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Sample records for active deformation mechanism

  1. Sensing surface mechanical deformation using active probes driven by motor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Daisuke; Nitta, Takahiro; Kabir, Arif Md. Rashedul; Sada, Kazuki; Gong, Jian Ping; Konagaya, Akihiko; Kakugo, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Studying mechanical deformation at the surface of soft materials has been challenging due to the difficulty in separating surface deformation from the bulk elasticity of the materials. Here, we introduce a new approach for studying the surface mechanical deformation of a soft material by utilizing a large number of self-propelled microprobes driven by motor proteins on the surface of the material. Information about the surface mechanical deformation of the soft material is obtained through changes in mobility of the microprobes wandering across the surface of the soft material. The active microprobes respond to mechanical deformation of the surface and readily change their velocity and direction depending on the extent and mode of surface deformation. This highly parallel and reliable method of sensing mechanical deformation at the surface of soft materials is expected to find applications that explore surface mechanics of soft materials and consequently would greatly benefit the surface science. PMID:27694937

  2. Sensing surface mechanical deformation using active probes driven by motor proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Daisuke; Nitta, Takahiro; Kabir, Arif Md. Rashedul; Sada, Kazuki; Gong, Jian Ping; Konagaya, Akihiko; Kakugo, Akira

    2016-10-01

    Studying mechanical deformation at the surface of soft materials has been challenging due to the difficulty in separating surface deformation from the bulk elasticity of the materials. Here, we introduce a new approach for studying the surface mechanical deformation of a soft material by utilizing a large number of self-propelled microprobes driven by motor proteins on the surface of the material. Information about the surface mechanical deformation of the soft material is obtained through changes in mobility of the microprobes wandering across the surface of the soft material. The active microprobes respond to mechanical deformation of the surface and readily change their velocity and direction depending on the extent and mode of surface deformation. This highly parallel and reliable method of sensing mechanical deformation at the surface of soft materials is expected to find applications that explore surface mechanics of soft materials and consequently would greatly benefit the surface science.

  3. Mechanics of dielectric elastomer-activated deformable transmission grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yin; Zhou, Jinxiong; Sun, Wenjie; Wu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Ling

    2014-09-01

    Laminating a thin layer of elastomeric grating on the surface of a prestretched dielectric elastomer (DE) membrane forms a basic design of electrically tunable transmission grating. We analyze the inhomogeneous deformation of a circular multiple-region configuration. Variation of the geometric and material parameters, as well as of the critical condition determined by loss of tension instability, is probed to aid the design of a DE-based deformable grating. The predicted changes in the grating period agree substantially with the experimental results reported by Aschwanden et al (Aschwanden et al 2007 IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19 1090).

  4. Cyclic mechanical deformation stimulates human lung fibroblast proliferation and autocrine growth factor activity.

    PubMed

    Bishop, J E; Mitchell, J J; Absher, P M; Baldor, L; Geller, H A; Woodcock-Mitchell, J; Hamblin, M J; Vacek, P; Low, R B

    1993-08-01

    Cellular hypertrophy and hyperplasia and increased extracellular matrix deposition are features of tissue hypertrophy resulting from increased work load. It is known, for example, that mechanical forces play a critical role in lung development, cardiovascular remodeling following pressure overload, and skeletal muscle growth. The mechanisms involved in these processes, however, remain unclear. Here we examined the effect of mechanical deformation on fibroblast function in vitro. IMR-90 human fetal lung fibroblasts grown on collagen-coated silastic membranes were subjected to cyclical mechanical deformation (10% increase in culture surface area; 1 Hz) for up to 5 days. Cell number was increased by 39% after 2 days of deformation (1.43 +/- .01 x 10(5) cells/membrane compared with control, 1.03 +/- 0.02 x 10(5) cells; mean +/- SEM; P < 0.02) increasing to 163% above control by 4 days (2.16 +/- 0.16 x 10(5) cells compared with 0.82 +/- 0.03 x 10(5) cells; P < 0.001). The medium from mechanically deformed cells was mitogenic for IMR-90 cells, with maximal activity in the medium from cells mechanically deformed for 2 days (stimulating cell replication by 35% compared with media control; P < 0.002). These data suggest that mechanical deformation stimulates human lung fibroblast replication and that this effect is mediated by the release of autocrine growth factors.

  5. Failure and deformation mechanisms at macro- and nano-scales of alkali activated clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhar Das, Pradip; Bhattacharya, Manjima; Chanda, Dipak Kr; Dalui, Srikanta; Acharya, Saikat; Ghosh, Swapankumar; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Here we report two qualitative models on failure and deformation mechanisms at macro- and nano-scales of alkali activated clay (AACL), a material of extraordinary importance as a low cost building material. The models were based on experimental data of compressive failure and nanoindentation response of the AACL materials. A 420% improvement in compressive strength (σ c) of the AACL was achieved after 28 days (d) of curing at room temperature and it correlated well with the decrements in the residual alkali and pH concentrations with the increase in curing time. Based on extensive post-mortem FE-SEM examinations, a schematic model for the compressive failure mechanism of AACL was proposed. In addition, the nanoindentation results of AACL provided the first ever experimental evidence of the presence of nano-scale plasticity and a nano-scale contact deformation resistance that increased with the applied load. These results meant the development of a unique strain tolerant microstructure in the AACL of Indian origin. The implications of these new observations were discussed in terms of a qualitative model based on the deformation of layered clay structure.

  6. Exhumed analogues of seismically active carbonate-bearing thrusts: fault architecture and deformation mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesei, T.; Collettini, C.; Viti, C.; Barchi, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    In May 2012 a M = 5.9 earthquake followed by a long aftershock sequence struck the Northern Italy. The sequence occurred at 4-10 km depth within the active front of Northern Apennines Prism and the major events nucleate within, or propagate through, a thick sequence of carbonates. In an inner sector of the Northern Apennines, ancient carbonate-bearing thrusts exposed at the surface, represent exhumed analogues of structures generating seismicity in the active front. Here we document fault architecture and deformation mechanisms of three regional carbonate bearing thrusts with displacement of several kilometers and exhumation in the range of 1-4 km. Fault zone structure and deformation mechanisms are controlled by the lithology of the faulted rocks. In layered limestones and marly-limestones the fault zone is up to 200 m thick and is characterized by intense pressure solution. In massive limestones the deformation generally occurs along thin and sharp slip planes that are in contact with fault portions affected by either cataclasis or pressure solution. SEM and TEM observations show that pressure solution surfaces, made of smectite lamellae, with time tend to form an interconnected network affected by frictional sliding. Sharp slipping planes along massive limestones show localization along Y shear planes that separate an extremely comminuted cataclasites from an almost undeformed protolith. The comparison of the three shear zones depicts a fault zone structure extremely heterogeneous as the result of protolith lithology, geometrical complexities and the presence of inherited structures. We observe the competition between brittle (cataclasis, distributed frictional sliding along phyllosilicates and extremely localized slip within carbonates) and pressure solution processes, that suggest a multi-mode of slip behaviour. Extreme localization along carbonate-bearing Y shear planes is our favorite fault zone feature representing past seismic ruptures along the studied

  7. The role of mechanical heterogeneities in evaporite sequence during deformation initiated by basement fault activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamuszek, Marta; Dabrowski, Marcin; Burliga, Stanisław

    2016-04-01

    Kłodawa Salt Structure (KSS) situated in the centre of the Polish Zechstein Basin started to rise above a basement fault in the Early Triassic. Geological studies of the KSS revealed significant differences in the deformation patterns between the PZ1-PZ2 (intensely deformed) and PZ3-PZ4 (less deformed) cycle evaporites. These two older and two younger cycle evaporite complexes are separated by the thick Main Anhydrite (A3) bed. We use numerical simulations to assess the impact of a thick anhydrite bed on intrasalt deformation. In our models, the overburden consists of clastic sediments. A normal fault located in the rigid basement beneath the salt is activated due to model extension. At the same time, the sedimentation process takes place. The evaporites consist of a salt bed intercalated with a thick anhydrite layer of varying position and geometry. To understand the role of anhydrite layer, we run comparative simulations, in which no anhydrite layer is present. In the study, we use our own numerical codes implemented in MATLAB combined with the MILAMIN and MUTILS numerical packages. Our investigations revealed a significant influence of the anhydrite on deformation style in the evaporate series. The supra-anhydrite domain is characterized by weaker deformation and lower rates of salt flow in comparison to the sub-anhydrite domain. The highest contrast in the rate of salt flow between the two domains is observed in the case of the anhydrite layer situated close to the bottom of the salt complex. The thick anhydrite layer additionally diminishes the deformation rate in the supra-anhydrite domain and can lead to detachment of the basement deformation from its overlay. Our numerical simulations showed that the presence of the A3 Main Anhydrite bed could be the dominant factor responsible for the decoupling of deformation in the KSS salt complex.

  8. Deformation mechanisms in experimentally deformed Boom Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbois, Guillaume; Schuck, Bernhard; Urai, Janos

    2016-04-01

    Bulk mechanical and transport properties of reference claystones for deep disposal of radioactive waste have been investigated since many years but little is known about microscale deformation mechanisms because accessing the relevant microstructure in these soft, very fine-grained, low permeable and low porous materials remains difficult. Recent development of ion beam polishing methods to prepare high quality damage free surfaces for scanning electron microscope (SEM) is opening new fields of microstructural investigation in claystones towards a better understanding of the deformation behavior transitional between rocks and soils. We present results of Boom Clay deformed in a triaxial cell in a consolidated - undrained test at a confining pressure of 0.375 MPa (i.e. close to natural value), with σ1 perpendicular to the bedding. Experiments stopped at 20 % strain. As a first approximation, the plasticity of the sample can be described by a Mohr-Coulomb type failure envelope with a coefficient of cohesion C = 0.117 MPa and an internal friction angle ϕ = 18.7°. After deformation test, the bulk sample shows a shear zone at an angle of about 35° from the vertical with an offset of about 5 mm. We used the "Lamipeel" method that allows producing a permanent absolutely plane and large size etched micro relief-replica in order to localize and to document the shear zone at the scale of the deformed core. High-resolution imaging of microstructures was mostly done by using the BIB-SEM method on key-regions identified after the "Lamipeel" method. Detailed BIB-SEM investigations of shear zones show the following: the boundaries between the shear zone and the host rock are sharp, clay aggregates and clastic grains are strongly reoriented parallel to the shear direction, and the porosity is significantly reduced in the shear zone and the grain size is smaller in the shear zone than in the host rock but there is no evidence for broken grains. Comparison of microstructures

  9. Preferred orientation in experimentally deformed stishovite: implications for deformation mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaercher, P. M.; Zepeda-Alarcon, E.; Prakapenka, V.; Kanitpanyacharoen, W.; Smith, J.; Sinogeikin, S. V.; Wenk, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    The crystal structure of the high pressure SiO2 polymorph stishovite has been studied in detail, yet little is known about its deformation mechanisms. Information about how stishovite deforms under stress is important for understanding subduction of quartz-bearing crustal rocks into the mantle. Particularly, stishovite is elastically anisotropic and thus development of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) during deformation may contribute to seismic anomalies in the mantle. We converted a natural sample of flint to stishovite in a laser heated diamond anvil cell and compressed the stishovite aggregate up to 38 GPa. Diffraction patterns were collected in situ in radial geometry at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to examine development of CPO during deformation. We find that (001) poles preferentially align with the compression direction and infer deformation mechanisms leading to the observed CPO with visco-plastic self consistent (VPSC) polycrystal plasticity models. Our results show pyramidal and basal slip are most likely active at high pressure and ambient temperature, in agreement with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of rutile (TiO2) and paratellurite (TeO2), which are isostructural to stishovite. Conversely other TEM studies of stishovite done at higher temperature suggest dominant prismatic slip. This indicates that a variety of slip systems may be active in stishovite, depending on conditions. As a result, stishovite's contribution to the seismic signature in the mantle may vary as a function of pressure and temperature and thus depth.

  10. Imaging active faults in a region of distributed deformation from joint focal mechanism and hypocenter clustering: Application to western Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, S.; Lima, V.; Vales, D.; Carrilho, F.; Cesca, S.

    2015-12-01

    Mainland Portugal, on the SW edge of the European continent, is located directly north of the boundary between the Eurasian and Nubian plates. It lies in a region of slow lithospheric deformation, which has generated some of the largest earthquakes in Europe, both intraplate (mainland) and interplate (offshore). The seismicity of mainland Portugal and its adjacent offshore has been repeatedly classified as diffuse. We analyse the instrumental earthquake catalog for western Iberia, enriched with data from recent dense broadband deployments. We show that although the plate boundary south of Portugal is diffuse, in that deformation is accommodated along several distributed faults rather than along one long linear plate boundary, the seismicity itself is not diffuse. Rather, when located using high quality data, earthquakes collapse into well-defined clusters and lineations. We then present a new joint focal mechanism and hypocenter cluster algorithm that is able to extract coherent information between hypocenter locations and focal mechanisms. We apply the method to the Azores-western Mediterranean region, with emphasis on western Iberia. In addition to identifying well-known seismo-tectonic features, the joint clustering algorithm identifies eight new clusters of earthquakes with a good match between the directions of epicentre lineations and focal mechanism fault planes. These clusters may signal single active faults or wider fault zones accommodating a consistent type of faulting. Mainland Portugal is dominated by strike-slip faulting, consistent with the NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE oriented lineations. The region offshore SW Iberia displays clusters that are either predominantly strike-slip or reverse, indicating slip partitioning. This work shows that the study of low-magnitude earthquakes using dense seismic deployments is a powerful tool to study lithospheric deformation in slowly deforming regions, where high-magnitude earthquakes occur with long recurrence intervals.

  11. Supersymmetric q-deformed quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Traikia, M. H.; Mebarki, N.

    2012-06-27

    A supersymmetric q-deformed quantum mechanics is studied in the weak deformation approximation of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra. The corresponding supersymmetric q-deformed hamiltonians and charges are constructed explicitly.

  12. Mechanics of Magnetostrictive Thin Film Deformation and its Application in Active X-ray Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoli

    High quality imaging system of telescopes in astronomy requires innovations to remove or correct the mid-spatial frequency (MSF) ripples on the mirror surface of lightweight optics. When the telescope is sent to the space, its launch mass is the key point to limit its collecting area. Therefore, the lightweight optics (100-150 mum thick electroplated nickel/cobalt, or 200-400 mum thick glass) is considered to be employed. However, the surface profile of the thin optical surface can't be polished to extremely high accuracy. Instead, the profile is expected to be corrected by applying voltage or magnetic field to drive the coating of smart materials (piezo or magnetostrictive materials) on the back side of the mirrors. During the process, the surface profile correction by the local stress on the 2-d surface is challenging. Both the measurements and the theoretical prediction of the surface profiles after correction are investigated. As a first step in the development of tools to predict the deformation of the coated glass strip samples (20x5x0.1 mm), one commercial magnetically smart material (MSM) was deposited on the samples by the magnetron sputtering method. One experimental setup was established to measure the deflections of these coated samples under an external magnetic field by Zygo NewView white light interferometry (WLI). These deflections agreed well with the results from the developed analytical and numerical analysis under various magnetic field strengths. In the further research, more efforts were made to analyze the full three-dimensional deformation behavior of MSM thin films on a square glass sample (50x50x0.2 mm). With the magnetic field applied, the 2-d surface profile of the coated glass sample was measured by WLI. To better study the deformation of the sample coated with MSMs, a finite element method (FEM) and a theoretical model were developed to predict the deformation of the sample with local misfit strains. The results calculated form the FEM

  13. Deformation of noncommutative quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jian-Jian; Chowdhury, S. Hasibul Hassan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the Lie group GNC α , β , γ , of which the kinematical symmetry group GNC of noncommutative quantum mechanics (NCQM) is a special case due to fixed nonzero α, β, and γ, is three-parameter deformation quantized using the method suggested by Ballesteros and Musso [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46, 195203 (2013)]. A certain family of QUE algebras, corresponding to GNC α , β , γ with two of the deformation parameters approaching zero, is found to be in agreement with the existing results of the literature on quantum Heisenberg group. Finally, we dualize the underlying QUE algebra to obtain an expression for the underlying star-product between smooth functions on GNC α , β , γ .

  14. A review about the mechanisms associated with active deformation, regional uplift and subsidence in southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folguera, Andrés; Gianni, Guido; Sagripanti, Lucía; Rojas Vera, Emilio; Novara, Iván; Colavitto, Bruno; Alvarez, Orlando; Orts, Darío; Tobal, Jonathan; Giménez, Mario; Introcaso, Antonio; Ruiz, Francisco; Martínez, Patricia; Ramos, Victor A.

    2015-12-01

    A broad range of processes acted simultaneously during the Quaternary producing relief in the Andes and adjacent foreland, from the Chilean coast, where the Pacific Ocean floor is being subducted beneath South American, to the Brazilian and the Argentinean Atlantic platform area. This picture shows to be complex and responds to a variety of processes. The Geoid exemplifies this spectrum of uplift mechanisms, since it reflects an important change at 35°S along the Andes and the foreland that could be indicating the presence of dynamic forces modeling the topography with varying intensity through the subduction margin. On the other hand, mountains uplifted in the Atlantic margin, along a vast sector of the Brazilian Atlantic coast and inland regions seem to be created at the area where the passive margin has been hyper-extended and consequently mechanically debilitated and the forearc region shifts eastwardly at a similar rate than the westward advancing continent. Therefore the forearc at the Arica latitudes can be considered as relatively stationary and dynamically sustained by a perpendicular-to-the-margin asthenospheric flow that inhibits trench roll back, determining a highly active orogenic setting at the eastern Andes in the Subandean region. To the south, the Pampean flat subduction zone creates particular conditions for deformation and rapid propagation of the orogenic front producing a high-amplitude orogen. In the southern Central and Patagonian Andes, mountain (orogenic) building processes are attenuated, becoming dominant other mechanisms of exhumation such as the i) impact of mantle plumes originated in the 660 km mantle transition, ii) the ice-masse retreat from the Andes after the Pleistocene producing an isostatic rebound, iii) the dynamic topography associated with the opening of an asthenospheric window during the subduction of the Chile ridge and slab tearing processes, iv) the subduction of oceanic swells linked to transform zones and v) the

  15. Dislocation Mechanics of High-Rate Deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Ronald W.; Li, Qizhen

    2015-10-01

    Four topics associated with constitutive equation descriptions of rate-dependent metal plastic deformation behavior are reviewed in honor of previous research accomplished on the same issues by Professor Marc Meyers along with colleagues and students, as follow: (1) increasing strength levels attributed to thermally activated dislocation migration at higher loading rates; (2) inhomogeneous adiabatic shear banding; (3) controlling mechanisms of deformation in shock as compared with shock-less isentropic compression experiments and (4) Hall-Petch-based grain size-dependent strain rate sensitivities exhibited by nanopolycrystalline materials. Experimental results are reviewed on the topics for a wide range of metals.

  16. Sequential growth of deformation bands in carbonate grainstones in the hangingwall of an active growth fault: Implications for deformation mechanisms in different tectonic regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotevatn, Atle; Thorsheim, Elin; Bastesen, Eivind; Fossmark, Heidi S. S.; Torabi, Anita; Sælen, Gunnar

    2016-09-01

    Deformation bands in porous sandstones have been extensively studied for four decades, whereas comparatively less is known about deformation bands in porous carbonate rocks, particularly in extensional settings. Here, we investigate porous grainstones of the Globigerina Limestone Formation in Malta, which contain several types of deformation bands in the hangingwall of the Maghlaq Fault: (i) bed-parallel pure compaction bands (PCB); (ii) pressure solution-dominated compactive shear bands (SCSB) and iii) cataclasis-dominated compactive shear bands (CCSB). Geometric and kinematic analyses show that the bands formed sequentially in the hangingwall of the evolving Maghlaq growth fault. PCBs formed first due to fault-controlled subsidence and vertical loading; a (semi-)tectonic control on PCB formation is thus documented for the first time in an extensional setting. Pressure solution (dominating SCSBs) and cataclasis (dominating CCSBs) appear to have operated separately, and not in concert. Our findings therefore suggest that, in some carbonate rocks, cataclasis within deformation bands may develop irrespective of whether pressure solution processes are involved. We suggest this may be related to stress state, and that whereas pressure solution is a significant facilitator of grain size reduction in contractional settings, grain size reduction within deformation bands in extensional settings is less dependent on pressure solution processes.

  17. Dislocations: 75 years of Deformation Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Judy

    2009-01-01

    The selection of papers presented in this section reflect on themes to be explored at the "Dislocations: 75 years of Deformation Mechanisms" Symposium to be held at the Annual 2009 TMS meeting. The symposium was sponsored by the Mechanical Behavior of Materials Committee to give tribute to the evolution of a concept that has formed the basis of our mechanistic understanding of how crystalline solids plastically deform and how they fail.

  18. Improving the mechanical properties of Zr-based bulk metallic glass by controlling the activation energy for β-relaxation through plastic deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, Nozomu; Todaka, Yoshikazu Umemoto, Minoru; Yokoyama, Yoshihiko

    2014-09-29

    The mechanism of plastic deformation in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is widely believed to be based on a shear transformation zone (STZ). This model assumes that a shear-induced atomic rearrangement occurs at local clusters that are a few to hundreds of atoms in size. It was recently postulated that the potential energy barrier for STZ activation, W{sub STZ}, calculated using the cooperative shear model, is equivalent to the activation energy for β-relaxation, E{sub β}. This result suggested that the fundamental process for STZ activation is the mechanically activated β-relaxation. Since the E{sub β} value and the glass transition temperature T{sub g} of BMGs have a linear relation, that is, because E{sub β} ≈ 26RT{sub g}, the composition of the BMG determines the ease with which the STZ can be activated. Enthalpy relaxation experiments revealed that the BMG Zr{sub 50}Cu{sub 40}Al{sub 10} when deformed by high-pressure torsion (HPT) has a lower E{sub β} of 101 kJ/mol. The HPT-processed samples accordingly exhibited tensile plastic elongation (0.34%) and marked decreases in their yield strength (330 MPa). These results suggest that mechanically induced structural defects (i.e., the free volume and the anti-free volume) effectively act to reduce W{sub STZ} and increase the number of STZs activated during tensile testing to accommodate the plastic strain without requiring a change in the composition of the BMG. Thus, this study shows quantitatively that mechanically induced structural defects can overcome the compositional limitations of E{sub β} (or W{sub STZ}) and result in improvements in the mechanical properties of the BMG.

  19. Highly deformable bones: unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse armor.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael M; Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Castro-Ceseña, Ana Bertha; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    Multifunctional materials and devices found in nature serve as inspiration for advanced synthetic materials, structures and robotics. Here, we elucidate the architecture and unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse tails that provide prehension as well as protection against predators. The seahorse tail is composed of subdermal bony plates arranged in articulating ring-like segments that overlap for controlled ventral bending and twisting. The bony plates are highly deformable materials designed to slide past one another and buckle when compressed. This complex plate and segment motion, along with the unique hardness distribution and structural hierarchy of each plate, provide seahorses with joint flexibility while shielding them against impact and crushing. Mimicking seahorse armor may lead to novel bio-inspired technologies, such as flexible armor, fracture-resistant structures or prehensile robotics.

  20. Preferred orientation in experimentally deformed stishovite: implications for deformation mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaercher, Pamela M.; Zepeda-Alarcon, Eloisa; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

    2015-04-01

    Although the crystal structure of the high-pressure SiO2 polymorph stishovite has been studied in detail, little is known about the development of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) during deformation in stishovite. Insight into CPO and associated deformation mechanics of stishovite would provide important information for understanding subduction of quartz-bearing crustal rocks into the mantle. To study CPO development, we converted a natural sample of flint to stishovite in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell and compressed the stishovite aggregate up to 38 GPa. We collected diffraction patterns in radial geometry to examine in situ development of crystallographic preferred orientation and find that (001) poles preferentially align with the compression direction. Viscoplastic self-consistent modeling suggests the most likely slip systems at high pressure and ambient temperature are pyramidal and basal slip.

  1. Creep deformation mechanism mapping in nickel base disk superalloys

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, Timothy M.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Deutchman, Hallee; Mills, Michael J.

    2016-05-10

    We investigated the creep deformation mechanisms at intermediate temperature in ME3, a modern Ni-based disk superalloy, using diffraction contrast imaging. Both conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM were utilised. Distinctly different deformation mechanisms become operative during creep at temperatures between 677-815 °C and at stresses ranging from 274 to 724 MPa. Both polycrystalline and single-crystal creep tests were conducted. The single-crystal tests provide new insight into grain orientation effects on creep response and deformation mechanisms. Creep at lower temperatures (≤760 °C) resulted in the thermally activated shearing modes such as microtwinning, stacking fault ribbons and isolated superlattice extrinsicmore » stacking faults. In contrast, these faulting modes occurred much less frequently during creep at 815 °C under lower applied stresses. Instead, the principal deformation mode was dislocation climb bypass. In addition to the difference in creep behaviour and creep deformation mechanisms as a function of stress and temperature, it was also observed that microstructural evolution occurs during creep at 760 °C and above, where the secondary coarsened and the tertiary precipitates dissolved. Based on this work, a creep deformation mechanism map is proposed, emphasising the influence of stress and temperature on the underlying creep mechanisms.« less

  2. Imaging active faulting in a region of distributed deformation from the joint clustering of focal mechanisms and hypocentres: Application to the Azores-western Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, Susana; Lima, Vânia; Vales, Dina; Cesca, Simone; Carrilho, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The matching between linear trends of hypocentres and fault planes indicated by focal mechanisms (FMs) is frequently used to infer the location and geometry of active faults. This practice works well in regions of fast lithospheric deformation, where earthquake patterns are clear and major structures accommodate the bulk of deformation, but typically fails in regions of slow and distributed deformation. We present a new joint FM and hypocentre cluster algorithm that is able to detect systematically the consistency between hypocentre lineations and FMs, even in regions of distributed deformation. We apply the method to the Azores-western Mediterranean region, with particular emphasis on western Iberia. The analysis relies on a compilation of hypocentres and FMs taken from regional and global earthquake catalogues, academic theses and technical reports, complemented by new FMs for western Iberia. The joint clustering algorithm images both well-known and new seismo-tectonic features. The Azores triple junction is characterised by FMs with vertical pressure (P) axes, in good agreement with the divergent setting, and the Iberian domain is characterised by NW-SE oriented P axes, indicating a response of the lithosphere to the ongoing oblique convergence between Nubia and Eurasia. Several earthquakes remain unclustered in the western Mediterranean domain, which may indicate a response to local stresses. The major regions of consistent faulting that we identify are the mid-Atlantic ridge, the Terceira rift, the Trans-Alboran shear zone and the north coast of Algeria. In addition, other smaller earthquake clusters present a good match between epicentre lineations and FM fault planes. These clusters may signal single active faults or wide zones of distributed but consistent faulting. Mainland Portugal is dominated by strike-slip earthquakes with fault planes coincident with the predominant NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE oriented earthquake lineations. Clusters offshore SW Iberia are

  3. Deformed Conformal and Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonov, Vyacheslav

    Within the standard quantum mechanics a q-deformation of the simplest N=2 supersymmetry algebra is suggested. Resulting physical systems do not have conserved charges and degeneracies in the spectra. Instead, superpartner Hamiltonians are q-isospectral, i.e., the spectrum of one can be obtained from another (with possible exception of the lowest level) by the q2-factor scaling. A special class of the self-similar potentials is shown to obey the dynamical conformal symmetry algebra suq(1,1). These potentials exhibit exponential spectra and corresponding raising and lowering operators satisfy the q-deformed harmonic oscillator algebra of Biedenharn and Macfarlane.

  4. Mechanical deformation mechanisms and properties of amyloid fibrils.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bumjoon; Yoon, Gwonchan; Lee, Sang Woo; Eom, Kilho

    2015-01-14

    Amyloid fibrils have recently received attention due to their remarkable mechanical properties, which are highly correlated with their biological functions. We have studied the mechanical deformation mechanisms and properties of amyloid fibrils as a function of their length scales by using atomistic simulations. It is shown that the length of amyloid fibrils plays a role in their deformation and fracture mechanisms in such a way that the competition between shear and bending deformations is highly dependent on the fibril length, and that as the fibril length increases, so does the bending strength of the fibril while its shear strength decreases. The dependence of rupture force for amyloid fibrils on their length is elucidated using the Bell model, which suggests that the rupture force of the fibril is determined from the hydrogen bond rupture mechanism that critically depends on the fibril length. We have measured the toughness of amyloid fibrils, which is shown to depend on the fibril length. In particular, the toughness of the fibril with its length of ∼3 nm is estimated to be ∼30 kcal mol(-1) nm(-3), comparable to that of a spider silk crystal with its length of ∼2 nm. Moreover, we have shown the important effect of the pulling rate on the mechanical deformation mechanisms and properties of amyloid fibril. It is found that as the pulling rate increases, so does the contribution of the shear effect to the elastic deformation of the amyloid fibril with its length of <10 nm. However, we found that the deformation mechanism of the amyloid fibril with its length of >15 nm is almost independent of the pulling rate. Our study sheds light on the role of the length scale of amyloid fibrils and the pulling rate in their mechanical behaviors and properties, which may provide insights into how the excellent mechanical properties of protein fibrils can be determined. PMID:25426573

  5. Deformation Mechanisms of Gum Metals Under Nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, Rohini Priya

    Gum Metal is a set of multi-component beta-Ti alloys designed and developed by Toyota Central R&D Labs in 2003 to have a nearly zero shear modulus in the direction. After significant amounts of cold-work (>90%), these alloys were found to have yield strengths at a significant fraction of the predicted ideal strengths and exhibited very little work hardening. It has been speculated that this mechanical behavior may be realized through an ideal shear mechanism as opposed to conventional plastic deformation mechanisms, such as slip, and that such a mechanism may be realized through a defect structure termed "nanodisturbance". It is furthermore theorized that for near ideal strength to be attained, dislocations need to be pinned at sufficiently high stresses. It is the search for these defects and pinning points that motivates the present study. However, the mechanism of plastic deformation and the true origin of specific defect structures unique to gum metals is still controversial, mainly due to the complexity of the beta-Ti alloy system and the heavily distorted lattice exhibited in cold worked gum metals, rendering interpretation of images difficult. Accordingly, the first aim of this study is to clarify the starting as-received microstructures of gum metal alloys through conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and aberration-corrected high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy with high-angle annular dark field detector (HAADF-HRSTEM) imaging. To elucidate the effects of beta-stability and starting microstructure on the deformation behavior of gum metals and thus to provide adequate context for potentially novel deformation structures, we investigate three alloy conditions: gum metal that has undergone solution heat treatment (STGM), gum metal that has been heavily cold worked (CWGM), and a solution treated alloy of nominal gum metal composition, but leaner in beta-stabilizing content (ST Ref-1). In order to directly relate observed

  6. Deformation Monitoring of AN Active Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostapchuk, A.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of low frequency earthquakes, slow slip events and other deformation phenomena, new for geophysics, change our understanding of how the energy accumulated in the Earth's crust do release. The new geophysical data make one revise the underlying mechanism of geomechanical processes taking place in fault zones. Conditions for generating different slip modes are still unclear. The most vital question is whether a certain slip mode is intrinsic for a fault or may be controlled by external factors. This work presents the results of two and a half year deformation monitoring of a discontinuity in the zone of the Main Sayanskiy Fault. Main Sayanskiy Fault is right-lateral strike-slip fault. Observations were performed in the tunnel of Talaya seismic station (TLY), Irkutsk region, Russia. Measurements were carried out 70 m away from the entrance of the tunnel, the thickness of overlying rock was about 30 m. Inductive sensors of displacement were mounted at the both sides of a discontinuity, which recorded three components of relative fault side displacement with the accuracy of 0.2 mcm. Temperature variation inside the tunnel didn't exceed 0.5oC during the all period of observations. Important information about deformation properties of an active fault was obtained. A pronounced seasonality of deformation characteristics of discontinuity is observed in the investigated segment of rock. A great number of slow slip events with durations from several hours to several weeks were registered. Besides that alterations of fault deformation characteristics before the megathrust earthquake M9.0 Tohoku Oki 11 March 2011 and reaction to the event itself were detected. The work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (grant no. 14-17-00719).

  7. Deformation mechanisms of irradiated metallic nanofoams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepeda-Ruiz, L. A.; Martinez, E.; Caro, M.; Fu, E. G.; Caro, A.

    2013-07-01

    It was recently proposed that within a particular window in the parameter space of temperature, ion energy, dose rate, and filament diameter, nanoscale metallic foams could show radiation tolerance [Bringa et al., Nano Lett. 12, 3351 (2012)]. Outside this window, damage appears in the form of vacancy-related stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT), with no effects due to interstitials [Fu et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 191607 (2012)]. These SFT could be natural sources of dislocations within the ligaments composing the foam and determine their mechanical response. We employ molecular dynamics simulations of cylindrical ligaments containing an SFT to obtain an atomic-level picture of their deformation behavior under compression. We find that plastic deformation originates at the edges of the SFT, at lower stress than needed to create dislocations at the surface. Our results predict that nanoscale foams soften under irradiation, a prediction not yet tested experimentally.

  8. Deformed Coherent State for Multiparticle Production Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. Y.; Leong, Q.; Ng, W. K.; Dewanto, A.; Chan, A. H.; Oh, C. H.

    2014-04-01

    The deformation structure function describing the Generalised Multiplicities Distribution (GMD), Negative Binomial Distribution (NBD), Furry-Yule Distribution (FYD), and their corresponding deformed coherent states and second order correlation function g(2) are derived. A superposition model of the GMD and NBD states is then proposed as a general description of the mechanism that gives rise to the double NBD model first proposed by Giovannini. The model is applied to LHC multiplicity data at |η| ≤ 2.4 and 0.9, 2.36 and 7 TeV, from the CMS collaboration at CERN, and the second order correlation g(2) of the model is then compared with the normalised second factorial moment {F_2}/F_1^2 of the multiplicity.

  9. Universal mechanism of thermo-mechanical deformation in metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Dmowski, W.; Tong, Y.; Iwashita, T.; Egami, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Y.

    2015-02-11

    Here we investigated the atomistic structure of metallic glasses subjected to thermo-mechanical creep deformation using high energy x-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics simulation. The experiments were performed in-situ, at high temperatures as a time dependent deformation in the elastic regime, and ex-situ on samples quenched under stress. We show that all the anisotropic structure functions of the samples undergone thermo-mechanical creep can be scaled into a single curve, regardless of the magnitude of anelastic strain, stress level and the sign of the stress, demonstrating universal behavior and pointing to unique atomistic unit of anelastic deformation. The structural changes due to creep are strongly localized within the second nearest neighbors, involving only a small group of atoms.

  10. Universal mechanism of thermo-mechanical deformation in metallic glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Dmowski, W.; Tong, Y.; Iwashita, T.; Egami, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Y.

    2015-02-11

    Here we investigated the atomistic structure of metallic glasses subjected to thermo-mechanical creep deformation using high energy x-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics simulation. The experiments were performed in-situ, at high temperatures as a time dependent deformation in the elastic regime, and ex-situ on samples quenched under stress. We show that all the anisotropic structure functions of the samples undergone thermo-mechanical creep can be scaled into a single curve, regardless of the magnitude of anelastic strain, stress level and the sign of the stress, demonstrating universal behavior and pointing to unique atomistic unit of anelastic deformation. The structural changes due tomore » creep are strongly localized within the second nearest neighbors, involving only a small group of atoms.« less

  11. Deformation Mechanisms of Gum Metals Under Nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, Rohini Priya

    Gum Metal is a set of multi-component beta-Ti alloys designed and developed by Toyota Central R&D Labs in 2003 to have a nearly zero shear modulus in the direction. After significant amounts of cold-work (>90%), these alloys were found to have yield strengths at a significant fraction of the predicted ideal strengths and exhibited very little work hardening. It has been speculated that this mechanical behavior may be realized through an ideal shear mechanism as opposed to conventional plastic deformation mechanisms, such as slip, and that such a mechanism may be realized through a defect structure termed "nanodisturbance". It is furthermore theorized that for near ideal strength to be attained, dislocations need to be pinned at sufficiently high stresses. It is the search for these defects and pinning points that motivates the present study. However, the mechanism of plastic deformation and the true origin of specific defect structures unique to gum metals is still controversial, mainly due to the complexity of the beta-Ti alloy system and the heavily distorted lattice exhibited in cold worked gum metals, rendering interpretation of images difficult. Accordingly, the first aim of this study is to clarify the starting as-received microstructures of gum metal alloys through conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and aberration-corrected high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy with high-angle annular dark field detector (HAADF-HRSTEM) imaging. To elucidate the effects of beta-stability and starting microstructure on the deformation behavior of gum metals and thus to provide adequate context for potentially novel deformation structures, we investigate three alloy conditions: gum metal that has undergone solution heat treatment (STGM), gum metal that has been heavily cold worked (CWGM), and a solution treated alloy of nominal gum metal composition, but leaner in beta-stabilizing content (ST Ref-1). In order to directly relate observed

  12. Deformation mechanisms in a Laves phase

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yaping; Allen, S.M.; Livingston, J.D.

    1992-12-31

    The stress-induced phase transformation between C36 and C15 structures in Fe{sub 2}Zr is studied by electron microscopy. Nucleus of transformation is believed to be pre-existing C15 layers in C36 particles. Microstructural evidence for three mechanisms of growth of a new phase were found: Fault accumulation and rearrangement, moving of a individual partial dislocations between two phases, and the migration of microscopic ledges composed of a series of Shockley partials between C36 and C15. Plastic deformation by slip on non-basal planes of C36 caused by indentation is studied.

  13. Mechanism of activation of TiFe intermetallics for hydrogen storage by severe plastic deformation using high-pressure torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edalati, Kaveh; Matsuda, Junko; Arita, Makoto; Daio, Takeshi; Akiba, Etsuo; Horita, Zenji

    2013-09-01

    TiFe, a potential candidate for solid-state hydrogen storage, does not absorb hydrogen without a sophisticated activation process because of severe oxidation. This study shows that nanostructured TiFe becomes active by high-pressure torsion (HPT) and is not deactivated even after storage for several hundred days in the air. Surface segregation and formation of Fe-rich islands and cracks occur after HPT. The Fe-rich islands are suggested to act as catalysts for hydrogen dissociation and cracks and nanograin boundaries act as pathways to transport hydrogen through the oxide layer. Rapid atomic diffusion by HPT is responsible for enhanced surface segregation and hydrogen transportation.

  14. Ruthenium Aluminides: Deformation Mechanisms and Substructure Development

    SciTech Connect

    Tresa M. Pollock

    2005-05-11

    Structural and functional materials that can operate in severe, high temperature environments are key to the operation of a wide range of energy generation systems. Because continued improvements in the energy efficiency of these systems is critical, the need for new materials with higher temperature capabilities is inevitable. Intermetallic compounds, with strong bonding and generally high melting points offer this possibility for a broad array of components such as coatings, electrode materials, actuators and/or structural elements. RuAl is a very unusual intermetallic compound among the large number of B2compounds that have been identified and investigated to date. This material has a very high melting temperature of 2050?C, low thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity and good corrosion resistance. Unlike most other high temperature B2 intermetallics, RuAl possesses good intrinsic deformability at low temperatures. In this program fundamental aspects of low and high temperature mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms in binary and higher order RuAl-based systems have been investigated. Alloying additions of interest included platinum, boron and niobium. Additionally, preliminary studies on high temperature oxidation behavior of these materials have been conducted.

  15. The effect of dynamic recrystallization and LPO formation on deformation mechanisms in experimentally deformed plagioclase aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, C. D.; Hirth, G.; Cross, A. J.; Prior, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    We performed a series of deformation experiments on intermediate plagioclase aggregates (An60) that explored the role of dynamic recrystallization and LPO formation on the deformation mechanisms active and their effect on the mechanical strength of the aggregates. Our experiments were executed using a molten salt cell in a Tullis-modified Griggs Rig at 1 GPa, temperatures between 950-1100 C. These experiments were run in both axial compression and general shear geometries at both constant strain rates and with strain rate steps. The imposed strain rates ranged from 10^-4 to 5*10^-7 s^-1. The sample aggregates were prepared by sintering powders ranging from 20-45 micron at experimental P-T conditions prepared from pulverized single crystals of labradorite. We observed a strong dependence of strength on the strain-rate history of the experiment. Initially the samples weaken dramatically as the grain-size is reduced in the sample aggregate. During strain-rate stepping experiments, used to calculate the stress exponent, we observe variation in the strain-rate dependence of the strength related to whether there is an increasing or decreasing strain rate. Increasing the strain-rate tends to show stress exponent close to n=3, consistent with deformation by dislocation creep. Decreasing the strain-rate tends to decrease the stress exponent towards n=1, consistent with deformation by diffusion creep. Further, analysis using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) revealed distinctive LPOs that were different between larger relict porphryclast grains (>20 micron) and smaller recrystallized grains (1-4 micron). Larger relict grains have an LPO with {001} poles perpendicular to the shear plane, while smaller recrystallized grains have an LPO with {010} poles perpendicular to the shear plane. This is evidence that the processes that facilitate deformation are different between the relict and recrystallized grains. We also observe grain scale shear bands oriented roughly 30

  16. A mechanism for tectonic deformation on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Roger J.

    1986-01-01

    In the absence of identifiable physiographic features directly associated with plate tectonics, alternate mechanisms are sought for the intense tectonic deformation observed in radar images of Venus. One possible mechanism is direct coupling into an elastic lithosphere of the stresses associated with convective flow in the interior. Spectral Green's function solutions have been obtained for stresses in an elastic lithosphere overlying a Newtonian interior with an exponential depth dependence of viscosity, and a specified surface-density distribution driving the flow. At long wavelengths and for a rigid elastic/fluid boundary condition, horizontal normal stresses in the elastic lid are controlled by the vertical shear stress gradient and are directly proportional to the depth of the density disturbance in the underlying fluid. The depth and strength of density anomalies in the Venusian interior inferred by analyses of long wavelength gravity data suggest that stresses in excess of 100 MPa would be generated in a 10 km thick elastic lid unless a low viscosity channel occurring beneath the lid or a positive viscosity gradient uncouples the flow stresses. The great apparent depth of compensation of topographic features argues against this, however, thus supporting the importance of the coupling mechanism. If there is no elastic lid, stresses will also be very high near the surface, providing also that the viscosity gradient is negative.

  17. Monocytic Cells Become Less Compressible but More Deformable upon Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ravetto, Agnese; Wyss, Hans M.; Anderson, Patrick D.; den Toonder, Jaap M. J.; Bouten, Carlijn V. C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Monocytes play a significant role in the development of atherosclerosis. During the process of inflammation, circulating monocytes become activated in the blood stream. The consequent interactions of the activated monocytes with the blood flow and endothelial cells result in reorganization of cytoskeletal proteins, in particular of the microfilament structure, and concomitant changes in cell shape and mechanical behavior. Here we investigate the full elastic behavior of activated monocytes in relation to their cytoskeletal structure to obtain a better understanding of cell behavior during the progression of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Methods and Results The recently developed Capillary Micromechanics technique, based on exposing a cell to a pressure difference in a tapered glass microcapillary, was used to measure the deformation of activated and non-activated monocytic cells. Monitoring the elastic response of individual cells up to large deformations allowed us to obtain both the compressive and the shear modulus of a cell from a single experiment. Activation by inflammatory chemokines affected the cytoskeletal organization and increased the elastic compressive modulus of monocytes with 73–340%, while their resistance to shape deformation decreased, as indicated by a 25–88% drop in the cell’s shear modulus. This decrease in deformability is particularly pronounced at high strains, such as those that occur during diapedesis through the vascular wall. Conclusion Overall, monocytic cells become less compressible but more deformable upon activation. This change in mechanical response under different modes of deformation could be important in understanding the interplay between the mechanics and function of these cells. In addition, our data are of direct relevance for computational modeling and analysis of the distinct monocytic behavior in the circulation and the extravascular space. Lastly, an understanding of the changes of monocyte

  18. Constitutive Law and Flow Mechanism in Diamond Deformation

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Xiaohui; Raterron, Paul; Zhang, Jianzhong; Lin, Zhijun; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Yusheng

    2012-11-19

    Constitutive laws and crystal plasticity in diamond deformation have been the subjects of substantial interest since synthetic diamond was made in 1950's. To date, however, little is known quantitatively regarding its brittle-ductile properties and yield strength at high temperatures. In this paper, we report, for the first time, the strain-stress constitutive relations and experimental demonstration of deformation mechanisms under confined high pressure. The deformation at room temperature is essentially brittle, cataclastic, and mostly accommodated by fracturing on {111} plane with no plastic yielding at uniaxial strains up to 15%. At elevated temperatures of 1000°C and 1200°C diamond crystals exhibit significantmore » ductile flow with corresponding yield strength of 7.9 and 6.3 GPa, indicating that diamond starts to weaken when temperature is over 1000°C. Finally, at high temperature the plastic deformation and ductile flow is meditated by the <110>{111} dislocation glide and a very active {111} micro-twinning.« less

  19. Constitutive Law and Flow Mechanism in Diamond Deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Xiaohui; Raterron, Paul; Zhang, Jianzhong; Lin, Zhijun; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Yusheng

    2012-11-19

    Constitutive laws and crystal plasticity in diamond deformation have been the subjects of substantial interest since synthetic diamond was made in 1950's. To date, however, little is known quantitatively regarding its brittle-ductile properties and yield strength at high temperatures. In this paper, we report, for the first time, the strain-stress constitutive relations and experimental demonstration of deformation mechanisms under confined high pressure. The deformation at room temperature is essentially brittle, cataclastic, and mostly accommodated by fracturing on {111} plane with no plastic yielding at uniaxial strains up to 15%. At elevated temperatures of 1000°C and 1200°C diamond crystals exhibit significant ductile flow with corresponding yield strength of 7.9 and 6.3 GPa, indicating that diamond starts to weaken when temperature is over 1000°C. Finally, at high temperature the plastic deformation and ductile flow is meditated by the <110>{111} dislocation glide and a very active {111} micro-twinning.

  20. Plate-tectonic mechanism of Laramide deformation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, W.

    1981-01-01

    The Laramide compressive deformation of the craton was caused by a clockwise rotation of about 2-4o of the Colorado Plateau region relative to the continental interior, during late Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary time. Late Paleozoic and Neogene deformation of the craton also were produced by motion of a southwestern subplate relative to the continental interior. -from Author

  1. Deformation mechanisms of antigorite serpentinite at subduction zone conditions determined from experimentally and naturally deformed rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auzende, Anne-Line; Escartin, Javier; Walte, Nicolas P.; Guillot, Stéphane; Hirth, Greg; Frost, Daniel J.

    2015-02-01

    We performed deformation-DIA experiments on antigorite serpentinite at pressures of 1-3.5 GPa and temperatures of between 400 and 650 °C, bracketing the stability of antigorite under subduction zone conditions. For each set of pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions, we conducted two runs at strain rates of 5 ×10-5 and 1 ×10-4 s-1. We complemented our study with a sample deformed in a Griggs-type apparatus at 1 GPa and 400 °C (Chernak and Hirth, 2010), and with natural samples from Cuba and the Alps deformed under blueschist/eclogitic conditions. Optical and transmission electron microscopies were used for microstructural characterization and determination of deformation mechanisms. Our observations on experimentally deformed antigorite prior to breakdown show that deformation is dominated by cataclastic flow with observable but minor contribution of plastic deformation (microkinking and (001) gliding mainly expressed by stacking disorder mainly). In contrast, in naturally deformed samples, plastic deformation structures are dominant (stacking disorder, kinking, pressure solution), with minor but also perceptible contribution of brittle deformation. When dehydration occurs in experiments, plasticity increases and is coupled to local embrittlement that we attribute to antigorite dehydration. In dehydrating samples collected in the Alps, embrittlement is also observed suggesting that dehydration may contribute to intermediate-depth seismicity. Our results thus show that semibrittle deformation operates within and above the stability field of antigorite. However, the plastic deformation recorded by naturally deformed samples was likely acquired at low strain rates. We also document that the corrugated structure of antigorite controls the strain accommodation mechanisms under subduction conditions, with preferred inter- and intra-grain cracking along (001) and gliding along both a and b. We also show that antigorite rheology in subduction zones is partly controlled

  2. Production, structure, texture, and mechanical properties of severely deformed magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, A. Yu.; Antonova, O. V.; Kamenetskii, B. I.; Klyukin, I. V.; Komkova, D. A.; Antonov, B. D.

    2016-05-01

    Methods of the severe plastic deformation (SPD) of pure magnesium at room temperature, namely, transverse extrusion and hydroextrusion in a self-destroyed shell, have been developed. The maximum true strain of the samples after the hydroextrusion was e ~ 3.2; in the course of transverse extrusion and subsequent cold rolling, a true strain of e ~ 6.0 was achieved. The structure and mechanical properties of the magnesium samples have been studied in different structural states. It has been shown that the SPD led to a decrease in the grain size d to ~2 μm; the relative elongation at fracture δ increased to ~20%. No active twinning has been revealed. The reasons for the high plasticity of magnesium after SPD according to the deformation modes suggested are discussed from the viewpoint of the hierarchy of the observed structural states.

  3. Deformation Mechanisms of Antigorite Serpentinite at Subduction Zone Conditions Determined from Experimentally and Naturally Deformed Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auzende, A. L.; Escartin, J.; Walte, N.; Guillot, S.; Hirth, G.; Frost, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The rheology of serpentinite, and particularly that of antigorite-bearing rocks, is of prime importance for understanding subduction zone proceses, including decoupling between the downwelling slab and the overriding plate, exhumation of high-pressure rocks, fluids pathways and, more generally, mantle wedge dynamics. We present results from deformation-DIA experiments on antigorite serpentinite performed under conditions relevant of subduction zones (1-3.5 GPa ; 400-650°C). We complemented our study with a sample deformed in a Griggs-type apparatus at 1 GPa and 400°C (Chernak and Hirth, EPSL, 2010), and with natural samples from Cuba and the Alps deformed under blueschist/eclogitic conditions. Our observations on experimental samples of antigorite deformed within its stability field show that deformation is dominated by cataclastic flow; we can only document a minor contribution of plastic deformation. In naturally deformed samples, deformation-related plastic structures largely dominate strain accommodation, but we also document a minor contribution of brittle deformation. When dehydration occurs in experiments, plasticity increases, and is coupled to local embrittlement attributed to hydraulic fracturating due to the migration of dehydration fluids. Our results thus show that semibrittle deformation operates within and above the stability field of antigorite. We also document that the corrugated structure of antigorite has a control on the strain accommodation mechanisms under subduction conditions, with preferred inter and intra-cracking along (001) and gliding along both a and b. Deformation dominated by brittle processes, as observed in experiments, may occur during deformation at elevated (seismic?) strain rates, while plastic deformation, as observed in naturally deformed rocks, may correspond instead to low strain rates instead (aseismic creep?). We also discuss the role of antigorite rheology and mode of deformation on fluid transport.

  4. Significance of grain sliding mechanisms for ductile deformation of rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimanov, A.; Bourcier, M.; Gaye, A.; Héripré, E.; Bornert, M.; Raphanel, J.; Ludwig, W.

    2013-12-01

    Ductile shear zones at depth present polyphase and heterogeneous rocks and multi-scale strain localization patterns. Most strain concentrates in ultramylonitic layers, which exhibit microstructural signatures of several concomitant deformation mechanisms. The latter are either active in volume (dislocation creep), or in the vicinity and along interfaces (grain sliding and solution mass transfer). Because their chronology of appearance and interactions are unclear, inference of the overall rheology seems illusory. We have therefore characterized over a decade the rheology of synthetic lower crustal materials with different compositions and fluid contents, and for various microstructures. Non-Newtonian flow clearly related to dominant dislocation creep. Conversely, Newtonian behavior involved grain sliding mechanisms, but crystal plasticity could be identified as well. In order to clarify the respective roles of these mechanisms we underwent a multi-scale investigation of the ductile deformation of rock analog synthetic halite with controlled microstructures. The mechanical tests were combined with in-situ optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X ray computed tomography, allowing for digital image correlation (DIC) techniques and retrieval of full strain field. Crystal plasticity dominated, as evidenced by physical slip lines and DIC computed slip bands. Crystal orientation mapping allowed to identify strongly active easy glide {110} <110> systems. But, all other slip systems were observed as well, and especially near interfaces, where their activity is necessary to accommodate for the plastic strain incompatibilities between neighboring grains. We also evidenced grain boundary sliding (GBS), which clearly occurred as a secondary, but necessary, accommodation mechanism. The DIC technique allowed the quantification of the relative contribution of each mechanism. The amount of GBS clearly increased with decreasing grain size. Finite element (FE) modeling

  5. Mechanical behavior of aluminum deformed under hot-working conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Puchi, E.S.; Staia, M.H.

    1995-11-01

    The stress-strain behavior of aluminum 3-9 purity deformed at elevated temperatures has been analyzed on a rational basis. Emphasis has been given to the analysis of the curves corresponding to typical deformation conditions of interest for hot rolling of commercial aluminum alloys. The strain-hardening behavior has been modeled assuming the validity of the typical saturation exponential equation earlier proposed by Voce. The temperature and strain dependence of the flow stress parameters involved in such an equation has been introduced by means of a model based on the power law relationship, where the stress-sensitivity exponent of the strain rate is considered to be temperature dependent. The final constitutive equation derived provides a satisfactory reproduction of the experimental values of the flow stress and follow quite closely the strain-hardening behavior. The mean activation energy determined by the different models confirmed the predominance of both climb of edge dislocation segments and motion of jogged screw dislocations as the rate-controlling mechanisms during deformation of this material under hot-working conditions. The use of a constitutive equation which expresses the flow stress of the material in terms of the applied strain, rate of straining, and deformation temperature to calculate the power dissipation efficiency of the material ({eta}) deformed under hot-rolling conditions has shown that it could be strongly strain dependent, particularly toward the end of the rolling schedule. Hence, it has been concluded that the calculation of both the power co-content as defined in dynamic material modeling (DMM) and its maximum value, taking into consideration the constitutive equation previously developed, represents a more plausible and soundly based approach toward the determination of {eta}.

  6. Reciprocating motion of active deformable particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarama, M.; Ohta, T.

    2016-05-01

    Reciprocating motion of an active deformable particle in a homogeneous medium is studied theoretically. For generality, we employ a simple model derived from symmetry considerations for the center-of-mass velocity and elliptical and triangular deformations in two dimensions. We carry out, for the first time, a systematic investigation of the reciprocating motion of a self-propelled particle. It is clarified that spontaneous breaking of the front-rear asymmetry is essential for the reciprocating motion. Moreover, two routes are found for the formation of the reciprocating motion. One is a bifurcation from a motionless stationary state. The other is destabilisation of an oscillatory rectilinear motion.

  7. Fatigue Behavior and Deformation Mechanisms in Inconel 718 Superalloy Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The nickel-base superalloy Inconel 718 (IN 718) is used as a structural material for a variety of components in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) and accounts for more than half of the total weight of this engine. IN 718 is the bill-of-material for the pressure vessels of nickel-hydrogen batteries for the space station. In the case of the space shuttle main engine, structural components are typically subjected to startup and shutdown load transients and occasional overloads in addition to high-frequency vibratory loads from routine operation. The nickel-hydrogen battery cells are prooftested before service and are subjected to fluctuating pressure loads during operation. In both of these applications, the structural material is subjected to a monotonic load initially, which is subsequently followed by fatigue. To assess the life of these structural components, it is necessary to determine the influence of a prior monotonic load on the subsequent fatigue life of the superalloy. An insight into the underlying deformation and damage mechanisms is also required to properly account for the interaction between the prior monotonic load and the subsequent fatigue loading. An experimental investigation was conducted to establish the effect of prior monotonic straining on the subsequent fatigue behavior of wrought, double-aged, IN 718 at room temperature. First, monotonic strain tests and fully-reversed, strain-controlled fatigue tests were conducted on uniform-gage-section IN 718 specimens. Next, fully reversed fatigue tests were conducted under strain control on specimens that were monotonically strained in tension. Results from this investigation indicated that prior monotonic straining reduced the fatigue resistance of the superalloy particularly at the lowest strain range. Some of the tested specimens were sectioned and examined by transmission electron microscopy to reveal typical microstructures as well as the active deformation and damage mechanisms under each of

  8. Creep deformation mechanisms in modified 9Cr-1Mo steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Triratna; Basirat, Mehdi; Charit, Indrajit; Potirniche, Gabriel P.; Rink, Karl K.; Sahaym, Uttara

    2012-04-01

    Modified 9Cr-1Mo (Grade 91) steel is currently considered as a candidate material for reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) and reactor internals for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). The tensile creep behavior of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (Grade 91) was studied in the temperature range of 873-1023 K and stresses between 35 MPa and 350 MPa. Analysis of creep results yielded stress exponents of ∼9-11 in the higher stress regime and ∼1 in the lower stress regime. The high stress exponent in the power-law creep regime was rationalized by invoking the concept of threshold stress, which represents the lattice diffusion controlled dislocation climb process. Without threshold stress compensation, the activation energy was 510 ± 51 kJ/mol, while after correcting for the threshold stress, the activation energy decreased to 225 ± 24 kJ/mol. This value is close to the activation energy for lattice self-diffusion in α-Fe. Threshold stress calculations were performed for the high stress regime at all test temperatures. The calculated threshold stress showed a strong dependence on temperature. The creep behavior of Grade 91 steel was described by the modified Bird-Mukherjee-Dorn relation. The rate controlling creep deformation mechanism in the high stress regime was identified as the edge dislocation climb with a stress exponent of n = 5. On the other hand, the deformation mechanism in the Newtonian viscous creep regime (n = 1) was identified as the Nabarro-Herring creep.

  9. Multiscale Graphene Topographies Programmed by Sequential Mechanical Deformation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Yen; Sodhi, Jaskiranjeet; Qiu, Yang; Valentin, Thomas M; Steinberg, Ruben Spitz; Wang, Zhongying; Hurt, Robert H; Wong, Ian Y

    2016-05-01

    Multigenerational graphene oxide architectures can be programmed by specific sequences of mechanical deformations. Each new deformation results in a progressively larger set of features decorated by smaller preexisting patterns, indicating a structural "memory." It is shown that these multiscale architectures are superhydrophobic and display excellent functionality as electrochemical electrodes. PMID:26996525

  10. Strain gage network distinguishes between thermal and mechanical deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cepollina, F. J.

    1966-01-01

    Strain gage network measures the thermal coefficient of linear expansion of composite metal structures. The network consists of a test gage and two dummy gages arranged to distinguish thermally induced deformation from mechanical strain.

  11. Thermo-mechanically coupled deformation with the finite difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duretz, Thibault; Raess, Ludovic; Podladchikov, Yury; Schmalholz, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Numerous geological observations are the result of thermo-mechanical processes. In particular, tectonic processes such as ductile shear localization can be induced by the intrinsic coupling that exists between deformation, energy and rheology. In order to study these processes, we have designed two-dimensional implicit and explicit finite difference models. These models take into account a temperature-dependent power-law rheology as well as diffusion, advection, and conversion of mechanical work into heat. For implicit models, different non-linear solving strategies were implemented (implicit/explicit thermo-mechanical coupling, Picard/Newton linearisations). We model thermo-mechanically activated shear localization in lower crustal conditions using these different numerical methods. We show that all methods capture the thermo-mechanical instability and exhibit similar temporal evolution. We perform quantitative comparisons with specifically designed tests (conservation of energy, analytical solution, scaling law). For implicit approaches, we discuss the treatment of thermo-mechanical coupling (implicit/explicit) and the impact of the imposed accuracy (tolerance) of the non-linear solvers. We compare the accuracy of the explicit method with the one of the implicit methods. Numerical algorithms based on explicit methods to study thermo-mechanical shear localisation are attractive because they are easy to program and very comprehensible.

  12. On the deformation mechanisms in single crystal Hadfield manganese steels

    SciTech Connect

    Karaman, I.; Sehitoglu, H.; Gall, K.; Chumlyakov, Y.I.

    1998-02-13

    Austenitic manganese steel, so called Hadfield manganese steel, is frequently used in mining and railroad frog applications requiring excessive deformation and wear resistance. Its work hardening ability is still not completely understood. Previous studies attributed the work-hardening characteristics of this material to dynamic strain aging or an imperfect deformation twin, a so-called pseudotwin. Unfortunately, these previous studies have all focused on polycrystalline Hadfield steels. To properly study the mechanisms of deformation in the absence of grain boundary or texture effects, single crystal specimens are required. The purpose of this work is the following: (1) observe the inelastic stress-strain behavior of Hadfield single crystals in orientations where twinning and slip are individually dominating or when they are competing deformation mechanisms; and (2) determine the microyield points of Hadfield single crystals and use micro-mechanical modeling to predict the stress-strain response of a single crystal undergoing micro-twinning.

  13. Viscoelastic deformation near active plate boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    Model deformations near the active plate boundaries of Western North America using space-based geodetic measurements as constraints are discussed. The first six months of this project were spent gaining familarity with space-based measurements, accessing the Crustal Dynamics Data Information Computer, and building time independent deformation models. The initial goal was to see how well the simplest elastic models can reproduce very long base interferometry (VLBI) baseline data. From the Crustal Dynamics Data Information Service, a total of 18 VLBI baselines are available which have been surveyed on four or more occasions. These data were fed into weighted and unweighted inversions to obtain baseline closure rates. Four of the better quality lines are illustrated. The deformation model assumes that the observed baseline rates result from a combination of rigid plate tectonic motions plus a component resulting from elastic strain build up due to a failure of the plate boundary to slip at the full plate tectonic rate. The elastic deformation resulting from the locked plate boundary is meant to portray interseismic strain accumulation. During and shortly after a large interplate earthquake, these strains are largely released, and points near the fault which were previously retarded suddenly catch up to the positions predicted by rigid plate models. Researchers judge the quality of fit by the sum squares of weighted residuals, termed total variance. The observed baseline closures have a total variance of 99 (cm/y)squared. When the RM2 velocities are assumed to model the data, the total variance increases to 154 (cm/y)squared.

  14. Deformation twinning mechanisms in FCC and HCP metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian; Tome, Carlos N; Beyerlein, Irene J; Misra, Amit; Mara, N

    2011-01-31

    We report the recent work on twinning and detwinning in fcc and hcp metals based on the in situ and ex situ TEM observations and molecular dynamics simulations. Three aspects are discussed in this paper. (1) Detwinning in single-phase Cu with respect to growth twins, (2) deformation twinning in Ag-Cu composites, and (3) deformation twinning mechanisms in hcp metals. The main conclusion is that atomic structures of interfaces (twin boundaries, two-phases interface, and grain boundaries) play a crucial role in nucleating and propagating of deformation twins.

  15. Active Beam Shaping System and Method Using Sequential Deformable Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Colin A. (Inventor); Pueyo, Laurent A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An active optical beam shaping system includes a first deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept an entrance beam of light and to provide a first reflected beam of light, a second deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept the first reflected beam of light from the first deformable mirror and to provide a second reflected beam of light, and a signal processing and control system configured to communicate with the first and second deformable mirrors. The first deformable mirror, the second deformable mirror and the signal processing and control system together provide a large amplitude light modulation range to provide an actively shaped optical beam.

  16. Fluctuating Nonlinear Spring Model of Mechanical Deformation of Biological Particles.

    PubMed

    Kononova, Olga; Snijder, Joost; Kholodov, Yaroslav; Marx, Kenneth A; Wuite, Gijs J L; Roos, Wouter H; Barsegov, Valeri

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties of virus capsids correlate with local conformational dynamics in the capsid structure. They also reflect the required stability needed to withstand high internal pressures generated upon genome loading and contribute to the success of important events in viral infectivity, such as capsid maturation, genome uncoating and receptor binding. The mechanical properties of biological nanoparticles are often determined from monitoring their dynamic deformations in Atomic Force Microscopy nanoindentation experiments; but a comprehensive theory describing the full range of observed deformation behaviors has not previously been described. We present a new theory for modeling dynamic deformations of biological nanoparticles, which considers the non-linear Hertzian deformation, resulting from an indenter-particle physical contact, and the bending of curved elements (beams) modeling the particle structure. The beams' deformation beyond the critical point triggers a dynamic transition of the particle to the collapsed state. This extreme event is accompanied by a catastrophic force drop as observed in the experimental or simulated force (F)-deformation (X) spectra. The theory interprets fine features of the spectra, including the nonlinear components of the FX-curves, in terms of the Young's moduli for Hertzian and bending deformations, and the structural damage dependent beams' survival probability, in terms of the maximum strength and the cooperativity parameter. The theory is exemplified by successfully describing the deformation dynamics of natural nanoparticles through comparing theoretical curves with experimental force-deformation spectra for several virus particles. This approach provides a comprehensive description of the dynamic structural transitions in biological and artificial nanoparticles, which is essential for their optimal use in nanotechnology and nanomedicine applications. PMID:26821264

  17. Fluctuating Nonlinear Spring Model of Mechanical Deformation of Biological Particles.

    PubMed

    Kononova, Olga; Snijder, Joost; Kholodov, Yaroslav; Marx, Kenneth A; Wuite, Gijs J L; Roos, Wouter H; Barsegov, Valeri

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties of virus capsids correlate with local conformational dynamics in the capsid structure. They also reflect the required stability needed to withstand high internal pressures generated upon genome loading and contribute to the success of important events in viral infectivity, such as capsid maturation, genome uncoating and receptor binding. The mechanical properties of biological nanoparticles are often determined from monitoring their dynamic deformations in Atomic Force Microscopy nanoindentation experiments; but a comprehensive theory describing the full range of observed deformation behaviors has not previously been described. We present a new theory for modeling dynamic deformations of biological nanoparticles, which considers the non-linear Hertzian deformation, resulting from an indenter-particle physical contact, and the bending of curved elements (beams) modeling the particle structure. The beams' deformation beyond the critical point triggers a dynamic transition of the particle to the collapsed state. This extreme event is accompanied by a catastrophic force drop as observed in the experimental or simulated force (F)-deformation (X) spectra. The theory interprets fine features of the spectra, including the nonlinear components of the FX-curves, in terms of the Young's moduli for Hertzian and bending deformations, and the structural damage dependent beams' survival probability, in terms of the maximum strength and the cooperativity parameter. The theory is exemplified by successfully describing the deformation dynamics of natural nanoparticles through comparing theoretical curves with experimental force-deformation spectra for several virus particles. This approach provides a comprehensive description of the dynamic structural transitions in biological and artificial nanoparticles, which is essential for their optimal use in nanotechnology and nanomedicine applications.

  18. Fluctuating Nonlinear Spring Model of Mechanical Deformation of Biological Particles

    PubMed Central

    Kononova, Olga; Snijder, Joost; Kholodov, Yaroslav; Marx, Kenneth A.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Roos, Wouter H.; Barsegov, Valeri

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties of virus capsids correlate with local conformational dynamics in the capsid structure. They also reflect the required stability needed to withstand high internal pressures generated upon genome loading and contribute to the success of important events in viral infectivity, such as capsid maturation, genome uncoating and receptor binding. The mechanical properties of biological nanoparticles are often determined from monitoring their dynamic deformations in Atomic Force Microscopy nanoindentation experiments; but a comprehensive theory describing the full range of observed deformation behaviors has not previously been described. We present a new theory for modeling dynamic deformations of biological nanoparticles, which considers the non-linear Hertzian deformation, resulting from an indenter-particle physical contact, and the bending of curved elements (beams) modeling the particle structure. The beams’ deformation beyond the critical point triggers a dynamic transition of the particle to the collapsed state. This extreme event is accompanied by a catastrophic force drop as observed in the experimental or simulated force (F)-deformation (X) spectra. The theory interprets fine features of the spectra, including the nonlinear components of the FX-curves, in terms of the Young’s moduli for Hertzian and bending deformations, and the structural damage dependent beams’ survival probability, in terms of the maximum strength and the cooperativity parameter. The theory is exemplified by successfully describing the deformation dynamics of natural nanoparticles through comparing theoretical curves with experimental force-deformation spectra for several virus particles. This approach provides a comprehensive description of the dynamic structural transitions in biological and artificial nanoparticles, which is essential for their optimal use in nanotechnology and nanomedicine applications. PMID:26821264

  19. Investigating Deformation and Failure Mechanisms in Nanoscale Multilayer Metallic Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zbib, Hussein M; Bahr, David F

    2014-10-22

    Over the history of materials science there are many examples of materials discoveries that have made superlative materials; the strongest, lightest, or toughest material is almost always a goal when we invent new materials. However, often these have been a result of enormous trial and error approaches. A new methodology, one in which researchers design, from the atoms up, new ultra-strong materials for use in energy applications, is taking hold within the science and engineering community. This project focused on one particular new classification of materials; nanolaminate metallic composites. These materials, where two metallic materials are intimately bonded and layered over and over to form sheets or coatings, have been shown over the past decade to reach strengths over 10 times that of their constituents. However, they are not yet widely used in part because while extremely strong (they don’t permanently bend), they are also not particularly tough (they break relatively easily when notched). Our program took a coupled approach to investigating new materials systems within the laminate field. We used computational materials science to explore ways to institute new deformation mechanisms that occurred when a tri-layer, rather than the more common bi-layer system was created. Our predictions suggested that copper-nickel or copper-niobium composites (two very common bi-layer systems) with layer thicknesses on the order of 20 nm and then layered 100’s of times, would be less tough than a copper-nickel-niobium metallic composite of similar thicknesses. In particular, a particular mode of permanent deformation, cross-slip, could be activated only in the tri-layer system; the crystal structure of the other bi-layers would prohibit this particular mode of deformation. We then experimentally validated this predication using a wide range of tools. We utilized a DOE user facility, the Center for Integrated Nanotechnology (CINT), to fabricate, for the first time, these

  20. Mechanical properties of graphene on deformable patterned substrates: Experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharfenberg, S.; Chialvo, C.; Rocklin, D. Z.; Weaver, R.; Goldbart, P. M.; Mason, N.

    2010-03-01

    The mechanical properties of graphene can strongly influence its electronic behavior, and are relevant for implementing novel nano-mechanical devices. In this talk we present results on the mechanical behavior of few-layered graphene (FLG) placed on a patterned rubbery surface. Samples of FLG, with thicknesses ranging from 1-7 atomic layers, were deposited on micro-scale grooved polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates. AFM imaging techniques were then used to study the surface deformations, and to perform thickness measurements on the samples. AFM phase-imaging shows that the graphene strongly adheres to the substrate. The graphene also substantially deforms the substrate, with thicker pieces causing greater deformation. The results are discussed in the context of a linear elasticity theory (detailed in an accompanying paper) which can be used to explain the data and place bounds on the various interface strengths.

