), epinephrine, and norepinephrine analyzed separately and in an index. Results Some links were found between certain stressors and worse cortisol levels, but overall almost all of the stressors examined were not associated with riskier neuroendocrine biomarker profiles. Discussion More work is needed to attempt to establish the connection between stressors experienced over the life course and resting levels of the neuroendocrine markers. PMID:20511582

  20. Taking a Diasporic Stance: Puerto Rican Mothers Educating Children in a Racially Integrated Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolon-Dow, Rosalie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the perspectives of second-generation Puerto Rican mothers as they discuss their experiences educating their children in a working class, lower-middle class, racially diverse neighborhood. The article examines the racialization processes that the women and their families face, despite experiencing geographic and socioeconomic…

  1. Predicting Child Maltreatment among Puerto Rican Children from Migrant and Non-Migrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sledjeski, Eve M.; Dierker, Lisa C.; Bird, Hector R.; Canino, Glorisa

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to (1) describe the prevalence of child maltreatment among migrant and non-migrant Puerto Rican families and (2) identify socio-demographic and cultural (i.e., acculturation pattern, familismo) predictors of maltreatment within these two samples. Method: Representative community samples of…

  2. Phonological Patterns in Puerto Rican Spanish-Speaking Children with Phonological Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Brian A.; Iglesias, Aquiles

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the speech of 54 young Spanish-speaking (Puerto Rican dialect) children with phonological disorders. It described the mean percentage-of-occurrence and standard deviation of phonological processes and the number and type of nontargeted process errors. Specific patterns characterizing the speech of these children were…

  3. Trajectories of Delinquency among Puerto Rican Children and Adolescents at Two Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the trajectories of delinquency among Puerto Rican children and adolescents in two cultural contexts. Relying on data from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of children and youth from Bronx, New York, and San Juan, Puerto Rico, a group-based trajectory procedure estimated the number of delinquency trajectories,…

  4. Puerto Rican Sources in Literature: Research and References in an Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Nelly S.

    Because of its complex history, Puerto Rico's legend and myth surpass the literature of other regions and present special characteristics and problems pertaining to its population. Bibliographic control of Puerto Rican publications is often insufficient and there is a need for an organized and extensive bibliography which covers all disciplines…

  5. Anglos Are Weird People For Me. Interviews with Chicanos and Puerto Ricans. Materialien 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Wolfgang

    The book presents the statements of 8 Mexican Americans and 10 Puerto Ricans, aged from 19 to 29, who were interviewed to reveal their degree of acculturation. Questions include attitude, behavior and/or fact-finding items and cover habitat; family background; intactness of family; educational, income, and occupational levels of parents and…

  6. The Puerto Rican Child in New York City: Stress and Mental Health. Monograph Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canino, Ian A.; And Others

    The main objective of this study was to review the literature and synthesize data on the mental health of Puerto Rican children in the New York City area to show that they are at higher risk of developing mental health problems than other children. Chapter 1 of this monograph reviews the development of the concept of stress ard its linkage with…

  7. Phonological Skills in Puerto Rican and Mexican Spanish-Speaking Children with Phonological Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Brian A.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of dialectal differences upon the speech production skills of children with phonological disorders are poorly understood. One might predict that the phonological profile of children using a radical dialect (e.g., Puerto Rican Spanish, which alters consonants in the syllable rhyme) will differ from that of children who use a…

  8. Development of a pharmacogenetic-guided warfarin dosing algorithm for Puerto Rican patients

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Alga S; Seip, Richard L; Rivera-Miranda, Giselle; Felici-Giovanini, Marcos E; Garcia-Berdecia, Rafael; Alejandro-Cowan, Yirelia; Kocherla, Mohan; Cruz, Iadelisse; Feliu, Juan F; Cadilla, Carmen L; Renta, Jessica Y; Gorowski, Krystyna; Vergara, Cunegundo; Ruaño, Gualberto; Duconge, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Aim This study was aimed at developing a pharmacogenetic-driven warfarin-dosing algorithm in 163 admixed Puerto Rican patients on stable warfarin therapy. Patients & methods A multiple linear-regression analysis was performed using log-transformed effective warfarin dose as the dependent variable, and combining CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotyping with other relevant nongenetic clinical and demographic factors as independent predictors. Results The model explained more than two-thirds of the observed variance in the warfarin dose among Puerto Ricans, and also produced significantly better ‘ideal dose’ estimates than two pharmacogenetic models and clinical algorithms published previously, with the greatest benefit seen in patients ultimately requiring <7 mg/day. We also assessed the clinical validity of the model using an independent validation cohort of 55 Puerto Rican patients from Hartford, CT, USA (R2 = 51%). Conclusion Our findings provide the basis for planning prospective pharmacogenetic studies to demonstrate the clinical utility of genotyping warfarin-treated Puerto Rican patients. PMID:23215886

  9. English Language Training for Puerto Rican Navy Recruits: Evaluation of Pilot Program. Technical Report 155.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, D. Robert; And Others

    An evaluation of the effectiveness of the English language training for Navy recruits at the English Technical Language School (ETLS) in Puerto Rico is reported. The study covers the period of December 7, 1981, to September 30, 1983. It tracked Puerto Rican Army National Guard (PRANG) personnel from completion of English language training through…

  10. Health Characteristics as Precursors of Substance Abuse in Puerto Rican Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haran, Elizabeth M.; And Others

    In a longitudinal study of precursors of drug usage, data collected in 1968 on health variables was related to substance usage patterns obtained in 1975-76. Some 657 young Puerto Ricans were interviewed for this study, drawn from a pool of about 5,000 questionnaired in 1968. The major findings were that the health factors associated with drug…

  11. Exposing Prejudice: Puerto Rican Experiences of Language, Race, and Class. Institutional Structures of Feeling Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urciuoli, Bonnie

    This book is about language prejudice as experienced by Puerto Ricans in the mainland United States. Prejudice is expressed as social signs that include, but go well beyond, language. When people express linguistic prejudices, they generally start by objectifying the languages in question as though the languages were sharply defined. For Puerto…

  12. Vida/SIDA: A Grassroots Response to AIDS in Chicago's Puerto Rican Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanabria, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Chicago's Puerto Rican community in West Town had a unique reaction to the spread of AIDS within its limits. They created their own institutions and tackled the epidemic themselves. In its infancy, Vida/SIDA, which translates as Life/AIDS, was solely an alternative health clinic for people with AIDS. Free of charge, it provided services such as…

  13. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS INFLUENCING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF ELEVENTH GRADE PUERTO RICAN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, WILLIAM M.; CHRISTENSEN, EDWARD W.

    THIS STUDY INVOLVED--(1) EXPLORING ACADEMIC MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS IN PUERTO RICAN 11TH-GRADE STUDENTS, (2) CREATING A MEASURE FOR THESE FACTORS WHICH MIGHT BE USABLE IN OTHER LATIN AMERICAN AREAS, AND (3) INVESTIGATING THE CHILD-REARING AND OTHER PSYCHO-SOCIAL FACTORS RELATED TO ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT. THE METHOD INVOLVED THREE STAGES--(1)…

  14. Observations and Recommendations on the Puerto Rican Version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Roberto E.

    Recommendations and criticisms are made which might result in a more reliable assessment of the Puerto Rican child's intelligence as measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). Many of these recommendations and criticisms involve typographical and grammatical errors, incorrect language usage, difficulty of item sequence and…

  15. Bibliografia General del Nino Puertorriqueno (General Bibliography on the Puerto Rican Child). Cuaderno.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aponte, Eduardo, Comp.; And Others

    This bibliography of literature concerned with Puerto Rican children lists both English-language and Spanish-language titles. (The introductory text is in Spanish.) The bibliography has nine major parts, each dealing with one of the following: demography (population trends and migration); physical and mental health and nutrition; the family;…

  16. Housing Dependence and Intimate Relationships in the Lives of Low-Income Puerto Rican Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sherri Lawson; Burton, Linda M.; Flippen, Chenoa A.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal ethnographic data from the Three-City Study, the authors examined the relationship between 16 low-income Puerto Rican mothers' housing dependencies and their intimate partner relations. This study traced mothers' dependent housing arrangements and entree to marital or cohabiting relationships from their teens through their…

  17. 27 CFR 19.269 - Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Islands spirits. 19.269 Section 19.269 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... and Virgin Islands Spirits § 19.269 Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits. (a) The provisions of 26... Islands with respect to the following: (1) Spirits lost while in TTB bond; (2) Voluntary destruction...

  18. 27 CFR 19.269 - Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Islands spirits. 19.269 Section 19.269 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... and Virgin Islands Spirits § 19.269 Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits. (a) The provisions of 26... Islands with respect to the following: (1) Spirits lost while in TTB bond; (2) Voluntary destruction...

  19. 27 CFR 19.269 - Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Islands spirits. 19.269 Section 19.269 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... and Virgin Islands Spirits § 19.269 Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits. (a) The provisions of 26... Islands with respect to the following: (1) Spirits lost while in TTB bond; (2) Voluntary destruction...

  20. 27 CFR 19.269 - Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Islands spirits. 19.269 Section 19.269 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... and Virgin Islands Spirits § 19.269 Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits. (a) The provisions of 26... Islands with respect to the following: (1) Spirits lost while in TTB bond; (2) Voluntary destruction...

  1. Acculturation and sociocultural influences on dietary intake and health status among Puerto Rican adults in Massachusetts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown negative consequences of acculturation on lifestyle factors, health status, and dietary intake of Hispanic immigrants in the US. Despite prevalent type 2 diabetes and low socioeconomic status (SES) among Puerto Rican adults living on the US mainland, little is known about...

  2. Longitudinal Mental Health Service and Medication Use of ADHD among Puerto Rican Youth in Two Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Hector R.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Shen, Sa; Bauermeister, Jose J.; Canino, Glorisa

    2008-01-01

    The study discusses the differences in the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among Puerto Rican children and the influence of risk factors on mental health services, medication and psychostimulant use among them in two different contexts. The conclusion states that prevalence was similar regardless of context and…

  3. The Insular Vision: Pedreira's Interpretation of Puerto Rican Culture. Centro Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Juan

    In an attempt to assess and provide an understanding of many aspects of Puerto Rican culture in the United States and in Puerto Rico, this document contains a detailed critical treatment of Antonio S. Pedreira's "Insularismo: Ensayos de interpretacion puertorriquena." Described as being the single most influential study of Puerto Rican…

  4. Involvement in a Drug Subculture and Abstinence Following Treatment Among Puerto Rican Narcotic Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snarr, Richard W.; Ball, John C.

    The study investigated the life career of a sample of native Puerto Rican narcotic addicts who were treated at the Lexington, Kentucky Public Health Service Hospital. Specifically, it deals with the relationship between the addicts' involvement in a drug subculture and their subsequent drug use and abstinence. The hypothesis presented states that…

  5. Support Networks of Single Puerto Rican Mothers of Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Vivian I.; Bonilla, Zobeida E.; Reyes-MacPherson, Maria E.

