Science.gov

Sample records for active device area

  1. Active cleaning technique device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a laboratory demonstration model of an active cleaning technique (ACT) device. The principle of this device is based primarily on the technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces. This active cleaning technique involves exposing contaminated surfaces to a plasma containing atomic oxygen or combinations of other reactive gases. The ACT device laboratory demonstration model incorporates, in addition to plasma cleaning, the means to operate the device as an ion source for sputtering experiments. The overall ACT device includes a plasma generation tube, an ion accelerator, a gas supply system, a RF power supply and a high voltage dc power supply.

  2. Active terahertz metamaterial devices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hou-Tong; Padilla, Willie J; Zide, Joshua M O; Gossard, Arthur C; Taylor, Antoinette J; Averitt, Richard D

    2006-11-30

    The development of artificially structured electromagnetic materials, termed metamaterials, has led to the realization of phenomena that cannot be obtained with natural materials. This is especially important for the technologically relevant terahertz (1 THz = 10(12) Hz) frequency regime; many materials inherently do not respond to THz radiation, and the tools that are necessary to construct devices operating within this range-sources, lenses, switches, modulators and detectors-largely do not exist. Considerable efforts are underway to fill this 'THz gap' in view of the useful potential applications of THz radiation. Moderate progress has been made in THz generation and detection; THz quantum cascade lasers are a recent example. However, techniques to control and manipulate THz waves are lagging behind. Here we demonstrate an active metamaterial device capable of efficient real-time control and manipulation of THz radiation. The device consists of an array of gold electric resonator elements (the metamaterial) fabricated on a semiconductor substrate. The metamaterial array and substrate together effectively form a Schottky diode, which enables modulation of THz transmission by 50 per cent, an order of magnitude improvement over existing devices. PMID:17136089

  3. Silicon active photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitropoulos, Dimitrios

    Active photonic devices utilizing the optical nonlinearities of silicon have emerged in the last 5 years and the effort for commercial photonic devices in the material that has been the workhorse of electronics has been building up since. This dissertation presents the theory for some of these devices. We are concerned herein with CW lasers, amplifiers and wavelength converters that are based on the Raman effect. There have already been cursory experimental demonstrations of these devices and some of their limitations are already apparent. Most of the limitations observed are because of the appearance of effects that are competing with stimulated Raman scattering. Under the high optical powers that are necessary for the Raman effect (tens to hundrends of mW's) the process of optical two-photon (TPA) absorption occurs. The absorption of optical power that it causes itself is weak but in the process electrons and holes are generated which can further absorb light through the free-carrier absorption effect (FCA). The effective "lifetime" that these carriers have determines the magnitude of the FCA loss. We present a model for the carrier lifetime in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) waveguides and numerical simulations to understand how this critical parameter varies and how it can be controlled. A p-i-n junction built along SOI waveguides can help achieve lifetime of the order of 20--100 ps but the price one has to pay is on-chip electrical power consumption on the order of 100's of mWs. We model CW Raman lasers and we find that the carrier lifetime reduces the output power. If the carrier lifetime exceeds a certain "critical" value optical losses become overwhelming and lasing is impossible. As we show, in amplifiers, the nonlinear loss does not only result in diminished gain, but also in a higher noise figure. Finally the effect of Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is examined. The effect is important because with a pump frequency at 1434nm coherent power

  4. Active multistable twisting device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Marc R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Two similarly shaped, such as rectangular, shells are attached to one another such that they form a resulting thin airfoil-like structure. The resulting device has at least two stable equilibrium shapes. The device can be transformed from one shape to another with a snap-through action. One or more actuators can be used to effect the snap-through; i.e., transform the device from one stable shape to another. Power to the actuators is needed only to transform the device from one shape to another.

  5. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit

    2011-03-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, triaxially textured, single-crystal or single-crystal-like, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  6. Radiation sensitive area detection device and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Hecht, Diana L. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A radiation sensitive area detection device for use in conjunction with an X ray, ultraviolet or other radiation source is provided which comprises a phosphor containing film which releases a stored diffraction pattern image in response to incoming light or other electromagnetic wave. A light source such as a helium-neon laser, an optical fiber capable of directing light from the laser source onto the phosphor film and also capable of channelling the fluoresced light from the phosphor film to an integrating sphere which directs the light to a signal processing means including a light receiving means such as a photomultiplier tube. The signal processing means allows translation of the fluoresced light in order to detect the original pattern caused by the diffraction of the radiation by the original sample. The optical fiber is retained directly in front of the phosphor screen by a thin metal holder which moves up and down across the phosphor screen and which features a replaceable pinhole which allows easy adjustment of the resolution of the light projected onto the phosphor film. The device produces near real time images with high spatial resolution and without the distortion that accompanies prior art devices employing photomultiplier tubes. A method is also provided for carrying out radiation area detection using the device of the invention.

  7. X ray sensitive area detection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor); Pusey, Marc L. (Inventor); Yost, Vaughn H. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A radiation sensitive area detection device is disclosed which comprises a phosphor-containing film capable of receiving and storing an image formed by a pattern of incoming x rays, UV, or other radiation falling on the film. The device is capable of fluorescing in response to stimulation by a light source in a manner directly proportional to the stored radiation pattern. The device includes: (1) a light source capable of projecting light or other appropriate electromagnetic wave on the film so as to cause it to fluoresce; (2) a means to focus the fluoresced light coming from the phosphor-containing film after light stimulation; and (3) at least one charged coupled detector or other detecting element capable of receiving and digitizing the pattern of fluoresced light coming from the phosphor-containing film. The device will be able to generate superior x ray images of high resolution from a crystal or other sample and will be particularly advantageous in that instantaneous near-real-time images of rapidly deteriorating samples can be obtained. Furthermore, the device can be made compact and sturdy, thus capable of carrying out x ray or other radiation imaging under a variety of conditions, including those experienced in space.

  8. Dual control active superconductive devices

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S.; Beyer, James B.; Nordman, James E.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1993-07-20

    A superconducting active device has dual control inputs and is constructed such that the output of the device is effectively a linear mix of the two input signals. The device is formed of a film of superconducting material on a substrate and has two main conduction channels, each of which includes a weak link region. A first control line extends adjacent to the weak link region in the first channel and a second control line extends adjacent to the weak link region in the second channel. The current flowing from the first channel flows through an internal control line which is also adjacent to the weak link region of the second channel. The weak link regions comprise small links of superconductor, separated by voids, through which the current flows in each channel. Current passed through the control lines causes magnetic flux vortices which propagate across the weak link regions and control the resistance of these regions. The output of the device taken across the input to the main channels and the output of the second main channel and the internal control line will constitute essentially a linear mix of the two input signals imposed on the two control lines. The device is especially suited to microwave applications since it has very low input capacitance, and is well suited to being formed of high temperature superconducting materials since all of the structures may be formed coplanar with one another on a substrate.