  1. Analysis of Deformation Mechanisms Associated with Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Hsu, Shaw Ling

    1998-03-01

    Biaxially oriented samples can be prepared either by simultaneous or sequential deformation along two orthogonal directions. Generally speaking the orientation achieved in the plane of the film is independent of the method. In this study, we demonstrate that for sequential deformation, the degree of orientation achieved in the two orthogonal directions is dependent on initial sample morphology and deformation parameters. The achievable orientation is strongly dependent on the degree of crystallinity and initial crystallite dimensions. Samples containing small crystallites can achieve significantly higher orientation in the transverse direction (restretching step). The ultimate morphology is dictated by the temperature at which second drawing occurs. At lower deformation temperature, rotation of stacked crystalline lamellae can be accomplished to form biaxially oriented films. At higher temperatures, the dominant mechanism is unfolding of crystalline chain segments followed by recrystallization into units aligned with the restretching direction. X-ray diffraction, polarized infrared and Raman spectroscopy, and calorimetric techniques were employed to analyze these structural transformations.

  2. Cumulative mechanical moments and microstructure deformation induced by growth shape in columnar solidification.

    PubMed

    Billia, Bernard; Bergeon, Nathalie; Thi, Henri Nguyen; Jamgotchian, Haïk; Gastaldi, Joseph; Grange, Gérard

    2004-09-17

    The dynamical interaction between columnar interface microstructure and self-stress, resulting in unforeseen mechanical deformation phenomena, is brought to light by means of in situ and real-time synchrotron x-ray topography during directional solidification of dilute aluminum alloys. Beyond long-known local mechanical stresses, global mechanical constraints are found to be active. In particular, column rotation results from deformation caused by the mechanical moments associated with the very growth shape, namely, the cumulative torque acting together with the cumulative bending moment under gravity. A basic model allowing for a qualitative explanation of the observed distinctive features of the self-stress effects on microstructure dynamics is proposed.

  3. Inference of postseismic deformation mechanisms of the 1923 Kanto earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Nyst, M.; Nishimura, T.; Thatcher, W.

    2006-01-01

    Coseismic slip associated with the M7.9, 1923 Kanto earthquake is fairly well understood, involving slip of up to 8 m along the Philippine Sea-Honshu interplate boundary under Sagami Bay and its onland extension. Postseismic deformation after the 1923 earthquake, however, is relatively poorly understood. We revisit the available deformation data in order to constrain possible mechanisms of postseismic deformation and to examine the consequences for associated stress changes in the surrounding crust. Data from two leveling lines and one tide gage station over the first 7-8 years postseismic period are of much greater amplitude than the corresponding expected interseismic deformation during the same period, making these data suitable for isolating the signal from postseismic deformation. We consider both viscoelastic models of asthenosphere relaxation and afterslip models. A distributed coseismic slip model presented by Pollitz et al. (2005), combined with prescribed parameters of a viscoelastic Earth model, yields predicted postseismic deformation that agrees with observed deformation on mainland Honshu from Tokyo to the Izu peninsula. Elsewhere (southern Miura peninsula; Boso peninsula), the considered viscoelastic models fail to predict observed deformation, and a model of ???1 in shallow afterslip in the offshore region south of the Boso peninsula, with equivalent moment magnitude Mw = 7.0, adequately accounts for the observed deformation. Using the distributed coseismic slip model, layered viscoelastic structure, and a model of interseismic strain accumulation, we evaluate the post-1923 stress evolution, including both the coseismic and accumulated postseismic stress changes and those stresses contributed by interseismic loading. We find that if account is made for the varying tectonic regime in the region, the occurrence of both immediate (first month) post-1923 crustal aftershocks as well as recent regional crustal seismicity is consistent with the predicted

  4. Mechanical threshold of dynamically deformed copper and Nitronic 40

    SciTech Connect

    Follansbee, P.S.; Kocks, U.F.; Regazzoni, G.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the mechanical threshold, or threshold stress, are reported on quasi-statically and dynamically deformed copper and Nitronic 40. Results for copper show that the increase of the threshold stress with strain rate is similar to that of the flow stress. In Nitronic 40 the results show that the ratio of the flow stress to the threshold stress is approx.0.6. Both results indicate that the increased rate sensitivity found in these materials at high strain rates is not due to the predominance of a viscous drag deformation mechanism, as has been previously suggested.

  5. Modeling AFM Induced Mechanical Deformation of Living Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, R E; McElfresh, M; Balhorn, R; Allen, M J; Belak, J

    2002-11-15

    Finite element modeling has been applied to study deformation of living cells in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and particularly Recognition Force Microscopy (RFM). The abstract mechanical problem of interest is the response to RFM point loads of an incompressible medium enclosed in a fluid membrane. Cells are soft systems, susceptible to large deformations in the course of an RFM measurement. Often the local properties such as receptor anchoring forces, the reason for the measurement, are obscured by the response of the cell as a whole. Modeling can deconvolute these effects. This facilitates experimental efforts to have reproducible measurements of mechanical and chemical properties at specific kinds of receptor sites on the membrane of a living cell. In this article we briefly review the RFM technique for cells and the problems it poses, and then report on recent progress in modeling the deformation of cells by a point load.

  6. Study of the deformation mechanism of the Gaoliying ground fissure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, G.; Wang, H.; Luo, Y.; Guo, H.

    2015-11-01

    The Gaoliying ground fissure in Beijing has caused building cracking and road damage, and has seriously influenced city construction. Based on investigations and trenching, the influences of the fault and the variation of groundwater levels on the formation mechanism of the Gaoliying ground fissure were investigated by using FLAC3D. The results indicated that (1) the surface location of Gaoliying fissure is controlled by the underlying normal fault activity, and over pumping further exacerbates development of the ground fissure; (2) when the groundwater level declines, obvious differential settlement occurs at both sides of the ground fissure, in which greater settlement occurs in the vicinity of the hanging wall, the greater the distance from the hanging wall, the smaller the ground subsidence, however smaller ground subsidence occurs in the vicinity of the footwall, the greater the distance from the footwall, the greater the ground subsidence; (3) the vertical velocity of the ground fissure triggered by the fault activity and groundwater decline ranges from 15.5 to 18.3 mm a-1, which is basically in line with the monitoring data. The fault activity contributes about 28-39 %, and the groundwater contributes about 61-72 % to the deformation of the ground fissure, respectively.

  7. Molecular deformation mechanisms of the wood cell wall material.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kai; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2015-02-01

    Wood is a biological material with outstanding mechanical properties resulting from its hierarchical structure across different scales. Although earlier work has shown that the cellular structure of wood is a key factor that renders it excellent mechanical properties at light weight, the mechanical properties of the wood cell wall material itself still needs to be understood comprehensively. The wood cell wall material features a fiber reinforced composite structure, where cellulose fibrils act as stiff fibers, and hemicellulose and lignin molecules act as soft matrix. The angle between the fiber direction and the loading direction has been found to be the key factor controlling the mechanical properties. However, how the interactions between theses constitutive molecules contribute to the overall properties is still unclear, although the shearing between fibers has been proposed as a primary deformation mechanism. Here we report a molecular model of the wood cell wall material with atomistic resolution, used to assess the mechanical behavior under shear loading in order to understand the deformation mechanisms at the molecular level. The model includes an explicit description of cellulose crystals, hemicellulose, as well as lignin molecules arranged in a layered nanocomposite. The results obtained using this model show that the wood cell wall material under shear loading deforms in an elastic and then plastic manner. The plastic regime can be divided into two parts according to the different deformation mechanisms: yielding of the matrix and sliding of matrix along the cellulose surface. Our molecular dynamics study provides insights of the mechanical behavior of wood cell wall material at the molecular level, and paves a way for the multi-scale understanding of the mechanical properties of wood.

  8. Mechanical deformations of boron nitride nanotubes in crossed junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yadong; Chen, Xiaoming; Park, Cheol; Fay, Catharine C.; Stupkiewicz, Stanislaw; Ke, Changhong

    2014-04-01

    We present a study of the mechanical deformations of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) in crossed junctions. The structure and deformation of the crossed tubes in the junction are characterized by using atomic force microscopy. Our results show that the total tube heights are reduced by 20%-33% at the crossed junctions formed by double-walled BNNTs with outer diameters in the range of 2.21-4.67 nm. The measured tube height reduction is found to be in a nearly linear relationship with the summation of the outer diameters of the two tubes forming the junction. The contact force between the two tubes in the junction is estimated based on contact mechanics theories and found to be within the range of 4.2-7.6 nN. The Young's modulus of BNNTs and their binding strengths with the substrate are quantified, based on the deformation profile of the upper tube in the junction, and are found to be 1.07 ± 0.11 TPa and 0.18-0.29 nJ/m, respectively. Finally, we perform finite element simulations on the mechanical deformations of the crossed BNNT junctions. The numerical simulation results are consistent with both the experimental measurements and the analytical analysis. The results reported in this paper contribute to a better understanding of the structural and mechanical properties of BNNTs and to the pursuit of their applications.

  9. Mechanical deformations of boron nitride nanotubes in crossed junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yadong; Chen, Xiaoming; Ke, Changhong; Park, Cheol; Fay, Catharine C.; Stupkiewicz, Stanislaw

    2014-04-28

    We present a study of the mechanical deformations of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) in crossed junctions. The structure and deformation of the crossed tubes in the junction are characterized by using atomic force microscopy. Our results show that the total tube heights are reduced by 20%–33% at the crossed junctions formed by double-walled BNNTs with outer diameters in the range of 2.21–4.67 nm. The measured tube height reduction is found to be in a nearly linear relationship with the summation of the outer diameters of the two tubes forming the junction. The contact force between the two tubes in the junction is estimated based on contact mechanics theories and found to be within the range of 4.2–7.6 nN. The Young's modulus of BNNTs and their binding strengths with the substrate are quantified, based on the deformation profile of the upper tube in the junction, and are found to be 1.07 ± 0.11 TPa and 0.18–0.29 nJ/m, respectively. Finally, we perform finite element simulations on the mechanical deformations of the crossed BNNT junctions. The numerical simulation results are consistent with both the experimental measurements and the analytical analysis. The results reported in this paper contribute to a better understanding of the structural and mechanical properties of BNNTs and to the pursuit of their applications.

  10. Sine-square deformation and supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okunishi, Kouichi; Katsura, Hosho

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the sine-square deformation (SSD) of free fermions in one-dimensional continuous space. On the basis of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, we prove the correspondence between the many-body ground state of the system with SSD and that of the uniform system with periodic boundary conditions. We also discuss the connection between the SSD in the continuous space and its lattice version, where the geometric correction due to the real-space deformation plays an important role in relating the eigenstates of the lattice SSD with those of the continuous SSD.

  11. Deformation of supersymmetric and conformal quantum mechanics through affine transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonov, Vyacheslav

    Affine transformations (dilatations and translations) are used to define a deformation of one-dimensional N = 2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Resulting physical systems do not have conserved charges and degeneracies in the spectra. Instead, superpartner Hamiltonians are q-isospectral, i.e. the spectrum of one can be obtained from another (with possible exception of the lowest level) by q(sup 2)-factor scaling. This construction allows easily to rederive a special self-similar potential found by Shabat and to show that for the latter a q-deformed harmonic oscillator algebra of Biedenharn and Macfarlane serves as the spectrum generating algebra. A general class of potentials related to the quantum conformal algebra su(sub q)(1,1) is described. Further possibilities for q-deformation of known solvable potentials are outlined.

  12. Deformation of supersymmetric and conformal quantum mechanics through affine transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiridonov, Vyacheslav

    1993-01-01

    Affine transformations (dilatations and translations) are used to define a deformation of one-dimensional N = 2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Resulting physical systems do not have conserved charges and degeneracies in the spectra. Instead, superpartner Hamiltonians are q-isospectral, i.e. the spectrum of one can be obtained from another (with possible exception of the lowest level) by q(sup 2)-factor scaling. This construction allows easily to rederive a special self-similar potential found by Shabat and to show that for the latter a q-deformed harmonic oscillator algebra of Biedenharn and Macfarlane serves as the spectrum generating algebra. A general class of potentials related to the quantum conformal algebra su(sub q)(1,1) is described. Further possibilities for q-deformation of known solvable potentials are outlined.

  13. Temperature dependent deformation mechanisms in pure amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran, M. S. R. N. Haberl, B.; Williams, J. S.; Bradby, J. E.

    2014-03-21

    High temperature nanoindentation has been performed on pure ion-implanted amorphous silicon (unrelaxed a-Si) and structurally relaxed a-Si to investigate the temperature dependence of mechanical deformation, including pressure-induced phase transformations. Along with the indentation load-depth curves, ex situ measurements such as Raman micro-spectroscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy analysis on the residual indents reveal the mode of deformation under the indenter. While unrelaxed a-Si deforms entirely via plastic flow up to 200 °C, a clear transition in the mode of deformation is observed in relaxed a-Si with increasing temperature. Up to 100 °C, pressure-induced phase transformation and the observation of either crystalline (r8/bc8) end phases or pressure-induced a-Si occurs in relaxed a-Si. However, with further increase of temperature, plastic flow rather than phase transformation is the dominant mode of deformation. It is believed that the elevated temperature and pressure together induce bond softening and “defect” formation in structurally relaxed a-Si, leading to the inhibition of phase transformation due to pressure-releasing plastic flow under the indenter.

  14. Analysis of internal crack healing mechanism under rolling deformation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haitao; Ai, Zhengrong; Yu, Hailiang; Wu, Hongyan; Liu, Xianghua

    2014-01-01

    A new experimental method, called the 'hole filling method', is proposed to simulate the healing of internal cracks in rolled workpieces. Based on the experimental results, the evolution in the microstructure, in terms of diffusion, nucleation and recrystallisation were used to analyze the crack healing mechanism. We also validated the phenomenon of segmented healing. Internal crack healing involves plastic deformation, heat transfer and an increase in the free energy introduced by the cracks. It is proposed that internal cracks heal better under high plastic deformation followed by slow cooling after rolling. Crack healing is controlled by diffusion of atoms from the matrix to the crack surface, and also by the nucleation and growth of ferrite grain on the crack surface. The diffusion mechanism is used to explain the source of material needed for crack healing. The recrystallisation mechanism is used to explain grain nucleation and growth, accompanied by atomic migration to the crack surface.

  15. Nanoparticle mechanics: deformation detection via nanopore resistive pulse sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvish, Armin; Goyal, Gaurav; Aneja, Rachna; Sundaram, Ramalingam V. K.; Lee, Kidan; Ahn, Chi Won; Kim, Ki-Bum; Vlahovska, Petia M.; Kim, Min Jun

    2016-07-01

    Solid-state nanopores have been widely used in the past for single-particle analysis of nanoparticles, liposomes, exosomes and viruses. The shape of soft particles, particularly liposomes with a bilayer membrane, can greatly differ inside the nanopore compared to bulk solution as the electric field inside the nanopores can cause liposome electrodeformation. Such deformations can compromise size measurement and characterization of particles, but are often neglected in nanopore resistive pulse sensing. In this paper, we investigated the deformation of various liposomes inside nanopores. We observed a significant difference in resistive pulse characteristics between soft liposomes and rigid polystyrene nanoparticles especially at higher applied voltages. We used theoretical simulations to demonstrate that the difference can be explained by shape deformation of liposomes as they translocate through the nanopores. Comparing our results with the findings from electrodeformation experiments, we demonstrated that the rigidity of liposomes can be qualitatively compared using resistive pulse characteristics. This application of nanopores can provide new opportunities to study the mechanics at the nanoscale, to investigate properties of great value in fundamental biophysics and cellular mechanobiology, such as virus deformability and fusogenicity, and in applied sciences for designing novel drug/gene delivery systems.Solid-state nanopores have been widely used in the past for single-particle analysis of nanoparticles, liposomes, exosomes and viruses. The shape of soft particles, particularly liposomes with a bilayer membrane, can greatly differ inside the nanopore compared to bulk solution as the electric field inside the nanopores can cause liposome electrodeformation. Such deformations can compromise size measurement and characterization of particles, but are often neglected in nanopore resistive pulse sensing. In this paper, we investigated the deformation of various

  16. Active Deformation of Etna Volcano Combing IFSAR and GPS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundgren, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The surface deformation of an active volcano is an important indicator of its eruptive state and its hazard potential. Mount Etna volcano in Sicily is a very active volcano with well documented eruption episodes.

  17. Bertram Hopkinson's pioneering work and the dislocation mechanics of high rate deformations and mechanically induced detonations.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Ronald W

    2014-05-13

    Bertram Hopkinson was prescient in writing of the importance of better measuring, albeit better understanding, the nature of high rate deformation of materials in general and, in particular, of the importance of heat in initiating detonation of explosives. This report deals with these subjects in terms of post-Hopkinson crystal dislocation mechanics applied to high rate deformations, including impact tests, Hopkinson pressure bar results, Zerilli-Armstrong-type constitutive relations, shock-induced deformations, isentropic compression experiments, mechanical initiation of explosive crystals and shear banding in metals.

  18. Generalized coherent states under deformed quantum mechanics with maximum momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Chee Leong; Ng, Wei Khim

    2013-10-01

    Following the Gazeau-Klauder approach, we construct generalized coherent states (GCS) as the quantum simulator to examine the deformed quantum mechanics, which exhibits an intrinsic maximum momentum. We study deformed harmonic oscillators and compute their probability distribution and entropy of states exactly. Also, a particle in an infinite potential box is studied perturbatively. In particular, unlike usual quantum mechanics, the present deformed case increases the entropy of the Planck scale quantum optical system. Furthermore, for simplicity, we obtain the modified uncertainty principle (MUP) with the perturbative treatment up to leading order. MUP turns out to increase generally. However, for certain values of γ (a parameter of GCS), it is possible that the MUP will vanish and hence will exhibit the classical characteristic. This is interpreted as the manifestation of the intrinsic high-momentum cutoff at lower momentum in a perturbative treatment. Although the GCS saturates the minimal uncertainty in a simultaneous measurement of physical position and momentum operators, thus constituting the squeezed states, complete coherency is impossible in quantum gravitational physics. The Mandel Q number is calculated, and it is shown that the statistics can be Poissonian and super-/sub-Poissonian depending on γ. The equation of motion is studied, and both Ehrenfest’s theorem and the correspondence principle are recovered. Fractional revival times are obtained through the autocorrelation, and they indicate that the superposition of a classical-like subwave packet is natural in GCS. We also contrast our results with the string-motivated (Snyder) type of deformed quantum mechanics, which incorporates a minimum position uncertainty rather than a maximum momentum. With the advances of quantum optics technology, it might be possible to realize some of these distinguishing quantum-gravitational features within the domain of future experiments.

  19. A Mechanism-based Model for Deformation Twinning in Polycrystalline FCC Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuan; Sun, Xin; Wang, Y. D.; Hu, Xiaohua; Zbib, Hussein M.

    2014-06-01

    Deformation twinning, a common and important plastic deformation mechanism, is the key contributor to the excellent combination of strength and ductility in twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel. In the open literature, a significant amount of research has been reported on the microstructural characteristics of deformation twinning and its influence on the overall deformation behavior of TWIP steel. In this study, we examine the feasibility of a mechanism-based crystal plasticity model in simulating the microstructural level deformation characteristics of TWIP steel. To this end, a model considering both double-slip and double-twin is developed to investigate the stress-strain behavior and local microstructural features related to the formation and growth of micro-twins in low stacking fault energy (SFE) TWIP steel. The twin systems are described as pseudo-slips that can be activated when their resolved shear stress reaches the corresponding critical value. A hardening law that accounts for the interaction among the slip and twin systems is also developed. Numerical simulations for dDifferent mesh sizes and single crystal patch tests under different loading modes are carried out to verify the modeling procedure. Our simulation results reveal that, despite its simple nature, the double-slip/double-twin model can capture the key deformation features of TWIP steel, including twin volume fraction evolution, continuous strain hardening, and the final fracture in the form of strain localization.

  20. Unraveling cyclic deformation mechanisms of a rolled magnesium alloy using in situ neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wei; An, Ke; Liaw, Peter K.

    2014-12-23

    In the current study, the deformation mechanisms of a rolled magnesium alloy were investigated under cyclic loading using real-time in situ neutron diffraction under a continuous-loading condition. The relationship between the macroscopic cyclic deformation behavior and the microscopic response at the grain level was established. The neutron diffraction results indicate that more and more grains are involved in the twinning and detwinning deformation process with the increase of fatigue cycles. The residual twins appear in the early fatigue life, which is responsible for the cyclic hardening behavior. The asymmetric shape of the hysteresis loop is attributed to the early exhaustion of the detwinning process during compression, which leads to the activation of dislocation slips and rapid strain-hardening. The critical resolved shear stress for the activation of tensile twinning closely depends on the residual strain developed during cyclic loading. In the cycle before the sample fractured, the dislocation slips became active in tension, although the sample was not fully twinned. The increased dislocation density leads to the rise of the stress concentration at weak spots, which is believed to be the main reason for the fatigue failure. Furthermore, the deformation history greatly influences the deformation mechanisms of hexagonal-close-packed-structured magnesium alloy during cyclic loading.

  1. Unraveling cyclic deformation mechanisms of a rolled magnesium alloy using in situ neutron diffraction

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Wei; An, Ke; Liaw, Peter K.

    2014-12-23

    In the current study, the deformation mechanisms of a rolled magnesium alloy were investigated under cyclic loading using real-time in situ neutron diffraction under a continuous-loading condition. The relationship between the macroscopic cyclic deformation behavior and the microscopic response at the grain level was established. The neutron diffraction results indicate that more and more grains are involved in the twinning and detwinning deformation process with the increase of fatigue cycles. The residual twins appear in the early fatigue life, which is responsible for the cyclic hardening behavior. The asymmetric shape of the hysteresis loop is attributed to the early exhaustionmore » of the detwinning process during compression, which leads to the activation of dislocation slips and rapid strain-hardening. The critical resolved shear stress for the activation of tensile twinning closely depends on the residual strain developed during cyclic loading. In the cycle before the sample fractured, the dislocation slips became active in tension, although the sample was not fully twinned. The increased dislocation density leads to the rise of the stress concentration at weak spots, which is believed to be the main reason for the fatigue failure. Furthermore, the deformation history greatly influences the deformation mechanisms of hexagonal-close-packed-structured magnesium alloy during cyclic loading.« less

  2. Experimental Deformation of Diopside Single Crystals at Mantle P and T: Mechanical Data and Deformation Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiguet, E.; Raterron, P.; Cordier, P.; Couvy, H.; Chen, J.

    2009-04-01

    Clinopyroxenes (cpx) are major constituents of eclogites and are present in excess of 10 vol.% at most depths in the pyrolitic upper mantle. Among mantle minerals, they exhibit the strongest anisotropy for seismic wave propagation. Cpx plastic properties may thus significantly affect both mantle rheology and seismic anisotropy. Yet, no study of cpx rheology at high-pressure (typically P > 3 GPa) has been reported so far, while recent developments in high-pressure deformation devices coupled with synchrotron radiation allow now investigating the rheology of mantle minerals and aggregates at the extreme pressure and temperature (T) of their natural occurrence in the Earth. In order to investigate the effect of P on cpx rheology, steady state deformation experiments were carried out on gem quality oriented diopside crystals in the Deformation-DIA apparatus (D-DIA, see Wang et al., 2003, Rev. Scientific Instr., 74, 3002) that equipped the X17B2 beamline of the NSLS (Upton, NY, USA), at P ranging from 3.8 to 8.8 GPa, T in the range 1100˚ -1400˚ C, and with differential stress () ranging between 0.2 and 1.7 GPa. Three compression directions were chosen in order to activate either 1 •2 {1¯10} dislocation slip (duplex) systems together, or [100](010) and [010](100) systems together, or again [001] dislocation slip in (100), (010) and {110} planes. Constant and specimen strain rates (ɛ˙) were monitored in situ using time-resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction and radiography, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation of the run products revealed that dislocation creep was responsible for sample deformation. Comparison of the present high-P deformation data with data obtained at room-P - on similar diopside crystals deformed at comparable T- conditions (Raterron and Jaoul, 1991, JGR, 96, 14277) - allows quantifying the effect of P on the activity of 1 •2 {1¯10} duplex systems. This translates into an activation volume V * = 17 ± 6 cm

  3. Deformable liposomes and ethosomes: mechanism of enhanced skin delivery.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Mustafa M A; Abdallah, Ossama Y; Naggar, Viviane F; Khalafallah, Nawal M

    2006-09-28

    Despite intensive research, the mechanisms by which vesicular systems deliver drugs into intact skin are not yet fully understood. In the current study, possible mechanisms by which deformable liposomes and ethosomes improve skin delivery of ketotifen under non-occlusive conditions were investigated. In vitro permeation and skin deposition behavior of deformable liposomes and ethosomes, having ketotifen both inside and outside the vesicles (no separation of free ketotifen), having ketotifen only inside the vesicles (free ketotifen separated) and having ketotifen only outside the vesicles (ketotifen solution added to empty vesicles), was studied using rabbit pinna skin. Results suggested that both the penetration enhancing effect and the intact vesicle permeation into the stratum corneum might play a role in improving skin delivery of drugs by deformable liposomes, under non-occlusive conditions, and that the penetration enhancing effect was of greater importance in case of ketotifen. Regarding ethosomes, results indicated that ketotifen should be incorporated in ethosomal vesicles for optimum skin delivery. Ethosomes were not able to improve skin delivery of non-entrapped ketotifen.

  4. Temperature Dependent Cyclic Deformation Mechanisms in Haynes 188 Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara; Castelli, Michael G.; Allen, Gorden P.; Ellis, John R.

    1995-01-01

    The cyclic deformation behavior of a wrought cobalt-base superalloy, Haynes 188, has been investigated over a range of temperatures between 25 and 1000 C under isothermal and in-phase thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) conditions. Constant mechanical strain rates (epsilon-dot) of 10(exp -3)/s and 10(exp -4)/s were examined with a fully reversed strain range of 0.8%. Particular attention was given to the effects of dynamic strain aging (DSA) on the stress-strain response and low cycle fatigue life. A correlation between cyclic deformation behavior and microstructural substructure was made through detailed transmission electron microscopy. Although DSA was found to occur over a wide temperature range between approximately 300 and 750 C the microstructural characteristics and the deformation mechanisms responsible for DSA varied considerably and were dependent upon temperature. In general, the operation of DSA processes led to a maximum of the cyclic stress amplitude at 650 C and was accompanied by pronounced planar slip, relatively high dislocation density, and the generation of stacking faults. DSA was evidenced through a combination of phenomena, including serrated yielding, an inverse dependence of the maximum cyclic hardening with epsilon-dot, and an instantaneous inverse epsilon-dot sensitivity verified by specialized epsilon-dot -change tests. The TMF cyclic hardening behavior of the alloy appeared to be dictated by the substructural changes occuring at the maximum temperature in the TMF cycle.

  5. Thermal and mechanical controls on magma supply and volcanic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, James; Gottsmann, Jo; Nakamichi, Haruhisa; Iguchi, Masato

    2016-04-01

    Ground deformation often precedes volcanic eruptions, and results from complex interactions between source processes and the thermomechanical behaviour of surrounding rock. Geodetic models aimed at constraining source processes consequently require the implementation of realistic mechanical and thermal rock properties. However, most generic models ignore this requirement and employ oversimplified mechanical assumptions without regard for thermal effects. Here we show how spatio-temporal deformation and magma reservoir evolution are fundamentally controlled by three-dimensional thermomechanical heterogeneity. Using the example of continued inflation at Aira caldera, Japan, we demonstrate that despite on-going eruptions magma is accumulating faster than it can be ejected, and the current uplift is approaching the level inferred prior to the 1914 Plinian eruption. Our results from inverse and forward numerical models are consistent with petrological constraints and highlight how the location, volume, and rate of magma supply, 0.014 km3/yr, are thermomechanically controlled. Magma storage conditions coincide with estimates for the caldera-forming reservoir ˜29,000 years ago, and the inferred magma supply rate indicates a ˜130-year timeframe to amass enough magma to feed a future 1914-sized eruption. These new inferences are important for eruption forecasting and risk mitigation, and have significant implications for the interpretations of volcanic deformation worldwide.

  6. Deformation behavior and mechanical properties of amyloid protein nanowires.

    PubMed

    Solar, Max; Buehler, Markus J

    2013-03-01

    Amyloid fibrils are most often associated with their pathological role in diseases like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, but they are now increasingly being considered for uses in functional engineering materials. They are among the stiffest protein fibers known but they are also rather brittle, and it is unclear how this combination of properties affects the behavior of amyloid structures at larger length scales, such as in films, wires or plaques. Using a coarse-grained model for amyloid fibrils, we study the mechanical response of amyloid nanowires and examine fundamental mechanical properties, including mechanisms of deformation and failure under tensile loading. We also explore the effect of varying the breaking strain and adhesion strength of the constituent amyloid fibrils on the properties of the larger structure. We find that deformation in the nanowires is controlled by a combination of fibril sliding and fibril failure and that there exists a transition from brittle to ductile behavior by either increasing the fibril failure strain or decreasing the strength of adhesion between fibrils. Furthermore, our results reveal that the mechanical properties of the nanowires are quite sensitive to changes in the properties of the individual fibrils, and the larger scale structures are found to be more mechanically robust than the constituent fibrils, for all cases considered. More broadly, this work demonstrates the promise of utilizing self-assembled biological building blocks in the development of hierarchical nanomaterials. PMID:23290516

  7. Atomic force microscopic study of the structure of high-density polyethylene deformed in liquid medium by crazing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bagrov, D V; Yarysheva, A Y; Rukhlya, E G; Yarysheva, L M; Volynskii, A L; Bakeev, N F

    2014-02-01

    A procedure has been developed for the direct atomic force microscopic (AFM) examination of the native structure of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) deformed in an adsorption-active liquid medium (AALM) by the crazing mechanism. The AFM investigation has been carried out in the presence of a liquid medium under conditions preventing deformed films from shrinkage. Deformation of HDPE in AALM has been shown to proceed through the delocalized crazing mechanism and result in the development of a fibrillar-porous structure. The structural parameters of the crazed polymer have been determined. The obtained AFM images demonstrate a nanosized nonuniformity of the deformation and enable one to observe the structural rearrangements that take place in the deformed polymer after removal of the liquid medium and stress relaxation. A structural similarity has been revealed between HDPE deformed in the AALM and hard elastic polymers. PMID:24283329

  8. Atomic force microscopic study of the structure of high-density polyethylene deformed in liquid medium by crazing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bagrov, D V; Yarysheva, A Y; Rukhlya, E G; Yarysheva, L M; Volynskii, A L; Bakeev, N F

    2014-02-01

    A procedure has been developed for the direct atomic force microscopic (AFM) examination of the native structure of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) deformed in an adsorption-active liquid medium (AALM) by the crazing mechanism. The AFM investigation has been carried out in the presence of a liquid medium under conditions preventing deformed films from shrinkage. Deformation of HDPE in AALM has been shown to proceed through the delocalized crazing mechanism and result in the development of a fibrillar-porous structure. The structural parameters of the crazed polymer have been determined. The obtained AFM images demonstrate a nanosized nonuniformity of the deformation and enable one to observe the structural rearrangements that take place in the deformed polymer after removal of the liquid medium and stress relaxation. A structural similarity has been revealed between HDPE deformed in the AALM and hard elastic polymers.

  9. Creeping deformation mechanisms for mixed hydrate-sediment submarine landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountjoy, Joshu; Pecher, Ingo; Henrys, Stuart; Barnes, Philip; Plaza-Faverola, Andreia

    2013-04-01

    Globally widespread gas hydrates are proposed to stabilize the seafloor by increasing sediment peak shear strength; while seafloor failure localises at the base of the gas hydrate stability field (BGHS). The primary mechanism by which gas hydrates are proposed to induce slope failure is by temperature or pressure controlled dissociation of hydrate to free gas resulting in a significant pore pressure increase at the BGHS. Direct evidence for this process is lacking however, and the interaction between gas hydrate and seafloor stability remains poorly understood. We present evidence that, contrary to conventional views, gas hydrate can itself destabilize the seafloor. Morphological (Kongsberg-Simrad EM300 and EM302 multibeam) and high-resolution multichannel seismic refection data from a 100 km2 submarine landslide complex in ~450 m water depth, 20 km off the east coast of New Zealand indicate flow-like deformation within gas hydrate-bearing sediments. This "creeping" deformation occurs immediately downslope of where the BGHS reaches the seafloor, as indicated by a hydrate-indicating bottom simulating reflector (BSR) cutting through the landslide debris, suggesting involvement of gas hydrates. We propose two mechanisms to explain how the shallow gas hydrate system could control these landslides. 1) The Hydrate Valve: Overpressure and/or temperature fluctuations below low-permeability gas hydrate-bearing sediments causes hydrofracturing where the BGHS approaches the landslide base, both weakening sediments and creating a valve for transferring excess pore pressure into the upper landslide body. 2) Hydrate-sediment Glacier: Gas hydrate-bearing sediment exhibits time-dependent plastic deformation enabling glacial-style deformation. This second hypothesis is supported by recent laboratory observations of time-dependent behaviour of gas-hydrate-bearing sands. Given the ubiquitous occurrence of gas hydrates on continental slopes, our results may require a re-evaluation of

  10. Description of tantalum deformation behavior by dislocation mechanics based constitutive relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerilli, Frank J.; Armstrong, Ronald W.

    1990-08-01

    Dislocation mechanics based constitutive equation constants are determined for temperature, strain rate, work hardening, and polycrystal grain size influences on the deformation behavior of various tantalum materials. An analysis of the maximum load point strain provides a useful method of determining the work hardening constants. Different athermal stress constants and thermal activation related constants are obtained for certain groupings of the different tantalum materials. The variation are correlated with the annealing history of the materials and related to dislocation model parameters involved in the thermal activation strain rate analysis. Computed tantalum deformation results based on these constants are shown to agree with Gourdin's reported expanding ring test measurements and with the deformed shape of a Taylor cylinder impact test specimen.

  11. Identifying deformation mechanisms in the NEEM ice core using EBSD measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuiper, Ernst-Jan; Weikusat, Ilka; Drury, Martyn R.; Pennock, Gill M.; de Winter, Matthijs D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Deformation of ice in continental sized ice sheets determines the flow behavior of ice towards the sea. Basal dislocation glide is assumed to be the dominant deformation mechanism in the creep deformation of natural ice, but non-basal glide is active as well. Knowledge of what types of deformation mechanisms are active in polar ice is critical in predicting the response of ice sheets in future warmer climates and its contribution to sea level rise, because the activity of deformation mechanisms depends critically on deformation conditions (such as temperature) as well as on the material properties (such as grain size). One of the methods to study the deformation mechanisms in natural materials is Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD). We obtained ca. 50 EBSD maps of five different depths from a Greenlandic ice core (NEEM). The step size varied between 8 and 25 micron depending on the size of the deformation features. The size of the maps varied from 2000 to 10000 grid point. Indexing rates were up to 95%, partially by saving and reanalyzing the EBSP patterns. With this method we can characterize subgrain boundaries and determine the lattice rotation configurations of each individual subgrain. Combining these observations with arrangement/geometry of subgrain boundaries the dislocation types can be determined, which form these boundaries. Three main types of subgrain boundaries have been recognized in Antarctic (EDML) ice core¹². Here, we present the first results obtained from EBSD measurements performed on the NEEM ice core samples from the last glacial period, focusing on the relevance of dislocation activity of the possible slip systems. Preliminary results show that all three subgrain types, recognized in the EDML core, occur in the NEEM samples. In addition to the classical boundaries made up of basal dislocations, subgrain boundaries made of non-basal dislocations are also common. ¹Weikusat, I.; de Winter, D. A. M.; Pennock, G. M.; Hayles, M

  12. Deformation and Fracture Mechanisms of Polymer-Silicate Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harcup, Jason; Yee, Albert

    1998-03-01

    The deformation and fracture behavior of a series of nanocomposites comprising polyamide, silicate and in some cases rubber has been studied. Mechanical properties including Young modulus and fracture toughness were measured and it was found that compared to conventional composites, the nanocomposites exhibited far greater improvement in properties over the neat matrix for a given silicate fraction. It was also found that the addition of the rubber phase produced an increase in toughness. The arrested crack tip process zone was obtained using the Double Notch Four Point Bend test geometry and the process zone morphology was studied using TEM and TOM. Fracture surfaces were probed with XEDS and SEM. The use of these techniques enabled the mechanisms which occur during fracture to be studied and related to the mechanical properties and toughening of these materials.

  13. A deformation quantization theory for noncommutative quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Costa Dias, Nuno; Prata, Joao Nuno; Gosson, Maurice de; Luef, Franz

    2010-07-15

    We show that the deformation quantization of noncommutative quantum mechanics previously considered by Dias and Prata ['Weyl-Wigner formulation of noncommutative quantum mechanics', J. Math. Phys. 49, 072101 (2008)] and Bastos, Dias, and Prata ['Wigner measures in non-commutative quantum mechanics', e-print arXiv:math-ph/0907.4438v1; Commun. Math. Phys. (to appear)] can be expressed as a Weyl calculus on a double phase space. We study the properties of the star-product thus defined and prove a spectral theorem for the star-genvalue equation using an extension of the methods recently initiated by de Gosson and Luef ['A new approach to the *-genvalue equation', Lett. Math. Phys. 85, 173-183 (2008)].

  14. Deformation mechanisms of Cu nanowires with planar defects

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Xia Yang, Haixia; Wan, Rui; Cui, Junzhi; Yu, Xingang

    2015-01-21

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the mechanical behavior of Cu nanowires (NWs) with planar defects such as grain boundaries (GBs), twin boundaries (TBs), stacking faults (SFs), etc. To investigate how the planar defects affect the deformation and fracture mechanisms of naowires, three types of nanowires are considered in this paper: (1) polycrystalline Cu nanowire; (2) single-crystalline Cu nanowire with twin boundaries; and (3) single-crystalline Cu nanowire with stacking faults. Because of the large fraction of atoms at grain boundaries, the energy of grain boundaries is higher than that of the grains. Thus, grain boundaries are proved to be the preferred sites for dislocations to nucleate. Moreover, necking and fracture prefer to occur at the grain boundary interface owing to the weakness of grain boundaries. For Cu nanowires in the presence of twin boundaries, it is found that twin boundaries can strength nanowires due to the restriction of the movement of dislocations. The pile up of dislocations on twin boundaries makes them rough, inducing high energy in twin boundaries. Hence, twin boundaries can emit dislocations, and necking initiates at twin boundaries. In the case of Cu nanowires with stacking faults, all pre-existing stacking faults in the nanowires are observed to disappear during deformation, giving rise to a fracture process resembling the samples without stacking fault.

  15. Miniature non-mechanical zoom camera using deformable MOEMS mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaylor, Brant M.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Greenfield, Nathan J.; Roos, Peter A.; Seger, Eric M.; Moghimi, Mohammad J.; Dickensheets, David L.

    2012-03-01

    We present a miniature non-mechanical zoom camera using deformable MOEMS mirrors. Bridger Photonics, Inc. (Bridger) in collaboration with Montana State University (MSU), has developed electrostatically actuated deformable MEMS mirrors for use in compact focus control and zoom imaging systems. Applications including microscopy, endomicroscopy, robotic surgery and cell-phone cameras. In comparison to conventional systems, our MEMS-based designs require no mechanically moving parts. Both circular and elliptical membranes are now being manufactured at the wafer level and possess excellent optical surface quality (membrane flatness < λ/4). The mirror diameters range from 1 - 4 mm. For membranes with a 25 μm air gap, the membrane stroke is 10 μm. In terms of the optical design, the mirrors are considered variable power optical elements. A device with 2 mm diameter and 10 μm stroke can vary its optical power over 40 diopters or 0.04mm∧(-1). Equivalently, this corresponds to a focal length ranging from infinity to 25 mm. We have designed and demonstrated a zoom system using two MOEMS elements and exclusively commercial off-the-shelf optical components to achieve an optical zoom of 1.9x with a 15° full field of view. The total optical track length of the system is 36 mm. The design is approximately 30 mm x 30 mm x 20 mm including the optomechanical housing and image sensor. With custom optics, we anticipate achieving form factors that are compatible with incorporation into cell phones.

  16. Distributed deformation measurement of large space deployable mechanism based on FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yanfang; Zhou, Zude; Liu, Yi; Liu, Mingyao; Li, Ruiya; Li, Tianliang

    2015-10-01

    Space deployable mechanisms are widely used, important and multi-purpose components in aerospace fields. In order to ensure the mechanism in normal situation after unfolded, detecting the deformation caused by huge temperature difference in real-time is necessary. This paper designed a deployable mechanism setup, completed its distributed deformation measurement by means of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and BP neural network, proved the mechanism distributed strain takes place sequence and FBG sensor is capable for space deployable mechanisms deformation measuring.

  17. In situ TEM straining of nanograined free-standing thin films reveals various unexpected deformation mechanisms.

    SciTech Connect

    Follstaedt, David Martin; Knapp, James Arthur; Clark, Blythe G.; Hattar, Khalid M.; Robertson, Ian M.

    2010-04-01

    In-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) straining experiments provide direct detailed observation of the deformation and failure mechanisms active at a length scale relevant to nanomaterials. This presentation will detail continued investigations into the active mechanisms governing high purity nanograined pulsed-laser deposited (PLD) nickel, as well as recent work into dislocation-particle interactions in nanostructured PLD aluminum-alumina alloys. Straining experiments performed on nanograined PLD free-standing nanograined Ni films with an engineered grain size distribution revealed that the addition of ductility with limited decrease in strength, reported in such metals, can be attributed to the simultaneous activity of three deformation mechanisms in front of the crack tip. At the crack tip, a grain agglomeration mechanism occurs where several nanograins appear to rotate, resulting in a very thin, larger grain immediately prior to failure. In the classical plastic zone in front of the crack tip, a multitude of mechanisms were found to operate in the larger grains including: dislocation pile-up, twinning, and stress-assisted grain growth. The region outside of the plastic zone showed signs of elasticity with limited indications of dislocation activity. The insight gained from in-situ TEM straining experiments of nanograined PLD Ni provides feedback for models of the deformation and failure in nanograined FCC metals, and suggests a greater complexity in the active mechanisms. The investigation into the deformation and failure mechanisms of FCC metals via in-situ TEM straining experiments has been expanded to the effect of hard particles on the active mechanisms in nanograined aluminum with alumina particles. The microstructures investigated were developed with varying composition, grain size, and particle distribution via tailoring of the PLD conditions and subsequent annealing. In order to develop microstructures suitable for in-situ deformation testing

  18. On the creep deformation mechanisms of an advanced disk nickel-base superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unocic, Raymond R.

    activated climb/bypass mechanism of a/2<110> dislocations were found to be the dominant deformation mechanism. In this mechanism, the gamma' precipitates were not sheared but instead were bypassed by a/2<110> matrix dislocations. In addition to the identification of creep deformation mechanisms as a function of stress and temperature, characterization of the post creep gamma' precipitate microstructure revealed that microstructural evolution of the gamma' precipitates has occurred during creep at the higher test temperatures where the secondary gamma' precipitates have coarsened and the tertiary gamma' precipitates have dissolved. In combination with creep at low stress and high temperature, the microstructural evolution may have contributed to the transition from one deformation mode to another. In an attempt to link the influence of microstructure (gamma' precipitate size scale, distribution, volume fraction, and gamma channel width spacing) on creep deformation behavior and creep deformation mechanisms, specimens with different size scaled microstructural features were crept at the same temperature and stress (677°C and 724MPa) in order to provide a direct comparison between differences in microstructure. It was found that a microstructure consisting of a bimodal distribution of gamma' precipitates with coarse secondary gamma' precipitates, a high volume fraction of tertiary gamma' precipitates and a wide gamma channel width spacing results in a less creep resistance microstructure that deformed primary by a/2<110> dislocation activity in the gamma matrix at small strain and secondary gamma' shearing via superlattice intrinsic stacking faults at higher strains. The more creep resistant microstructure consisted of a bimodal distribution of gamma' precipitates with a finer secondary gamma' precipitate size, low volume fraction of gamma' and narrow gamma channel width spacing. The combination of these microstructural features promoted a/2<110> dislocation dissociation and

  19. Influences of periodic mechanical deformation on pinned spiral waves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiang-Xing; Peng, Liang; Zheng, Qiang; Zhao, Ye-Hua; Ying, He-Ping

    2014-09-01

    In a generic model of excitable media, we study the behavior of spiral waves interacting with obstacles and their dynamics under the influences of simple periodic mechanical deformation (PMD). Depending on the characteristics of the obstacles, i.e., size and excitability, the rotation of a pinned spiral wave shows different scenarios, e.g., embedding into or anchoring on an obstacle. Three different drift phenomena induced by PMD are observed: scattering on small partial-excitable obstacles, meander-induced unpinning on big partial-excitable obstacles, and drifting around small unexcitable obstacles. Their underlying mechanisms are discussed. The dependence of the threshold amplitude of PMD on the characteristics of the obstacles to successfully remove pinned spiral waves on big partial-excitable obstacles is studied. PMID:25273183

  20. Tensile deformation mechanisms of ABS/PMMA/EMA blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. H.; Gao, J.; Lin, S. X.; Zhang, P.; Huang, J.; Xu, L. L.

    2014-08-01

    The tensile deformation mechanisms of acrylonitrile - butadiene - styrene (ABS) / polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blends toughened by ethylene methacrylate (EMA) copolymer was investigated by analysing the fracture morphology. ABS/PMMA was blended with EMA copolymer by melt mixing technique using co-rotating twin extruder. Tensile tests show that the elongation at break of ABS/PMMA blends can be efficiently improved with the increase in EMA content. Fracture morphology of ABS/PMMA/EMA blends reveals that the material yield induced by hollowing-out of EMA particles and its propagation into yield zone is the main toughening mechanism. Moreover, the appearance that EMA particles in the central area are given priority to hollowing-out may be related to the skin-core structure of the injection moulded parts caused by the different cooling rate between surface and inside in the process of injection moulding.

  1. Mechanics and deformation of the nucleus in micropipette aspiration experiment.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, Ashkan; Mofrad, Mohammad R Kaazempur

    2007-01-01

    Robust biomechanical models are essential for the study of nuclear mechanics and deformation and can help shed light on the underlying mechanisms of stress transition in nuclear elements. Here, we develop a computational model for an isolated nucleus undergoing micropipette aspiration. Our model includes distinct components representing the nucleoplasm and nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope itself comprises three layers: inner and outer nuclear membranes and one thicker layer representing the nuclear lamina. The nucleoplasm is modeled as a viscoelastic Maxwell material with a single time constant, while a modified Maxwell model, equivalent to a spring and a dashpot in series and both in parallel with a spring, is adopted for the inner and outer nuclear membranes. The nuclear envelope layer is taken as a linear elastic material. The proposed computational model, validated using experimental observations of Guilak et al. [2000. Viscoelastic properties of the cell nucleus. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 269, 781-786] and Deguchi et al. [2005, Flow-induced hardening of endothelial nucleus as an intracellular stress-bearing organelle. Journal of Biomechanics 38, 1751-1759], is employed to study nuclear mechanics and deformation in micropipette aspiration and to shed light on the contribution of individual nuclear components on the response. The results indicate that the overall response of an isolated nucleus in micropipette aspiration is highly sensitive to the apparent stiffness of the nuclear lamina. This observation suggests that micropipette aspiration is an effective technique for examining the influence of various kinds of alteration in the nuclear lamina, such as mutations in the gene encoding lamin A, and also structural remodeling due to mechanical perturbation.

  2. Mechanics and deformation of the nucleus in micropipette aspiration experiment.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, Ashkan; Mofrad, Mohammad R Kaazempur

    2007-01-01

    Robust biomechanical models are essential for the study of nuclear mechanics and deformation and can help shed light on the underlying mechanisms of stress transition in nuclear elements. Here, we develop a computational model for an isolated nucleus undergoing micropipette aspiration. Our model includes distinct components representing the nucleoplasm and nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope itself comprises three layers: inner and outer nuclear membranes and one thicker layer representing the nuclear lamina. The nucleoplasm is modeled as a viscoelastic Maxwell material with a single time constant, while a modified Maxwell model, equivalent to a spring and a dashpot in series and both in parallel with a spring, is adopted for the inner and outer nuclear membranes. The nuclear envelope layer is taken as a linear elastic material. The proposed computational model, validated using experimental observations of Guilak et al. [2000. Viscoelastic properties of the cell nucleus. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 269, 781-786] and Deguchi et al. [2005, Flow-induced hardening of endothelial nucleus as an intracellular stress-bearing organelle. Journal of Biomechanics 38, 1751-1759], is employed to study nuclear mechanics and deformation in micropipette aspiration and to shed light on the contribution of individual nuclear components on the response. The results indicate that the overall response of an isolated nucleus in micropipette aspiration is highly sensitive to the apparent stiffness of the nuclear lamina. This observation suggests that micropipette aspiration is an effective technique for examining the influence of various kinds of alteration in the nuclear lamina, such as mutations in the gene encoding lamin A, and also structural remodeling due to mechanical perturbation. PMID:17112531

  3. Effect of pre-strain on mechanical properties and deformation induced transformation of 304 stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfi, Fahri R.; Korda, Akhmad A.

    2016-08-01

    Effect of pre-strain on mechanical properties and deformation induced phase transformation of 304 stainless steel under tensile deformation has been studied. Pre-strain with the variation percentage of deformation was applied to the tensile test specimens. Tensile and hardness testing were carried out after pre-strain to study the mechanical properties change. Deformation induced phase transformation was investigated by using X-ray diffraction and optical microscope. XRD study indicates that metastable austenite transforms to martensite due to deformation. The martensite volume fraction increases with the increase in percentage of deformation. The increase in strength and hardness were associated with an increase in the volume fraction of martensite.

  4. Mouthpart deformities and nucleolus activity in field-collected Chironomus riparius larvae.

    PubMed

    Meregalli, G; Bettinetti, R; Pluymers, L; Vermeulen, A C; Rossaro, B; Ollevier, F

    2002-05-01

    Chironomid mouthpart deformities and aberrations of their polytenic chromosomes are sublethal responses to toxic stress. These endpoints have been used in several cases as bioindications for sediment pollution. In the present study we aimed to establish whether there was an association between mouthpart deformities and nucleolus activity in the polytenic chromosomes. Such information could be useful to gain insight into the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of mouthpart deformities and their consequences on the larvae. Third-instar larvae of Chironomus riparius were collected at a site downstream of a sewage treatment plant mostly contaminated by pesticides. Larvae were then raised in the laboratory in aquaria containing sediment and water from the study location. During a 16-day period, larvae ready to molt to the fourth instar were reared individually. Within a few hours of their molt, the larvae were preserved. The presence of mouthpart deformities (mentum, mandibles, and pecten epipharyngis) and the percentage of active nucleoli were assessed. Those larvae presenting mentum deformities had a significantly higher incidence of active nucleoli in their polytenic chromosomes than nondeformed larvae. Because a high number of active nucleoli generally indicates increased rRNA synthesis, deformed larvae seemed to exhibit a higher protein synthesis than normal individuals. The synthesis of additional proteins may increase deformed larva tolerance to toxicants. PMID:11994780

  5. Deformation mechanisms of NiAl cyclicly deformed near the brittle-to-ductile transformation temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antolovich, Stephen D.; Saxena, Ashok; Cullers, Cheryl

    1992-01-01

    One of the ongoing challenges of the aerospace industry is to develop more efficient turbine engines. Greater efficiency entails reduced specific strength and larger temperature gradients, the latter of which means higher operating temperatures and increased thermal conductivity. Continued development of nickel-based superalloys has provided steady increases in engine efficiency and the limits of superalloys have probably not been realized. However, other material systems are under intense investigation for possible use in high temperature engines. Ceramic, intermetallic, and various composite systems are being explored in an effort to exploit the much higher melting temperatures of these systems. NiAl is considered a potential alternative to conventional superalloys due to its excellent oxidation resistance, low density, and high melting temperature. The fact that NiAl is the most common coating for current superalloy turbine blades is a tribute to its oxidation resistance. Its density is one-third that of typical superalloys and in most temperature ranges its thermal conductivity is twice that of common superalloys. Despite these many advantages, NiAl requires more investigation before it is ready to be used in engines. Binary NiAl in general has poor high-temperature strength and low-temperature ductility. On-going research in alloy design continues to make improvements in the high-temperature strength of NiAl. The factors controlling low temperature ductility have been identified in the last few years. Small, but reproducible ductility can now be achieved at room temperature through careful control of chemical purity and processing. But the mechanisms controlling the transition from brittle to ductile behavior are not fully understood. Research in the area of fatigue deformation can aid the development of the NiAl system in two ways. Fatigue properties must be documented and optimized before NiAl can be applied to engineering systems. More importantly though

  6. Hot deformation mechanisms of a solution-treated Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Avramovic-Cingara, G.; Perovic, D.D.; McQueen, H.J.

    1996-11-01

    Solution-treated 8090 and 8091 Al-based alloys were subjected to hot torsion testing in the temperature range of 300 C through 500 C at strain rates of 0.1 to 5 s{sup {minus}1}, up to an equivalent strain of 4. The flow stresses for alloys 8090 (8091) were found to depend on strain rate through a sinh function with exponent 3.98 (2.37) and on temperature through an Arrhenius behavior with activation energy of about 287 (282) kJ/mol. Studies using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been performed with the aim of understanding the difference in deformation mechanisms at 500 C, 400 C, and 300 C. During hot processing, the mechanism of dynamic recovery is operative. The change in average subgrain size (d) with the conditions of deformation, i.e., Zener-Hollomon parameter and steady-state flow stress ({sigma}), was quantitatively characterized. Heat treatment at 550 C induced the precipitation of Al{sub 3}Zr particles which are resistant to dislocation shear. Furthermore, electron microscopic analyses have revealed a large number of helical dislocations, prismatic loops, and some Orowan loop formation after deformation at 500 C and 400 C. The density of these defects depends on the temperature of deformation and strain rate. At 300 C, dynamic precipitation of T{sub 2} (Al{sub 6}CuLi{sub 3}) and T{sub 1} (Al{sub 2}CuLi) phases strongly affected hot deformation behavior. In all cases, the microstructural analyses were consistent with a dual-slope description of the mechanical behavior during hot deformation.

  7. Hot deformation mechanisms of a solution-treated Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramovic-Cingara, G.; Perovic, D. D.; McQueen, H. J.

    1996-11-01

    Solution-treated 8090 and 8091 Al-based alloys were subjected to hot torsion testing in the temperature range of 300 °C through 500 °C at strain rates of 0.1 to 5 s-1, up to an equivalent strain of 4. The flow stresses for alloys 8090 (8091) were found to depend on strain rate through a sinh function with exponent 3.98 (2.37) and on temperature through an Arrhenius behavior with activation energy of about 287 (282) kJ/mol. Studies using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been performed with the aim of understanding the difference in deformation mechanisms at 500 °C, 400 °C, and 300 °C. During hot processing, the mechanism of dynamic recovery is operative. The change in average subgrain size ( d) with the conditions of deformation, i.e., Zener-Hollomon parameter and steady-state flow stress ( σ s ), was quantitatively characterized. Heat treatment at 550 °C induced the precipitation of Al3Zr particles which are resistant to dislocation shear. Furthermore, electron microscopic analyses have revealed a large number of helical dislocations, prismatic loops, and some Orowan loop formation after deformation at 500 °C and 400 °C. The density of these defects depends on the temperature of deformation and strain rate. At 300 °C, dynamic precipitation of T2 (Al6CuLi3) and T1 (Al2CuLI) phases strongly affected hot deformation behavior. In all cases, the microstructural analyses were consistent with a dual-slope description of the mechanical behavior during hot deformation.

  8. New design deforming controlling system of the active stressed lap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Li; Wang, Daxing

    2008-07-01

    A 450mm diameter active stressed lap has been developed in NIAOT by 2003. We design a new lap in 2007. This paper puts on emphases on introducing the new deforming control system of the lap. Aiming at the control characteristic of the lap, a new kind of digital deforming controller is designed. The controller consists of 3 parts: computer signal disposing, motor driving and force sensor signal disposing. Intelligent numeral PID method is applied in the controller instead of traditional PID. In the end, the result of new deformation are given.

  9. STATISTICAL MECHANICS MODELING OF MESOSCALE DEFORMATION IN METALS

    SciTech Connect

    Anter El-Azab

    2013-04-08

    The research under this project focused on a theoretical and computational modeling of dislocation dynamics of mesoscale deformation of metal single crystals. Specifically, the work aimed to implement a continuum statistical theory of dislocations to understand strain hardening and cell structure formation under monotonic loading. These aspects of crystal deformation are manifestations of the evolution of the underlying dislocation system under mechanical loading. The project had three research tasks: 1) Investigating the statistical characteristics of dislocation systems in deformed crystals. 2) Formulating kinetic equations of dislocations and coupling these kinetics equations and crystal mechanics. 3) Computational solution of coupled crystal mechanics and dislocation kinetics. Comparison of dislocation dynamics predictions with experimental results in the area of statistical properties of dislocations and their field was also a part of the proposed effort. In the first research task, the dislocation dynamics simulation method was used to investigate the spatial, orientation, velocity, and temporal statistics of dynamical dislocation systems, and on the use of the results from this investigation to complete the kinetic description of dislocations. The second task focused on completing the formulation of a kinetic theory of dislocations that respects the discrete nature of crystallographic slip and the physics of dislocation motion and dislocation interaction in the crystal. Part of this effort also targeted the theoretical basis for establishing the connection between discrete and continuum representation of dislocations and the analysis of discrete dislocation simulation results within the continuum framework. This part of the research enables the enrichment of the kinetic description with information representing the discrete dislocation systems behavior. The third task focused on the development of physics-inspired numerical methods of solution of the coupled

  10. Experimental dynamic deformation analysis of active stressed lap.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongshen; Li, Xiaojin; Fan, Bin; Zeng, Zhige

    2016-02-20

    We introduce a method to measure the dynamic surface deformation of an active stressed lap for fabricating a 4  mf/1.5  mirror. Lap surface accuracy working in some typical deformation velocities is put forward. Experimental results indicate that dynamic lap surface accuracy is worse than that of a static surface, and dynamic surface accuracy gets worse if deformation velocity increases, while the difference of lap surface error RMS is less than 1 μm. An optimization of the processing strategy is feasible through changing the deformation velocity of the active stressed lap depending on the processing schedule. After optimizing the grinding and polishing strategy, efficiency is expected to have a significant increase. PMID:26906568

  11. Mechanical Failure Mode of Metal Nanowires: Global Deformation versus Local Deformation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Duc Tam; Im, Youngtae; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Earmme, Youn Young; Kim, Sung Youb

    2015-06-18

    It is believed that the failure mode of metal nanowires under tensile loading is the result of the nucleation and propagation of dislocations. Such failure modes can be slip, partial slip or twinning and therefore they are regarded as local deformation. Here we provide numerical and theoretical evidences to show that global deformation is another predominant failure mode of nanowires under tensile loading. At the global deformation mode, nanowires fail with a large contraction along a lateral direction and a large expansion along the other lateral direction. In addition, there is a competition between global and local deformations. Nanowires loaded at low temperature exhibit global failure mode first and then local deformation follows later. We show that the global deformation originates from the intrinsic instability of the nanowires and that temperature is a main parameter that decides the global or local deformation as the failure mode of nanowires.

  12. Mechanical Failure Mode of Metal Nanowires: Global Deformation versus Local Deformation

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Duc Tam; Im, Youngtae; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Earmme, Youn Young; Kim, Sung Youb

    2015-01-01

    It is believed that the failure mode of metal nanowires under tensile loading is the result of the nucleation and propagation of dislocations. Such failure modes can be slip, partial slip or twinning and therefore they are regarded as local deformation. Here we provide numerical and theoretical evidences to show that global deformation is another predominant failure mode of nanowires under tensile loading. At the global deformation mode, nanowires fail with a large contraction along a lateral direction and a large expansion along the other lateral direction. In addition, there is a competition between global and local deformations. Nanowires loaded at low temperature exhibit global failure mode first and then local deformation follows later. We show that the global deformation originates from the intrinsic instability of the nanowires and that temperature is a main parameter that decides the global or local deformation as the failure mode of nanowires. PMID:26087445

  13. Active compressive intraoceanic deformation: early stages of ophiolites emplacement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Delescluse, Matthias; Montési, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    Oceanic lithosphere is strong and continental lithosphere is weak. As a result, there is relatively little deformation in the oceanic domain away from plate boundaries. However, the interior of oceanic lithosphere does deform when highly stressed. We review here places where intraoceanic compression is at work. In the more than 30 years since the first observations of active compressive intraplate deformation in the Central Indian Ocean through seismic profiling (Eittreim et al., 1972), compressive deformation has been identified in a variety of other oceanic tectonic settings: as a result of small differential motion between large plates (between North America and South America in the Central Atlantic; between Eurasia and Nubia offshore Gibraltar; between Macquarie and Australia plates in the Southern Ocean), within back-arcs (northwest Celebes Sea, Okushiri Ridge in the Japan Sea, on the eastern border of the Caroline plate), and ahead of subduction (Zenisu Ridge off Nankai Trough). Deformation appears to be more diffuse when larger plates are involved, and more localized for younger plates, perhaps in relation with the increasing rigidity of oceanic plates with age. The best example of diffuse deformation studied so far remains the Central Indian Ocean. Numerous marine data have been collected in this area, including shallow and deep seismic, heat flow measurements, multibeam bathymetry. The present-day deformation field has been modeled using GPS and earthquakes as far field and near field constraints respectively. Reactivation of the oceanic fabric (including for portions of the Indo-Australian plate which are now in subduction as evidenced by the September 2009 Padang earthquake), selective fault abandonment (Delescluse et al., 2008) and serpentinization (Delescluse and Chamot-Rooke, 2008) are some of the important processes that shape the present-day pattern of deformation. These rare intraplate deformation areas constitute excellent natural laboratories to

  14. Deformation invariant bounding spheres for dynamic active constraints in surgery.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, Stuart A; Rodriguez Y Baena, Ferdinando

    2014-04-01

    Active constraints are collaborative robot control strategies, which can be used to guide a surgeon or protect delicate tissue structures during robot-assisted surgery. Tissue structures of interest often move and deform throughout a surgical intervention, and therefore, dynamic active constraints, which adapt and conform to these changes, are required. A fundamental element of an active constraint controller is the computation of the geometric relationship between the constraint geometry and the surgical instrument. For a static active constraint, there are a variety of computationally efficient methods for computing this relative configuration; however, for a dynamic active constraint, it becomes significantly more challenging. Deformation invariant bounding spheres are a novel bounding volume formulation, which can be used within a hierarchy to allow efficient proximity queries within dynamic active constraints. These bounding spheres are constructed in such a way that as the surface deforms, they do not require time-consuming rebuilds or updates, rather they are implicitly updated and continue to represent the underlying geometry as it changes. Experimental results show that performing proximity queries with deformation invariant bounding sphere hierarchies is faster than common methods from the literature when the deformation rate is within the range expected from conventional imaging systems. PMID:24622983

  15. Deformation mechanisms in Be{sub 12}X compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, S.M.; Brimhall, J.L.; Charlot, L.A.; Sondhi, S.; Hoagland, R.G.; Hirth, J.P.

    1992-12-01

    Dislocation structures have been examined, and active slip systems identified, in Be{sub l2}Nb after compressive deformation at 20, 800, 900 1000 and 1200C. A large number of slip systems are active at 1200C, but these decrease significantly at temperatures below 1000C. Dislocation structures at low temperatures are limited to 1/2<101(101) partial dislocations either paired or creating isolated planar faults. Significant ductility is not observed until 1200C when a second type of partial dislocation, 1/2<100(011) is present. Dislocations observed in the body-centered tetragonal Be{sup 12}X compounds (where X can be Nb, Ta, Mo, V, Fe etc.) have been modelled atomistically using molecular dynamics. Simulations corroborate the stability of these dislocation systems and indicate that the stacking faults associated with these partial dislocations have very low fault energy.

  16. Deformation mechanisms in tungsten single crystals in ballistic impact experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruchey, W. J., Jr.; Herring, R. N.; Kingman, P. W.; Horwath, E. J.

    1993-05-01

    The performance of tungsten single crystals in ballistic impact varies strongly as a function of crystallographic orientation. The deformation structure of recovered single crystal rods fired in ballistic environments has been characterized by optical microscopy, SEM and TEM, and x-ray diffraction. The observed microstructures are varied and provide substantial insights into the factors governing the penetration and flow behavior under ballistic conditions. Crystallographic orientation influences the potential for developing shear which enhances material flow, and this enhancement ultimately maximizes the energy available for target penetration. Microstructural analysis elucidates the various mechanisms occuring during the flow process for single crystals of high-symmetry orientations, and suggests possible analogies between the penetration behavior of the tungsten single crystals and other materials.

  17. Atomistic simulations of deformation mechanisms in ultralight weight Mg-Li alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karewar, Shivraj

    Mg alloys have spurred a renewed academic and industrial interest because of their ultra-light-weight and high specific strength properties. Hexagonal close packed Mg has low deformability and a high plastic anisotropy between basal and non-basal slip systems at room temperature. Alloying with Li and other elements is believed to counter this deficiency by activating non-basal slip by reducing their nucleation stress. In this work I study how Li addition affects deformation mechanisms in Mg using atomistic simulations. In the first part, I create a reliable and transferable concentration dependent embedded atom method (CD-EAM) potential for my molecular dynamics study of deformation. This potential describes the Mg-Li phase diagram, which accurately describes the phase stability as a function of Li concentration and temperature. Also, it reproduces the heat of mixing, lattice parameters, and bulk moduli of the alloy as a function of Li concentration. Most importantly, our CD-EAM potential reproduces the variation of stacking fault energy for basal, prismatic, and pyramidal slip systems that in uences the deformation mechanisms as a function of Li concentration. This success of CD-EAM Mg-Li potential in reproducing different properties, as compared to literature data, shows its reliability and transferability. Next, I use this newly created potential to study the effect of Li addition on deformation mechanisms in Mg-Li nanocrystalline (NC) alloys. Mg-Li NC alloys show basal slip, pyramidal type-I slip, tension twinning, and two-compression twinning deformation modes. Li addition reduces the plastic anisotropy between basal and non-basal slip systems by modifying the energetics of Mg-Li alloys. This causes the solid solution softening. The inverse relationship between strength and ductility therefore suggests a concomitant increase in alloy ductility. A comparison of the NC results with single crystal deformation results helps to understand the qualitative and

  18. Deformation mechanisms of antigorite and strain localization during dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, B.; Hirth, G.

    2012-12-01

    Antigorite, the high temperature and pressure serpentine polytype, is thought to exist along subduction zones between the mantle wedge and the subducting oceanic crust (e.g., Wada et al., 2008). Understanding how the rheology of antigorite changes with depth along the slab may be key to understanding seismicity along the upper plate boundary (e.g., Hacker et al., 2003). To explore this phenomenon we are conducting constant strain rate general shear experiments on antigorite-rich serpentinite at shear strain rates of 5*10^-7/s to 10^-5/s, confining pressures from 1-2 GPa and temperatures from 400-700°C. We are using microstructural observations to constrain deformation mechanisms and investigate conditions where strain localization occurs. In some experiments we employ either strain rate stepping or temperature ramping to examine the stress dependence of viscosity (i.e., determine stress exponent) and syntectonic reaction during heating. The results of our general shear experiments suggest the rheologic behavior of antigorite varies significantly with changes in temperature and pressure, similar to previous work in axial compression (e.g., Chernak and Hirth, 2010). At 400°C and 1GPa confining pressure antigorite deforms initially via steady-state ductile flow with strengths as high as 1.4 GPa at a strain rate of 10^-5/s. With increasing strain we observe weakening events that correlate with the development of shear fractures within the sample. At 2GPa pressure, the flow strength of antigorite increases to ~1.8 GPa at 10^-6/s and deformation is distributed at low strain. Strain rate stepping at these conditions suggests a very weak strain rate dependence on strength with a 5-10% change in stress for an order of magnitude strain rate step. At 700C and 1 GPa, above the thermal stability of antigorite, the steady-state strength is ~120 MPa at 10^-5/s. In these samples olivine becomes the dominant phase as antigorite progressively reacts to olivine and pyroxene. At the

  19. Experimental deformation of a synthetic dunite at high temperature and pressure. I. Mechanical behavior, optical microstructure and deformation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeuch, David H.; Green, H. W.

    1984-12-01

    We have performed a series of 27 deformation experiments on a very dry synthetic dunite, using the Griggs solid medium apparatus. Strain rates ranged from 1 × 10 4 to 1 × 10 7 sec 1, temperatures varied from 1100° to 1300 °C, and the confining pressure was maintained at 10 or (more usually) 15 kbar. MACOR IM, a commercially available, anhydrous, machinable glass ceramic with a low melting point, was used in many of the experiments. We find that strength measurements performed using macor as a confining medium are similar to results obtained using sodium chloride as the confining solid. Tests performed in undried sample assemblies using air-dried dunite specimens resulted in creep strengths greater than those found in any earlier studies except those of Post (1973. 1977). A single test on a sample for which both sample and assembly were dried at a temperature sufficiently high to drive off any adsorbed water resulted in a creep strength comparable to that determined by Post (1973, 1977) for very dry Mt. Burnett dunite. Despite our experimental difficulties, we are led to believe that our synthetic dunite exhibits mechanical behavior consistent with that determined in other experimental studies in which natural dunites and peridotites were used. Furthermore, we conclude that dry dunite is very probably as strong as the oft-disputed results of Post earlier indicated. Finally, we show that the optical textures of our highly recrystallized experimental specimens are essentially identical to naturally produced porphyroclastic textures and that the deformation mechanism in both the experimental and natural specimens is probably dislocation creep with recovery by dynamic recrystallization.

  20. Deformation mechanism study of a hot rolled Zr-2.5Nb alloy by transmission electron microscopy. II. In situ transmission electron microscopy study of deformation mechanism change of a Zr-2.5Nb alloy upon heavy ion irradiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Fei; Daymond, Mark R.; Yao, Zhongwen; Kirk, Marquis A.