    2011-01-01

    The social support networks of 25 Puerto Rican single mothers of young children with disabilities were examined and compared with current models of family support for children with disabilities. This study was designed to assess the support systems of Latino single mothers in light of dominant models of family support. The Family Support Scale,…

  6. Contemporary Puerto Rican, Cuban-in-Exile, and Mexican-American Literature in a Pluralistic Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Gerard R.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the attitudes of the Spanish-speaking people living in the United States as expressed in their prose, poetry, and drama. The scope of the paper includes the literature of Puerto Ricans, Cubans, and Mexican Americans in the United States written between 1960 and 1973. The literature is surveyed to uncover…

  7. Greater variety in fruit and vegetable intake is associated with lower inflammation in Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Puerto Rican adults have prevalent metabolic abnormalities, but few studies have explored fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in this population. OBJECTIVE: Researchers tested the hypothesis that greater FV intake and variety are associated with a lower...

  8. The Puerto Rican Prison Experience: A Multicultural Understanding of Values, Beliefs, and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Edil Torres; Wilbur, Michael P.; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice

    1998-01-01

    Counselors are challenged to use a nontraditional, multicultural approach with Puerto Rican inmates, to strive to understand their values, beliefs, experiences, and behaviors; and to question their own underlying assumptions and linear models of therapy. Five specific recommendations are made, and a comparison of beliefs and values is appended.…

  9. Music Education in Puerto Rican Elementary Schools: A Study from the Perspective of Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López-León, Ricardo; Lorenzo-Quiles, Oswaldo; Addessi, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    This article presents, for the first time, descriptive research on the status of music education in Puerto Rican public elementary schools. General music education at elementary schools on the island has been part of the school offering for more than 50 years. As yet, music education at this level has not been recognized as an essential discipline…

  10. Racial Identity Attitudes and Ego Identity Statuses in Dominican and Puerto Rican College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses in 94 Dominican and Puerto Rican Latino college students in an urban public college setting. Simultaneous regression analyses were conducted to test the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses, and findings indicated that…

  11. Extended Family Ties among Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Whites: Superintegration or Disintegration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkisian, Natalia; Gerena, Mariana; Gerstel, Naomi

    2006-01-01

    Addressing recent theoretical debates, this study examined the differences in extended family integration among Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Whites, as well as the importance of culture and structure in explaining these differences. Our findings showed Whites and Latinos/as have distinctive patterns of extended family integration: Mexicans and…

  12. A Brief Culturally Tailored Intervention for Puerto Ricans with Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Amico, K. R.; Cruz, Noemi; O'Connell, Ann A.; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Kalichman, Seth C.; Wolf, Scott A.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    The information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model of health behavior change informed the design of a brief, culturally tailored diabetes self-care intervention for Puerto Ricans with type 2 diabetes. Participants (n = 118) were recruited from an outpatient, primary care clinic at an urban hospital in the northeast United States. ANCOVA…

  13. English Proficiency Required for Puerto Rican Students to Succeed in University Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Iznaga, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Ninety percent of Puerto Rican public school students who graduate from high school lack the basic English skills needed to succeed in university studies. This lack may be the result of Spanish being used as the major language of instruction at all levels in the public school system; when students graduate, they are limited English proficient…

  14. "Turning the Sugar": Adult Learning and Cultural Repertoires of Practice in a Puerto Rican Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laura Ruth; Stribling, Colleen; Almburg, Anne; Vitale, Gail

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the processes of knowledge acquisition and transmission among adults within two "communities of practice" in Humboldt Park/"Paseo Boricua," a Puerto Rican community located on Chicago's near-northwest side. In particular, we examine the ways in which two adult women engaged in learning processes and…

  15. A Study of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Puerto Rican Youth: I. Background, Design, and Survey Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Hector R.; Canino, Glorisa J.; Davies, Mark; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Febo, Vivian; Ramirez, Rafael; Hoven, Christina; Wicks, Judith; Musa, George; Loeber, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This is the first of two related articles on a study carried out between 2000 and 2003 designed to assess the prevalence, associated comorbidities, and correlates of disruptive behavior disorders in two populations of Puerto Rican children: one in the Standard Metropolitan Areas of San Juan and Caguas in Puerto Rico, and the other in…

  16. Auditory Discrimination and Reading Achievement of Puerto Rican Spanish-Speaking First-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Judith Ann

    The focus of this study is on the possible effects of phonological interference on the reading achievement of Spanish-speaking Puerto Rican first graders. Specifically, the study explored the relationship between standard English auditory discrimination and first-grade reading achievement. Subjects for the study were 32 female and 20 male students…

  17. An Exploration of the Effects of Language Policy in Education in a Contemporary Puerto Rican Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Valentín, Mirta

    2016-01-01

    During the Spanish regimen, Puerto Rican education was limited and restricted to Spanish language as the medium of instruction. It was not until the U.S. colonization of the island that public education was introduced. As a result, English replaced Spanish as medium of instruction in the new educational system. Immediately after, Puerto Rican…

  18. Reach Out and Touch Someone: Tactile Communication in Selected Puerto Rican Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mara, Joan

    The importance and varieties of human touch have been the subject of much research. Touching varies from culture to culture and is a way of talking in most Latin American countries. Three Puerto Rican novels provide examples of this nonverbal communicative style: "Mambru se fue a la guerra," by Jose Luis Gonzalez; "La vispera del…

  19. The Structure of Inequality and the Status of Puerto Rican Youth in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordero Guzman, Hector R.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses and illustrates some of the systemic obstacles that youth, particularly urban African-American and Latino youth, confront, focusing on the dynamics of Puerto Rican families and youth. Information on health and housing; elementary school, secondary school, and higher education; and unemployment and the labor force is presented. (SLD)

  20. Latinx Popular Culture Imaginaries: Examining Puerto Rican Children's Social Discourses in Interpreting Telenovelas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Carmen Liliana; Costa, María del Rocío; Soto, Nayda

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a collaboration project within one urban Puerto Rican classroom, focused on constructing a critical literacy inquiry curriculum grounded in the students' out-of-school literacy practices in their communities, including their experiences with media and popular culture. We focused on a critical literacy and media inquiry…

  1. Mary Likes Fishes: Reverse Psychological Phenomena in New York Puerto Rican Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvorak, Trisha; Kirschner, Carl

    1982-01-01

    Discusses some syntactic evidence gathered in a recent study which suggests not only that the dialect of Puerto Rican Spanish spoken in the New York area may be undergoing greater change than has previously been documented, but also that English interference cannot adequately account for the nature of that change. (EKN)

  2. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA oxidative stress has been suggested as an important pathogenic mechanism in cognitive impairment and dementia. We, therefore, examined whether urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of global DNA oxidation, was associated with cognitive function in a sample of Puerto Rican adul...

  3. [Education, modernity, and fertility in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Stycos, J M

    1980-01-01

    In an effort to identify the causal mechanisms involved in the relationship between education and fertility in Costa Rica, all married women who were interviewed in the National Fertility Survey were reinterviewed in 1977-78. Questions on modernity and attitudes toward family size were designed to measure the extent of their influence on fertility. Questions on modernity were grouped into 4 measures of mass communications/information, sex roles, husband's power, and "instrumental activism." The intercorrelation of the 4 measures was enough to justify their use as separate subscales but high enough to permit their combined use as a single measure of modernity. The correlation between the combined total and education was strong and positive at .68, while the correlation between education and the number of live births controlled for age was -.35. Results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that high levels of general information and exposure to mass media are responsible for the positive correlation between education and fertility. A variety of scales were developed to measure the extent to which predispositions toward family size, numerical preference, and desire for additional children were responsible for the relationship between general information and fertility. Modernity and education showed strong negative relationships to predisposition toward family size, moderate negative relationships to size preference, and almost no relationship to the desire for more children.

  4. The Spherical Tokamak MEDUSA for Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Celso; Vargas, Ivan; Guadamuz, Saul; Mora, Jaime; Ansejo, Jose; Zamora, Esteban; Herrera, Julio; Chaves, Esteban; Romero, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    The former spherical tokamak (ST) MEDUSA (Madison EDUcation Small Aspect.ratio tokamak, R<0.14m, a<0.10m, BT<0.5T, Ip<40kA, 3ms pulse)[1] is in a process of donation to Costa Rica Institute of Technology. The main objective of MEDUSA is to train students in plasma physics /technical related issues which will help all tasks of the very low aspect ratio stellarator SCR-1(A≡R/>=3.6, under design[2]) and also the ongoing activities in low temperature plasmas. Courses in plasma physics at undergraduate and post-graduate joint programme levels are regularly conducted. The scientific programme is intend to clarify several issues in relevant physics for conventional and mainly STs, including transport, heating and current drive via Alfv'en wave, and natural divertor STs with ergodic magnetic limiter[3,4]. [1] G.D.Garstka, PhD thesis, University of Wisconsin at Madison, 1997 [2] L.Barillas et al., Proc. 19^th Int. Conf. Nucl. Eng., Japan, 2011 [3] C.Ribeiro et al., IEEJ Trans. Electrical and Electronic Eng., 2012(accepted) [4] C.Ribeiro et al., Proc. 39^th EPS Conf. Contr. Fusion and Plasma Phys., Sweden, 2012

  5. Costa Rica's Chain of laterally collapsed volcanoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, E.; Fernandez, E.

    2007-05-01

    From the NW extreme to the SW end of Costa Rica's volcanic backbone, a number of laterally collapsed volcanoes can be observed. Due to several factors, attention has been given to active volcanoes disregarding the importance of collapsed features in terms of assessing volcanic hazards for future generations around inhabited volcanoes. In several cases the typical horseshoe shape amphitheater-like depression can be easily observed. In other cases due to erosion, vegetation, topography, seismic activity or drastic weather such characteristics are not easily recognized. In the order mentioned above appear: Orosi-Cacao, Miravalles, Platanar, Congo, Von Frantzius, Cacho Negro and Turrialba volcanoes. Due to limited studies on these structures it is unknown if sector collapse occurred in one or several phases. Furthermore, in the few studied cases no evidence has been found to relate collapses to actual eruptive episodes. Detailed studies on the deposits and materials composing dome-like shapes will shed light on unsolved questions about petrological and chemical composition. Volume, form and distance traveled by deposits are part of the questions surrounding most of these collapsed volcanoes. Although most of these mentioned structures are extinct, at least Irazú volcano (active volcano) has faced partial lateral collapses recently. It did presented strombolian activity in the early 60s. Collapse scars show on the NW flank show important mass removal in historic and prehistoric times. Moreover, in 1994 a minor hydrothermal explosion provoked the weakening of a deeply altered wall that holds a crater lake (150m diameter, 2.6x106 ). A poster will depict images of the collapsed volcanoes named above with mayor descriptive characteristics. It will also focus on the importance of deeper studies to assess the collapse potential of Irazú volcano with related consequences. Finally, this initiative will invite researchers interested in such topic to join future studies in

  6. Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oquendo-Rodriguez, Aida L.