  9. Field studies of beach cones as coastal erosion control/reversal devices for areas with significant oil and gas activities. Final report, February 24, 1992--September 18, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Law, V.J.

    1995-09-18

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate the utility of a device called the {open_quotes}beach cone{close_quotes} in combating coastal erosion. Seven initial sites were selected for testing beach cones in a variety of geometric configurations. Permits were obtained from the State of Louisiana and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to perform the work associated with this study. Six hundred beach cones were actually installed at six of the sites in late July and early August, 1992. Findings indicate that beach cones accreted significant amounts of materials along the beach of a barrier island, and they might have been instrumental in repairing an approximately 200 meter gap in the island. At the eighth installation the amount of accreted material was measured by surveys to be 2200 cubic meters (2900 cubic yards) in February of 1993, when the cones were found to have been completely covered by the material. At other test sites, accretion rates have been less dramatic but importantly, no significant additional erosion has occurred, which is a positive result. The cost of sediment accretion using beach cones was found to be about $13.72 per cubic yard, which would be much lower if the cones were mass produced (on the order of $3.00 per cubic yard). The survival of the cones through the fringes of Hurricane Andrew indicates that they can be anchored sufficiently to survive significant storms. The measurements of the cones settling rates indicate that this effect is not significant enough to hinder their effectiveness. A subcontract to Xavier University to assess the ecological quality of the experimental sites involved the study of the biogeochemical cycle of trace metals. The highest concentration of heavy metals were near a fishing camp while the lowest levels were in the beach sand of a barrier island. This suggests that the metals do not occur naturally in these areas, but have been placed in the sediments by man`s activities.

  10. Modeling a Dry Etch Process for Large-Area Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, R.J.; Hebner, G.A.; Ruby, D.S.; Yang, P.

    1999-07-28

    There has been considerable interest in developing dry processes which can effectively replace wet processing in the manufacture of large area photovoltaic devices. Environmental and health issues are a driver for this activity because wet processes generally increase worker exposure to toxic and hazardous chemicals and generate large volumes of liquid hazardous waste. Our work has been directed toward improving the performance of screen-printed solar cells while using plasma processing to reduce hazardous chemical usage.

  11. Activated-Carbon Sorbent With Integral Heat-Transfer Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Yavrouian, Andre

    1996-01-01

    Prototype adsorption device used, for example, in adsorption heat pump, to store natural gas to power automobile, or to separate components of fluid mixtures. Device includes activated carbon held together by binder and molded into finned heat-transfer device providing rapid heating or cooling to enable rapid adsorption or desorption of fluids. Concepts of design and fabrication of device equally valid for such other highly thermally conductive devices as copper-finned tubes, and for such other high-surface-area sorbents as zeolites or silicates.

  12. Encoding Active Device Elements at Nanowire Tips.

    PubMed

    No, You-Shin; Gao, Ruixuan; Mankin, Max N; Day, Robert W; Park, Hong-Gyu; Lieber, Charles M

    2016-07-13

    Semiconductor nanowires and other one-dimensional materials are attractive for highly sensitive and spatially confined electrical and optical signal detection in biological and physical systems, although it has been difficult to localize active electronic or optoelectronic device function at one end of such one-dimensional structures. Here we report a new nanowire structure in which the material and dopant are modulated specifically at only one end of nanowires to encode an active two-terminal device element. We present a general bottom-up synthetic scheme for these tip-modulated nanowires and illustrate this with the synthesis of nanoscale p-n junctions. Electron microscopy imaging verifies the designed p-Si nanowire core with SiO2 insulating inner shell and n-Si outer shell with clean p-Si/n-Si tip junction. Electrical transport measurements with independent contacts to the p-Si core and n-Si shell exhibited a current rectification behavior through the tip and no detectable current through the SiO2 shell. Electrical measurements also exhibited an n-type response in conductance versus water-gate voltage with pulsed gate experiments yielding a temporal resolution of at least 0.1 ms and ∼90% device sensitivity localized to within 0.5 μm from the nanowire p-n tip. In addition, photocurrent experiments showed an open-circuit voltage of 0.75 V at illumination power of ∼28.1 μW, exhibited linear dependence of photocurrent with respect to incident illumination power with an estimated responsivity up to ∼0.22 A/W, and revealed localized photocurrent generation at the nanowire tip. The tip-modulated concept was further extended to a top-down/bottom-up hybrid approach that enabled large-scale production of vertical tip-modulated nanowires with a final synthetic yield of >75% with >4300 nanowires. Vertical tip-modulated nanowires were fabricated into >50 individually addressable nanowire device arrays showing diode-like current-voltage characteristics. These tip

  13. Active and intelligent inhaler device development.

    PubMed

    Tobyn, Mike; Staniforth, John N; Morton, David; Harmer, Quentin; Newton, Mike E

    2004-06-11

    The dry powder inhaler, which has traditionally relied on the patient's inspiratory force to deaggregate and deliver the active agent to the target region of the lung, has been a successful delivery device for the provision of locally active agents for the treatment of conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, such devices can suffer from poor delivery characteristics and/or poor reproducibility. More recently, drugs for systemic delivery and more high value compounds have been put into DPI devices. Regulatory, dosing, manufacturing and economic concerns have demanded that a more efficient and reproducible performance is achieved by these devices. Recently strategies have been put in place to produce a more efficient DPI device/formulation combination. Using one novel device as an example the paper will examine which features are important in such a device and some of the strategies required to implement these features. All of these technological advances are invisible, and may be irrelevant, to the patient. However, their inability to use an inhaler device properly has significant implications for their therapy. Use of active device mechanisms, which reduce the dependence on patient inspiratory flow, and sensible industrial design, which give the patient the right clues to use, are important determinants of performance here.

  14. [100] or [110] aligned, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit

    2015-03-24

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, [100] or [110] textured, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  15. Explosively activated egress area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Bailey, J. W. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A lightweight, add on structure which employs linear shaped pyrotechnic charges to smoothly cut an airframe along an egress area periphery is provided. It compromises reaction surfaces attached to the exterior surface of the airframe's skin and is designed to restrict the skin deflection. That portion of the airframe within the egress area periphery is jettisoned. Retention surfaces and sealing walls are attached to the interior surface of the airframe's skin and are designed to shield the interior of the aircraft during detonation of the pyrotechnic charges.