    2015-03-14

    The effect of heavy-ion irradiation on deformation mechanisms of a Zr-2.5Nb alloy was investigated by using the in situ transmission electron microscopy deformation technique. The gliding behavior of prismatic < a > dislocations has been dynamically observed before and after irradiation at room temperature and 300 degrees C. Irradiation induced loops were shown to strongly pin the gliding dislocations. Unpinning occurred while loops were incorporated into or eliminated by < a > dislocations. In the irradiated sample, loop depleted areas with a boundary parallel to the basal plane trace were found by post-mortem observation after room temperature deformation, supporting the possibility of basal channel formation in bulk neutron irradiated samples. Strong activity of pyramidal slip was also observed at both temperatures, which might be another important mechanism to induce plastic instability in irradiated zirconium alloys. Finally, {01 (1) over bar1}< 0 (1) over bar 12 > twinning was identified in the irradiated sample deformed at 300 degrees C.

  1. Mechanisms of deformation-induced grain growth of a two-dimensional nanocrystal at different deformation temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korznikova, E. A.; Dmitriev, S. V.

    2014-06-01

    This work discloses the evolution of a two-dimensional nanocrystalline aggregate in the process of shear deformation under the conditions of hydrostatic compression of the material in the deformation-temperature range T = 0.5-0.7 T m. It has been shown that grain growth by the mechanism of mutual rotation with subsequent coalescence is characteristic of deformation temperatures T = 0.6 T m and below, whereas at T = 0.65 and 0.7 T m one of grains with predominant orientation grows at the expense of other grains. In all instances, the growth of the degree of shear deformation leads to the disappearance of all grain boundaries in the calculated cell under consideration.

  2. Deformation and Failure Mechanisms of Shape Memory Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Samantha Hayes

    2015-04-15

    The goal of this research was to understand the fundamental mechanics that drive the deformation and failure of shape memory alloys (SMAs). SMAs are difficult materials to characterize because of the complex phase transformations that give rise to their unique properties, including shape memory and superelasticity. These phase transformations occur across multiple length scales (one example being the martensite-austenite twinning that underlies macroscopic strain localization) and result in a large hysteresis. In order to optimize the use of this hysteretic behavior in energy storage and damping applications, we must first have a quantitative understanding of this transformation behavior. Prior results on shape memory alloys have been largely qualitative (i.e., mapping phase transformations through cracked oxide coatings or surface morphology). The PI developed and utilized new approaches to provide a quantitative, full-field characterization of phase transformation, conducting a comprehensive suite of experiments across multiple length scales and tying these results to theoretical and computational analysis. The research funded by this award utilized new combinations of scanning electron microscopy, diffraction, digital image correlation, and custom testing equipment and procedures to study phase transformation processes at a wide range of length scales, with a focus at small length scales with spatial resolution on the order of 1 nanometer. These experiments probe the basic connections between length scales during phase transformation. In addition to the insights gained on the fundamental mechanisms driving transformations in shape memory alloys, the unique experimental methodologies developed under this award are applicable to a wide range of solid-to-solid phase transformations and other strain localization mechanisms.

  3. Deformation mechanisms of low-temperature superplasticity in 8090 Al-Li alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Pu, H.P.; Huang, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    The 8090 Al-Li alloys, after special thermomechanical processes, exhibited low-temperature superplasticity (LTSP) from 350 to 450 C, behaving differently from the conventional high-temperature superplasticity (HTSP). The LTSP sheets after {approximately} 700% elongation at 350 C and 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1} still possessed fine (sub)grains 3.7 {micro}m in size and narrow surface Li-depletion zones 11 {micro}m in width. It results in a post-SP T6 strength of {approximately} 500 MPa, which is higher than that of the conventional superplastic 8090 alloys tested at 525 C or above. The tensile behavior and deformation mechanisms of the LTSP and HTSP sheets were investigated over the strain-rate range 10{sup {minus}5}--10{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} and strain range 0.5--1.0. At {var_epsilon} 0.5, the strain rate sensitivity (m-value) for the LTSP and HTSP materials was found to be {approximately} 0.33 and 0.50, respectively. The activation energy was extracted to be 92 kJ/mole for the LTSP sheets and to be 141 kJ/mole for the HTSP sheets. As straining to {var_epsilon} = 1.0 the m-value of the LTSP materials increased to 0.37 and the activation energy decreased slightly to 82 kJ/mole. By SEM examinations, the movement of surface grains in LTSP samples confirmed the role of grain boundary sliding (GBS). TEM observations revealed that the deformation mechanism consists of a large amount of dislocation motion resulting in the subgrain formation and rotation; and TEM observations from the transverse section might explain the anisotropic deformation behavior during the initial superplastic strain. The primary and rate-controlling deformation mechanisms for the HTSP and LTSP sheets are considered to be GBS and dislocation creep, respectively.

  4. Synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism for controlling large scale reversible deformation of liquid metal objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-11-01

    Reversible deformation of a machine holds enormous promise across many scientific areas ranging from mechanical engineering to applied physics. So far, such capabilities are still hard to achieve through conventional rigid materials or depending mainly on elastomeric materials, which however own rather limited performances and require complicated manipulations. Here, we show a basic strategy which is fundamentally different from the existing ones to realize large scale reversible deformation through controlling the working materials via the synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism (SCHEME). Such activity incorporates an object of liquid metal gallium whose surface area could spread up to five times of its original size and vice versa under low energy consumption. Particularly, the alterable surface tension based on combination of chemical dissolution and electrochemical oxidation is ascribed to the reversible shape transformation, which works much more flexible than many former deformation principles through converting electrical energy into mechanical movement. A series of very unusual phenomena regarding the reversible configurational shifts are disclosed with dominant factors clarified. This study opens a generalized way to combine the liquid metal serving as shape-variable element with the SCHEME to compose functional soft machines, which implies huge potential for developing future smart robots to fulfill various complicated tasks.

  5. Synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism for controlling large scale reversible deformation of liquid metal objects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Reversible deformation of a machine holds enormous promise across many scientific areas ranging from mechanical engineering to applied physics. So far, such capabilities are still hard to achieve through conventional rigid materials or depending mainly on elastomeric materials, which however own rather limited performances and require complicated manipulations. Here, we show a basic strategy which is fundamentally different from the existing ones to realize large scale reversible deformation through controlling the working materials via the synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism (SCHEME). Such activity incorporates an object of liquid metal gallium whose surface area could spread up to five times of its original size and vice versa under low energy consumption. Particularly, the alterable surface tension based on combination of chemical dissolution and electrochemical oxidation is ascribed to the reversible shape transformation, which works much more flexible than many former deformation principles through converting electrical energy into mechanical movement. A series of very unusual phenomena regarding the reversible configurational shifts are disclosed with dominant factors clarified. This study opens a generalized way to combine the liquid metal serving as shape-variable element with the SCHEME to compose functional soft machines, which implies huge potential for developing future smart robots to fulfill various complicated tasks. PMID:25408295

  6. Microscopic deformation mechanisms in model thermoplastic elastomers by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Amanda; Rottler, Jörg

    Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) can be formed by exploiting the nanostructured morphology of triblock copolymers. Glassy end-blocks phase separate to form spherical regions which act as physical cross-links for the soft rubbery phase. Molecular dynamics simulations of TPEs allow us to relate the microscopic mechanisms active during plastic deformation to the macroscopic stress response. A coarse-grained bead-spring model of linear ABA triblock copolymers which forms the desired spherical morphology is used for pure stress and pure strain uniaxial deformations. The systems are first equilibrated using a soft pair potential. We observe increased strain hardening in triblocks when compared to homopolymers of the same chain length in accordance with experiments. We connect variations in the stress response for systems of different chain lengths to the non-affine deformation of chains and to the scale of phase separated regions. The stress response is also compared to rubbery elasticity models, taking into account the evolution of chain entanglements during deformation. We observe void formation at the interfaces of glassy regions or where these regions have broken up at large strain.

  7. Dynamics of a deformable active particle under shear flow.

    PubMed

    Tarama, Mitsusuke; Menzel, Andreas M; ten Hagen, Borge; Wittkowski, Raphael; Ohta, Takao; Löwen, Hartmut

    2013-09-14

    The motion of a deformable active particle in linear shear flow is explored theoretically. Based on symmetry considerations, we propose coupled nonlinear dynamical equations for the particle position, velocity, deformation, and rotation. In our model, both, passive rotations induced by the shear flow as well as active spinning motions, are taken into account. Our equations reduce to known models in the two limits of vanishing shear flow and vanishing particle deformability. For varied shear rate and particle propulsion speed, we solve the equations numerically in two spatial dimensions and obtain a manifold of different dynamical modes including active straight motion, periodic motions, motions on undulated cycloids, winding motions, as well as quasi-periodic and chaotic motions induced at high shear rates. The types of motion are distinguished by different characteristics in the real-space trajectories and in the dynamical behavior of the particle orientation and its deformation. Our predictions can be verified in experiments on self-propelled droplets exposed to a linear shear flow.

  8. New constraints on the active tectonic deformation of the Aegean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nyst, M.; Thatcher, W.

    2004-01-01

    Site velocities from six separate Global Positioning System (GPS) networks comprising 374 stations have been referred to a single common Eurasia-fixed reference frame to map the velocity distribution over the entire Aegean. We use the GPS velocity field to identify deforming regions, rigid elements, and potential microplate boundaries, and build upon previous work by others to initially specify rigid elements in central Greece, the South Aegean, Anatolia, and the Sea of Marmara. We apply an iterative approach, tentatively defining microplate boundaries, determining best fit rigid rotations, examining misfit patterns, and revising the boundaries to achieve a better match between model and data. Short-term seismic cycle effects are minor contaminants of the data that we remove when necessary to isolate the long-term kinematics. We find that present day Aegean deformation is due to the relative motions of four microplates and straining in several isolated zones internal to them. The RMS misfit of model to data is about 2-sigma, very good when compared to the typical match between coseismic fault models and GPS data. The simplicity of the microplate description of the deformation and its good fit to the GPS data are surprising and were not anticipated by previous work, which had suggested either many rigid elements or broad deforming zones that comprise much of the Aegean region. The isolated deforming zones are also unexpected and cannot be explained by the kinematics of the microplate motions. Strain rates within internally deforming zones are extensional and range from 30 to 50 nanostrain/year (nstrain/year, 10-9/year), 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower than rates observed across the major microplate boundaries. Lower strain rates may exist elsewhere withi the microplates but are only resolved in Anatolia, where extension of 13 ?? 4 nstrain/ year is required by the data. Our results suggest that despite the detailed complexity of active continental deformation

  9. Disordered long-range internal stresses in deformed copper and the mechanisms underlying plastic deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Lyle E.; Larson, Ben C; Tischler, Jonathan Zachary; Geantil, P.; Kassner, Michael E.; Liu, W.; Stoudt, M. R.; Tavazza, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    The strength of wavy glide metals increases dramatically during deformation as dislocations multiply and entangle, forming dense dislocation wall structures. Numerous competing models have been proposed for this process but experimental validation and guidance for further model development require new experimental approaches capable of resolving local stresses within the dislocation microstructure. We use three-dimensional X-ray microscopy combining submicrometer spatial resolution with diffracted-beam masking to make direct measurements of axial elastic strain (and thus stress) in individual dislocation cell walls and their adjacent cell interiors in heavily deformed copper. These spatially resolved measurements show broad, asymmetric distributions of dipolar stresses that directly discriminate between long-standing deformation models and demonstrate that the distribution of local stresses is statistically connected to the global behavior through simple rules.

  10. The role of deformation mechanisms in flow localization of 316L stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xianglin; Pan, Xiao; Mabon, James C.; Li, Meimei; Stubbins, James F.

    2006-09-01

    Type 316 SS is widely used as a structural material in a variety of current accelerator driven systems and designs as well as in a number of current and advanced fission and fusion reactor concepts. The material is found to be very sensitive to irradiation damage in the temperature range of 150-400 °C, where low levels of irradiation exposure, as little as 0.1 dpa, can substantially reduce the uniform elongation in tensile tests. This process, where the plastic flow becomes highly localized resulting in very low overall ductility, is referred to as flow localization. The process controlling this restriction of flow is related to the difference between the yield and ultimate strengths such that dramatic irradiation-induced increases in the yield strength results in very limited plastic flow until necking. In this study, the temperature dependence of this process is examined in light of the operating deformation mechanisms. It is found that twinning is an important deformation mechanism at lower temperatures but is not available in the temperature range of concern since the stress to activate twinning becomes excessively high. This limits the deformation and leads to the flow localization process.

  11. Hydro-mechanical regimes of deforming subduction interface: modeling versus observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L.; Gerya, T.; May, D.

    2015-12-01

    A lot of evidence indicates that fluid flows exist in the subduction interface, including seismic observation, magnetotelluric imaging, heat flow modeling, etc. Fluid percolation should strongly modify rock deformation affected by fluid-induced weakening within the subduction interface. Hence, we study the fluid-rock interaction along the subduction interface using a visco-plastic hydro-mechanical model, in which rock deformation and fluid percolation are self-consistently coupled. Based on a series of 2D numerical experiments, we found two typical hydro-mechanical regimes of deforming subduction interface: (1) coupled and (2) decoupled. In the case of the coupled regime, the tectonic movement of the subduction interface is divided into blocks; newly generated faults are distributed uniformly , say fault band; fluid activity concentrates inside the faults. In the case of the decoupled regime, the upper layer of the subduction interface stops moving while the lower layer continues moving along with the subduction slab; a primary fault is generated at the centre of the subduction interface, or namely decoupled interface. Available observations suggests that both coupled and decoupled regimes can be observed in the nature at different scales. Systematic parameter study suggests that it is mainly the magnitude of the yield strength of subducted rocks depending on their cohesion and friction coefficient, which control the transition between the coupled and decoupled subduction interface regimes.

  12. NMR study on mechanisms of ionic polymer-metal composites deformation with water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zicai; Chen, Hualing; Wang, Yongquan; Luo, Bin; Chang, Longfei; Li, Bo; Chen, Luping

    2011-10-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) exhibit a large dynamic bending deformation under exterior electric field. The states and proportions of water within the IPMCs have great effect on the IPMCs deformation properties. This letter investigates the influence of the proportion changes of different types of water on the deformation, which may disclose the working mechanisms of the IPMCs. We give a deformation trend of IPMCs with the reduction of water content firstly. Then by the method of nuclear magnetic resonance, various water types (water bonded to sulfonates, loosely bound water and free water) of IPMCs and their proportions are investigated in the drying process which corresponds to their different deformation states. It is obtained that the deformation properties of IPMCs depend strongly on their water content and the excess free water is responsible for the relaxation deformation.

  13. Acoustic Emission as a Tool for Exploring Deformation Mechanisms in Magnesium and Its Alloys In Situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, Alexei; Máthis, Kristian

    2016-06-01

    Structural performance of magnesium alloys depends strongly on specific deformation mechanisms operating during mechanical loading. Therefore, in situ monitoring of the acting mechanisms is a key to performance tailoring. We review the capacity of the advanced acoustic emission (AE) technique to understand the interplay between two primary deformation mechanisms—dislocation slip and twinning—in real time scale. Details of relative contributions of dislocation slip and deformation twinning to the mechanical response of pure Mg and Mg-Al alloy are discussed in view of AE results obtained with the aid of recently proposed spectral and signal categorization algorithms in conjunction with with neutron diffraction data.

  14. Mechanisms of Photo-Induced Deformations of Liquid Crystal Elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Nathan; Kuzyk, Mark; Neal, Jeremy; Luchette, Paul; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Over a century ago, Alexander Graham Bell invented the photophone, which he used to transmit mechanical information on a beam of light. We report on the use of an active Fabry-Perot interferometer to encode and detect mechanical information using the photomechanical effect of a liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) that is placed at a critical point between the reflectors. These are the first steps in the creation of ultra smart materials which require a large photomechanical response. Thus, understanding the underlying mechanisms is critical. Only limited studies of the mechanisms of the photomechanical effect, such as photo-isomerization, photo-reorientation and thermal effects have been studied in azo-dye-doped LCEs and in azo-dye-doped polymer fibers have been reported. The focus of our present work is to use the Fabry-Perot transducer geometry to study the underlying mechanisms and to determine the relevant material parameters that are used to develop theoretical models of the response. We use various intensity-modulated optical wave forms to determine the frequency response of the material, which are used to predict the material response.

  15. Crustal deformation and volcanism at active plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geirsson, Halldor

    Most of Earth's volcanoes are located near active tectonic plate boundaries, where the tectonic plates move relative to each other resulting in deformation. Likewise, subsurface magma movement and pressure changes in magmatic systems can cause measurable deformation of the Earth's surface. The study of the shape of Earth and therefore studies of surface deformation is called geodesy. Modern geodetic techniques allow precise measurements (˜1 mm accuracy) of deformation of tectonic and magmatic systems. Because of the spatial correlation between tectonic boundaries and volcanism, the tectonic and volcanic deformation signals can become intertwined. Thus it is often important to study both tectonic and volcanic deformation processes simultaneously, when one is trying to study one of the systems individually. In this thesis, I present research on crustal deformation and magmatic processes at active plate boundaries. The study areas cover divergent and transform plate boundaries in south Iceland and convergent and transform plate boundaries in Central America, specifically Nicaragua and El Salvador. The study is composed of four main chapters: two of the chapters focus on the magma plumbing system of Hekla volcano, Iceland and the plate boundary in south Iceland; one chapter focuses on shallow controls of explosive volcanism at Telica volcano, Nicaragua; and the fourth chapter focuses on co- and post-seismic deformation from a Mw = 7.3 earthquake which occurred offshore El Salvador in 2012. Hekla volcano is located at the intersection of a transform zone and a rift zone in Iceland and thus is affected by a combination of shear and extensional strains, in addition to co-seismic and co-rifting deformation. The inter-eruptive deformation signal from Hekla is subtle, as observed by a decade (2000-2010) of GPS data in south Iceland. A simultaneous inversion of this data for parameters describing the geometry and source characteristics of the magma chamber at Hekla, and

  16. Gauge Mechanics of Deformable Bodies: a Theory of Something.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapere, Alfred Dudley

    The treatment of the motion of deformable bodies requires a specification of axes for each shape. We present a natural kinematic formulation of this problem in terms of a gauge structure over the space of shapes that the body may assume. Our first and simplest application is to a freely -falling self-deforming body. We show how deformations of a body with angular momentum zero can result in a change in orientation, and we give a general expression for the gauge potential describing the net rotation due to an arbitrary change of shape. The problem of swimming at low Reynolds number may also be formulated in terms of a gauge potential. Effective methods for computing it, by solving a linear boundary value problem, are described. We employ conformal mapping techniques to calculate swimming motions for cylinders with a variety of cross-sections. We also determine the net translational motions due to arbitrary infinitesimal deformations of the sphere and the circular cylinder. The solution is compactly expressed in terms of the field strength tensor of the gauge potential. Having solved for all cyclic swimming motions of a nearly spherical body, it makes sense to ask which motions are the best. We define a notion of efficiency and use it to determine optimal swimming strokes. These strokes are composed of propagating waves, symmetric about the axis of propulsion. Qualitatively, they resemble the swimming strokes of ciliated micro-organisms, such as the Paramecium. The solution of Stokes' equations is not feasible analytically, except for the simplest shapes. Two approximation schemes may help in studying more general swimming strokes. We discuss and test a short-wavelength analytic approximation, valid when the scales associated with a deformation are small relative to the radius of curvature of the average shape. The complementary domain of large deformations is probably best dealt with on a computer. We sketch a general method for solving Stokes' equations numerically.

  17. Mechanically Active Electrospun Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Jaimee M.

    Electrospinning, a technique used to fabricate small diameter polymer fibers, has been employed to develop unique, active materials falling under two categories: (1) shape memory elastomeric composites (SMECs) and (2) water responsive fiber mats. (1) Previous work has characterized in detail the properties and behavior of traditional SMECs with isotropic fibers embedded in an elastomer matrix. The current work has two goals: (i) characterize laminated anisotropic SMECs and (ii) develop a fabrication process that is scalable for commercial SMEC manufacturing. The former ((i)) requires electrospinning aligned polymer fibers. The aligned fibers are similarly embedded in an elastomer matrix and stacked at various fiber orientations. The resulting laminated composite has a unique response to tensile deformation: after stretching and releasing, the composite curls. This curling response was characterized based on fiber orientation. The latter goal ((ii)) required use of a dual-electrospinning process to simultaneously electrospin two polymers. This fabrication approach incorporated only industrially relevant processing techniques, enabling the possibility of commercial application of a shape memory rubber. Furthermore, the approach had the added benefit of increased control over composition and material properties. (2) The strong elongational forces experienced by polymer chains during the electrospinning process induce molecular alignment along the length of electrospun fibers. Such orientation is maintained in the fibers as the polymer vitrifies. Consequently, residual stress is stored in electrospun fiber mats and can be recovered by heating through the polymer's glass transition temperature. Alternatively, the glass transition temperature can be depressed by introducing a plasticizing agent. Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) is plasticized by water, and its glass transition temperature is lowered below room temperature. Therefore, the residual stress can be relaxed at room

  18. Temporal evolution of continental lithospheric strength in actively deforming regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, W.; Pollitz, F.F.

    2008-01-01

    It has been agreed for nearly a century that a strong, load-bearing outer layer of earth is required to support mountain ranges, transmit stresses to deform active regions and store elastic strain to generate earthquakes. However the dept and extent of this strong layer remain controversial. Here we use a variety of observations to infer the distribution of lithospheric strength in the active western United States from seismic to steady-state time scales. We use evidence from post-seismic transient and earthquake cycle deformation reservoir loading glacio-isostatic adjustment, and lithosphere isostatic adjustment to large surface and subsurface loads. The nearly perfectly elastic behavior of Earth's crust and mantle at the time scale of seismic wave propagation evolves to that of a strong, elastic crust and weak, ductile upper mantle lithosphere at both earthquake cycle (EC, ???10?? to 103 yr) and glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA, ???103 to 104 yr) time scales. Topography and gravity field correlations indicate that lithosphere isostatic adjustment (LIA) on ???106-107 yr time scales occurs with most lithospheric stress supported by an upper crust overlying a much weaker ductile subtrate. These comparisons suggest that the upper mantle lithosphere is weaker than the crust at all time scales longer than seismic. In contrast, the lower crust has a chameleon-like behavior, strong at EC and GIA time scales and weak for LIA and steady-state deformation processes. The lower crust might even take on a third identity in regions of rapid crustal extension or continental collision, where anomalously high temperatures may lead to large-scale ductile flow in a lower crustal layer that is locally weaker than the upper mantle. Modeling of lithospheric processes in active regions thus cannot use a one-size-fits-all prescription of rheological layering (relation between applied stress and deformation as a function of depth) but must be tailored to the time scale and tectonic

  19. Evolution of Deformation Studies on Active Hawaiian Volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Decker, Robert; Okamura, Arnold; Miklius, Asta; Poland, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Everything responds to pressure, even rocks. Deformation studies involve measuring and interpreting the changes in elevations and horizontal positions of the land surface or sea floor. These studies are variously referred to as geodetic changes or ground-surface deformations and are sometimes indexed under the general heading of geodesy. Deformation studies have been particularly useful on active volcanoes and in active tectonic areas. A great amount of time and energy has been spent on measuring geodetic changes on Kilauea and Mauna Loa Volcanoes in Hawai`i. These changes include the build-up of the surface by the piling up and ponding of lava flows, the changes in the surface caused by erosion, and the uplift, subsidence, and horizontal displacements of the surface caused by internal processes acting beneath the surface. It is these latter changes that are the principal concern of this review. A complete and objective review of deformation studies on active Hawaiian volcanoes would take many volumes. Instead, we attempt to follow the evolution of the most significant observations and interpretations in a roughly chronological way. It is correct to say that this is a subjective review. We have spent years measuring and recording deformation changes on these great volcanoes and more years trying to understand what makes these changes occur. We attempt to make this a balanced as well as a subjective review; the references are also selective rather than exhaustive. Geodetic changes caused by internal geologic processes vary in magnitude from the nearly infinitesimal - one micron or less, to the very large - hundreds of meters. Their apparent causes also are varied and include changes in material properties and composition, atmospheric pressure, tidal stress, thermal stress, subsurface-fluid pressure (including magma pressure, magma intrusion, or magma removal), gravity, and tectonic stress. Deformation is measured in units of strain or displacement. For example, tilt

  20. Models for rupture mechanics of plate boundaries and crustal deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nur, A.

    1983-01-01

    The role of pull aparts and pushups in transcurrent systems, the rotation of faults and blocks within transcurrent fault systems, the role of accretion tectonics in plate boundary deformation, and power law creep behavior and the yielding at plate boundaries were investigated.

  1. On the mechanism of cell lysis by deformation.

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, Hiroshi; Takeya, Ryu; Naito, Seiji; Sumimoto, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we identify the extent of deformation that causes cell lysis using a simple technique where a drop of cell suspension is compressed by two flat plates. The viability of human prostatic adenocarcinoma PC-3 cells in solutions of various concentrations of NaCl is determined as a function of the gap size between the plates. The viability declines with decreasing gap size in the following order: 700 mM >150 mM >75 mM NaCl. This is considered to be due to the difference in cell size, which is caused by the osmotic volume change before deformation; cell diameter becomes smaller in a solution of higher NaCl concentration, which appears to increase the survival ratio in a given gap size. The deformation-induced decrease in cell viability is correlated with the cell surface strain, which is dependent on the increase in surface area, irrespective of NaCl concentration. In addition, the treatment of cells with cytochalasin D results in the disappearance of cortical actin filaments and a marked drop in the viability, indicating that cell lysis is closely related to the deformation of the cytoskeleton. PMID:15519346

  2. Mechanics of light-activated network polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Kevin Nicholas

    Mechanically responsive, environmentally activated polymers can undergo large, complex deformation in response to external stimuli such as thermal, luminous, and chemical changes to the environment. Light as a stimulus provides unique application potential because it allows for remote, rapid, and isothermal activation of the material with precise spatial control via existing optical technologies. While certain systems have received considerable attention, the state of the art of most light-activated polymers is limited to basic characterization and demonstrations. To make such materials available to the engineering and scientific communities, physically based theoretical and computational tools are required to guide experimental and design efforts that capitalize on their complex photo-mechanical couplings. The central objective of this thesis is to develop a multi-physics constitutive modeling framework to simulate the continuum scale, photo mechanical behavior of light-activated polymers and implement it into a finite element analysis setting. This framework is independent of specific underlying photo-stimulation mechanisms and is discussed in the context of photo-activated shape memory polymers and network rearranging polymers. Next, the framework is applied to the light-activated network rearranging polymer system, which is relaxed of stress upon irradiation with UV light, and a suite of characterization and application oriented experiments are carried out to calibrate and validate the model's predictive capabilities. The calibrated model is used to investigate several applications such as photo-activated stress relaxation of notched specimens, bending actuation, creep, the buckling of equi-biaxially deformed and irradiated films, and photomechanically formed 1D channels and ridges. Modeling creep involves additional complexity through simultaneous deformation and irradiation, and so the model framework is extended to cover such scenarios. Experiments, finite

  3. Monitoring Hippocampus Electrical Activity In Vitro on an Elastically Deformable Microelectrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhe; Graudejus, Oliver; Tsay, Candice; Lacour, Stéphanie P.; Wagner, Sigurd

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Interfacing electronics and recording electrophysiological activity in mechanically active biological tissues is challenging. This challenge extends to recording neural function of brain tissue in the setting of traumatic brain injury (TBI), which is caused by rapid (within hundreds of milliseconds) and large (greater than 5% strain) brain deformation. Interfacing electrodes must be biocompatible on multiple levels and should deform with the tissue to prevent additional mechanical damage. We describe an elastically stretchable microelectrode array (SMEA) that is capable of undergoing large, biaxial, 2-D stretch while remaining functional. The new SMEA consists of elastically stretchable thin metal films on a silicone membrane. It can stimulate and detect electrical activity from cultured brain tissue (hippocampal slices), before, during, and after large biaxial deformation. We have incorporated the SMEA into a well-characterized in vitro TBI research platform, which reproduces the biomechanics of TBI by stretching the SMEA and the adherent brain slice culture. Mechanical injury parameters, such as strain and strain rate, can be precisely controlled to generate specific levels of damage. The SMEA allowed for quantification of neuronal function both before and after injury, without breaking culture sterility or repositioning the electrodes for the injury event, thus enabling serial and long-term measurements. We report tests of the SMEA and an initial application to study the effect of mechanical stimuli on neuron function, which could be employed as a high-content, drug-screening platform for TBI. PMID:19594385

  4. Mechanically Activated Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Sanjeev S.; Syeda, Ruhma; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-01-01

    Mechanotransduction, the conversion of physical forces into biochemical signals, is an essential component of numerous physiological processes including not only conscious senses of touch and hearing, but also unconscious senses such as blood pressure regulation. Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels have been proposed as sensors of physical force, but the identity of these channels and an understanding of how mechanical force is transduced has remained elusive. A number of recent studies on previously known ion channels along with the identification of novel MA ion channels have greatly transformed our understanding of touch and hearing in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we present an updated review of eukaryotic ion channel families that have been implicated in mechanotransduction processes and evaluate the qualifications of the candidate genes according to specified criteria. We then discuss the proposed gating models for MA ion channels and highlight recent structural studies of mechanosensitive potassium channels. PMID:26402601

  5. Automatic Segmentation of Mechanically Inhomogeneous Tissues Based on Deformation Gradient Jump.

    PubMed

    Witzenburg, Colleen M; Dhume, Rohit Y; Lake, Spencer P; Barocas, Victor H

    2016-01-01

    Variations in properties, active behavior, injury, scarring, and/or disease can all cause a tissue's mechanical behavior to be heterogeneous. Advances in imaging technology allow for accurate full-field displacement tracking of both in vitro and in vivo deformation from an applied load. While detailed strain fields provide some insight into tissue behavior, material properties are usually determined by fitting stress-strain behavior with a constitutive equation. However, the determination of the mechanical behavior of heterogeneous soft tissue requires a spatially varying constitutive equation (i.e., one in which the material parameters vary with position). We present an approach that computationally dissects the sample domain into many homogeneous subdomains, wherein subdomain boundaries are formed by applying a betweenness based graphical analysis to the deformation gradient field to identify locations with large discontinuities. This novel partitioning technique successfully determined the shape, size and location of regions with locally similar material properties for: (1) a series of simulated soft tissue samples prescribed with both abrupt and gradual changes in anisotropy strength, prescribed fiber alignment, stiffness, and nonlinearity, (2) tissue analogs (PDMS and collagen gels) which were tested biaxially and speckle tracked (3) and soft tissues which exhibited a natural variation in properties (cadaveric supraspinatus tendon), a pathologic variation in properties (thoracic aorta containing transmural plaque), and active behavior (contracting cardiac sheet). The routine enables the dissection of samples computationally rather than physically, allowing for the study of small tissues specimens with unknown and irregular inhomogeneity. PMID:26168433

  6. Focal Mechanisms for Local Earthquakes within a Rapidly Deforming Rhyolitic Magma System, Laguna del Maule, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D. E.; Keranen, K. M.; Cardona, C.; Thurber, C. H.; Singer, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    Large shallow rhyolitic magma systems like the one underlying the Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field (LdM) atop the Southern Andes, Chile, that comprises the largest concentration of rhyolitic lava and tephra younger than 20 ka at earth's surface, are capable of producing modest to very large explosive eruptions. Moreover, LdM is currently exhibiting magma migration, reservoir growth, and crustal deformation at rates higher than any volcano that is not actively erupting. The long-term build-up of a large silicic magmatic system toward an eruption has yet to be monitored, therefore, precursory phenomena are poorly understood. In January of 2015, 12 broadband, 3-component seismometers were installed at LdM to detect local microearthquakes and tele-seismic events with the goals of determining the migration paths of fluids as well as the boundaries of the magma chamber beneath LdM. These stations complement the 6 permanent stations installed by the Southern Andes Volcano Observatory in 2011. Focal mechanisms were calculated using FOCMEC (Snoke et al., 1984) and P-wave first motions for local events occurring between January and March of 2015 using these 18 broadband stations. Results from six of the largest local events indicate a mixture of normal and reverse faulting at shallow (<10 km) depths surrounding the lake. This may be associated with the opening of fractures to accommodate rising magma in the subsurface and/or stresses induced by the rapid deformation. Two of these events occurred near the center of maximum deformation where seismic swarms have previously been identified. Focal mechanisms from smaller magnitude events will be calculated to better delineate subsurface structure. Source mechanisms will be refined using P-S amplitude ratios and full waveform inversion.

  7. Study on mechanism of lubricating oil consumption caused by cylinder bore deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Hitosugi, Hideshi; Nagoshi, Katsuyuki; Komada, Masaharu; Furuhama, Shoichi

    1996-09-01

    It is a well-known fact that cylinder bore deformations in engine operation involves a number of problems in terms of lubrication, and the deterioration of piston ring conformability to the bore, in particular, increases the lubricating oil consumption (LOC). It is also verified through the cylinder bore deformation measurements carried out by the research laboratory that bore deformations occur in engine operation which can not be ignored. Although some studies on the mechanism and the reduction of such deformations have been conducted, only few analyses have been conducted on the mechanism of the increase in LOC, whereas it is vital to clarify the mechanism under the current situation where the reduction of LOC is urged in terms of purification of exhaust emissions also. This study has been conducted for the clarification of the mechanism of LOC increased by cylinder bore deformation, with emphasis of analysis placed mainly on the following two points: (1) the development of a theoretical calculation method for the behavior of the oil film between a piston ring and the cylinder bore taking into account of the deformed bore profile and the ring elastic deformation, based on the piston ring dynamic lubrication theory developed by Furuhama, analysis of the relationship between the oil film behavior and lubricating oil flow-out rate against the deformed bore profile; (2) measurements of LOC and ring conformability to the bore deformation, using cylinder liners having various types of bore profiles and rings with local clearances on their sliding surfaces. Based on the analyses stated above, qualitatively and quantitatively evaluations of the LOC attributable to the bore deformations have been conducted. The details of the mechanism of LOC determined by the above is reported.

  8. Plate deformation at the transition between collision and subduction: insights from 3D thermo-mechanical laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutelier, D. A.; Cruden, A. R.; Oncken, O.

    2012-04-01

    3-D thermo-mechanical laboratory experiments of arc-continent collision investigate plate deformation at the transition between collision and subduction. Deformation in the collision area propagates into the subduction-collision transition zone via along-strike coupling of the neighboring segments of the plate boundary. The largest along-strike gradient of trench-perpendicular compression produced by a passive margin turning by 90 degrees does not generate sufficiently localized shear strain in the transition zone to cause a strike-slip system. This is because of the fast propagation of lithosphere failure in the arc area. Deformation is thus continuous along-strike, but the deformation mechanism is three-dimensional and progressive structural variations arise because the coupling between neighboring segments induces either advanced or delayed failure of the arc lithosphere and passive margin. During the initial stage of collision, the accretionary wedge is partially subducted, the interplate zone is lubricated, and shear traction drops. Thus large convergence obliquity does not produce a migrating fore-arc sliver. Instead, the fore-arc motion is due to the pressure force generated by subduction of the buoyant continental crust. It follows that convergence obliquity does not yield trench-parallel deformation of the fore-arc and its influence on the collision process is limited. However, convergence obliquity may have shaped the active margin during the stage of oceanic subduction stage, prior to collision, and inherited structures may impact the propagation mechanism.

  9. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of 6061 aluminum alloy strips severely deformed by Dissimilar Channel Angular Pressing

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Evren; Kibar, Alp Aykut; Guer, C. Hakan

    2011-04-15

    Dissimilar Channel Angular Pressing (DCAP) is a severe plastic deformation technique to improve the mechanical properties of flat products by producing ultrafine grains. In this study, the changes in the microstructure and mechanical properties of 6061 Al-alloy strips deformed by various numbers of DCAP passes were investigated. Some DCAPed samples were also held at 200 deg. C and 350 deg. C to investigate the effect of post-annealing. Mechanical properties were determined by hardness and tension tests; and microstructural changes were investigated by TEM analysis. Up to a critical level of plastic strain, remarkable improvements have been observed in the strength and hardness of the severely deformed strips; and the improvements have been explained by variations in grain size, dislocation structure, and formation of subgrains. - Research Highlights: {yields}Dissimilar Channel Angular Pressing (DCAP). {yields}Severe plastic deformation (SPD). {yields}Transmission Electron Microscopy of the 6061 Al alloy. {yields}Mechanical Properties of 6061 Al alloy.

  10. Graphene Topographies: Multiscale Graphene Topographies Programmed by Sequential Mechanical Deformation (Adv. Mater. 18/2016).

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Yen; Sodhi, Jaskiranjeet; Qiu, Yang; Valentin, Thomas M; Steinberg, Ruben Spitz; Wang, Zhongying; Hurt, Robert H; Wong, Ian Y

    2016-05-01

    P.-Y. Chen, R. H. Hurt, I. Y. Wong and co-workers demonstrate a hierarchical graphene surface architecture generated by using various sequences and combinations of extreme mechanical deformation, as shown in the false-colored SEM image. As described on page 3564, the sequential patterning approach enables the design of feature sizes and orientations across multiple length scales which are retained during mechanical deformations of similar extent. This results in sequence-dependent surface topographies with structural memory. PMID:27151628

  11. Joint influence of transmural heterogeneities and wall deformation on cardiac bioelectrical activity: A simulation study.

    PubMed

    Colli Franzone, P; Pavarino, L F; Scacchi, S

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate, by means of numerical simulations, the influence of myocardial deformation due to muscle contraction and relaxation on the cardiac repolarization process in presence of transmural intrinsic action potential duration (APD) heterogeneities. The three-dimensional electromechanical model considered consists of the following four coupled components: the quasi-static transversely isotropic finite elasticity equations for the deformation of the cardiac tissue; the active tension model for the intracellular calcium dynamics and cross-bridge binding; the anisotropic Bidomain model for the electrical current flow through the deforming cardiac tissue; the membrane model of ventricular myocytes, including stretch-activated channels. The numerical simulations are based on our finite element parallel solver, which employs Multilevel Additive Schwarz preconditioners for the solution of the discretized Bidomain equations and Newton-Krylov methods for the solution of the discretized non-linear finite elasticity equations. Our findings show that: (i) the presence of intrinsic transmural cellular APD heterogeneities is not fully masked by electrotonic current flow or by the presence of the mechanical deformation; (ii) despite the presence of transmural APD heterogeneities, the recovery process follows the activation sequence and there is no significant transmural repolarization gradient; (iii) with or without transmural APD heterogeneities, epicardial electrograms always display the same wave shape and discordance between the polarity of QRS complex and T-wave; (iv) the main effects of the mechanical deformation are an increase of the dispersion of repolarization time and APD, when computed over the total cardiac domain and over the endo- and epicardial surfaces, while there is a slight decrease along the transmural direction. PMID:27545966

  12. Active Printed Materials for Complex Self-Evolving Deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raviv, Dan; Zhao, Wei; McKnelly, Carrie; Papadopoulou, Athina; Kadambi, Achuta; Shi, Boxin; Hirsch, Shai; Dikovsky, Daniel; Zyracki, Michael; Olguin, Carlos; Raskar, Ramesh; Tibbits, Skylar

    2014-12-01

    We propose a new design of complex self-evolving structures that vary over time due to environmental interaction. In conventional 3D printing systems, materials are meant to be stable rather than active and fabricated models are designed and printed as static objects. Here, we introduce a novel approach for simulating and fabricating self-evolving structures that transform into a predetermined shape, changing property and function after fabrication. The new locally coordinated bending primitives combine into a single system, allowing for a global deformation which can stretch, fold and bend given environmental stimulus.

  13. Active printed materials for complex self-evolving deformations.

    PubMed

    Raviv, Dan; Zhao, Wei; McKnelly, Carrie; Papadopoulou, Athina; Kadambi, Achuta; Shi, Boxin; Hirsch, Shai; Dikovsky, Daniel; Zyracki, Michael; Olguin, Carlos; Raskar, Ramesh; Tibbits, Skylar

    2014-12-18

    We propose a new design of complex self-evolving structures that vary over time due to environmental interaction. In conventional 3D printing systems, materials are meant to be stable rather than active and fabricated models are designed and printed as static objects. Here, we introduce a novel approach for simulating and fabricating self-evolving structures that transform into a predetermined shape, changing property and function after fabrication. The new locally coordinated bending primitives combine into a single system, allowing for a global deformation which can stretch, fold and bend given environmental stimulus.

  14. Ductile deformation mechanisms of synthetic halite: a full field measurement approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimanov, Alexandre; Bourcier, Mathieu; Héripré, Eva; Bornert, Michel; Raphanel, Jean

    2013-04-01

    Halite is a commonly used analog polycristalline material. Compared to most rock forming minerals, halite exhibits extensively ductile behavior at even low temperatures and fast deformation rates. Therefore, it allows an easier study of the fundamental mechanisms of crystal plasticity, recrystallization, grain growth and texture development than any other mineral. Its high solubility also makes it an ideal candidate for investigating pressure solution creep. Most importantly, halite is very convenient to study the interactions of simultaneously occurring deformation mechanisms. We investigated uniaxial deformation of pure synthetic NaCl polycrystals with controlled grain sizes and grain size distributions at room and moderate temperatures (400°C). The mechanical tests were combined with "in-situ" optical and scanning electron microscopy, in order to perform 2D digital image correlation (2D-DIC) and to obtain the full surface strain fields at the sample scale and at the scales of the microstructure. We observed dominantly intracrystalline plasticity, as revealed by the occurrence of physical slip lines on the surface of individual grains and of deformation bands at the microstructure (aggregate) scale, as revealed by DIC. Crystal orientation mapping (performed by EBSD) allowed relating the latter to the traces of crystallographic slip planes and inferring the active slip systems considering the macroscopic stress state and computing Schmid factors. The strain heterogeneities are more pronounced at low temperature, at both the aggregate scale and within individual grains. The local activity of slip systems strongly depends on the relative crystallographic and interfacial orientations of the adjacent grains with respect to the loading direction. The easy glide {110} <110> systems are not the only active ones. We could identify the activity of all slip systems, especially near grain boundaries, which indicates local variations of the stress state. But, we also clearly

  15. Deformation Mechanisms is a-Phase Silicon Nitride Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Schneider; A. K. Mukherjee

    1998-08-12

    Changes of phase composition and morphology were investigated in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} both before and after compressive deformation testing. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} specimens, with 5 wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 5 wt% MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} additives, were rapidly consolidated to preserve the initial, metastable {alpha}-phase present in the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} starting powders. Constant strain rate compression tests were used to evaluate the strain rate dependency of the flow stress. At 1723 K, a flow stress dependency value of n = 2 was observed.

  16. Deformation mechanisms of bent Si nanowires governed by the sign and magnitude of strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lihua; Kong, Deli; Xin, Tianjiao; Shu, Xinyu; Zheng, Kun; Xiao, Lirong; Sha, Xuechao; Lu, Yan; Zhang, Ze; Han, Xiaodong; Zou, Jin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the deformation mechanisms of bent Si nanowires are investigated at the atomic scale with bending strain up to 12.8%. The sign and magnitude of the applied strain are found to govern their deformation mechanisms, in which the dislocation types (full or partial dislocations) can be affected by the sign (tensile or compressive) and magnitude of the applied strain. In the early stages of bending, plastic deformation is controlled by 60° full dislocations. As the bending increases, Lomer dislocations can be frequently observed. When the strain increases to a significant level, 90° partial dislocations induced from the tensile surfaces of the bent nanowires are observed. This study provides a deeper understanding of the effect of the sign and magnitude of the bending strain on the deformation mechanisms in bent Si nanowires.

  17. Deformation mechanisms of pyroxenes in a sheared mafic granulite from the Seiland Igneous Province (northern Norway)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    degli Alessandrini, Giulia; Menegon, Luca; Malaspina, Nadia; Dijkstra, Arjan; Anderson, Mark

    2015-04-01

    A detailed microstructural and EBSD study was performed on a sheared mafic granulite from the Seiland Igneous Province (northern Norway) to investigate the deformation mechanisms of clino- and orthopyroxenes in a continental lower-crust mafic shear zone. Shearing occurred at T ≈750-820 degC, P ≈0.75-0.95 GPa, following magmatic emplacement and granulite facies riequilibration under dry conditions. The sample consists of clinopyroxene [Ca0.47,Mg0.35,Fe0.18]Si2O3 + orthopyroxene [Ca0.1,Mg0.5,Fe0.4]Si2O3 + plagioclase porphyroclasts (ranging in size from 25 to 650 μm) embedded in a fine-grained matrix (7 μm average grainsize) of cpx + opx + plag and qtz. The cpx and opx porphyroclasts show varying degrees of elongation, with the opx reaching aspect ratios up to 16 and the cpx reaching rare maxima of 7. Elongated opx grains display activity of the {100}<001> and {100}<010> slip systems. Many porphyroclasts have low aspect ratio (≈80% < 3) and show intracrystalline bands of recrystallized grains, as well as micro-boudinage with recrystallized grains in the boudin necks. All porphyroclasts have strong internal misorientations (undulatory and sweeping extinction) and a general lack of recovery features (subgrains). The new grains, with the same composition of the porphyroclasts, shows no host-control. The poly-phase matrix lacks of a crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO). These results suggest that crystal plasticity was not the main deformation mechanism in opx and cpx, and that recovery leading to dynamic recrystallization was not efficient despite the high P-T conditions of deformation. The absence of a CPO in the poly-phase matrix and the well mixed phase distribution are consistent with grains-size-sensitive creep (GSS). We speculate that GSS creep in the matrix has imposed a bulk high strain rate, which hampered crystal plasticity and recovery. High strain rates produced work hardening, causing microcracking and microboudinage in many pyroxene

  18. Mechanical behavior of Al-Li/SiC composites. Part 2: Cyclic deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Poza, P.; Llorca, J.

    1999-03-01

    The deformation and failure mechanisms under cyclic deformation in an 8090 Al-Li alloy reinforced with 15 vol pct SiC particles were studied and compared to those of the unreinforced alloy. The materials were tested under fully reversed cyclic deformation in the peak-aged and naturally aged conditions to obtain the cyclic response and the cyclic stress-strain curve. The peak-aged materials remained stable or showed slight cyclic softening, and the deformation mechanisms were not modified by the presence of the ceramic reinforcements: dislocations were trapped by the S{prime} precipitates and the stable response was produced by the mobile dislocations shuttling between the precipitates to accommodate the plastic strain without further hardening. The naturally aged materials exhibited cyclic hardening until failure, which was attributed to the interactions among dislocations. Strain localization and slip-band formation were observed in the naturally aged alloy at high cyclic strain amplitudes, whereas the corresponding composite presented homogeneous deformation. Fracture was initiated by grain-boundary delamination in the unreinforced materials, while progressive reinforcement fracture under cyclic deformation was the main damage mechanism in the composites. The influence of these deformation and damage processes in low-cycle fatigue life is discussed.

  19. Mechanical behavior of Al-Li/SiC composites: Part II. Cyclic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poza, P.; Llorca, J.

    1999-03-01

    The deformation and failure mechanisms under cyclic deformation in an 8090 Al-Li alloy reinforced with 15 vol pct SiC particles were studied and compared to those of the unreinforced alloy. The materials were tested under fully reversed cyclic deformation in the peak-aged and naturally aged conditions to obtain the cyclic response and the cyclic stress-strain curve. The peak-aged materials remained stable or showed slight cyclic softening, and the deformation mechanisms were not modified by the presence of the ceramic reinforcements: dislocations were trapped by the S' precipitates and the stable response was produced by the mobile dislocations shuttling between the precipitates to accommodate the plastic strain without further hardening. The naturally aged materials exhibited cyclic hardening until failure, which was attributed to the interactions among dislocations. Strain localization and slip-band formation were observed in the naturally aged alloy at high cyclic strain amplitudes, whereas the corresponding composite presented homogeneous deformation. Fracture was initiated by grain-boundary delamination in the unreinforced materials, while progressive reinforcement fracture under cyclic deformation was the main damage mechanism in the composites. The influence of these deformation and damage processes in low-cycle fatigue life is discussed.

  20. The influence of large deformations on mechanical properties of sinusoidal ligament structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strek, Tomasz; Jopek, Hubert; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof W.

    2016-05-01

    Studies of mechanical properties of materials, both theoretical and experimental, usually deal with linear characteristics assuming a small range of deformations. In particular, not much research has been published devoted to large deformations of auxetic structures - i.e. structures exhibiting negative Poisson’s ratio. This paper is focused on mechanical properties of selected structures that are subject to large deformations. Four examples of structure built of sinusoidal ligaments are studied and for each geometry the impact of deformation size and geometrical parameters on the effective mechanical properties of these structures are investigated. It is shown that some of them are auxetic when compressed and non-auxetic when stretched. Geometrical parameters describing sinusoidal shape of ligaments strongly affect effective mechanical properties of the structure. In some cases of deformation, the increase of the value of amplitude of the sinusoidal shape decreases the effective Poisson’s ratio by 0.7. Therefore the influence of geometry, as well as the arrangement of ligaments allows for smart control of mechanical properties of the sinusoidal ligament structure being considered. Given the large deformation of the structure, both a linear elastic material model, and a hyperelastic Neo-Hookean material model are used.

  1. Microstructure, strengthening mechanisms and hot deformation behavior of an oxide-dispersion strengthened UFG Al6063 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Asgharzadeh, H.; Kim, H.S.; Simchi, A.

    2013-01-15

    An ultrafine-grained Al6063/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0.8 vol.%, 25 nm) nanocomposite was prepared via powder metallurgy route through reactive mechanical alloying and hot powder extrusion. Scanning electron microcopy, transmission electron microscopy, and back scattered electron diffraction analysis showed that the grain structure of the nanocomposite is trimodal and composed of nano-size grains (< 0.1 {mu}m), ultrafine grains (0.1-1 {mu}m), and micron-size grains (> 1 {mu}m) with random orientations. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the nanocomposite based on the strengthening-mechanism models revealed that the yield strength of the ultrafine-grained nanocomposite is mainly controlled by the high-angle grain boundaries rather than nanometric alumina particles. Hot deformation behavior of the material at different temperatures and strain rates was studied by compression test and compared to coarse-grained Al6063 alloy. The activation energy of the hot deformation process for the nanocomposite was determined to be 291 kJ mol{sup -1}, which is about 64% higher than that of the coarse-grained alloy. Detailed microstructural analysis revealed that dynamic recrystallization is responsible for the observed deformation softening in the ultrafine-grained nanocomposite. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The strengthening mechanisms of Al6063/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite were evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hot deformation behavior of the nanocomposite was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hot deformation activation energy was determined using consecutive models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The restoration mechanisms and microstructural changes are presented.

  2. Thermally Induced Deformation in Metallic Glass: the Activations and Relaxations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yue; Iwashita, Takuya; Egami, Takeshi

    2015-03-01

    Thermally induced deformation in metallic glasses was investigated by sampling the potential energy landscape (PEL) and probing the changes in the atomic properties (e.g. energy, displacement, stress). The complete deformation processes consist of two stages: the activation (i.e. trigger, from initial minima to nearby saddle states on PEL), and relaxation (i.e. from saddle states to final minima on PEL). We show that the activation stages are triggered by local rearrangements of a small number of atoms, typically 5 atoms in average. Surprisingly, the individual triggers are invariant of the cooling history or elastic structure of the system. However, the organizations between different trigger centers can be varied and are related to the overall stability of the system. On the other hand, relaxation stages consist of two branches, a localized branch, and a cascade branch. While the localized branch is insensitive to the cooling history the system, the cascade branch is highly related with the processing conditions. In particular, for a faster quenched system, the cascade relaxation is found more prominent than in a slowly quenched system. The work is supported by Department of Energy.

  3. Effect of deformation temperature on the mechanical behavior and deformation mechanisms of Al-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mazen, A.A. . Dept. of Engineering)

    1999-08-01

    Aluminum-alumina (Al-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) metal matrix composite (MMC) materials were fabricated using the powder metallurgy (PM) techniques of hot pressing followed by hot extrusion. Different reinforcement weight fractions were used, that is, 0, 2.5, 5, and 10 wt% Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]. The effect of deformation temperature was investigated through hot tensile deformation conducted at different temperatures. The microstructures of the tested specimens were also investigated to characterize the operative softening mechanisms. The yield and tensile strength of the Al-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] were found to improve as a function of reinforcement weight fraction. With the exception of Al-10wt%Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], the MMC showed better strength and behavior at high temperatures than the unreinforced matrix. The uniform deformation range was found to decrease for the same reinforcement weight fraction, as a function of temperature. For the same deformation temperature, it increases as a function of reinforcement weight fraction. Both dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization were found to be operative in Al-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] MMC as a function of deformation temperature. Dynamic recovery is dominant in the lower temperature range, while dynamic recrystallization is more dominant at the higher range. The increase in reinforcement weight fraction was found to lead to early nucleation of recrystallization. No direct relationship was established as far as the number of grains nucleated due to each reinforcement particle.

  4. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of a copper-zirconium alloy processed by severe plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongsa-Ngam, Jittraporn

    A copper alloy, Cu-0.1% Zr, has been processed at room temperature by different techniques of severe plastic deformation (SPD), namely equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP), high-pressure torsion (HPT) and a combination of both processing (ECAP + HPT). The experiments were conducted to evaluate the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties for each of the processed and their combination. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and an electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques were employed to measure the microstructural features, grain size distributions and the distribution of the misorientation angles. The mechanical properties of the processed samples were examined and compared both at a room temperature using microhardness measurements and at an elevated temperature using tensile testing. Using TEM and EBSD techniques, it is demonstrated that these three SPD procedures have a potential for producing an ultrafine-grain structure containing reasonably equiaxed grains with high-angle boundary misorientations. However, microstructures are refined in different level depending on the processing operation. The grain refinement mechanisms are primarily governed by dislocation activities. Microhardness distribution of the strained samples shows that there is a non-uniform of this distribution in the early stages of deformation where the lower hardness values were measured near the bottom of samples for ECAP and at the central region for HPT. This inhomogeneity is gradual decreased with increasing imposed strain and ultimately the microhardness distribution is reasonably homogeneous when the sufficient strain is subjected to the sample. The tensile results demonstrate that the samples after SPD processing exhibit superior mechanical properties with the combination of high strength and ductility compared to the as-received materials where the maximum elongation to failure of ˜240% at 723 K using a strain rate of 1.0 x 10 -4 s-1 is achieved in a sample

  5. Deformation mechanisms of a 20Mn TWIP steel investigated by in situ neutron diffraction and TEM

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yongfeng; Wang, Y. D.; Liu, Xiaopeng; Sun, Xin; Peng, R. Lin; Zhang, S. Y.; Zuo, Liang; Liaw, Peter K.

    2013-07-25

    The deformation mechanisms and associated microstructure changes during tensile loading of an annealed twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel with the chemical composition of Fe–20Mn–3Si–3Al–0.045C (wt.%) were systematically investigated using in situ time-of-flight (TOF) neutron diffraction in combination with postmortem transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The initial microstructure of the investigated alloy consists of equiaxed austenitic grains with the initial α´-phase of ~7% in volume. In addition to dislocation slip, twinning and two kinds of martensitic transformations from the austenite to α´- and epsilon martensites were observed as the main deformation modes during the tensile deformation. In situ neutron diffraction provides a powerful tool to establish the deformation mode map for elucidating the role of different deformation modes in different strain regions. The critical stress is 520 MPa for the martensitic transformation from the austenite to α´-martensite, whereas a higher stress (>600 MPa) is required for actuating the deformation twin and/or the martensitic transformation from -martensite. Both epsilon- and α´-martensites act as the hard phases whereas mechanical twinning contributes to both strength and ductility of the studied steel. TEM observations confirmed that the twinning process was facilitated by the parent grains orientated with <111> or <110> parallel to the loading direction. The nucleation and growth of twins are attributed to the pole and self-generation formation mechanisms, as well as the stair-rod cross-slip mechanism.

  6. Earthquake mechanism and seafloor deformation for tsunami generation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Eric L.; Oglesby, David D.; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Tsunamis are generated in the ocean by rapidly displacing the entire water column over a significant area. The potential energy resulting from this disturbance is balanced with the kinetic energy of the waves during propagation. Only a handful of submarine geologic phenomena can generate tsunamis: large-magnitude earthquakes, large landslides, and volcanic processes. Asteroid and subaerial landslide impacts can generate tsunami waves from above the water. Earthquakes are by far the most common generator of tsunamis. Generally, earthquakes greater than magnitude (M) 6.5–7 can generate tsunamis if they occur beneath an ocean and if they result in predominantly vertical displacement. One of the greatest uncertainties in both deterministic and probabilistic hazard assessments of tsunamis is computing seafloor deformation for earthquakes of a given magnitude.

  7. Representing Matrix Cracks Through Decomposition of the Deformation Gradient Tensor in Continuum Damage Mechanics Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leone, Frank A., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A method is presented to represent the large-deformation kinematics of intraply matrix cracks and delaminations in continuum damage mechanics (CDM) constitutive material models. The method involves the additive decomposition of the deformation gradient tensor into 'crack' and 'bulk material' components. The response of the intact bulk material is represented by a reduced deformation gradient tensor, and the opening of an embedded cohesive interface is represented by a normalized cohesive displacement-jump vector. The rotation of the embedded interface is tracked as the material deforms and as the crack opens. The distribution of the total local deformation between the bulk material and the cohesive interface components is determined by minimizing the difference between the cohesive stress and the bulk material stress projected onto the cohesive interface. The improvements to the accuracy of CDM models that incorporate the presented method over existing approaches are demonstrated for a single element subjected to simple shear deformation and for a finite element model of a unidirectional open-hole tension specimen. The material model is implemented as a VUMAT user subroutine for the Abaqus/Explicit finite element software. The presented deformation gradient decomposition method reduces the artificial load transfer across matrix cracks subjected to large shearing deformations, and avoids the spurious secondary failure modes that often occur in analyses based on conventional progressive damage models.

  8. Deformation mechanisms adjacent to a thrust fault, Sangre de Cristo Mountains, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.C.; McConnell, D.A.; Friberg, V.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the character of grain-scale deformation adjacent to a Laramide thrust fault in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. This site represents a window through the hanging wall of a thrust sheet which juxtaposes Precambrian rocks over Pennsylvanian rocks. It provides a rare opportunity to examine deformation mechanisms in the footwall of a basement-involved thrust. Brittle deformation is evident at both outcrop and grain-scale. Filled fractures and slickensides composed of quartz and epidote are present throughout the area, and increase in abundance adjacent to the fault zone, as does the frequency of mesoscopic faulting. Variations in deformation mechanisms can be seen between the Precambrian rocks of the thrust sheet and the Pennsylvanian metasedimentary rocks, and between the metamorphosed arkoses and metapelites within the Pennsylvanian section. Cataclastic textures are present in deformed Precambrian rocks, and the degree of cataclasis is greatest immediately adjacent to the fault zone. Deformation in the Pennsylvanian rocks is largely dependent upon the abundance of fine-grained matrix within each sample. The degree of brittle deformation is negatively correlated to the percentage of matrix. Coarser-grained sections show microscopic faults which offset quartz and feldspar grains. Offsets decrease on the faults as they pass from coarse grains into the matrix.

  9. Detailed analysis of surface asperity deformation mechanism in diffusion bonding of steel hollow structural components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Li, H.; Li, M. Q.

    2016-05-01

    This study focused on the detailed analysis of surface asperity deformation mechanism in similar diffusion bonding as well as on the fabrication of high quality martensitic stainless steel hollow structural components. A special surface with regular patterns was processed to be joined so as to observe the extent of surface asperity deformation under different bonding pressures. Results showed that an undamaged hollow structural component has been obtained with full interfacial contact and the same shear strength to that of base material. Fracture surface characteristic combined with surface roughness profiles distinctly revealed the enhanced surface asperity deformation as the applied pressure increases. The influence of surface asperity deformation mechanism on joint formation was analyzed: (a) surface asperity deformation not only directly expanded the interfacial contact areas, but also released deformation heat and caused defects, indirectly accelerating atomic diffusion, then benefits to void shrinkage; (b) surface asperity deformation readily introduced stored energy difference between two opposite sides of interface grain boundary, resulting in strain induced interface grain boundary migration. In addition, the influence of void on interface grain boundary migration was analyzed in detail.

  10. Large Deformation Mechanisms, Plasticity, and Failure of an Individual Collagen Fibril With Different Mineral Content.

    PubMed

    Depalle, Baptiste; Qin, Zhao; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Buehler, Markus J

    2016-02-01

    Mineralized collagen fibrils are composed of tropocollagen molecules and mineral crystals derived from hydroxyapatite to form a composite material that combines optimal properties of both constituents and exhibits incredible strength and toughness. Their complex hierarchical structure allows collagen fibrils to sustain large deformation without breaking. In this study, we report a mesoscale model of a single mineralized collagen fibril using a bottom-up approach. By conserving the three-dimensional structure and the entanglement of the molecules, we were able to construct finite-size fibril models that allowed us to explore the deformation mechanisms which govern their mechanical behavior under large deformation. We investigated the tensile behavior of a single collagen fibril with various intrafibrillar mineral content and found that a mineralized collagen fibril can present up to five different deformation mechanisms to dissipate energy. These mechanisms include molecular uncoiling, molecular stretching, mineral/collagen sliding, molecular slippage, and crystal dissociation. By multiplying its sources of energy dissipation and deformation mechanisms, a collagen fibril can reach impressive strength and toughness. Adding mineral into the collagen fibril can increase its strength up to 10 times and its toughness up to 35 times. Combining crosslinks with mineral makes the fibril stiffer but more brittle. We also found that a mineralized fibril reaches its maximum toughness to density and strength to density ratios for a mineral density of around 30%. This result, in good agreement with experimental observations, attests that bone tissue is optimized mechanically to remain lightweight but maintain strength and toughness. PMID:26866939

  11. Large Deformation Mechanisms, Plasticity, and Failure of an Individual Collagen Fibril With Different Mineral Content.

    PubMed

    Depalle, Baptiste; Qin, Zhao; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Buehler, Markus J

    2016-02-01

    Mineralized collagen fibrils are composed of tropocollagen molecules and mineral crystals derived from hydroxyapatite to form a composite material that combines optimal properties of both constituents and exhibits incredible strength and toughness. Their complex hierarchical structure allows collagen fibrils to sustain large deformation without breaking. In this study, we report a mesoscale model of a single mineralized collagen fibril using a bottom-up approach. By conserving the three-dimensional structure and the entanglement of the molecules, we were able to construct finite-size fibril models that allowed us to explore the deformation mechanisms which govern their mechanical behavior under large deformation. We investigated the tensile behavior of a single collagen fibril with various intrafibrillar mineral content and found that a mineralized collagen fibril can present up to five different deformation mechanisms to dissipate energy. These mechanisms include molecular uncoiling, molecular stretching, mineral/collagen sliding, molecular slippage, and crystal dissociation. By multiplying its sources of energy dissipation and deformation mechanisms, a collagen fibril can reach impressive strength and toughness. Adding mineral into the collagen fibril can increase its strength up to 10 times and its toughness up to 35 times. Combining crosslinks with mineral makes the fibril stiffer but more brittle. We also found that a mineralized fibril reaches its maximum toughness to density and strength to density ratios for a mineral density of around 30%. This result, in good agreement with experimental observations, attests that bone tissue is optimized mechanically to remain lightweight but maintain strength and toughness.

  12. Correcting Thermal Deformations in an Active Composite Reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Samuel C.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Wilkie, William K.

    2011-01-01

    Large, high-precision composite reflectors for future space missions are costly to manufacture, and heavy. An active composite reflector capable of adjusting shape in situ to maintain required tolerances can be lighter and cheaper to manufacture. An active composite reflector testbed was developed that uses an array of piezoelectric composite actuators embedded in the back face sheet of a 0.8-m reflector panel. Each individually addressable actuator can be commanded from 500 to +1,500 V, and the flatness of the panel can be controlled to tolerances of 100 nm. Measuring the surface flatness at this resolution required the use of a speckle holography interferometer system in the Precision Environmental Test Enclosure (PETE) at JPL. The existing testbed combines the PETE for test environment stability, the speckle holography system for measuring out-of-plane deformations, the active panel including an array of individually addressable actuators, a FLIR thermal camera to measure thermal profiles across the reflector, and a heat source. Use of an array of flat piezoelectric actuators to correct thermal deformations is a promising new application for these actuators, as is the use of this actuator technology for surface flatness and wavefront control. An isogrid of these actuators is moving one step closer to a fully active face sheet, with the significant advantage of ease in manufacturing. No extensive rib structure or other actuation backing structure is required, as these actuators can be applied directly to an easy-to-manufacture flat surface. Any mission with a surface flatness requirement for a panel or reflector structure could adopt this actuator array concept to create lighter structures and enable improved performance on orbit. The thermal environment on orbit tends to include variations in temperature during shadowing or changes in angle. Because of this, a purely passive system is not an effective way to maintain flatness at the scale of microns over several

  13. Effects of microstructure and temperature on the plastic deformation mechanisms of synthetic halite : a micromechanical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourcier, M.; Dimanov, A.; Héripré, E.; Bornert, M.; Raphanel, J.

    2012-04-01

    Halite is a rock forming mineral with geotechnical applications for storage in underground caverns (hydrocarbons, compressed air, wastes...). Halite is also a convenient analog polycristalline material, used to study deformation mechanisms (crystal plasticity, recrystallization, pressure solution ...). In this work we present an investigation of intragranular plastic deformation and grain boundary sliding in pure synthetic NaCl polycrystals produced by hot isostatic pressing. Uniaxial compression tests are performed in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) at two temperatures, 20°C and 400 °C, on cm - sized samples. The displacement rate is kept constant at 1µm/s and the maximum axial strain is between 5 and 10 %. The surface of the samples is marked by gold micro-spheres and analyzed by 2D digital image correlation (DIC) using the CorrelManuV software, which provides full field measures of surface displacements and strains. The dominant mechanism is intracrystalline plasticity, as revealed by the direct observation of slip lines and by DIC results showing intragranular deformation bands. Using crystal orientation mapping, the latter are related to the traces of crystallographic slip planes. However, limited grain boundary sliding (GBS) also occurs, as a secondary but necessary mechanism for accommodation of local strain incompatibilities. The relative contribution of each mechanism clearly depends on the microstructure, i.e. grain size and grain size distribution. At room temperature the strain is more heterogeneous than at high temperature, at both the aggregate scale and within individual grains, where the local activity of slip systems strongly depends on the relative crystalline and interfacial orientations. In particular, the easy glide planes ({110} planes) are not the only active ones. In some instance, wavy slip bands clearly indicate cross slip. The above kinematic analysis should be complemented by the knowledge of the local stress states in order to

  14. On Green-Cusson Ansätze and deformed supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, J.; Debergh, N.

    1996-11-01

    Supersymmetric quantum mechanics cannot be deformed when the superposition of only a pair of usual bosons and fermions is considered, but it can if nontrivial parabosons and parafermions of the same order p of paraquantization are superposed. We take the simplest case p=2 and exhibit reducibility problems in that context by using Green-Cusson Ansätze following Macfarlane methods. Specific representations of the Lie superalgebra osp (2|2, R) play an interesting role in connection with possible deformations.

  15. Predictive Model for Temperature-Induced Deformation of Robot Mechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poonyapak, Pranchalee

    The positioning accuracy and repeatability of a robot are critical for many industrial applications. Drift in repeatability can occur with changes in environmental and internal conditions, such as those seen with temperature-induced deformation. Thermal instability causes dimensional deformation, and a warm-up cycle is typically required to bring the robot to a thermally stable working condition. The elimination of warm-up cycles will ultimately enhance the positioning accuracy of the robots, their productivity, and reduce unnecessary energy consumption. The main objective of this research was to develop a robot controller algorithm that would provide, a priori, compensation for temperature-induced deformation associated with warm-up in robot mechanical systems. The research started at the fundamental stage of gaining insight into the thermal behaviour and corresponding temperature-induced deformation of simplified, i.e., one-dimensional, robot mechanical systems consisting of slender links and heat sources. The systems were studied using concomitant experimental, numerical and analytical models to provide cross-checking of the results. For the experimental model, the deformation was measured by tracking the drift of a laser diode spot across a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera chip. A non-contact measurement system consisting of an infrared camera, a CCD camera and a laser diode was developed to provide high accuracy measurement for the deformation. The numerical model was generated with a coupled thermal-mechanical finite element analysis incorporating thermal effects due to conduction and convection. The models were tested with the analytical model that was further extended using a finite difference technique. Once the three models showed excellent agreement, it was possible to develop a controller algorithm. Deformations predicted by the finite difference model were used as input for a validation experiment of the compensation algorithm. Results of the

  16. Active deformation analysis and evaluation of earthquake hazard in Gafsa region (Southern Atlas of Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrouni, Nejib; Bouaziz, Samir; Soumaya, Abdelkader; Ben Ayed, Noureddine; Attafi, Khereddine

    2013-04-01

    The Southern Atlas of Tunisia constitutes the transition between Atlas fold and the Northern edge of the Saharan platform. The general direction is near to E-W deflected to N060 whose structural style and geometry of deformation still complex. This domain is Southern part of the seismic zone bordering the Northern African plate as indicated by the large seismic events that occurred periodically. The Gafsa area, more particularly concerned by seismic risk, is bordered to the North by the NW-SE trending "Gafsa Fault" and has significant seismic. The most active tectonic are related to the reactivating of pre-existing NW-SE and E-W trending strike-slip faulting. We will set up the network in the active zone of Gafsa surroundings, in order to cover the area of aftershocks (co-seismic surface rupture) of May 22, 1972 and December 27, 1985 (Ms=4.2) in Gafsa and November 7, 1989 (Ms=4.4) in Metlaoui, December 8, 2010 and in Sidi Aich (Ms=3.66). Paleostress and calculated focal mechanism solutions for the earthquakes show that the active stress field is a NW-SE trending compression. Damage and surface effects of land and urban areas caused by these events demonstrate the vulnerability of cities in the region of Gafsa to seismic activities. The analyses of recent and active deformation in this region has allowed the assessment of urban seismic hazard and take stock seismic zones embedded in a distorted geographic information system (GIS) in close relationship with the regional tectonic setting. This assessment has provided crucial information on the neotectonic deformation and seismotectonics of Gafsa region and its surrounding which affects remote orogenic dynamics and the current state of the North African margin. In particular, the comparison between the deformations and quantified seismic activity has also assessed the risk and the regional seismic hazard and develop a seismotectonic zoning.