    Professions and careers related to science and mathematics lack representation of minorities. Within these underrepresented minority populations there is no other group more affected than Latina women and girls. Women in general, are still underrepresented in many areas of our society. While women's roles are changing in today's society, most changes encourage the participation of more White/Anglo women in traditionally male roles. Latina women are still more disadvantaged than White women. There is no doubt that education is significant in increasing the participation of minorities in the fields of science and mathematics, especially for minority girls (Oakes, 1990; Rodriguez, 1993). This study explored the interests, life experiences, characteristics and motivations of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses. The study identifies factors that can influence the interest of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin in science and mathematics career choices. This research is significant and relevant to educators and policy makers, especially to science and mathematics educators. The research is primarily descriptive and exploratory. It explores the social characteristics of Latina girls and professional women who have been successful in science and mathematics high school courses. The research offers the reader a visit to the participants' homes with descriptions and the opportunity to explore the thoughts and life experiences of Latina girls, their mothers and young Latina professionals of Puerto Rican origin. This research reveals the common characteristics of successful students found in the Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who where interviewed. Creating a portrait of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses in one of the school districts of western Massachusetts. The research findings reveal that teacher relationships, family expectations

  7. Substance use and HIV risk in a sample of severely mentally Ill Puerto Rican women.

    PubMed

    Loue, Sana; Sajatovic, Martha; Mendez, Nancy

    2011-08-01

    Latinos, and Puerto Ricans in particular, have been disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS. Severe mental illness (SMI) is associated with an increase in HIV risk. Relatively little research has focused on the role of SMI among Puerto Rican injection drug users (IDUs) and non-IDUs in susceptibility to and transmission of HIV and there are few published reports on HIV risk among Latina SMI. We conducted a longitudinal mixed methods study with 53 Puerto Rican women with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression to examine the cultural context of HIV risk and HIV knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors among a larger study with Puerto Rican and Mexican women with serious mental illness (SMI). There was a high prevalence of past and current substance use and a high prevalence of substance use-associated HIV risk behaviors, such as unprotected sexual relations with an IDU. The violence associated with substance use frequently increased participants' HIV risk. Choice of substance of abuse depended on cost, availability, and use within the individual participant's network. Participants attributed their substance use to the need to relieve symptoms associated with their mental illness, ameliorate unpleasant feelings, and deaden emotional pain. HIV prevention interventions for poorer Puerto Rican women with SMI must target the individuals themselves and others within their networks if the women are to be supported in their efforts to reduce substance use-related risk. The content of any intervention must address past and current trauma and its relationship to substance use and HIV risk, as well as strategies to prevent HIV transmission.

  8. Researching the Rain Forest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chazdon, Robin L.

    1995-01-01

    An autobiography of a female ecologist working in the Costa Rican rainforest is provided as an inspiration for girls. The scientist briefly tells her life story and describes her research activities. (LZ)

  9. Plastic paradise: transforming bodies and selves in Costa Rica's cosmetic surgery tourism industry.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Sara L

    2010-10-01

    Long popular as a nature tourism destination, Costa Rica has recently emerged as a haven for middle class North Americans seeking inexpensive, state-of-the-art cosmetic surgery. This paper examines "cosmetic surgery tourism" in Costa Rica as a form of medicalized leisure, situated in elite private spaces and yet inextricably linked to a beleaguered national medical program. Through historical context and ethnographic analysis of activities at medical hotels and clinics, I describe how the recovery industry operates on the embodied subjectivities of visiting patients and their local caretakers. Recovery sociality and healing landscapes facilitate patients' transition through a period of post-surgical liminality and provide nostalgic transport to an imagined medical arcadia, while clinicians are attracted by a neoliberal promise of prosperity and autonomy. Ultimately, Costa Rica's transformation into a paradise of medical consumption and self-optimization is contingent on a mythology that obscures growing uncertainties and inequities in the nation's broader medical landscape.

  10. Anatomy of a bottleneck: diagnosing factors limiting population growth in the Puerto Rican parrot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beissenger, S.R.; Wunderle, J.M.; Meyers, J.M.; Saether, B.-E.; Engen, S.

    2008-01-01

    The relative importance of genetic, demographic, environmental, and catastrophic processes that maintain population bottlenecks has received little consideration. We evaluate the role of these factors in maintaining the Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) in a prolonged bottleneck from 1973 through 2000 despite intensive conservation efforts. We first conduct a risk analysis, then examine evidence for the importance of specific processes maintaining the bottleneck using the multiple competing hypotheses approach, and finally integrate these results through a sensitivity analysis of a demographic model using life-stage simulation analysis (LSA) to determine the relative importance of genetic, demographic, environmental, and catastrophic processes on population growth. Annual population growth has been slow and variable (1.0 6 5.2 parrots per year, or an average k?1.05 6 0.19) from 16 parrots (1973) to a high of 40-42 birds (1997-1998). A risk analysis based on population prediction intervals (PPI) indicates great risk and large uncertainty, with a range of 22?83 birds in the 90% PPI only five years into the future. Four primary factors (reduced hatching success due to inbreeding, failure of adults to nest, nest failure due to nongenetic causes, and reduced survival of adults and juveniles) were responsible for maintaining the bottleneck. Egghatchability rates were low (70.6% per egg and 76.8% per pair), and hatchability increased after mate changes, suggesting inbreeding effects. Only an average of 34% of the population nested annually, which was well below the percentage of adults that should have reached an age of first breeding (41-56%). This chronic failure to nest appears to have been caused primarily by environmental and/or behavioral factors, and not by nest-site scarcity or a skewed sex ratio. Nest failure rates from nongenetic causes (i.e., predation, parasitism, and wet cavities) were low (29%) due to active management (protecting nests and fostering

  11. (Power sector efficiency analysis in Costa Rica). [Power Sector Efficiency Analysis in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1990-04-10

    I traveled to San Jose, Costa Rica, to review the state of the electric power utility with a team of specialists, including a transmission and distribution specialist, a hydroelectric engineering specialist, and a thermal power plant specialist. The purpose of the mission was to determine the costs and benefits of efficiency improvements to supply side technologies employed by the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, the national power company in Costa Rica, and the potential contribution of these efficiency measures to the future electric power needs of Costa Rica.

  12. Time since migration and HIV risk behaviors among Puerto Ricans who inject drugs in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Gelpí-Acosta, C; Pouget, ER; Reilly, KH; Hagan, H; Neaigus, A; Wendel, T; Marshall, D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the U.S., those who initiated drug injection in Puerto Rico (immigrant Puerto Rican PWID) engage in more injection and sexual risk behaviors, and have higher HIV incidence than non-Hispanic whites. OBJECTIVE Understand the persistence of HIV risk behaviors. METHODS In a cross-sectional study conducted in New York City (NYC) in 2012 (National HIV Behavioral Surveillance), PWID aged ≥ 18 years were recruited using Respondent-Driven Sampling, interviewed, and tested for HIV. Participants were categorized into 5 different groups: (1) US-born non-Hispanic PWID, (2) US-born Puerto Rican PWID, (3) recent immigrant Puerto Rican PWID (≤ 3 years in NYC), (4) medium-term immigrant Puerto Rican PWID (> 3 and ≤ 10 years in NYC), and (5) long-term immigrant Puerto Rican PWID (> 10 years in NYC). We examined the relationship between time since migrating on sexual and injection risk behaviors among immigrant Puerto Rican PWID, compared with U.S.-born Puerto Rican PWID and US-born non-Hispanic PWID. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS A total of 481 PWID were recruited. In adjusted analyses using US-born non-Hispanic PWID as the comparison group, syringe sharing was significantly more likely among medium-term immigrants; and unprotected sex with casual partners was more likely among recent and long-term immigrants. CONCLUSIONS The risk-acculturation process for immigrant Puerto Rican PWID may be non-linear and may not necessarily lead to risk reduction over time. Research is needed to better understand this process. PMID:27100322

  13. Genetic contributions to circadian activity rhythm and sleep pattern phenotypes in pedigrees segregating for severe bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Lucia; St Clair, Patricia A; Teshiba, Terri M; Service, Susan K; Fears, Scott C; Araya, Carmen; Araya, Xinia; Bejarano, Julio; Ramirez, Margarita; Castrillón, Gabriel; Gomez-Makhinson, Juliana; Lopez, Maria C; Montoya, Gabriel; Montoya, Claudia P; Aldana, Ileana; Navarro, Linda; Freimer, Daniel G; Safaie, Brian; Keung, Lap-Woon; Greenspan, Kiefer; Chou, Katty; Escobar, Javier I; Ospina-Duque, Jorge; Kremeyer, Barbara; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cantor, Rita M; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Macaya, Gabriel; Molina, Julio; Reus, Victor I; Sabatti, Chiara; Bearden, Carrie E; Takahashi, Joseph S; Freimer, Nelson B

    2016-02-09

    Abnormalities in sleep and circadian rhythms are central features of bipolar disorder (BP), often persisting between episodes. We report here, to our knowledge, the first systematic analysis of circadian rhythm activity in pedigrees segregating severe BP (BP-I). By analyzing actigraphy data obtained from members of 26 Costa Rican and Colombian pedigrees [136 euthymic (i.e., interepisode) BP-I individuals and 422 non-BP-I relatives], we delineated 73 phenotypes, of which 49 demonstrated significant heritability and 13 showed significant trait-like association with BP-I. All BP-I-associated traits related to activity level, with BP-I individuals consistently demonstrating lower activity levels than their non-BP-I relatives. We analyzed all 49 heritable phenotypes using genetic linkage analysis, with special emphasis on phenotypes judged to have the strongest impact on the biology underlying BP. We identified a locus for interdaily stability of activity, at a threshold exceeding genome-wide significance, on chromosome 12pter, a region that also showed pleiotropic linkage to two additional activity phenotypes.