  16. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices on {110}<100> oriented substrates

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit

    2014-08-05

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices on {110}<100> textured substrates are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  17. Field studies of beach cones as coastal erosion control/reversal devices for areas with significant oil and gas activities. [Annual report], February 24, 1992--February 23, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Law, V.J.

    1993-03-15

    The primary objective of this project is to evaluate the utility of a device called the ``beach cone`` in combating coastal erosion. Seven initial sites were selected for testing beach cones in a variety of geometric configurations. Permits were obtained from the State of Louisiana and the US Army Corps of Engineers to perform the work associated with this study. Six hundred beach cones were actually installed at six of the sites in late July and early August, 1992. One of the initial sites was abandoned because it was found to be unsuitable for beach cone placement. The test sites have been observed for six months and preliminary findings indicate that beach cones accreted significant amounts of materials along the beach of a barrier island. At other test sites, accretion rates have been less dramatic but importantly, no significant additional erosion has occurred, which is a positive result. It is too soon to state the categorical success of the beach cones, but results to date are encouraging.

  18. Field studies of beach cones as coastal erosion control/reversal devices for areas with significant oil and gas activities. Annual report, February 24, 1993--February 23, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Law, V.J.

    1994-07-07

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate the utility of a device called the ``beach cone`` in combating coastal erosion. Seven initial sites were selected for testing beach cones in a variety of geometric configurations, and six sites were actually used. Six hundred beach cones were installed at the six sites in late July and early August, 1992. An additional 109 cones were installed at an eighth site in December of 1992. Findings indicate that beach cones accreted significant amounts of materials along the beach of a barrier island. At the eighth installation the amount of accreted material was measured by surveys to be 2200 cubic meters (2900 cubic yards) in February of 1993, when the cones were found to have been completely covered by the material. The average increase in elevation was about 7 inches (0. 18 in) with a maximum buildup of 3 ft. (I in). At other test sites, accretion rates have been less dramatic but importantly, no significant additional erosion has occurred, which is a positive result. The cost of sediment accretion using beach cones was found to be about $13.72 per cubic yard of sand or approximately $500,000 per mile of beach, which would be much lower if the cones were mass produced. The survival of the cones through the fringes of Hurricane Andrew indicates that they can be anchored sufficiently to survive significant storms. The measurements of the cones settling rates indicate that this effect is negligible, does not hinder their effectiveness. We do not yet have sufficient data to state the categorical success of the beach cones, but results to date are encouraging.

  19. CMOS Imaging Device for Optical Imaging of Biological Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishido, Sanshiro; Oguro, Yasuhiro; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    In this paper, we propose a CMOS image sensor device placed on the brain surface or cerebral sulcus (Fig. 1). The device has a photo detector array where a single optical detector is usually used. The proposed imaging device enables the analysis which reflects a surface blood pattern in the observed area. It is also possible to improve effective sensitivity by image processing and to simplify the measurement system by the CMOS sensor device with on-chip light source. We describe the design details and characterization of proposed device. We also demonstrate detection of hemoglobin oxygenation level with external light source, imaging capability of biological activities, and image processing for sensitivity improvement is also realized.

  20. One-step fabrication of large-area ultrathin MoS2 nanofilms with high catalytic activity for photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jia; Li, Jia; Zhu, Hongfei; Han, Yuxiang; Wang, Yanrong; Wang, Caixing; Jin, Zhong; Zhang, Gengmin; Liu, Jie

    2016-09-21

    Here we report a facile one-step solution-phase process to directly grow ultrathin MoS2 nanofilms on a transparent conductive glass as a novel high-performance counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. After an appropriate reaction time, the entire surface of the conductive glass substrate was uniformly covered by ultrathin MoS2 nanofilms with a thickness of only several stacked layers. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry reveal that the MoS2 nanofilms possess excellent catalytic activity towards tri-iodide reduction. When used in dye-sensitized solar cells, the MoS2 nanofilms show an impressive energy conversion efficiency of 8.3%, which is higher than that of a Pt-based electrode and very promising to be a desirable alternative counter electrode. Considering their ultrathin thickness, superior catalytic activity, simple preparation process and low cost, the as-prepared MoS2 nanofilms with high photovoltaic performance are expected to be widely employed in dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:27545846

  1. One-step fabrication of large-area ultrathin MoS2 nanofilms with high catalytic activity for photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jia; Li, Jia; Zhu, Hongfei; Han, Yuxiang; Wang, Yanrong; Wang, Caixing; Jin, Zhong; Zhang, Gengmin; Liu, Jie

    2016-09-21

    Here we report a facile one-step solution-phase process to directly grow ultrathin MoS2 nanofilms on a transparent conductive glass as a novel high-performance counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. After an appropriate reaction time, the entire surface of the conductive glass substrate was uniformly covered by ultrathin MoS2 nanofilms with a thickness of only several stacked layers. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry reveal that the MoS2 nanofilms possess excellent catalytic activity towards tri-iodide reduction. When used in dye-sensitized solar cells, the MoS2 nanofilms show an impressive energy conversion efficiency of 8.3%, which is higher than that of a Pt-based electrode and very promising to be a desirable alternative counter electrode. Considering their ultrathin thickness, superior catalytic activity, simple preparation process and low cost, the as-prepared MoS2 nanofilms with high photovoltaic performance are expected to be widely employed in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  2. Active plasmonic and metamaterials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong-Ku; Sylvain, Nathan; Benight, Stephanie J.; Kosilkin, Ilya; Bale, Denise H.; Robinson, Bruce H.; Park, Junghun; Geary, Kevin; Jen, Alex K.; Steier, William H.; Fetterman, Harold R.; Berini, Pierre; Dalton, Larry R.