  17. Identification of fundamental deformation and failure mechanisms in armor ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Andrea Marie

    Indentation of a surface with a hard sphere can be used to examine micromechanical response of a wide range of materials and has been shown to generate loading conditions resembling early stages of ballistic impact events. Cracking morphologies also show similarities, particularly with formation of cone cracks at the contact site. The approach in this thesis is to use this indentation technique to characterize contact damage and deformation processes in armor ceramics, as well as identify the role of cone cracking and inelastic behavior. To accomplish these objectives, an instrumented indentation system was designed and fabricated, extending depth-sensing capabilities originally developed for nano-indentation to higher forces. This system is also equipped with an acoustic emission system to detect onset of cone cracking and subsequent failure. Once calibrated and verified the system was used to evaluate elastic modulus and cone crack initiation forces of two commercial float glasses. As-received air and tin surfaces of soda-lime-silica and borosilicate float glass were tested to determine differences in elastic and fracture behavior. Information obtained from load--displacement curves and visual inspection of indentation sites were used to determine elastic modulus, and conditions for onset of cone cracking as a function of surface roughness. No difference in reduced modulus or cone cracking loads on as-received air and tin surfaces were observed. Abraded surfaces showed the tin surface to be slightly more resistant to cone cracking. A study focusing on the transition from elastic to inelastic deformation in two transparent fine-grained polycrystalline spinels with different grain sizes was then conducted. Congruent experiments included observations on evolution of damage, examinations of sub-surface damage and inspection of remnant surface profiles. Indentation stress--strain behavior obtained from load--displacement curves revealed a small difference in yielding

  18. Mechanical Response of DNA–Nanoparticle Crystals to Controlled Deformation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The self-assembly of DNA-conjugated nanoparticles represents a promising avenue toward the design of engineered hierarchical materials. By using DNA to encode nanoscale interactions, macroscale crystals can be formed with mechanical properties that can, at least in principle, be tuned. Here we present in silico evidence that the mechanical response of these assemblies can indeed be controlled, and that subtle modifications of the linking DNA sequences can change the Young’s modulus from 97 kPa to 2.1 MPa. We rely on a detailed molecular model to quantify the energetics of DNA–nanoparticle assembly and demonstrate that the mechanical response is governed by entropic, rather than enthalpic, contributions and that the response of the entire network can be estimated from the elastic properties of an individual nanoparticle. The results here provide a first step toward the mechanical characterization of DNA–nanoparticle assemblies, and suggest the possibility of mechanical metamaterials constructed using DNA. PMID:27725959

  19. Redox instability, mechanical deformation, and heterogeneous damage accumulation in solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdeljawad, F.; Nelson, G. J.; Chiu, W. K. S.; Haataja, M.

    2012-08-01

    Mechanical integrity and damage tolerance represent two key challenges in the design of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). In particular, reduction and oxidation (redox) cycles, and the associated large transformation strains have a notable impact on the mechanical stability and failure mode of SOFC anodes. In this study, the deformation behavior under redox cycling is investigated computationally with an approach that provides a detailed, microstructurally based view of heterogeneous damage accumulation behavior within an experimentally obtained nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia SOFC anode microstructure. Simulation results underscore the critical role that the microstructure plays in the mechanical deformation behavior of and failure within such materials.

  20. Inelastic deformation of metal matrix composites: Plasticity and damage mechanisms, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, B. S.; Newaz, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The inelastic deformation mechanisms for the SiC (SCS-6)/Ti-15-3 system were studied at 538 C (1000 F) using a combination of mechanical measurements and detailed microstructural examinations. The objectives were to evaluate the contributions of plasticity and damage to the overall MMC response, and to compare the room temperature and elevated temperature deformation behaviors. Four different laminates were studied: (0)8, (90)8,(+ or -45)2s, and (0/90)2s, with the primary emphasis on the unidirectional (0)8, and (90)8 systems. The elevated temperature responses were similar to those at room temperature, involving a two-stage elastic-plastic type of response for the (0)8 system, and a characteristic three-stage deformation response for the (90)8 and (+ or -45)2s systems. The primary effects of elevated temperatures included: (1) reduction in the 'yield' and failure strengths; (2) plasticity through diffused slip rather than concentrated planar slip (which occurred at room temperature); and (3) time-dependent deformation. The inelastic deformation mechanism for the (0)8 MMC was dominated by plasticity at both temperatures. For the (90)8 and (+ or -45)2s MMCs, a combination of damage and plasticity contributed to the deformation at both temperatures.

  1. μCT based assessment of mechanical deformation of designed PTMC scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Narra, Nathaniel; Blanquer, Sébastien B.G.; Haimi, Suvi P.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Hyttinen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Advances in rapid-prototyping and 3D printing technologies have enhanced the possibilities in preparing designed architectures for tissue engineering applications. A major advantage in custom designing is the ability to create structures with desired mechanical properties. While the behaviour of a designed scaffold can be simulated using bulk material properties, it is important to verify the behaviour of a printed scaffold at the microstructure level. OBJECTIVE: In this study we present an effective method in validating the mechanical behaviour of designed scaffolds using a μCT with an in-situ mechanical deformation device. METHODS: The scaffolds were prepared from biodegradable poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) by stereolithography and images obtained using a high-resolution μCT with 12.25μm isometric voxels. The data was processed (filtering, segmentation) and analysed (surface generation, registration) to extract relevant deformation features. RESULTS: The computed local deformation fields, calculated at sub-pore resolutions, displayed expected linear behaviour within the scaffold along the compressions axis. On planes perpendicular to this axis, the deformations varied by 150– 200μm. CONCLUSIONS: μCT based imaging with in-situ deformation provides a vital tool in validating the design parameters of printed scaffolds. Deformation fields obtained from micro-tomographic image volumes can serve to corroborate the simulated ideal design with the realized product. PMID:25818150

  2. Cell Deformation by Single-beam Acoustic Trapping: A Promising Tool for Measurements of Cell Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Kim, Jihun; Park, Jin Man; Lee, Changyang; Jung, Hayong; Lee, Jungwoo; Shung, K. Kirk

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a noncontact single-beam acoustic trapping method for the quantification of the mechanical properties of a single suspended cell with label-free. Experimentally results show that the single-beam acoustic trapping force results in morphological deformation of a trapped cell. While a cancer cell was trapped in an acoustic beam focus, the morphological changes of the immobilized cell were monitored using bright-field imaging. The cell deformability was then compared with that of a trapped polystyrene microbead as a function of the applied acoustic pressure for a better understanding of the relationship between the pressure and degree of cell deformation. Cell deformation was found to become more pronounced as higher pressure levels were applied. Furthermore, to determine if this acoustic trapping method can be exploited in quantifying the cell mechanics in a suspension and in a non-contact manner, the deformability levels of breast cancer cells with different degrees of invasiveness due to acoustic trapping were compared. It was found that highly-invasive breast cancer cells exhibited greater deformability than weakly-invasive breast cancer cells. These results clearly demonstrate that the single-beam acoustic trapping technique is a promising tool for non-contact quantitative assessments of the mechanical properties of single cells in suspensions with label-free. PMID:27273365

  3. Cell Deformation by Single-beam Acoustic Trapping: A Promising Tool for Measurements of Cell Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Kim, Jihun; Park, Jin Man; Lee, Changyang; Jung, Hayong; Lee, Jungwoo; Shung, K. Kirk

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a noncontact single-beam acoustic trapping method for the quantification of the mechanical properties of a single suspended cell with label-free. Experimentally results show that the single-beam acoustic trapping force results in morphological deformation of a trapped cell. While a cancer cell was trapped in an acoustic beam focus, the morphological changes of the immobilized cell were monitored using bright-field imaging. The cell deformability was then compared with that of a trapped polystyrene microbead as a function of the applied acoustic pressure for a better understanding of the relationship between the pressure and degree of cell deformation. Cell deformation was found to become more pronounced as higher pressure levels were applied. Furthermore, to determine if this acoustic trapping method can be exploited in quantifying the cell mechanics in a suspension and in a non-contact manner, the deformability levels of breast cancer cells with different degrees of invasiveness due to acoustic trapping were compared. It was found that highly-invasive breast cancer cells exhibited greater deformability than weakly-invasive breast cancer cells. These results clearly demonstrate that the single-beam acoustic trapping technique is a promising tool for non-contact quantitative assessments of the mechanical properties of single cells in suspensions with label-free.

  4. The surface geometry of inherited joint and fracture trace patterns resulting from active and passive deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podwysocki, M. H.; Gold, D. P.

    1974-01-01

    Hypothetical models are considered for detecting subsurface structure from the fracture or joint pattern, which may be influenced by the structure and propagated to the surface. Various patterns of an initially orthogonal fracture grid are modeled according to active and passive deformation mechanisms. In the active periclinal structure with a vertical axis, fracture frequency increased both over the dome and basin, and remained constant with decreasing depth to the structure. For passive periclinal features such as a reef or sand body, fracture frequency is determined by the arc of curvature and showed a reduction over the reefmound and increased over the basin.

  5. Inelastic Deformation of Metal Matrix Composites. Part 1; Plasticity and Damage Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, B. S.; Newaz, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The deformation mechanisms of a Ti 15-3/SCS6 (SiC fiber) metal matrix composite (MMC) were investigated using a combination of mechanical measurements and microstructural analysis. The objectives were to evaluate the contributions of plasticity and damage to the overall inelastic response, and to confirm the mechanisms by rigorous microstructural evaluations. The results of room temperature experiments performed on 0 degree and 90 degree systems primarily are reported in this report. Results of experiments performed on other laminate systems and at high temperatures will be provided in a forthcoming report. Inelastic deformation of the 0 degree MMC (fibers parallel to load direction) was dominated by the plasticity of the matrix. In contrast, inelastic deformations of the 90 degree composite (fibers perpendicular to loading direction) occurred by both damage and plasticity. The predictions of a continuum elastic plastic model were compared with experimental data. The model was adequate for predicting the 0 degree response; however, it was inadequate for predicting the 90 degree response largely because it neglected damage. The importance of validating constitutive models using a combination of mechanical measurements and microstructural analysis is pointed out. The deformation mechanisms, and the likely sequence of events associated with the inelastic deformation of MMCs, are indicated in this paper.

  6. Investigation of deformation mechanisms of staggered nanocomposites using molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathiazhagan, S.; Anup, S.

    2016-08-01

    Biological materials with nanostructure of regularly or stair-wise staggered arrangements of hard platelets reinforced in a soft protein matrix have superior mechanical properties. Applications of these nanostructures to ceramic matrix composites could enhance their toughness. Using molecular dynamics simulations, mechanical behaviour of the bio-inspired nanocomposites is studied. Regularly staggered model shows better flow behaviour compared to stair-wise staggered model due to the symmetrical crack propagation along the interface. Though higher stiffness and strength are obtained for stair-wise staggered models, rapid crack propagation reduces the toughness. Arresting this crack propagation could lead to superior mechanical properties in stair-wise staggered models.

  7. Materials and noncoplanar mesh designs for integrated circuits with linear elastic responses to extreme mechanical deformations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Song, Jizhou; Choi, Won Mook; Kim, Hoon-Sik; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Liu, Zhuangjian; Huang, Yonggang Y.; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Zhang, Yong-wei; Rogers, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic systems that offer elastic mechanical responses to high-strain deformations are of growing interest because of their ability to enable new biomedical devices and other applications whose requirements are impossible to satisfy with conventional wafer-based technologies or even with those that offer simple bendability. This article introduces materials and mechanical design strategies for classes of electronic circuits that offer extremely high stretchability, enabling them to accommodate even demanding configurations such as corkscrew twists with tight pitch (e.g., 90° in ≈1 cm) and linear stretching to “rubber-band” levels of strain (e.g., up to ≈140%). The use of single crystalline silicon nanomaterials for the semiconductor provides performance in stretchable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits approaching that of conventional devices with comparable feature sizes formed on silicon wafers. Comprehensive theoretical studies of the mechanics reveal the way in which the structural designs enable these extreme mechanical properties without fracturing the intrinsically brittle active materials or even inducing significant changes in their electrical properties. The results, as demonstrated through electrical measurements of arrays of transistors, CMOS inverters, ring oscillators, and differential amplifiers, suggest a valuable route to high-performance stretchable electronics. PMID:19015528

  8. Perceiving Object Shape from Specular Highlight Deformation, Boundary Contour Deformation, and Active Haptic Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Cheeseman, Jacob R.; Thomason, Kelsey E.; Ronning, Cecilia; Behari, Kriti; Kleinman, Kayla; Calloway, Autum B.; Lamirande, Davora

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that motion facilitates the visual perception of solid object shape, particularly when surface texture or other identifiable features (e.g., corners) are present. Conventional models of structure-from-motion require the presence of texture or identifiable object features in order to recover 3-D structure. Is the facilitation in 3-D shape perception similar in magnitude when surface texture is absent? On any given trial in the current experiments, participants were presented with a single randomly-selected solid object (bell pepper or randomly-shaped “glaven”) for 12 seconds and were required to indicate which of 12 (for bell peppers) or 8 (for glavens) simultaneously visible objects possessed the same shape. The initial single object’s shape was defined either by boundary contours alone (i.e., presented as a silhouette), specular highlights alone, specular highlights combined with boundary contours, or texture. In addition, there was a haptic condition: in this condition, the participants haptically explored with both hands (but could not see) the initial single object for 12 seconds; they then performed the same shape-matching task used in the visual conditions. For both the visual and haptic conditions, motion (rotation in depth or active object manipulation) was present in half of the trials and was not present for the remaining trials. The effect of motion was quantitatively similar for all of the visual and haptic conditions–e.g., the participants’ performance in Experiment 1 was 93.5 percent higher in the motion or active haptic manipulation conditions (when compared to the static conditions). The current results demonstrate that deforming specular highlights or boundary contours facilitate 3-D shape perception as much as the motion of objects that possess texture. The current results also indicate that the improvement with motion that occurs for haptics is similar in magnitude to that which occurs for vision. PMID:26863531

  9. Perceiving Object Shape from Specular Highlight Deformation, Boundary Contour Deformation, and Active Haptic Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Norman, J Farley; Phillips, Flip; Cheeseman, Jacob R; Thomason, Kelsey E; Ronning, Cecilia; Behari, Kriti; Kleinman, Kayla; Calloway, Autum B; Lamirande, Davora

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that motion facilitates the visual perception of solid object shape, particularly when surface texture or other identifiable features (e.g., corners) are present. Conventional models of structure-from-motion require the presence of texture or identifiable object features in order to recover 3-D structure. Is the facilitation in 3-D shape perception similar in magnitude when surface texture is absent? On any given trial in the current experiments, participants were presented with a single randomly-selected solid object (bell pepper or randomly-shaped "glaven") for 12 seconds and were required to indicate which of 12 (for bell peppers) or 8 (for glavens) simultaneously visible objects possessed the same shape. The initial single object's shape was defined either by boundary contours alone (i.e., presented as a silhouette), specular highlights alone, specular highlights combined with boundary contours, or texture. In addition, there was a haptic condition: in this condition, the participants haptically explored with both hands (but could not see) the initial single object for 12 seconds; they then performed the same shape-matching task used in the visual conditions. For both the visual and haptic conditions, motion (rotation in depth or active object manipulation) was present in half of the trials and was not present for the remaining trials. The effect of motion was quantitatively similar for all of the visual and haptic conditions-e.g., the participants' performance in Experiment 1 was 93.5 percent higher in the motion or active haptic manipulation conditions (when compared to the static conditions). The current results demonstrate that deforming specular highlights or boundary contours facilitate 3-D shape perception as much as the motion of objects that possess texture. The current results also indicate that the improvement with motion that occurs for haptics is similar in magnitude to that which occurs for vision. PMID:26863531

  10. The effect of aluminium on mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms of hadfield steel single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, E. G.; Kireeva, I. V.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.; Shul'Mina, A. A.; Sehitoglu, H.; Karaman, I.

    2004-06-01

    On single crystals of Hadfield steel (Fe-13Mn-1.3C, Fe-13Mn-2.7Al-1.3C, wt.%) the systematical investigations of deformation mechanisms - slip and twinning, stages of plastic flow, strain hardening coefficient depending on orientation of tensile axis have been carried out by methods of optical and electron microscopy, x-ray analysis. Is has been shown that the combination of low stacking fault energy (γ{SF}=0.03J/m^2) with high concentration of carbon atoms in aluminium-free steel results in development of the mechanical twinning at room temperature in all crystal orientations. The new type of twinning with formation of extrinsic stacking fault has been found out in [001] single crystals. Experimentally it has been established that alloying with aluminium leads to increase of stacking fault energy of Hadfield steel and suppresses twinning in all orientations of crystals at preservation of high values of strain-hardening coefficients θ.

  11. Comparison of epicardial deformation in passive and active isolated rabbit hearts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Andrew; Tang, Liang; Chiang, Fu-Pen; Lin, Shien-Fong

    2007-02-01

    Mechanical deformation of isolated rabbit hearts through passive inflation techniques have been a viable form of replicating heart motion, but its relation to the heart's natural active contractions remain unclear. The mechanical properties of the myocardium may show diverse characteristics while in tension and compression. In this study, epicardial strain was measured with the assistance of computer-aided speckle interferometry (CASI)1. CASI tracks the movement of clusters of particles for measuring epicardial deformation. The heart was cannulated and perfused with Tyrode's solution. Silicon carbide particles were applied onto the myocardium to form random speckle pattern images while the heart was allowed to actively contract and stabilize. High resolution videos (1000x1000 pixels) of the left ventricle were taken with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) camera as the heart was actively contracting through electrical pacing at various cycle lengths between 250-800 ms. A latex balloon was then inserted into the left ventricle via left atrium and videos were taken as the balloon was repeatedly inflated and deflated at controlled volumes (1-3 ml/cycle). The videos were broken down into frames and analyzed through CASI. Active contractions resulted in non-uniform circular epicardial and uniaxial contractions at different stages of the motion. In contrast, the passive heart demonstrated very uniform expansion and contraction originating from the source of the latex balloon. The motion of the active heart caused variations in deformation, but in comparison to the passive heart, had a more enigmatic displacement field. The active heart demonstrated areas of large displacement and others with relatively no displacement. Application of CASI was able to successfully distinguish the motions between the active and passive hearts.

  12. Deformation mechanism study of a hot rolled Zr-2.5Nb alloy by transmission electron microscopy. II. In situ transmission electron microscopy study of deformation mechanism change of a Zr-2.5Nb alloy upon heavy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Fei; Daymond, Mark R. Yao, Zhongwen; Kirk, Marquis A.

    2015-03-14

    The effect of heavy-ion irradiation on deformation mechanisms of a Zr-2.5Nb alloy was investigated by using the in situ transmission electron microscopy deformation technique. The gliding behavior of prismatic 〈a〉 dislocations has been dynamically observed before and after irradiation at room temperature and 300 °C. Irradiation induced loops were shown to strongly pin the gliding dislocations. Unpinning occurred while loops were incorporated into or eliminated by 〈a〉 dislocations. In the irradiated sample, loop depleted areas with a boundary parallel to the basal plane trace were found by post-mortem observation after room temperature deformation, supporting the possibility of basal channel formation in bulk neutron irradiated samples. Strong activity of pyramidal slip was also observed at both temperatures, which might be another important mechanism to induce plastic instability in irradiated zirconium alloys. Finally, (011{sup ¯}1)〈01{sup ¯}12〉 twinning was identified in the irradiated sample deformed at 300 °C.

  13. Deformation mechanism study of a hot rolled Zr-2.5Nb alloy by transmission electron microscopy. II. In situ transmission electron microscopy study of deformation mechanism change of a Zr-2.5Nb alloy upon heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Fei; Daymond, Mark R.; Yao, Zhongwen; Kirk, Marquis A.

    2015-03-01

    The effect of heavy-ion irradiation on deformation mechanisms of a Zr-2.5Nb alloy was investigated by using the in situ transmission electron microscopy deformation technique. The gliding behavior of prismatic dislocations has been dynamically observed before and after irradiation at room temperature and 300 °C. Irradiation induced loops were shown to strongly pin the gliding dislocations. Unpinning occurred while loops were incorporated into or eliminated by dislocations. In the irradiated sample, loop depleted areas with a boundary parallel to the basal plane trace were found by post-mortem observation after room temperature deformation, supporting the possibility of basal channel formation in bulk neutron irradiated samples. Strong activity of pyramidal slip was also observed at both temperatures, which might be another important mechanism to induce plastic instability in irradiated zirconium alloys. Finally, {01 1 ¯ 1 }⟨0 1 ¯ 12 ⟩ twinning was identified in the irradiated sample deformed at 300 °C.

  14. Investigation of deformation micro-mechanisms in nickel consolidated from a bimodal powder by spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect

    Tingaud, D.; Jenei, P.; Krawczynska, A.; Mompiou, F.; Gubicza, J.; Dirras, G.

    2015-01-15

    Bulk polycrystalline nickel compact was processed by spark plasma sintering from heterogeneous powder consisting of a mixture of nanometer and micrometer sized particles. The consolidated samples inherited the bimodal structure of the starting powder and was composed of ~ 55 vol.% coarse-grained (with the grain size larger than 1 μm) and ~ 45 vol.% ultrafine-grained (with an average grain size of ~ 550 nm) components. The deformation mechanisms were established by EBSD, X-ray line profile analysis and in-situ TEM observations. In the ultrafine-grained volume, the deformation occurred mainly through the activation of dislocation sources emitting full or partial dislocation either from grain interior or grain boundaries. Besides dislocation activity, rolling and sliding of nanograins were also observed during deformation by in-situ transmission electron microscopy, which have a considerable contribution to the observed high strain rate sensitivity of the bimodal microstructure. The cracks formed during deformation easily propagated in the nanograin regions due to the weaker particle bonding caused by the relatively high fraction of native oxide layer on the surface of the initial nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Bulk bimodal polycrystalline Ni was processed by SPS from a heterogeneous powder. • High SRS of the flow stress was observed which enhanced ductility and strength. • In-situ TEM revealed dislocation sources inside and at the boundaries of UFGs. • Twinning, partial dislocation and NG rolling were observed at crack tip vicinity. • The high SRS pertained to both dislocation activity in CG and NG rolling.

  15. Understanding creep in sandstone reservoirs - theoretical deformation mechanism maps for pressure solution in granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hangx, Suzanne; Spiers, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Subsurface exploitation of the Earth's natural resources removes the natural system from its chemical and physical equilibrium. As such, groundwater extraction and hydrocarbon production from subsurface reservoirs frequently causes surface subsidence and induces (micro)seismicity. These effects are not only a problem in onshore (e.g. Groningen, the Netherlands) and offshore hydrocarbon fields (e.g. Ekofisk, Norway), but also in urban areas with extensive groundwater pumping (e.g. Venice, Italy). It is known that fluid extraction inevitably leads to (poro)elastic compaction of reservoirs, hence subsidence and occasional fault reactivation, and causes significant technical, economic and ecological impact. However, such effects often exceed what is expected from purely elastic reservoir behaviour and may continue long after exploitation has ceased. This is most likely due to time-dependent compaction, or 'creep deformation', of such reservoirs, driven by the reduction in pore fluid pressure compared with the rock overburden. Given the societal and ecological impact of surface subsidence, as well as the current interest in developing geothermal energy and unconventional gas resources in densely populated areas, there is much need for obtaining better quantitative understanding of creep in sediments to improve the predictability of the impact of geo-energy and groundwater production. The key problem in developing a reliable, quantitative description of the creep behaviour of sediments, such as sands and sandstones, is that the operative deformation mechanisms are poorly known and poorly quantified. While grain-scale brittle fracturing plus intergranular sliding play an important role in the early stages of compaction, these time-independent, brittle-frictional processes give way to compaction creep on longer time-scales. Thermally-activated mass transfer processes, like pressure solution, can cause creep via dissolution of material at stressed grain contacts, grain

  16. Elucidating the Molecular Deformation Mechanism of Entangled Polymers in Fast Flow by Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yangyang; Sanchez-Diaz, Luis; Cheng, Shiwang; Hong, Kunlun; Chen, Wei-Ren; Liu, Jianning; Lin, Panpan; Wang, Shi-Qing

    Understanding the viscoelastic properties of polymers is of fundamental and practical importance because of the vast and ever expanding demand of polymeric materials in daily life. Our current theoretical framework for describing the nonlinear flow behavior of entangled polymers is built upon the tube model pioneered by de Gennes, Doi, and Edwards. In this work, we critically examine the central hypothesis of the tube model for nonlinear rheology using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). While the tube model envisions a unique non-affine elastic deformation mechanism for entangled polymers, our SANS measurements show that the evolution of chain conformation of a well-entangled polystyrene melt closely follows the affine deformation mechanism in uniaxial extension, even when the Rouse Weissenberg number is much smaller than unity. This result provides a key clue for understanding the molecular deformation mechanism of entangled polymers in fast flow. Several implications from our analysis will be discussed in this talk.

  17. Thermo-mechanical modeling of dendrite deformation in continuous casting of steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domitner, J.; Drezet, J.-M.; Wu, M.; Ludwig, A.

    2012-07-01

    In the field of modern steelmaking, continuous casting has become the major manufacturing process to handle a wide range of steel grades. An important criterion characterizing the quality of semi-finished cast products is the macrosegregation forming at the centre of these products during solidification. The deformation induced interdendritic melt flow has been identified as the key mechanism for the formation of centreline segregation. Bulging of the solidified strand shell causes deformation of the solidifying dendrites at the casting's centre. Hence, a fundamental knowledge about the solid phase motion during casting processes is crucial to examine segregation phenomena in detail. To investigate dendritic deformation particularly at the strand centre, a thermo-mechanical Finite Element (FE) simulation model is built in the commercial software package ABAQUS. The complex dendritic shape is approximated with a conical model geometry. Varying this geometry allows considering the influence of different centreline solid fractions on the dendrite deformation. A sinusoidal load profile is used to describe bulging of the solid which deforms the dendrites. Based on the strain rates obtained in the FE simulations the dendrite deformation velocity perpendicular to the casting direction is calculated. The velocity presented for different conditions is used as input parameter for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to investigate macrosegregation formation inside of a continuous casting strand using the commercial software package FLUENT.

  18. Tuning of a deformable image registration procedure for skin component mechanical properties assessment.

    PubMed

    Montin, E; Cutri, E; Spadola, G; Testori, A; Pennati, G; Mainardi, L

    2015-01-01

    Several studies report the mechanical properties of skin tissues but their values largely depend on the measurement method. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility of recognizing the cellular constituents mechanical properties of pigmented skin by Confocal Laser Scanner Microscopy (CLSM). With this purpose, an healthy volunteer was examined in three areas nearby a pigmented skin lesion in two configurations: deforming and non deforming the nevus. The tissue displacement of the nevus was then assessed by means of deformable registration of the images in these two configurations. There are several registration strategy able to overcome this task, among them, we proposed two methods with different deformation models: a Free Form Deformation (FFD) model based on b-spline and a second one based on Demons Registration Algorithm (DRA). These two strategies need the definition of several parameters in order to obtain optimal registration performances. Thus, we tuned these parameters by means of simulated data and evaluated their registration abilities on the real in vivo CLSM acquisitions in the two configurations. The results showed that the registration using DRA had a better performance in comparison to the FFD one, in particular in two out of the three areas the DRA performance was significantly better than the FFD one. The registration procedure highlighted deformation differences among the chosen areas. PMID:26737734

  19. A TEM Study of Creep Deformation Mechanisms in Allvac 718Plus

    SciTech Connect

    Unocic, Raymond R; Unocic, Kinga A; Hayes, Robert; Daehn, Glenn; Mills, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary study on the evolution of creep deformation substructure in Ni-base superalloy Allvac 718Plus has been performed. Specimens crept at 620 MPa and at temperatures ranging from 690-732 C were examined utilizing diffraction contrast TEM characterization techniques. Creep was interrupted at 1-2.5% strain in order to study the deformation substructure following a limited amount of deformation. The dominant deformation modes at each of the test temperatures were highly planar in nature and involved shearing of the matrix and precipitates on {111} glide planes. In addition, paired a/2<110> dislocations were evident which suggest an antiphase boundary shearing mechanism. Creep induced microtwinning was also observed at the highest creep temperature which was created by identical a/6<112> Shockley partial dislocations that shear the matrix and precipitates on consecutive close packed {111} glide planes.

  20. Deformation mechanisms of NiAl cyclicly deformed near the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullers, Cheryl L.; Antolovich, Stephen D.

    1993-01-01

    The intermetallic compound NiAl is one of many advanced materials which is being scrutinized for possible use in high temperature, structural applications. Stoichiometric NiAl has a high melting temperature, excellent oxidation resistance, and good thermal conductivity. Past research has concentrated on improving monotonic properties. The encouraging results obtained on binary and micro-alloyed NiAl over the past ten years have led to the broadening of NiAl experimental programs. The purpose of this research project was to determine the low cycle fatigue properties and dislocation mechanisms of stoichiometric NiAl at temperatures near the monotonic brittle-to-ductile transition. The fatigue properties were found to change only slightly in the temperature range of 600 to 700 K; a temperature range over which monotonic ductility and fracture strength increase markedly. The shape of the cyclic hardening curves coincided with the changes observed in the dislocation structures. The evolution of dislocation structures did not appear to change with temperature.

  1. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-40 mass % Nb alloy after megaplastic deformation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkeev, Yurii P.; Eroshenko, Anna Yu.; Glukhov, Ivan A.; Sun, Zeming; Zhu, Qifang; Danilov, Vladimir I.; Tolmachev, Alexei I.

    2015-10-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti alloy contained 40 mass % Nb at megaplastic deformation effect is described. It was proved that the deformation effect including the multiple abc-pressing and multi-pass rolling and further pre-recrystallizing annealing enhances the formation of ultra-fine grained structures with mean element size of 0.3 μm or less, involving stable (β + α)-phase composition and metastable nanosized ω-phase in the alloy. This, in its turn, significantly improves the mechanical properties and simultaneously preserves low elastic modulus level.

  2. Influence of thermally activated processes on the deformation behavior during low temperature ECAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, S.; Scholze, M.; F-X Wagner, M.

    2016-03-01

    High strength aluminum alloys are generally hard to deform. Therefore, the application of conventional severe plastic deformation methods to generate ultrafine-grained microstructures and to further increase strength is considerably limited. In this study, we consider low temperature deformation in a custom-built, cooled equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) tool (internal angle 90°) as an alternative approach to severely plastically deform a 7075 aluminum alloy. To document the maximum improvement of mechanical properties, these alloys are initially deformed from a solid solution heat-treated condition. We characterize the mechanical behavior and the microstructure of the coarse grained initial material at different low temperatures, and we analyze how a tendency for the PLC effect and the strain-hardening rate affect the formability during subsequent severe plastic deformation at low temperatures. We then discuss how the deformation temperature and velocity influence the occurrence of PLC effects and the homogeneity of the deformed ECAP billets. Besides the mechanical properties and these microstructural changes, we discuss technologically relevant processing parameters (such as pressing forces) and practical limitations, as well as changes in fracture behavior of the low temperature deformed materials as a function of deformation temperature.

  3. Communications: Mechanical Deformation of Dendrites by Fluid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilling, J.; Hellawell, A.

    1996-01-01

    It is generally accepted that liquid agitation during alloy solidification assists in crystal multiplication, as in dendrite fragmentation and the detachment of side arms in the mushy region of a casting. Even without deliberate stirring by electromagnetic or mechanical means, there is often vigorous interdendritic fluid flow promoted by natural thermosolutal convection. In this analysis, we shall estimate the stress at the root of a secondary dendrite arm of aluminum arising from the action of a flow of molten metal past the dendrite arm.

  4. Time-dependent Deformation in Porous Rocks Driven by Chemo-mechanical Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, P. G.; Brantut, N.; Heap, M. J.; Baud, P.

    2015-12-01

    We report results from triaxial deformation of porous sandstone and limestone conducted to determine the time-dependency of deformation. Experiments were run on water-saturated samples under constant differential stress (creep) conditions. In sandstone, the deformation is entirely brittle for all levels of stress and for all resulting strain rates. The strain rate during creep is very stress sensitive, with a change of only 20 MPa in differential stress producing three orders of magnitude change in strain rate. Failure occurs by localized shear faulting after an extended period of dilatant microcracking, as evidenced by the output of acoustic emissions. By contrast, the behaviour of limestone is more complex. At low effective pressure, the creep behavior is brittle and characterised by the same features as observed for sandstone; a decelerating phase of creep, followed by an inflection and then an accelerating creep phase leading to macroscopic failure. Similarly, only a small amount of inelastic strain is accommodated before failure, and P wave speeds measured throughout deformation decrease continuously, indicating a continuous increase in dilatant crack damage. At higher effective pressure, brittle creep still occurs, but the details of the time-dependent deformation behavior are quite different. First, the total amount of accumulated creep strain increases dramatically with decreasing strain rate, and no localized failure occurs even at these higher strains. Second, the rate of decrease in P wave speeds during deformation decreases with decreasing strain rate; indicating that less damage is accumulated per unit strain when the strain rate is lower. Third, complementary strain rate stepping experiments indicate that the deformation becomes more compactant at lower strain rates. Taken together, these observations suggest that rate-dependent compactive deformation mechanisms compete with dilatant subcritical crack growth during creep in limestone under low

  5. Projection Moire Interferometry for Rotorcraft Applications: Deformation Measurements of Active Twist Rotor Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Soto, Hector L.; South, Bruce W.

    2002-01-01

    Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) has been used during wind tunnel tests to obtain azimuthally dependent blade bending and twist measurements for a 4-bladed Active Twist Rotor (ATR) system in simulated forward flight. The ATR concept offers a means to reduce rotor vibratory loads and noise by using piezoelectric active fiber composite actuators embedded in the blade structure to twist each blade as they rotate throughout the rotor azimuth. The twist imparted on the blades for blade control causes significant changes in blade loading, resulting in complex blade deformation consisting of coupled bending and twist. Measurement of this blade deformation is critical in understanding the overall behavior of the ATR system and the physical mechanisms causing the reduction in rotor loads and noise. PMI is a non-contacting, video-based optical measurement technique capable of obtaining spatially continuous structural deformation measurements over the entire object surface within the PMI system field-of-view. When applied to rotorcraft testing, PMI can be used to measure the azimuth-dependent blade bending and twist along the full span of the rotor blade. This paper presents the PMI technique as applied to rotorcraft testing, and provides results obtained during the ATR tests demonstrating the PMI system performance. PMI measurements acquired at select blade actuation conditions generating minimum and maximum rotor loads are provided to explore the interrelationship between rotor loads, blade bending, and twist.

  6. Emergent morphogenesis: elastic mechanics of a self-deforming tissue.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Lance A; Joshi, Sagar D; Kim, Hye Young; von Dassow, Michelangelo; Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Multicellular organisms are generated by coordinated cell movements during morphogenesis. Convergent extension is a key tissue movement that organizes mesoderm, ectoderm, and endoderm in vertebrate embryos. The goals of researchers studying convergent extension, and morphogenesis in general, include understanding the molecular pathways that control cell identity, establish fields of cell types, and regulate cell behaviors. Cell identity, the size and boundaries of tissues, and the behaviors exhibited by those cells shape the developing embryo; however, there is a fundamental gap between understanding the molecular pathways that control processes within single cells and understanding how cells work together to assemble multicellular structures. Theoretical and experimental biomechanics of embryonic tissues are increasingly being used to bridge that gap. The efforts to map molecular pathways and the mechanical processes underlying morphogenesis are crucial to understanding: (1) the source of birth defects, (2) the formation of tumors and progression of cancer, and (3) basic principles of tissue engineering. In this paper, we first review the process of tissue convergent extension of the vertebrate axis and then review models used to study the self-organizing movements from a mechanical perspective. We conclude by presenting a relatively simple "wedge-model" that exhibits key emergent properties of convergent extension such as the coupling between tissue stiffness, cell intercalation forces, and tissue elongation forces. PMID:19815213

  7. Hot deformation mechanisms in Ti-5.5Al-1Fe alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubrahmanyam, V. V.; Prasad, Y. V. R. K.

    2001-12-01

    The mechanisms of hot deformation in the alloy Ti-5.5Al-1Fe have been studied in the temperature range 750 to 1150 °C and with the true strain rate varying from 0.001 to 100 s-1 by means of isothermal compression tests. At temperatures below β transus and low strain rates, the alloy exhibited steady-state flow behavior, while, at high strain rates, either continuous flow softening or work hardening followed by flow softening was observed. In the β region, the deformation behavior is characterized by steady-state behavior at low strain rates, yield drops at intermediate strain rates, and oscillations at high strain rates. The processing maps revealed two domains. (1) In the temperature range 750 to 1050 °C and at strain rates lower than 0.01 s-1, the material exhibits fine-grained superplasticity. The apparent activation energy for superplastic deformation is estimated to be about 328 kJ/mole. The optimum conditions for superplasticity are 825 °C and 0.001 s-1. (2) In the β region, a domain occurs at temperatures above 1100 °C and at strain rates from 0.001 to 0.1 s-1 with its peak efficiency of 47% occurring at 1150 °C and 0.01 s1. On the basis of kinetic analysis, tensile ductility, and grain size variation, this domain is interpreted to represent dynamic recrystallization (DRX) of β phase. The apparent activation energy for DRX is estimated to be 238 kJ/mole. The grain size ( d) is linearly dependent on the Zener-Hollomon parameter ( Z) per the equation log (d) = 2.86 - 0.023 log (Z) In the regimes in the temperature range 750 to 825 °C and at strain rates from 0.01 to 1.2 s-1 and at temperatures above 1050 °C and strain rates above 10 s-1, the material exhibits flow instabilities manifested in the form of adiabatic shear bands.

  8. Temporal Effects of Mechanical Loading on Deformation-Induced Damage in Skeletal Muscle Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Stekelenburg, A.; Strijkers, G. J.; Rijpkema, J. J. M.; Baaijens, F. P. T.; Bader, D. L.; Nicolay, K.; Oomens, C. W. J.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical loading of soft tissues covering bony prominences can cause skeletal muscle damage, ultimately resulting in a severe pressure ulcer termed deep tissue injury. Recently, by means of an experimental-numerical approach, it was shown that local tissue deformations cause tissue damage once a deformation threshold is exceeded. In the present study, the effects of load exposure time and intermittent load relief on the development of deformation-induced muscle damage were investigated. The data showed that a 2 h loading period caused more damage than 10 min loading. Intermittent load reliefs of 2 min during a 2 h loading period had minimal effect on the evolution of skeletal muscle damage. In addition, a local deformation threshold for damage was found, which was similar for each of the loading regimes applied in this study. For short loading periods, these results imply that local tissue deformations determine whether muscle damage will develop and the exposure time influences the amount of tissue damage. Temporary load reliefs were inefficient in reducing deformation-induced damage, but may still influence the development of ischemia-induced damage during longer loading periods. PMID:20232152

  9. Integrated random-aligned carbon nanotube layers: deformation mechanism under compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhiping; Gui, Xuchun; Gan, Qiming; Lin, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Yuan; Zhang, Wenhui; Xiang, Rong; Cao, Anyuan; Tang, Zikang

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have the potential to construct highly compressible and elastic macroscopic structures such as films, aerogels and sponges. The structure-related deformation mechanism determines the mechanical behavior of those structures and niche applications. Here, we show a novel strategy to integrate aligned and random nanotube layers and reveal their deformation mechanism under uniaxial compression with a large range of strain and cyclic testing. Integrated nanotube layers deform sequentially with different mechanisms due to the distinct morphology of each layer. While the aligned layer forms buckles under compression, nanotubes in the random layer tend to be parallel and form bundles, resulting in the integration of quite different properties (strength and stiffness) and correspondingly distinct plateau regions in the stress-strain curves. Our results indicate a great promise of constructing hierarchical carbon nanotube structures with tailored energy absorption properties, for applications such as cushioning and buffering layers in microelectromechanical systems.Carbon nanotubes have the potential to construct highly compressible and elastic macroscopic structures such as films, aerogels and sponges. The structure-related deformation mechanism determines the mechanical behavior of those structures and niche applications. Here, we show a novel strategy to integrate aligned and random nanotube layers and reveal their deformation mechanism under uniaxial compression with a large range of strain and cyclic testing. Integrated nanotube layers deform sequentially with different mechanisms due to the distinct morphology of each layer. While the aligned layer forms buckles under compression, nanotubes in the random layer tend to be parallel and form bundles, resulting in the integration of quite different properties (strength and stiffness) and correspondingly distinct plateau regions in the stress-strain curves. Our results indicate a great promise of

  10. Large Deformation Mechanisms, Plasticity, and Failure of an Individual Collagen Fibril With Different Mineral Content

    PubMed Central

    Depalle, Baptiste; Qin, Zhao; Shefelbine, Sandra J

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mineralized collagen fibrils are composed of tropocollagen molecules and mineral crystals derived from hydroxyapatite to form a composite material that combines optimal properties of both constituents and exhibits incredible strength and toughness. Their complex hierarchical structure allows collagen fibrils to sustain large deformation without breaking. In this study, we report a mesoscale model of a single mineralized collagen fibril using a bottom‐up approach. By conserving the three‐dimensional structure and the entanglement of the molecules, we were able to construct finite‐size fibril models that allowed us to explore the deformation mechanisms which govern their mechanical behavior under large deformation. We investigated the tensile behavior of a single collagen fibril with various intrafibrillar mineral content and found that a mineralized collagen fibril can present up to five different deformation mechanisms to dissipate energy. These mechanisms include molecular uncoiling, molecular stretching, mineral/collagen sliding, molecular slippage, and crystal dissociation. By multiplying its sources of energy dissipation and deformation mechanisms, a collagen fibril can reach impressive strength and toughness. Adding mineral into the collagen fibril can increase its strength up to 10 times and its toughness up to 35 times. Combining crosslinks with mineral makes the fibril stiffer but more brittle. We also found that a mineralized fibril reaches its maximum toughness to density and strength to density ratios for a mineral density of around 30%. This result, in good agreement with experimental observations, attests that bone tissue is optimized mechanically to remain lightweight but maintain strength and toughness. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR). PMID:26866939

  11. Deformation mechanisms in a coal mine roadway in extremely swelling soft rock.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinghai; Shi, Weiping; Yang, Renshu

    2016-01-01

    The problem of roadway support in swelling soft rock was one of the challenging problems during mining. For most geological conditions, combinations of two or more supporting approaches could meet the requirements of most roadways; however, in extremely swelling soft rock, combined approaches even could not control large deformations. The purpose of this work was to probe the roadway deformation mechanisms in extremely swelling soft rock. Based on the main return air-way in a coal mine, deformation monitoring and geomechanical analysis were conducted, as well as plastic zone mechanical model was analysed. Results indicated that this soft rock was potentially very swelling. When the ground stress acted alone, the support strength needed in situ was not too large and combined supporting approaches could meet this requirement; however, when this potential released, the roadway would undergo permanent deformation. When the loose zone reached 3 m within surrounding rock, remote stress p ∞ and supporting stress P presented a linear relationship. Namely, the greater the swelling stress, the more difficult it would be in roadway supporting. So in this extremely swelling soft rock, a better way to control roadway deformation was to control the releasing of surrounding rock's swelling potential.

  12. Deformation mechanisms in a coal mine roadway in extremely swelling soft rock.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinghai; Shi, Weiping; Yang, Renshu

    2016-01-01

    The problem of roadway support in swelling soft rock was one of the challenging problems during mining. For most geological conditions, combinations of two or more supporting approaches could meet the requirements of most roadways; however, in extremely swelling soft rock, combined approaches even could not control large deformations. The purpose of this work was to probe the roadway deformation mechanisms in extremely swelling soft rock. Based on the main return air-way in a coal mine, deformation monitoring and geomechanical analysis were conducted, as well as plastic zone mechanical model was analysed. Results indicated that this soft rock was potentially very swelling. When the ground stress acted alone, the support strength needed in situ was not too large and combined supporting approaches could meet this requirement; however, when this potential released, the roadway would undergo permanent deformation. When the loose zone reached 3 m within surrounding rock, remote stress p ∞ and supporting stress P presented a linear relationship. Namely, the greater the swelling stress, the more difficult it would be in roadway supporting. So in this extremely swelling soft rock, a better way to control roadway deformation was to control the releasing of surrounding rock's swelling potential. PMID:27547684

  13. Deformation Microstructures and Creep Mechanisms in Advanced ZR-Based Cladding Under Biazal Loading

    SciTech Connect

    K. Linga Murty

    2008-08-11

    Investigate creep behavior of Zr-based cladding tubes with attention to basic creep mechanisms and transitions in them at low stresses and/or temperatures and study the dislocation microstructures of deformed samples for correlation with the underlying micromechanism of creep

  14. Microstructural Analysis of Coupled Mechanical and Chemical Diagenetic Processes in Deformation Bands in Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, C. M.; Eichhubl, P.; Elliott, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Deformation bands in sandstone and other porous rock have been shown to act as barriers or baffles to fluid flow. Changes in flow properties are related to microscale textural changes that occur within the deformation bands through coupled mechanical and chemical diagenetic processes. Microscale textures relating to flow properties, such as brittle grain deformation, preferred cementation, and the entrainment of fines within bands can be studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging techniques. Conventional techniques for imaging deformation bands by SEM involve using mechanically polished thin sections. However, mechanical polishing can cause induced sample damage that limits microstructural observations. To mitigate sample damage, we use large-area and cross-sectional Ar ion beam milling to prepare deformation band samples for SEM imaging. These techniques preserve sample integrity allowing the imaging of cement and pore textures at submicron resolution. In an ion milled deformation band from the Entrada sandstone, we observe delicate euhedral quartz crystals that precipitated after band formation. In the same band, broken grain fragments that occupy space between larger framework grains are angular in shape, suggesting that they still bear freshly broken surfaces, not dulled and rounded by grain dissolution and cement overgrowth. The lack of widespread isopachous cement on grain fragments, and the observation, instead, of isolated slender quartz cement prisms indicates that cementation in these bands is highly localized. These localized cement growths increase roughness in the pore walls, increasing surface area and tortuosity in the flow pathway through the band. This may reduce permeability in the band without completely occluding flow pathways and pore connections within the bands.

  15. Hardening mechanisms in a dynamic strain aging alloy, Hastelloy X, during isothermal and thermomechanical cyclic deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, R. V.; Castelli, M. G.

    1992-01-01

    The relative contributions of the hardening mechanisms in Hastelloy X during cyclic deformation were investigated by conducting isothermal cyclic deformation tests within a total strain range of +/-0.3 pct and at several temperatures and strain rates, and thermomechanical tests within several different temperature limits. The results of the TEM examinations and special constant structure tests showed that the precipitation on dislocations of Cr23C6 contributed to hardening, but only after sufficient time above 500 C. Solute drag alone produced very considerable cyclic hardening. Heat dislocation densities, peaking around 10 exp 11 per sq cm, were found to develop at temperatures producing the greatest cyclic hardening.

  16. Mechanism of grain growth during severe plastic deformation of a nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hongqi; Wang, Y B; Ho, J C; Liao, X Z; Zhu, Y T; Ringer, S P

    2009-01-01

    Deformation induced grain growth has been widely reported in nanocrystalline materials. However, the grain growth mechanism remains an open question. This study applies high-pressure torsion to severely deform bulk nanocrystalline Ni-20 wt % Fe disks and uses transmission electron microscopy to characterize the grain growth process. Our results provide solid evidence suggesting that high pressure torsion induced grain growth is achieved primarily via grain rotation for grains much smaller than 100 nm. Dislocations are mainly seen at small-angle subgrain boundaries during the grain growth process but are seen everywhere in grains after the grains have grown large.

  17. Mechanical properties evaluations of an age hardenable martensitic steel deformed by equal channel angular pressing.

    PubMed

    Nili-Ahmadabadi, M; Shirazi, H; Iranpour Mobarake, M; Poorganji, B; Hossein Nedjad, S; Furuhara, T

    2010-09-01

    Effect of severe plastic deformation by equal channel angular pressing on the mechanical properties of an age hardenable low carbon martensitic steel was investigated. Equal Channel angular pressing was carried out on the solution-annealed steel up to four passes at room temperature through the route Bc. Aging was carried out at 753 K for 2.4 ks. It was found that after four passes deformation, the microstructure is consist of fine grained high angle grain boundaries and lamellar dislocation cell block. The strength of steel is increased considerably while a increasing in elongation is revealed. PMID:21133170

  18. Effects of mechanical deformation on energy conversion efficiency of piezoelectric nanogenerators.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jinho; Cho, Seunghyeon; Kim, Wook; Kwon, Jang-Yeon; Kim, Hojoong; Kim, Seunghyun; Chang, Yoon-Suk; Kim, Chang-Wan; Choi, Dukhyun

    2015-07-10

    Piezoelectric nanogenerators (PNGs) are capable of converting energy from various mechanical sources into electric energy and have many attractive features such as continuous operation, replenishment and low cost. However, many researchers still have studied novel material synthesis and interfacial controls to improve the power production from PNGs. In this study, we report the energy conversion efficiency (ECE) of PNGs dependent on mechanical deformations such as bending and twisting. Since the output power of PNGs is caused by the mechanical strain of the piezoelectric material, the power production and their ECE is critically dependent on the types of external mechanical deformations. Thus, we examine the output power from PNGs according to bending and twisting. In order to clearly understand the ECE of PNGs in the presence of those external mechanical deformations, we determine the ECE of PNGs by the ratio of output electrical energy and input mechanical energy, where we suggest that the input energy is based only on the strain energy of the piezoelectric layer. We calculate the strain energy of the piezoelectric layer using numerical simulation of bending and twisting of the PNG. Finally, we demonstrate that the ECE of the PNG caused by twisting is much higher than that caused by bending due to the multiple effects of normal and lateral piezoelectric coefficients. Our results thus provide a design direction for PNG systems as high-performance power generators.

  19. Scaling laws and deformation mechanisms of nanoporous copper under adiabatic uniaxial strain compression

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Fuping Wu, Xiaolei

    2014-12-15

    A series of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the scaling laws and the related atomistic deformation mechanisms of Cu monocrystal samples containing randomly placed nanovoids under adiabatic uniaxial strain compression. At onset of yielding, plastic deformation is accommodated by dislocations emitted from void surfaces as shear loops. The collapse of voids are observed by continuous emissions of dislocations from void surfaces and their interactions with further plastic deformation. The simulation results also suggest that the effect modulus, the yield stress and the energy aborption density of samples under uniaxial strain are linearly proportional to the relative density ρ. Moreover, the yield stress, the average flow stress and the energy aborption density of samples with the same relative density show a strong dependence on the void diameter d, expressed by exponential relations with decay coefficients much higher than -1/2. The corresponding atomistic mechanisms for scaling laws of the relative density and the void diameter were also presented. The present results should provide insights for understanding deformation mechanisms of nanoporous metals under extreme conditions.

  20. A deformation mechanism of hard metal surrounded by soft metal during roll forming

    PubMed Central

    YU, Hailiang; TIEU, A. Kiet; LU, Cheng; LIU, Xiong; GODBOLE, Ajit; LI, Huijun; KONG, Charlie; QIN, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    It is interesting to imagine what would happen when a mixture of soft-boiled eggs and stones is deformed together. A foil made of pure Ti is stronger than that made of Cu. When a composite Cu/Ti foil deforms, the harder Ti will penetrate into the softer Cu in the convex shapes according to previously reported results. In this paper, we describe the fabrication of multilayer Cu/Ti foils by the roll bonding technique and report our observations. The experimental results lead us to propose a new deformation mechanism for a hard metal surrounded by a soft metal during rolling of a laminated foil, particularly when the thickness of hard metal foil (Ti, 25 μm) is much less than that of the soft metal foil (Cu, 300 μm). Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) imaging results show that the hard metal penetrates into the soft metal in the form of concave protrusions. Finite element simulations of the rolling process of a Cu/Ti/Cu composite foil are described. Finally, we focus on an analysis of the deformation mechanism of Ti foils and its effects on grain refinement, and propose a grain refinement mechanism from the inside to the outside of the laminates during rolling. PMID:24853192

  1. Inelastic deformation mechanisms in SCS-6/Ti 15-3 MMC lamina under compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newaz, Golam M.; Majumdar, Bhaskar S.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to study the inelastic deformation mechanisms in (0)(sub 8) and (90)(sub 8) Ti 15-3/SCS-6 lamina subjected to pure compression. Monotonic tests were conducted at room temperature (RT), 538 C and 650 C. Results indicate that mechanical response and deformation characteristics were different in monotonic tension and compression loading whereas some of those differences could be attributed to residual stress effects. There were other differences because of changes in damage and failure modes. The inelastic deformation in the (0)(sub 8) lamina under compression was controlled primarily by matrix plasticity, although some evidence of fiber-matrix debonding was observed. Failure of the specimen in compression was due to fiber buckling in a macroscopic shear zone (the failure plane). The inelastic deformation mechanisms under compression in (90)(sub 8) lamina were controlled by radial fiber fracture, matrix plasticity, and fiber-matrix debonding. The radial fiber fracture was a new damage mode observed for MMC's. Constitutive response was predicted for both the (0)(sub 8) and (90)(sub 8) laminae, using AGLPLY, METCAN, and Battelle's Unit Cell FEA model. Results from the analyses were encouraging.

  2. Impact of mechanical deformation on guest diffusion in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bin; Wang, Lian Li; Hui, Jia Chen; Du, Lifei; Du, Huiling; Zhu, Ming

    2016-03-14

    The effect of the mechanical deformation of metal-organic frameworks on guest diffusion was investigated by employing molecular dynamics simulations. Two basic deformation modes, uniaxial tensile and shear deformation, were considered. The computed shear modulus of the zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) model system was much lower than the Young's modulus, which is in agreement with the experimental results. The diffusion rate in ZIF-8 was calculated for two types of guest molecules: the nonpolar H2 and the quadrupolar CO2. Under tensile strain, the diffusion of both H2 and CO2 was found to be enhanced, whereas the diffusion rates did not change significantly under shear loading. The evolution of the internal structure of ZIF-8 was studied to determine its effect on guest diffusion. The organic-inorganic connection was identified as the source of the framework's flexibility, and therefore we focused on the N-Zn bond and the N-Zn-N angle. Under stretching deformation, the N-Zn bond is elongated and the N-Zn-N angle remains constant. Thus, the length of the C2-C2 long bond, determining the size of the 6-membered ring (6MR) gate, increases and the gate is opened, allowing for faster guest diffusion. Under shear deformation, the N-Zn bond length changes very little and the N-Zn-N angle is distorted. This results in the occurrence of three peaks in the C2-C2 bond length distribution. Although the 6MR gate is distorted, the variation of its average size is small, resulting in a very small effect on the guest diffusivity. In addition, we found that the fluctuation of the ZIF-8 cell can enhance the impact of the mechanical deformation of the host on guest diffusion.

  3. Influence of cross-link structure, density and mechanical properties in the mesoscale deformation mechanisms of collagen fibrils.

    PubMed

    Depalle, Baptiste; Qin, Zhao; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Buehler, Markus J

    2015-12-01

    Collagen is a ubiquitous protein with remarkable mechanical properties. It is highly elastic, shows large fracture strength and enables substantial energy dissipation during deformation. Most of the connective tissue in humans consists of collagen fibrils composed of a staggered array of tropocollagen molecules, which are connected by intermolecular cross-links. In this study, we report a three-dimensional coarse-grained model of collagen and analyze the influence of enzymatic cross-links on the mechanics of collagen fibrils. Two representatives immature and mature cross-links are implemented in the mesoscale model using a bottom-up approach. By varying the number, type and mechanical properties of cross-links in the fibrils and performing tensile test on the models, we systematically investigate the deformation mechanisms of cross-linked collagen fibrils. We find that cross-linked fibrils exhibit a three phase behavior, which agrees closer with experimental results than what was obtained using previous models. The fibril mechanical response is characterized by: (i) an initial elastic deformation corresponding to the collagen molecule uncoiling, (ii) a linear regime dominated by molecule sliding and (iii) the second stiffer elastic regime related to the stretching of the backbone of the tropocollagen molecules until the fibril ruptures. Our results suggest that both cross-link density and type dictate the stiffness of large deformation regime by increasing the number of interconnected molecules while cross-links mechanical properties determine the failure strain and strength of the fibril. These findings reveal that cross-links play an essential role in creating an interconnected fibrillar material of tunable toughness and strength.

  4. Influence of cross-link structure, density and mechanical properties in the mesoscale deformation mechanisms of collagen fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Depalle, Baptiste; Qin, Zhao; Shefelbine, Sandra J.; Buehler, Markus J.

    2015-01-01

    Collagen is a ubiquitous protein with remarkable mechanical properties. It is highly elastic, shows large fracture strength and enables substantial energy dissipation during deformation. Most of the connective tissue in humans consists of collagen fibrils composed of a staggered array of tropocollagen molecules, which are connected by intermolecular cross-links. In this study, we report a three-dimensional coarse-grained model of collagen and analyze the influence of enzymatic cross-links on the mechanics of collagen fibrils. Two representatives immature and mature cross-links are implemented in the mesoscale model using a bottom-up approach. By varying the number, type and mechanical properties of cross-links in the fibrils and performing tensile test on the models, we systematically investigate the deformation mechanisms of cross-linked collagen fibrils. We find that cross-linked fibrils exhibit a three phase behavior, which agrees closer with experimental results than what was obtained using previous models. The fibril mechanical response is characterized by: (i) an initial elastic deformation corresponding to the collagen molecule uncoiling, (ii) a linear regime dominated by molecule sliding and (iii) the second stiffer elastic regime related to the stretching of the backbone of the tropocollagen molecules until the fibril ruptures. Our results suggest that both cross-link density and type dictate the stiffness of large deformation regime by increasing the number of interconnected molecules while cross-links mechanical properties determine the failure strain and strength of the fibril. These findings reveal that cross-links play an essential role in creating an interconnected fibrillar material of tunable toughness and strength. PMID:25153614

  5. Deformation across the seismic cycle in tectonically active regions: Imaging, modeling, and interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, William Douglas

    Images of surface displacements in response to tectonic forces can provide independent, spatially dense observations that assist in understanding sub-surface processes. When considered independently or augmented with more traditional observations of active tectonics such as seismicity and ground mapping, these measurements provide constraints on spatially and temporally variable fault behavior across the seismic cycle. Models of fault behavior inferred from these observations in turn allow us to address topics in geologic hazards assessment, the long- and short-term character of strain in deforming regions, and the interactions between faults throughout the crust. In this dissertation, I use remotely sensed observations of ground displacements from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) to approach several problems related to earthquake and aseismic fault slip. I establish image processing and inverse methods for better detailing subsurface fault slip and apply these to the 2010-2011 Canterbury, New Zealand sequence. Then, I focus on the active tectonics of the Zagros Mountains in southern Iran. There, I show through orogen-wide InSAR time series analysis that active strain is accommodated across the width of the mountain belt. I also use a combination of InSAR, local seismicity, and structural modeling to demonstrate that strain is vertically partitioned within the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt, with earthquakes controlling deformation in the underlying basement while the overlying sedimentary section shortens in transient, earthquake-triggered aseismic slip events. In certain examples, these aseismic slip events directly contribute to the growth of fault-bend folds. I use these inferences to explore a previously noted discrepancy between observed shortening and that which is expected from known earthquakes. I show that the earthquakes and short-term aseismic slip cannot account for this discrepancy, and that additional deformation mechanisms must be

  6. Role of plastic deformation mechanisms in the formation of nanostructured silicon and its photoluminescent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulinich, O. A.

    2012-06-01

    The role of plastic deformation mechanisms in the process of obtaining nanostructured silicon layers is demonstrated. The process of obtaining nanostructured silicon consists in growing of silicon oxide layers of various thicknesses on the silicon wafer surface, their subsequent removal, and treatment by selective chemical etchants (SE) before the formation of defectless silicon islands possessing the photoluminescent properties typical of nanostructured silicon. Based on analysis of the photoluminescence intensity spectra of nanostructured silicon islands, the conclusion is drawn on different plastic deformation mechanisms at different thicknesses of thermally grown silicon oxide. Possible mechanisms of displacement of the intensity maximum in the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum toward shorter wavelengths with decreasing nanostructured silicon island sizes are discussed.

  7. Mechanical behavior of polymer-grafted iron oxide nano particles under large shear deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Yang; Senses, Erkan; Akcora, Pinar; Stevens Institute of Technology Team

    2014-03-01

    Grafting particles with polymers is an effective strategy to control the dispersion and assembly of fillers that will enhance the structural and mechanical stability of polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). Viscoelastic properties of polymer-grafted nanoparticles (NPs) dispersed in homopolymer melts at nonlinear regimes are particularly important as nonlinearities are sensitive to any microstructural change. Her, we report on the nonlinear mechanical behavior of poly(styrene) (PS)-grafted iron oxide NPs in PS homopolymers to reveal the importance of brush-matrix interface and dynamic entanglement under large shear deformations. With oscillatory shear flow, wetting is enabled and long-range ordering of particles is achieved in the system where free chains are longer than the grafted one. We show that large oscillatory deformations can strengthen the interfaces that result in the enhanced mechanical properties. These shear-induced ordered particles can perform as reinforced polymer networks for energy absorbing application. We acknowledge financial support by NSF-CAREER-DMR (#1048865).

  8. Deformation mechanisms of human amnion: Quantitative studies based on second harmonic generation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mauri, Arabella; Ehret, Alexander E; Perrini, Michela; Maake, Caroline; Ochsenbein-Kölble, Nicole; Ehrbar, Martin; Oyen, Michelle L; Mazza, Edoardo

    2015-06-25

    Multiphoton microscopy has proven to be a versatile tool to analyze the three-dimensional microstructure of the fetal membrane and the mechanisms of deformation on the length scale of cells and the collagen network. In the present contribution, dedicated microscopic tools for in situ mechanical characterization of tissue under applied mechanical loads and the related methods for data interpretation are presented with emphasis on new stepwise monotonic uniaxial experiments. The resulting microscopic parameters are consistent with previous ones quantified for cyclic and relaxation tests, underlining the reliability of these techniques. The thickness reduction and the substantial alignment of collagen fiber bundles in the compact and fibroblast layer starting at very small loads are highlighted, which challenges the definition of a reference configuration in terms of a force threshold. The findings presented in this paper intend to inform the development of models towards a better understanding of fetal membrane deformation and failure, and thus of related problems in obstetrics and other clinical conditions.

  9. Plastic deformation mechanisms in polyimide resins and their semi-interpenetrating networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Bor Z.

    1990-01-01

    High-performance thermoset resins and composites are critical to the future growth of space, aircraft, and defense industries in the USA. However, the processing-structure-property relationships in these materials remain poorly understood. In the present ASEE/NASA Summer Research Program, the plastic deformation modes and toughening mechanisms in single-phase and multiphase thermoset resins were investigated. Both thermoplastic and thermoset polyimide resins and their interpenetrating networks (IPNs and semi-IPNs) were included. The fundamental tendency to undergo strain localization (crazing and shear banding) as opposed to a more diffuse (or homogeneous) deformation in these polymers were evaluated. Other possible toughening mechanisms in multiphase thermoset resins were also examined. The topological features of network chain configuration/conformation and the multiplicity of phase morphology in INPs and semi-IPNs provide unprecedented opportunities for studying the toughening mechanisms in multiphase thermoset polymers and their fiber composites.

  10. A mechanical model for deformable and mesh pattern wheel of lunar roving vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhongchao; Wang, Yongfu; Chen, Gang (Sheng); Gao, Haibo

    2015-12-01

    As an indispensable tool for astronauts on lunar surface, the lunar roving vehicle (LRV) is of great significance for manned lunar exploration. An LRV moves on loose and soft lunar soil, so the mechanical property of its wheels directly affects the mobility performance. The wheels used for LRV have deformable and mesh pattern, therefore, the existing mechanical theory of vehicle wheel cannot be used directly for analyzing the property of LRV wheels. In this paper, a new mechanical model for LRV wheel is proposed. At first, a mechanical model for a rigid normal wheel is presented, which involves in multiple conventional parameters such as vertical load, tangential traction force, lateral force, and slip ratio. Secondly, six equivalent coefficients are introduced to amend the rigid normal wheel model to fit for the wheels with deformable and mesh-pattern in LRV application. Thirdly, the values of the six equivalent coefficients are identified by using experimental data obtained in an LRV's single wheel testing. Finally, the identified mechanical model for LRV's wheel with deformable and mesh pattern are further verified and validated by using additional experimental results.

  11. Dislocation-accommodated grain boundary sliding as the major deformation mechanism of olivine in the Earth’s upper mantle

    PubMed Central

    Ohuchi, Tomohiro; Kawazoe, Takaaki; Higo, Yuji; Funakoshi, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Akio; Kikegawa, Takumi; Irifune, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the deformation mechanisms of olivine is important for addressing the dynamic processes in Earth’s upper mantle. It has been thought that dislocation creep is the dominant mechanism because of extrapolated laboratory data on the plasticity of olivine at pressures below 0.5 GPa. However, we found that dislocation-accommodated grain boundary sliding (DisGBS), rather than dislocation creep, dominates the deformation of olivine under middle and deep upper mantle conditions. We used a deformation-DIA apparatus combined with synchrotron in situ x-ray observations to study the plasticity of olivine aggregates at pressures up to 6.7 GPa (that is, ~200-km depth) and at temperatures between 1273 and 1473 K, which is equivalent to the conditions in the middle region of the upper mantle. The creep strength of olivine deforming by DisGBS is apparently less sensitive to pressure because of the competing pressure-hardening effect of the activation volume and pressure-softening effect of water fugacity. The estimated viscosity of olivine controlled by DisGBS is independent of depth and ranges from 1019.6 to 1020.7 Pa·s throughout the asthenospheric upper mantle with a representative water content (50 to 1000 parts per million H/Si), which is consistent with geophysical viscosity profiles. Because DisGBS is a grain size–sensitive creep mechanism, the evolution of the grain size of olivine is an important process controlling the dynamics of the upper mantle. PMID:26601281

  12. Comparison of deformation mechanics for two different carbonates: oolitic limestone and laminites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zihms, Stephanie; Lewis, Helen; Couples, Gary; Hall, Stephen; Somerville, Jim

    2016-04-01

    Carbonate rocks form under a range of conditions which leads to a diverse rock group. Even though carbonates are overall mineralogically simple, the solid-space distribution ranges from simple compositions such as oolitic limestones to highly complex networks of pores and solids as seen in coquinas. Their fundamental mechanical behaviour has been identified to be like clastic rocks (Vajdova 2004, Brantut, Heap et al. 2014). However it is very likely that this observation is not true for more complex carbonates. Triaxial tests were performed on cylindrical samples of two different carbonates; a) oolitic limestone (Bicqueley quarry, France) and b) laminite (Ariripe basin, Brazil). The samples were deformed under confining pressures of 8, 12 and 20MPa, and 20, 30 and 40MPa, respectively. All tests were stopped as soon as peak load was observed to preserve as many deformation characteristics as possible. Photographs of the samples were taken before and after deformation to allow surface analysis of deformation features. Additionally, samples were analysed post-deformation with X-ray tomography (XRT) (using the Zeiss XRadia XRM 520 at the 4D Imaging Lab at Lund University). The 3D tomography images represent the post-deformation samples' density distribution, allowing detailed, non-destructive, 3D analysis of the deformation features that developed in the triaxial testing, including the complex geometries and interactions of fractures, deformation bands and sedimentary layering. They also provide an insight into the complexity of deformation features produced due to the carbonate response. Initial results show that the oolitic limestone forms single shear bands almost the length of the sample, exhibiting similar characteristics to sandstones deformed under similar conditions. These features are observed for all three applied loads. The laminate sample deformed at the lowest confining pressure exhibits compactive features. However, the laminite samples deformed at the

  13. Effects of Fault Segmentation, Mechanical Interaction, and Structural Complexity on Earthquake-Generated Deformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, David Elias

    2014-01-01

    Earth's topographic surface forms an interface across which the geodynamic and geomorphic engines interact. This interaction is best observed along crustal margins where topography is created by active faulting and sculpted by geomorphic processes. Crustal deformation manifests as earthquakes at centennial to millennial timescales. Given that…

  14. Topological mechanics: from metamaterials to active matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2015-03-01

    Mechanical metamaterials are artificial structures with unusual properties, such as negative Poisson ratio, bistability or tunable acoustic response, which originate in the geometry of their unit cell. At the heart of such unusual behavior is often a mechanism: a motion that does not significantly stretch or compress the links between constituent elements. When activated by motors or external fields, these soft motions become the building blocks of robots and smart materials. In this talk, we discuss topological mechanisms that possess two key properties: (i) their existence cannot be traced to a local imbalance between degrees of freedom and constraints (ii) they are robust against a wide range of structural deformations or changes in material parameters. The continuum elasticity of these mechanical structures is captured by non-linear field theories with a topological boundary term similar to topological insulators and quantum Hall systems. We present several applications of these concepts to the design and experimental realization of 2D and 3D topological structures based on linkages, origami, buckling meta-materials and lastly active media that break time-reversal symmetry.

  15. Soft Tissue Deformations Contribute to the Mechanics of Walking in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiao-Yu; Zelik, Karl E.; Board, Wayne J.; Browning, Raymond C.; Kuo, Arthur D.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity not only adds to the mass that must be carried during walking, but also changes body composition. Although extra mass causes roughly proportional increases in musculoskeletal loading, less well understood is the effect of relatively soft and mechanically compliant adipose tissue. Purpose To estimate the work performed by soft tissue deformations during walking. The soft tissue would be expected to experience damped oscillations, particularly from high force transients following heel strike, and could potentially change the mechanical work demands for walking. Method We analyzed treadmill walking data at 1.25 m/s for 11 obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) and 9 non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m2) adults. The soft tissue work was quantified with a method that compares the work performed by lower extremity joints as derived using assumptions of rigid body segments, with that estimated without rigid body assumptions. Results Relative to body mass, obese and non-obese individuals perform similar amounts of mechanical work. But negative work performed by soft tissues was significantly greater in obese individuals (p= 0.0102), equivalent to about 0.36 J/kg vs. 0.27 J/kg in non-obese individuals. The negative (dissipative) work by soft tissues occurred mainly after heel strike, and for obese individuals was comparable in magnitude to the total negative work from all of the joints combined (0.34 J/kg vs. 0.33 J/kg for obese and non-obese adults, respectively). Although the joints performed a relatively similar amount of work overall, obese individuals performed less negative work actively at the knee. Conclusion The greater proportion of soft tissues in obese individuals results in substantial changes in the amount, location, and timing of work, and may also impact metabolic energy expenditure during walking. PMID:25380475

  16. Deformation Mechanisms in Tube Billets from Zr-1%Nb Alloy under Radial Forging

    SciTech Connect

    Perlovich, Yuriy; Isaenkova, Margarita; Fesenko, Vladimir; Krymskaya, Olga; Zavodchikov, Alexander

    2011-05-04

    Features of the deformation process by cold radial forging of tube billets from Zr-1%Nb alloy were reconstructed on the basis of X-ray data concerning their structure and texture. The cold radial forging intensifies grain fragmentation in the bulk of billet and increases significantly the latent hardening of potentially active slip systems, so that operation only of the single slip system becomes possible. As a result, in radially-forged billets unusual deformation and recrystallization textures arise. These textures differ from usual textures of {alpha}-Zr by the mutual inversion of crystallographic axes, aligned along the axis of tube.