  14. Genetic contributions to circadian activity rhythm and sleep pattern phenotypes in pedigrees segregating for severe bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pagani, Lucia; St. Clair, Patricia A.; Teshiba, Terri M.; Service, Susan K.; Fears, Scott C.; Araya, Carmen; Araya, Xinia; Bejarano, Julio; Ramirez, Margarita; Castrillón, Gabriel; Gomez-Makhinson, Juliana; Lopez, Maria C.; Montoya, Gabriel; Montoya, Claudia P.; Aldana, Ileana; Navarro, Linda; Freimer, Daniel G.; Safaie, Brian; Keung, Lap-Woon; Greenspan, Kiefer; Chou, Katty; Escobar, Javier I.; Ospina-Duque, Jorge; Kremeyer, Barbara; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cantor, Rita M.; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Macaya, Gabriel; Molina, Julio; Reus, Victor I.; Sabatti, Chiara; Bearden, Carrie E.; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in sleep and circadian rhythms are central features of bipolar disorder (BP), often persisting between episodes. We report here, to our knowledge, the first systematic analysis of circadian rhythm activity in pedigrees segregating severe BP (BP-I). By analyzing actigraphy data obtained from members of 26 Costa Rican and Colombian pedigrees [136 euthymic (i.e., interepisode) BP-I individuals and 422 non–BP-I relatives], we delineated 73 phenotypes, of which 49 demonstrated significant heritability and 13 showed significant trait-like association with BP-I. All BP-I–associated traits related to activity level, with BP-I individuals consistently demonstrating lower activity levels than their non–BP-I relatives. We analyzed all 49 heritable phenotypes using genetic linkage analysis, with special emphasis on phenotypes judged to have the strongest impact on the biology underlying BP. We identified a locus for interdaily stability of activity, at a threshold exceeding genome-wide significance, on chromosome 12pter, a region that also showed pleiotropic linkage to two additional activity phenotypes. PMID:26712028

  15. Building positive nature awareness in pupils using the "Rainforest of the Austrians" in Costa Rica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Margit; Hölzl, Irmgard; Huber, Werner; Weissenhofer, Anton

    2013-04-01

    20 years ago, Michael Schnitzler founded the NGO "Rainforest of the Austrians" to help save one of the most diverse rainforests in Central America, the Esquinas rainforest on the Pacific coast of SW Costa Rica, from being destroyed through logging. In this abstract we present an interdisciplinary upper Austrian school project aiming at building positive awareness in pupils towards rainforest conservation by fund-raising to help purchase endangered forest areas. The acquired rainforest was donated to the Costa Rican government and became part of the National Park "Piedras Blancas". In the following, we present a chronology of events and actions of the school project. We started our rainforest project by face-to-face encounters, letting involved persons speak directly to the pupils. Dr. Huber, coordinator of the tropical rainforest station La Gamba in Costa Rica (www.lagamba.at), together with Dr. Weissenhofer, presented an introductory slide show about the "Rainforest of the Austrians". With rainforest images and sounds in their mind the pupils wrote "trips of a lifetime" stories, thus creating idyllic images of rainforest habitats. Following up on that, we visited the exhibition "Heliconia and Hummingbirds" at the Biology Center in Linz. Reports about the slide show and the exhibition followed. Tropical sites were compared by producing climate graphs of La Gamba, Costa Rica, and Manaus in Brazil. The global distribution and the decrease of rainforests were also analyzed. In biology lessons the symbiosis between plants and animals of the rainforest were worked out by searching the Internet. Flyers with profiles of rainforest animals were produced. We also discussed the ecotourism project "RICANCIE" in Ecuador using fact sheets. "RICANCIE" is a Spanish acronym standing for "Indigenous Community Network of the Upper Napo for Intercultural Exchange and Ecotourism". It was founded in 1993 aiming to improve the quality of life for some 200 indigenous Kichwa families

  16. Comparison of Bender-Gestalt and WISC correlations for Puerto Rican, White and Negro children.

    PubMed

    Marmorale, A M; Brown, F

    1975-07-01

    Correlations between Bender-Gestalt scores and WISC IQs were obtained for three ethnic groups of 123 Puerto Rican, 82 white, and 61 Negro children in the first grade. The Bender-Gestalt test did not show any significant relationship with the WISC scores of the Puerto Rican children. Significant correlations (p less than .01) between the Bender and all the WISC scores were found for the Negro group. For the white Ss, the WISC-Bender relationship was significant (p less than .01) only for the Performance and Full Scale scores. The absence of a significant correlation between the Bender and the WISC Verbal IQ in these children was attributed to the relative superiority of their Verbal scores.

  17. Mexican-American and Puerto Rican Breast Cancer Survivors’ Perspectives on Exercise: Similarities and Differences

    PubMed Central

    Treviño, Rose A.; Vallejo, Liliana; Hughes, Daniel C.; Gonzalez, Velda; Tirado-Gomez, Maribel; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative data was collected from Mexican-American (MA) and Puerto Rican (PR) breast cancer survivors to gain their perspectives on the relevant issues surrounding breast cancer survivorship and exercise. Six focus groups, a total of 31 participants were convened (three in Puerto Rico and three in Texas). Responses were analyzed and compared between the Mexican-American and Puerto Rican groups. Follow-up sessions were conducted at the sites to review the initial results and to validate a culturally adapted exercise intervention trial. A total of 900 responses were catalogued into 27 codes. Both groups had similar descriptions of exercise and barriers to exercise. Both groups expressed lack of information regarding their exercise capabilities. The groups differed in their responses to perceived safety in their community and how to deliver a culturally adapted exercise intervention in their community. We found important cultural differences and similarities in relevant factors of exercise and breast cancer survivorship. PMID:22610693

  18. The Emerging Role of Admixture in the Pharmacogenetics of Puerto Rican Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Duconge, Jorge; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2011-01-01

    Admixture is of great relevance to the clinical application of pharmacogenetics and personalized medicine. Preliminary findings in Puerto Ricans further substantiate the argument for admixture as a critical covariate in a customized DNA-guided warfarin dosing algorithm. To this purpose, a genome-wide approach that incorporates admixture as an independent predictor of dose variability in DNA-guided algorithms has been postulated. Admixture is expected to be able to reveal some relevant associations in the genetic epidemiology of Hispanics and will be indispensable to assure that pharmacogenomic research can be pursued in such mixed populations. Consequently, the clinical utility of knowing an individual’s genotype before initiating drug treatment in Puerto Ricans, and Hispanics in general, will finally be untangled by developing a “Genetic Prescription Model” that takes admixture into consideration. This approach will help lead physicians and patients to their desired treatment goal, resulting in more effective healthcare in admixed people. PMID:23227441

  19. The circular migration of Puerto Rican women: towards a gendered explanation.

    PubMed

    Ellis, M; Conway, D; Bailey, A J

    1996-01-01

    "The purpose of this paper has been to outline a theoretical framework for the explanation of the circulation of Puerto Rican women that brings gender relations to the fore, but frames the island-mainland pattern of mobility in the context of core-periphery capitalist relations. We have argued that gender relations in the home and workplace are vitally important for understanding women's moves to the [United States] and return trips to Puerto Rico. Specifically, we posited that most Puerto Rican women move as tied-migrants or because of their obligation or desire to meet gender responsibilities. In addition, we also viewed migration as an action with the potential to modify gender relations and alter future migration decision-making, as women gain experience in the labour market and exposure to new social and cultural environments." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  20. Stress and the Social Determinants of Maternal Health among Puerto Rican Women: A CBPR Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Damio, Grace; Cruz, Joan; D’Angelo, Karen; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative research project explores how poverty, the built environment, education, working conditions, health care access, food insecurity and perceived discrimination are experienced by Puerto Rican Latinas through the course of their lives. Five focus groups were conducted with the primary objective of documenting community experiences and perspectives regarding: 1) stress, including perceived discrimination based on race/ethnicity (racism); 2) the impact of stress on Puerto Rican women of reproductive age, their families, and/or their community; and 3) stressors that affect maternal health. Focus groups were conducted in English and Spanish in the two cities with the highest rates of premature birth and low infant birthweight in the state of Connecticut. Focus group findings indicate that participants perceived poverty, food insecurity, lack of access to quality education, and unsafe environments as significant life stressors affecting maternal and child health. PMID:22080712

  1. Educational and Demographic Profile: Contra Costa County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Contra Costa County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  2. Violent Reform: Costa Rica, Central America's Exception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Shelly

    1988-01-01

    Examines factors contributing to Costa Rica's peaceful status in a region of violent political conflict. Describes the country's political and educational systems, stating that its democratic government allows the country to withstand many problems typical of the region and that its high level of education allows it to maintain the highest per…

  3. Influential Factors of Puerto Rican Mother-Child Communication About Sexual Health Topics.

    PubMed

    Torres, Maria Idalí; Granberry, Phillip; Person, Sharina; Allison, Jeroan; Rosal, Milagros; Rustan, Sarah

    2016-11-01

    Introduction Latina mothers play a central role in raising and socializing their children; however, few studies have examined the cultural, socio-cognitive and neighborhood-related variables influencing the level of communication between Puerto Rican mothers and their children about sexuality and sexual health. This cross-sectional study sought to examine these influences. Methods Puerto Rican mothers with children aged 10-19 years (n = 193) were selected randomly for an ethnographic interview as part of a community participatory action research project in a U.S. urban northeastern community. Results Bivariate analyses found statistically significant associations between the child's age (p = 0.002), the mother's past communication about traditional gender role norms of women (marianismo) (p < 0.001), her positive outcome expectations for communications with her child (p < 0.025), and her perceptions of the physical condition (p < 0.001) and sexual health problems (p = 0.047) in the neighborhood. In a multivariate model, all of these variables remained significant except sexual health problems, and mother's attitudes toward the obligations of children to parents (familismo) emerged as a factor associated with a decrease in the number of sexual health topics that mothers raised with their children. No significant effects were found for mother's spiritual and religious experience (religiosidad). Discussion Our study highlights the importance of marianismo as a framework within which Puerto Rican mothers communicate sexual health information as well as the need to improve mothers' confidence discussing sexual health issues with their children. Future public health interventions to promote communication about sexuality and sexual health among Puerto Rican mothers should consider addressing this issue as a part of comprehensive neighborhood improvement projects.

  4. Knowledge and Use of Ethnomedical Treatments for Asthma Among Puerto Ricans in an Urban Community

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, Luis E.; Wisniewski, Angela M.; Cadzow, Renee B.; Tumiel-Berhalter, Laurene M.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Puerto Ricans have higher lifetime and current asthma prevalence than other racial and ethnic groups in the United States. A great many Hispanics use ethnomedical therapies for asthma. This study elicited participant knowledge of ethnomedical therapies, developed a typology of the therapies, and considered whether some types are used or deemed efficacious based, in part, on information source. METHODS Eligible participants were randomly selected from the medical records of an inner-city primary care clinic serving a predominantly Hispanic community in Buffalo, New York. Thirty adult Puerto Ricans who had asthma or were care-givers of children with asthma were interviewed in person using a semistructured instrument. Qualitative data analysis followed a content-driven immersion-crystallization approach. Outcome measures were ethnomedical treatments for asthma known to participants, whether these treatments were used or perceived effective, and the participant’s information source about the treatment. RESULTS Participants identified 75 ethnomedical treatments for asthma. Behavioral strategies were significantly more likely to be used or perceived effective compared with ingested and topical remedies (P <.001). Among information sources for ingested and topical remedies, those recommended by community members were significantly less likely to be used or perceived effective (P <.001) compared with other sources. CONCLUSIONS This sample of Puerto Ricans with a regular source of medical care was significantly more likely to use or perceive as effective behavioral strategies compared with ingested and topical remedies. Allopathic clinicians should ask Puerto Rican patients about their use of ethnomedical therapies for asthma to better understand their health beliefs and to integrate ethnomedical therapies with allopathic medicine. PMID:21242561

  5. In Search of a Better Life: The Education and Housing Problems of Puerto Ricans in Philadelphia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Harrisburg.