    2010-08-01

    This communication focuses on the integration of organic nonlinear optical and gain materials into plasmonic and metamaterial device architectures and most specifically focuses on the integration of organic electro-optic (OEO) materials into such structures. The central focus is on structures that lead to sub-optical wavelength concentration of light (mode confinement) and the interaction of photonic and plasmonic modes. Optical loss and bandwidth limitations are serious issues with such structures and optical loss is evaluated for prototype device architectures associated with the use of silver and gold nanoparticles and membranes supporting plasmonic resonances. Electro-optic activity in organic materials requires that chromophores exhibit finite noncentrosymmetric organization. Because of material conductivity and integration issues, plasmonic and metamaterial device architectures are more challenging than conventional triple stack all-organic device architectures and electro-optic of a given OEO material may be an order of magnitude less in such structures. Because of this, we have turned to a variety of materials processing options for such integration including crystal growth, sequential synthesis/self assembly, and electric field poling of materials deposited from solution or by vapor deposition. Recent demonstration of integration of silicon photonic modulator and lithium niobate modulator structures with metallic plasmonic structures represent a severe challenge for organic electro-optic material plasmonic devices as these devices afford high bandwidth operation and attractive VμL performance. Optical loss remains a challenge for all structures.

  3. [Batteries Used in Active Implantable Medical Devices].

    PubMed

    Ma, Bozhi; Hao, Hongwei; Li, Luming

    2015-03-01

    In recent years active implantable medical devices(AIMD) are being developed rapidly. Many battery systems have been developed for different AIMD applications. These batteries have the same requirements which include high safety, reliability, energy density and long service life, discharge indication. History, present and future of batteries used in AIMD are introduced in the article. PMID:26524787

  4. High-Throughput Dry Processes for Large-Area Devices

    SciTech Connect

    BUSS,RICHARD J.; HEBNER,GREGORY A.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.; YANG,PIN

    1999-11-01

    In October 1996, an interdisciplinary team began a three-year LDRD project to study the plasma processes of reactive ion etching and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on large-area silicon devices. The goal was to develop numerical models that could be used in a variety of applications for surface cleaning, selective etching, and thin-film deposition. Silicon solar cells were chosen as the experimental vehicle for this project because an innovative device design was identified that would benefit from immediate performance improvement using a combination of plasma etching and deposition processes. This report presents a summary of the technical accomplishments and conclusions of the team.

  5. Active superconducting devices formed of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S.; Beyer, James B.; Nordman, James E.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1991-05-28

    Active superconducting devices are formed of thin films of superconductor which include a main conduction channel which has an active weak link region. The weak link region is composed of an array of links of thin film superconductor spaced from one another by voids and selected in size and thickness such that magnetic flux can propagate across the weak link region when it is superconducting. Magnetic flux applied to the weak link region will propagate across the array of links causing localized loss of superconductivity in the links and changing the effective resistance across the links. The magnetic flux can be applied from a control line formed of a superconducting film deposited coplanar with the main conduction channel and weak link region on a substrate. The devices can be formed of any type to superconductor but are particularly well suited to the high temperature superconductors since the devices can be entirely formed from coplanar films with no overlying regions. The devices can be utilized for a variety of electrical components, including switching circuits, amplifiers, oscillators and modulators, and are well suited to microwave frequency applications.

  6. Reducing contact resistance in graphene devices through contact area patterning.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua T; Franklin, Aaron D; Farmer, Damon B; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos D

    2013-04-23

    Performance of graphene electronics is limited by contact resistance associated with the metal-graphene (M-G) interface, where unique transport challenges arise as carriers are injected from a 3D metal into a 2D-graphene sheet. In this work, enhanced carrier injection is experimentally achieved in graphene devices by forming cuts in the graphene within the contact regions. These cuts are oriented normal to the channel and facilitate bonding between the contact metal and carbon atoms at the graphene cut edges, reproducibly maximizing "edge-contacted" injection. Despite the reduction in M-G contact area caused by these cuts, we find that a 32% reduction in contact resistance results in Cu-contacted, two-terminal devices, while a 22% reduction is achieved for top-gated graphene transistors with Pd contacts as compared to conventionally fabricated devices. The crucial role of contact annealing to facilitate this improvement is also elucidated. This simple approach provides a reliable and reproducible means of lowering contact resistance in graphene devices to bolster performance. Importantly, this enhancement requires no additional processing steps.

  7. Brain activity during stepping: a novel MRI-compatible device.

    PubMed

    Hollnagel, Christoph; Brügger, Mike; Vallery, Heike; Wolf, Peter; Dietz, Volker; Kollias, Spyros; Riener, Robert

    2011-09-30

    Little is known about the impact of supraspinal centers on the control of human locomotion. Analyzing brain activity can help to clarify their impact and to improve the effects of locomotor training. A fMRI-compatible pneumatic robotic device is presented that can generate freely programmable, highly repetitive periodic active and passive leg movements comprised by hip, knee, and ankle joint displacements. Forces of up to 400N can be applied to each foot while the subject is lying in a supine position. Magnetic interference of the device with the magnetic field of the scanner is measurable, but does not affect the image quality as obtained by a usual image analysis procedure. In a first experiment, brain activity of one healthy subject was acquired during nine different gait-like movement conditions. Brain activity in the somatosensory and motor function related areas increased more when the subject actively moved the legs than when the legs were passively moved by the device. In almost all conditions, mean head motion could be limited to 2mm within the duration of one fMRI scan by a specifically developed head and trunk fixation system. Based on these results, it is concluded that our device will significantly contribute to a better understanding of human locomotor control and related therapeutic effects in spinal cord injured and stroke patients, and thereby, to improve training approaches. PMID:21827788

  8. Charge-coupled device area x-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruner, Sol M.; Tate, Mark W.; Eikenberry, Eric F.

    2002-08-01

    Charge-coupled device (CCD) area x-ray detector technology is reviewed. CCD detectors consist of a serial chain of signal components, such as phosphors, fiber optics or lenses, image intensifiers and the CCD which serve to convert the x-ray energy to light or electron-hole pairs and to record the spatially resolved image. The various combinations of components that have been used to make CCD detectors are described and the properties of each of the critical components are discussed. Calibration and correction procedures required for accurate data collection are described. The review closes with a brief description of future directions for solid-state area x-ray detectors.

  9. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  10. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  11. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  12. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  13. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Daily activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily...