  17. Deformation Mechanisms in Tube Billets from Zr-1%Nb Alloy under Radial Forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlovich, Yuriy; Isaenkova, Margarita; Fesenko, Vladimir; Krymskaya, Olga; Zavodchikov, Alexander

    2011-05-01

    Features of the deformation process by cold radial forging of tube billets from Zr-1%Nb alloy were reconstructed on the basis of X-ray data concerning their structure and texture. The cold radial forging intensifies grain fragmentation in the bulk of billet and increases significantly the latent hardening of potentially active slip systems, so that operation only of the single slip system becomes possible. As a result, in radially-forged billets unusual deformation and recrystallization textures arise. These textures differ from usual textures of α-Zr by the mutual inversion of crystallographic axes, aligned along the axis of tube.

  18. Mechanically activated artificial cell by using microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Kenneth K. Y.; Lee, Lap Man; Liu, Allen P.

    2016-01-01

    All living organisms sense mechanical forces. Engineering mechanosensitive artificial cell through bottom-up in vitro reconstitution offers a way to understand how mixtures of macromolecules assemble and organize into a complex system that responds to forces. We use stable double emulsion droplets (aqueous/oil/aqueous) to prototype mechanosensitive artificial cells. In order to demonstrate mechanosensation in artificial cells, we develop a novel microfluidic device that is capable of trapping double emulsions into designated chambers, followed by compression and aspiration in a parallel manner. The microfluidic device is fabricated using multilayer soft lithography technology, and consists of a control layer and a deformable flow channel. Deflections of the PDMS membrane above the main microfluidic flow channels and trapping chamber array are independently regulated pneumatically by two sets of integrated microfluidic valves. We successfully compress and aspirate the double emulsions, which result in transient increase and permanent decrease in oil thickness, respectively. Finally, we demonstrate the influx of calcium ions as a response of our mechanically activated artificial cell through thinning of oil. The development of a microfluidic device to mechanically activate artificial cells creates new opportunities in force-activated synthetic biology. PMID:27610921

  19. Mechanically activated artificial cell by using microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kenneth K Y; Lee, Lap Man; Liu, Allen P

    2016-01-01

    All living organisms sense mechanical forces. Engineering mechanosensitive artificial cell through bottom-up in vitro reconstitution offers a way to understand how mixtures of macromolecules assemble and organize into a complex system that responds to forces. We use stable double emulsion droplets (aqueous/oil/aqueous) to prototype mechanosensitive artificial cells. In order to demonstrate mechanosensation in artificial cells, we develop a novel microfluidic device that is capable of trapping double emulsions into designated chambers, followed by compression and aspiration in a parallel manner. The microfluidic device is fabricated using multilayer soft lithography technology, and consists of a control layer and a deformable flow channel. Deflections of the PDMS membrane above the main microfluidic flow channels and trapping chamber array are independently regulated pneumatically by two sets of integrated microfluidic valves. We successfully compress and aspirate the double emulsions, which result in transient increase and permanent decrease in oil thickness, respectively. Finally, we demonstrate the influx of calcium ions as a response of our mechanically activated artificial cell through thinning of oil. The development of a microfluidic device to mechanically activate artificial cells creates new opportunities in force-activated synthetic biology. PMID:27610921

  20. Mechanically activated artificial cell by using microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kenneth K Y; Lee, Lap Man; Liu, Allen P

    2016-01-01

    All living organisms sense mechanical forces. Engineering mechanosensitive artificial cell through bottom-up in vitro reconstitution offers a way to understand how mixtures of macromolecules assemble and organize into a complex system that responds to forces. We use stable double emulsion droplets (aqueous/oil/aqueous) to prototype mechanosensitive artificial cells. In order to demonstrate mechanosensation in artificial cells, we develop a novel microfluidic device that is capable of trapping double emulsions into designated chambers, followed by compression and aspiration in a parallel manner. The microfluidic device is fabricated using multilayer soft lithography technology, and consists of a control layer and a deformable flow channel. Deflections of the PDMS membrane above the main microfluidic flow channels and trapping chamber array are independently regulated pneumatically by two sets of integrated microfluidic valves. We successfully compress and aspirate the double emulsions, which result in transient increase and permanent decrease in oil thickness, respectively. Finally, we demonstrate the influx of calcium ions as a response of our mechanically activated artificial cell through thinning of oil. The development of a microfluidic device to mechanically activate artificial cells creates new opportunities in force-activated synthetic biology.

  1. Mechanical Deformation of a Lithium-Metal Anode Due to a Very Stiff Separator

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrese, A; Newman, J

    2014-05-21

    This work builds on the two-dimensional model presented by Ferrese et al. [J. Electrochem. Soc., 159, A1615 (2012)1, which captures the movement of lithium metal at the negative electrode during cycling in a Li-metal/LiCoO2 cell. In this paper, the separator is modeled as a dendrite-inhibiting polymer separator with an elastic modulus of 16 GPa. The separator resists the movement of lithium through the generation of stresses in the cell. These stresses affect the negative electrode through two mechanisms altering the thermodynamics of the negative electrode and deforming the negative electrode mechanically. From this analysis, we find that the dendrite-inhibiting separator causes plastic and elastic deformation of the lithium at the negative electrode which flattens the electrode considerably when compared to the liquid-electrolyte case. This flattening of the negative electrode causes only very slight differences in the local state of charge in the positive electrode. When comparing the magnitude of the effects flattening the negative electrode, we find that the plastic deformation plays a much larger role than either the pressure-modified reaction kinetics or elastic deformation. This is due to the low yield strength of the lithium metal, which limits the stresses such that they have only a small effect on the reaction kinetics. (C) 2014 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanical behavior of Al-Li-SiC composites. Part 1: Microstructure and tensile deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Poza, P.; Llorca, J.

    1999-03-01

    The microstructure and tensile properties of an 8090 Al-Li alloy reinforced with 15 vol pct SiC particles were investigated, together with those of the unreinforced alloy processed following the same route. Two different heat treatments (naturally aged at ambient temperature and artificially aged at elevated temperature to the peak strength) were chosen because they lead to very different behaviors. Special emphasis was given to the analysis of the differences and similarities in the microstructure and in the deformation and failure mechanisms between the composite and the unreinforced alloy. It was found that the dispersion of the SiC particles restrained the formation of elongated grains during extrusion and inhibited the precipitation of Al{sub 3}Li at ambient temperature. The deformation processes in the peak-aged materials were controlled by the S{prime} precipitates, which acted as barriers for dislocation motion and homogenized the slip. Homogeneous slip was also observed in the naturally aged composite, but not in the unreinforced alloy, where plastic deformation was concentrated in slip bands. The most notorious differences between the alloy and the composite were found in the fracture mechanisms. The naturally aged unreinforced alloy failed by transgranular shear, while the failure of the peak-aged alloy was induced by grain-boundary fracture. The fracture of the composite in both tempers was, however, precipitated by the progressive fracture of the SiC reinforcements during deformation, which led to the early failure at the onset of plastic instability.

  3. Mechanical behavior of Al-Li-SiC composites: Part I. Microstructure and tensile deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poza, P.; Llorca, J.

    1999-03-01

    The microstructure and tensile properties of an 8090 Al-Li alloy reinforced with 15 vol pet SiC particles were investigated, together with those of the unreinforced alloy processed following the same route. Two different heat treatments (naturally aged at ambient temperature and artificially aged at elevated temperature to the peak strength) were chosen because they lead to very different behaviors. Special emphasis was given to the analysis of the differences and similarities in the microstructure and in the deformation and failure mechanisms between the composite and the unreinforced alloy. It was found that the dispersion of the SiC particles restrained the formation of elongated grains during extrusion and inhibited the precipitation of Al3Li at ambient temperature. The deformation processes in the peak-aged materials were controlled by the S' precipitates, which acted as barriers for dislocation motion and homogenized the slip. Homogeneous slip was also observed in the naturally aged composite, but not in the unreinforced alloy, where plastic deformation was concentrated in slip bands. The most notorious differences between the alloy and the composite were found in the fracture mechanisms. The naturally aged unreinforced alloy failed by transgranular shear, while the failure of the peak-aged alloy was induced by grain-boundary fracture. The fracture of the composite in both tempers was, however, precipitated by the progressive fracture of the SiC reinforcements during deformation, which led to the early failure at the onset of plastic instability.

  4. Temperature-dependent mechanical deformation of silicon at the nanoscale: Phase transformation versus defect propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran, M. S. R. N. Tran, T. T.; Smillie, L. A.; Subianto, D.; Williams, J. S.; Bradby, J. E.; Haberl, B.

    2015-05-28

    This study uses high-temperature nanoindentation coupled with in situ electrical measurements to investigate the temperature dependence (25–200 °C) of the phase transformation behavior of diamond cubic (dc) silicon at the nanoscale. Along with in situ indentation and electrical data, ex situ characterizations, such as Raman and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, have been used to reveal the indentation-induced deformation mechanisms. We find that phase transformation and defect propagation within the crystal lattice are not mutually exclusive deformation processes at elevated temperature. Both can occur at temperatures up to 150 °C but to different extents, depending on the temperature and loading conditions. For nanoindentation, we observe that phase transformation is dominant below 100 °C but that deformation by twinning along (111) planes dominates at 150 °C and 200 °C. This work, therefore, provides clear insight into the temperature dependent deformation mechanisms in dc-Si at the nanoscale and helps to clarify previous inconsistencies in the literature.

  5. Perturbatively deformed defects in Pöschl-Teller-driven scenarios for quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, Alex E.; da Rocha, Roldão

    2016-07-01

    Pöschl-Teller-driven solutions for quantum mechanical fluctuations are triggered off by single scalar field theories obtained through a systematic perturbative procedure for generating deformed defects. The analytical properties concerning the quantum fluctuations in one-dimension, zero-mode states, first- and second-excited states, and energy density profiles are all obtained from deformed topological and non-topological structures supported by real scalar fields. Results are firstly derived from an integrated λϕ4 theory, with corresponding generalizations applied to starting λχ4 and sine-Gordon theories. By focusing our calculations on structures supported by the λϕ4 theory, the outcome of our study suggests an exact quantitative correspondence to Pöschl-Teller-driven systems. Embedded into the perturbative quantum mechanics framework, such a correspondence turns into a helpful tool for computing excited states and continuous mode solutions, as well as their associated energy spectrum, for quantum fluctuations of perturbatively deformed structures. Perturbative deformations create distinct physical scenarios in the context of exactly solvable quantum systems and may also work as an analytical support for describing novel braneworld universes embedded into a 5-dimensional gravity bulk.

  6. Deformation of clinopyroxenite: evidence for a transition in flow mechanisms and semibrittle behavior.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, S.H.; Kronenberg, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    A systematic suite of constant strain rate experiments was performed on a vacuum-dried, high-purity, fine-grained clinopyroxenite using NaCl and NaF as confining media in a Griggs-type piston-cylinder apparatus. The experiments were carried out over a range of temperatures from 400o to 1100oC, strain rates from 10-3 to 10-7 s-1, and confining pressures from 170 to 1990 MPa. At T = 600oC and 8e = 1.1 X 10-5 s-1, 3 modes of deformation occur with increasing confining pressure. In experiments at P = 1500 MPa, 2 regimes of flow are clearly defined. The flow data within each regime can be satisfactorily fitted to thermally activated power laws. We believe that the parameters reflect flow dominated by the kinetics of dislocation glide associated with mechanical twinning and (100) slip in the low temperature regime and creep by multiple slip accompanied by increased rates of diffusion and recovery in the high temperature regime. -after Authors

  7. Humidity and multiscale structure govern mechanical properties and deformation modes in films of native cellulose nanofibrils.

    PubMed

    Benítez, Alejandro J; Torres-Rendon, Jose; Poutanen, Mikko; Walther, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Nanopapers formed by stiff and strong native cellulose nanofibrils are emerging as mechanically robust and sustainable materials to replace high-performance plastics or as flexible, transparent and "green" substrates for organic electronics. The mechanical properties endowed by nanofibrils crucially depend on mastering structure formation processes and on understanding interfibrillar interactions as well as deformation mechanisms in bulk. Herein, we show how different dispersion states of cellulose nanofibrils, that is, unlike tendencies to interfibrillar aggregation, and different relative humidities influence the mechanical properties of nanopapers. The materials undergo a humidity-induced transition from a predominantly linear elastic behavior in dry state to films displaying plastic deformation due to disengagement of the hydrogen-bonded network and lower nanofibrillar friction at high humidity. A concurrent loss of stiffness and tensile strength of 1 order of magnitude is observed, while maximum elongation stays near constant. Scanning electron microscopy imaging in plastic failure demonstrates pull-out of individual nanofibrils and bundles of nanofibrils, as well as larger mesoscopic layers, stemming from structures organized on different length scales. Moreover, multiple yielding phenomena and substantially increased elongation in strongly disengaged networks, swollen in water, show that strain at break in such nanofibril-based materials is coupled to relaxation of structural entities, such as cooperative entanglements and aggregates, which depend on the pathway of material preparation. The results demonstrate the importance of controlling the state of dispersion and aggregation of nanofibrils by mediating their interactions, and highlight the complexity associated with understanding hierarchically structured nanofibrillar networks under deformation.

  8. Effects of Fault Segmentation, Mechanical Interaction, and Structural Complexity on Earthquake-Generated Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, David Elias

    Earth's topographic surface forms an interface across which the geodynamic and geomorphic engines interact. This interaction is best observed along crustal margins where topography is created by active faulting and sculpted by geomorphic processes. Crustal deformation manifests as earthquakes at centennial to millennial timescales. Given that nearly half of Earth's human population lives along active fault zones, a quantitative understanding of the mechanics of earthquakes and faulting is necessary to build accurate earthquake forecasts. My research relies on the quantitative documentation of the geomorphic expression of large earthquakes and the physical processes that control their spatiotemporal distributions. The first part of my research uses high-resolution topographic lidar data to quantitatively document the geomorphic expression of historic and prehistoric large earthquakes. Lidar data allow for enhanced visualization and reconstruction of structures and stratigraphy exposed by paleoseismic trenches. Lidar surveys of fault scarps formed by the 1992 Landers earthquake document the centimeter-scale erosional landforms developed by repeated winter storm-driven erosion. The second part of my research employs a quasi-static numerical earthquake simulator to explore the effects of fault roughness, friction, and structural complexities on earthquake-generated deformation. My experiments show that fault roughness plays a critical role in determining fault-to-fault rupture jumping probabilities. These results corroborate the accepted 3-5 km rupture jumping distance for smooth faults. However, my simulations show that the rupture jumping threshold distance is highly variable for rough faults due to heterogeneous elastic strain energies. Furthermore, fault roughness controls spatiotemporal variations in slip rates such that rough faults exhibit lower slip rates relative to their smooth counterparts. The central implication of these results lies in guiding the

  9. Characterization of dislocation structures and deformation mechanisms in as-grown and deformed directionally solidified NiAl–Mo composites

    DOE PAGES

    Kwon, J.; Bowers, M. L.; Brandes, M. C.; McCreary, V.; Robertson, Ian M.; Phani, P. Sudaharshan; Bei, H.; Gao, Y. F.; Pharr, George M.; George, Easo P.; et al

    2015-02-26

    In this paper, directionally solidified (DS) NiAl–Mo eutectic composites were strained to plastic strain values ranging from 0% to 12% to investigate the origin of the previously observed stochastic versus deterministic mechanical behaviors of Mo-alloy micropillars in terms of the development of dislocation structures at different pre-strain levels. The DS composites consist of long, [1 0 0] single-crystal Mo-alloy fibers with approximately square cross-sections embedded in a [1 0 0] single-crystal NiAl matrix. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and computational stress state analysis were conducted for the current study. STEM of the as-grown samples (without pre-straining) reveal no dislocations inmore » the investigated Mo-alloy fibers. In the NiAl matrix, on the other hand, a(1 0 0)-type dislocations exist in two orthogonal orientations: along the [1 0 0] Mo fiber axis, and wrapped around the fiber axis. They presumably form to accommodate the different thermal contractions of the two phases during cool down after eutectic solidification. At intermediate pre-strain levels (4–8%), a/2(1 1 1)-type dislocations are present in the Mo-alloy fibers and the pre-existing dislocations in the NiAl matrix seem to be swept toward the interphase boundary. Some of the dislocations in the Mo-alloy fibers appear to be transformed from a(1 0 0)-type dislocations present in the NiAl matrix. Subsequently, the transformed dislocations in the fibers propagate through the NiAl matrix as a(1 1 1) dislocations and aid in initiating additional slip bands in adjacent fibers. Thereafter, co-deformation presumably occurs by (1 1 1) slip in both phases. With a further increase in the pre-strain level (>10%), multiple a/2(1 1 1)-type dislocations are observed in many locations in the Mo-alloy fibers. Interactions between these systems upon subsequent deformation could lead to stable junctions and persistent dislocation sources. Finally, the transition from stochastic to

  10. Characterization of dislocation structures and deformation mechanisms in as-grown and deformed directionally solidified NiAl–Mo composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, J.; Bowers, M. L.; Brandes, M. C.; McCreary, V.; Robertson, Ian M.; Phani, P. Sudaharshan; Bei, H.; Gao, Y. F.; Pharr, George M.; George, Easo P.; Mills, M. J.

    2015-02-26

    In this paper, directionally solidified (DS) NiAl–Mo eutectic composites were strained to plastic strain values ranging from 0% to 12% to investigate the origin of the previously observed stochastic versus deterministic mechanical behaviors of Mo-alloy micropillars in terms of the development of dislocation structures at different pre-strain levels. The DS composites consist of long, [1 0 0] single-crystal Mo-alloy fibers with approximately square cross-sections embedded in a [1 0 0] single-crystal NiAl matrix. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and computational stress state analysis were conducted for the current study. STEM of the as-grown samples (without pre-straining) reveal no dislocations in the investigated Mo-alloy fibers. In the NiAl matrix, on the other hand, a(1 0 0)-type dislocations exist in two orthogonal orientations: along the [1 0 0] Mo fiber axis, and wrapped around the fiber axis. They presumably form to accommodate the different thermal contractions of the two phases during cool down after eutectic solidification. At intermediate pre-strain levels (4–8%), a/2(1 1 1)-type dislocations are present in the Mo-alloy fibers and the pre-existing dislocations in the NiAl matrix seem to be swept toward the interphase boundary. Some of the dislocations in the Mo-alloy fibers appear to be transformed from a(1 0 0)-type dislocations present in the NiAl matrix. Subsequently, the transformed dislocations in the fibers propagate through the NiAl matrix as a(1 1 1) dislocations and aid in initiating additional slip bands in adjacent fibers. Thereafter, co-deformation presumably occurs by (1 1 1) slip in both phases. With a further increase in the pre-strain level (>10%), multiple a/2(1 1 1)-type dislocations are observed in many locations in the Mo-alloy fibers. Interactions between these systems upon subsequent deformation could lead to stable junctions and persistent dislocation sources. Finally, the transition from stochastic to

  11. Modeling crustal deformation near active faults and volcanic centers: a catalog of deformation models and modeling approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglia, Maurizio; ,; Peter, F.; Murray, Jessica R.

    2013-01-01

    This manual provides the physical and mathematical concepts for selected models used to interpret deformation measurements near active faults and volcanic centers. The emphasis is on analytical models of deformation that can be compared with data from the Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), leveling surveys, tiltmeters and strainmeters. Source models include pressurized spherical, ellipsoidal, and horizontal penny-shaped geometries in an elastic, homogeneous, flat half-space. Vertical dikes and faults are described following the mathematical notation for rectangular dislocations in an elastic, homogeneous, flat half-space. All the analytical expressions were verified against numerical models developed by use of COMSOL Multyphics, a Finite Element Analysis software (http://www.comsol.com). In this way, typographical errors present were identified and corrected. Matlab scripts are also provided to facilitate the application of these models.

  12. Structural evolution of fault zones in sandstone by multiple deformation mechanisms: Moab fault, southeast Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davatzes, N.C.; Eichhubl, P.; Aydin, A.

    2005-01-01

    Faults in sandstone are frequently composed of two classes of structures: (1) deformation bands and (2) joints and sheared joints. Whereas the former structures are associated with cataclastic deformation, the latter ones represent brittle fracturing, fragmentation, and brecciation. We investigated the distribution of these structures, their formation, and the underlying mechanical controls for their occurrence along the Moab normal fault in southeastern Utah through the use of structural mapping and numerical elastic boundary element modeling. We found that deformation bands occur everywhere along the fault, but with increased density in contractional relays. Joints and sheared joints only occur at intersections and extensional relays. In all locations , joints consistently overprint deformation bands. Localization of joints and sheared joints in extensional relays suggests that their distribution is controlled by local variations in stress state that are due to mechanical interaction between the fault segments. This interpretation is consistent with elastic boundary element models that predict a local reduction in mean stress and least compressive principal stress at intersections and extensional relays. The transition from deformation band to joint formation along these sections of the fault system likely resulted from the combined effects of changes in remote tectonic loading, burial depth, fluid pressure, and rock properties. In the case of the Moab fault, we conclude that the structural heterogeneity in the fault zone is systematically related to the geometric evolution of the fault, the local state of stress associated with fault slip , and the remote loading history. Because the type and distribution of structures affect fault permeability and strength, our results predict systematic variations in these parameters with fault evolution. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  13. In Situ Mechanical Testing Techniques for Real-Time Materials Deformation Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolf, Chris; Boesl, Benjamin; Agarwal, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    In situ mechanical property testing has the ability to enhance quantitative characterization of materials by revealing the occurring deformation behavior in real time. This article will summarize select recent testing performed inside a scanning electron microscope on various materials including metals, ceramics, composites, coatings, and 3-Dimensional graphene foam. Tensile and indentation testing methods are outlined with case studies and preliminary data. The benefits of performing a novel double-torsion testing technique in situ are also proposed.

  14. Quantifying and observing viscoplasticity at the nanoscale: highly localized deformation mechanisms in ultrathin nanocrystalline gold films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinian, Ehsan; Legros, Marc; Pierron, Olivier N.

    2016-04-01

    This study unveils the stress relaxation transient deformation mechanisms in 100 nm-thick, nanocrystalline Au films thanks to a robust quantitative in situ TEM MEMS nanomechanical testing approach to quantify stress relaxation and to perform in situ observations of time-dependent deformation in ultrathin nanocrystalline films. The relaxation is characterized by a decrease in plastic strain rate of more than one order of magnitude over the first ~30 minutes (from 10-4 to less than 10-5 s-1). For longer relaxation experiments, the plastic strain rate decreases down to 10-7 s-1 after several hours. The power-law exponent n, relating plastic strain rate and stress, continuously decreases from initial large values (n from 6 to 14 at t = 0) down to low values (n ~ 1-2) after several hours. In situ TEM observations reveal that the relaxation behavior is initially accommodated by highly localized, sustained, intergranular and transgranular dislocation motion. Over time, the dislocation sources become less operative or exhausted, leading to a transition to grain-boundary-diffusion based mechanisms. The results also highlight a promising technique for nanoscale characterization of time-dependent deformation.This study unveils the stress relaxation transient deformation mechanisms in 100 nm-thick, nanocrystalline Au films thanks to a robust quantitative in situ TEM MEMS nanomechanical testing approach to quantify stress relaxation and to perform in situ observations of time-dependent deformation in ultrathin nanocrystalline films. The relaxation is characterized by a decrease in plastic strain rate of more than one order of magnitude over the first ~30 minutes (from 10-4 to less than 10-5 s-1). For longer relaxation experiments, the plastic strain rate decreases down to 10-7 s-1 after several hours. The power-law exponent n, relating plastic strain rate and stress, continuously decreases from initial large values (n from 6 to 14 at t = 0) down to low values (n ~ 1-2) after

  15. Estimating Active Layer Thickness from Remotely Sensed Surface Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Schaefer, K. M.; Zhang, T.; Wahr, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    We estimate active layer thickness (ALT) from remotely sensed surface subsidence during thawing seasons derived from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) measurements. Ground ice takes up more volume than ground water, so as the soil thaws in summer and the active layer deepens, the ground subsides. The volume of melted ground water during the summer thaw determines seasonal subsidence. ALT is defined as the maximum thaw depth at the end of a thawing season. By using InSAR to measure surface subsidence between the start and end of summer season, one can estimate the depth of thaw over a large area (typically 100 km by 100 km). We developed an ALT retrieval algorithm integrating InSAR-derived surface subsidence, observed soil texture, organic matter content, and moisture content. We validated this algorithm in the continuous permafrost area on the North Slope of Alaska. Based on InSAR measurements using ERS-1/2 SAR data, our estimated values match in situ measurements of ALT within 1--10 cm at Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) sites within the study area. The active layer plays a key role in land surface processes in cold regions. Current measurements of ALT using mechanical probing, frost/thaw tubes, or inferred from temperature measurements are of high quality, but limited in spatial coverage. Using InSAR to estimate ALT greatly expands the spatial coverage of ALT observations.

  16. Investigation of the Deformation Activation Volume of an Ultrafinegrained Ti50Ni50 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunderov, D. V.; Churakova, A. A.; Lukianov, A. V.; Prokofiev, E. A.; Prokoshkin, S. D.; Kreizberg, A. Yu.; Raab, G. I.; Sabirov, I. N.

    2015-10-01

    The mechanical properties, strain rate sensitivity (m) and deformation activation volume (ΔV) are investigated at the experimental temperatures from 20 to 400°C in a Ti50Ni50 alloy in a coarse-grained (CG) state with the austenite grain size D = 200 μm and in an ultrafine-grained (UFG) state with D = 700 μm following an ECAP treatment. It is observed that this treatment improves the yield strength of the alloy compared to its CG-state. The strain rate sensitivity, m, is found to be by a factor of 1.5-2 higher than that of CG-specimens; it increases with the temperature in both states of the material. As the temperature of the material in tension increases up to Т = 150-250°C, parameter ΔV increases to its maximum and with a further growth of the experimental temperature to 400°C, parameter ΔV decreases. The deformation activation volume of the alloy in the UFG-state is by a factor of 2-4 larger than that in the CG-state for the same experimental temperatures.

  17. The role of dislocations in varied olivine deformation mechanisms investigated using high-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, David; Hansen, Lars; Britton, Ben; Wilkinson, Angus

    2016-04-01

    Experimentally-derived flow laws can be used to predict the rheology of rocks deformed under natural conditions only if the same microphysical processes can be demonstrated to control the rate-limiting deformation mechanism in both cases. Olivine rheology may exert a principle control on the strength of the lithosphere, and therefore considerable research effort has been applied to assessing its rheology through experimental, geological, and geophysical approaches. Nonetheless, considerable uncertainty remains regarding the dominant deformation mechanisms in the upper mantle. This uncertainty arises in large part due to our limited understanding of the fundamental deformation processes associated with each mechanism. Future improvements to microphysical models of distinct deformation mechanisms require new insight into the contributions those fundamental processes to the macroscopic behaviour. The dynamics of dislocations is central to modelling viscous deformation of olivine, but characterisation techniques capable of constraining dislocation types, densities, and distributions over the critical grain to polycrystal length-scales have been lacking. High angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction (HR-EBSD), developed and increasingly applied in the material sciences, offers an approach capable of such analyses. HR-EBSD utilises diffraction pattern image cross-correlation to achieve dramatically improved angular resolution (~0.01°) of lattice orientation gradients compared to conventional Hough-based EBSD (~0.5°). This angular resolution allows very low densities (≥ 10^11 m^-2) of geometrically necessary dislocations (GND) to be resolved, facilitating analysis of a wide range of dislocation microstructures. We have developed the application of HR-EBSD to olivine and applied it to samples deformed both experimentally and naturally in grain-size sensitive and grain-size insensitive regimes. The results quantitatively highlight variations in the types and

  18. The effect of hydrogenation on strain hardening and deformation mechanisms in <113> single crystals of Hadfield steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafurova, Elena; Maier, Galina; Melnikov, Eugene; Koshovkina, Vera; Moskvina, Valentina; Smirnov, Alexander; Bataev, Vladimir

    2015-10-01

    The effect of hydrogenation on the strain-hardening behavior and the deformation mechanisms of <113>-oriented single crystals of Hadfield steel was investigated under tension at room temperature. The stages of plastic flow and deformation mechanisms for hydrogen-charged specimens are similar to one in hydrogen-free state: slip → slip + single twinning → slip + multiple twinning. Hydrogen alloying favors to mechanical twinning, micro- and macrolocalization of plastic flow.

  19. Active Auditory Mechanics in Insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, D.; Göpfert, M. C.

    2003-02-01

    Evidence is presented that hearing in some insects is an active process. Audition in mosquitoes is used for mate-detection and is supported by antennal receivers, whose sound-induced vibrations are transduced by Johnston's organs. Each of these sensory organs contains ca. 15,000 sensory neurons. As shown by mechanical analysis, a physiologically vulnerable mechanism is at work that nonlinearly enhances the sensitivity and frequency selectivity of antennal hearing. This process of amplification correlates with the electrical activity of the auditory mechanoreceptor units in Johnston's organ.

  20. Atomistic tensile deformation mechanisms of Fe with gradient nano-grained structure

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wenbin E-mail: xlwu@imech.ac.cn; Yuan, Fuping Wu, Xiaolei E-mail: xlwu@imech.ac.cn

    2015-08-15

    Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to investigate the tensile properties and the related atomistic deformation mechanisms of the gradient nano-grained (GNG) structure of bcc Fe (gradient grains with d from 25 nm to 105 nm), and comparisons were made with the uniform nano-grained (NG) structure of bcc Fe (grains with d = 25 nm). The grain size gradient in the nano-scale converts the applied uniaxial stress to multi-axial stresses and promotes the dislocation behaviors in the GNG structure, which results in extra hardening and flow strength. Thus, the GNG structure shows slightly higher flow stress at the early plastic deformation stage when compared to the uniform NG structure (even with smaller grain size). In the GNG structure, the dominant deformation mechanisms are closely related to the grain sizes. For grains with d = 25 nm, the deformation mechanisms are dominated by GB migration, grain rotation and grain coalescence although a few dislocations are observed. For grains with d = 54 nm, dislocation nucleation, propagation and formation of dislocation wall near GBs are observed. Moreover, formation of dislocation wall and dislocation pile-up near GBs are observed for grains with d = 105 nm, which is the first observation by MD simulations to our best knowledge. The strain compatibility among different layers with various grain sizes in the GNG structure should promote the dislocation behaviors and the flow stress of the whole structure, and the present results should provide insights to design the microstructures for developing strong-and-ductile metals.

  1. The effect of aluminum alloying on strength properties and deformation mechanisms of the <123> Hadfield steel single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafurova, E. G.; Tukeev, M. S.; Chumlyakov, Yu. I.

    2007-10-01

    The role of aluminum alloying on strength properties and deformation mechanisms (slip, twinning) of <123> single crystals of Hadfield steel under tensile loading at T = 300 K is demonstrated. It is found out that aluminum alloying suppresses twinning deformation in the <123> single crystals and, during slip, results in a dislocation structure change from a uniform dislocation distribution to a planar dislocation structure.

  2. Chromium vaporization from mechanically deformed pre-coated interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk-Windisch, Hannes; Sattari, Mohammad; Svensson, Jan-Erik; Froitzheim, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Cathode poisoning, associated with Cr evaporation from interconnect material, is one of the most important degradation mechanisms in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells when Cr2O3-forming steels are used as the interconnect material. Coating these steels with a thin Co layer has proven to decrease Cr vaporization. To reduce production costs, it is suggested that thin metallic PVD coatings be applied to each steel strip before pressing the material into interconnect shape. This process would enable high volume production without the need for an extra post-coating step. However, when the pre-coated material is mechanically deformed, cracks may form and lower the quality of the coating. In the present study, Chromium volatilization is measured in an air-3% H2O environment at 850 °C for 336 h. Three materials coated with 600 nm Co are investigated and compared to an uncoated material. The effect of deformation is investigated on real interconnects. Microscopy observations reveal the presence of cracks in the order of several μm on the deformed pre-coated steel. However, upon exposure, the cracks can heal and form a continuous surface oxide rich in Co and Mn. As an effect of the rapid healing, no increase in Cr vaporization is measured for the pre-coated material.

  3. Image-based mechanical analysis of stent deformation: concept and exemplary implementation for aortic valve stents.

    PubMed

    Gessat, Michael; Hopf, Raoul; Pollok, Thomas; Russ, Christoph; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Sündermann, Simon Harald; Hirsch, Sven; Mazza, Edoardo; Székely, Gábor; Falk, Volkmar

    2014-01-01

    An approach for extracting the radial force load on an implanted stent from medical images is proposed. To exemplify the approach, a system is presented which computes a radial force estimation from computer tomography images acquired from patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The deformed shape of the implanted valve prosthesis' Nitinol frame is extracted from the images. A set of displacement vectors is computed that parameterizes the observed deformation. An iterative relaxation algorithm is employed to adapt the information extracted from the images to a finite-element model of the stent, and the radial components of the interaction forces between the stent and the tissue are extracted. For the evaluation of the method, tests were run using the clinical data from 21 patients. Stent modeling and extraction of the radial forces were successful in 18 cases. Synthetic test cases were generated, in addition, for assessing the sensitivity to the measurement errors. In a sensitivity analysis, the geometric error of the stent reconstruction was below 0.3 mm, which is below the image resolution. The distribution of the radial forces was qualitatively and quantitatively reasonable. An uncertainty remains in the quantitative evaluation of the radial forces due to the uncertainty in defining a radial direction on the deformed stent. With our approach, the mechanical situation of TAVI stents after the implantation can be studied in vivo, which may help to understand the mechanisms that lead to the complications and improve stent design. PMID:24626769

  4. Material heterogeneity in cancellous bone promotes deformation recovery after mechanical failure

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Ashley M.; Matheny, Jonathan B.; Keaveny, Tony M.; Taylor, David; Rimnac, Clare M.; Hernandez, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Many natural structures use a foam core and solid outer shell to achieve high strength and stiffness with relatively small amounts of mass. Biological foams, however, must also resist crack growth. The process of crack propagation within the struts of a foam is not well understood and is complicated by the foam microstructure. We demonstrate that in cancellous bone, the foam-like component of whole bones, damage propagation during cyclic loading is dictated not by local tissue stresses but by heterogeneity of material properties associated with increased ductility of strut surfaces. The increase in surface ductility is unexpected because it is the opposite pattern generated by surface treatments to increase fatigue life in man-made materials, which often result in reduced surface ductility. We show that the more ductile surfaces of cancellous bone are a result of reduced accumulation of advanced glycation end products compared with the strut interior. Damage is therefore likely to accumulate in strut centers making cancellous bone more tolerant of stress concentrations at strut surfaces. Hence, the structure is able to recover more deformation after failure and return to a closer approximation of its original shape. Increased recovery of deformation is a passive mechanism seen in biology for setting a broken bone that allows for a better approximation of initial shape during healing processes and is likely the most important mechanical function. Our findings suggest a previously unidentified biomimetic design strategy in which tissue level material heterogeneity in foams can be used to improve deformation recovery after failure. PMID:26929343

  5. Active deformation in Western Turkey: new GPS observations and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocquet, J.; Aktug, B.; Parsons, B.; Cingoz, A.; England, P.; Erkan, Y.; Soyer, N.; Akdeniz, H.; Kilicoglu, A.

    2007-12-01

    How the continents deform remains a matter of debate. One view postulates that continental deforming zones are comprised of a limited numbers of rigid (elastic) microplates. If true, the surface motion can then be described by the relative rotation of blocks, and strain should be localized along the major faults separating the blocks. An alternative view is that the deformation at depth is distributed over wide areas, can be modelled by a viscous flow responding to boundary conditions applied on it and gravitational potential energy gradients related to variations in topography, and the surface strain simply reflects this deformation. Western Turkey is a region of crustal extension, part of the Nubia/Eurasia plate boundary. Its kinematics is often modelled by the relative motion of a small number of rigid blocks (Nyst & Thatcher, 2005, Reilinger et al., 2006). However, until now, the limited number of GPS velocity vectors available has prevented a detailed examination of which is the more appropriate description. We present a new geodetic velocity field including ~100 sites from the longitude the Central Anatolian plateau to the Aegean coast, derived from a combination of campaigns carried out between 1997 and 2006, and continuous GPS operating since 2003, which we use to test the different models. While the kinematics of the area can be correctly modelled by a block model, a good fit to the velocity field requires blocks with sizes smaller than 100 km and still fails to adequately predict the strain rate observed within blocks . Alternatively, we test an approach where the lithosphere is modelled as a thin viscous sheet, responding to the gravitational potentiel energy contrast between the high plateau of eastern Turkey to the east and the subduction along the Hellenic trench in the southwest. The simplistic model has only one free parameter (the force applied by the subducting oceanic lithosphere on the Aegean ), but provides a good agreement with the observed

  6. Active and long-lived permanent forearc deformation driven by the subduction seismic cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aron Melo, Felipe Alejandro

    I have used geological, geophysical and engineering methods to explore mechanisms of upper plate, brittle deformation at active forearc regions. My dissertation particularly addresses the permanent deformation style experienced by the forearc following great subduction ruptures, such as the 2010 M w8.8 Maule, Chile and 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquakes. These events triggered large, shallow seismicity on upper plate normal faults above the rupture reaching Mw7.0. First I present new structural data from the Chilean Coastal Cordillera over the rupture zone of the Maule earthquake. The study area contains the Pichilemu normal fault, which produced the large crustal aftershocks of the megathrust event. Normal faults are the major neotectonic structural elements but reverse faults also exist. Crustal seismicity and GPS surface displacements show that the forearc experiences pulses of rapid coseismic extension, parallel to the heave of the megathrust, and slow interseismic, convergence-parallel shortening. These cycles, over geologic time, build the forearc structural grain, reactivating structures properly-oriented respect to the deformation field of each stage of the interplate cycle. Great subduction events may play a fundamental role in constructing the crustal architecture of extensional forearc regions. Static mechanical models of coseismic and interseismic upper plate deformation are used to explore for distinct features that could result from brittle fracturing over the two stages of the interplate cycle. I show that the semi-elliptical outline of the first-order normal faults along the Coastal Cordillera may define the location of a characteristic, long-lived megathrust segment. Finally, using data from the Global CMT catalog I analyzed the seismic behavior through time of forearc regions that have experienced great subduction ruptures >Mw7.7 worldwide. Between 61% and 83% of the cases where upper plate earthquakes exhibited periods of increased seismicity

  7. Non-planar grain boundary structures in fcc metals and their role in nano-scale deformation mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Laura; Farkas, Diana

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the results of a comparative molecular dynamics study showing that relaxed random grain boundary structures can be significantly non-planar at the nano-scale in fcc metals characterized by low stacking fault values. We studied the relaxed structures of random [1 1 0] tilt boundaries in a polycrystal using interatomic potentials describing Cu and Pd. Grain boundaries presenting non-planar features were observed predominantly for the Cu potential but not for the Pd potential, and we relate these differences to the stacking fault values. We also show that these non-planar structures can have a strong influence on dislocation emission from the grain boundaries as well as on grain boundary strain accommodation processes, such as grain boundary sliding. We studied the loading response in polycrystals of 40 nm grain size to a level of 9% strain and found that the non-planar grain boundaries favour dislocation emission as a deformation mechanism and hinder grain boundary sliding. This has strong implications for the mechanical behaviour of nano-crystalline materials, which is determined by the competition between dislocation activity and grain boundary accommodation of the strain. Thus, the two interatomic potentials for Cu and Pd considered in this work resulted in the same overall stress-strain curve, but significantly different fractions of the strain accommodated by the intergranular versus intragranular deformation mechanisms. Strain localization patterns are also influenced by the non-planarity of the grain boundary structures.

  8. Deformation mechanisms of olivine single crystals compressed at 300 MPa and 800-1100°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordier, Patrick; Demouchy, Sylvie; Mussi, Alexandre; Tommasi, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Rheology of mantle rocks at lithospheric temperatures remains poorly constrained, since most experimental studies on creep mechanisms of olivine single crystals ((MgFe)2SiO4, Pbnm) and polycrystalline olivine aggregates were performed at high-temperatures (T >> 1200oC). In this study, we have performed deformation experiments on oriented single crystals of San Carlos olivine and polycrystalline olivine aggregate at temperatures relevant of the uppermost mantle (ranging from 800o to 1090oC) in tri-axial compression. The experiments were carried out at a confining pressure of 300 MPa in a high-resolution gas-medium mechanical testing apparatus at various constant strain rates (from 7 × 10-6 s-1 to 1 × 10-4 s-1). Mechanical tests yield differential stresses ranging from 88 to 1076 MPa. All samples were deformed at constant displacement rate and for finite strains ranging from 4 to 23 %, to provide insight into possible effects of hardening, softening or stick-and-slip. The single crystals were compressed along several crystallographic directions to test the possibility of activating different slip systems (e.g. [100](001), [001](100), [001](010) and [100](010)). We will present the characterization of the dislocation microstructures performed in the TEM.

  9. Deformation and softening mechanism in naturally deformed rocks at the brittle-ductile transition zone in upper crust: pervasive micro-faulting accommodated by pressure solution of quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshita, T.; El-Fakharani, A.

    2011-12-01

    Although the conventional two-mechanism strength profile of upper crustal rheology has been applied for a long time to geodynamical problems, the high differential stresses as much as a few hundreds of MPa have never been reported from geophysical observations such as those inferred from heat flow along active faults and stress drop during earthquakes. These facts suggest that there must be some softening mechanisms around the brittle-ductile transition zone in upper crust, where inland earthquakes most frequently occur. In order to unravel softening mechanisms in these regions, we have been examining natural microstructures in exhumed metamorphic rocks, which experienced pervasive deformation at brittle-ductile conditions (T=c. 300 oC). The Sambagawa metamorphic rocks experienced localized deformation under brittle-ductile transition conditions at D2 phase during exhumation. At outcrop scales, low-angle normal faults were pervasively developed with a dominant top-to-the-NNW movement recorded in quartz slickenfibre. In quartz schist deformed at D2 phase, shear bands coated by phengite were pervasively developed. We have extensively studied quartz c-axis fabrics and microstructures in the micro-faulted quartz schist. In quartz lenses surrounded by D2 shear bands, quartz microstructures and c-axis fabrics formed at D1 phase indicative of dislocation creep were well preserved. However, in the matrix (i.e. domains outside the lenses), quartz c-axis fabrics became weakened, and in some cases, became completely random. We have analyzed the degree of undulation of recrystallized quartz grain boundaries using the index called normalized perimeter of grains to that of the equivalent ellipse obtained with the NIH image, and compared the degree among different quartz schist samples and domains in the same sample. As a result, it has been found out that there is a nice positive correlation between the degree of grain boundary undulation and c-axis fabric intensity in quartz

  10. Intraplate deformation, stress in the lithosphere and the driving mechanism for plate motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, Bradford H.

    1988-01-01

    During this period work was carried out on three fronts relevant to the understanding of intraplate deformation, stress in the lithosphere, and the driving mechanisms for plate motions: (1) observational constraints, using GPS geodesy on the deformation in the region of the boundry between the Pacific and North American plates in central and southern California; (2) numerical modeling of the effects of temperature dependent lithospheric viscosity on the stress and strain history of extensional regimes; and (3) improvement of estimates of mantle viscosity variation, the long-wave-length density variations in the mantle, and the topography of the core-mantel boundary from modeling of geoid anomalies, nutation, and changes in length of day. These projects are described in more detail, followed by a discussion of meetings attended and a list of abstracts and papers submitted and/or published.

  11. Study of the mechanisms of current-induced suppression of serrated deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibkov, A. A.; Zolotov, A. E.; Zheltov, M. A.; Denisov, A. A.; Gasanov, M. F.

    2015-11-01

    The main results of studying the influence of electric current on the Portevin‒Le Chatelier serrated deformation in some commercial aluminum alloys of the Al‒Mg, Al‒Li-Mg, Al‒Zn‒Mg‒Cu, and Al‒Cu systems are reported. It is found that the passage of a low-density (~10-60 A/mm2) dc current leads to the suppression of serrated deformation and band formation in all alloys under study, except for the Al‒Cu alloy. Possible mechanisms of this phenomenon are discussed, basically in terms of possible influence of current on the processes of precipitation and dynamic strain aging, which are used to explain the Portevin‒Le Chatelier effect.

  12. Deformation mechanisms and grain size evolution in the Bohemian granulites - a computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maierova, Petra; Lexa, Ondrej; Jeřábek, Petr; Franěk, Jan; Schulmann, Karel

    2015-04-01

    A dominant deformation mechanism in crustal rocks (e.g., dislocation and diffusion creep, grain boundary sliding, solution-precipitation) depends on many parameters such as temperature, major minerals, differential stress, strain rate and grain size. An exemplary sequence of deformation mechanisms was identified in the largest felsic granulite massifs in the southern Moldanubian domain (Bohemian Massif, central European Variscides). These massifs were interpreted to result from collision-related forced diapiric ascent of lower crust and its subsequent lateral spreading at mid-crustal levels. Three types of microstructures were distinguished. The oldest relict microstructure (S1) with large grains (>1000 μm) of feldspar deformed probably by dislocation creep at peak HT eclogite facies conditions. Subsequently at HP granulite-facies conditions, chemically- and deformation- induced recrystallization of feldspar porphyroclasts led to development of a fine-grained microstructure (S2, ~50 μm grain size) indicating deformation via diffusion creep, probably assisted by melt-enhanced grain-boundary sliding. This microstructure was associated with flow in the lower crust and/or its diapiric ascent. The latest microstructure (S3, ~100 μm grain size) is related to the final lateral spreading of retrograde granulites, and shows deformation by dislocation creep at amphibolite-facies conditions. The S2-S3 switch and coarsening was interpreted to be related with a significant decrease in strain rate. From this microstructural sequence it appears that it is the grain size that is critically linked with specific mechanical behavior of these rocks. Thus in this study, we focused on the interplay between grain size and deformation with the aim to numerically simulate and reinterpret the observed microstructural sequence. We tested several different mathematical descriptions of the grain size evolution, each of which gave qualitatively different results. We selected the two most

  13. Creep mechanisms and interface-enhanced deformation twinning in a two-phase lamellar TiAl alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, L.M., LLNL

    1997-03-01

    Deformation mechanisms and the role of interfaces in deformation twinning of a two-phase [TiAl({gamma})/Ti{sub 3}Al({alpha}{sub 2})] lamellar alloy creep deformed at elevated temperatures have been investigated. Since the multiplication of lattice dislocations within both {gamma} and {alpha}{sub 2} lamellae is very limited at a low stress level due to a refined lamellar microstructure, the glide of interfacial dislocations on both {gamma}/{alpha}{sub 2} and {gamma}/{gamma} interfaces (i.e interface sliding) becomes an important deformation mode. Obstacles such as impinged lattice dislocations can impede the movement of interfacial dislocations, which glide in a cooperative fashion along the lamellar interfaces. The impediment of dislocation motion subsequently causes a dislocation pile-up in front of obstacles as creep strain accumulates. When the crystals deform at high stress level, deformation twinning becomes a predominant deformation mode. Deformation twins are found to nucleate from the interfaces as a result of a local stress concentration generated from dislocation pile-ups. It is suggested that the deformation twinning in lamellar TiAl/Ti{sub 3}Al crystals can be vieived as a stress relaxation process for the concentration of stress at the head of each dislocation pile-up. An interface-assisted twinning mechanism is accordingly proposed and discussed.

  14. On the energy conservation during the active deformation in molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Zhong, Zheng

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we examined the energy conservation for the current schemes of applying active deformation in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Specifically, two methods are examined. One is scaling the dimension of the simulation box and the atom positions via an affine transformation, suitable for the periodic system. The other is moving the rigid walls that interact with the atoms in the system, suitable for the non-periodic system. Based on the calculation of the external work and the internal energy change, we present that the atom velocities also need to be updated in the first deformation method; otherwise the energy conservation cannot be satisfied. The classic updating scheme is examined, in which any atom crossing the periodic boundary experiences a velocity delta that is equal to the velocity difference between the opposite boundaries. In addition, a new scheme which scales the velocities of all the atoms according to the strain increment is proposed, which is more efficient and realistic than the classic scheme. It is also demonstrated that the Virial stress instead of its interaction part is the correct stress definition that corresponds to Cauchy stress in the continuum mechanics.

  15. Distribution of contemporary crustal deformation and mechanisms for extension in the Woodlark Rift: insights from GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, L. M.; Ellis, S. M.; Tregoning, P.; Little, T. A.; Palmer, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Woodlark Rift, southeastern Papua New Guinea, is a classic example of a rift transitioning from continental rifting to seafloor spreading, and is also the site of exhumation of the world's youngest Ultra-High Pressure (UHP) terranes. Prior to now, very little GPS data existed to constrain the kinematics of contemporary rifting, and the relationship of modern-day rifting to exhumation of the young UHP terranes. We present results from GPS campaign measurements at ~45 sites throughout the southeastern Papua New Guinea region, from GPS campaigns conducted in 2009, 2010, and 2012. Our results suggest that most of the modern-day extensional deformation has shifted southward towards the north coast of the PNG mainland, away from the locus of UHP exhumation in the D'Entrecasteaux Islands, although a few mm/yr of active extension remains in the region of UHP rock exhumation. This is consistent with modelling studies that predict a shift in the locus of extension away from the locus of UHP exhumation during the final, waning stages of UHP exhumation. Rates of total extension in the Woodlark Rift increase from west to east from several mm/yr (in the far western Woodlark Rift) to >20 mm/yr further east, due to clockwise rotation of microplates in the region about nearby poles of rotation. We will discuss the implications that our kinematic modelling of the GPS data, earthquake slip vector data, and geological data have for the large-scale driving mechanisms behind rifting in southeast PNG. Our results favour a model where rapid microplate rotation (at 2-3 degrees/Myr) and rifting in the Woodlark Basin is a consequence of strong slab pull forces from extremely rapid subduction (6-13 cm/yr) at the New Britain and San Cristobal trenches further to the north.

  16. Fore-arc deformation at the transition between collision and subduction: results from first 3D thermo-mechanical laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutelier, D. A.; Oncken, O.; Ustaszewski, K. M.; Cruden, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    3-D thermo-mechanical laboratory experiments of arc-continent collision investigate the deformation of the fore-arc at the transition between collision and subduction. The deformation of the plates in the collision area propagates into the subduction-collision transition zone via along-strike coupling of the neighboring segments of the plate boundary. The largest along-strike gradient of trench-perpendicular compression produced by a passive margin turning by 90 degrees does not generate sufficiently localized shear strain in the transition zone to cause a strike-slip system because of the fast propagation of arc lithosphere failure. Deformation is thus continuous along-strike, but the deformation mechanism is three-dimensional and progressive structural variations arise because the coupling between neighboring segment induces either advanced or delayed failure of the arc lithosphere and passive margin. During the initial stage of collision, the accretionary wedge is partially subducted, the interplate zone is lubricated, and shear traction drops. Thus large convergence obliquity does not produce a migrating fore-arc sliver. Instead, the fore-arc motion is due to the pressure force generated by subduction of the buoyant continental crust. It follows that convergence obliquity does not yield trench-parallel deformation of the fore-arc and its influence on the collision process is limited. However, convergence obliquity may have shaped the active margin during the stage of oceanic subduction stage, prior to collision, and inherited structures may impact the propagation mechanism.

  17. Active fibers: matching deformable tract templates to diffusion tensor images.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Ilya; Shattuck, David W; Stein, Jason L; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig; Wright, Margaret J; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W

    2009-08-01

    Reliable quantitative analysis of white matter connectivity in the brain is an open problem in neuroimaging, with common solutions requiring tools for fiber tracking, tractography segmentation and estimation of intersubject correspondence. This paper proposes a novel, template matching approach to the problem. In the proposed method, a deformable fiber-bundle model is aligned directly with the subject tensor field, skipping the fiber tracking step. Furthermore, the use of a common template eliminates the need for tractography segmentation and defines intersubject shape correspondence. The method is validated using phantom DTI data and applications are presented, including automatic fiber-bundle reconstruction and tract-based morphometry.

  18. Deformation of partially pumped active mirrors for high average-power diode-pumped solid-state lasers.

    PubMed

    Albach, Daniel; LeTouzé, Geoffroy; Chanteloup, Jean-Christophe

    2011-04-25

    We discuss the deformation of a partially pumped active mirror amplifier as a free standing disk, as implemented in several laser systems. We rely on the Lucia laser project to experimentally evaluate the analytical and numerical deformation models. PMID:21643092

  19. Fluid Controlled Deformation Mechanisms and Recrystallization Regimes in a High Temperature Deformed Contact Aureole: Implications for the Rheology of the Lower Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, S. S.; Law, R. D.

    2004-05-01

    Deformation in the aureole of the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek (EJB) composite pluton (California, USA) illustrates the role fluid content plays in lower crustal deformation. Microstructures and quartz c-axis fabrics were analyzed in five quartzite samples collected across the aureole. Temperatures of deformation are estimated to be approximately 740° C based on a modified c-axis opening angle thermometer of Kruhl (1998). There is a spatial inversion in microstructures and slip systems; apparent "high temperature" deformation and complete recrystallization (grain boundary migration and prism [c] slip) further from the pluton-contact and apparent "low temperature" deformation and partial recrystallization (subgrain rotation and slip) closer to the pluton-contact. Strain is also lower in the inner aureole based on relict grain shape ratios. We believe this spatial inversion in strain, deformation mechanisms and recrystallization mechanisms is a result of anhydrous conditions in the inner aureole. We suggest that a thick marble unit located between the pluton and the quartzite layers acted as a barrier to fluids emanating from the pluton. Decarbonation reactions in marble layers interbedded with the inner aureole quartzites and calc-silicate assemblages (quartz + calcite (and not wollastonite) + diopside ± K-feldspar) in the inner aureole quartzites produced high XCO2 (water absent) fluids during deformation. We suggest that it was these "dry" conditions that suppressed prism [c] slip and regime 3 recrystallization in the inner aureole and resulted in slip and regime 2 recrystallization. In contrast, the prograde assemblage in the pelite-dominated outer part of the aureole is biotite p K-feldspar. These "wet" pelitic assemblages indicate fluids dominated by water in the outer part of the aureole and promoted prism [c] slip and regime 3 recrystallization and resulted in higher strains. Strain rates for [c] slip are an order of magnitude higher than

  20. Size-dependent transition of deformation mechanism, and nonlinear elasticity in Ni{sub 3}Al nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yun-Jiang; Ogata, Shigenobu; Gao, Guo-Jie J.

    2013-01-28

    A size-dependent transition of deformation mechanism is revealed in Ni{sub 3}Al nanowire under atomistic uniaxial tension. Deformation twinning is replaced by phase transformation when the diameter of Ni{sub 3}Al nanowire reduces to a critical value near 4 nm. Enhanced size-dependent nonlinear elasticity is observed in the nanowires, in comparison to their bulk counterpart which is benchmarked by combined density functional and atomistic study. This study provide fundamental understanding on the size-dependent deformation mechanisms of nanostructured alloys.

  1. Effect of reversible torsion on the structure and mechanical properties of iron under severe plastic deformations in a Bridgman camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glezer, A. M.; Tomchuk, A. A.; Rassadina, T. V.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the reversible direction of rotation of the movable anvil of the Bridgman camera (torsion under high quasi-hydrostatic pressure at room temperature) on the structure and mechanical properties of commercially pure iron (steel 08kp) is investigated. It is established that a change in the direction of rotation of the movable anvil under torsion substantially effects the structural characteristics of deformation fragments and dynamically recrystallized grains formed under severe plastic deformations. The effect of the method of deformation on the internal distortions of structure and on the mechanical properties is analyzed.

  2. Crumpling deformation regimes of monolayer graphene on substrate: a molecular mechanics study.

    PubMed

    Al-Mulla, Talal; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2015-09-01

    Experiments and simulations demonstrating reversible and repeatable crumpling of graphene warrant a detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms of graphene crumple formation, especially for design of tailored nanostructures. To systematically study the formation of crumples in graphene, we use a simple molecular dynamics model, and perform a series of simulations to characterize the finite number of deformation regimes of graphene on substrate after compression. We formulate a quantitative measure of predicting these deformations based on observed results of the simulations and distinguish graphene crumpling considered in this study from others. In our study, graphene is placed on a model substrate while controlling and varying the interfacial energy between graphene and substrate and the substrate roughness through a set of particles embedded in the substrate. We find that a critical value of interfacial adhesion energy marks a transition point that separates two deformation regimes of graphene on substrate under uniaxial compression. The interface between graphene and substrate plays a major role in the formation of crumples, and we show that the choice of substrate can help in designing desired topologies in graphene. PMID:26252422

  3. Non-geometric fluxes, quasi-Hopf twist deformations, and nonassociative quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Mylonas, Dionysios Szabo, Richard J.; Schupp, Peter

    2014-12-15

    We analyse the symmetries underlying nonassociative deformations of geometry in non-geometric R-flux compactifications which arise via T-duality from closed strings with constant geometric fluxes. Starting from the non-abelian Lie algebra of translations and Bopp shifts in phase space, together with a suitable cochain twist, we construct the quasi-Hopf algebra of symmetries that deforms the algebra of functions and the exterior differential calculus in the phase space description of nonassociative R-space. In this setting, nonassociativity is characterised by the associator 3-cocycle which controls non-coassociativity of the quasi-Hopf algebra. We use abelian 2-cocycle twists to construct maps between the dynamical nonassociative star product and a family of associative star products parametrized by constant momentum surfaces in phase space. We define a suitable integration on these nonassociative spaces and find that the usual cyclicity of associative noncommutative deformations is replaced by weaker notions of 2-cyclicity and 3-cyclicity. Using this star product quantization on phase space together with 3-cyclicity, we formulate a consistent version of nonassociative quantum mechanics, in which we calculate the expectation values of area and volume operators, and find coarse-graining of the string background due to the R-flux.

  4. Non-geometric fluxes, quasi-Hopf twist deformations, and nonassociative quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylonas, Dionysios; Schupp, Peter; Szabo, Richard J.

    2014-12-01

    We analyse the symmetries underlying nonassociative deformations of geometry in non-geometric R-flux compactifications which arise via T-duality from closed strings with constant geometric fluxes. Starting from the non-abelian Lie algebra of translations and Bopp shifts in phase space, together with a suitable cochain twist, we construct the quasi-Hopf algebra of symmetries that deforms the algebra of functions and the exterior differential calculus in the phase space description of nonassociative R-space. In this setting, nonassociativity is characterised by the associator 3-cocycle which controls non-coassociativity of the quasi-Hopf algebra. We use abelian 2-cocycle twists to construct maps between the dynamical nonassociative star product and a family of associative star products parametrized by constant momentum surfaces in phase space. We define a suitable integration on these nonassociative spaces and find that the usual cyclicity of associative noncommutative deformations is replaced by weaker notions of 2-cyclicity and 3-cyclicity. Using this star product quantization on phase space together with 3-cyclicity, we formulate a consistent version of nonassociative quantum mechanics, in which we calculate the expectation values of area and volume operators, and find coarse-graining of the string background due to the R-flux.

  5. Amorphous silicon under mechanical shear deformations: Shear velocity and temperature effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerrache, Ali; Mousseau, Normand; Lewis, Laurent J.

    2011-04-01

    Mechanical shear deformations lead, in some cases, to effects similar to those resulting from ion irradiation. Here we characterize the effects of shear velocity and temperature on amorphous silicon (a-Si) modeled using classical molecular-dynamics simulations based on the empirical environment-dependent interatomic potential (EDIP). With increasing shear velocity at low temperature, we find a systematic increase in the internal strain leading to the rapid appearance of structural defects (fivefold-coordinated atoms). The impacts of externally applied strain can be almost fully compensated by increasing the temperature, allowing the system to respond more rapidly to the deformation. In particular, we find opposite power-law relations between the temperature and the shear velocity and the deformation energy. The spatial distribution of defects is also found to depend strongly on temperature and strain velocity. For low temperature or high shear velocity, defects are concentrated in a few atomic layers near the center of the cell, while with increasing temperature or decreasing shear velocity, they spread slowly throughout the full simulation cell. This complex behavior can be related to the structure of the energy landscape and the existence of a continuous energy-barrier distribution.

  6. A Micro Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS)-based Cryogenic Deformable Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enya, K.; Kataza, H.; Bierden, P.

    2009-03-01

    We present our first results on the development and evaluation of a cryogenic deformable mirror (DM) based on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. A MEMS silicon-based DM chip with 32 channels, in which each channel is 300 μm × 300 μm in size, was mounted on a silicon substrate in order to minimize distortion and prevent it from being permanently damaged by thermal stresses introduced by cooling. The silicon substrate was oxidized to obtain electric insulation and had a metal fan-out pattern on the surface. For cryogenic tests, we constructed a measurement system consisting of a Fizeau interferometer, a cryostat cooled by liquid N2, zooming optics, electric drivers. The surface of the mirror at 95 K deformed in response to the application of a voltage, and no significant difference was found between the deformation at 95 K and that at room temperature. The power dissipation by the cryogenic DM was also measured, and we suggest that this is small enough for it to be used in a space cryogenic telescope. The properties of the DM remained unchanged after five cycles of vacuum pumping, cooling, warming, and venting. We conclude that fabricating cryogenic DMs employing MEMS technology is a promising approach. Therefore, we intend to develop a more sophisticated device for actual use, and to look for potential applications including the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology & Astrophysics (SPICA), and other missions.

  7. Deformation Mechanisms in the Near-β Titanium Alloy Ti-55531

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikovits, Martina; Poletti, Cecilia; Warchomicka, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    The hot formability of a near-β titanium alloy is studied near the β transus temperature to determine the mechanisms of deformation. Compression tests of Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr-1Zr are carried out using a Gleeble®1500 device between 1036 K and 1116 K (763 °C and 843 °C) and strain rates between 0.001 and 10 s-1. The achieved flow data are used to calculate the efficiency of power dissipation, the strain rate sensitivity, and instability parameters derived from different models. Constitutive equations are built using the stress values at the strain of 0.4. Light optical microscopy and EBSD measurements are used to correlate the parameters that describe formability with the microstructure. It is found that hot deformation is achieved by dynamic recovery in the β phase by subgrain formation. Geometric dynamic recrystallization along the β grain boundaries takes place at large deformations, high temperatures, and low strain rates. On the other hand, for high strain rates, continuous dynamic recrystallization by lattice rotation already starts at a local strain of 1. Different phenomenological models are used to predict the flow instabilities, where the flow-softening parameter α i provides the best correlation with microstructure as well as the physical understanding. The instabilities observed in this alloy are strongly related to flow localization by adiabatic heat.

  8. Mechanisms of submicron inclusion re-equilibration during host mineral deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Thomas; Habler, Gerlinde; Abart, Rainer; Rhede, Dieter; Wirth, Richard

    2014-05-01

    data, and no subgrain boundaries. Secondly, garnet lattice rotation of up to 10° around rational garnet crystal axes is observed in connection with some already coarsened inclusions. Strain concentrations are widespread in some trails, but rare in others. A TEM foil transecting a garnet domain with concentrated lattice rotation in association with inclusions reveals well developed polygonal subgrain walls with few free dislocations. Where dislocation density is greatest, almost no <100nm inclusions are observed, whereas these are more abundant in unstrained garnet domains despite the foil being located entirely within the optically visible bleaching zone. Chlorite inclusions and formation of etch pits at dislocations at the garnet-chlorite interface demonstrate the presence of fluid along subgrain boundaries during this second bleaching process. In summary, brittle deformation in these garnets led to enhanced transport and inclusion re-equilibration by coarsening, forming inclusion trails. The precise mechanism allowing enhanced transport is still to be determined and may have involved fluid supply with or without pipe diffusion along introduced dislocations. Later ductile deformation via dislocations, concentrated at already coarsened inclusions and enhanced by fluid availability, further affected the nanoinclusion population. The inclusion trail microstructure records complex small-scale interaction between deformation and reaction, shedding light on the mechanisms by which re-equilibration and strain localisation can influence each other in deforming host-inclusion systems. Bestmann et al. (2008) Journal of Structural Geology 30: 777-790

  9. Direct assessment of living cell mechanical responses during deformation inside microchannel restrictions.

    PubMed

    Walter, Nadine; Micoulet, Alexandre; Seufferlein, Thomas; Spatz, Joachim P

    2011-09-01

    The deformation of suspended cells inside microchannel restrictions mimics passive cell transportation in the blood circulation system of the body. The cells traverse or get stuck in narrow vessels, as, e.g., during the metastasis of tumor cells. In this work, the mechanical responses of suspended pancreatic cancer cells as they move through and deform inside microchannel restrictions are assessed with a cantilever-based polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) force sensor. Incorporated into a flow cell chip, the PDMS cantilever is integrated into the boundary wall of a narrow microrestriction. Upon being forced to enter the restriction by an applied flow, the cell exerts pressure on the cantilever, which then bends. By assuming a uniformly loaded cantilever, the total force and pressure on the cantilever can be calculated using elastic beam theory. This technique has the advantage of presenting an absolute and direct measure, which is independent of the applied flow and frictional processes at the channel-cell interface; in contrast to, e.g., measuring cell mechanics indirectly via cell sliding velocities. Furthermore, a high number of cells can be examined in a short time compared to other single cell mechanical testing devices. PMID:21974682

  10. Effect of mechanical deformation on the electrical properties of organic single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Martinez, Marcos; Crosby, Alfred; Briseno, Alejandro

    2014-03-01

    Despite efforts in the flexible electronics field, relatively little research quantified the effects of mechanical strain on the electrical properties of organic single crystals (OSCs) and their device performance in deformed geometries. Single crystals of organic semiconductors are ideal systems for the elucidation of these effects without having to account for imperfections, grain boundaries and other defects. The aim of this presentation is to bring new understanding of the effects of mechanical strain in charge transport phenomena on OSCs. First, the existence of a piezoresistive effect in rubrene crystals is demonstrated and experimentally quantified by the application of in-plane strain along its [010] axis. A piezoresistive coefficient approximately 50 is determined. Second, the effect of local mechanical deformation on the conductive channel is investigated in rubrene single-crystal field-effect transistors. A wrinkling instability is used as a technique to apply local strains of different magnitudes to the conducting channel of field-effect transistors. All devices maintain excellent transistor behavior, and small, reversible changes in performance are observed during wrinkling. This work provides useful knowledge for the effective application of organic semiconductors in strain intensive applications such as pressure sensors, electronic skins and strained-channel organic transistors.

  11. Intraplate deformation, stress in the lithosphere and the driving mechanism for plate motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, Arden L.

    1993-01-01

    The initial research proposed was to use the predictions of geodynamical models of mantle flow, combined with geodetic observations of intraplate strain and stress, to better constrain mantle convection and the driving mechanism for plate motions and deformation. It is only now that geodetic observations of intraplate strain are becoming sufficiently well resolved to make them useful for substantial geodynamical inference to be made. A model of flow in the mantle that explains almost 90 percent of the variance in the observed longwavelength nonhydrostatic geoid was developed.

  12. Mechanical Deformability of Biological Membranes and the Sphering of the Erythrocyte

    PubMed Central

    Adams, K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Equations of mechanical equilibrium are applied to the erythrocyte membrane in the normal, hypotonically swollen, and sphered configurations. The hydrostatic pressure drop across the normal cell membrane is shown to be zero for all biconcave shapes if the membrane thickness is uniform. This result leads to the conclusion that the membrane tension is uniform and is a function of membrane potential. A two-dimensional fluid film model for the membrane is introduced to describe the unusual deformability of the erythrocyte during sphering in hypotonic solutions. The model predicts a smooth transition from the biconcave shape to a perfect sphere. PMID:4697234

  13. Multiple deformation mechanisms operating at seismogenic depths: Tectonic pseudotachylyte and associated deformation from the central Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prante, M. R.; Evans, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Description and identification of fault-related deformation products that are diagnostic of seismic slip have implications for the energy budget of earthquakes, fault strength, and fault-rock assemblages. We describe tectonic pseduotachylyte, cataclastic rocks, crystal-plastic deformation, and hydrothermal alteration form faults exhumed from seismogenic depths in the Volcanic Lakes area, in northern Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park, CA, USA. Fault rock protoliths include Mesozoic granite and granodiorite plutonic and limited metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. These plutonic and metamorphic rocks are cross-cut by the E-W striking, steeply dipping, left-lateral strike-slip Granite Pass (GPF) and Glacier Lakes faults (GLF). Cross-cutting relationships and microstructural data suggest that the GPF is the oldest fault in the area and preserves evidence for coeval brittle and plastic crystal deformation, and hydrothermal fluid-flow. Tectonic pseudotachylyte from the area has been dated using the 40Ar/39Ar method at 76.6 ± 0.3 Ma; when placed into a thermochronologic framework for the plutonic host rock it can be inferred that the pseudotachylyte formed at depths between 2.4-6.0 km with ambient temperatures between 110-160°C. Exceptionally well preserved tectonic pseudotachylyte from the GLF and GPF contain evidence for a frictional melt origin including: 1) plagioclase spherulites and microlites, 2) injection vein morphology, 3) amygdules, 4) viscous flow banding and folds, and 5) embayed and corroded clasts. Pseudotachylyte from the GPF and GLF is associated with brittle and plastic deformation in the damage zone of the faults. Evidence for plastic deformation includes undulose extinction, deformation lamellae, subgrain development, and grain boundary bulging in quartz; and limited undulose extinction in feldspar. Additionally, abundant hydrothermal alteration and mineralization has been documented in the GPF and GLF fault zones, including, chlorite

  14. Controls of Lithospheric Mechanical Strength on the Deformation Pattern of Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Xiong, X.; Zheng, Y.; Hu, X.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Tien Shan is an outstanding example of intracontinental mountain belt, which was built rapidly and formed far away from plate boundaries. It exhibits 300~500 km in width and extends ~2000 km EW, located in central Asia. The Tien Shan is a key area for solution of the problems relating to intracontinental geodynamics. During last decades, despite a large amount of results based on various geological, geophysical and geodetic data about the Tien Shan, however, deformation mechanism remains controversial and other several principal problems related to its structure and evolution also have not been completely resolved. As for patterns of continental deformation, they are always controlled by both the forces applied to the lithosphere and by lithospheric resistance to the forces. The latter is often measured by the mechanical strength of lithosphere. The lateral variation of strength of lithosphere has been recognized to be an important factor controlling the spatial construction and temporal evolution of continent. In this study, we investigate the mechanical strength (Te) of lithosphere in the Tien Shan using wavelet coherency between Bouguer anomaly and topography. The patterns of Te variations are closely related to major tectonic boundaries and blocks. Mechanical strength exhibits a weak zone (Te~5-20km) beneath the Tien Shan while its surrounding blocks including Tarim Basin, Junggar Basin and Kazakh platform are characterized by a strong lithosphere (Te>40km). The lateral variations in mechanical strength and velocity field of horizontal movement with GPS demonstrate that strain localization appears at the margins of Tarim Basin, which is also the strong lithospheric domain. It is suggested that the weak lithosphere allows the crustal stress accumulation and the strong lithosphere helps to stress transfer. There is also a good agreement between mechanical strength and shear wave velocity structure in upper mantle. It indicates a strong domain located in the

  15. Preliminary atlas of active shallow tectonic deformation in the Puget Lowland, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnett, Elizabeth A.; Haugerud, Ralph A.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Pratt, Thomas L.; Blakely, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    This atlas presents an up-to-date map compilation of the geological and geophysical observations that underpin interpretations of active, surface-deforming faults in the Puget Lowland, Washington. Shallow lowland faults are mapped where observations of deformation from paleoseismic, seismic-reflection, and potential-field investigations converge. Together, results from these studies strengthen the identification and characterization of regional faults and show that as many as a dozen shallow faults have been active during the Holocene. The suite of maps presented in our atlas identifies sites that have evidence of deformation attributed to these shallow faults. For example, the paleoseismic-investigations map shows where coseismic surface rupture and deformation produced geomorphic scarps and deformed shorelines. Other maps compile results of seismic-reflection and potential-field studies that demonstrate evidence of deformation along suspected fault structures in the subsurface. Summary maps show the fault traces derived from, and draped over, the datasets presented in the preceding maps. Overall, the atlas provides map users with a visual overview of the observations and interpretations that support the existence of active, shallow faults beneath the densely populated Puget Lowland.