    In early 1972, the Pennsylvania State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights turned its attention to the growing Puerto Rican population in Philadelphia, a population estimated to be anywhere from 30,000 to 125,000. A two-day open meeting or informal hearing was held on June 6 and 7, 1972, to look at two major problem areas for…

  6. Is forest cover conserved and restored by protected areas?: The case of two wild protected areas inthe Central Pacific of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Antonio Guzmán, J; Heiner Vega, S

    2015-09-01

    Changes in land use are mainly a consequence of anthropogenic actions. The current agricultural and urban transformations in Costa Rica have raised questions about the effectiveness of conservation and restoration within protected areas. Herein we analyzed the patterns of land use change between three periods: 1997, 2005 and 2010 in terms of magnitude, direction, and pace through categorical maps generated by the photointerpretation for La Cangreja National Park (LCNP), Rancho Mastatal Wildlife Refuge (RMWR), and their surrounding areas (SA), this last compound of one kilometer radius outside the protected areas' boundaries. The matrix which describes the landscape within the protected areas is natural coverage, composed mainly by forest cover and thickets. We found that the most abundant natural cover for both protected areas was forest cover for all years tested. The stability and large areas of forest cover in LCNP and RMWR for 2005 and 2010, reflected that policies, management actions and vigilance, have a positive impact on the conservation and restoration of natural habitats in these Costa Rican Central Pacific areas. However, the high landscape complexity of the SA in 1997, 2005 and 2010 was an evidence of the anthropogenic pressure on these protected areas, and suggested the ineffectiveness of local governments to monitor and abate land use changes, that could hinder the management, conservation and restoration of species in the protected areas.

  7. Effects of Self-Rated Health and Self-Rated Economic Situation on Depressed Mood Via Life Satisfaction Among Older Adults in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Reyes Fernández, Benjamín; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The study examined the relationship of self-rated health and self-rated economic situation with depressed mood, and life satisfaction as mediator of this relationship among older adults in Costa Rica. Method: A longitudinal study was conducted with a subsample (N = 1,618) from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (CRELES). Self-rated health, self-rated economic situation, depressed mood, and life satisfaction were measured at baseline, and depressed mood was reassessed 18 months later. Putative mechanisms for changes in depressed mood were examined by means of conditional process analysis. Results: Self-rated health was negatively associated to depressed mood. This effect took place via life satisfaction. An interaction showed that better economic situation compensated the effect of a low self-rated health on life satisfaction. Discussion: This study suggests that subjective variables such as self-rated health, economic situation, and life satisfaction should be considered when addressing the onset of depressed mood. PMID:26092651

  8. Indentured migration and differential gender gene flow: the origin and evolution of the East-Indian community of Limón, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Castrì, Loredana; Otárola, Flory; Blell, Mwenza; Ruiz, Ernesto; Barrantes, Ramiro; Luiselli, Donata; Pettener, Davide; Madrigal, Lorena

    2007-10-01

    After the emancipation of African slaves in the Caribbean, the labor void left by out-migrating former slaves was filled by in-migrating indentured servants from prepartition India and China. In some areas of the Caribbean such as Trinidad, Suriname, and Guyana, the East-Indian migrants formed large communities. In this article, we report a study based on mtDNA and Y-chromosomal markers of a small East-Indian community from Limón, Costa Rica. The purpose of the project is to determine the place of origin in the Indian subcontinent of the ancestors of our group and the contributions to its gene pool through gene flow by members of other ethnic groups. Both Y-chromosome and mtDNA suggest that the Indo-Costa Ricans descend from migrants primarily from Central India. While both paternal and maternal markers indicate that this group is overwhelmingly of Indian origin, they also indicate that males and females of African, European, and Amerindian origin contributed to it differently. We discuss our results in the historical context of the virtual extinction of Amerindian Caribbean groups, the forced migration of African slaves to the Caribbean, and the gene flow between Amerindians, Europeans, East-Indians, and Africans that eventually produced the Caribbean's currently diverse gene pool.

  9. Detection of aflatoxin M1 in milk, cheese and sour cream samples from Costa Rica using enzyme-assisted extraction and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Chavarría, Guadalupe; Granados-Chinchilla, Fabio; Alfaro-Cascante, Margarita; Molina, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites, which can be found in feed. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is excreted into milk when ruminants ingest aflatoxin B1 contaminated feedstuffs. Due to its carcinogenic potential, contamination of milk and dairy products with AFM1 may pose a risk for consumers. Hence, it is considered a public health concern. In this survey, the level of AFM1 contamination of dairy products marketed in Costa Rica was determined by enzyme-assisted extraction, immunoaffinity clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescent detector (HPLC-FLD) in fluid milk (n = 70), fresh cheese (n = 70) and sour cream (n = 70) collected at local convenience stores and supermarkets. AFM1 concentrations in milk and fresh cheese ranged from 19 to 629 ng/L and from 31 to 276 ng/L, with mean values of 136 ng/L and 74 ng/L, respectively, whereas none of the sour cream samples analysed tested positive for this aflatoxin. In 30 milk samples, and 10 cheese samples, AFM1 concentrations surpassed threshold concentrations as established by the European Commission. Thus, sour cream and - to a lesser extent - cheese manufacturing seems to reduce the amount of AFM1 present in milk, possibly due to fraction redistribution or microbiological degradation. The survey results reveal improper quality control procedures in the Costa Rican dairy industry. Therefore, a surveillance programme for dairy products in our country is recommended.

  10. X-ray screening seems to reduce gastric cancer mortality by half in a community-controlled trial in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Rosero-Bixby, L; Sierra, R

    2007-01-01

    X-ray screening of gastric cancer is broadly used in Japan, although no controlled trial has proved its effectiveness. This study evaluates the impact of an X-ray screening demonstrative intervention to reduce gastric cancer mortality in a Costa Rican region. The evaluation follows a quasi-experimental, community-controlled design, with measures before and after. About 7000 individuals participated by invitation in the two-wave screening programme. X-ray screening was followed by videoendoscopy and gastric biopsies. Treatment included resection with or without lymph node dissection. Comparisons with two control groups estimate that gastric cancer mortality was halved in the period from 2 to 7 years after the first screening visit. Validity of X-rays as used in this intervention had 88% sensitivity, 80% specificity, and 3% predictive value for individuals with two screening visits. Incidence in the screened group increased up to four times. Case survival was 85% in the intervention group after 5 years, compared to 12% among the controls before the intervention and 35% among the controls in the same region after the intervention. Although X-ray mass screening seems able to reduce stomach cancer mortality, its high cost may be an obstacle for scaling up this intervention in a non-rich country like Costa Rica. PMID:17912238

  11. Elevated asthma morbidity in Puerto Rican children: a review of possible risk and prognostic factors.

    PubMed Central

    Lara, M; Morgenstern, H; Duan, N; Brook, R H

    1999-01-01

    Latino children represent a significant proportion of all US children, and asthma is the most common chronic illness affecting them. Previous research has revealed surprising differences in health among Latino children with asthma of varying countries of family origin. For instance, Puerto Rican children have a higher prevalence of asthma than Mexican American or Cuban American children. In addition, there are important differences in family structure and socioeconomic status among these Latino populations: Cuban Americans have higher levels of education and family income than Mexican-Americans and Puerto Ricans; mainland Puerto Rican children have the highest proportion of households led by a single mother. Our review of past research documents differences in asthma outcomes among Latino children and identifies the possible genetic, environmental, and health care factors associated with these differences. Based on this review, we propose research studies designed to differentiate between mutable and immutable risk and prognostic factors. We also propose that the sociocultural milieus of Latino subgroups of different ethnic and geographic origin are associated with varying patterns of risk factors that in turn lead to different morbidity patterns. Our analysis provides a blue-print for future research, policy development, and the evaluation of multifactorial interventions involving the collaboration of multiple social sectors, such as health care, public health, education, and public and private agencies. PMID:10063393

  12. Association of Types of Life Events with Depressive Symptoms among Puerto Rican Youth

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the association between four types of adverse life events (family environment, separation, social adversity, and death) and the development of depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth. This was a secondary analysis using three waves (2000–2004) of interview data from the Boricua Youth Study of 10–13 year old Puerto Rican youth residing in New York and Puerto Rico with no depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 977). Depressive symptoms increased with an increase in social adversity, separation, death, and death events. Youth support from parents was a significant protective factor for all adverse events and parent coping was a protective factor in social adversity events. Relying on standard diagnostic tools is ideal to identify youth meeting the criteria for a diagnosis of depression but not useful to detect youth who present with subclinical levels of depression. Youth with sub-clinical levels of depression will not get treated and are at increased risk of developing depression later in life. Adverse life events are potentially relevant to use in conjunction with other screening tools to identify Puerto Rican youth who have subclinical depression and are at risk of developing depression in later adolescence. PMID:27788173

  13. Application of DNA fingerprinting to the recovery program of the endangered Puerto Rican parrot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, M.K.; White, B.N.

    1992-01-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot was reduced to 13 animals in 1975 and as a conservation measure, a captive population was established from a few founders taken from the wild between 1973 and 1983. The number of successful breeding pairs in captivity has been !ow, and the captive breeding program has not been as productive as that of the closely related Hispaniolan parrot. Therefore, a genetic study was initiated to examine the relative levels of relatedness of the captive founders using levels of bandsharing in DNA fingerprints. Unrelated captive founder Puerto Rican parrots had the same average level of bandsharing (0.41) as second-degree relatives of the Hispaniolan parrot (0.38, P > 0,05), with an inbreeding coefficient of 0.04. High levels of bandsharing (>40%) between pairs of males and females correlated with reproductive failure, suggesting that inbreeding depression is partly responsible for the !ow number of' breeding pairs. Consequently, DNA profiling can be used to guide the captive breeding program for the Puerto Rican parrot, and other endangered species, by identifying pairs of males and females with low levels of bandsharing.