  14. Graphene active plasmonics for terahertz device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuji, Taiichi; Dubinov, Alexander; Ryzhii, Maxim; Boubanga Tombet, Stephane; Satou, Akira; Mitin, Vladimir; Shur, Michael S.; Ryzhii, Victor

    2015-05-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in the double-graphene-layer (DGL) active plasmonic heterostructures for the terahertz (THz) device applications. The DGL consists of a core shell in which a thin tunnel barrier layer is sandwiched by the two GLs being independently connected with the side contacts and outer gate stack layers at both sides. The DGL core shell works as a nano-capacitor, exhibiting inter-GL resonant tunneling (RT) when the band offset between the two GLs is aligned. The RT produces a strong nonlinearity with a negative differential conductance in the DGL current-voltage characteristics. The excitation of the graphene plasmons by the THz radiation resonantly modulates the tunneling currentvoltage characteristics. When the band offset is aligned to the THz photon energy, the DGL structure can mediate photonassisted RT, resulting in resonant emission or detection of the THz radiation. The cooperative double-resonant excitation with structure-sensitive graphene plasmons gives rise to various functionalities such as rectification (detection), photomixing, higher harmonic generation, and self-oscillation, in the THz device implementations.

  15. Large area MEMS based ultrasound device for cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wodnicki, Robert; Thomenius, Kai; Ming Hooi, Fong; Sinha, Sumedha P.; Carson, Paul L.; Lin, Der-Song; Zhuang, Xuefeng; Khuri-Yakub, Pierre; Woychik, Charles

    2011-08-01

    We present image results obtained using a prototype ultrasound array that demonstrates the fundamental architecture for a large area MEMS based ultrasound device for detection of breast cancer. The prototype array consists of a tiling of capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers (cMUTs) that have been flip-chip attached to a rigid organic substrate. The pitch on the cMUT elements is 185 μm and the operating frequency is nominally 9 MHz. The spatial resolution of the new probe is comparable to those of production PZT probes; however the sensitivity is reduced by conditions that should be correctable. Simulated opposed-view image registration and Speed of Sound volume reconstruction results for ultrasound in the mammographic geometry are also presented.

  16. {100}<100> or 45.degree.-rotated {100}<100>, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit

    2012-05-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, {100}<100> or 45.degree.-rotated {100}<100> oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  17. Walking Devices Used by the Elderly Living in Rural Areas of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Patcharawan, SUWANNARAT; THAWEEWANNAKIJ, Thiwabhorn; KAEWSANMUNG, Supapon; KAEWJOHO, Chonticha; SAENGSUWAN, Jiamjit; AMATACHAYA, Sugalya

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of all types of external devices was previously investigated for elderly with and without orthopaedic problems of a developed country. This study describes the proportion, types and the reasons of using a walking device in elderly who live in many rural areas of Thailand. Methods: Participants (n = 390) were interviewed using a questionnaire to ascertain their demographics, health status and types of walking device required for daily activities. Results: Forty-one participants (11%) used a walking device, particularly when walking long distances due to a fear of falling, musculoskeletal pain, and impaired walking ability. The proportion of walking devices used dramatically increased in participants aged 75 years and over (six times of those aged 60–74 years). Most of the participants used a modified walking stick by their own determination (81%), while only 7% used one according to medical prescription. A significant increase in the need of a walking device was seen in participants aged 75 years and over (OR = 13.9; 95% CI 5.9–32.7; P < 0.001), with a medical problem (OR = 45.9; 95% CI 6.7–73.4; P < 0.001) and who required regular medication (OR = 12.7; 95% CI 5.0–33.6; P = 0.001). Conclusion: The findings emphasise the importance of a community health service to promote health status, particularly before 75 years of age. PMID:26023295

  18. INSERTION DEVICE ACTIVITIES FOR NSLS-II.

    SciTech Connect

    TANABE,T.; HARDER, D.A.; HULBERT, S.; RAKOWSKI, G.; SKARITKA, J.

    2007-06-25

    National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) will be a medium energy storage ring of 3GeV electron beam energy with sub-nm.rad horizontal emittance and top-off capability at 500mA. Damping wigglers will be used not only to reduce the beam emittance but also used as broadband sources for users. Cryo-Permanent Magnet Undulators (CPMUs) are considered for hard X-ray linear device, and permanent magnet based elliptically polarized undulators (EPUs) for variable polarization devices for soft X-ray. 6T superconducting wiggler with minimal fan angle will be installed in the second phase as well as quasi-periodic EPU for VUV and possibly high-temperature superconducting undulator. R&D plans have been established to pursue the performance enhancement of the baseline devices and to design new types of insertion devices. A new insertion device development laboratory will also be established.

  19. Cognitive Inference Device for Activity Supervision in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Human activity, life span, and quality of life are enhanced by innovations in science and technology. Aging individual needs to take advantage of these developments to lead a self-regulated life. However, maintaining a self-regulated life at old age involves a high degree of risk, and the elderly often fail at this goal. Thus, the objective of our study is to investigate the feasibility of implementing a cognitive inference device (CI-device) for effective activity supervision in the elderly. To frame the CI-device, we propose a device design framework along with an inference algorithm and implement the designs through an artificial neural model with different configurations, mapping the CI-device's functions to minimise the device's prediction error. An analysis and discussion are then provided to validate the feasibility of CI-device implementation for activity supervision in the elderly. PMID:25405211

  20. Facility Focus: Student Activity Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the design of student activity facilities that are showpieces containing both business and entertainment elements. Four examples are highlighted including a performing arts center, a college gym, a student services facility, and a student union. (GR)

  1. Geometrical modulation transfer function for different pixel active area shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly

    2000-04-01

    In this work we consider the effect of the pixel active area geometrical shape on the modulation transfer function (MTF) of an image sensor. When designing a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor, or a CCD or CID sensor for this matter, the active area of the pixel would have a certain geometrical shape which might not cover the whole pixel area. To improve the device performance, it is important to understand the effect this has on the pixel sensitivity and on the resulting MTF. We perform a theoretical analysis of the MTF for the active area shape and derive explicit formulas for the transfer function for pixel arrays with a square, a rectangular and an L shaped active area (most commonly used), and generalize for any connected active area shape. Preliminary experimental results of subpixel scanning sensitivity maps and the corresponding MTFs have also bee obtained, which confirm the theoretical derivations. Both the simulation results and the MTF calculated from the point spread function measurements of the actual pixel arrays show that the active area shape contributes significantly to the behavior of the overall MTF. The results also indicate that for any potential pixel active area shape, the effect of its diversion from the square pixel could be calculated, so that tradeoff between the conflicting requirements, such as SNR and MTF, could be compared per each pixel design for better overall sensor performance.

  2. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Manke, K.L.

    1997-03-01

    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment.