  16. PMCA activity and membrane tubulin affect deformability of erythrocytes from normal and hypertensive human subjects.

    PubMed

    Monesterolo, Noelia E; Nigra, Ayelen D; Campetelli, Alexis N; Santander, Verónica S; Rivelli, Juan F; Arce, Carlos A; Casale, Cesar H

    2015-11-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated formation of a complex between acetylated tubulin and brain plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA), and the effect of the lipid environment on structure of this complex and on PMCA activity. Deformability of erythrocytes from hypertensive human subjects was reduced by an increase in membrane tubulin content. In the present study, we examined the regulation of PMCA activity by tubulin in normotensive and hypertensive erythrocytes, and the effect of exogenously added diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid (PA) on erythrocyte deformability. Some of the key findings were that: (i) PMCA was associated with tubulin in normotensive and hypertensive erythrocytes, (ii) PMCA enzyme activity was directly correlated with erythrocyte deformability, and (iii) when tubulin was present in the erythrocyte membrane, treatment with DAG or PA led to increased deformability and associated PMCA activity. Taken together, our findings indicate that PMCA activity is involved in deformability of both normotensive and hypertensive erythrocytes. This rheological property of erythrocytes is affected by acetylated tubulin and its lipid environment because both regulate PMCA activity.

  17. Cyclic Plastic Deformation, Fatigue, and the Associated Micro-Mechanisms in Magnesium: From Single Crystal to Polycrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qin

    Magnesium and its alloys have received substantial interests as the government initiatives on energy saving and environment protection demand an increasing use of lightweight materials in structural parts, especially in transportation industries. A good understanding of fatigue behavior in magnesium is critical to ensure the reliability and durability of the magnesium components. Unlike the body centered cubic and face centered cubic metals, fundamental knowledge concerning the cyclic deformation and fatigue in hexagonal close packed magnesium is limited. The current research aims at a better understanding of the micro-mechanisms associated with the cyclic deformation and fatigue of magnesium. Magnesium single crystal was chosen to study the fundamental twinning/detwinning process while extruded polycrystalline pure magnesium was studied for the fatigue damage mechanisms. Cyclic deformation and the corresponding morphology evolution of {1 0 1¯ 2} twinning-detwinning-retwinning are, for the first time, characterized in magnesium single crystal under fully reserved strain-controlled tension-compression utilizing in situ optical microscopy. As loading cycles are increased, the activity of twinning-detwinning-retwinning gradually decreases. Microscopy after fatigue shows that the matrix region having experienced repeated twinning-detwinning cannot be completely detwinned to its original crystal orientation. Fragmented secondary tension twins are found to result from twin-twin interactions. Various twin-twin interaction structures exist in fatigued magnesium single crystal: quilted-looking twin structure, "apparent crossing" twin structure, and double tension twin structure. According to the crystallography of magnesium, twin-twin interactions are classified into Type I for two twin variants sharing the same zone axis and Type II for two twins with different zone axes. For Type I twin-twin interactions, one twin does not transmit across the twin boundary and into the

  18. Mechanism of plastic deformation of a Ni-based superalloy for VHTR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Kun; Lovicu, Gianfranco; Chen, Xiang; Tung, Hsiao-Ming; Hansen, Jon B.; Stubbins, James F.

    2013-10-01

    Alloy 617 is considered a leading structural material for next generation nuclear power plants due to its good corrosion resistance and exceptional strength at high-temperatures. In the present work, a complementary study of deformation mechanisms in Alloy 617 was performed via tensile testing at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Dynamic strain aging characterized by serrated flow leading to temperature independent yield strength was observed at intermediate temperatures. At temperatures higher than 700 °C, the material's strength reduced dramatically as a result of the predominance of dislocation creep and dynamic recrystallization. The changes in deformation mechanisms were established by direct observations of Electron Backscatter Diffraction mappings and by the analysis of texture development based on the pole figure mappings. Recrystallized grains were found to preferentially grow in particle-rich areas and on high-angle grain boundaries. Finally, fracture was initiated from particle cracks at temperatures up to 700 °C and by triple junction cracks from 800 to 1000 °C.

  19. Mechanical dyssynchrony and deformation imaging in patients with functional mitral regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Isabella; Marini, Claudia; Stella, Stefano; Ancona, Francesco; Spartera, Marco; Margonato, Alberto; Agricola, Eustachio

    2016-01-01

    Chronic functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is a frequent finding of ischemic heart disease and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), associated with unfavourable prognosis. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms are involved in FMR, such as annular dilatation and dysfunction, left ventricle (LV) remodeling, dysfunction and dyssynchrony, papillary muscles displacement and dyssynchrony. The best therapeutic choice for FMR is still debated. When optimal medical treatment has already been set, a further option for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and/or surgical correction should be considered. CRT is able to contrast most of the pathophysiologic determinants of FMR by minimizing LV dyssynchrony through different mechanisms: Increasing closing forces, reducing tethering forces, reshaping annular geometry and function, correcting diastolic MR. Deformation imaging in terms of two-dimensional speckle tracking has been validated for LV dyssynchrony assessment. Radial speckle tracking and three-dimensional strain analysis appear to be the best methods to quantify intraventricular delay and to predict CRT-responders. Speckle-tracking echocardiography in patients with mitral valve regurgitation has been usually proposed for the assessment of LV and left atrial function. However it has also revealed a fundamental role of intraventricular dyssynchrony in determining FMR especially in DCM, rather than in ischemic cardiomyopathy in which MR severity seems to be more related to mitral valve deformation indexes. Furthermore speckle tracking allows the assessment of papillary muscle dyssynchrony. Therefore this technique can help to identify optimal candidates to CRT that will probably demonstrate a reduction in FMR degree and thus will experience a better outcome. PMID:26981211

  20. Mechanical dyssynchrony and deformation imaging in patients with functional mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Isabella; Marini, Claudia; Stella, Stefano; Ancona, Francesco; Spartera, Marco; Margonato, Alberto; Agricola, Eustachio

    2016-02-26

    Chronic functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is a frequent finding of ischemic heart disease and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), associated with unfavourable prognosis. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms are involved in FMR, such as annular dilatation and dysfunction, left ventricle (LV) remodeling, dysfunction and dyssynchrony, papillary muscles displacement and dyssynchrony. The best therapeutic choice for FMR is still debated. When optimal medical treatment has already been set, a further option for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and/or surgical correction should be considered. CRT is able to contrast most of the pathophysiologic determinants of FMR by minimizing LV dyssynchrony through different mechanisms: Increasing closing forces, reducing tethering forces, reshaping annular geometry and function, correcting diastolic MR. Deformation imaging in terms of two-dimensional speckle tracking has been validated for LV dyssynchrony assessment. Radial speckle tracking and three-dimensional strain analysis appear to be the best methods to quantify intraventricular delay and to predict CRT-responders. Speckle-tracking echocardiography in patients with mitral valve regurgitation has been usually proposed for the assessment of LV and left atrial function. However it has also revealed a fundamental role of intraventricular dyssynchrony in determining FMR especially in DCM, rather than in ischemic cardiomyopathy in which MR severity seems to be more related to mitral valve deformation indexes. Furthermore speckle tracking allows the assessment of papillary muscle dyssynchrony. Therefore this technique can help to identify optimal candidates to CRT that will probably demonstrate a reduction in FMR degree and thus will experience a better outcome.

  1. Phase transformation as the single-mode mechanical deformation of silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Sherman; Haberl, Bianca; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2015-06-25

    The mixture of the metastable body-centered cubic (bc8) and rhombohedral (r8) phases of silicon that is formed via nanoindentation of diamond cubic (dc) silicon exhibits properties that are of scientifc and technological interest. This letter demonstrates that large regions of this mixed phase can be formed in crystalline Si via nanoindentation without signifcant damage to the surrounding crystal. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy is used to show that volumes 6 μm wide and up to 650 nm deep can be generated in this way using a spherical tip of ~21.5 μm diameter. The phase transformed region is characterised using both Raman microspectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that uniform loading using large spherical indenters can favor phase transformation as the sole deformation mechanism as long as the maximum load is below a critical level. We suggest that the sluggish nature of the transformation from the dc-Si phase to the metallic (b-Sn) phase normally results in competing deformation mechanisms such as slip and cracking but these can be suppressed by controlled loading conditions.

  2. Deformation mechanisms during nanoindentation of sodium borosilicate glasses of nuclear interest

    SciTech Connect

    Kilymis, D. A.; Delaye, J.-M.

    2014-07-07

    In this paper we analyze results of Molecular Dynamics simulations of Vickers nanoindentation, performed for sodium borosilicate glasses of interest in the nuclear industry. Three glasses have been studied in their pristine form, as well as a disordered one that is analogous to the real irradiated glass. We focused in the behavior of the glass during the nanoindentation in order to reveal the mechanisms of deformation and how they are affected by microstructural characteristics. Results have shown a strong dependence on the SiO{sub 2} content of the glass, which promotes densification due to the open structure of SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra and also due to the strength of Si-O bonds. Densification for the glasses is primarily expressed by the relative decrease of the Si-O-Si and Si-O-B angles, indicating rotation of the structural units and decrease of free volume. The increase of alkali content on the other hand results to higher plasticity of the matrix and increased shear flow. The most important effect on the deformation mechanism of the disordered glasses is that of the highly depolymerized network that will also induce shear flow and, in combination with the increased free volume, will result in the decreased hardness of these glasses, as has been previously observed.

  3. Phase transformation as the single-mode mechanical deformation of silicon

    DOE PAGES

    Wong, Sherman; Haberl, Bianca; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2015-06-25

    The mixture of the metastable body-centered cubic (bc8) and rhombohedral (r8) phases of silicon that is formed via nanoindentation of diamond cubic (dc) silicon exhibits properties that are of scientifc and technological interest. This letter demonstrates that large regions of this mixed phase can be formed in crystalline Si via nanoindentation without signifcant damage to the surrounding crystal. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy is used to show that volumes 6 μm wide and up to 650 nm deep can be generated in this way using a spherical tip of ~21.5 μm diameter. The phase transformed region is characterised using both Ramanmore » microspectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that uniform loading using large spherical indenters can favor phase transformation as the sole deformation mechanism as long as the maximum load is below a critical level. We suggest that the sluggish nature of the transformation from the dc-Si phase to the metallic (b-Sn) phase normally results in competing deformation mechanisms such as slip and cracking but these can be suppressed by controlled loading conditions.« less

  4. Identification and Active Exploration of Deformable Object Boundary Constraints through Robotic Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Boonvisut, Pasu; Cavusoglu, M. Cenk

    2014-01-01

    Robotic motion planning algorithms for manipulation of deformable objects, such as in medical robotics applications, rely on accurate estimations of object deformations that occur during manipulation. An estimation of the tissue response (for off-line planning or real-time on-line re-planning), in turn, requires knowledge of both object constitutive parameters and boundary constraints. In this paper, a novel algorithm for estimating boundary constraints of deformable objects from robotic manipulation data is presented. The proposed algorithm uses tissue deformation data collected with a vision system, and employs a multi-stage hill climbing procedure to estimate the boundary constraints of the object. An active exploration technique, which uses an information maximization approach, is also proposed to extend the identification algorithm. The effects of uncertainties on the proposed methods are analyzed in simulation. The results of experimental evaluation of the methods are also presented. PMID:25684836

  5. Strong equivalence principle in polymer quantum mechanics and deformed Heisenberg algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajuri, Nirmalya

    2016-10-01

    The strong equivalence principle (SEP) states that the description of a physical system in a gravitational field is indistinguishable from the description of the same system at rest in an accelerating frame. While this statement holds true in both general relativity and ordinary quantum mechanics, one expects it to fail when quantum gravity corrections are taken into account. In this paper we investigate the possible failure of the SEP in two quantum gravity inspired modifications of quantum mechanics—polymer quantum mechanics and deformed Heisenberg algebra. We find that the SEP fails to hold in both these theories. We estimate the deviation from SEP and find in both cases that it is too small to be measured in present day experiments.

  6. Sintering boron carbide ceramics without grain growth by plastic deformation as the dominant densification mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wei; Rehman, Sahibzada Shakir; Wang, Weimin; Wang, Hao; Wang, Yucheng; Zhang, Jinyong; Zhang, Fan; Fu, Zhengyi

    2015-01-01

    A new ceramic sintering approach employing plastic deformation as the dominant mechanism is proposed, at low temperature close to the onset point of grain growth and under high pressure. Based on this route, fully dense boron carbide without grain growth can be prepared at 1,675-1,700 °C and under pressure of (≥) 80 MPa in 5 minutes. The dense boron carbide shows excellent mechanical properties, including Vickers hardness of 37.8 GPa, flexural strength of 445.3 MPa and fracture toughness of 4.7 MPa•m(0.5). Such a process should also facilitate the cost-effective preparation of other advanced ceramics for practical applications. PMID:26503706

  7. Mechanical stress altered electron gate tunneling current and extraction of conduction band deformation potentials for germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Youn Sung; Lim, Ji-Song; Numata, Toshinori; Nishida, Toshikazu; Thompson, Scott E.

    2007-11-01

    Strain altered electron gate tunneling current is measured for germanium (Ge) metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with HfO2 gate dielectric. Uniaxial mechanical stress is applied using four-point wafer bending along [100] and [110] directions to extract both dilation and shear deformation potential constants of Ge. Least-squares fit to the experimental data results in Ξd and Ξu of -4.3±0.3 and 16.5±0.5 eV, respectively, which agree with theoretical calculations. The dominant mechanism for the strain altered electron gate tunneling current is a strain-induced change in the conduction band offset between Ge and HfO2. Tensile stress reduces the offset and increases the gate tunneling current for Ge while the opposite occurs for Si.

  8. Sintering boron carbide ceramics without grain growth by plastic deformation as the dominant densification mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wei; Rehman, Sahibzada Shakir; Wang, Weimin; Wang, Hao; Wang, Yucheng; Zhang, Jinyong; Zhang, Fan; Fu, Zhengyi

    2015-10-01

    A new ceramic sintering approach employing plastic deformation as the dominant mechanism is proposed, at low temperature close to the onset point of grain growth and under high pressure. Based on this route, fully dense boron carbide without grain growth can be prepared at 1,675-1,700 °C and under pressure of (≥) 80 MPa in 5 minutes. The dense boron carbide shows excellent mechanical properties, including Vickers hardness of 37.8 GPa, flexural strength of 445.3 MPa and fracture toughness of 4.7 MPa•m0.5. Such a process should also facilitate the cost-effective preparation of other advanced ceramics for practical applications.

  9. Sintering boron carbide ceramics without grain growth by plastic deformation as the dominant densification mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wei; Rehman, Sahibzada Shakir; Wang, Weimin; Wang, Hao; Wang, Yucheng; Zhang, Jinyong; Zhang, Fan; Fu, Zhengyi

    2015-10-27

    A new ceramic sintering approach employing plastic deformation as the dominant mechanism is proposed, at low temperature close to the onset point of grain growth and under high pressure. Based on this route, fully dense boron carbide without grain growth can be prepared at 1,675-1,700 °C and under pressure of (≥) 80 MPa in 5 minutes. The dense boron carbide shows excellent mechanical properties, including Vickers hardness of 37.8 GPa, flexural strength of 445.3 MPa and fracture toughness of 4.7 MPa•m(0.5). Such a process should also facilitate the cost-effective preparation of other advanced ceramics for practical applications.

  10. Sintering boron carbide ceramics without grain growth by plastic deformation as the dominant densification mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Wei; Rehman, Sahibzada Shakir; Wang, Weimin; Wang, Hao; Wang, Yucheng; Zhang, Jinyong; Zhang, Fan; Fu, Zhengyi

    2015-01-01

    A new ceramic sintering approach employing plastic deformation as the dominant mechanism is proposed, at low temperature close to the onset point of grain growth and under high pressure. Based on this route, fully dense boron carbide without grain growth can be prepared at 1,675–1,700 °C and under pressure of (≥) 80 MPa in 5 minutes. The dense boron carbide shows excellent mechanical properties, including Vickers hardness of 37.8 GPa, flexural strength of 445.3 MPa and fracture toughness of 4.7 MPa•m0.5. Such a process should also facilitate the cost-effective preparation of other advanced ceramics for practical applications. PMID:26503706

  11. Mechanical properties and constitutive relations for tantalum and tantalum alloys under high-rate deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.R.; Gray, G.T. III; Bingert, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    Tantalum and its alloys have received increased interest as a model bcc metal and for defense-related applications. The stress-strain behavior of several tantalums, possessing varied compositions and manufacturing histories, and tantalum alloyed with tungsten, was investigated as a function of temperature from {minus}196 C to 1,000 C, and strain rate from 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1} to 8,000 s{sup {minus}1}. The yield stress for all the Ta-materials was found to be sensitive to the test temperature, the impurity and solute contents; however, the strain hardening remained very similar for various ``pure`` tantalums but increased with alloying. Powder-metallurgy (P/M) tantalum with various levels of oxygen content produced via different processing paths was also investigated. Similar mechanical properties compared to conventionally processed tantalums were achieved in the P/M Ta. This data suggests that the frequently observed inhomogeneities in the mechanical behavior of tantalum inherited from conventional processes can be overcome. Constitutive relations based upon the Johnson-Cook, the Zerilli-Armstrong, and the Mechanical Threshold Stress models were evaluated for all the Ta-based materials. Parameters were also fit for these models to a tantalum-bar material. Flow stresses of a Ta bar stock subjected to a large-strain deformation of {var_epsilon} = 1.85 via multiple upset forging were obtained. The capabilities and limitations of each model for large-strain applications are examined. The deformation mechanisms controlling high-rate plasticity in tantalum are revisited.

  12. Three-dimensional morphology of pores and cracks in intact and mechanically deformed sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, B.; David, C.; Wong, T.-F.; Martinez-Nistal, A.

    2003-04-01

    We have studied four different sandstones under confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In order to discriminate the void space from the grains, the samples were impregnated with a fluorescent dyed (Rhodamine B) resin and thin-sections with a thickness larger than usual were prepared and studied with CSLM. Two different kinds of samples have been studied: mechanically deformed samples of Darley Dale and Berea sandstones and intact samples of Rothbach and Bentheim sandstones. On each sample several three dimensional blocks have been investigated with size 228 by 152 microns and depths ranging from 35 to 100 microns. From each block a series of tens of parallel "virtual sections" has been recorded, separated by 1 or 2 microns in depth. First we show some examples on Darley Dale and Berea sandstone samples deformed in triaxial experiments. Rotating animations are built from series of 3D views of reconstructed crack networks taken step by step for different block orientations. When put together these 3D views nicely simulate a rotation of the 3D block. To create and run the animations we used the Confocal Assistant free software on a PC. Spectacular 3D animations representing crack networks in mechanically deformed samples are obtained this way in a very short time: some examples will be shown on the screen. Secondly we show on a poster some static 3D reconstructions of the pore and/or crack networks obtained using the Slicer Dicer software. For the intact samples we observe that pore (or grain) walls are smoother in Bentheim sandstone whereas in Rothbach sandstone the presence of a significant amount of coating clay minerals results in a visible surface roughness. Some differences in pore size and pore shape were also observed, with a more homogeneous distribution in Bentheim sandstone than in Rothbach sandstone. In both sandstones we observe the classical pore-to-throats junctions. Complex contact geometry between adjacent grains are sometimes observed. In the

  13. Detection and Analysis of Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation and Relations with the Active Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro, M.; Saroli, M.; Lancia, M.; Albano, M.; Lo Sardo, L.; Stramondo, S.

    2015-12-01

    Modern geomorphological investigations focused on the definition of major factors conditioning the landscape evolution. The interaction of some of these factors as the litho-structural setting, the local relief, the tectonic activity, the climatic conditions and the seismicity plays a key-role in determining large scale slope instability phenomena which display the general morphological features of deep seated gravitational deformations (DSGD). The present work aims to detect the large scale gravitational deformation and relations with the active tectonics affecting the Abruzzo Region and to provide a description of the morphologic features of the deformations by means of aerial photograph interpretation, geological/geomorphological field surveys and DInSAR data. The investigated areas are morphologically characterized by significant elevation changes due to the presence of high mountain peaks, separated from surrounding depressed areas by steep escarpments, frequently represented by active faults. Consequently, relief energy favours the development of gravity-driven deformations. These deformations seem to be superimposed on and influenced by the inherited structural and tectonic pattern, related to the sin- and post-thrusting evolution. The morphological evidences of these phenomena, are represented by landslides, sackungen or rock-flows, lateral spreads and block slides. DInSAR analysis measured deformation of the large scale gravitative phenomena previously identified through aerial-photo analysis. DSGD may evolve in rapid, catastrophic mass movements and this paroxistic evolution of the deformations may be triggered by high magnitude seismic events. These assumptions point out the great importance of mapping in detail large scale slope instability phenomena in relation to the active faults, in a perspective of land-use planning such as the Abruzzo Region characterized by a high magnitude historical seismicity.

  14. Active zone impact on deformation state of non-rigid pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandula, Ján

    2014-06-01

    The paper deals with the design of non-rigid pavement, with emphasis on the effect of active zone on its deformation state. The concepts of determination of active zone are described. The results of numerical modelling of pavement laying on elastic subgrade are presented in the paper

  15. Correlation between the microstructures and the deformation mechanisms of CuZr-based bulk metallic glass composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, K. K.; Pauly, S.; Sun, B. A.; Tan, J.; Stoica, M.; Kühn, U.; Eckert, J.

    2013-01-01

    The variation of the transformation-mediated deformation behavior with microstructural changes in CuZr-based bulk metallic glass composites is investigated. With increasing crystalline volume fraction, the deformation mechanism gradually changes from a shear-banding dominated process as evidenced by a chaotic serrated flow behavior, to being governed by a martensitic transformation with a pronounced elastic-plastic stage, resulting in different plastic deformations evolving into a self-organized critical state characterized by the power-law distribution of shear avalanches. This is reflected in the stress-strain curves by a single-to-"double"-to-"triple"-double yielding transition and by different mechanical properties with different serrated flow characteristics, which are interpreted based on the microstructural evolutions and a fundamental energy theorem. Our results can assist in understanding deformation behaviors for high-performance metastable alloys.

  16. Geophysical analysis of rock glacier internal structure and implications for deformation mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florentine, C. E.; Skidmore, M. L.; Speece, M. A.; Link, C. A.; Locke, W. W.; Carr, C. G.; Shaw, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    invoked to explain either a direct connection between individual transverse ridges to sub-surface structures or a specific structural regime. Our passive roof duplex faulting interpretation of GPR data at the LPRG is consistent with findings from previous studies on the internal composition and structure of rock glaciers and thus provides a testable model for improved understanding of rock glacier deformation mechanics.

  17. Decrease in red blood cell deformability is associated with a reduction in RBC-NOS activation during storage.

    PubMed

    Grau, Marijke; Friederichs, Petra; Krehan, Sebastian; Koliamitra, Christina; Suhr, Frank; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2015-07-16

    During storage, red blood cells (RBC) become more susceptible to hemolysis and it has also been shown that RBC deformability, which is influenced by RBC nitric oxide synthase (RBC-NOS) activity, decreases during blood storage while a correlation between these two parameters under storage conditions has not been investigated so far. Therefore, blood from 15 male volunteers was anticoagulated, leuko-reduced and stored as either concentrated RBC or RBC diluted in saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) for eight weeks at 4°C and results were compared to data obtained from freshly drawn blood. During storage, decrease of RBC deformability was related to increased mean cellular volume and increased cell lysis but also to a decrease in RBC-NOS activation. The changes were more pronounced in concentrated RBC than in RBC diluted in SAGM suggesting that the storage method affects the quality of blood. These data shed new light on mechanisms underlying the phenomenon of storage lesion and reveal that RBC-NOS activation and possibly nitric oxide production in RBC are key elements that are influenced by storage and in turn alter deformability. Further studies should therefore also focus on improving these parameters during storage to improve the quality of stored blood with respect to blood transfusion.

  18. Insights from the Lattice-Strain Evolution on Deformation Mechanisms in Metallic-Glass-Matrix Composites

    DOE PAGES

    Jia, Haoling; Zheng, Lili; Li, Weidong; Li, Nan; Qiao, Junwei; Wang, Gongyao; Ren, Yang; Liaw, Peter K.; Gao, Yanfei

    2015-02-18

    In this paper, in situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments and micromechanics-based finite element simulations have been conducted to examine the lattice-strain evolution in metallic-glass-matrix composites (MGMCs) with dendritic crystalline phases dispersed in the metallic-glass matrix. Significant plastic deformation can be observed prior to failure from the macroscopic stress–strain curves in these MGMCs. The entire lattice-strain evolution curves can be divided into elastic–elastic (denoting deformation behavior of matrix and inclusion, respectively), elastic–plastic, and plastic–plastic stages. Characteristics of these three stages are governed by the constitutive laws of the two phases (modeled by free-volume theory and crystal plasticity) and geometric informationmore » (crystalline phase morphology and distribution). The load-partitioning mechanisms have been revealed among various crystalline orientations and between the two phases, as determined by slip strain fields in crystalline phase and by strain localizations in matrix. Finally, implications on ductility enhancement of MGMCs are also discussed.« less

  19. Insights from the Lattice-Strain Evolution on Deformation Mechanisms in Metallic-Glass-Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Haoling; Zheng, Lili; Li, Weidong; Li, Nan; Qiao, Junwei; Wang, Gongyao; Ren, Yang; Liaw, Peter K.; Gao, Yanfei

    2015-02-18

    In this paper, in situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments and micromechanics-based finite element simulations have been conducted to examine the lattice-strain evolution in metallic-glass-matrix composites (MGMCs) with dendritic crystalline phases dispersed in the metallic-glass matrix. Significant plastic deformation can be observed prior to failure from the macroscopic stress–strain curves in these MGMCs. The entire lattice-strain evolution curves can be divided into elastic–elastic (denoting deformation behavior of matrix and inclusion, respectively), elastic–plastic, and plastic–plastic stages. Characteristics of these three stages are governed by the constitutive laws of the two phases (modeled by free-volume theory and crystal plasticity) and geometric information (crystalline phase morphology and distribution). The load-partitioning mechanisms have been revealed among various crystalline orientations and between the two phases, as determined by slip strain fields in crystalline phase and by strain localizations in matrix. Finally, implications on ductility enhancement of MGMCs are also discussed.

  20. Deformation mechanisms in granodiorite at effective pressures to 100 MPa and temperatures to partial melting

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.; Handin, J.; Bauer, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Deformation mechanisms in room-dry and water-saturated specimens of Charcoal Granodiorite, shortened at 10/sup -4/s/sup -1/, at effective pressures (Pe) to 100 MPa and temperatures to partial melting (less than or equal to 1050/sup 0/C) are documented with a view toward providing criteria to recognize and characterize the deformation for geological and engienering applications. Above 800/sup 0/C strength decreases dramatically at effective pressures greater than or equal to 50 MPa and water-weakening reduces strength an additional 30 to 40% at Pe = 100 MPa. Strains at failure are only 0.1 to 2.2% with macroscopic ductility (within this range) increasing as the effective pressures are increased and in wet versus dry tests. Shattering (multiple faulting) gives way to faulting along a single zone to failure without macroscopic faulting as ductility increases. Microscopically, cataclasis (extension microfracturing and thermal cracking with rigid-body motions) predominates at all conditions. Dislocation gliding contributes little to the strain. Precursive extension microfractures coalesce to produce the throughgoing faults with gouge zones exhibiting possible Riedel shears. Incipient melting, particularly in wet tests, produces a distinctive texture along feldspar grain boundaries that suggests a grain-boundary-softening effect contributes to the weakening. In addition, it is demonstrated that the presence of water does not lead to more microfractures, but to a reduction in the stresses required to initiate and propagate them.

  1. Effect of Intensive Plastic Deformation on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhadilov, Bauyrzhan; Uazyrkhanova, Gulzhaz; Myakinin, Alexandr; Uazyrkhanova, Zhuldyz

    2016-08-01

    In work it was studied the influence of intensive plastic deformation on structure and mechanical properties of aluminum alloys. Intensive plastic deformation was carried out by using equal-channel angular extrusion. It is shown that the most efficient angle of intersection of the channels is the angle of Φ=120°, which ensures defect-free parts at the highest possible level of accumulated strain (e=8). It is established that the intensive milling grain structures in aluminum alloys AMG6 and AMC occurs at ECAE-12 passes, while the intersection angle of the channels of 120°. After ECAE-12 in aluminum alloys the grain refinement reaches to the size of ∼⃒1.0-1.5 gm. It is determined that as a result of equal channel angular pressing, the microhardness of alloy AMG6 increases almost 4 times in comparison with the initial state, the microhardness of alloy AMC increases by almost 4.5 times in comparison with the initial state. It is shown that ECAE-12 mass loss is reduced to 5.4 and 5.6 mg, which shows an increase in wear-resistance of aluminum alloys AMG6 and AMC 13-14 %.

  2. Effect of the mechanical deformation on the electrical properties of the polymer/CNT fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyun Woo; Sung, Bong June; Nano-Bio Computational Chemistry Laboratory Team

    2014-03-01

    We elucidate the effect of the mechanical deformation on the electrical properties of the polymer/CNT fiber. The conductive polymer fiber has drawn a great attention for its potential application to a stretchable electronics such as wearable devices and artificial muscles, etc. However, the electrical conductivity of the polymer-based stretchable electronics decreases significantly during the deformation, which may limit the applicability of the polymer/CNT fiber for the stretchable electronics. Moreover, its physical origin for the decrease in electrical conductivity has not been explained clearly. In this work, we employ a coarse-grained model for the polymer/CNT fiber, and we calculate the electric conductivity using global tunneling network (GTN) model. We show that the electric conductivity decreases during the elongation of the polymer/CNT fiber. We also find using critical path approximation (CPA) that the structure of the electrical network of the CNTs changes collectively during the elongation of the fiber, which is strongly responsible for the reduction of the electrical conductivity of the polymer/CNT fiber.

  3. On the Bonding Mechanism in Cold Spray of Deformable hex-BN-Ni Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neshastehriz, M.; Smid, I.; Segall, A. E.; Eden, T. J.

    2016-06-01

    Bond strength and the lubrication potential of coatings made of 7 µm Hexagonal Boron Nitride particles encapsulated with nickel (hBN-Ni), and deposited onto aluminum 6061 substrates via cold spray were examined; for all tests, N2 was used as the carrier gas at a temperature of 480 °C and pressure of 2.4 MPa. Results showed significant improvement in both wear resistance and reduced surface friction. Coated samples also demonstrated unexpected high bond strength, which was much greater than pure nickel cold sprayed onto aluminum. However, while the results were truly promising, the primary reason for the observed high bond strength could not be explained using existing cold spray theories which were primarily developed for pure metal particles. Based on the present findings compared to cold-sprayed layers of composite nickel-nickel (nickel particles encapsulated with nickel), a mechanism for bonding of hBN-Ni particles to aluminum based on the level of plastic deformation and hardenability is proposed. Indeed, the high bond strength between the coating and substrate is related to the relatively high initial ductility of the nickel encapsulation, compliance of the hBN, as well as the ensuing significant plastic deformation of the composite particles during cold spray deposition.

  4. Deformation and failure of single- and multi-phase silicate liquids: seismic precursors and mechanical work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasseur, Jeremie; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Wassermann, Joachim; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2013-04-01

    Along with many others, volcanic unrest is regarded as a catastrophic material failure phenomenon and is often preceded by diverse precursory signals. Although a volcanic system intrinsically behave in a non-linear and stochastic way, these precursors display systematic evolutionary trends to upcoming eruptions. Seismic signals in particular are in general dramatically increasing prior to an eruption and have been extensively reported to show accelerating rates through time, as well as in the laboratory before failure of rock samples. At the lab-scale, acoustic emissions (AE) are high frequency transient stress waves used to track fracture initiation and propagation inside a rock sample. Synthesized glass samples featuring a range of porosities (0 - 30%) and natural rock samples from volcán de Colima, Mexico, have been failed under high temperature uniaxial compression experiments at constant stresses and strain rates. Using the monitored AEs and the generated mechanical work during deformation, we investigated the evolutionary trends of energy patterns associated to different degrees of heterogeneity. We observed that the failure of dense, poorly porous glasses is achieved by exceeding elevated strength and thus requires a significant accumulation of strain, meaning only pervasive small-scale cracking is occurring. More porous glasses as well as volcanic samples need much lower applied stress and deformation to fail, as fractures are nucleating, propagating and coalescing into localized large-scale cracks, taking the advantage of the existence of numerous defects (voids for glasses, voids and crystals for volcanic rocks). These observations demonstrate that the mechanical work generated through cracking is efficiently distributed inside denser and more homogeneous samples, as underlined by the overall lower AE energy released during experiments. In contrast, the quicker and larger AE energy released during the loading of heterogeneous samples shows that the

  5. Sumatra-Andaman Megathrust Earthquake Slip: Insights From Mechanical Modeling of ICESat Surface Deformation Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, D. J.; Miuller, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    boundary condition on the Sumatra-Andaman subduction interface fault. The direction of slip on the fault surface is derived from the slip directions computed by Tsai et al. (in review) for centroid moment tensor focal mechanisms spatially distributed along the rupture. The slip model will be refined to better correspond to the observed surface deformation as additional results from the ICESat profiles become available.

  6. Mechanical and statistical aspects of brittle faulting: From coseismic rupture to cumulative deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Scott Jay

    This dissertation is focused on answering fundamental problems in extensional tectonics at Valles Marineris and Tempe Terra, two regions of Mars that have characteristics similar to continental rifts on Earth. Three-dimensional displacement-length scaling relations for terrestrial earthquakes are also investigated because they provide the underlying physical basis for the analyses of extensional tectonics on Mars. Motivated by conflicting interpretations of the origin of blunt terminations of troughs at Valles Marineris, I investigate the reactivation of pre-existing cross faults in response to stress changes associated with slippage along a major, basin bounding normal fault (i.e., border fault). Observations from the Valles Marineris are consistent with model predictions, and are suggestive of a new sequence of deformation that accounts for the formation of blunt-trough terminations during the major phase of extension: coeval and locally bi-directional extension, that results from local stress field changes associated with border fault growth in a dominantly unidirectional remote strain field. These results indicate that irregular closed troughs at Valles Marineris are better interpreted as grabens rather than collapse depressions. Rates of deformation at Tempe Terra are estimated through an analysis of fault population statistics, which incorporates fault segment linkage and utilizes displacement-length relationships from exposed normal faults in this region. Deformation remained localized within the Tempe Rift throughout much of Martian history, with moment rates, strain rates, and rifting velocities comparable to stable plate interiors of Earth. This indicates that either the timing of deformation on Mars is poorly constrained or, less likely, rates are significantly slower than on Earth. Strike-slip earthquake source parameters, including slip distribution characteristics, are compared with predictions of a three-dimensional fracture mechanics model of

  7. Influence of interfacial interactions on deformation mechanism and interface viscosity in α-chitin-calcite interfaces.

    PubMed

    Qu, Tao; Verma, Devendra; Alucozai, Milad; Tomar, Vikas

    2015-10-01

    The interfaces between organic and inorganic phases in natural materials have a significant effect on their mechanical properties. This work presents a quantification of the interface stress as a function of interface chemical changes (water, organic molecules) in chitin-calcite (CHI-CAL) interfaces using classical non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations. NEMD is used to investigate interface stress as a function of applied strain based on the virial stress formulation. SMD is used to understand interface separation mechanism and to calculate interfacial shear stress based on a viscoplastic interfacial sliding model. Analyses indicate that interfacial shear stress combined with shear viscosity can result in variations to the mechanical properties of the examined interfacial material systems. It is further verified with Kelvin-Voigt and Maxwell viscoelastic analytical models representing viscous interfaces and outer matrix. Further analyses show that overall mechanical deformation depends on maximization of interface shear strength in such materials. This work establishes lower and upper bounds of interface strength in the interfaces examined. PMID:26143601

  8. Influence of interfacial interactions on deformation mechanism and interface viscosity in α-chitin-calcite interfaces.

    PubMed

    Qu, Tao; Verma, Devendra; Alucozai, Milad; Tomar, Vikas

    2015-10-01

    The interfaces between organic and inorganic phases in natural materials have a significant effect on their mechanical properties. This work presents a quantification of the interface stress as a function of interface chemical changes (water, organic molecules) in chitin-calcite (CHI-CAL) interfaces using classical non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations. NEMD is used to investigate interface stress as a function of applied strain based on the virial stress formulation. SMD is used to understand interface separation mechanism and to calculate interfacial shear stress based on a viscoplastic interfacial sliding model. Analyses indicate that interfacial shear stress combined with shear viscosity can result in variations to the mechanical properties of the examined interfacial material systems. It is further verified with Kelvin-Voigt and Maxwell viscoelastic analytical models representing viscous interfaces and outer matrix. Further analyses show that overall mechanical deformation depends on maximization of interface shear strength in such materials. This work establishes lower and upper bounds of interface strength in the interfaces examined.

  9. Deformation twinning activated α --> ω transformation in titanium under shock compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Hongxiang; Lookman, Turab

    Materials dynamics, especially the behavior of solids under extreme compression, is a topic of broad scientific and technological interest. However, less is known of the role of grain boundary structures on the shock response of hexagonal-close-packed metals. We use molecular dynamics simulations to study deformation mechanisms in shock compressed Ti bicrystals containing three types of grain boundary (GB) microstructures, i.e., coherent twin boundaries (CTBs), symmetric incoherent twin boundaries (ITB) and {1-210}asymmetric tilt grain boundaries. Our results show that both dislocation activity and the α -> ω phase transformation in Ti are sensitive to the GB characteristics. In particular, we find that the elastic shock wave can readily trigger the α -> ω transformation at CTBs but not at the other two GBs, and the activation of the α -> ω transformation at CTBs leads to considerable wave attenuation (i.e., the elastic precursor decay). Combined with first principle calculations, we find that CTBs can facilitate the overcoming of the energy barrier for the α -> ω transformation. Our findings have potential implications for interface engineering and materials design under extreme conditions.

  10. Microearthquake activity, lithospheric structure, and deformation modes at an amagmatic ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Florian; Schlindwein, Vera

    2016-07-01

    While nascent oceanic lithosphere at slow to fast spreading mid-ocean ridges (MOR) is relatively well studied, much less is known about the lithospheric structure and properties at ultraslow MORs. Here we present microearthquake data from a 1 year ocean bottom seismometer deployment at the amagmatic, oblique supersegment of the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge. A refraction seismic experiment was performed to constrain upper lithosphere P-velocities and results were used to construct a 1D velocity model for earthquake location. Earthquake foci were located individually and subsequently relocated relative to each other to sharpen the image of seismically active structures. Frequent earthquake activity extends to 31 km beneath the seafloor, indicating an exceptionally thick brittle lithosphere and an undulating brittle-ductile transition that implies significant variations in the along-axis thermal structure of the lithosphere. We observe a strong relation between petrology, microseismicity distribution, and topography along the ridge axis: Peridotite-dominated areas associate with deepest hypocenters, vast volumes of lithosphere that deforms aseismically as a consequence of alteration, and the deepest axial rift valley. Areas of basalt exposure correspond to shallower hypocenters, shallower and more rugged axial seafloor. Focal mechanisms deviate from pure extension and are spatially variable. Earthquakes form an undulating band of background seismicity and do not delineate discrete detachment faults as common on slow spreading ridges. Instead, the seismicity band sharply terminates to the south, immediately beneath the rift boundary. Considering the deep alteration, large steep boundary faults might be present but are entirely aseismic.

  11. Deformation mechanisms in Be[sub 12]X compounds. [X = Nb

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, S.M.; Brimhall, J.L.; Charlot, L.A. ); Sondhi, S.; Hoagland, R.G.; Hirth, J.P. . Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering)

    1992-12-01

    Dislocation structures have been examined, and active slip systems identified, in Be[sub l2]Nb after compressive deformation at 20, 800, 900 1000 and 1200C. A large number of slip systems are active at 1200C, but these decrease significantly at temperatures below 1000C. Dislocation structures at low temperatures are limited to 1/2<101(101) partial dislocations either paired or creating isolated planar faults. Significant ductility is not observed until 1200C when a second type of partial dislocation, 1/2<100(011) is present. Dislocations observed in the body-centered tetragonal Be[sup 12]X compounds (where X can be Nb, Ta, Mo, V, Fe etc.) have been modelled atomistically using molecular dynamics. Simulations corroborate the stability of these dislocation systems and indicate that the stacking faults associated with these partial dislocations have very low fault energy.

  12. Deformation mechanisms, defects, heat treatment, and thermal conductivity in large grain niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieler, Thomas R.; Kang, Di; Baars, Derek C.; Chandrasekaran, Saravan; Mapar, Aboozar; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Wright, Neil T.; Pourboghrat, Farhang; Murphy, James E.; Compton, Chris C.; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2015-12-01

    The physical and mechanical metallurgy underlying fabrication of large grain cavities for superconducting radio frequency accelerators is summarized, based on research of 1) grain orientations in ingots, 2) a metallurgical assessment of processing a large grain single cell cavity and a tube, 3) assessment of slip behavior of single crystal tensile samples extracted from a high purity ingot slice before and after annealing at 800 °C / 2 h, 4) development of crystal plasticity models based upon the single crystal experiments, and 5) assessment of how thermal conductivity is affected by strain, heat treatment, and exposure to hydrogen. Because of the large grains, the plastic anisotropy of deformation is exaggerated, and heterogeneous strains and localized defects are present to a much greater degree than expected in polycrystalline material, making it highly desirable to computationally anticipate potential forming problems before manufacturing cavities.

  13. Mechanical Deformation of Single- and Few- Layer Graphene on Micro-Scale-Grooved PDMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocklin, David; Scharfenberg, Scott; Chialvo, Cesar; Weaver, Richard; Goldbart, Paul; Mason, Nadya

    2009-11-01

    The physical properties of the material graphene are currently of wide interest. To explore their mechanical aspects, we placed graphene flakes, of thicknesses ranging from one to seven layers, on a rubbery PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) substrate containing microgrooves. We used Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) imaging techniques to study the resulting deformations of the surface, and found that the graphene adhered to the sample and substantially flattened the profile of the grooves. We have examined this flattening effect within a model based on linear elasticity theory. Thus, we have been able to identify, at least tentatively, the point at which shear stress breaks the interlayer coupling and causes the graphene layers to slide against each other.

  14. Directionally tunable and mechanically deformable ferroelectric crystals from rotating polar globular ionic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Jun; Shimojo, Takafumi; Oyamaguchi, Hideaki; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Satomi, Koichiro; Suzuki, Yasutaka; Kawamata, Jun; Inabe, Tamotsu

    2016-10-01

    Ferroelectrics are used in a wide range of applications, including memory elements, capacitors and sensors. Recently, molecular ferroelectric crystals have attracted interest as viable alternatives to conventional ceramic ferroelectrics because of their solution processability and lack of toxicity. Here we show that a class of molecular compounds—known as plastic crystals—can exhibit ferroelectricity if the constituents are judiciously chosen from polar ionic molecules. The intrinsic features of plastic crystals, for example, the rotational motion of molecules and phase transitions with lattice-symmetry changes, provide the crystals with unique ferroelectric properties relative to those of conventional molecular crystals. This allows a flexible alteration of the polarization axis direction in a grown crystal by applying an electric field. Owing to the tunable nature of the crystal orientation, together with mechanical deformability, this type of molecular crystal represents an attractive functional material that could find use in a diverse range of applications.

  15. A Continuum Damage Mechanics Model to Predict Kink-Band Propagation Using Deformation Gradient Tensor Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergan, Andrew C.; Leone, Frank A., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    A new model is proposed that represents the kinematics of kink-band formation and propagation within the framework of a mesoscale continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model. The model uses the recently proposed deformation gradient decomposition approach to represent a kink band as a displacement jump via a cohesive interface that is embedded in an elastic bulk material. The model is capable of representing the combination of matrix failure in the frame of a misaligned fiber and instability due to shear nonlinearity. In contrast to conventional linear or bilinear strain softening laws used in most mesoscale CDM models for longitudinal compression, the constitutive response of the proposed model includes features predicted by detailed micromechanical models. These features include: 1) the rotational kinematics of the kink band, 2) an instability when the peak load is reached, and 3) a nonzero plateau stress under large strains.

  16. Metastable alloy materials produced by solid state reaction of compacted, mechanically deformed mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Atzmon, M.; Johnson, W.L.; Verhoeven, J.D.

    1987-02-03

    Bulk metastable, amorphous or fine crystalline alloy materials are produced by reacting cold-worked, mechanically deformed filamentary precursors such as metal powder mixtures or intercalated metal foils. Cold-working consolidates the metals, increases the interfacial area, lowers the free energy for reaction, and reduces at least one characteristic dimension of the metals. For example, the grains of powder or the sheets of foil are clad in a container to form a disc. The disc is cold-rolled between the nip of rollers to form a flattened disc. The grains are further elongated by further rolling to form a very thin sheet of a lamellar filamentary structure containing filaments having a thickness of less than 0.01 microns. Thus, diffusion distance and time for reaction are substantially reduced when the flattened foil is thermally treated in oven to form a composite sheet containing metastable material dispersed in unreacted polycrystalline material. 4 figs.

  17. Deformation mechanisms, defects, heat treatment, and thermal conductivity in large grain niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Bieler, Thomas R. Kang, Di Baars, Derek C.; Chandrasekaran, Saravan; Mapar, Aboozar Wright, Neil T.; Ciovati, Gianluigi Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Pourboghrat, Farhang; Murphy, James E.; Compton, Chris C.

    2015-12-04

    The physical and mechanical metallurgy underlying fabrication of large grain cavities for superconducting radio frequency accelerators is summarized, based on research of 1) grain orientations in ingots, 2) a metallurgical assessment of processing a large grain single cell cavity and a tube, 3) assessment of slip behavior of single crystal tensile samples extracted from a high purity ingot slice before and after annealing at 800 °C / 2 h, 4) development of crystal plasticity models based upon the single crystal experiments, and 5) assessment of how thermal conductivity is affected by strain, heat treatment, and exposure to hydrogen. Because of the large grains, the plastic anisotropy of deformation is exaggerated, and heterogeneous strains and localized defects are present to a much greater degree than expected in polycrystalline material, making it highly desirable to computationally anticipate potential forming problems before manufacturing cavities.

  18. Directionally tunable and mechanically deformable ferroelectric crystals from rotating polar globular ionic molecules.

    PubMed

    Harada, Jun; Shimojo, Takafumi; Oyamaguchi, Hideaki; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Satomi, Koichiro; Suzuki, Yasutaka; Kawamata, Jun; Inabe, Tamotsu

    2016-10-01

    Ferroelectrics are used in a wide range of applications, including memory elements, capacitors and sensors. Recently, molecular ferroelectric crystals have attracted interest as viable alternatives to conventional ceramic ferroelectrics because of their solution processability and lack of toxicity. Here we show that a class of molecular compounds-known as plastic crystals-can exhibit ferroelectricity if the constituents are judiciously chosen from polar ionic molecules. The intrinsic features of plastic crystals, for example, the rotational motion of molecules and phase transitions with lattice-symmetry changes, provide the crystals with unique ferroelectric properties relative to those of conventional molecular crystals. This allows a flexible alteration of the polarization axis direction in a grown crystal by applying an electric field. Owing to the tunable nature of the crystal orientation, together with mechanical deformability, this type of molecular crystal represents an attractive functional material that could find use in a diverse range of applications. PMID:27657871

  19. Geodetic Measurements and Mechanical Models of Cyclic Deformation at Okmok Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigl, K.; Masterlark, T.; Lu, Z.; Ohlendorf, S. J.; Thurber, C. H.; Sigmundsson, F.

    2009-12-01

    The 1997 and 2008 eruptions of Okmok volcano, Alaska, provide a rare opportunity for conducting a rheological experiment to unravel the complex processes associated with magma migration, storage, and eruption in an active volcano. In this experiment, the magma flux during the eruption provides the “impulse” and the subsequent, transient deformation, the “response”. By simulating the impulse, measuring the response, and interpreting the constitutive relations between the two, one can infer the rheology. Okmok is an excellent natural laboratory for such an experiment because a complete cycle of deformation has been monitored using geodetic and seismic means, including: (a) geodetic time series from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and the Global Positioning System (GPS), (b) earthquake locations; and (c) seismic tomography. We are developing quantitative models using the Finite Element Method (FEM) to simulate the timing and location of the observed seismicity and deformation by accounting for: (a) the geometry and loading of the magma chamber and lava flow, (b) the spatial distribution of material properties; and (c) the constitutive (rheological) relations between stress and strain. Here, we test the hypothesis that the deformation following the 1997 eruption did not reach a steady state before the eruption in 2008. To do so, we iteratively confront the FEM models with the InSAR measurements using the General Inversion of Phase Technique (GIPhT). This approach models the InSAR phase data directly, without unwrapping, as developed, validated, and applied by Feigl and Thurber [Geophys. J. Int., 2009]. By minimizing a cost function that quantifies the misfit between observed and modeled values in terms of “wrapped” phase (with values ranging from -1/2 to +1/2 cycles), GIPhT can estimate parameters in a geophysical model. By avoiding the pitfalls of phase-unwrapping approaches, GIPhT allows the analysis, interpretation and modeling of more

  20. How stress and temperature conditions affect rock-fluid chemistry and mechanical deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nermoen, Anders; Korsnes, Reidar; Aursjø, Olav; Madland, Merete; Kjørslevik, Trygve Alexander; Østensen, Geir

    2016-02-01

    We report the results from a series of chalk flow-through-compaction experiments performed at three effective stresses (0.5 MPa, 3.5 MPa and 12.3 MPa) and two temperatures (92° and and 130°). The results show that both stress and temperature are important to both chemical alteration and mechanical deformation. The experiments were conducted on cores drilled from the same block of outcrop chalks from the Obourg quarry within the Saint Vast formation (Mons, Belgium). The pore pressure was kept at 0.7 MPa for all experiments with a continuous flow of 0.219 M MgCl2 brine at a constant flow rate; 1 original pore volume (PV) per day. The experiments have been performed in tri-axial cells with independent control of the external stress (hydraulic pressure in the confining oil), pore pressure, temperature, and the injected flow rate. Each experiment consists of two phases; a loading phase where stress-strain dependencies are investigated (approx. 2 days), and a creep phase that lasts for more than 150-160 days. During creep, the axial deformation was logged, and the effluent samples were collected for ion chromatography analyses. Any difference between the injected and produced water chemistry gives insight into the rock-fluid interactions that occur during flow through of the core. The observed effluent concentration shows a reduction in Mg2+, while the Ca2+ concentration is increased. This, together with SEM-EDS analysis, indicates that magnesium-bearing mineral phases are precipitated leading to dissolution of calcite, an observation . This is in-line with other flow-through experiments reported earlier. The observed dissolution and precipitation are sensitive to the effective stress and test temperature. Typically. H, higher stress and temperature lead to increased concentration differences of Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentration changes.. The observed strain can be partitioned additively into a mechanical and chemical driven component.

  1. Room Temperature Deformation Mechanisms of Alumina Particles Observed from In Situ Micro-compression and Atomistic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Chandross, Michael; Carroll, Jay D.; Mook, William M.; Bufford, Daniel C.; Boyce, Brad L.; Hattar, Khalid; Kotula, Paul G.; Hall, Aaron C.

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol deposition (AD) is a solid-state deposition technology that has been developed to fabricate ceramic coatings nominally at room temperature. Sub-micron ceramic particles accelerated by pressurized gas impact, deform, and consolidate on substrates under vacuum. Ceramic particle consolidation in AD coatings is highly dependent on particle deformation and bonding; these behaviors are not well understood. In this work, atomistic simulations and in situ micro-compressions in the scanning electron microscope, and the transmission electron microscope (TEM) were utilized to investigate fundamental mechanisms responsible for plastic deformation/fracture of particles under applied compression. Results showed that highly defective micron-sized alumina particles, initially containing numerous dislocations or a grain boundary, exhibited no observable shape change before fracture/fragmentation. Simulations and experimental results indicated that particles containing a grain boundary only accommodate low strain energy per unit volume before crack nucleation and propagation. In contrast, nearly defect-free, sub-micron, single crystal alumina particles exhibited plastic deformation and fracture without fragmentation. Dislocation nucleation/motion, significant plastic deformation, and shape change were observed. Simulation and TEM in situ micro-compression results indicated that nearly defect-free particles accommodate high strain energy per unit volume associated with dislocation plasticity before fracture. The identified deformation mechanisms provide insight into feedstock design for AD.

  2. Room temperature deformation mechanisms of alumina particles observed from in situ micro-compression and atomistic simulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Sarobol, Pylin; Chandross, Michael E.; Carroll, Jay D.; Mook, William M.; Bufford, Daniel Charles; Boyce, Brad L.; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Kotula, Paul G.; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2015-09-22

    Aerosol deposition (AD) is a solid-state deposition technology that has been developed to fabricate ceramic coatings nominally at room temperature. Sub-micron ceramic particles accelerated by pressurized gas impact, deform, and consolidate on substrates under vacuum. Ceramic particle consolidation in AD coatings is highly dependent on particle deformation and bonding; these behaviors are not well understood. In this work, atomistic simulations and in situ micro-compressions in the scanning electron microscope, and the transmission electron microscope (TEM) were utilized to investigate fundamental mechanisms responsible for plastic deformation/fracture of particles under applied compression. Results showed that highly defective micron-sized alumina particles, initially containing numerous dislocations or a grain boundary, exhibited no observable shape change before fracture/fragmentation. Simulations and experimental results indicated that particles containing a grain boundary only accommodate low strain energy per unit volume before crack nucleation and propagation. In contrast, nearly defect-free, sub-micron, single crystal alumina particles exhibited plastic deformation and fracture without fragmentation. Dislocation nucleation/motion, significant plastic deformation, and shape change were observed. Simulation and TEM in situ micro-compression results indicated that nearly defect-free particles accommodate high strain energy per unit volume associated with dislocation plasticity before fracture. As a result, the identified deformation mechanisms provide insight into feedstock design for AD.

  3. Room temperature deformation mechanisms of alumina particles observed from in situ micro-compression and atomistic simulations.

    DOE PAGES

    Sarobol, Pylin; Chandross, Michael E.; Carroll, Jay D.; Mook, William M.; Bufford, Daniel Charles; Boyce, Brad L.; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Kotula, Paul G.; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2015-09-22

    Aerosol deposition (AD) is a solid-state deposition technology that has been developed to fabricate ceramic coatings nominally at room temperature. Sub-micron ceramic particles accelerated by pressurized gas impact, deform, and consolidate on substrates under vacuum. Ceramic particle consolidation in AD coatings is highly dependent on particle deformation and bonding; these behaviors are not well understood. In this work, atomistic simulations and in situ micro-compressions in the scanning electron microscope, and the transmission electron microscope (TEM) were utilized to investigate fundamental mechanisms responsible for plastic deformation/fracture of particles under applied compression. Results showed that highly defective micron-sized alumina particles, initially containingmore » numerous dislocations or a grain boundary, exhibited no observable shape change before fracture/fragmentation. Simulations and experimental results indicated that particles containing a grain boundary only accommodate low strain energy per unit volume before crack nucleation and propagation. In contrast, nearly defect-free, sub-micron, single crystal alumina particles exhibited plastic deformation and fracture without fragmentation. Dislocation nucleation/motion, significant plastic deformation, and shape change were observed. Simulation and TEM in situ micro-compression results indicated that nearly defect-free particles accommodate high strain energy per unit volume associated with dislocation plasticity before fracture. As a result, the identified deformation mechanisms provide insight into feedstock design for AD.« less

  4. Active intraplate deformation as geodynamic responses to oblique shallow subduction of a flat slab: example from central and southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Subduction of a flat slab has been recognized as one of the primary driving mechanism of wide intracontinental subsidence farther away from the subduction leading edge in many subduction margins. In most cases, however, quantitative and qualitative limitations on chronological constraints prevent comprehensive understanding of these geodynamic linkages. In this study, we show distinct, geologic and seismic evidence for spatial and temporal correlation between plate subduction and intercontinental deformation, mainly driven by dynamic interaction between subducting Philippine Sea (PHS) plate and overriding continental crusts of central and southwest Japan (Eurasian plate) along the Nankai-Tonankai subduction zone since Pliocene. Based on analyses of Pliocene to Pleistocene tectonic histories by use of rich dataset of Neogene stratigraphy, drainage network evolution, and shallow to deep seismic reflection profiles, depocenters of wide sedimentary basins and active thrusting have migrated northward since ca. 5 Ma to present from forearc to backarc of the southwest Japan arc. Median tectonic line, active dextral strike-slip fault as a forearc sliver along the Nankai, is located north of the upward extension of the downdip limit of the interseismic locked zone. Southwest Japan north of the MTL, underlain by the subducting slab with steady state slip (Nakanishi et al., 2002; Kodaira et al., 2004), appears tectonically less inactive than central Japan and has behaved as a less deformed rigid block. Contrastingly, Quaternary active intraplate deformation has been prominent north of the inactive MTL above a shallow flat segment of the PHS plate along the Tonankai. Deep seismic reflection profile images upward corrugated very shallow PHS slab being contact with continental lower crust beneath actively deforming area. We interpreted temporal and spatial correlation of oblique subduction of the shallow and flat, corrugated PHS slab as an essential mechanical role to enhance

  5. Tunable Mechanical Stability and Deformation Response of a Resilin-based Elastomer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linqing; Teller, Sean; Clifton, Rodney J.; Jia, Xinqiao; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2011-01-01

    Resilin, the highly elastomeric protein found in specialized compartments of most arthropods, possesses superior resilience and excellent high-frequency responsiveness. Enabled by biosynthetic strategies, we have designed and produced a modular, recombinant resilin-like polypeptide bearing both mechanically active and biologically active domains in order to create novel biomaterial microenvironments for engineering mechanically active tissues such as blood vessels, cardiovascular tissues and vocal folds. Preliminary studies revealed that these recombinant materials exhibit promising mechanical properties and support the adhesion of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. In this report, we detail the characterization of the dynamic mechanical properties of these materials, as assessed via dynamic oscillatory shear rheology at various protein concentrations and cross-linking ratios. Simply by varying the polypeptide concentration and cross-linker ratios, the storage modulus G′ can be easily tuned within the range of 500Pa to 10kPa. Strain-stress cycles and resilience measurements were probed via standard tensile testing methods and indicated the excellent resilience (>90%) of these materials, even when the mechanically active domains are intercepted by non-mechanically active biological cassettes. Further evaluation, at high frequencies, of the mechanical properties of these materials were assessed by a custom-designed torsional wave apparatus (TWA) at frequencies close to human phonation, indicated elastic modulus values from 200-2500Pa, which is within the range of experimental data collected on excised porcine and human vocal fold tissues. The results validate the outstanding mechanical properties of the engineered materials, which are highly comparable to the mechanical properties of targeted vocal fold tissues. The ease of production of these biologically active materials, coupled with their outstanding mechanical properties over a range of compositions, suggests their

  6. Compensatory Cell Movements Confer Robustness to Mechanical Deformation during Embryonic Development.

    PubMed

    Jelier, Rob; Kruger, Angela; Swoger, Jim; Zimmermann, Timo; Lehner, Ben

    2016-08-01

    Embryonic development must proceed despite both internal molecular fluctuations and external perturbations. However, mechanisms that provide robustness to mechanical perturbation remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we use light-sheet microscopy, comprehensive single-cell tracking, and targeted cell ablation to study the response of Caenorhabditis elegans embryos to external compression. Compression changes the relative positions of many cells and causes severe distortions of the embryonic axes. A large-scale movement of cells then corrects this distortion. Only a few specific cells are required for these compensatory movements, and one cell, ABarppap, appears to generate force, dramatically changing as it moves to its correct local cellular environment. During these movements, we also observed "egressions", cells moving out onto the surface, and lineages that undergo both ingression and egression. In total, our work describes how the embryo responds to a major mechanical deformation that can occur during the early development in situ and puts forward a model to explain how the response is coordinated. PMID:27524104

  7. Effects of deformation mechanisms on reservoir potential in central Appalachian overthrust belt

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S.

    1988-05-01

    Finite strain associated with various deformation mechanisms can significantly alter the porosity and permeability of reservoir rocks in overthrust belts. Mechanisms such as pressure solution and cataclasis reduce porosity and permeability, whereas extension fracturing and brecciation increase them. A theoretical derivation of the relationship between finite strain and original and final porosity indicates that little porosity is preserved in rocks whose strain (R) exceeds 1.5. Studies of variations in the relative importance of these mechanisms are used to define regional and local variations in reservoir properties in the central Appalachian overthrust belt. Regional limits of hydrocarbon potential are defined by combining finite-strain data with thermal-maturation (conodont color alteration index or CAI) data. On the basis of these studies, the author concludes that the potential for oil production is primarily restricted to the Appalachian Plateau province. The potential for gas production decreases from west to east in the Valley and Ridge and Plateau provinces, with its approximate eastern limit defined by the North Mountain thrust. 20 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Corrosion sensitization behavior and mechanical properties of liquid-nitrogen-deformed austenitic 304 stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Julio Gerardo

    Plastic deformation of 304 stainless steel at liquid nitrogen temperature ({-}196sp°C) produces an almost complete transformation to strain-induced alphasp'/-martensite which provides the necessary conditions for a pseudo-recrystallization of the microstructure. This "so-called" pseudo-recrystallization results directly from the martensitic reversion (i.e. martensite to austenite reverse transformation) upon the application of heat treatment within the sensitization temperature range. The very fine duplex (alpha/gamma) microstructure which results (after heat treatment-0.1h-670sp°C) is also accompanied by a very extensive and homogeneous precipitation of chromium-rich carbides. The concomitant pseudo-recrystallization and precipitation processes not only have a profound positive effect on the sensitization behavior, but also affect the mechanical properties of the material. This suggests that 304 stainless steel could be thermo-mechanically treated, to in essence, heal itself and simultaneously produce an extremely fine (≈0.1mum) duplex grain structure with intermixed carbides to form a very high strength product. This might have important practical implications since 304 stainless steel is the material of choice in many engineering applications. Electrochemical testing, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, neutron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, and mechanical testing were some of the techniques employed in this work.

  9. Mechanical characterization of the P56 mouse brain under large-deformation dynamic indentation

    PubMed Central

    MacManus, David B.; Pierrat, Baptiste; Murphy, Jeremiah G.; Gilchrist, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The brain is a complex organ made up of many different functional and structural regions consisting of different types of cells such as neurons and glia, as well as complex anatomical geometries. It is hypothesized that the different regions of the brain exhibit significantly different mechanical properties, which may be attributed to the diversity of cells and anisotropy of neuronal fibers within individual brain regions. The regional dynamic mechanical properties of P56 mouse brain tissue in vitro and in situ at velocities of 0.71–4.28 mm/s, up to a deformation of 70 μm are presented and discussed in the context of traumatic brain injury. The experimental data obtained from micro-indentation measurements were fit to three hyperelastic material models using the inverse Finite Element method. The cerebral cortex elicited a stiffer response than the cerebellum, thalamus, and medulla oblongata regions for all velocities. The thalamus was found to be the least sensitive to changes in velocity, and the medulla oblongata was most compliant. The results show that different regions of the mouse brain possess significantly different mechanical properties, and a significant difference also exists between the in vitro and in situ brain. PMID:26898475

  10. Elasticity of MoS2 Sheets by Mechanical Deformation Observed by in Situ Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    MoS2 has been the focus of extensive research due to its potential applications. More recently, the mechanical properties of MoS2 layers have raised interest due to applications in flexible electronics. In this article, we show in situ transmission electron microcsopy (TEM) observation of the mechanical response of a few layers of MoS2 to an external load. We used a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip mounted on a TEM stage to induce deformation on nanosheets of MoS2 containing few layers. The results confirm the outstanding mechanical properties on the MoS2. The layers can be bent close to 180°. However, when the tip is retrieved the initial structure is recovered. Evidence indicates that there is a significant bond reconstruction during the bending with an outstanding capability to recover the initial bond structure. The results show that flexibility of three layers of MoS2 remains the same as a single layer while increasing the bending modulus by 3 orders of magnitude. Our findings are consistent with theoretical calculations and confirm the great potential of MoS2 for applications. PMID:25598860

  11. Mechanical characterization of the P56 mouse brain under large-deformation dynamic indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacManus, David B.; Pierrat, Baptiste; Murphy, Jeremiah G.; Gilchrist, Michael D.

    2016-02-01

    The brain is a complex organ made up of many different functional and structural regions consisting of different types of cells such as neurons and glia, as well as complex anatomical geometries. It is hypothesized that the different regions of the brain exhibit significantly different mechanical properties, which may be attributed to the diversity of cells and anisotropy of neuronal fibers within individual brain regions. The regional dynamic mechanical properties of P56 mouse brain tissue in vitro and in situ at velocities of 0.71–4.28 mm/s, up to a deformation of 70 μm are presented and discussed in the context of traumatic brain injury. The experimental data obtained from micro-indentation measurements were fit to three hyperelastic material models using the inverse Finite Element method. The cerebral cortex elicited a stiffer response than the cerebellum, thalamus, and medulla oblongata regions for all velocities. The thalamus was found to be the least sensitive to changes in velocity, and the medulla oblongata was most compliant. The results show that different regions of the mouse brain possess significantly different mechanical properties, and a significant difference also exists between the in vitro and in situ brain.

  12. Mechanical characterization of the P56 mouse brain under large-deformation dynamic indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacManus, David B.; Pierrat, Baptiste; Murphy, Jeremiah G.; Gilchrist, Michael D.

    2016-02-01

    The brain is a complex organ made up of many different functional and structural regions consisting of different types of cells such as neurons and glia, as well as complex anatomical geometries. It is hypothesized that the different regions of the brain exhibit significantly different mechanical properties, which may be attributed to the diversity of cells and anisotropy of neuronal fibers within individual brain regions. The regional dynamic mechanical properties of P56 mouse brain tissue in vitro and in situ at velocities of 0.71-4.28 mm/s, up to a deformation of 70 μm are presented and discussed in the context of traumatic brain injury. The experimental data obtained from micro-indentation measurements were fit to three hyperelastic material models using the inverse Finite Element method. The cerebral cortex elicited a stiffer response than the cerebellum, thalamus, and medulla oblongata regions for all velocities. The thalamus was found to be the least sensitive to changes in velocity, and the medulla oblongata was most compliant. The results show that different regions of the mouse brain possess significantly different mechanical properties, and a significant difference also exists between the in vitro and in situ brain.

  13. The mechanisms of driving lithospheric deformation in India-Asia collision zone: a perspective from 3-D numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianfeng; Kaus, Boris

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism of intraplate deformation remains incompletely understood by plate tectonics theory. The India-Asia collision zone is the largest present-day example of continental collision, which makes it an ideal location to study the processes of continental deformation. Existing models of lithospheric deformation are typically quasi two-dimensional and often assume that the lithosphere is a thin viscous sheet, which deforms homogeneously as a result of the collision, or flows above a partially molten lower crust, which explains the exhumation of Himalayan units and lateral spreading of Tibetan plateau. An opposing view is that most deformation localize in shear zones separating less deformed blocks, requiring the lithosphere to have an elasto-plastic rather than a viscous rheology. In order to distinguish which model best fits the observations we develop a 3-D visco-elasto-plastic model, which can model both distributed and highly localized deformation. In our preliminary result, most of the large-scale strike-slips faults including Altyn-Tagh fault, Xianshuihe fault, Red-River fault, Sagaing fault and Jiali fault can be simulated. The topography is consistent with observations that flat plateau in central Tibet and steep, abrupt margins adjacent to Sichuan basin, and gradual topography in southeast Tibet. These models suggest that the localized large-scale strike-slip faults accommodate the continental deformation. These results show the importance of a weak lower crust and topographic effects, as well as the effect of rheology and temperature structure of the lithosphere on the deformation patterns.

  14. A deformable lung tumor tracking method in fluoroscopic video using active shape models: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qianyi; Hamilton, Russell J; Schowengerdt, Robert A; Jiang, Steve B

    2007-09-01

    A dynamic multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) can be used to track a moving target during radiotherapy. One of the major benefits for DMLC tumor tracking is that, in addition to the compensation for tumor translational motion, DMLC can also change the aperture shape to conform to a deforming tumor projection in the beam's eye view. This paper presents a method that can track a deforming lung tumor in fluoroscopic video using active shape models (ASM) (Cootes et al 1995 Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 61 38-59). The method was evaluated by comparing tracking results against tumor projection contours manually edited by an expert observer. The evaluation shows the feasibility of using this method for precise tracking of lung tumors with deformation, which is important for DMLC-based real-time tumor tracking.