  14. A synopsis of the genus Ethmia Hübner in Costa Rica: biology, distribution, and description of 22 new species (Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea, Depressariidae, Ethmiinae), with emphasis on the 42 species known from Área de Conservación Guanacaste

    PubMed Central

    Phillips-Rodríguez, Eugenie; Powell, Jerry A.; Hallwachs, Winnie; Janzen, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We discuss 45 Costa Rican species of Ethmia Hübner, 1819, including 23 previously described: Ethmia delliella (Fernald), Ethmia bittenella (Busck), Ethmia festiva Busck, Ethmia scythropa Walsingham, Ethmia perpulchra Walsingham, Ethmia terpnota Walsingham, Ethmia elutella Busck, Ethmia janzeni Powell, Ethmia ungulatella Busck, Ethmia exornata (Zeller), Ethmia phylacis Walsingham, Ethmia mnesicosma Meyrick, Ethmia chemsaki Powell, Ethmia baliostola Walsingham, Ethmia duckworthi Powell, Ethmia sandra Powell, Ethmia nigritaenia Powell, Ethmia catapeltica Meyrick, Ethmia lichyi Powell, Ethmia transversella Busck, Ethmia similatella Busck, Ethmia hammella Busck, Ethmia linda Busck, and 22 new species: Ethmia blaineorum, Ethmia millerorum, Ethmia dianemillerae, Ethmia adrianforsythi, Ethmia stephenrumseyi, Ethmia berndkerni, Ethmia dimauraorum, Ethmia billalleni, Ethmia ehakernae, Ethmia helenmillerae, Ethmia johnpringlei, Ethmia laphamorum, Ethmia petersterlingi, Ethmia lesliesaulae, Ethmia turnerorum, Ethmia normgershenzi, Ethmia nicholsonorum, Ethmia hendersonorum, Ethmia randyjonesi, Ethmia randycurtisi, Ethmia miriamschulmanae and Ethmia tilneyorum. We illustrate all species and their male and female genitalia, along with distribution maps of Costa Rican localities. Immature stages are illustrated for 11 species, and food plants are listed when known. Gesneriaceae is added as a new food plant family record for Ethmia. CO1 nucleotide sequences (“DNA barcodes”) were obtained for 41 of the species. PMID:25561859

  15. Association of depression, psycho-social stress and acculturation with respiratory disease among Puerto Rican adults in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Henkin, Stanislav; Tucker, Katherine L; Gao, Xiang; Falcon, Luis M; Qawi, Imrana; Brugge, Doug

    2011-04-01

    To assess associations between acculturation, depression, and self-reported stress score with reported diagnosis of respiratory disease (RD) in Puerto Rican adults, participants (N = 1,168) were identified from areas of high Hispanic density in the Boston, MA metropolitan area. Eligible participants were interviewed in the home by bilingual interviewers in either Spanish or English. Scales included topics ranging from general background to depressive symptomatology. Respiratory disease was self-reported and checked against prescribed medication. More than one-third (37.8%) of subjects reported doctor-diagnosed RD. A final binary logistical regression model (N = 850), which was adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age, education, poverty) showed that RD was significantly associated with psychological acculturation (OR = 1.97, P = 0.005), depressive symptomatology (OR = 1.52, P = 0.03) high perceived stress score (OR = 1.97, P = 0.009), and current smoking (OR = 1.61, P = 0.03). Significant inverse associations included a high level of language acculturation (OR = 0.65, P = 0.03), light (OR = 0.67, P = 0.01) and moderate to heavy physical activity versus sedentary physical activity (OR = 0.40, P = 0.03). We found self reported physician diagnosed RD was associated with high perceived stress and depression, as well as higher levels of psychological acculturation. Longitudinal research is needed to determine if there is a causal pathway for these associations.

  16. Forests of hope: Costa Rica. Restoring hope in the clouds.

    PubMed

    Bowen, L

    1996-01-01

    The rapid population growth in Central America has created pressure on the largest tract of cloud forest spanning the Talamanca Mountains in Costa Rica and Panama. Of immediate concern is restoring hope in the forest and improving the standard of living among local people. Such is the goal of the Amistad Conservation and Development (AMISCONDE) project in the communities of Cerro Punta, Panama, and San Rafael in Costa Rica. Through agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, environmental education, and community development, AMISCONDE aims to restore the degraded lands in the reserve's buffer zone and improve the income of the people. All the local people, the farmers, women and children have benefited from the project. Some of the activities carried out to meet its objectives include helping the farmers improve the productivity and marketability of their products by teaching them new technologies and giving agricultural credits to farmers, women, and youth groups. In addition, AMISCONDE conducts training courses to address the economic, social and educational needs of women and communities. It is assured that the community and the group will be prepared to continue on their own after the official AMISCONDE office is gone.

  17. Enhancing Outreach using Social Networks at the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkimer, L.; Lücke, O. H.

    2014-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high seismicity rate and geological processes are part of everyday life. Traditionally, information about these processes has been provided by conventional mass media (television and radio). However, due to the new trends in information flow a new approach towards Science Education is necessary for transmitting knowledge from scientific research for the general public in Costa Rica. Since 1973, the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN: UCR-ICE) studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. In this study, we describe the different channels to report earthquake information that the RSN is currently using: email, social networks, and a website, as well as the development of a smartphone application. Since the RSN started actively participating in Social Networks, an increase in awareness in the general public has been noticed particularly regarding felt earthquakes. Based on this trend, we have focused on enhancing public outreach through Social Media. We analyze the demographics and geographic distribution of the RSN Facebook Page, the growth of followers, and the significance of their feedback for reporting intensity data. We observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high Internet connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We noticed that the growth of RSN users on Facebook has a strong correlation with the seismic events as opposed to Twitter that displays a steady growth with no clear correlations with specific seismic events. We see the Social Networks as opportunities to engage non-science audiences and encourage the population to participate in reporting seismic observations, thus providing intensity data. With the increasing access to Internet from mobile phones in Costa Rica, we see this approach to science education as an opportunity

  18. Limited Pollen Dispersal Contributes to Population Genetic Structure but Not Local Adaptation in Quercus oleoides Forests of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Deacon, Nicholas John; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine

    2015-01-01

    Background Quercus oleoides Cham. and Schlect., tropical live oak, is a species of conservation importance in its southern range limit of northwestern Costa Rica. It occurs in high-density stands across a fragmented landscape spanning a contrasting elevation and precipitation gradient. We examined genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure in this geographically isolated and genetically distinct population. We characterized population genetic diversity at 11 nuclear microsatellite loci in 260 individuals from 13 sites. We monitored flowering time at 10 sites, and characterized the local environment in order to compare observed spatial genetic structure to hypotheses of isolation-by-distance and isolation-by-environment. Finally, we quantified pollen dispersal distances and tested for local adaptation through a reciprocal transplant experiment in order to experimentally address these hypotheses. Results High genetic diversity is maintained in the population and the genetic variation is significantly structured among sampled sites. We identified 5 distinct genetic clusters and average pollen dispersal predominately occurred over short distances. Differences among sites in flowering phenology and environmental factors, however, were not strictly associated with genetic differentiation. Growth and survival of upland and lowland progeny in their native and foreign environments was expected to exhibit evidence of local adaptation due to the more extreme dry season in the lowlands. Seedlings planted in the lowland garden experienced much higher mortality than seedlings in the upland garden, but we did not identify evidence for local adaptation. Conclusion Overall, this study indicates that the Costa Rican Q. oleoides population has a rich population genetic history. Despite environmental heterogeneity and habitat fragmentation, isolation-by-distance and isolation-by-environment alone do not explain spatial genetic structure. These results add to studies of genetic

  19. Predicting the Invasion Potential of a Puerto Rican Frog in Hawaii using MODIS Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisrat, S. A.; White, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    The Puerto Rican coqui frog (Eleutherodactylus coqui, hereafter coqui), which was introduced into Hawaii accidentally via commercial nurseries, is an aggressive invasive species in Hawaii. The coqui threatens Hawaii's unique ecological communities because it predates upon endemic invertebrates, which comprise the large majority of Hawaii's endemic fauna. Coqui frogs also affect real estate valuations because of their loud mating calls. Despite this widespread problem, the potential coqui range in Hawaii is currently unknown, making control and management efforts difficult. We fitted linear discriminant analysis (LDA), logistic regression (LR) via generalized linear models (GLMs), generalized additive models (GAMs), classification trees (CTs), random forests (RF), and support vector machine (SVM) to model the species distribution and map their invasion potential. We used five MODIS satellite imagery-derived biophysical variables as explanatory variables: leaf area index (LAI), fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and land surface temperature (LST) from three MODIS products: MOD11 (LST), MOD13 (LAI and FPAR), and MOD15 (Vegetation Index) (collection 4). We used 2000-2005 MODIS data from Aqua and Terra satellites to generate monthly climatologies for each biophysical variable. We collected presence/absence data from Puerto Rico and Hawaii using a 1 km grid overlaid over the entire islands of Puerto Rico and the Island of Hawaii by sampling every other pixel of the grid intersecting with the road network. We then used the dataset from Puerto Rico to train the six models while the Hawaii dataset was used as a test set. All six models predicted the invasion potential of coqui frogs in Hawaii with a moderate success with mean Kappa value of 0.31, mean area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics (AUC) of 0.75 and mean classification

  20. Differences in Learning Styles of Dominican and Puerto Rican Students: We Are Latinos from the Caribbean; Our First Language Is Spanish, However; Our Learning Preferences Are Different

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Torres, Sonia E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Dominican and Puerto Rican students' learning style. Findings of the study demonstrated differences between the learning preferences of Dominican and Puerto Rican students in the elements of Motivation (t = 2.846, p = 0.005), Several Ways of Learning (t = 2.351, p = 0.020), and…

  1. Puerto Rican Bilingual Professionals Parents: Their Expectations, Motivations, and Practices in Support of Their Children's Education and Their Perceptions of Their Children's School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinones, Norma Victoria Cordova Escalera de

    2010-01-01

    This research was designed as a qualitative study as it sought to address Puerto Rican bilingual professional parents' perceptions of their children's school experiences based in North Carolina. In this study, 6 Puerto Rican bilingual professional parents who live in the North Carolina Research Triangle Park (RTP) area were interviewed about their…

  2. Magmatic evolution of the Sarapiqui Miocene Arc, Costa Rica, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazel, E.; Alvarado, G. E.; Carr, M. J.; Obando, J.; Alfaro, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Sarapiqui Miocene Arc (22.2-11.4 Ma) is located in the modern back-arc region of northern Costa Rica, Central America. The arc basement is represented by serpentinized peridotites, Albian silicic pelagites, and Paleocene to Middle Eocene turbidites. Magmatic units vary from basalts to rhyolites and include lavas, pyroclastic deposits, and a few subvolcanic bodies. The magmatic evolution of the Sarapiqui Miocene Arc consists of three distinct stages: 1) Jardin Basalts (22.2 Ma) showing a primary tendency with high MgO, Ni, Cr, and Nb, high initial La/Yb ratios, and low Ba/La which increase with the slab fluids addition; 2) Arrepentidos Basaltic-andesites, Chaparron Pyroclasts, Hito Sar Basalts, Boca Tapada Gabro, and Chamorro Andesites, that represent the island arc evolution from 17.2 to 11.4 Ma; and 3) Crucitas Rhyolites (14.3 Ma) characterizated by low TiO2 and very high Ba/La ratios represent non-cogenetic, but contemporaneous felsic magmas produced by remelting of pre-existing intrusives. The REE patterns indicate a plagioclase rich, amphibole bearing source for this last unit. The Zr/Nb ratios (7-36) are evidence of the coalescing of a minor OIB source with a dominant MORB source, both modified by subduction. 87Sr/86Sr correlate positively with Ba/La; however, they are still within the OIB field. An inverse model using the REEs of the mafic units is consistent with a source mantle composition of garnet peridotite. All but one of the units show LILE enrichments and HFSE depletions typical of the island arc environment. The exception is a suite of near primary magmas, included in the Jardin Basalts, which probably originated by decompression melting. The Ba/La and La/Yb ratios of the Sarapiqui Miocene Arc are very similar to those of the modern Northern Costa Rican Arc, suggesting that the subduction fluid composition and the degree of partial melting have not changed significantly in the last 20 Ma.