  3. [2011 after-service customer satisfaction survey of monitoring devices in Shanghai area].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Li, Bin; Qian, Jianguo; Cao, Shaoping; He, Dehua; Zheng, Yunxin

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Shanghai Medical Equipment Management Quality Control Center launched the fifth after-sale service satisfaction survey for medical devices in Shanghai area. There are 8 classes medical devices involving in the survey. This paper demonstrates the investigation results of monitoring devices which are from different manufacturers.

  4. [2011 after-service customer satisfaction survey of monitoring devices in Shanghai area].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Li, Bin; Qian, Jianguo; Cao, Shaoping; He, Dehua; Zheng, Yunxin

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Shanghai Medical Equipment Management Quality Control Center launched the fifth after-sale service satisfaction survey for medical devices in Shanghai area. There are 8 classes medical devices involving in the survey. This paper demonstrates the investigation results of monitoring devices which are from different manufacturers. PMID:23668048

  5. System and method for interfacing large-area electronics with integrated circuit devices

    DOEpatents

    Verma, Naveen; Glisic, Branko; Sturm, James; Wagner, Sigurd

    2016-07-12

    A system and method for interfacing large-area electronics with integrated circuit devices is provided. The system may be implemented in an electronic device including a large area electronic (LAE) device disposed on a substrate. An integrated circuit IC is disposed on the substrate. A non-contact interface is disposed on the substrate and coupled between the LAE device and the IC. The non-contact interface is configured to provide at least one of a data acquisition path or control path between the LAE device and the IC.

  6. A large area TOF-tracker device based on multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assis, P.; Bernardino, A.; Blanco, A.; Clemêncio, F.; Carolino, N.; Cunha, O.; Ferreira, M.; Fonte, P.; Lopes, L.; Loureiro, C.; Luz, R.; Mendes, L.; Michel, J.; Neiser, A.; Pereira, A.; Pimenta, M.; Shellard, R.; Traxler, M.

    2016-10-01

    The TOF-tracker concept, the simultaneous measurement of accurate time and bi-dimensional space coordinates in a single gaseous detector, has been previously demonstrated. The detector yielded a time resolution of 77 ps σ along with a bi-dimensional position resolution of 38 μm σ over a full active area of 60 × 60 mm2. In here, we report about a large area, 1550 × 1250 mm2, TOF-tracker device, tested by tracking cosmic muons, yielding a position resolution down to 1.33 mm σ, a simultaneous time resolution of 150 ps σ and 92% detection efficiency, over the entire area of the detector. The sub-millimetre electronic resolution of the readout chain suggests that the position resolution here reported could be dominated by non-corrected systematic effects and therefore it could be yet significantly improved.

  7. Active resonant subwavelength grating devices for high speed spectroscopic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gin, A. V.; Kemme, S. A.; Boye, R. R.; Peters, D. W.; Ihlefeld, J. F.; Briggs, R. D.; Wendt, J. R.; Marshall, L. H.; Carter, T. R.; Samora, S.

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we describe progress towards a multi-color spectrometer and radiometer based upon an active resonant subwavelength grating (RSG). This active RSG component acts as a tunable high-speed optical filter that allows device miniaturization and ruggedization not realizable using current sensors with conventional bulk optics. Furthermore, the geometrical characteristics of the device allow for inherently high speed operation. Because of the small critical dimensions of the RSG devices, the fabrication of these sensors can prove challenging. However, we utilize the state-of-the-art capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories to realize these subwavelength grating devices. This work also leverages previous work on passive RSG devices with greater than 98% efficiency and ~1nm FWHM. Rigorous coupled wave analysis has been utilized to design RSG devices with PLZT, PMN-PT and BaTiO3 electrooptic thin films on sapphire substrates. The simulated interdigitated electrode configuration achieves field strengths around 3×107 V/m. This translates to an increase in the refractive index of 0.05 with a 40V bias potential resulting in a 90% contrast of the modulated optical signal. We have fabricated several active RSG devices on selected electro-optic materials and we discuss the latest experimental results on these devices with variable electrostatic bias and a tunable wavelength source around 1.5μm. Finally, we present the proposed data acquisition hardware and system integration plans.

  8. The availability of extrinsic handgun locking devices in a defined metro area.

    PubMed

    Milne, J S; Hargarten, S W

    1999-11-01

    Extrinsic safety devices, such as trigger locks, have been central in the recent state discussions on how to reduce firearm injuries. The actual prevalence of handgun locking devices in the consumer market, however, is unknown. This study catalogued the extrinsic safety devices available from handgun dealers and discount retail chains in Milwaukee, WI. We found that all locations studied (n = 13) stock at least 1 type of extrinsic safety device. A total of 21 unique models of safety devices were stocked by the 13 locations, with trigger locks being the most common (n = 9). Other types of devices included lock-boxes (n = 5), cable locks (n = 4), hammer locks (n = 1), barrel locks (n = 1), and a rubber slide strap (n = 1). Handgun owners in the Milwaukee metro area have a selection of extrinsic handgun safety devices available from handgun dealers and discount retailers. However, there does not appear to be a consistent availability on type of device.

  9. Development of novel active transport membrande devices

    SciTech Connect

    Laciak, D.V.

    1994-11-01

    Air Products has undertaken a research program to fabricate and evaluate gas separation membranes based upon promising ``active-transport`` (AT) materials recently developed in our laboratories. Active Transport materials are ionic polymers and molten salts which undergo reversible interaction or reaction with ammonia and carbon dioxide. The materials are useful for separating these gases from mixtures with hydrogen. Moreover, AT membranes have the unique property of possessing high permeability towards ammnonia and carbon dioxide but low permeability towards hydrogen and can thus be used to permeate these components from a gas stream while retaining hydrogen at high pressure.

  10. Geometric investigation of a gaming active device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menna, Fabio; Remondino, Fabio; Battisti, Roberto; Nocerino, Erica

    2011-07-01

    3D imaging systems are widely available and used for surveying, modeling and entertainment applications, but clear statements regarding their characteristics, performances and limitations are still missing. The VDI/VDE and the ASTME57 committees are trying to set some standards but the commercial market is not reacting properly. Since many new users are approaching these 3D recording methodologies, clear statements and information clarifying if a package or system satisfies certain requirements before investing are fundamental for those users who are not really familiar with these technologies. Recently small and portable consumer-grade active sensors came on the market, like TOF rangeimaging cameras or low-cost triangulation-based range sensor. A quite interesting active system was produced by PrimeSense and launched on the market thanks to the Microsoft Xbox project with the name of Kinect. The article reports the geometric investigation of the Kinect active sensors, considering its measurement performances, the accuracy of the retrieved range data and the possibility to use it for 3D modeling application.