  15. Active range of motion outcomes after reconstruction of burned wrist and hand deformities.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Ahmed M; Mahboub, Tarek A; Ibrahim Fouad, Amr; Azari, Kodi; Khalil, Haitham H; McCarthy, James E

    2016-06-01

    This works aim is to evaluate the efficacy of skin grafts and flaps in reconstruction of post-burn hand and wrist deformities. A prospective study of 57 burn contractures of the wrist and dorsum of the hand was performed. Flaps were used only if there was a non-vascularized structure after contracture release, otherwise a skin graft was used. Active range of motion (ROM) was used to assess hand function. The extension deformity cohort uniformly underwent skin graft following contracture release with a mean improvement of 71 degrees (p<0.0001). The flexion deformity cohort was treated with either skin grafts (8 patients) or flaps (9 patients) with a mean improvement of 44 degrees (p<0.0001). Skin grafts suffice for dorsal hand contractures to restore functional wrist ROM. For flexion contractures, flaps were more likely for contractures >6 months. Early release of burn contracture is advisable to avoid deep structure contracture.

  16. Use of polyurethane foam deformation sensor to record respiratory activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredov, V. I.; Baranov, V. S.

    1980-05-01

    The sensor developed has some substantial advantages over other known types. It is highly sensitive over a wide range of strain loads. The level of the output signal is linearly related to the force exerted on it, and it is sufficient for direct recording without using amplifiers of electric signals. The sensor is based on elastic, spongy material, polyurethane foam (porolon) with current-conducting material on the pore surface, current-conducting carbon black or electrode paste. The elastic properties of the sensor are built in the actual base of the strain-sensitive element, which simplifies the construction substantially and increases the reliability of the unit. In order to test the possibility of using this sensor to examine respiratory function, human pneumograms were recorded with the subject in a calm state along with the respiratory activity of experimental animals (dogs). Samples of the respiratory curve are shown. The simplicity of design of the sensor makes it possible to use it in various physiological experiments.

  17. Statistical model for the mechanical behavior of the tissue engineering non-woven fibrous matrices under large deformation.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Mohd Suhail; Pal, Anupam

    2014-09-01

    The fibrous matrices are widely used as scaffolds for the regeneration of load-bearing tissues due to their structural and mechanical similarities with the fibrous components of the extracellular matrix. These scaffolds not only provide the appropriate microenvironment for the residing cells but also act as medium for the transmission of the mechanical stimuli, essential for the tissue regeneration, from macroscopic scale of the scaffolds to the microscopic scale of cells. The requirement of the mechanical loading for the tissue regeneration requires the fibrous scaffolds to be able to sustain the complex three-dimensional mechanical loading conditions. In order to gain insight into the mechanical behavior of the fibrous matrices under large amount of elongation as well as shear, a statistical model has been formulated to study the macroscopic mechanical behavior of the electrospun fibrous matrix and the transmission of the mechanical stimuli from scaffolds to the cells via the constituting fibers. The study establishes the load-deformation relationships for the fibrous matrices for different structural parameters. It also quantifies the changes in the fiber arrangement and tension generated in the fibers with the deformation of the matrix. The model reveals that the tension generated in the fibers on matrix deformation is not homogeneous and hence the cells located in different regions of the fibrous scaffold might experience different mechanical stimuli. The mechanical response of fibrous matrices was also found to be dependent on the aspect ratio of the matrix. Therefore, the model establishes a structure-mechanics interdependence of the fibrous matrices under large deformation, which can be utilized in identifying the appropriate structure and external mechanical loading conditions for the regeneration of load-bearing tissues.

  18. Deformation of the Calabrian Arc subduction complex and its relation to STEP activity at depth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonia, Alina; Wortel, Rinus; Nijholt, Nicolai; Govers, Rob; Torelli, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    Propagating tear faults at the edge of subducted slabs ("Subduction transform edge propagator", STEP) are an intrinsic part of lithospheric plate dynamics. The surface expression of a STEP is generally not known yet, and is expected to vary significantly from one region to the other. We choose the Sicily -Calabria-Ionian Sea region, of which the lithosphere-upper mantle structure has the characteristics of a STEP zone, as a study area. The area has a very prominent accretionary wedge, the formation and subsequent deformation of which presumably were affected by the STEP activity at depth. In this contribution, we use seismic data on the near surface structure and deformation in combination with numerical model results to investigate the relation between deep STEP activity and near surface expression. Prominent features in the surface tectonics are the Malta escarpment (with predominantly normal faulting), the newly identified Ionian Fault and Alfeo-Etna fault system, and a distinct longitudinal division of the wedge into a western and an eastern lobe (Polonia et al., Tectonics, 2011). The two lobes are characterized by different structural style, deformation rates and basal detachment depths. Numerical model results indicate that the regional lithospheric structure, such as the orientation of the eastern passive (albeit subsequently activated) margin of Sicily relative to the Calabrian subduction zone, has a profound effect on possible fault activity along the Malta escarpment. Fault activity along the above primary fault structures may have varied in time, implying the possibility of intermittent activity. Interpreting seismicity in the context of a possible STEP, and the accompanying deformation zone at or near the surface, is not (yet) straightforward. Although direct evidence for recognizing all aspects of STEP activity is - as usual - lacking, a comparison with two well-known STEP regions, the northern part of the Tonga subduction zone and southern part of the

  19. Active deformation of the Congo intracratonic basin and its eastern margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everaerts, Michel; Delvaux, Damien; Beoka, Ateba

    2015-04-01

    The Congo basin, one of the largest intracontinental sedimentary basin in the world, developed in Central Africa since the early Neoproterozoic during successive tectonically controlled stages. It formed over an heterogeneous basement as highlighted by aeromagnetic data, composed of Archean cores welded by Proterozoic mobile belts. It contains an average of 4 km and locally up to 8 km of Neoproterozoic to Mesozoic sediments. Since late Mesozoic (Cenomanian), it was submitted to intraplate stresses due to the action of ridge-push forces related to the spreading of the South Atlantic. As a result, most part of the basin entered in an erosional stage while only a small part is still accumulating sediments. Active deformation of this vast region (5°N-11°S and 12-27°E) is indicated by a certain level of seismic activity, with about 270 earthquakes instrumentally recorded with magnitudes ranging from 2.2 to 5.5 inside the basin and up to up to 6.3 along its NW (Gabon) and NW (Katanga) margins. The dozen available focal mechanisms indicate that the basin is under ENE-WSW horizontal compression, under a compressional regime in its center and strike-slip regime along its northern and western margins. Low-angle slickensided fault planes are observed in the Samba cored well, constraining the onset of the recent compressional setting in the late Albian, at a time when South America was already separated from Africa and the South Atlantic Ridge was already functioning. Although subtle, recent tectonic deformations (faulting and buckling undulations) can also be inferred from the reflection seismic profiles and the topography and river network. The overall neotectonic picture is inferred as reflecting the development of compressional tectonic instabilities in the basin fill and its margins under the action of intraplate stress field and the control of the basement heterogeneity. This is a contribution to preparation of the Seismotectonic Map of Africa by the working group of

  20. Experimental and computational simulation studies on creep deformation mechanisms of a novel nanostructured Cu and Cu-10%Sn Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo-Elsoud, Mohamed A.

    2015-04-01

    This work presents experimental and computational simulation studies on creep deformation mechanisms of a novel nanostructured Cu and Cu-10%Sn alloy that prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) copper with elemental Tin. Mechanical Newtonian creep model is employed for computational simulation of creep deformation mechanism under low stress-high temperature and to justify the experimental findings. The observed behaviors are discussed and compared with the predications of the Nabarro-Herring (N-H) theory of directional diffusion. A simple theory based on the climb controlled generation of dislocations from a fixed density of sources is developed to explain the observed behavior. TEM and SEM investigations are convenient and powerful techniques for characterization of phases and a novel nano-grain structured of the resulting materials. The reduction of grain size to the nanometer scale improves their mechanical properties.

  1. Biomaterials-Based Strategies for the Engineering of Mechanically Active Soft Tissues.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhixiang; Jia, Xinqiao

    2012-06-01

    Load-bearing, mechanically active tissues are routinely subjected to non-linear mechanical deformations. Consequently, these tissues exhibit complex mechanical properties and unique tissue organizations. Successful engineering of mechanically active tissues relies on the integration of the mechanical sensing mechanism found in the native tissues into polymeric scaffolds. Intelligent biomaterials that closely mimic the structural organizations and multi-scale responsiveness of the natural extracellular matrices (ECM), when strategically combined with multipotent cells and dynamic culture devices that generate physiologically relevant physical forces, will lead to the creation of artificial tissues that are mechanically robust and biologically functional.

  2. Biomaterials-Based Strategies for the Engineering of Mechanically Active Soft Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Zhixiang; Jia, Xinqiao

    2012-01-01

    Load-bearing, mechanically active tissues are routinely subjected to non-linear mechanical deformations. Consequently, these tissues exhibit complex mechanical properties and unique tissue organizations. Successful engineering of mechanically active tissues relies on the integration of the mechanical sensing mechanism found in the native tissues into polymeric scaffolds. Intelligent biomaterials that closely mimic the structural organizations and multi-scale responsiveness of the natural extracellular matrices (ECM), when strategically combined with multipotent cells and dynamic culture devices that generate physiologically relevant physical forces, will lead to the creation of artificial tissues that are mechanically robust and biologically functional. PMID:25250199

  3. Microstructures, deformation mechanisms and seismic properties of a Palaeoproterozoic shear zone: The Mertz shear zone, East-Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarque, Gaëlle; Bascou, Jérôme; Maurice, Claire; Cottin, Jean-Yves; Riel, Nicolas; Ménot, René-Pierre

    2016-06-01

    The Mertz shear zone (MSZ) is a lithospheric scale structure that recorded mid-crustal deformation during the 1.7 Ga orogeny. We performed a microstructural and crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) study of samples from both mylonites and tectonic boudins that constitute relics of the Terre Adélie Craton (TAC). The deformation is highly accommodated in the MSZ by anastomosed shear bands, which become more scattered elsewhere in the TAC. Most of the MSZ amphibolite-facies mylonites display similar CPO, thermal conditions, intensity of deformation and dominant shear strain. Preserved granulite-facies boudins show both coaxial and non-coaxial strains related to the previous 2.45 Ga event. This former deformation is more penetrative and less localized and shows a deformation gradient, later affected by a major phase of recrystallization during retrogression at 2.42 Ga. Both MSZ samples and granulite-facies tectonic boudins present microstructures that reflect a variety of deformation mechanisms associated with the rock creep that induce contrasted CPO of minerals (quartz, feldspar, biotite, amphibole and orthopyroxene). In particular, we highlight the development of an "uncommon" CPO in orthopyroxene from weakly deformed samples characterized by (010)-planes oriented parallel to the foliation plane, [001]-axes parallel to the stretching lineation and clustering of [100]-axes near the Y structural direction. Lastly, we computed the seismic properties of the amphibolite and granulite facies rocks in the MSZ area in order to evaluate the contribution of the deformed intermediate and lower continental crust to the seismic anisotropy recorded above the MSZ. Our results reveal that (i) the low content of amphibole and biotite in the rock formations of the TAC, and (ii) the interactions between the CPO of the different mineralogical phases, generate a seismically isotropic crust. Thus, the seismic anisotropy recorded by the seismic stations of the TAC, including the

  4. Active cell mechanics: Measurement and theory.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Wylie W; Fodor, Étienne; Betz, Timo

    2015-11-01

    Living cells are active mechanical systems that are able to generate forces. Their structure and shape are primarily determined by biopolymer filaments and molecular motors that form the cytoskeleton. Active force generation requires constant consumption of energy to maintain the nonequilibrium activity to drive organization and transport processes necessary for their function. To understand this activity it is necessary to develop new approaches to probe the underlying physical processes. Active cell mechanics incorporates active molecular-scale force generation into the traditional framework of mechanics of materials. This review highlights recent experimental and theoretical developments towards understanding active cell mechanics. We focus primarily on intracellular mechanical measurements and theoretical advances utilizing the Langevin framework. These developing approaches allow a quantitative understanding of nonequilibrium mechanical activity in living cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology.

  5. Activities report in fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-10-01

    The research conducted at the Lille Institute of Fluid Mechanics (IMFL) concerns four areas: flight mechanics, structural mechanics, aerodynamics and applied fluid mechanics. Within these four areas, these topics are discussed: characterization of the unsteady pressures on an airfoil in turbulence; adaptation of the Kalman-Rauch filtering-smoothing method to instrumented free spin tests; vulnerability of aircraft fuel tanks; water surface impact; influence of an oscillating spoiler on the surrounding aerodynamic field; gunfiring similarity theory and rules; flow around a cylinder at low Reynolds number by holographic velocimetry and laser Doppler velocimetry; compressible turbulent flow computation; and the wake of wind turbine towers are discussed.

  6. The deformation and acoustic emission of aluminum-magnesium alloy under non-isothermal thermo-mechanical loading

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, S. V.; Plotnikov, V. A. Lysikov, M. V.; Kolubaev, E. A.

    2015-10-27

    The following study investigates the deformation behavior and acoustic emission in aluminum-magnesium alloy under conditions of non-isothermal thermo-mechanical loading. The accumulation of deformation in the alloy, in conditions of change from room temperature to 500°C, occurs in two temperature intervals (I, II), characterized by different rates of deformation. The rate of deformation accumulation is correlated with acoustic emission. With load increasing in cycles from 40 to 200 MPa, the value of the boundary temperature (T{sub b}) between intervals I and II changes non-monotonically. In cycles with load up to 90 MPa, the T{sub b} value increases, while an increase up to 200 MPa makes T{sub b} shift toward lower temperatures. This suggests that the shift of boundaries in the region of low temperatures and the appearance of high-amplitude pulses of acoustic emission characterize the decrease of the magnitude of thermal fluctuations with increasing mechanical load, leading to the rupture of interatomic bonds in an elementary deformation act.

  7. Mechanical stress activates neurites and somata of myenteric neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kugler, Eva M.; Michel, Klaus; Zeller, Florian; Demir, Ihsan E.; Ceyhan, Güralp O.; Schemann, Michael; Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    The particular location of myenteric neurons, sandwiched between the 2 muscle layers of the gut, implies that their somata and neurites undergo mechanical stress during gastrointestinal motility. Existence of mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN) is undoubted but many of their basic features remain to be studied. In this study, we used ultra-fast neuroimaging to record activity of primary cultured myenteric neurons of guinea pig and human intestine after von Frey hair evoked deformation of neurites and somata. Independent component analysis was applied to reconstruct neuronal morphology and follow neuronal signals. Of the cultured neurons 45% (114 out of 256, 30 guinea pigs) responded to neurite probing with a burst spike frequency of 13.4 Hz. Action potentials generated at the stimulation site invaded the soma and other neurites. Mechanosensitive sites were expressed across large areas of neurites. Many mechanosensitive neurites appeared to have afferent and efferent functions as those that responded to deformation also conducted spikes coming from the soma. Mechanosensitive neurites were also activated by nicotine application. This supported the concept of multifunctional MEN. 14% of the neurons (13 out of 96, 18 guinea pigs) responded to soma deformation with burst spike discharge of 17.9 Hz. Firing of MEN adapted rapidly (RAMEN), slowly (SAMEN), or ultra-slowly (USAMEN). The majority of MEN showed SAMEN behavior although significantly more RAMEN occurred after neurite probing. Cultured myenteric neurons from human intestine had similar properties. Compared to MEN, dorsal root ganglion neurons were activated by neurite but not by soma deformation with slow adaptation of firing. We demonstrated that MEN exhibit specific features very likely reflecting adaptation to their specialized functions in the gut. PMID:26441520

  8. Types of soft-sediment deformation structures in a lacustrine Ploužnice member (Stephanian, Gzhelian, Pennsylvanian, Bohemian Massif), their timing, and possible trigger mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stárková, Marcela; Martínek, Karel; Mikuláš, Radek; Rosenau, Nicholas

    2015-07-01

    The succession of Stephanian C lacustrine and fluvial facies of the Ploužnice member (Semily Formation) paleolake in the Krkonoše Piedmont Basin (northern Czech Republic) preserved in borehole Sm-1 shows five types of soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS): (1) sediment injections (clastic dikes), (2) load structures and ball-and-pillow structures, (3) water-escape structures (discontinuous laminations, deformed wavy bedding, recumbent folding, and dish or pillar structures), (4) deformations by growth of carbonate and silica minerals during diagenesis, and (5) bioturbation. Bioturbations disturbing mechanical SSDS suggest that soft-sediment deformations may occur syndepositionally or soon after deposition. The discussed mechanical SSDS are developed in a lacustrine environment, most being in lower shoreface and offshore facies. The mechanical SSDS found in the Ploužnice lake deposits occur in all lacustrine facies associations (290 SSDS horizons in a 67-m-thick succession). The cumulative thickness in cm of mechanical SSDS horizons per meter of thickness (ratio cm SSDS/m) is the highest in lower shoreface facies where it reaches from 50 up to 59.7 cm SSDS/m. Offshore facies association reaches 44 cm SSDS/m. Upper shoreface facies associations have 25.9 and 26.0 cm SSDS/m, while nearshore/mudflat facies associations preserve from 22.5 to 20.5 cm SSDS/m, and in palustrine carbonate, 13.5 cm mechanical SSDS/m was found. SSDS in fluvial facies are rare (2.9 cm SSDS/m). The distribution of SSDS in the Sm-1 borehole shows clear relationships to sedimentary facies and processes such as density flows or fluctuation of water level. The relationships of particular structures indicate a relative timing of formation which is as follows: sediment deposition was followed by the formation of mechanical SSDS, then by bioturbation, and finally by deformations due to early diagenetic growth of carbonates and silica. The distribution of SSDS in vertical sections and their

  9. Deformation mechanisms in advanced structural ceramics due to indentation and scratch processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Dipankar

    Plasma pressure compaction technique was used to develop boron carbide (B4C) and zirconium diboride-silicon carbide (ZrB2-SiC) composite. B4C ceramics are extensively used as body armor in military and civilian applications, and ZrB2-SiC composite has been recognized as a potential candidate for high-temperature aerospace applications. In this dissertation, processing parameters, quasistatic and high-strain rate mechanical response, and fundamental deformation mechanisms of these materials have been investigated. In the case of B4C, the rate sensitivity of indentation hardness was determined using a dynamic indentation hardness tester that can deliver loads in 100 micros. By comparing dynamic hardness with the static hardness, it was found that B4C exhibits a lower hardness at high-strain rate, contrary to known behavior in many structural ceramics. However, these results are consistent with the ballistic testing of B4C armors as reported in recent literature. This behavior was further investigated using a series of spectroscopic techniques such as visible and UV micro-Raman, photoluminescence and infrared. These studies not only confirmed that structural transformation occurred during indentation experiments similar to that in ballistic testing of B4C but also suggested a greater degree of structural changes under dynamic loading compared to static loading. Due to the potential application as external heat shields in supersonic vehicles, scratch studies were conducted on the ZrB2-SiC composite. These studies revealed metal-like slip-line patterns which are indeed an unusual in brittle solids at room-temperature. Utilizing classical stress field solutions under combined normal and tangential loads, a rationale was developed for understanding the formation of scratch-induced deformation features. Also, an analytical framework was developed, combining the concept of 'blister field' and the 'secular equation' relating Raman peaks to strain, to measure scratch

  10. Analysis of the thermo-mechanical deformations in a hot forging tool by numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L-Cancelos, R.; Varas, F.; Martín, E.; Viéitez, I.

    2016-03-01

    Although programs have been developed for the design of tools for hot forging, its design is still largely based on the experience of the tool maker. This obliges to build some test matrices and correct their errors to minimize distortions in the forged piece. This phase prior to mass production consumes time and material resources, which makes the final product more expensive. The forging tools are usually constituted by various parts made of different grades of steel, which in turn have different mechanical properties and therefore suffer different degrees of strain. Furthermore, the tools used in the hot forging are exposed to a thermal field that also induces strain or stress based on the degree of confinement of the piece. Therefore, the mechanical behaviour of the assembly is determined by the contact between the different pieces. The numerical simulation allows to analyse different configurations and anticipate possible defects before tool making, thus, reducing the costs of this preliminary phase. In order to improve the dimensional quality of the manufactured parts, the work presented here focuses on the application of a numerical model to a hot forging manufacturing process in order to predict the areas of the forging die subjected to large deformations. The thermo-mechanical model developed and implemented with free software (Code-Aster) includes the strains of thermal origin, strains during forge impact and contact effects. The numerical results are validated with experimental measurements in a tooling set that produces forged crankshafts for the automotive industry. The numerical results show good agreement with the experimental tests. Thereby, a very useful tool for the design of tooling sets for hot forging is achieved.

  11. Characterization and modeling of mechanical behavior of single crystal titanium deformed by split-Hopkinson pressure bar

    DOE PAGES

    Morrow, B. M.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Trujillo, C. P.; Martinez, D. T.; Addessio, F. L.; Bronkhorst, C. A.; Lookman, T.; Cerreta, E. K.

    2016-03-28

    Single crystal titanium samples were dynamically loaded using split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) and the resulting microstructures were examined. Characterization of the twins and dislocations present in the microstructure was conducted to understand the pathway for observed mechanical behavior. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to measure textures and quantify twinning. Microstructures were profusely twinned after loading, and twin variants and corresponding textures were different as a function of initial orientation. Focused ion beam (FIB) foils were created to analyze dislocation content using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Large amounts of dislocations were present, indicating that plasticity was achieved through slip andmore » twinning together. Viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) modeling was used to confirm the complex order of operations during deformation. The activation of different mechanisms was highly dependent upon crystal orientation. For [0001] and View the MathML source[101¯1]-oriented crystals, compressive twinning was observed, followed by secondary tensile twinning. Furthermore, dislocations though prevalent in the microstructure, contributed to final texture far less than twinning.« less

  12. About mechanisms of tetonic activity of the satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2003-04-01

    ABOUT MECHANISMS OF TECTONIC ACTIVITY OF THE SATELLITES Yu.V. Barkin Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow, Russia, barkin@sai.msu.ru Due to attraction of the central planet and others external bodies satellite is subjected by tidal and non-tidal deformations. Elastic energy is changed in dependence from mutual position and motion of celestial bodies and as result the tensional state of satellite and its tectonic (endogenous) activity also is changed. Satellites of the planets have the definite shell’s structure and due to own rotation these shells are characterized by different oblatenesses. Gravitational interaction of the satellite and its mother planet generates big additional mechanical forces (and moments) between the neighboring non-spherical shells of the satellite (mantle, core and crust). These forces and moments are cyclic functions of time, which are changed in the different time-scales. They generate corresponding cyclic perturbations of the tensional state of the shells, their deformations, small relative transnational displacements and slow rotation of the shells and others. In geological period of time it leads to a fundamental tectonic reconstruction of the body. Definite contribution to discussed phenomena are caused by classical tidal mechanism. of planet-satellite interaction. But in this report we discuss in first the new mechanisms of endogenous activity of celestial bodies. They are connected with differential gravitational attraction of non-spherical satellite shells by the external celestial bodies which leads: 1) to small relative rotation (nutations) of the shells; 2) to small relative translational motions of the shells (displacements of their center of mass); 3) to relative displacements and rotations of the shells due to eccentricity of their center of mass positions; 4) to viscous elastic deformations of the shells and oth. (Barkin, 2001). For higher evaluations of the power of satellite endogenous activities were obtained

  13. Effects of deformation on microstructure and mechanical properties of a Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sari, U. Kirindi, T.

    2008-07-15

    In Cu-11.92 wt.%Al-3.78 wt.%Ni shape memory alloy, the influence of deformation and thermal treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties under the compression test were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Experiments show that the mechanical properties of the alloy can be enhanced by convenient heat treatments. The alloy exhibits good mechanical properties with high ultimate compression strength and ductility after annealing at high temperature. However, it exhibits brittle fracture and dramatic strain hardening, with linear stress-strain behavior after annealing at low temperature. The changes in the mechanical properties have been linked to the evolution of the degree of order, occurrence of precipitation, and variation of the grain size. From microstructural observations, it is seen that the {beta}{sub 1}' (18R) and {gamma}{sub 1}' (2H) martensite phases coexist at different fractions in the undeformed and deformed states. Deformation induces the changes between the {beta}{sub 1}' and {gamma}{sub 1}' martensites and deformation-induced martensites form at preferred orientations as mechanical twins. The {beta}{sub 1}' martensite variants are twin-related with respect to the (1-bar 2-bar 8){sub 18R} mirror plane and a new orientation relationship for these twin variants is derived as (1-bar 2-bar 8){sub A}-parallel (1-bar 2-bar 8){sub C}: [4-bar 61] {sub A}-parallel [4-bar 61]{sub C}. Additionally, an increase in the amount of deformation causes martensite reorientation, de-twinning, and dislocation generation; also, the martensite plates are seen to have rearranged in the same orientation to be parallel with each other.

  14. Persistent inflation at Aira caldera accompanying explosive activity at Sakurajima volcano: Constraining deformation source parameters from Finite Element inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, James; Gottsmann, Jo; Iguchi, Masato; Nakamichi, Haruhisa

    2015-04-01

    Aira caldera is located within Kagoshima Bay at the southern end of Kyushu, Japan. Sakurajima is an active post-caldera andesitic stratovolcano that sits on the caldera's southern rim. Despite frequent Vulcanian-type explosive activity, the area is experiencing continued uplift at a maximum rate of approximately 1.5 cm/yr with a footprint of 40 km, indicating that magma is being supplied faster than it is erupted. This is of particular concern as the amplitude of deformation is approaching the level inferred prior to the 1914 VEI 4 eruption. Using GPS data from 1996 - 2007 we explore causes for the uplift. To solve for the optimum deformation source parameters we use an inverse Finite Element method accounting for three-dimensional material heterogeneity (inferred from seismic tomography) and the surrounding topography of the region. The same inversions are also carried out using Finite Element models that incorporate simplified homogeneous or one-dimensional subsurface material properties, with and without topography. Results from the comparison of the six different models show statistically significant differences in the inferred deformation sources. This indicates that both subsurface heterogeneity and surface topography are essential in geodetic modelling to extract the most realistic deformation source parameters. The current best-fit source sits within a seismic low-velocity zone in the north-east of the caldera at a depth of approximately 14 km with a volume increase of 1.2 x 108 m3. The source location underlies a region of active underwater fumaroles within the Wakamiko crater and differs significantly from previous analytical modelling results. Seismic data further highlights areas of high seismic attenuation as well as large aseismic zones, both of which could allude to inelastic behaviour and a significant heat source at depth. To integrate these observations, subsequent forward Finite Element models will quantify the importance of rheology and

  15. Deformation Mechanism and Microstructure Evolution of T92/S30432 Dissimilar Welded Joint During Creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lianyong; Wang, Yongfa; Jing, Hongyang; Zhao, Lei; Han, Yongdian

    2016-09-01

    The cross dissimilar welds between T92 martensitic steel and S30432 austenitic steel were crept at 625 °C with different applied stresses, and the creep deformation and microstructure behaviors were characterized. The results revealed that the creep deformation behavior of dissimilar weld joint was controlled by its martensitic T92 part due to the Ni-based filler metal employed. The fracture positions of crept dissimilar welded joints were located in base metal of T92 steel as the applied stress over than 140 MPa. The fracture type was mainly caused by plastic deformation and characterized by dimples and surface necking. In contrast, as applied stress was <140 MPa, fractured location was transferred into the fine-grained heat-affected zone of T92 part identified to be the intergranular brittle fracture. This phenomenon was controlled by creep deformation and related to undissolved carbides, fine grain size and constraint effect induced by creep deformation inconsistent in this zone.

  16. Derivation of a finite-element model of lingual deformation during swallowing from the mechanics of mesoscale myofiber tracts obtained by MRI

    PubMed Central

    Stojanovic, Boban; Kojic, Milos; Liang, Alvin; Wedeen, Van J.; Gilbert, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate the relationship between lingual myoarchitecture and mechanics during swallowing, we performed a finite-element (FE) simulation of lingual deformation employing mesh aligned with the vector coordinates of myofiber tracts obtained by diffusion tensor imaging with tractography in humans. Material properties of individual elements were depicted in terms of Hill's three-component phenomenological model, assuming that the FE mesh was composed of anisotropic muscle and isotropic connective tissue. Moreover, the mechanical model accounted for elastic constraints by passive and active elements from the superior and inferior directions and the effect of out-of-plane muscles and connective tissue. Passive bolus effects were negligible. Myofiber tract activation was simulated over 500 ms in 1-ms steps following lingual tip association with the hard palate and incorporated specifically the accommodative and propulsive phases of the swallow. Examining the displacement field, active and passive muscle stress, elemental stretch, and strain rate relative to changes of global shape, we demonstrate that lingual reconfiguration during these swallow phases is characterized by (in sequence) the following: 1) lingual tip elevation and shortening in the anterior-posterior direction; 2) inferior displacement related to hyoglossus contraction at its inferior-most position; and 3) dominant clockwise rotation related to regional contraction of the genioglossus and contraction of the hyoglossus following anterior displacement. These simulations demonstrate that lingual deformation during the indicated phases of swallowing requires temporally patterned activation of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles and delineate a method to ascertain the mechanics of normal and pathological swallowing. PMID:20689096

  17. Deformation at Stromboli volcano (Italy) revealed by rock mechanics and structural geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibaldi, A.; Corazzato, C.; Apuani, T.; Cancelli, A.

    2003-01-01

    We approach the reconstruction of the recent structural evolution of Stromboli volcano (Italy) and the analysis of the interplay between tectonics, gravity and volcanic deformation. By tying together structural, lithostratigraphic and rock mechanics data, we establish that since 100 ka BP, the edifice has faulted and jointed mainly along NE-striking planes. Faults mostly dip to the NW with normal displacement. Taking also into account the presence of a NW-trending regional least principal stress and of tectonic earthquake hypocenters inside the cone, we suggest that this fracturing can be related to the transmission of tectonic forces from the basement to the cone. Dyking concentrated along a main NE-trending weakness zone (NEZ) across the volcano summit, resembling a volcanic rift, whose geometry is governed by the tectonic field. In the past 13 ka, Stromboli experienced a reorganisation of the strain field, which was linked with the development of four sector collapses affecting the NW flank, alternating with growth phases. The tectonic strain field interplayed with dyking and fracturing related to unbuttressing along the collapse shoulders. We propose that tectonics control the geometry of dykes inside the cone and that these, in turn, contribute to destabilise the cone flanks.

  18. Metastable alloy materials produced by solid state reaction of compacted, mechanically deformed mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Atzmon, Michael; Johnson, William L.; Verhoeven, John D.

    1987-01-01

    Bulk metastable, amorphous or fine crystalline alloy materials are produced by reacting cold-worked, mechanically deformed filamentary precursors such as metal powder mixtures or intercalated metal foils. Cold-working consolidates the metals, increases the interfacial area, lowers the free energy for reaction, and reduces at least one characteristic dimension of the metals. For example, the grains (13) of powder or the sheets of foil are clad in a container (14) to form a disc (10). The disc (10) is cold-rolled between the nip (16) of rollers (18,20) to form a flattened disc (22). The grains (13) are further elongated by further rolling to form a very thin sheet (26) of a lamellar filamentary structure (FIG. 4) containing filaments having a thickness of less than 0.01 microns. Thus, diffusion distance and time for reaction are substantially reduced when the flattened foil (28) is thermally treated in oven (32) to form a composite sheet (33) containing metastable material (34) dispersed in unreacted polycrystalline material (36).

  19. Cyclic Deformation of Advanced High-Strength Steels: Mechanical Behavior and Microstructural Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilditch, Timothy B.; Timokhina, Ilana B.; Robertson, Leigh T.; Pereloma, Elena V.; Hodgson, Peter D.

    2009-02-01

    The fatigue properties of multiphase steels are an important consideration in the automotive industry. The different microstructural phases present in these steels can influence the strain life and cyclic stabilized strength of the material due to the way in which these phases accommodate the applied cyclic strain. Fully reversed strain-controlled low-cycle fatigue tests have been used to determine the mechanical fatigue performance of a dual-phase (DP) 590 and transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) 780 steel, with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) used to examine the deformed microstructures. It is shown that the higher strain life and cyclic stabilized strength of the TRIP steel can be attributed to an increased yield strength. Despite the presence of significant levels of retained austenite in the TRIP steel, both steels exhibited similar cyclic softening behavior at a range of strain amplitudes due to comparable ferrite volume fractions and yielding characteristics. Both steels formed low-energy dislocation structures in the ferrite during cyclic straining.

  20. How Mechanical Deformation of Polymers during Vitrification Alters the Subsequent Stability of the Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Laura A. G.; Roth, Connie B.

    2015-03-01

    How stress and mechanical deformation impart mobility to polymer glasses have been studied primarily for materials where the glassy state was formed stress free. Here, we investigate the stability of polymer glasses where a constant stress is applied during the formation of the glassy state (thermal quench). Previously we found that physical aging is strongly dependent on the conditions during glass formation, including cooling rate and (often unintended) stress [Macromolecules 2012, 45, 1701]. We constructed a unique jig to apply a known stress to free-standing films during the thermal quench. We used ellipsometry to measure the physical aging rate of polystyrene films by quantifying the time-dependent decrease in film thickness that results from an increase in average film density during aging. As the magnitude of stress during vitrification increases, the physical aging rate quickly transitions over a small range of stresses to a faster aging rate, indicating the resulting glass is less stable [Soft Matter 2014, 10, 1572]. To explore this unique finding, we have constructed a computer-controlled apparatus to measure and apply stress and strain to polymer films during vitrification in order to characterize the temperature-dependent stress build up.

  1. Dolomite microstructures between 390° and 700 °C: Indications for deformation mechanisms and grain size evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Alfons; Ebert, Andreas; Ramseyer, Karl; Gnos, Edwin; Decrouez, Danielle

    2016-08-01

    Dolomitic marble on the island of Naxos was deformed at variable temperatures ranging from 390 °C to >700 °C. Microstructural investigations indicate two end-member of deformation mechanisms: (1) Diffusion creep processes associated with small grain sizes and weak or no CPO (crystallographic preferred orientation), whereas (2) dislocation creep processes are related with larger grain sizes and strong CPO. The change between these mechanisms depends on grain size and temperature. Therefore, sample with dislocation and diffusion creep microstructures and CPO occur at intermediate temperatures in relative pure dolomite samples. The measured dolomite grain size ranges from 3 to 940 μm. Grain sizes at Tmax >450 °C show an Arrhenius type evolution reflecting the stabilized grain size in deformed and relative pure dolomite. The stabilized grain size is five times smaller than that of calcite at the same temperature and shows the same Arrhenius-type evolution. In addition, the effect of second phase particle influences the grain size evolution, comparable with calcite. Calcite/dolomite mixtures are also characterized by the same difference in grain size, but recrystallization mechanism including chemical recrystallization induced by deformation may contribute to apparent non-temperature equilibrated Mg-content in calcite.

  2. Evidence of ongoing crustal deformation related to magmatic activity near Socorro, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, S.; Brown, L.; Reilinger, R.

    1986-01-01

    Leveling measurements conducted in 1980-1981 by the National Geodetic Survey in the Socorro area of the Rio Grande rift are analyzed. Crustal uplift related to magma inflation in the midcrustal magma body is detected; an uplift of 0.18 cm/yr is measured for the time between 1951-1980. The survey data of 1911 and 1959 are compared to the present data and good correlation is observed. The systematic leveling errors including height-dependence and refraction errors are studied. The 30-km-wide subsidence in the area is examined. The spatial correlation between seismic activity, the Socorro magma body, and crustal deformation in Socorro is investigated. The crustal movement from magma reservior activities is modeled using the formulations of Dieterich and Decker (1975). The modeling of the deformation reveals that the movement in the Socorro area is associated with the 19-km deep Socorro magma body.

  3. Mechanotransduction Mechanisms for Intraventricular Diastolic Vortex Forces and Myocardial Deformations: Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Pasipoularides, Ares

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are fundamental in cardiac adaptations, remodeling, reverse remodeling, and disease. This 2-article series proposes that variable forces associated with diastolic RV/LV rotatory intraventricular flows can exert physiologically and clinically important, albeit still unappreciated, epigenetic actions influencing functional and morphological cardiac adaptations and/or maladaptations. Taken in-toto, the 2-part survey formulates a new paradigm in which intraventricular diastolic filling vortex-associated forces play a fundamental epigenetic role, and examines how heart cells react to these forces. The objective is to provide a perspective on vortical epigenetic effects, to introduce emerging ideas and suggest directions of multidisciplinary translational research. The main goal is to make pertinent biophysics and cytomechanical dynamic systems concepts accessible to interested translational and clinical cardiologists. I recognize that the diversity of the epigenetic problems can give rise to a diversity of approaches and multifaceted specialized research undertakings. Specificity may dominate the picture. However, I take a contrasting approach. Are there concepts that are central enough that they should be developed in some detail? Broadness competes with specificity. Would however this viewpoint allow for a more encompassing view that may otherwise be lost by generation of fragmented results? Part 1 serves as a general introduction, focusing on background concepts, on intracardiac vortex imaging methods, and on diastolic filling vortex-associated forces acting epigenetically on RV/LV endocardium and myocardium. Part 2 will describe pertinent available pluridisciplinary knowledge/research relating to mechanotransduction mechanisms for intraventricular diastolic vortex forces and myocardial deformations and to their epigenetic actions on myocardial and ventricular function and adaptations. PMID:25624114

  4. A High-Performance Deformable Mirror with Integrated Driver ASIC for Space Based Active Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Chris

    Direct imaging of exoplanets is key to fully understanding these systems through spectroscopy and astrometry. The primary impediment to direct imaging of exoplanets is the extremely high brightness ratio between the planet and its parent star. Direct imaging requires a technique for contrast suppression, which include coronagraphs, and nulling interferometers. Deformable mirrors (DMs) are essential to both of these techniques. With space missions in mind, Microscale is developing a novel DM with direct integration of DM and its electronic control functions in a single small envelope. The Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is key to the shrinking of the electronic control functions to a size compatible with direct integration with the DM. Through a NASA SBIR project, Microscale, with JPL oversight, has successfully demonstrated a unique deformable mirror (DM) driver ASIC prototype based on an ultra-low power switch architecture. Microscale calls this the Switch-Mode ASIC, or SM-ASIC, and has characterized it for a key set of performance parameters, and has tested its operation with a variety of actuator loads, such as piezo stack and unimorph, and over a wide temperature range. These tests show the SM-ASIC's capability of supporting active optics in correcting aberrations of a telescope in space. Microscale has also developed DMs to go with the SM-ASIC driver. The latest DM version produced uses small piezo stack elements in an 8x8 array, bonded to a novel silicon facesheet structure fabricated monolithically into a polished mirror on one side and mechanical linkage posts that connect to the piezoelectric stack actuators on the other. In this Supporting Technology proposal we propose to further develop the ASIC-DM and have assembled a very capable team to do so. It will be led by JPL, which has considerable expertise with DMs used in Adaptive Optics systems, with high-contrast imaging systems for exoplanet missions, and with designing DM driver

  5. Effects of Structural Deformations of the Crank-Slider Mechanism on the Estimation of the Instantaneous Engine Friction Torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHALHOUB, N. G.; NEHME, H.; HENEIN, N. A.; BRYZIK, W.

    1999-07-01

    The focus on the current study is to assess the effects of structural deformations of the crankshaft/connecting-rod/piston mechanism on the computation of the instantaneous engine friction torque. This study is performed in a fully controlled environment in order to isolate the effects of structural deformations from those of measurement errors or noise interference. Therefore, a detailed model, accounting for the rigid and flexible motions of the crank-slider mechanism and including engine component friction formulations, is considered in this study. The model is used as a test bed to generate the engine friction torque,Tfa, and to predict the rigid and flexible motions of the system in response to the cylinder gas pressure. The torsional vibrations and the rigid body angular velocity of the crankshaft, as predicted by the detailed model of the crank-slider mechanism, are used along with the engine load torque and the cylinder gas pressure in the (P-ω) method to estimate the engine friction torque,Tfe. This method is well suited for the purpose of this study because its formulation is based on the rigid body model of the crank-slider mechanism. The digital simulation results demonstrate that the exclusion of the structural deformations of the crank-slider mechanism from the formulation of the (P-ω) method leads to an overestimation of the engine friction torque near the top-dead-center (TDC) position of the piston under firing conditions. Moreover, for the remainder of the engine cycle, the estimated friction torque exhibits large oscillations and takes on positive numerical values as if it is inducing energy into the system. Thus, the adverse effects of structural deformations of the crank-slider mechanism on the estimation of the engine friction torque greatly differ in their nature from one phase of the engine cycle to another.

  6. On the Stacking Fault Energy Evaluation and Deformation Mechanism of Sanicro-28 Super-Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moallemi, Mohammad; Zarei-Hanzaki, Abbas; Mirzaei, Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, the reliance of deformation mechanism of a super-austenitic steel (Sanicro-28) on the external stress and stacking fault energy (SFE) was quantitatively investigated by analyzing the stacking fault separation. The stacking fault energy of the experimental alloy was determined using line profile analysis through x-ray diffraction measurements. Considering the calculated SFE and external stress, the predominant deformation mechanism was predicted by a quantitative model. A set of experimental examinations were carried out validating the applied model. The experimental findings reveal that the plasticity mechanism of steel can be divided into two stages. In the first stage (at lower strain), no mechanical twin was observed in the microstructure and the dislocation glide would control the plasticity. In the second stage (at higher strain), the mechanical twinning was considered as the predominant plasticity mechanism. Furthermore, regarding the stress threshold of mechanical twin formation, as the SFE increases, the critical stress for mechanical twinning initiation intensifies. However, in the present super-austenitic stainless steel, the mechanical twinning was observed at the stresses lower than those predicted by the applied model. This was related to the various interactions between dislocation and different barriers in the solid solution matrix.

  7. The Mechanics and Energetics of Soil Bioturbation by Plant Roots and Earthworms - Plastic Deformation Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Siul; Or, Dani; Schymanski, Stanislaus

    2014-05-01

    Soil structure plays a critical factor in the agricultural, hydrological and ecological functions of soils. These services are adversely impacted by soil compaction, a damage that could last for many years until functional structure is restored. An important class of soil structural restoration processes are related to biomechanical activity associated with burrowing of earthworms and root proliferation in impacted soil volumes. We study details of the mechanical processes and energetics associated with quantifying the rates and mechanical energy required for soil structural restoration. We first consider plastic cavity expansion to describe earthworm and plant root radial expansion under various conditions. We then use cone penetration models as analogues to wedging induced by root tip growth and worm locomotion. The associated mechanical stresses and strains determine the mechanical energy associated with bioturbation for different hydration conditions and root/earthworm geometries. Results illustrate a reduction in strain energy with increasing water content and trade-offs between pressure and energy investment for various root and earthworm geometries. The study provides the basic building blocks for estimating rates of soil structural alteration, the associated energetic requirements (soil carbon, plant assimilates) needed to sustain structure regeneration by earthworms and roots, and highlights potential mechanical cut-offs for such activities.

  8. Simulation and experimental investigation of active lightweight compliant mechanisms with integrated piezoceramic actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modler, Niels; Winkler, Anja; Filippatos, Angelos; Lovasz, Erwin-Christian; Mărgineanu, Dan

    2016-08-01

    Compliant mechanisms with integrated actuators can enable new function-integrative structures through the elastic deformation of elements without the use of classical links and joints. For such designs, the mechanical behaviour of the mechanism has to be well known, because external loads, the utilised materials and the geometry of the structural parts influence the deformation performance significantly. In order to speed up the development process of such mechanisms, a tool for the dynamic analysis of compliant movements is necessary before any further FEM simulation and manufacturing. Therefore, the paper presents a simulating procedure for active compliant mechanisms obtained through the integration of piezoceramic actuators into fibre-reinforced composite structures using a double layer model. A new mechanism was designed, simulated, constructed and tested. The comparison between simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the presented procedure in regard to the design phase of new active compliant structures.

  9. Mechanical properties characterization and modeling of active polymer gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Steven Paul

    Active polymer gels expand and contract in response to certain environmental stimuli, such as the application of an electric field or a change in the pH level of the surroundings. This ability to achieve large, reversible deformations with no external mechanical loading has generated much interest in the use of these gels as actuators and "artificial muscles." While much work has been done to study the behavior and properties of these gels, little information is available regarding the full constitutive description of the mechanical and actuation properties. This work focuses on developing a means of characterizing the mechanical properties of active polymer gels and describing how these properties evolve as the gel actuates. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-poly(acrylic acid) (PVA-PAA) gel was chosen as the model material for this work because it is relatively simple and safe to both fabricate and actuate. PVA-PAA gels are fabricated on-site using a solvent-casting technique. These gels expand when moved from acidic to basic solutions, and contract when moved from basic to acidic solutions. Citric acid and sodium bicarbonate were used as the testing solutions for this work. The mechanical properties of the gel were characterized by conducting uniaxial and biaxial tests on thin PVA-PAA gel films. A biaxial testing system has been developed which can measure stresses and deformations of these films in a variety of liquid environments. The experimental results on PVA-PAA gels show these materials to be relatively compliant, and slightly viscoelastic and compressible. These gels are also capable of large recoverable deformations in both acidic and basic environments. A thermodynamically consistent finite-elastic constitutive model was developed to describe the mechanical and actuation behaviors of active polymer gels. The mechanical properties of the gel are characterized by a free-energy function, and the model utilizes an evolving internal variable to describe the actuation

  10. Interseismic deformations along Ecuador active fault systems: Contribution of space-borne SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champenois, J.; Audin, L.; Baize, S.; Nocquet, J.; Alvarado, A.

    2013-05-01

    Located in the Northern Andes along the active subduction zone of the Nazca plate beneath the South American continent, Ecuador is highly exposed to seismic hazard. Up to now, numerous multidisciplinary studies for the last ten years focused on the seismicity related to the subduction, whereas few investigations concentrated on the crustal seismicity in the upper plate (through few strong events like the 1797 Riobamba earthquake, ML 8.3, 12.000 deaths). The faults that are responsible of these earthquakes are poorly known in term of slip rate and in some cases are even not identified yet. To address this issue and compare the interseismic data to the geomorphological long term signature of active faulting we propose to use multi-temporal Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) methods.Using these cost-effective techniques, we are able to investigate surface interseismic deformation with an unprecedented spatial density of measurements (highly superior to Global Positioning System network density). This study presents preliminary results of tectonic surface deformation using ERS (1993-2000) and Envisat (2002-2010) SAR data in the Inter Andean Valley and along the eastern border of the North Andean Block, where is accommodated the relative displacement between the North Andean Block and South America plate (~ 8 mm/yr). We generated average velocity maps and consistent time-series of displacements with values measured along the line of sight of the radar. Resulting maps of ground displacements are calibrated by GPS data in order to provide a homogeneous database. These preliminary results show large scale deformation localized on some major fault systems in the Inter Andean Valley (from Quito to north of Cuenca) and allow an updating of the active faults map. Moreover, these InSAR results permit detecting and quantifying ground deformation due to volcanic unrest.

  11. Effect of forging strain rate and deformation temperature on the mechanical properties of warm-worked 304L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Switzner, N. T.; Van Tyne, C. J.; Mataya, M. C.

    2010-01-25

    Stainless steel 304L forgings were produced with four different types of production forging equipment – hydraulic press, mechanical press, screw press, and high-energy rate forging (HERF). Each machine imparted a different nominal strain rate during the deformation. The final forgings were done at the warm working (low hot working) temperatures of 816 °C, 843°C, and 871°C. The objectives of the study were to characterize and understand the effect of industrial strain rates (i.e. processing equipment), and deformation temperature on the mechanical properties for the final component. Some of the components were produced with an anneal prior to the final forging while others were deformed without the anneal. The results indicate that lower strain rates produced lower strength and higher ductility components, but the lower strain rate processes were more sensitive to deformation temperature variation and resulted in more within-part property variation. The highest strain rate process, HERF, resulted in slightly lower yield strength due to internal heating. Lower processing temperatures increased strength, decreased ductility but decreased within-part property variation. The anneal prior to the final forging produced a decrease in strength, a small increase in ductility, and a small decrease of within-part property variation.

  12. The influence of metallic shell deformation on the contact mechanics of a ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Changdong; Wang, Ling; Li, Dichen; Jin, Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty of ceramic-on-ceramic bearing combinations is increasingly used clinically. The majority of these implants are used with cementless fixation that a metal-backing shell is press-fitted into the pelvic bone. This usually results in the deformation of the metallic shell, which may also influence the ceramic liner deformation and consequently the contact mechanics between the liner and the femoral head under loading. The explicit dynamic finite element method was applied to model the implantation of a cementless ceramic-on-ceramic with a titanium shell and subsequently to investigate the effect of the metallic shell deformation on the contact mechanics. A total of three impacts were found to be necessary to seat the titanium alloy shell into the pelvic bone cavity with a 1 mm diameter interference and a 1.3 kg impactor at 4500 mm s(-1) velocity. The maximum deformation of the metallic shell was found to be 160 µm in the antero-superior and postero-inferior direction and 97 µm in the antero-inferior and postero-superior direction after the press-fit. The corresponding values were slightly reduced to 67 and 45 µm after the ceramic liner was inserted and then modified to 74 and 43 µm under loading, respectively. The maximum deformation and the maximum principal stress of the ceramic liner were 31 µm and 144 MPa (tensile stress), respectively, after it was inserted into the shell and further increased to 52 µm and 245 MPa under loading. This research highlights the importance of the press-fit of the metallic shell on the contact mechanics of the ceramic liner for ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasties and potential clinical performances.

  13. The influence of metallic shell deformation on the contact mechanics of a ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Changdong; Wang, Ling; Li, Dichen; Jin, Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty of ceramic-on-ceramic bearing combinations is increasingly used clinically. The majority of these implants are used with cementless fixation that a metal-backing shell is press-fitted into the pelvic bone. This usually results in the deformation of the metallic shell, which may also influence the ceramic liner deformation and consequently the contact mechanics between the liner and the femoral head under loading. The explicit dynamic finite element method was applied to model the implantation of a cementless ceramic-on-ceramic with a titanium shell and subsequently to investigate the effect of the metallic shell deformation on the contact mechanics. A total of three impacts were found to be necessary to seat the titanium alloy shell into the pelvic bone cavity with a 1 mm diameter interference and a 1.3 kg impactor at 4500 mm s(-1) velocity. The maximum deformation of the metallic shell was found to be 160 µm in the antero-superior and postero-inferior direction and 97 µm in the antero-inferior and postero-superior direction after the press-fit. The corresponding values were slightly reduced to 67 and 45 µm after the ceramic liner was inserted and then modified to 74 and 43 µm under loading, respectively. The maximum deformation and the maximum principal stress of the ceramic liner were 31 µm and 144 MPa (tensile stress), respectively, after it was inserted into the shell and further increased to 52 µm and 245 MPa under loading. This research highlights the importance of the press-fit of the metallic shell on the contact mechanics of the ceramic liner for ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasties and potential clinical performances. PMID:26511269

  14. Structural ensembles of the north belt of Venus deformations and possible mechanisms of their formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markov, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses structural formations in the northern deformation belt of Venus, studied according to the data of the radar pictures obtained with the Venera 15 and 16 probes. He shows that it consists of regions of compression with submeridional orientation, regions of displacement, extending in the sublatitudinal direction and individual slightly deformed blocks. He puts forward the hypothesis that the formation of these structures is related with horizontal movements in the mantle in the sublatitudinal direction.

  15. High-Strain-Induced Deformation Mechanisms in Block-Graft and Multigraft Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, Ralf; Duan, Y. X.; Weidisch, Roland; Holzer, Suzette R; Schneider, Ken R; Stamm, M.; Uhrig, David; Mays, Jimmy; Heinrich, G.; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    The molecular orientation behavior and structural changes of morphology at high strains for multigraft and block graft copolymers based on polystyrene (PS) and polyisoprene (PI) were investigated during uniaxial monotonic loading via FT-IR and synchrotron SAXS. Results from FT-IR revealed specific orientations of PS and PI segments depending on molecular architecture and on the morphology, while structural investigations revealed a typical decrease in long-range order with increasing strain. This decrease was interpreted as strain-induced dissolution of the glassy blocks in the soft matrix, which is assumed to affect an additional enthalpic contribution (strain-induced mixing of polymer chains) and stronger retracting forces of the network chains during elongation. Our interpretation is supported by FT-IR measurements showing similar orientation of rubbery and glassy segments up to high strains. It also points to highly deformable PS domains. By synchrotron SAXS, we observed in the neo-Hookean region an approach of glassy domains, while at higher elongations the intensity of the primary reflection peak was significantly decreasing. The latter clearly verifies the assumption that the glassy chains are pulled out from the domains and are partly mixed in the PI matrix. Results obtained by applying models of rubber elasticity to stressstrain and hysteresis data revealed similar correlations between the softening behavior and molecular and morphological parameters. Further, an influence of the network modality was observed (randomgrafted branches). For sphere formingmultigraft copolymers the domain functionality was found to be less important to achieve improved mechanical properties but rather size and distribution of the domains.

  16. Arterial mechanical motion estimation based on a semi-rigid body deformation approach.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Pablo; Hamarneh, Ghassan; Ros, Rafael; Ros, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Arterial motion estimation in ultrasound (US) sequences is a hard task due to noise and discontinuities in the signal derived from US artifacts. Characterizing the mechanical properties of the artery is a promising novel imaging technique to diagnose various cardiovascular pathologies and a new way of obtaining relevant clinical information, such as determining the absence of dicrotic peak, estimating the Augmentation Index (AIx), the arterial pressure or the arterial stiffness. One of the advantages of using US imaging is the non-invasive nature of the technique unlike Intra Vascular Ultra Sound (IVUS) or angiography invasive techniques, plus the relative low cost of the US units. In this paper, we propose a semi rigid deformable method based on Soft Bodies dynamics realized by a hybrid motion approach based on cross-correlation and optical flow methods to quantify the elasticity of the artery. We evaluate and compare different techniques (for instance optical flow methods) on which our approach is based. The goal of this comparative study is to identify the best model to be used and the impact of the accuracy of these different stages in the proposed method. To this end, an exhaustive assessment has been conducted in order to decide which model is the most appropriate for registering the variation of the arterial diameter over time. Our experiments involved a total of 1620 evaluations within nine simulated sequences of 84 frames each and the estimation of four error metrics. We conclude that our proposed approach obtains approximately 2.5 times higher accuracy than conventional state-of-the-art techniques. PMID:24871987

  17. Data Resolution and Scale-dependent Fracture Clustering: Implications for Deformation Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, A.; Aydin, A.; Mukerji, T.; Cilona, A.

    2015-12-01

    zones that have relatively uniform spacing while higher resolution data capture both thin and short splay joints and shear joints that form fracture clusters. Therefore, it may be concluded that data resolution is critical for identifying deformation mechanisms and their products.

  18. On the deformation mechanisms and electrical behavior of highly stretchable metallic interconnects on elastomer substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arafat, Yeasir; Dutta, Indranath; Panat, Rahul

    2016-09-01

    Flexible metallic interconnects are highly important in the emerging field of deformable/wearable electronics. In our previous work [Arafat et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 081906 (2015)], interconnect films of Indium metal, periodically bonded to an elastomer substrate using a thin discontinuous/cracked adhesion interlayer of Cr, were shown to sustain a linear strain of 80%-100% without failure during repeated cycling. In this paper, we investigate the mechanisms that allow such films to be stretched to a large strain without rupture along with strategies to prevent a deterioration in their electrical performance under high linear strain. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Digital Image Correlation are used to map the strain field of the Cr adhesion interlayer and the In interconnect film when the elastomer substrate is stretched. It is shown that the Cr interlayer morphology, consisting of islands separated by bi-axial cracks, accommodates the strain primarily by widening of the cracks between the islands along the tensile direction. This behavior is shown to cause the strain in the In interconnect film to be discontinuous and concentrated in bands perpendicular to the loading direction. This localization of strain at numerous periodically spaced locations preempts strain-localization at one location and makes the In film highly stretchable by delaying rupture. Finally, the elastic-plastic mismatch-driven wrinkling of the In interconnect upon release from first loading cycle is utilized to delay the onset of plasticity and allow the interconnect to be stretched repeatedly up to 25% linear strain in subsequent cycles without a deterioration of its electrical performance.

  19. On interrelation between seismic activity and the Earth crust deformations of Vrancea zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dultsev, A.; Pronyshyn, R.; Siejka, Z.; Serant, O.; Tretyak, K.; Zablotskyj, F.

    2009-04-01

    An investigated territory covers the whole seismically active zone of Vrancea mountains (Romania). It is located between 43° and 47° parallels in latitude and 23° and 29° meridians in longitude. The weekly solutions of coordinates of six permanent stations (BACA, BAIA, BUCU, COST, DEVA, IGEO) allocated on the territories of Romania and Moldova have been used as the initial data for carrying out of the investigations. These initial data were obtained during 2007-2008. The results of determination of the earthquake parameters (coordinates, focal depth, magnitude and energy) have been obtained from a network of seismic stations. An analysis of the temporal earthquake distribution in 2007-2008 showed the alternation of the periods of seismic activity and its absence. The duration of these periods ranges from one to three weeks. The Earth crust deformation parameters between the recurrent periods of seismic activity and its absence have been calculated on basis of weekly solutions for the territory bounded by GPS-permanent stations. The accumulative values of the earthquake energy and magnitude were calculated for the periods of seismic activity. It had been ascertained that the territory of Vrancea zone undergoes the permanent stretching into northeast and southwest directions as well as the compressing into northwest and southeast ones. In fact, the more fast attenuation of the seismic waves occurs in the direction of the contraction axis and the slowest attenuation of ones occurs in the direction of the axis of elongation. The parameters of total amplitude and earthquake energy in the periods of seismic activity have high-degree correlation with difference of the deformations of next periods of seismic activity and its absence. It enables to predict a change of the deformation increment in the zone of earthquake focuses of Vrancea territory by means of the earthquake total force.

  20. The role of microstructure on deformation and damage mechanisms in a Nickel-based superalloy at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, Kimberly E.

    introduced by considering the mobility limit in the tangential direction leading to strain incompatibility and failure. This limit is diminished by environmental effects which are introduced as a dynamic embrittlement process that hinders grain boundary mobility due to oxygen diffusion. The concepts described herein indicate that implementation of the cohesive zone model requires the knowledge of the grain boundary external and internal deformation fields. The external field is generated by developing and coupling two continuum constitutive models including (i) a microstructure-explicit coarse scale crystal plasticity model with strength provided by tertiary and secondary gamma' precipitates. This scale is appropriate for the representation of the continuum region at the immediate crack tip, and (ii) a macroscopic internal state variable model for the purpose of modeling the response of the far field region located several grains away from the crack path. The hardening contributions of the gamma' precipitates consider dislocation/precipitate interactions in terms of gamma' particles shearing and/or Orowan by-passing mechanisms. The material parameters for these models are obtained from results of low cycle fatigue tests which were performed at three temperatures; 650, 704 and 760°C. Furthermore, a series of microstructure controlled experiments were carried out in order to develop and validate the microstructure dependency feature of the continuum constitutive models. The second requirement in the implementation of the cohesive zone model is a grain boundary deformation model which has been developed, as described above, on the basis of viscous flow rules of the boundary material. This model is supported by dwell crack growth experiments carried out at the three temperatures mentioned above, in both air and vacuum environments. Results of these tests have identified the frequency range in which the grain boundary cohesive zone model is applicable and also provided data to

  1. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of the large deformation bending and folding behavior of magneto-active elastomer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Robert; Roche, Juan; Lofland, Samuel E.; vonLockette, Paris R.

    2014-09-01

    This work seeks to provide a framework for the numerical simulation of magneto-active elastomer (MAE) composite structures for use in origami engineering applications. The emerging field of origami engineering employs folding techniques, an array of crease patterns traditionally on a single flat sheet of paper, to produce structures and devices that perform useful engineering operations. Effective means of numerical simulation offer an efficient way to optimize the crease patterns while coupling to the performance and behavior of the active material. The MAE materials used herein are comprised of nominally 30% v/v, 325 mesh barium hexafarrite particles embedded in Dow HS II silicone elastomer compound. These particulate composites are cured in a magnetic field to produce magneto-elastic solids with anisotropic magnetization, e.g. they have a preferred magnetic axis parallel to the curing axis. The deformed shape and/or blocked force characteristics of these MAEs are examined in three geometries: a monolithic cantilever as well as two- and four-segment composite accordion structures. In the accordion structures, patches of MAE material are bonded to a Gelest OE41 unfilled silicone elastomer substrate. Two methods of simulation, one using the Maxwell stress tensor applied as a traction boundary condition and another employing a minimum energy kinematic (MEK) model, are investigated. Both methods capture actuation due to magnetic torque mechanisms that dominate MAE behavior. Comparison with experimental data show good agreement with only a single adjustable parameter, either an effective constant magnetization of the MAE material in the finite element models (at small and moderate deformations) or an effective modulus in the minimum energy model. The four-segment finite element model was prone to numerical locking at large deformation. The effective magnetization and modulus values required are a fraction of the actual experimentally measured values which suggests a

  2. Active faults in the deformation zone off Noto Peninsula, Japan, revealed by high- resolution seismic profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, T.; Okamura, Y.; Murakami, F.; Kimura, H.; Ikehara, K.

    2008-12-01

    Recently, a lot of earthquakes occur in Japan. The deformation zone which many faults and folds have concentrated exists on the Japan Sea side of Japan. The 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake (MJMA 6.9) and 2007 Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (MJMA 6.8) were caused by activity of parts of faults in this deformation zone. The Noto Hanto Earthquake occurred on 25 March, 2007 under the northwestern coast of Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. This earthquake is located in Quaternary deformation zone that is continued from northern margin of Noto Peninsula to southeast direction (Okamura, 2007a). National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) carried out high-resolution seismic survey using Boomer and 12 channels short streamer cable in the northern part off Noto Peninsula, in order to clarify distribution and activities of active faults in the deformation zone. A twelve channels short streamer cable with 2.5 meter channel spacing developed by AIST and private corporation is designed to get high resolution seismic profiles in shallow sea area. The multi-channel system is possible to equip on a small fishing boat, because the data acquisition system is based on PC and the length of the cable is short and easy to handle. Moreover, because the channel spacing is short, this cable is very effective for a high- resolution seismic profiling survey in the shallow sea, and seismic data obtained by multi-channel cable can be improved by velocity analysis and CDP stack. In the northern part off Noto Peninsula, seismic profiles depicting geologic structure up to 100 meters deep under sea floor were obtained. The most remarkable reflection surface recognized in the seismic profiles is erosion surface at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In the western part, sediments about 30 meters (40 msec) thick cover the erosional surface that is distributed under the shelf shallower than 100m in depth and the sediments thin toward offshore and east. Flexures like deformation in

  3. Removal of daytime thermal deformations in the GBT active surface via out-of-focus holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, T. R.; Mello, M.; Nikolic, B.; Mason, B. S.; Schwab, F. R.; Ghigo, F. D.; Dicker, S. R.

    2009-01-01

    The 100-m diameter Green Bank Telescope (GBT) was built with an active surface of 2209 actuators in order to achieve and maintain an accurate paraboloidal shape. While much of the large-scale gravitational deformation of the surface can be described by a finite element model, a significant uncompensated gravitational deformation exists. In recent years, the elevation-dependence of this residual deformation has been successfully measured during benign nighttime conditions using the out-of-focus (OOF) holography technique (Nikolic et al, 2007, A&A 465, 685). Parametrized by a set of Zernike polynomials, the OOF model correction was implemented into the active surface and has been applied during all high frequency observations since Fall 2006, yielding a consistent gain curve that is constant with elevation. However, large-scale thermal deformation of the surface has remained a problem for daytime high-frequency observations. OOF holography maps taken throughout a clear winter day indicate that surface deformations become significant whenever the Sun is above 10 degrees elevation, but that they change slowly while tracking a single source. In this paper, we describe a further improvement to the GBT active surface that allows an observer to measure and compensate for the thermal surface deformation using the OOF technique. In order to support high-frequency observers, "AutoOOF" is a new GBT Astrid procedure that acquires a quick set of in-focus and out-of-focus on-the-fly continuum maps on a quasar using the currently active receiver. Upon completion of the maps, the data analysis software is launched automatically which produces and displays the surface map along with a set of Zernike coefficients. These coefficients are then sent to the active surface manager which combines them with the existing gravitational Zernike terms and FEM in order to compute the total active surface correction. The end-to-end functionality has been tested on the sky at Q-Band and Ka

  4. Effect of bimodal harmonic structure design on the deformation behaviour and mechanical properties of Co-Cr-Mo alloy.

    PubMed

    Vajpai, Sanjay Kumar; Sawangrat, Choncharoen; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Ciuca, Octav Paul; Ameyama, Kei

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, Co-Cr-Mo alloy compacts with a unique bimodal microstructural design, harmonic structure design, were successfully prepared via a powder metallurgy route consisting of controlled mechanical milling of pre-alloyed powders followed by spark plasma sintering. The harmonic structured Co-Cr-Mo alloy with bimodal grain size distribution exhibited relatively higher strength together with higher ductility as compared to the coarse-grained specimens. The harmonic Co-Cr-Mo alloy exhibited a very complex deformation behavior wherein it was found that the higher strength and the high retained ductility are derived from fine-grained shell and coarse-grained core regions, respectively. Finally, it was observed that the peculiar spatial/topological arrangement of stronger fine-grained and ductile coarse-grained regions in the harmonic structure promotes uniformity of strain distribution, leading to improved mechanical properties by suppressing the localized plastic deformation during straining. PMID:26478398

  5. Structure and fracture mechanism of a two-phase chromium-nickel alloy during high-temperature deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironenko, V. N.; Aronin, A. S.; Vasenev, V. V.; Aristova, I. M.; Shmyt'ko, I. M.; Trushnikova, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    The structure and mechanical properties of a two-phase Kh65N33V2FT alloy has been studied after tests at room and high temperatures. The morphology of the main phases, namely, solid solutions of nickel in chromium (α) and chromium in nickel (γ), is changed depending on temperature. The lattice parameters of the main phases have been determined. The main mechanism of deformation for this alloy is shown to be grain-boundary sliding. Bulk and grain-boundary diffusion creep and self-regulating diffusion-viscous flow is possible in the γ phase during high-temperature deformation. The heat resistance of this alloy is restricted to 1000°C because of the formation of a γ-phase percolation cluster.

  6. Multiplexed fluidic plunger mechanism for the measurement of red blood cell deformability.

    PubMed

    Myrand-Lapierre, Marie-Eve; Deng, Xiaoyan; Ang, Richard R; Matthews, Kerryn; Santoso, Aline T; Ma, Hongshen

    2015-01-01

    The extraordinary deformability of red blood cells gives them the ability to repeatedly transit through the microvasculature of the human body. The loss of this capability is part of the pathology of a wide range of diseases including malaria, hemoglobinopathies, and micronutrient deficiencies. We report on a technique for multiplexed measurements of the pressure required to deform individual red blood cell through micrometer-scale constrictions. This measurement is performed by first infusing single red blood cells into a parallel array of ~1.7 μm funnel-shaped constrictions. Next, a saw-tooth pressure waveform is applied across the constrictions to squeeze each cell through its constriction. The threshold deformation pressure is then determined by relating the pressure-time data with the video of the deformation process. Our key innovation is a self-compensating fluidic network that ensures identical pressures are applied to each cell regardless of its position, as well as the presence of cells in neighboring constrictions. These characteristics ensure the consistency of the measurement process and robustness against blockages of the constrictions by rigid cells and debris. We evaluate this technique using in vitro cultures of RBCs infected with P. falciparum, the parasite that causes malaria, to demonstrate the ability to profile the deformability signature of a heterogeneous sample. PMID:25325848

  7. Micromechanisms of deformation and fracture in ordered intermetallic alloys: 1, Strengthening mechanisms. [Ni/sub 3/Al and CuZn

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, M.H.; Horton, J.A.; Liu, C.T.

    1988-07-01

    The stability and mobility of active slip and twin modes in superlattice structures, for both cubic and noncubic crystals, are theoretically investigated based on the energetics and kinetics of dislocation dissociations. The main concept of the force couplet model for the positive temperature dependence of yield and flow stresses is introduced. Two sources of the glide resistance in ordered lattices are the fault dragging mechanism and the cross-slip pinning mechanism. The effective fault energy consists of two terms related to the chemical and mechanical instability of a shear fault (antiphase boundary, superlattice intrinsic stacking fault, or microtwin). Dependence of the yield stress on the orientation and the sense of applied stress stems from the signs and magnitudes of the glide and nonglide stresses. As the effective fault energy is altered by solute segregation and/or high nonglide stress, the two glide resistance mechanisms are affected differently. In Ni/sub 3/Al and ..beta..-CuZn, the major aspects of anomalous yield strength, strain rate sensitivity, in situ deformation transmission electron microscopy observations, microtwinning, and nonstoichiometry effect are discussed in view of the present model. In addition, the order twinning-slip conjugate relationship is identified, in all the superlattice structures considered, which will influence the deformation behavior by viscous glide at high temperatures. 106 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. The mechanics of ground deformation precursory to dome-building extrusions at Mount St. Helens 1981-1982.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chadwick, W.W.; Archuleta, R.J.; Swanson, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Detailed monitoring at Mount St. Helens since 1980 has enabled prediction of the intermittent eruptive activity (mostly dome growth) with unprecedented success. During 1981 and 1982, accelerating deformation of the crater floor around the vent (including radial cracks, thrust faults, and ground tilt) was the earliest indicator of impending activity. The magnitude of the shear stress required to match observed dipslacements (1-7 MPa) is inversely proportional to the conduit diameter (estimated to be 25-100 m). The most probable source of this shear stress is the flow of viscous magma up to the conduit and into the lava dome. A model is proposed in which the accelerating deformation, beginning as much as 4 weeks before extrusions, is caused by the increasing velocity of ascending magma in the conduit. This model is examined by using deformation data of the dome before four extrusions in 1981 and 1982 to estimate the volumetric flow rate through the conduit. This flow rate and an estimate of the effective viscosity of the magma enable calculation of an ascent velocity and an applied shear stress that, again, depend on the conduit diameter. The results of these calculations are consistent with the finite element experiments and show that the proposed model is feasible. Precursory deformation like that measured at Mount St. Helens should be observable at similar volcanoes elsewhere because it is caused by the fundamental process of magma ascent.-from Authors

  9. Deformation of Filamentous Escherichia coli Cells in a Microfluidic Device: A New Technique to Study Cell Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Yaron

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical properties of bacterial cells are determined by their stress-bearing elements. The size of typical bacterial cells, and the fact that different time and length scales govern their behavior, necessitate special experimental techniques in order to probe their mechanical properties under various spatiotemporal conditions. Here, we present such an experimental technique to study cell mechanics using hydrodynamic forces in a microfluidic device. We demonstrate the application of this technique by calculating the flexural rigidity of non-growing Escherichia coli cells. In addition, we compare the deformation of filamentous cells under growing and non-growing conditions during the deformation process. We show that, at low forces, the force needed to deform growing cells to the same extent as non-growing cells is approximately two times smaller. Following previous works, we interpret these results as the outcome of the difference between the elastic response of non-growing cells and the plastic-elastic response of growing cells. Finally, we observe some heterogeneity in the response of individual cells to the applied force. We suggest that this results from the individuality of different bacterial cells. PMID:24392095

  10. Deformation mechanisms in a precipitation-strengthened ferritic super alloy revealed by in situ neutron dffraction studies at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shenyan; Gao, Yanfei; An, Ke; Zheng, Lili; Teng, Zhenke; Wu, Wei; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    The ferritic superalloy Fe–10Ni–6.5Al–10Cr–3.4Mo strengthened by ordered (Ni,Fe)AlB2-type precipitates is a candidate material for ultra-supercritical steam turbine applications above 923 K. Despite earlier success in improving its room-temperature ductility, the creep resistance of this material at high temperatures needs to be further improved, which requires a fundamental understanding of the high-temperature deformation mechanisms at the scales of individual phases and grains. In situ neutron diffraction has been utilized to investigate the lattice strain evolution and the microscopic load-sharing mechanisms during tensile deformation of this ferritic superalloy at elevated temperatures. Finite-element simulations based on the crystal plasticity theory are employed and compared with the experimental results, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Based on these interphase and intergranular load-partitioning studies, it is found that the deformation mechanisms change from dislocation slip to those related to dislocation climb, diffusional flow and possibly grain boundary sliding, below and above 873 K, respectively. Insights into microstructural design for enhancing creep resistance are also discussed.