  3. Bacterial contamination of automotive fuels in a tropical region: the case of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn; Blanco, Rigoberto

    2009-09-01

    Microbial contamination of fuel has been the cause of several problems in transportation and storage of these products. Due to the lack of previous studies related to these problems in Costa Rica, bacterial quality was evaluated biannually in automotive fuels stored in the four oil distribution facilities of the Costa Rican Petroleum Refinery (RECOPE). In 12 oil storage tanks, for a total of 96 samples, mesophilic, heterotrophic aerobic/facultative counts (ASTM D6974-04) and identification of bacteria presented in regular gas, premium gas and diesel from the bottom and superior part of the tanks were done; in the samples containing an aqueous phase, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were also quantified by the most probable number technique (MPN), according to the ASTM D4412-84 standard. The higher contamination was shown at the bottom of the tanks (populations up to 10(4) UFC/l), especially if there was accumulated water, in which case populations reached 10(8) UFC/l. The most contaminated fuel was diesel (counts up to 10(4) UFC/l), whereas the less contaminated was premium gas. The less contaminated fuels were from the facilities of La Garita and Barranca, whereas the most contaminated were from Ochomogo. Nevertheless, the quantified populations did not cause significant alteration in quality physicochemical parameters in the samples analyzed. A total of 149 bacterial strains were isolated, 136 (91.3%) Gram positive and 13 (8.7%) Gram negative. The most frequent genera were Staphylococcus (24.0%), Micrococcus (21.9%), Bacillus (18.8%) and Kocuria (11.5%) among Gram positive bacteria and Pseudomonas (7.3%) among Gram negative bacteria. The majority of these genera have been found as fuel contaminants or even as degraders of this kind of products; nevertheless, some species for which their appearance or growth in hydrocarbons have not been described were found with low frequencies. SRB were present in counts up to 10(5) MPN/l in 42.9% of water containing samples

  4. Downstream effects of hydropower production on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in two rivers in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Ulloa, Ramsa; Umaña-Villalobos, Gerardo; Springer, Monika

    2014-04-01

    Despite the fact that little is known about the consequences of hydropower production in tropical areas, many large dams (> 15 m high) are currently under construction or consideration in the tropics. We researched the effects of large hydroelectric dams on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in two Costa Rican rivers. We measured physicochemical characteristics and sampled aquatic macroinvertebrates from March 2003 to March 2004 in two dammed rivers, Peñas Blancas and San Lorenzo, as well as in the undammed Chachagua River. Sites above and below the dam had differences in their physicochemical variables, with wide variation and extreme values in variables measured below the dam in the San Lorenzo River. Sites below the dams had reduced water discharges, velocities, and depths when compared with sites above the dams, as well as higher temperatures and conductivity. Sites above dams were dominated by collector-gatherer-scrapers and habitat groups dominated by swimmer-clingers, while sites below dams had a more even representation of groups. In contrast, a comparison between two sites at different elevation in the undammed river maintained a similar assemblage composition. Tributaries might facilitate macroinvertebrate recovery above the turbine house, but the assemblage below the turbine house resembled the one below the dam. A massive sediment release event from the dam decreased the abundance per sample and macroinvertebrate taxa below the dam in the Peñas Blancas River. Our study illustrates the effects of hydropower production on neotropical rivers, highlighting the importance of using multiple measures of macroinvertebrate assemblage structure for assessing this type of environmental impact.

  5. [Forest and population at Península de Osa, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Maldonado-Ulloa, Tirso; Bonilla-Carrión, Roger

    2002-06-01

    The research is focused on the relationship between population growth and conservation of the forest on the Osa Peninsula. Data of the geo-referenced censuses and information on land-use, derived from satellite images and aerial photography, were integrated into a GIS. We undertook an historical inventory of the changes in the population and the forest coverage, and the key events in the land tenure and economy of the region. Deforestation, reforestation, and fragmentation of the forest during the period 1980-1995 were analyzed. Relationships with the population potential, derived from the 1984 Costa Rican censuses, were identified, and the effects of third variables were controlled such as distances to the roads, rain, distances to the forest frontier, level of protection, etc. Both strong and significant associations between 1984 population potential and the three processes were detected. The probability of deforestation is null in unpopulated areas, 35% in areas with 25-30 potential farmers and to 65% in areas with 50 farmers and over. The probability of reforestation decreases from 100% to 28% and to 18% in these three categories. This kind of relationship persists in the multivariable analysis. An increase of 0.63% in the number of household, results in an increment of 1% in the risk of deforestation (elasticity). The elasticity in the chances of reforestation is -0.37 and 1% in fragmentation of the forest. An evaluation in the risk of deforestation for the period 1995-2005 was done. The most recent population data were used and it identifies several geographic areas with high deforestation risk.

  6. Symbiont polyphyly, co-evolution, and necessity in pentatomid stinkbugs from Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Bistolas, Kalia S. I.; Sakamoto, Reid I.; Fernandes, José A. M.; Goffredi, Shana K.

    2014-01-01

    Interdomain symbioses with bacteria allow insects to take advantage of underutilized niches and provide the foundation for their evolutionary success in neotropical ecosystems. The gut microbiota of 13 micro-allopatric tropical pentatomid species, from a Costa Rican lowland rainforest, was characterized and compared with insect and host plant phylogenies. Like other families within the Pentatomomorpha, these insects (within seven genera—Antiteuchus, Arvelius, Edessa, Euschistus, Loxa, Mormidea, and Sibaria) house near-monocultures of gamma-proteobacteria in midgut crypts, comprising three distinct lineages within the family Enterobacteriaceae. Identity of the dominant bacteria (78–100% of the recovered 16S rRNA genes) was partially congruent with insect phylogeny, at the level of subfamily and tribe, with bacteria closely related to Erwinia observed in six species of the subfamily Pentatominae, and bacteria in a novel clade of Enterobacteriaceae for seven species within the subfamilies Edessinae and Discocephalinae. Symbiont replacement (i.e., bacterial “contamination” from the environment) may occur during maternal transmission by smearing of bacteria onto the egg surfaces during oviposition. This transmission strategy was experimentally confirmed for Sibaria englemani, and suspected for four species from two subfamilies, based on observation of egg probing by nymphs. Symbiont-deprived S. englemani, acquired via egg surface sterilization, exhibited significantly extended second instars (9.1 days compared with 7.9 days for symbiotic nymphs; p = 0.0001, Wilcoxon's rank with Bonferroni correction), slower linearized growth rates (p = 0.005, Welch 2-sample t-test), and qualitative differences in ceca morphology, including increased translucency of crypts, elongation of extracellular cavities, and distribution of symbionts, compared to symbiotic nymphs. Combined, these results suggest a role of the symbiont in host development, the reliable transference of

  7. Dating, marriage, and parenthood for HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men: normalizing perspectives on everyday life with HIV.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Francisco; Sheehan, Diana M; Gonzalez, Arnaldo

    2015-03-01

    HIV-positive men are living long and healthier lives while managing HIV as a chronic illness. Although research has extensively documented the experiences of illness of people living with HIV, dating, marriage, and fatherhood among heterosexual Latino men has not been examined. To address this gap, this study used a qualitative study design to examine patterns and strategies for dating, marriage, and parenthood among 24 HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men living in Boston. The findings in our study indicate that an HIV diagnosis does not necessarily deter men from having an active sexual life, marrying, or having children. In fact, for some of the men, engaging in these social and life-changing events is part of moving on and normalizing life with HIV; these men planned for, achieved, and interpreted these events in the context of establishing normalcy with HIV. Although the HIV diagnosis discouraged some men from engaging in sexual relations, getting married, or having children, others fulfilled these desires with strategies aimed to reconciling their HIV status in their personal life, including dating or marrying HIV-positive women only. Additional important themes identified in this study include the decision to disclose HIV status to new sexual partners as well as the decision to accept the risk of HIV transmission to a child or partner in order to fulfill desires of fatherhood. Understanding the personal struggles, decision-making patterns, and needs of HIV-positive heterosexual men can aid in designing interventions that support healthy living with HIV.

  8. Exploring the role of ethnic identity on the attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among Puerto Ricans: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Calo, William A; Fernández, Maria E; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Colón-López, Vivian

    2015-02-01

    Despite the existence of guidelines recommending vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) and widespread availability of the vaccine through the Vaccines for Children program, HPV vaccination rates among island Puerto Ricans are suboptimal. Advertising plays a central role in promoting HPV vaccination by increasing awareness of and knowledge about the vaccine; however, little is known about the influence of cultural factors on the impact of HPV messages delivered through the media. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the role of ethnic identity on the attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among island Puerto Ricans. Five focus groups (n = 23) were conducted with parents and non-vaccinated females. Our analysis found several themes that may influence attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among this population: physical ethnic similarity, relevance of information, and sociocultural congruence. Findings may assist in developing culturally appropriate health promotion programs and media to promote HPV vaccination among Puerto Ricans.