  11. Microwave photonic bandgap devices with active plasma elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Benjamin; Colon Quinones, Roberto; Biggs, David; Underwood, Thomas; Lucca Fabris, Andrea; Cappelli, Mark; Stanford Plasma Physics Laboratory Team

    2015-09-01

    A 3-D alumina rod based microwave photonic crystal device with integrated gaseous plasma elements is designed and characterized. Modulation of the plasma density of the active plasma elements is shown to allow for high fidelity modulation of the output signal of the photonic crystal device. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations of the device are presented, and the functional effects of the plasma electron density, plasma collision frequency, and plasma dimensions are studied. Experimental characterization of the transmission of the device shows active tunability through adjustments of plasma parameters, including discharge current and plasma size. Additional photonic crystal structures with integrated plasma elements are explored. Sponsored by the AFSOR MURI and DOD NDSEG.

  12. Method for accurately positioning a device at a desired area of interest

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Gary D.; Houston, Jack E.; Gillen, Kenneth T.

    2000-01-01

    A method for positioning a first device utilizing a surface having a viewing translation stage, the surface being movable between a first position where the viewing stage is in operational alignment with a first device and a second position where the viewing stage is in operational alignment with a second device. The movable surface is placed in the first position and an image is produced with the first device of an identifiable characteristic of a calibration object on the viewing stage. The moveable surface is then placed in the second position and only the second device is moved until an image of the identifiable characteristic in the second device matches the image from the first device. The calibration object is then replaced on the stage of the surface with a test object, and the viewing translation stage is adjusted until the second device images the area of interest. The surface is then moved to the first position where the test object is scanned with the first device to image the area of interest. An alternative embodiment where the devices move is also disclosed.

  13. Micro- and Nanostructured Materials for Active Devices and Molecular Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter M.; Graff, Gordon L.; Gross, Mark E.; Burrows, Paul E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Mast, Eric S.; Hall, Michael G.; Bonham, Charles C.; Zumhoff, Mac R.; Williford, Rick E.

    2003-10-01

    Traditional single layer barrier coatings are not adequate in preventing degradation of the performance of organic molecular electronic and other active devices. Most advanced devices used in display technology now consist of micro and nanostructured small molecule, polymer and inorganic coatings with thin high reactive group 1A metals. This includes organic electronics such as organic light emitting devices (OLED). The lifetimes of these devices rapidly degrades when they are exposed to atmospheric oxygen and water vapor. Thin film photovoltaics and batteries are also susceptible to degradation by moisture and oxygen. Using in-line coating techniques we apply a composite nanostructured inorganic/polymer thin film barrier that restricts moisture and oxygen permeation to undetectable levels using conventional permeation test equipment. We describe permeation mechanisms for this encapsulation coating and flat panel display and other device applications. Permeation through the multilayer barrier coating is defect and pore limited and can be described by Knudsen diffusion involving a long and tortuous path. Device lifetime is also enhanced by the long lag times required to reach the steady state flux regime. Permeation rates in the range of 10-6 cc,g/m2/d have been achieved and OLED device lifetimes. The structure is robust, yet flexible. The resulting device performance and lifetimes will also be described. The barrier film can be capped with a thin film of transparent conductive oxide yielding an engineered nanostructured device for next generation, rugged, lightweight or flexible displays. This enables, for the first time, thin film encapsulation of emissive organic displays.

  14. Tapping polyrhythms in music activates language areas.

    PubMed

    Vuust, Peter; Wallentin, Mikkel; Mouridsen, Kim; Ostergaard, Leif; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    Music is experienced and understood on the basis of foreground/background relationships and tension created between actual music and the underlying meter. Polyrhythms create tension between a counter meter and the main meter. Previously, we have shown that Brodmann area 47 (BA47), a brain area associated with processing of language, is activated bilaterally when musicians tap the main meter in a polymetric context emphasizing a counter meter, suggesting that processing of metric elements in music relies on brain areas also involved in language processing. In that study, the tension was created entirely by changes in the stimulus while participants were tapping the main meter. Here we find left-hemispheric BA47 activation in response to a self-produced counter meter on top of a main meter provided by an ecological music excerpt. This data indicates that the activation is linked to polyrhythmic tension, regardless of whether it arises from the stimulus or the task.

  15. Applications of large-area nanopatterning to energy generation and storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Eric N.

    This dissertation encompasses the creation and testing of nanostructured, electrochemically-active energy generation and storage devices, and development of the associated fabrication techniques. The fabricated devices include nanopatterned, plasmonically-active, TiO2+Au thin films for Photocatalytic Water Splitting (PCW), TiO2-based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) incorporating nanopatterned, plasmonically-active metallic front electrodes, and Si nanopillar anodes for Li-ion batteries. Techniques were also developed for encapsulation and removal of wet-etched Si nanowires from their mother substrates. TiO2 was the first material to be widely used for PCW. Its use is hampered by its large bandgap (~3.2eV), and poor recombination lifetimes. Au nanoparticles (NPs) have been previously used to improve recombination lifetimes in TiO2 by separating photogenerated carriers near the NP edges, and to increase photocurrents by injecting plasmonically-excited hot electrons into the TiO2 conduction band. Using nanostructured TiO 2+Au electrodes, we aim to increase the PCW efficiency of TiO2 -based electrodes. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) employ visible-absorbing dyes anchored to a high-surface-area semiconducting scaffold. The front transparent conducting electrode (TCE) is typically ITO, a scarce and expensive material. We aim to increase the efficiency of thin-film DSSCs and eliminate the use of ITO by using a metallic subwavelength array (MESH) of nanoholes as the front TCE. Silicon holds promise as a high-capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries, as it can store ~10x the Li of graphite, the current leading anode material (3569 vs. 372 mAh/g). However, Si undergoes dramatic (>300%) volume expansion upon "lithiation", pulverizing any structure with non-nanoscopic dimensions (>250nm). We created large-area arrays of "nanopillars" with sub-100nm diameters, using roll-to-roll-compatible flexible-mold NIL on commercially-available metal substrates. Ordered

  16. Improve large area uniformity and production capacity of laser interference lithography with beam flattening device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yin-Kuang; Wu, Yu-Xiang; Lin, Te-Hsun; Yu, Chun-Wen; Fu, Chien-Chung