  11. Efficiency of five chemical protective clothing materials against nano and submicron aerosols when submitted to mechanical deformations.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah, Mehdi; Hallé, Stéphane; Tuduri, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Due to their potential toxicity, the use of nanoparticles in the workplace is a growing concern. Some studies indicate that nanoparticles can penetrate the skin and lead to adverse health effects. Since chemical protective clothing is the last barrier to protect the skin, this study aims to better understand nanoparticle penetration behaviour in dermal protective clothing under mechanical deformation. For this purpose, five of the most common types of fabrics used in protective clothing, one woven and four nonwoven, were chosen and submitted to different simulated exposure conditions. They were tested against polydispersed NaCl aerosols having an electrical-mobility diameter between 14 and 400 nm. A bench-scale exposure setup and a sampling protocol was developed to measure the level of penetration of the aerosols through the material samples of disposable coveralls and lab coat, while subjecting them to mechanical deformations to simulate the conditions of usage in the workplace. Particle size distribution of the aerosol was determined upstream and downstream using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The measured efficiencies demonstrated that the performances of nonwoven materials were similar. Three nonwovens had efficiencies above 99%, while the woven fabric was by far, the least effective. Moreover, the results established that mechanical deformations, as simulated for this study, did not have a significant effect on the fabrics' efficiencies.

  12. Deformation mechanisms in a precipitation-strengthened ferritic superalloy revealed by in situ neutron diffraction studies at elevated temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Shenyan; Gao, Yanfei; An, Ke; Zheng, Lili; Wu, Wei; Teng, Zhenke; Liaw, Peter K

    2014-10-22

    In this study, the ferritic superalloy Fe–10Ni–6.5Al–10Cr–3.4Mo strengthened by ordered (Ni,Fe)Al B2-type precipitates is a candidate material for ultra-supercritical steam turbine applications above 923 K. Despite earlier success in improving its room-temperature ductility, the creep resistance of this material at high temperatures needs to be further improved, which requires a fundamental understanding of the high-temperature deformation mechanisms at the scales of individual phases and grains. In situ neutron diffraction has been utilized to investigate the lattice strain evolution and the microscopic load-sharing mechanisms during tensile deformation of this ferritic superalloy at elevated temperatures. Finite-element simulations based on the crystal plasticitymore » theory are employed and compared with the experimental results, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Based on these interphase and intergranular load-partitioning studies, it is found that the deformation mechanisms change from dislocation slip to those related to dislocation climb, diffusional flow and possibly grain boundary sliding, below and above 873 K, respectively. Insights into microstructural design for enhancing creep resistance are also discussed.« less

  13. Deformation mechanisms in a precipitation-strengthened ferritic superalloy revealed by in situ neutron diffraction studies at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shenyan; Gao, Yanfei; An, Ke; Zheng, Lili; Wu, Wei; Teng, Zhenke; Liaw, Peter K

    2014-10-22

    In this study, the ferritic superalloy Fe–10Ni–6.5Al–10Cr–3.4Mo strengthened by ordered (Ni,Fe)Al B2-type precipitates is a candidate material for ultra-supercritical steam turbine applications above 923 K. Despite earlier success in improving its room-temperature ductility, the creep resistance of this material at high temperatures needs to be further improved, which requires a fundamental understanding of the high-temperature deformation mechanisms at the scales of individual phases and grains. In situ neutron diffraction has been utilized to investigate the lattice strain evolution and the microscopic load-sharing mechanisms during tensile deformation of this ferritic superalloy at elevated temperatures. Finite-element simulations based on the crystal plasticity theory are employed and compared with the experimental results, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Based on these interphase and intergranular load-partitioning studies, it is found that the deformation mechanisms change from dislocation slip to those related to dislocation climb, diffusional flow and possibly grain boundary sliding, below and above 873 K, respectively. Insights into microstructural design for enhancing creep resistance are also discussed.

  14. Active deformation of the northern front of the Eastern Great Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niviere, Bertrand; Gagala, Lukasz; Callot, Jean-Paul; Regard, Vincent; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

    2016-04-01

    The Arabia-Eurasia collision involved a mosaic of island arcs and microcontinents. Their accretion to the complex paleogeographic margin of Neotethys was marked by numerous collisional events. The Greater Caucasus constitute the northernmost tectonic element of this tectonic collage, developed as a back arc extensional zone now inverted, which relationships to the onset of Arabia-Eurasia continental collision and/or to the reorganization of the Arabia-Eurasia plate boundary at ˜5 Ma remain controversial. Structurally, the Greater Caucasus are a former continental back arc rift, now the locus of ongoing continental shortening. Modern geodetic observations suggest that in the west, the strain north of the Armenian Plateau is accommodated almost exclusively along the margins of the Greater Caucasus. This differs from regions further east where strain accommodation is distributed across both the Lesser and Greater Caucasus, and within the Greater Caucasus range, with a unique southward vergence. We question here the amount and mechanisms by which the Eastern Greater Caucasus accommodate part of the Arabia-Eurasia convergence. Morphostructural analysis of the folded late Pleistocene marine terrace along the northern slope of the Eastern Greater Caucasus evidences an on going tectonic activity in the area where GPS measurements record no motion. Most of the recent foreland deformation is accommodated by south-vergent folds and thrust, i. e. opposite to the vergence of the Caucasus frontal northern thrust. A progressive unconformity in the folded beds shows that it was already active during the late Pliocene. Cosmogenic dating of the terrace and kinematic restoration of the remnant terrace, linked to the subsurface geology allows for the estimation of a shortening rate ranging from a few mm/yr to 1 cm/yr over the last 5 Myr along the greater Caucasus northern front. Thus more than one third of the shortening between the Kura block / Lesser Caucasus domain and the Stable

  15. Deformation structures associated with the Trachyte Mesa intrusion, Henry Mountains, Utah: Implications for sill and laccolith emplacement mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Penelope I. R.; McCaffrey, Ken J. W.; Wilson, Robert W.; Jarvis, Ian; Holdsworth, Robert E.

    2016-06-01

    Deformation structures in the wall rocks of igneous intrusions emplaced at shallow crustal depths preserve an important record of how space was created for magma in the host rocks. Trachyte Mesa, a small Oligocene age intrusion in the Henry Mountains, Utah, is composed of a series of stacked tabular, sheet-like intrusions emplaced at 3-3.5 km depth into sandstone-dominated sedimentary sequences of late Palaeozoic-Mesozoic age. New structural analysis of the spatial distribution, geometry, kinematics and relative timings of deformation structures in the host rocks of the intrusion has enabled the recognition of distinct pre-, syn-, and late-stage-emplacement deformation phases. Our observations suggest a two-stage growth mechanism for individual sheets where radial growth of a thin sheet was followed by vertical inflation. Dip-slip faults formed during vertical inflation; they are restricted to the tips of individual sheets due to strain localisation, with magma preferentially exploiting these faults, initiating sill (sheet) climbing. The order in which sheets are stacked impacts on the intrusion geometry and associated deformation of wall rocks. Our results offer new insights into the incremental intrusion geometries of shallow-level magmatic bodies and the potential impact of their emplacement on surrounding host rocks.

  16. High temperature deformation mechanism of 15CrODS ferritic steels at cold-rolled and recrystallized conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugino, Yoshito; Ukai, Shigeharu; Oono, Naoko; Hayashi, Shigenari; Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Masuda, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Sato, Eiichi

    2015-11-01

    The ODS ferritic steels realize potentially higher operating temperature due to structural stability by the dispersed nano-size oxide particles. The deformation process and mechanism of 15CrODS ferritic steels were investigated at 1073 K and 1173 K for the cold-rolled and recrystallized conditions. Tensile and creep tests were conducted at the stress in parallel (LD) and perpendicular (TD) directions to the grain boundaries. Strain rate varied from 10-1 to 10-9 s-1. For the LD specimens, deformation in the cold rolled and recrystallized conditions is reinforced by finely dispersed oxide particles. The dominant deformation process for the recrystallized TD specimen is controlled through the grain boundary sliding and stress accommodation via diffusional creep at temperature of 1173 K and lower strain rate less than 10-4 s-1. The grain boundary sliding couldn't be rate-controlling process at 1073 K for the as-cold rolled TD specimen, where a dynamic recovery of the dislocation produced by cold-rolling is related to the deformation process.

  17. Assessment of Tungsten Content on Tertiary Creep Deformation Behavior of Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanaja, J.; Laha, Kinkar

    2015-10-01

    Tertiary creep deformation behavior of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steels having different tungsten contents has been assessed. Creep tests were carried out at 823 K (550 °C) over a stress range of 180 to 260 MPa on three heats of the RAFM steel (9Cr-W-0.06Ta-0.22V) with tungsten content of 1, 1.4, and 2.0 wt pct. With creep exposure, the steels exhibited minimum in creep rate followed by progressive increase in creep rate until fracture. The minimum creep rate decreased, rupture life increased, and the onset of tertiary stage of creep deformation delayed with the increase in tungsten content. The tertiary creep behavior has been assessed based on the relationship, , considering minimum creep rate () instead of steady-state creep rate. The increase in tungsten content was found to decrease the rate of acceleration of tertiary parameter ` p.' The relationships between (1) tertiary parameter `p' with minimum creep rate and time spent in tertiary creep deformation and (2) the final creep rate with minimum creep rate revealed that the same first-order reaction rate theory prevailed in the minimum creep rate as well as throughout the tertiary creep deformation behavior of the steel. A master tertiary creep curve of the steels has been developed. Scanning electron microscopic investigation revealed enhanced coarsening resistance of carbides in the steel on creep exposure with increase in tungsten content. The decrease in tertiary parameter ` p' with tungsten content with the consequent decrease in minimum creep rate and increase in rupture life has been attributed to the enhanced microstructural stability of the steel.

  18. Dissecting Oceanic Detachment Faults: Fault Zone Geometry, Deformation Mechanisms, and Nature of Fluid-Rock Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnemains, D.; Escartin, J.; Verlaguet, A.; Andreani, M.; Mevel, C.

    2015-12-01

    To understand the extreme strain localization at long-lived oceanic detachment faults rooting deeply below the axis, we present results of geological investigations at the 13°19'N detachment along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, conducted during the ODEMAR cruise (Nov-Dec13, NO Pourquoi Pas?) with ROV Victor6000 (IFREMER). During this cruise we investigated and sampled the corrugated fault to understand its geometry, nature of deformation, and links to fluid flow. We identified and explored 7 fault outcrops on the flanks of microbathymetric striations subparallel to extension. These outcrops expose extensive fault planes, with the most prominent ones extending 40-90m laterally, and up to 10 m vertically. These fault surfaces systematically show subhorizontal striations subparallel to extension, and define slabs of fault-rock that are flat and also striated at sample scale. Visual observations show a complex detachment fault zone, with anastomosing fault planes at outcrop scale (1-10 m), with a highly heterogeneous distribution of deformation. We observe heterogeneity in fault-rock nature at outcrop scale. In situ samples from striated faults are primarily basalt breccias with prior green-schist facies alteration, and a few ultramafic fault-rocks that show a complex deformation history, with early schistose textures, brittlely reworked as clasts within the fault. The basalt breccias show variable silicification and associated sulfides, recording important fluid-rock interactions during exhumation. To understand the link between fluid and deformation during exhumation, we will present microstructural observation of deformation textures, composition, and distribution and origin of quartz and sulfides, as well as constraints on the temperature of silicifying fluids from fluid inclusions in quartz. These results allow us to characterize in detail the detachment fault zone geometry, and investigate the timing of silicification relative to deformation.

  19. Supine to upright lung mechanics: do changes in lung shape influence lung tissue deformation?

    PubMed

    Chan, Ho-Fung; Tawhai, Merryn H; Levin, David L; Bartholmai, Brian B; Clark, Alys R

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyze lung shape change between the upright and supine postures and the effect of this shape change on the deformation of lung tissue under gravity. We use supine computed tomography images along with upright tomosynthesis images obtained on the same day to show that there is significant diaphragmatic movement between postures. Using a continuum model of lung tissue deformation under gravity we show that the shape changes due to this diaphragmatic movement could result in different lung tissue expansion patterns between supine and upright lungs. This is an essential consideration when interpreting imaging data acquired in different postures or translating data acquired in supine imaging to upright function.

  20. Active deformation in the northern Sierra de Valle Fértil, Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Gustavo; Alvarado, Patricia; Fosdick, Julie C.; Perucca, Laura; Saez, Mauro; Venerdini, Agostina

    2015-12-01

    The Western Sierras Pampeanas region in the San Juan Province is characterized by thick-skinned deformation with approximately N-S trending ranges of average heights of 2500 m and a high frequency occurrence of seismic activity. Its location to the east of the mainly thin-skinned tectonics of the Argentine Precordillera fold-and-thrust belt suggests that at 30°S, deformation is concentrated in a narrow zone involving these two morphostructural units. In this paper, we present new apatite (U-Th)/He results (AHe) across the northern part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil (around 30°S) and analyze them in a framework of thermochronologic available datasets. We found Pliocene AHe results for Carboniferous and Triassic strata in the northern Sierra de Valle Fértil consistent with the hypothesis of recent cooling and inferred erosional denudation concentrated along the northern end of this mountain range. Our analysis shows that this northern region may have evolved under different conditions than the central part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil. Previous studies have observed AHe ages consistent with Permian through Cretaceous cooling, indicating the middle part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil remained near surface before the Pampean slab subduction flattening process. Those studies also obtained ˜5 My cooling ages in the southern part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil, which are similar to our results in the northern end of the range. Taken together, these results suggest a pattern of young deformation in the northern and southern low elevation ends of the Sierra de Valle Fértil consistent with regions of high seismic activity, and Quaternary active faulting along the western-bounding thrust fault of the Sierra de Valle Fértil.

  1. Impact of solid second phases on deformation mechanisms of naturally deformed salt rocks (Kuh-e-Namak, Dashti, Iran) and rheological stratification of the Hormuz Salt Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Závada, P.; Desbois, G.; Urai, J. L.; Schulmann, K.; Rahmati, M.; Lexa, O.; Wollenberg, U.

    2015-05-01

    Viscosity contrasts displayed in flow structures of a mountain namakier (Kuh-e-Namak - Dashti), between 'weak' second phase bearing rock salt and 'strong' pure rock salt types are studied for deformation mechanisms using detailed quantitative microstructural study. While the solid inclusions rich ("dirty") rock salts contain disaggregated siltstone and dolomite interlayers, "clean" salts reveal microscopic hematite and remnants of abundant fluid inclusions in non-recrystallized cores of porphyroclasts. Although the flow in both, the recrystallized "dirty" and "clean" salt types is accommodated by combined mechanisms of pressure-solution creep (PS), grain boundary sliding (GBS), transgranular microcracking and dislocation creep accommodated grain boundary migration (GBM), their viscosity contrasts observed in the field outcrops are explained by: 1) enhanced ductility of "dirty" salts due to increased diffusion rates along the solid inclusion-halite contacts than along halite-halite contacts, and 2) slow rates of intergranular diffusion due to dissolved iron and inhibited dislocation creep due to hematite inclusions for "clean" salt types Rheological contrasts inferred by microstructural analysis between both salt rock classes apply in general for the "dirty" salt forming Lower Hormuz and the "clean" salt forming the Upper Hormuz of the Hormuz Formation and imply strain rate gradients or decoupling along horizons of mobilized salt types of different composition and microstructure.

  2. Batholith Construction In Actively Deforming Crust, Coast Mountains Batholith, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusmore, M. E.; Woodsworth, G. J.; Gehrels, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Stikinia east of the YTT. Western Stikinia has NE-directed thrust faults, dextral faults and a >100 km long dextral reverse fault. Metamorphism locally produced amphibolite gneiss and NW-trending folds. This phase of transpression ended ~ca 74 Ma, marking the end of orogen-wide deformation. Subsequent deformation and magmatism are restricted to western Stikinia, coincident with the magmatic front. Between 69 and 55 Ma, N-directed shortening and exhumation of gneiss took place in restraining bend on a dextral shear zone. From ~65-53 Ma, the Coast shear zone was the locus of magmatism and reverse slip. Overall, the history of this part of the batholith shows: 1) the batholith formed in actively deforming and thickening crust within a contractional to transpressive setting. 2) Deformation and magmatism are widespread ~100-75 Ma, becoming more focused from 70-55 Ma. Crustal thickening was broadly coeval with magmatic fluxes at 120-88 and 65-55 Ma. 3) major crustal extension (55-50 Ma) and voluminous 52-48 Ma plutons present farther north are absent, suggesting a link between this magmatism and crustal extension.

  3. Mechanisms of control of alae nasi muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Mezzanotte, W S; Tangel, D J; White, D P

    1992-03-01

    Human upper airway dilator muscles are clearly influenced by chemical stimuli such as hypoxia and hypercapnia. Whether in humans there are upper airway receptors capable of modifying the activity of such muscles is unclear. We studied alae nasi electromyography (EMG) in normal men in an attempt to determine 1) whether increasing negative intraluminal pressure influences the activity of the alae nasi muscle, 2) whether nasal airway feedback mechanisms modify the activity of this muscle, and 3) if so, whether these receptor mechanisms are responding to mucosal temperature/pressure changes or to airway deformation. Alae nasi EMG was recorded in 10 normal men under the following conditions: 1) nasal breathing (all potential nasal receptors exposed), 2) oral breathing (nasal receptors not exposed), 3) nasal breathing with splints (airway deformation prevented), and 4) nasal breathing after nasal anesthesia (mucosal receptors anesthetized). In addition, in a separate group, the combined effects of anesthesia and nasal splints were assessed. Under each condition, EMG activity was monitored during basal breathing, progressive hypercapnia, and inspiratory resistive loading. Under all four conditions, both load and hypercapnia produced a significant increase in alae nasi EMG, with hypercapnia producing a similar increment in EMG regardless of nasal receptor exposure. On the other hand, loading produced greater increments in EMG during nasal than during oral breathing, with combined anesthesia plus splinting producing a load response similar to that observed during oral respiration. These observations suggest that nasal airway receptors have little effect on the alae nasi response to hypercapnia but appear to mediate the alae nasi response to loading or negative airway pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. [Molecular mechanisms regulating the activity of macrophages].

    PubMed

    Onoprienko, L V

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews modern concepts of the most common types of macrophage activation: classical, alternative, and type II. Molecular mechanisms of induction and regulation of these three types of activation are discussed. Any population of macrophages was shown to change its properties depending on its microenvironment and concrete biological situation (the "functional plasticity of macrophages"). Many intermediate states of macrophages were described along with the most pronounced and well-known activation types (classical activation, alternative activation, and type II activation). These intermediate states are characterized by a variety of combinations of their biological properties, including elements of the three afore mentioned types of activation. Macrophage activity is regulated by a complex network of interrelated cascade mechanisms.

  5. Microfabrics and 3D grain shape of Gorleben rock salt: Constraints on deformation mechanisms and paleodifferential stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemeyer, Nicolas; Zulauf, Gernold; Mertineit, Michael; Linckens, Jolien; Pusch, Maximilian; Hammer, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The Permian Knäuel- and Streifensalz formations (z2HS1 and z2HS2) are main constituents of the Gorleben salt dome (Northern Germany) and show different amounts and distributions of anhydrite. The reconstruction of 3D halite grain shape ellipsoids reveals small grain size (3.4 ± 0.6 mm) and heterogeneous grain shapes in both formations, the latter attributed to the polyphase deformation of the rock salt during diapirism. The halite microfabrics of both formations indicate that strain-induced grain boundary migration was active during deformation. Crystal plastic deformation of halite is further documented by lattice bending, subgrain formation and minor subgrain rotation. Evidence for pressure solution of halite has not been found, but cannot be excluded because of the small grain size, the lack of LPO and the low differential stress (1.1-1.3 MPa) as deduced from subgrain-size piezometry. Anhydrite has been deformed in the brittle-ductile regime by solution precipitation creep, minor dislocation creep and brittle boudinage. No continuous anhydrite layers are preserved, and halite has acted as a sealing matrix embedding the disrupted anhydrite fragments prohibiting any potential migration pathways for fluids. Thus, anhydrite should not have a negative effect on the barrier properties of the Gorleben rock salts investigated in this study.

  6. Active deformations of the Jura arc inferred by GPS and seismotectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Mickael; Sue, Christian; Walpersdorf, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The Jura Mountain is the most recent expression of the alpine orogeny. At the northern end of the western Alps, its recent deformation is still a matter of debates. GPS data available in the Jura bear witness of disagreement between studies, as interpretations vary from uplifted belt to arc-parallel extension (Walpersdorf, et al., 2006) and very slow horizontal movements. Moreover, the traditionally accepted model of an active collisional activity of the Jura, in the dynamic continuity of the Alps, rises up the matter of its geodynamic origin. Indeed, the European Alps are in a post-collisional regime characterized by isostatic-related extension and uplift driven by interaction between buoyancy forces and erosional dynamics (e.g. Sue et al. 2007; Champagnac, et al., 2007; Vernant, et al., 2013.). We present a reappraisal of published focal mechanisms combined with a new GPS solution over the entire arc and surrounding areas. Although the Jura presents a low seismic activity, 53 focal mechanisms over the Jura have been inverted in order to infer the current stress field. Anyhow, we tested several combinations of f.m. inversions, by structural zones, in order to test the regional stress stability. It appears that the current stress field is very stable all over the arc, and following our different sub-datasets. Indeed, the stress field shows a stable near horizontal NW-SE-oriented s1, associated to a NE-SW-oriented s3. Therefore, the structural arc of the Jura seems to have very low or no impact in terms of current stress. Complementarily, we present preliminary velocity and strain fields from a GPS network composed of 25 permanent stations implemented between 1998 and 2014 all around the Jura arc. Indeed, we also integrated the recent GPS-JURA station (OSU THETA Besançon), but they are still too young to accurately constrain the strain of the belt. Preliminary results exhibit very slow velocities across the arc in term of baselines evolution, with infra

  7. GPS constraints on active deformation in the Isparta Angle region of SW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiryakioğlu, İbrahim; Floyd, Michael; Erdoğan, Saffet; Gülal, Engin; Ergintav, Semih; McClusky, Simon; Reilinger, Robert

    2013-12-01

    We use survey and continuous GPS observations during the period 1997-2010 to investigate active deformation in the Isparta Angle region of SW Anatolia, Turkey. This region, bordered by the Fethiye Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) in the west and the SE extension of the Aksehir Simav Fault Zone (AKSFZ) in the east, accommodates a part of the active deformation of W Turkey. Our results show that the Isparta Angle region rotates counter-clockwise (CCW) with respect to Anatolia. Both the FBFZ and the AKSFZ are predominantly transtensional boundaries that accommodate southward motion of the Isparta region with respect to Anatolia. The FBFZ has left-lateral strike-slip behaviour along its SW segment that changes to right-lateral strike-slip along its NE extension. This change in the sense of strike-slip motion is accommodated by extension on a NW-SE striking normal fault system that is associated with the Menderes Graben system. Transtensional fault systems along the boundaries of the Isparta Angle with Anatolia are inconsistent with extrusion models for present-day southward motion. An increase in motion rates towards the Hellenic and Cyprus arc subduction systems, and CCW of the Isparta region, supports dynamic models involving active rollback of the subducting African Plate, toroidal mantle flow around the eastern edge of the subducting African slab near the Hellenic arc/Florence Rise junction, and/or gravitational collapse of the overriding Anatolia Plate.

  8. Attenuation Properties of Fontainebleau Sandstone During True-Triaxial Deformation using Active and Passive Ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfellow, S. D.; Tisato, N.; Ghofranitabari, M.; Nasseri, M. H. B.; Young, R. P.

    2015-11-01

    Active and passive ultrasonic methods were used to study the evolution of attenuation properties in a sample of Fontainebleau sandstone during true-triaxial deformation. A cubic sample of Fontainebleau sandstone (80 mm × 80 mm × 80 mm) was deformed under true-triaxial stresses until failure. From the stress state: σ _3 = 5 MPa and σ _1 = σ _2 = 35 MPa, σ _1 was increased at a constant displacement rate until the specimen failed. Acoustic emission (AE) activity was monitored by 18 piezoelectric sensors and bandpass filtered between 100 kHz and 1 MHz. A source location analysis was performed on discrete AE data harvested from the continuous record where 48,502 events were locatable inside the sample volume. AE sensors were sequentially pulsed during periodic P-wave surveys among 135 raypaths. Analytical solutions for Biot, squirt flow, viscous shear, and scattering attenuation were used to discuss to observed attenuation at various stages of the experiment. We concluded that initial attenuation anisotropy was stress induced and resulted from friction and squirt flow. Later attenuation of the high-frequency spectrum was attributed to scattering as a result of the formation of large macroscopic vertical fractures. Passive (AE) ultrasonic data produced similar information to that from active data but with enhanced temporal and spacial resolution.

  9. Mechanism for the activation of glutamate receptors

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the NIH have used a technique called cryo-electron microscopy to determine a molecular mechanism for the activation and desensitization of ionotropic glutamate receptors, a prominent class of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain and spina

  10. Deformation mechanism of basic rock during long-term compression: Area of HLW repository design, Chelyabinsk District, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, V.A.; Zviagintsev, L.I.; Poluektov, V.V.

    1996-08-01

    A combination of ultrasound, mechanical and petrographic results for long-term experimental compression of greenschist facies porphyritic andesite tuffs indicate a deformation mechanism that depends upon the mineral composition, textural-structural features of the rocks and the orientation of compression relative to the rock textures. Three dry samples of rock were investigated. Coaxial compression of a massive sample for 816 hours and a foliated sample for 1,176 hours (pressure orthogonal to foliation) is characterized by solidification when the rocks are temporarily metastable. Compressive strength of the first sample is 850 kg/cm{sup 2} and of the second one, 800 kg/cm{sup 2}. Experimentally, the rock behavior changes from a plastic to a brittle regime of deformation. In contrast, compression of the foliated sample parallel to foliation causes disintegration along the foliation within 480 hours without solidification. The rock is liable to brittle deformation and its compressive strength is 500 kg/cm{sup 2}. These results may have implications for characterization of near-field processes in connection with numerous subhorizontal zones of schistosity within the strata that are targeted for underground disposal of high-level wastes (HLW) in the Mayak radiochemical complex area.

  11. Distribution of deformation on an active normal fault network, NW Corinth Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Mary; Meyer, Nicolas; Boiselet, Aurélien; Lambotte, Sophie; Scotti, Oona; Lyon-Caen, Hélène; Briole, Pierre; Caumon, Guillaume; Bernard, Pascal

    2013-04-01

    Over the last 20-25 years, geodetic measurements across the Gulf of Corinth have recorded high extension rates varying from 1.1 cm/a in the east to a maximum of 1.6 cm/a in the west. Geodetic studies also show that current deformation is confined between two relatively rigid blocks defined as Central Greece (to the north) and the Peloponnesus to the south. Active north dipping faults (<1 Ma) define the south coast of the subsiding Gulf, while high seismicity (major earthquakes and micro-seismicity) is concentrated at depth below and to the north of the westernmost Gulf. How is this intense deformation distributed in the upper crust? Our objectives here are (1) to propose two models for the distribution of deformation in the upper crust in the westernmost rift since 1 Ma, and (2) to place the tectonic behaviour of the western Gulf in the context of longer term rift evolution. Over 20 major active normal faults have been identified in the CRL area based specific characteristics (capable of generating earthquakes M> 5.5, active in the last 1 M yrs, slip rate >0.5 mm/a). Because of the uncertainty related to fault geometry at depth two models for 3D fault network geometry in the western rift down to 10 km were constructed using all available geophysical and geological data. The first model assumes planar fault geometries while the second uses listric geometries for major faults. A model for the distribution of geodetically-defined extension on faults is constructed along five NNE-SSW cross sections using a variety of data and timescales. We assume that the role of smaller faults in accommodating deformation is negligible so that extension is fully accommodated on the identified major faults. Uncertainties and implications are discussed. These models provide estimates of slip rate for each fault that can be used in seismic hazard models. A compilation of onshore and offshore data shows that the western Gulf is the youngest part of the Corinth rift having initiated

  12. 10Be surface exposure dating reveals strong active deformation in the central Andean backarc interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Morabito, Ezequiel; Terrizzano, Carla; Zech, Roland; Willett, Sean; Yamin, Marcela; Haghipour, Negar; Wuethrich, Lorenz; Christl, Marcus; María Cortes, José; Ramos, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the deformation associated with active thrust wedges is essential to evaluate seismic hazard. How is active faulting distributed throughout the wedge, and how much deformation is taken up by individual structures? We address these questions for our study region, the central Andean backarc of Argentina. We combined a structural and geomorphological approach with surface exposure dating (10Be) of alluvial fans and strath terraces in two key localities at ~32° S: the Cerro Salinas, located in the active orogenic front of the Precordillera, and the Barreal block in the interior of the Andean mountain range. We analysed 22 surface samples and 6 depth profiles. At the thrust front, the oldest terrace (T1) yields an age of 100-130 ka, the intermediate terrace (T2) between 40-95 ka, and the youngest terrace (T3) an age of ~20 ka. In the Andean interior, T1´ dates to 117-146 ka, T2´ to ~70 ka, and T3´ to ~20 ka, all calculations assuming negligible erosion and using the scaling scheme for spallation based on Lal 1991, Stone 2000. Vertical slip rates of fault offsets are 0.3-0.5 mm/yr and of 0.6-1.2 mm/yr at the thrust front and in the Andean interior, respectively. Our results highlight: i) fault activity related to the growth of the Andean orogenic wedge is not only limited to a narrow thrust front zone. Internal structures have been active during the last 150 ka, ii) deformation rates in the Andean interior are comparable or even higher that those estimated and reported along the emerging thrust front, iii) distribution of active faulting seems to account for unsteady state conditions, and iv) seismic hazards may be more relevant in the internal parts of the Andean orogen than assumed so far. References Lal, D., 1991: Cosmic ray labeling of erosion surfaces: In situ nuclide production rates and erosion models. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 104: 424-439. Stone, J.O., 2000: Air pressure and cosmogenic isotope production. Journal of Geophysical

  13. Active salt deformation and rapid, transient incision along the Colorado River near Moab, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochems, Andrew P.; Pederson, Joel L.

    2015-04-01

    In certain settings, erosion is driven by and balanced with tectonic uplift, but the evolution of many landscapes is dominated by other factors such as geologic substrate, drainage history, and transient incision. The Colorado Plateau is an example where these controls are debated and where salt deformation is hypothesized to be locally active and driven by differential unloading, although this is unconfirmed and unquantified in most places. We use luminescence-dated Colorado River terraces upstream of Moab, Utah, to quantify rates of salt-driven subsidence and uplift at the local scale. Active deformation in the study area is also supported by patterns of concavity along tributary drainages crossing salt structures. Subsidence in Professor Valley at a time-averaged rate of ~500 m/Myr (meters/million years) is superimposed upon rapid bedrock incision rates that increase from ~600 to ~900 m/Myr upstream through the study area. Such high rates are unexpected given the absence of sources of regional tectonic uplift here. Instead, the incision rate pattern across the greater area is consistent with a transient signal, perhaps still from ancient drainage integration through Grand Canyon far downstream, and then amplified by unloading at both the broad regional scale and at the local canyon scale.

  14. Fracture of ECAP-deformed iron and the role of extrinsic toughening mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hohenwarter, A.; Pippan, R.

    2013-01-01

    The fracture behaviour of pure iron deformed by equal-channel angular pressing via route A was examined. The fracture toughness was determined for different specimen orientations and measured in terms of the critical plane strain fracture toughness, KIC, the critical J integral, JIC, and the crack opening displacement for crack initiation, CODi. The results demonstrate that the crack plane orientation has a pronounced effect on the fracture toughness. Different crack plane orientations lead to either crack deflection or delamination, resulting in increased fracture resistance in comparison to one remarkably weak specimen orientation. The relation between the microstructure typical for the applied deformation route and the enormous differences in the fracture toughness depending on the crack plane orientation will be analyzed in this paper. PMID:23645995

  15. Trends in cardiac dynamics : towards coupled models of intracavity fluid dynamics and deformable wall mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelle, G.; Ohayon, J.; Oddou, C.

    1994-06-01

    We report here preliminary results in the development of a computational model in cardiac mechanics which takes into account the coupled effects of ventricular mechanics and intracardiac hemodynamics. In this first work, complex geometrical, architectural and rheological properties of the organ have been strongly simplified in order to propose a “quasi-analytical” model. We assume axisymmetrical geometry of the ventricle and myocardium material to be made of a sheath of a composite, collagenic, fibrous and active muscle medium inside which the blood dynamics is dominated by unsteady inertial effects. Moreover, we have made grossly simplifying assumptions concerning rather stringent and unusual functioning conditions about the mechanical behavior of the input and output valvular and vascular impedances as well as the biochemical action of the fiber. By imposing the time variation of the input and output flow rate and activation function, it is possible, assuming uniformity of the pressure stresses applied to the internal wall surface at every instant of the cardiac cycle, to calculate the overall distribution of fluid pressure and velocity inside the cavity as well as the distributions of stresses and strains inside the wall. It was shown that under the action of a given biochemical activation function, both kinematics of the wall and induced motion of the fluid are such that the boundary conditions concerning normal pressure stresses conservation was constantly satisfied. Moreover, the results concerning the dynamics of the blood flow, as viewed through the human clinical investigations using velocimetric technology based upon color doppler ultrasound, are in accordance with those obtained from such a model, at least during the ejection phase. In particular, contrarily to the filling phase processes, the ejection dynamics is such that the time evolution of the blood velocity measured along the cavity axis does not display any phase shift characterizing an

  16. Dynamic mechanical deformation of a SiC{sub p}/Al-Li (8090) composite

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidya, R.U.; Zurek, A.K.

    1993-06-01

    The deformation behavior in compression of a silicon carbide particle-reinforced aluminum-lithium (8090) matrix composite, at strain rates in the range of 10{sup {minus}3} to 6500 s{sup {minus}1}, was investigated, and compared with that of unreinforced alloy samples. Dynamics strengthening in these composites was found to change depending on the direction of testing. These differences were attributed to differences in the orientation of the reinforcing particles. 4 refs, 5 figs.

  17. Dynamic mechanical deformation of a SiC[sub p]/Al-Li (8090) composite

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidya, R.U.; Zurek, A.K. )

    1994-07-10

    The deformation behavior in compression of a silicon carbide particle reinforced aluminum-lithium (8090) matrix composite, at strain rates in the range of 10[sup [minus]3] to 6500 s[sup [minus]1], was investigated, and compared with that of unreinforced alloy samples. Dynamic strenghening in these composites was found to change depending on the direction of testing. These differences were attributed to differences in the orientation of the reinforcing particles. [copyright] 1994 American Institute of Physics

  18. Dynamic mechanical deformation of a SiC[sub p]/Al-Li (8090) composite

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidya, R.U.; Zurek, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    The deformation behavior in compression of a silicon carbide particle-reinforced aluminum-lithium (8090) matrix composite, at strain rates in the range of 10[sup [minus]3] to 6500 s[sup [minus]1], was investigated, and compared with that of unreinforced alloy samples. Dynamics strengthening in these composites was found to change depending on the direction of testing. These differences were attributed to differences in the orientation of the reinforcing particles. 4 refs, 5 figs.

  19. Dynamic mechanical deformation of a SiCp/Al-Li (8090) composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidya, Rajendra U.; Zurek, Anna K.

    1994-07-01

    The deformation behavior in compression of a silicon carbide particle reinforced aluminum-lithium (8090) matrix composite, at strain rates in the range of 10-3 to 6500 s-1, was investigated, and compared with that of unreinforced alloy samples. Dynamic strenghening in these composites was found to change depending on the direction of testing. These differences were attributed to differences in the orientation of the reinforcing particles.

  20. Potential fluid mechanic pathways of platelet activation

    PubMed Central

    Shadden, Shawn C.; Hendabadi, Sahar

    2012-01-01

    Platelet activation is a precursor for blood clotting, which plays leading roles in many vascular complications and causes of death. Platelets can be activated by chemical or mechanical stimuli. Mechanically, platelet activation has been shown to be a function of elevated shear stress and exposure time. These contributions can be combined by considering the cumulative stress or strain on a platelet as it is transported. Here we develop a framework for computing a hemodynamic-based activation potential that is derived from a Lagrangian integral of strain rate magnitude. We demonstrate that such a measure is generally maximized along, and near to, distinguished material surfaces in the flow. The connections between activation potential and these structures are illustrated through stenotic flow computations. We uncover two distinct structures that may explain observed thrombus formation at the apex and downstream of stenoses. More broadly, these findings suggest fundamental relationships may exist between potential fluid mechanic pathways for mechanical platelet activation and the mechanisms governing their transport. PMID:22782543

  1. Structural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of a VT22 Titanium Alloy Under High-Temperature Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratochka, I. V.; Mishin, I. P.; Lykova, O. N.; Naydenkin, E. V.; Varlamova, N. V.

    2016-07-01

    The special features inherent in the development of high-temperature deformation and structural evolution in materials are investigated, using a VT22 titanium alloy of the transition class (Ti - 4.74 mass% Al - 5.57 mass% Mo - 5.04 mass% V) subjected to helical rolling + aging as an example. This treatment is found to give rise to an intragrain fine acicular martensite structure with fine inclusions of α-phase particles of size ~1 μm. It is shown that in the alloy undergoing plastic deformation at temperatures approaching the polymorphic transformation temperature, the elongation to failure is in excess of 300%. The high plasticity of the alloy in the conditions considered is likely to be due to vigorous development of phase transformations and intensification of diffusion-controlled processes, including the effects of the evolution of the dislocation structure, growth of subgrains, and formation of new grains in the bulk of the pre-existing ones during plastic deformation.

  2. Heterogeneous deformation and mechanical strength of materials - Approach to the theoretical strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, H.; Fujita, N.

    2002-01-01

    Grain size in polycrystalline materials was changed from larger than phi 10 mum to smaller than phi 10 nm, and the effects of both grain size and strain rate on the strength has been investigated from a view point of heterogeneous deformation. Grains of phi10 nm or less in size were obtained by crystallization of amorphous alloys. The experimental results are summarized as follows: (a) Heterogeneous deformation is effectively suppressed when grain size decreases smaller than about phi0.1 mum. As a result, the strength remarkably increases in this grain size range, and takes the maximum value when grains of phi10 nm in size are homogeneously formed, (b) When grain size becomes smaller than phi10 nm, those ultrafine grains are embedded into the amorphous matrix, and the strength decreases with increasing volume fraction of amorphous phase. (c) Heterogeneous deformation is also effectively suppressed by increasing strain rate in general as well as decreasing grain size. The maximum strength obtained experimentally is compared with the theoretical strengths estimated under various conditions.

  3. The interplay between deformation and volcanic activity: new data from the central sector of the Campi Flegrei caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaia, Roberto; Sabatino, Ciarcia; Enrico, Iannuzzi; Ernesto, Prinzi; D'Assisi, Tramparulo Francesco; Stefano, Vitale

    2016-04-01

    The new excavation of a tunnel in the central sector of the Campi Flegrei caldera allowed us to collect new stratigraphic and structural data shedding light on the volcano-tectonic evolution of the last 10 ka. The analyzed sequences are composed by an alternation of volcanic, lacustrine, fluvial and marine sediments hosting several deformation structures such as faults, sedimentary dykes and fractures. A review of available well log togheter with the new data were used to perform a 3D reconstruction of paleo-surfaces resulted after the main volcanic and deformation episodes. Results show as the paleo-morphology was strictly controlled by faults and fractures that formed meso-scale channels and depressions subsequently filled by tephra and volcanoclastic sediments. The measured structures indicate an extensional deformation accompanying the ground uplift occurred in various stages of the caldera evolution. Stratigraphic relationships between structures and volcanic deposits further constrain the timing of the deformation phases. Presently an unrest phase of the Campi Flegrei caldera is marked by variations of different parameters such as ground deformation activities well recorded by GPS data, topographic leveling and satellite surveys. The results of this study provide further insight into the long term deformation pattern of the caldera and provide a key to interpret the ground deformation scenarios accompanying a possible resumption of volcanism.

  4. Temperature-dependent phase-specific deformation mechanisms in a directionally solidified NiAl-Cr(Mo) lamellar composite

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Dunji; An, Ke; Chen, Xu; Bei, Hongbin

    2015-10-09

    Phase-specific thermal expansion and mechanical deformation behaviors of a directionally solidified NiAl–Cr(Mo) lamellar in situ composite were investigated by using real-time in situ neutron diffraction during compression at elevated temperatures up to 800 °C. Tensile and compressive thermal residual stresses were found to exist in the NiAl phase and Crss (solid solution) phase, respectively. Then, based on the evolution of lattice spacings and phase stresses, the phase-specific deformation behavior was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Moreover, estimates of phase stresses were derived by Hooke's law on the basis of a simple method for the determination of stress-free lattice spacing in in situ composites. During compressive loading, the NiAl phase yields earlier than the Crss phase. The Crss phase carries much higher stress than the NiAl phase, and displays consistent strain hardening at all temperatures. The NiAl phase exhibits strain hardening at relatively low temperatures and softening at high temperatures. During unloading, the NiAl phase yields in tension whereas the Crss phase unloads elastically. Additionally, post-test microstructural observations show phase-through cracks at room temperature, micro cracks along phase interfaces at 600 °C and intact lamellae kinks at 800 °C, which is due to the increasing deformability of both phases as temperature rises.

  5. Temperature-dependent phase-specific deformation mechanisms in a directionally solidified NiAl-Cr(Mo) lamellar composite

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Dunji; An, Ke; Chen, Xu; Bei, Hongbin

    2015-10-09

    Phase-specific thermal expansion and mechanical deformation behaviors of a directionally solidified NiAl–Cr(Mo) lamellar in situ composite were investigated by using real-time in situ neutron diffraction during compression at elevated temperatures up to 800 °C. Tensile and compressive thermal residual stresses were found to exist in the NiAl phase and Crss (solid solution) phase, respectively. Then, based on the evolution of lattice spacings and phase stresses, the phase-specific deformation behavior was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Moreover, estimates of phase stresses were derived by Hooke's law on the basis of a simple method for the determination of stress-free lattice spacing in inmore » situ composites. During compressive loading, the NiAl phase yields earlier than the Crss phase. The Crss phase carries much higher stress than the NiAl phase, and displays consistent strain hardening at all temperatures. The NiAl phase exhibits strain hardening at relatively low temperatures and softening at high temperatures. During unloading, the NiAl phase yields in tension whereas the Crss phase unloads elastically. Additionally, post-test microstructural observations show phase-through cracks at room temperature, micro cracks along phase interfaces at 600 °C and intact lamellae kinks at 800 °C, which is due to the increasing deformability of both phases as temperature rises.« less

  6. Development of TRIP-Aided Lean Duplex Stainless Steel by Twin-Roll Strip Casting and Its Deformation Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Weina; Liu, Xin; Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Guodong

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, twin-roll strip casting was carried out to fabricate thin strip of a Mn-N alloyed lean duplex stainless steel with the composition of Fe-19Cr-6Mn-0.4N, in which internal pore defects had been effectively avoided as compared to conventional cast ingots. The solidification structure observed by optical microscope indicated that fine Widmannstatten structure and coarse-equiaxed crystals had been formed in the surface and center, respectively, with no columnar crystal structures through the surface to center of the cast strip. By applying hot rolling and cold rolling, thin sheets with the thickness of 0.5 mm were fabricated from the cast strips, and no edge cracks were formed during the rolling processes. With an annealing treatment at 1323 K (1050 °C) for 5 minutes after cold rolling, the volume fractions of ferrite and austenite were measured to be approximately equal, and the distribution of alloying elements in the strip was further homogenized. The cold-rolled and annealed sheet exhibited an excellent combination of strength and ductility, with the ultimate tensile strength and elongation having been measured to be 1000 MPa and 65 pct, respectively. The microstructural evolution during deformation was investigated by XRD, EBSD, and TEM, indicating that ferrite and austenite had different deformation mechanisms. The deformation of ferrite phase was dominated by dislocation slipping, and the deformation of austenite phase was mainly controlled by martensitic transformation in the sequence of γ→ɛ-martensite→α'-martensite, leading to the improvement of strength and plasticity by the so-called transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect. By contrast, lean duplex stainless steels of Fe-21Cr-6Mn-0.5N and Fe-23Cr-7Mn-0.6N fabricated by twin-roll strip casting did not show TRIP effects and exhibited lower strength and elongation as compared to Fe-19Cr-6Mn-0.4N.

  7. Mechanisms of plastic deformation in highly cross-linked UHMWPE for total hip components--the molecular physics viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yasuhito; Shishido, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Kengo; Masaoka, Toshinori; Kubo, Kosuke; Tateiwa, Toshiyuki; Pezzotti, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Plastic deformation is an unavoidable event in biomedical polymeric implants for load-bearing application during long-term in-vivo service life, which involves a mass transfer process, irreversible chain motion, and molecular reorganization. Deformation-induced microstructural alterations greatly affect mechanical properties and durability of implant devices. The present research focused on evaluating, from a molecular physics viewpoint, the impact of externally applied strain (or stress) in ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) prostheses, subjected to radiation cross-linking and subsequent remelting for application in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Two different types of commercial acetabular liners, which belong to the first-generation highly cross-linked UHMWPE (HXLPE), were investigated by means of confocal/polarized Raman microprobe spectroscopy. The amount of crystalline region and the spatial distribution of molecular chain orientation were quantitatively analyzed according to a combined theory including Raman selection rules for the polyethylene orthorhombic structure and the orientation distribution function (ODF) statistical approach. The structurally important finding was that pronounced recrystallization and molecular reorientation increasingly appeared in the near-surface regions of HXLPE liners with increasing the amount of plastic (compressive) deformation stored in the microstructure. Such molecular rearrangements, occurred in response to external strains, locally increase surface cross-shear (CS) stresses, which in turn trigger microscopic wear processes in HXLPE acetabular liners. Thus, on the basis of the results obtained at the molecular scale, we emphasize here the importance of minimizing the development of irrecoverable deformation strain in order to retain the pristine and intrinsically high wear performance of HXLPE components. PMID:25460925

  8. Mechanisms of plastic deformation in highly cross-linked UHMWPE for total hip components--the molecular physics viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yasuhito; Shishido, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Kengo; Masaoka, Toshinori; Kubo, Kosuke; Tateiwa, Toshiyuki; Pezzotti, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Plastic deformation is an unavoidable event in biomedical polymeric implants for load-bearing application during long-term in-vivo service life, which involves a mass transfer process, irreversible chain motion, and molecular reorganization. Deformation-induced microstructural alterations greatly affect mechanical properties and durability of implant devices. The present research focused on evaluating, from a molecular physics viewpoint, the impact of externally applied strain (or stress) in ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) prostheses, subjected to radiation cross-linking and subsequent remelting for application in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Two different types of commercial acetabular liners, which belong to the first-generation highly cross-linked UHMWPE (HXLPE), were investigated by means of confocal/polarized Raman microprobe spectroscopy. The amount of crystalline region and the spatial distribution of molecular chain orientation were quantitatively analyzed according to a combined theory including Raman selection rules for the polyethylene orthorhombic structure and the orientation distribution function (ODF) statistical approach. The structurally important finding was that pronounced recrystallization and molecular reorientation increasingly appeared in the near-surface regions of HXLPE liners with increasing the amount of plastic (compressive) deformation stored in the microstructure. Such molecular rearrangements, occurred in response to external strains, locally increase surface cross-shear (CS) stresses, which in turn trigger microscopic wear processes in HXLPE acetabular liners. Thus, on the basis of the results obtained at the molecular scale, we emphasize here the importance of minimizing the development of irrecoverable deformation strain in order to retain the pristine and intrinsically high wear performance of HXLPE components.

  9. The role of hornblende in deep crustal seismic anisotropy: an investigation of the importance of deformation mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condit, C.; Orlandini, O.; Mahan, K. H.; Schulte-Pelkum, V.; Rattanasith, D. T.

    2015-12-01

    different hornblende deformation mechanisms, with dislocation creep dominant in SZ1 and dissolution-precipitation creep dominant in SZ2. We investigate factors influencing the dominant deformation mechanism including fluid composition, metamorphic grade, amphibole chemistry, strain rate, and kinematic regime.

  10. A versatile lab-on-chip test platform to characterize elementary deformation mechanisms and electromechanical couplings in nanoscopic objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardoen, Thomas; Colla, Marie-Sthéphane; Idrissi, Hosni; Amin-Ahmadi, Behnam; Wang, Binjie; Schryvers, Dominique; Bhaskar, Umesh K.; Raskin, Jean-Pierre

    2016-03-01

    A nanomechanical on-chip test platform has recently been developed to deform under a variety of loading conditions freestanding thin films, ribbons and nanowires involving submicron dimensions. The lab-on-chip involves thousands of elementary test structures from which the elastic modulus, strength, strain hardening, fracture, creep properties can be extracted. The technique is amenable to in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations to unravel the fundamental underlying deformation and fracture mechanisms that often lead to size-dependent effects in small-scale samples. The method allows addressing electrical and magnetic couplings as well in order to evaluate the impact of large mechanical stress levels on different solid-state physics phenomena. We had the chance to present this technique in details to Jacques Friedel in 2012 who, unsurprisingly, made a series of critical and very relevant suggestions. In the spirit of his legacy, the paper will address both mechanics of materials related phenomena and couplings with solids state physics issues.

  11. A versatile lab-on-chip test platform to characterize elementary deformation mechanisms and electromechanical couplings in nanoscopic objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardoen, Thomas; Colla, Marie-Sthéphane; Idrissi, Hosni; Amin-Ahmadi, Behnam; Wang, Binjie; Schryvers, Dominique; Bhaskar, Umesh K.; Raskin, Jean-Pierre

    2016-03-01

    A nanomechanical on-chip test platform has recently been developed to deform under a variety of loading conditions freestanding thin films, ribbons and nanowires involving submicron dimensions. The lab-on-chip involves thousands of elementary test structures from which the elastic modulus, strength, strain hardening, fracture, creep properties can be extracted. The technique is amenable to in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations to unravel the fundamental underlying deformation and fracture mechanisms that often lead to size-dependent effects in small-scale samples. The method allows addressing electrical and magnetic couplings as well in order to evaluate the impact of large mechanical stress levels on different solid-state physics phenomena. We had the chance to present this technique in details to Jacques Friedel in 2012 who, unsurprisingly, made a series of critical and very relevant suggestions. In the spirit of his legacy, the paper will address both mechanics of materials related phenomena and couplings with solids state physics issues. xml:lang="fr"

  12. Approximation solution of Schrodinger equation for Q-deformed Rosen-Morse using supersymmetry quantum mechanics (SUSY QM)

    SciTech Connect

    Alemgadmi, Khaled I. K. Suparmi; Cari; Deta, U. A.

    2015-09-30

    The approximate analytical solution of Schrodinger equation for Q-Deformed Rosen-Morse potential was investigated using Supersymmetry Quantum Mechanics (SUSY QM) method. The approximate bound state energy is given in the closed form and the corresponding approximate wave function for arbitrary l-state given for ground state wave function. The first excited state obtained using upper operator and ground state wave function. The special case is given for the ground state in various number of q. The existence of Rosen-Morse potential reduce energy spectra of system. The larger value of q, the smaller energy spectra of system.

  13. Deformation mechanisms of deeply buried and surface-piercing Late Pre-Cambrian to Early Cambrian Ara Salt from interior Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenherr, Johannes; Schléder, Zsolt; Urai, Janos L.; Littke, Ralf; Kukla, Peter A.

    2010-07-01

    We compared microstructures of Late Pre-Cambrian to Early Cambrian Ara Salt diapirs from the deep subsurface (3.5-5 km) of the South Oman Salt Basin and from surface-piercing salt domes of the Ghaba Salt Basin. Laterally, these basins are approximately 500 km apart but belong to the same tectono-sedimentary system. The excellent data situation from both wells and outcrops allows a unique quantification of formation and deformation mechanisms, spanning from sedimentation to deep burial, and via re-activated diapir rise to surface piercement. Microstructures of gamma-irradiated and etched thin sections indicate dislocation creep and fluid-assisted grain boundary migration as the main deformation mechanisms operating in the deep subsurface. Microstructures from the surface are characterised by large ‘old’ subgrain-rich crystals. These ‘old’ grains are partly replaced by ‘new’ subgrain-free and subgrain-poor crystals, which show gamma irradiation-decorated growth bands and fibrous microstructures, indicative of pressure solution creep and static recrystallisation, most likely due to surface piercement and exposure. Using subgrain size piezometry, the maximum differential stresses for the subsurface salt is 1.7 MPa and those for the surface-piercing salt is 3.4 MPa, the latter value displaying the high stress conditions in the diapir ‘stem’ as the salt rises on its way to the surface.

  14. Seafloor Deformation and Localized Source Mechanisms of the 2011 M9 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterlark, T.; Grilli, S. T.; Tappin, D. R.; Kirby, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 M9 Tohoku Earthquake (TE) ruptured the interface separating the Pacific and Okhotsk Plates. This rupture was about hundred kilometers in the along-strike direction and 200 kilometers in the down-dip direction. The TE was primarily thrust having substantial slip along the up-dip portion of the rupture, near the Japan Trench. The regional-scale seafloor deformation from the TE triggered a tsunami with run-ups of a few tens of meters that caused extensive damage along the east coast of Tohoku, Japan. We construct finite element models (FEMs) to simulate the deformation caused by a distribution of coseismic slip along the curved rupture surface of the TE. The FEMs include a distribution of material properties that accounts for the subduction zone structure -a weak forearc, volcanic arc, and backarc basin of the overriding Okhotsk Plate overriding the relatively strong subducting slab that is capped by basaltic oceanic crust. The coseismic rupture is simulated as a distribution of elastic dislocations along the interface separating the forearc of the overriding plate and the oceanic crust of the subducting slab. The slip distribution is calibrated to both onshore and offshore geodetic data, using linear least-squares inverse methods with FEM-generated Greens Functions and second order regularization. The regularization is imposed with a conductance matrix, constructed using Galerkin's Method to account for the curvilinear relationships among the dislocating node pairs. The estimated slip distribution is generally characterized as a few tens of meters of slip over the entire rupture, with greater slip magnitudes (>50 meters) concentrated up-dip and near the Japan Trench. The offshore geodetic data provide critical constraints for the location of the polarity reversal of predicted seafloor vertical deformation. Wave models excited by the predicted regional-scale seafloor deformation generally well predict observed tsunami run-ups and the vertical displacement

  15. A parallel algorithm for thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis of deforming porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Gawin, D.; Schrefler, B. A.

    1996-11-01

    In this paper, a parallel Newton-Raphson algorithm with domain decomposition is developed to solve fully coupled heat, water and gas flow in deformable porous media. The model makes use of the modified effective stress concept together with the capillary pressure relationship. Phase change and latent heat transfer are also taken into account. The chosen macroscopic field variables are displacement, capillary pressure, gas pressure and temperature. The parallel program is developed on a cluster of workstations. The PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) system is used to handle communications among networked workstations. An implementation of this parallel method on workstations is discussed, the speedup and efficiency of this method being demonstrated by numerical examples.

  16. Ear deformations give bats a physical mechanism for fast adaptation of ultrasonic beam patterns.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Balakrishnan, Sreenath; He, Weikai; Yan, Zhen; Müller, Rolf

    2011-11-18

    A large number of mammals, including humans, have intricate outer ear shapes that diffract incoming sound in a direction- and frequency-specific manner. Through this physical process, the outer ear shapes encode sound-source information into the sensory signals from each ear. Our results show that horseshoe bats could dynamically control these diffraction processes through fast nonrigid ear deformations. The bats' ear shapes can alter between extreme configurations in about 100 ms and thereby change their acoustic properties in ways that would suit different acoustic sensing tasks.

  17. Ear Deformations Give Bats a Physical Mechanism for Fast Adaptation of Ultrasonic Beam Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li; Balakrishnan, Sreenath; He, Weikai; Yan, Zhen; Müller, Rolf

    2011-11-01

    A large number of mammals, including humans, have intricate outer ear shapes that diffract incoming sound in a direction- and frequency-specific manner. Through this physical process, the outer ear shapes encode sound-source information into the sensory signals from each ear. Our results show that horseshoe bats could dynamically control these diffraction processes through fast nonrigid ear deformations. The bats’ ear shapes can alter between extreme configurations in about 100 ms and thereby change their acoustic properties in ways that would suit different acoustic sensing tasks.

  18. Structure and mechanical properties of hot-deformed low-carbon martensitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, I. D.; Shatsov, A. A.; Zakirova, M. G.; Berezin, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    The structural changes in low-carbon martensitic 15Kh2G2NMFBA steel induced by its hot forging in the temperature range 1150-850°C have been studied. The calculated cracking resistance parameter I c is in agreement with its experimental value. A relation is found between the lath sizes in the martensite structure and the change in the impact toughness characteristics. A combined regime of hot deformation and hot treatment of the low-carbon martensitic steel is proposed to form submicrometer-sized structural elements and high strength and impact toughness characteristics.

  19. Fault geometries and deformation mechanisms in the evolution of low-angle normal faults (Kea, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglseder, C.; Grasemann, B.; Schneider, D.; Rice, A. H. N.; Stöckli, D.; Rockenschaub, M.

    2009-04-01

    The overall tectonic regime in the Cyclades since the Oligocene has been characterized by crustal extension, accommodated by movements on low-angle normal faults (LANFs). On Kea, structural investigations have demonstrated the existence of an island-wide LANF within a large-scale ductile-brittle shear-zone traceable over a distance of 19.5 km parallel to the stretching lineation. The tectonostratigraphy comprises Attic-Cycladic Crystalline lithologies with a shallowly-dipping schist-calcite marble unit overlain by calcitic and dolomitic fault rocks. Notably, the calcitic marbles have been mylonitized, with a mean NNE/NE-SSW/SW trending, pervasive stretching lineation and intense isoclinal folding with fold axes parallel to the stretching lineation. Numerous SC-SCĆ-fabrics and monoclinic clast-geometries show a consistent top-to-SSW shear-sense. Recorded within all lithologies is a consistent WNW/NW-ESE/SE and NNE/NE-SSW/SW striking network of conjugated brittle, brittle-ductile high-angle faults perpendicular and (sub)parallel to the main stretching direction. Field evidence and microstructural investigations indicate high-angle normal faults formed synchronously with movement on LANFs. This interplay of LANFs with high-angle structures, initiated and evolved from brittle-ductile to brittle conditions, indicates initial stages of movement below the calcite brittle-ductile transition but above the dolomite transition. Weakening processes related to syntectonic fluid-rock interactions highlight these observations. In particular, grain-size reduction and strain localisation in fine-grained (ultra)-cataclasites and fine-grained aggregates of phyllosilicate-rich fault-rocks promoted fluid-flow and pressure-solution-accommodated ‘frictional-viscous' creep. These mechanisms show the importance for LANF slip and movement in the progressive development and interaction between contemporaneous active normal faults in the Andersonian-Byerlee frictional mechanics.

  20. The role of microstructure on deformation and damage mechanisms in a Nickel-based superalloy at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, Kimberly E.

    introduced by considering the mobility limit in the tangential direction leading to strain incompatibility and failure. This limit is diminished by environmental effects which are introduced as a dynamic embrittlement process that hinders grain boundary mobility due to oxygen diffusion. The concepts described herein indicate that implementation of the cohesive zone model requires the knowledge of the grain boundary external and internal deformation fields. The external field is generated by developing and coupling two continuum constitutive models including (i) a microstructure-explicit coarse scale crystal plasticity model with strength provided by tertiary and secondary gamma' precipitates. This scale is appropriate for the representation of the continuum region at the immediate crack tip, and (ii) a macroscopic internal state variable model for the purpose of modeling the response of the far field region located several grains away from the crack path. The hardening contributions of the gamma' precipitates consider dislocation/precipitate interactions in terms of gamma' particles shearing and/or Orowan by-passing mechanisms. The material parameters for these models are obtained from results of low cycle fatigue tests which were performed at three temperatures; 650, 704 and 760°C. Furthermore, a series of microstructure controlled experiments were carried out in order to develop and validate the microstructure dependency feature of the continuum constitutive models. The second requirement in the implementation of the cohesive zone model is a grain boundary deformation model which has been developed, as described above, on the basis of viscous flow rules of the boundary material. This model is supported by dwell crack growth experiments carried out at the three temperatures mentioned above, in both air and vacuum environments. Results of these tests have identified the frequency range in which the grain boundary cohesive zone model is applicable and also provided data to

  1. Three-dimensional geometry, strain rates and basement deformation mechanisms of thrust-bend folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibberley, Christopher A. J.

    1997-03-01

    Models for thrust-bend folding of an isotropic medium are used to predict initial basement thrust sheet geometries and sub-surface thrust fault shapes from final basement thrust sheet structure. Predicted strains and strain rates from these models are compared with data on deformation fabrics in an example of a basement thrustbend fold in order to characterise the deformation response to thrust-bend folding. The Glencoul thrust sheet in the Moine Thrust Zone of north-west Scotland is restored to an initial thrust sheet geometry. Spatial and orientation distribution data of syn-emplacement fractures and cataclastic fault zones from within the Glencoul thrust sheet are then compared with the strain and strain rate histories predicted by thrust-bend folding models. A different set of cataclastic fault seams is demonstrated to have been generated at each frontal thrust bend. Cataclastic failure is restricted to portions of the thrust sheet that have moved over frontal bends with smaller radii of curvature. From model thrust-bend geometries and an assumed slip rate of 1 x 10 -10 ms -1, estimated minimum (critical) strain rates required for fracture failure of the Lewisian basement are 10 -11 to 10 -14 s -1 for shear strain rates and 10 -12 to 10 -15 s -1 for extensional strain rates.

  2. A simple higher order shear deformation theory for mechanical behavior of laminated composite plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adim, Belkacem; Daouadji, Tahar Hassaine; Rabahi, Aberezak

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, the static, buckling, and free vibration of laminated composite plates is examined using a refined shear deformation theory and developed for a bending analysis of orthotropic laminated composite plates. These models take into account the parabolic distribution of transverse shear stresses and satisfy the condition of zero shear stresses on the top and bottom surfaces of the plates. The most interesting feature of this theory is that it allows for parabolic distributions of transverse shear stresses across the plate thickness and satisfies the conditions of zero shear stresses at the top and bottom surfaces of the plate without using shear correction factors. The number of independent unknowns in the present theory is four, as against five in other shear deformation theories. In the analysis, the equation of motion for simply supported thick laminated rectangular plates is obtained through the use of Hamilton's principle. The accuracy of the analysis presented is demonstrated by comparing the results with solutions derived from other higher order models and with data found in the literature. It can be concluded that the proposed theory is accurate and simple in solving the static, the buckling, and free vibration behaviors of laminated composite plates.

  3. Quaternary grabens in southernmost Illinois: Deformation near an active intraplate seismic zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, W.J.; Denny, F.B.; Follmer, L.R.; Masters, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Narrow grabens displace Quaternary sediments near the northern edge of the Mississippi Embayment in extreme southern Illinois, east-central United States. Grabens are part of the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex (FAFC), which has been recurrently active throughout Phanerozoic time. The FAFC strikes directly toward the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ), scene of some of the largest intra-plate earthquakes in history. The NMSZ and FAFC share origin in a failed Cambrian rift (Reelfoot Rift). Every major fault zone of the FAFC in Illinois exhibits Quaternary displacement. The structures appear to be strike-slip pull-apart grabens, but the magnitude and direction of horizontal slip and their relationship to the current stress field are unknown. Upper Tertiary strata are vertically displaced more than 100 m, Illinoian and older Pleistocene strata 10 to 30 m, and Wisconsinan deposits 1 m or less. No Holocene deformation has been observed. Average vertical slip rates are estimated at 0.01 to 0.03 mm/year, and recurrence intervals for earthquakes of magnitude 6 to 7 are on the order of 10,000s of years for any given fault. Previous authors remarked that the small amount of surface deformation in the New Madrid area implies that the NMSZ is a young feature. Our findings show that tectonic activity has shifted around throughout the Quaternary in the central Mississippi Valley. In addition to the NMSZ and southern Illinois, the Wabash Valley (Illinois-Indiana), Benton Hills (Missouri), Crowley's Ridge (Arkansas-Missouri), and possibly other sites have experienced Quaternary tectonism. The NMSZ may be only the latest manifestation of seismicity in an intensely fractured intra-plate region.

  4. Digital moiré interferometric analysis on the effect of nanoparticle conditioning on the mechanical deformation in dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang Chi; Kishen, Anil

    2016-02-01

    Dentin is a biological composite that forms the major bulk of tooth structure. Understanding the biomechanical response of dentin structure to forces is essential to restore the loss of mechanical integrity associated with dentin loss during disease or treatment procedures. Moiré interferometry is an optical interferometry based method, which allows wholefield, real-time analysis of dental structures with high-sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the deformation gradients in dentin during function and subsequent to surface conditioning with bioactive biopolymeric nanoparticle. Slab shaped dentin specimens were prepared and a customized loading jig was used to compressively load the specimens from 10 N to 50 N. Specific regions of interest was chosen on the dentin specimens for strain analysis. The digital moiré interferometry experiments showed a distinct deformation pattern in dentin in the direction perpendicular to the dentinal tubules, which increased with increase in dentin loss. The dentin conditioned with nanoparticles did not display marked increase in strain gradients with loads. The current photomechanical experiment highlighted the impact of nanoparticle treatment to improve the mechanical integrity of dentin.

  5. Contributions of microbiome and mechanical deformation to intestinal bacterial overgrowth and inflammation in a human gut-on-a-chip

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Li, Hu; Collins, James J.; Ingber, Donald E.

    2016-01-01

    A human gut-on-a-chip microdevice was used to coculture multiple commensal microbes in contact with living human intestinal epithelial cells for more than a week in vitro and to analyze how gut microbiome, inflammatory cells, and peristalsis-associated mechanical deformations independently contribute to intestinal bacterial overgrowth and inflammation. This in vitro model replicated results from past animal and human studies, including demonstration that probiotic and antibiotic therapies can suppress villus injury induced by pathogenic bacteria. By ceasing peristalsis-like motions while maintaining luminal flow, lack of epithelial deformation was shown to trigger bacterial overgrowth similar to that observed in patients with ileus and inflammatory bowel disease. Analysis of intestinal inflammation on-chip revealed that immune cells and lipopolysaccharide endotoxin together stimulate epithelial cells to produce four proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α) that are necessary and sufficient to induce villus injury and compromise intestinal barrier function. Thus, this human gut-on-a-chip can be used to analyze contributions of microbiome to intestinal pathophysiology and dissect disease mechanisms in a controlled manner that is not possible using existing in vitro systems or animal models. PMID:26668389

  6. DEFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS OF CRUSHED-STONE LAYER UNDER CYCLIC IMPACT LOADING FROM MICRO-MECHANICAL VIEW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Akiko; Matsushima, Takashi

    'Hanging sleepers', which have gaps between sleepers and ballast layer are often found in the neighborhood of rail joints or rugged surface rails. This suggests that differential settlement of the ballast layer is due to impact loading generated by the contact between running wheel and rugged surface rail. Then cyclic loading tests were performed on crushed-stone layer with two loading patterns, the one is a cyclic impact loading and the other one is cyclic 'standard' loading controlled at 1/10 loading velocity of the impact loading. It was shown that the crashed-stone layer deforms with volumetric expansion during every off-loading processes under the cyclic impact loading. This phenomena prevents crushed stone layer from forming stable grain columns, then the residual settlement under the cyclic impact loading is larger than that under the cyclic 'standard' loading. A simple mass-spring model simulates that two masses move in the opposite direction with increased frequency of harmonic excitation.

  7. Studies on Deformation Mechanism and Punch Taper Effects on Nanoimprint Processes by Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Quang-Cherng; Wu, Chen-Da; Fang, Te-Hua

    2004-06-01

    A molecular dynamics analysis model is proposed to study the effects of parameters on nanoimprint process, for example: taper angle, imprint depth and spring back. The nanoimprint process comprises one punch and one specimen at an isothermal state of 400K, while the deformed material is a copper FCC single crystal and the punch material is a nickel FCC single crystal. There were a total of 10,080 atoms in copper measuring 12.02 nm × 5.72 nm in length and height, respectively. There were a total of 4,200 atoms in nickel where the typical length and depth in punch tooth are 6.24 nm × 3.52 nm, respectively. Computer simulation codes based on Hamiltonian dynamics, periodical boundary conditions and Morse potential function were used to simulate the nanoimprint processes. By varying the punch taper angle and the imprinting depth, useful information for nanoimprint process has been obtained.

  8. Deformation Mechanism and Punch Taper Effects on Nanoimprint Process by Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Quang-Cherng; Wu, Chen-Da; Fang, Te-Hua

    2004-11-01

    A molecular dynamics analysis model is proposed to study the effects of parameters