  9. Blood lead levels of 4-11-year-old Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban children.

    PubMed Central

    Carter-Pokras, O; Pirkle, J; Chavez, G; Gunter, E

    1990-01-01

    Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to estimate arithmetic mean blood lead and percent with elevated blood lead [25 micrograms per deciliter (micrograms per dl) or greater] for 4-11-year-old Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban children. The sample size was 1,390 for Mexican American children, 397 for Puerto Rican children, and 114 for Cuban children. Puerto Rican children had the highest mean blood lead levels (11.5 micrograms per dl), followed by Mexican American children (10.4 micrograms per dl) and Cuban children (8.6 micrograms per dl, P less than .05). Puerto Rican children had the highest percent with elevated blood lead (2.7 percent); 1.6 percent of Mexican American children had elevated blood lead; less than 1 percent (0.9 percent) of the Cuban children had elevated blood lead (P less than .05). Mexican American girls had a lower mean blood lead level than did boys: 9.7 micrograms per dl versus 11.0 micrograms per dl (P less than .05). For both Puerto Rican and Mexican American children, younger age indicated a higher risk of having elevated blood lead levels. Mexican American children who lived in poverty had higher mean blood lead levels than did Mexican American children who did not live in poverty--11.6 micrograms per dl versus 9.6 micrograms per dl (P less than .05). Despite advances in primary prevention of lead toxicity in children during the past 10 years, many Hispanic children are at risk of lead toxicity. Approximately 19,000 Mexican American 4-11-year-old children living in the Southwest and approximately 8,000 Puerto Rican children living in the New York City area had elevated blood lead levels (greater than or equal to 25 micrograms per dl) during 1982-84. PMID:2116641

  10. Acculturation and Adverse Birth Outcomes in a Predominantly Puerto Rican Population

    PubMed Central

    de Mendoza, Veronica Barcelona; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latinas in the United States on average have poorer birth outcomes than Whites, yet considerable heterogeneity exists within Latinas. Puerto Ricans have some of the highest rates of adverse outcomes and are understudied. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation was associated with adverse birth outcomes in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted from 2006 to 2011. A convenience sample of pregnant Latina women were recruited from a tertiary care hospital in Massachusetts. Acculturation was measured in early pregnancy; directly via the Psychological Acculturation Scale, and via proxies of language preference and generation in the United States. Birth outcomes (gestational age and birthweight) were abstracted from medical records (n = 1362). Results After adjustment, psychological acculturation, language preference, and generation was not associated with odds of preterm birth. However, every unit increase in psychological acculturation score was associated with an increase in gestational age of 0.22 weeks (SE = 0.1, p = 0.04) among all births. Women who preferred to speak Spanish (β = −0.39, SE = 0.2, p = 0.02) and who were first generation in the US (β = −0.33, SE = 0.1, p = 0.02) had significantly lower gestational ages than women who preferred English or who were later generation, respectively. Similarly, women who were first generation had babies who weighed 76.11 g less (SE = 35.2, p = 0.03) than women who were later generation. Discussion We observed a small, but statistically significant adverse impact of low acculturation on gestational age and birthweight in this predominantly Puerto Rican population. PMID:26694041

  11. CCR5 chemokine receptor genotype frequencies among Puerto Rican HIV-1-seropositive individuals.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, S; Tirado, G; Revuelta, G; Yamamura, Y; Lu, Y; Nerurkar, V R; Yanagihara, R

    1998-01-01

    Some individuals remain uninfected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), despite multiple sexual contacts with subjects with confirmed HIV-1 infection. Several studies have confirmed that individuals who are homozygous for a 32 base pair (bp) deletion mutation in the chemokine receptor gene CCR5, designated as delta 32/ delta 32, are protected against HIV-1 infection. Heterozygotes of the same chemokine receptor deletion mutation are, however, not protected from acquiring HIV-1 infection but seemingly have slower progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndromes (AIDS). Genotype frequencies of the delta 32 CCR5 mutation vary markedly among different ethnic groups; heterozygosity is found in approximately 15% of Caucasians, about 5-7% of Hispanics and African Americans and 1% or less of Asians. The ethnic background of Puerto Ricans is highly complex and usually includes admixture of Caucasian, Caribbean Indian and African traits to a varying extent. This study was conducted to examine the frequencies of the delta 32 CCR5 mutation among Puerto Ricans who are infected with HIV-1. Samples were received from different geographical regions of the island. Of 377 samples tested, 94.2% were wild type (non-deletion mutant) homozygotes, 5.8% were delta 32 CCR5 heterozygotes, and none were delta 32 CCR5 homozygotes. The incidence of CCR5 delta 32/w heterozygous mutation among Puerto Ricans seems to be somewhat lower than what was reported with US Hispanics. Some age and gender associated bias of the mutation frequency were observed with the study population, the reason for which is unclear at present.

  12. Infant mortality, season of birth and the health of older Puerto Rican adults.

    PubMed

    McEniry, Mary

    2011-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of heart disease and diabetes among aging populations in low and middle income countries leads to questions regarding the degree to which endogenous early life exposures (exposures in utero) are important determinants of these health conditions. We devised a test using infant mortality (IMR) to verify if season of birth is a good indicator of early life (in utero) conditions that precipitate adult onset of disease. We linked annual IMR at the municipality (municipio) level from the late 1920s to early 1940s with individual birth year and place using a representative sample of older Puerto Rican adults (n = 1447) from the Puerto Rican Elderly: Health Conditions (PREHCO) study. We estimated the effects of season of birth on adult heart disease and diabetes for all respondents and then for respondents according to whether they were born when IMR was lower or higher, controlling for age, gender, obesity, respondent's educational level, adult behavior (smoking and exercise) and other early life exposures (childhood health, knee height and childhood socioeconomic status (SES)). The pattern of effects suggests that season of birth reflects endogenous causes: (1) odds of heart disease and diabetes were strong and significant for those born during the lean season in years when IMR was lower; (2) effects remained consistent even after controlling for other childhood conditions and adult behavior; but (3) no seasonality effects on adult health for adults born when IMR was higher. We conclude that in this population of older Puerto Rican adults there is continued support that the timing of adverse endogenous (in utero) conditions such as poor nutrition and infectious diseases is associated with adult heart disease and diabetes. It will be important to test the validity of these findings in other similar populations in the developing world.

  13. Association of child maltreatment and depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth.

    PubMed

    Jaschek, Graciela; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; He, Xin; Lee, Sunmin; Canino, Glorisa

    2016-08-01

    This article compares multiple types of child maltreatment among Puerto Rican youth. We seek to expand the limited knowledge of the effects of multiple types of maltreatment on depressive symptoms in a specific Latino population as emerging studies indicate that children who are exposed to one type of maltreatment are often exposed to other types. This study examines the predictive strength of different and multiple types of lifetime child maltreatment (i.e., physical, sexual, and emotional abuse; and neglect), and the effect of youth support from parents, youth coping, youth self-esteem, and place of residence on depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth. Secondary data analyses were performed using three annual waves (2000-2004) of data from the Boricua Youth Study. The analytic sample consists of 1041 10-13 year old Puerto Rican youth living in New York and Puerto Rico. Results indicate that: (1) youth who experienced 'sexual abuse only', 'multiple maltreatment' (2 or more types of maltreatment), 'physical abuse only' have a significant increase in depressive symptoms (75.1%, 61.6%, and 40.5% respectively) compared to those without maltreatment; and (2) place of residence, exposure to violence, and mental disorders were significant risk factors. When developing psychosocial interventions, professionals should particularly focus on youth who report past lifetime experience with child maltreatment. Particular attention should be given to children living in the Bronx, New York and similar urban low-income areas who report past lifetime experience with multiple types of child maltreatment and who present symptoms or a diagnosis of co-occurring mental health problems.

  14. The chemical and hydrologic structure of Poas volcano, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, G.L.; Brantley, S.L.; Fernandez, J.F.; Borgia, A.

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of the chemical characteristics of spring and river water draining the flanks of Poas Volcano, Costa Rica indicates that acid chloride sulfate springs of the northwestern flank of the volcano are derived by leakage and mixing of acid brines formed in the summit hydrothermal system with dilute flank groundwater. Acid chloride sulfate waters of the Rio Agrio drainage basin on the northwestern flank are the only waters on Poas that are affected by leakage of acid brines from the summit hydrothermal system. Acid sulfate waters found on the northwestern flank are produced by the interaction of surface and shallow groundwater with dry and wet acid deposition of SO2 and H2SO4 aerosols, respectively. The acid deposition is caused by a plume of acid gases that is released by a shallow magma body located beneath the active crater of Poas. -from Authors

  15. Individual and group CBT and IPT for Puerto Rican adolescents with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rosselló, Jeannette; Bernal, Guillermo; Rivera-Medina, Carmen

    2008-07-01

    This study compared individual (I) to group (G) formats of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for the treatment of depression in adolescents. One hundred and 12 Puerto Rican adolescents were randomized to four conditions (CBT-I, CBT-G, IPT-I, IPT-G). Participants were assessed at pretreatment and posttreatment with structured interviews to establish diagnosis and with self-report measures to assess treatment outcome. The results suggest that CBT and IPT are robust treatments in both group and individual formats. However, CBT produced significantly greater decreases in depressive symptoms and improved self-concept than IPT. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Social and economic factors associated with recent and lifetime incarceration among Puerto Rican drug users.

    PubMed

    de Saxe Zerden, Lisa; Lundgren, Lena M; Chassler, Deborah; Horowitz, Amanda C; Adorno, Elpidio; Purington, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 280 Puerto Rican drug users with a history of incarceration residing in Massachusetts, we explore whether a significant association exists between social and economic factors (maintaining social network contacts, receiving public assistance) and lifetime incarceration. Analysis of survey data using regression methods shows that respondents who live in their own home, receive public assistance, and have recent familial contact are significantly less likely to have been incarcerated in the past 6 months. Among study participants, men and those who initiated heroin use at younger ages are more likely to have greater lifetime incarceration totals. Practice implications are discussed.

  17. Granular cell tumor in an endangered Puerto Rican Amazon parrot (Amazon vittata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quist, C.F.; Latimer, K.S.; Goldade, S.L.; Rivera, A.; Dein, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    A 3 cm diameter mass from the metacarpus of a Puerto Rican Amazon parrot was diagnosed as a granular cell tumour based on light microscopy. The cytoplasmic granules were periodic-acid Schiff positive and diastase resistant. Ultrastructural characteristics of the cells included convoluted nuclei and the presence of numerous cytoplasmic tertiary lysosomes. This is only the second granular cell tumour reported in a bird. We speculate that most granular cell tumours are derived from cells that are engaged in some type of cellular degradative process, creating a similar morphologic appearance, but lacking a uniform histogenesis.

  18. Surveys of Puerto Rican screech-owl populations in large-tract and fragmented forest habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pardieck, K.L.; Meyers, J.M.; Pagan, M.

    1996-01-01

    We conducted road surveys of Puerto Rican Screech-Owls (Otus nudipes) by playing conspecific vocalizations in secondary wet forest and fragmented secondary moist forest in rural areas of eastern Puerto Rico. Six paired surveys were conducted bi-weekly beginning in April. We recorded number of owl responses, cloud cover, wind speed, moon phase, and number of passing cars during 5-min stops at 60 locations. Owls responded in similar numbers (P > 0.05) in both habitat types. Also, we detected no association with cloud cover, wind speed, moon phase, or passing cars.

  19. GPS Monitoring of Subduction Zone Deformation in Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundgren, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The subduction of the Cocos plate beneath Costa Rica is among the highest convergence rates in the world. The high subduction rate and nearness of the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica to the Middle America Trench (MAT) provide a unique opportunity to map variations in interseismic strain of the crust above the seismogenic zone in response to variations in seismic coupling.

  20. Sustainability and Peace in Costa Rica: The Case of University of Costa Rica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segreda, Alejandrina Mata

    2002-01-01

    This article describes initiatives at the University of Costa Rica, which, in combination with national programs, have strengthened the country's commitment to sustainable development over the past 15 years. It discusses the University's role in defining a national perspective on sustainability starting in 1987, as well as the evolution of the…