    2016-03-01

    Laser interference lithography (LIL) is a maskless lithography technique with many advantages such as simple optical design, inexpensive, infinite depth of focus, and large area patterning with single exposure. However, the intensity of normal laser beam is Gaussian distribution. In order to obtain large area uniform structure, we have to expand the laser beam much bigger than the wafer and use only the center part of the beam. Resulting in wasting lots of energy and the production capacity decrease. In this study, we designed a beam shaping device which consists of two parallel fused silicon optical window with different coating on both side. Two optical window form an air thin film. When the expanded laser beam pass through the device, the beam will experience many refraction and reflection between two optical window and interference with each other. The transmittance of laser beam will depend on the incident angle. The output intensity distribution will change from Gaussian distribution to a flat top distribution. In our experiment, we combined the beam shaping device with a Lloyd's mirror LIL system. Experiment results indicated that the LIL system with beam shaping device can obtain large area uniform pattern. And compare with the traditional Lloyd's mirror LIL system, the exposure time is shorten up to 4.5 times. In conclusion, this study design a beam flattening device for LIL system. The flat top beam can improve the large area uniformity and the production capacity of LIL. Making LIL more suitable for industry application.

  17. Electrochromic devices

    DOEpatents

    Allemand, Pierre M.; Grimes, Randall F.; Ingle, Andrew R.; Cronin, John P.; Kennedy, Steve R.; Agrawal, Anoop; Boulton, Jonathan M.

    2001-01-01

    An electrochromic device is disclosed having a selective ion transport layer which separates an electrochemically active material from an electrolyte containing a redox active material. The devices are particularly useful as large area architectural and automotive glazings due to there reduced back reaction.

  18. Flame-powered trigger device for activating explosion suppression barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Cortese, R.A.; Sapko, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed a flame-radiation-powered trigger device to explosively activate suppression barriers to quench gas and coal dust explosions. The major component of the device is a silicon solar panel, which concerts radiation from the developing explosion into electrical energy to initiate an electric detonator, which releases an extinguishing agent into the advancing flame front. Solar panels that are rated to produce 20 W of electrical power when exposed to the sunlight are producing about 200 W when exposed to a full-scale dust explosion. The solar panel is electrically isolated from the detonator by a pressure-sensitive switch until the arrival of the precursor pressure pulse, which always precedes a deflagration. This combination of pressure arming and flame-powered photogenerator prevents false barrier activation and requires no external power supply.

  19. Multi-band terahertz active device with complementary metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, Shen; Zhang, Yaxin Sun, Linlin; Sun, Han; Xu, Gaiqi; Zhao, Yuncheng; Yang, Ziqiang; Liang, Shixiong

    2015-09-28

    We describe a multi-band terahertz-active device using a composite structure made of complementary metamaterial and doped silicon that can be dynamically controlled. This special complementary metamaterial exhibits three resonances that produce three pass-bands. The pass-bands can be uniformly manipulated by exploiting the photoinduced characteristics of the doped silicon. Simulations were performed to analyze the magnetic field and surface current distributions. The simulation results agree well with experimental results obtained from terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Using an 808-nm-wavelength laser beam, a modulation depth of up to 80% was obtained. In numerical simulations, we used a conductivity mode to characterize photoinduction. The development of multi-band terahertz-active devices has many potential applications, for example, in filters, modulators, switches, and sensors.

  20. Wireless device for activation of an underground shock wave absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikhradze, M.; Akhvlediani, I.; Bochorishvili, N.; Mataradze, E.

    2011-10-01

    The paper describes the mechanism and design of the wireless device for activation of energy absorber for localization of blast energy in underground openings. The statistics shows that the greatest share of accidents with fatal results associate with explosions in coal mines due to aero-methane and/or air-coal media explosion. The other significant problem is terrorist or accidental explosions in underground structures. At present there are different protective systems to reduce the blast energy. One of the main parts of protective Systems is blast Identification and Registration Module. The works conducted at G. Tsulukidze Mining Institute of Georgia enabled to construct the wireless system of explosion detection and mitigation of shock waves. The system is based on the constant control on overpressure. The experimental research continues to fulfill the system based on both threats, on the constant control on overpressure and flame parameters, especially in underground structures and coal mines. Reaching the threshold value of any of those parameters, the system immediately starts the activation. The absorber contains a pyrotechnic device ensuring the discharge of dispersed water. The operational parameters of wireless device and activation mechanisms of pyrotechnic element of shock wave absorber are discussed in the paper.

  1. Light-induced self-assembly of active rectification devices.

    PubMed

    Stenhammar, Joakim; Wittkowski, Raphael; Marenduzzo, Davide; Cates, Michael E

    2016-04-01

    Self-propelled colloidal objects, such as motile bacteria or synthetic microswimmers, have microscopically irreversible individual dynamics-a feature they share with all living systems. The incoherent behavior of individual swimmers can be harnessed (or "rectified") by microfluidic devices that create systematic motions that are impossible in equilibrium. We present a computational proof-of-concept study showing that such active rectification devices could be created directly from an unstructured "primordial soup" of light-controlled motile particles, solely by using spatially modulated illumination to control their local propulsion speed. Alongside both microscopic irreversibility and speed modulation, our mechanism requires spatial symmetry breaking, such as a chevron light pattern, and strong interactions between particles, such as volume exclusion, which cause a collisional slowdown at high density. Together, we show how these four factors create a novel, many-body rectification mechanism. Our work suggests that standard spatial light modulator technology might allow the programmable, light-induced self-assembly of active rectification devices from an unstructured particle bath.

  2. Light-induced self-assembly of active rectification devices

    PubMed Central

    Stenhammar, Joakim; Wittkowski, Raphael; Marenduzzo, Davide; Cates, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Self-propelled colloidal objects, such as motile bacteria or synthetic microswimmers, have microscopically irreversible individual dynamics—a feature they share with all living systems. The incoherent behavior of individual swimmers can be harnessed (or “rectified”) by microfluidic devices that create systematic motions that are impossible in equilibrium. We present a computational proof-of-concept study showing that such active rectification devices could be created directly from an unstructured “primordial soup” of light-controlled motile particles, solely by using spatially modulated illumination to control their local propulsion speed. Alongside both microscopic irreversibility and speed modulation, our mechanism requires spatial symmetry breaking, such as a chevron light pattern, and strong interactions between particles, such as volume exclusion, which cause a collisional slowdown at high density. Together, we show how these four factors create a novel, many-body rectification mechanism. Our work suggests that standard spatial light modulator technology might allow the programmable, light-induced self-assembly of active rectification devices from an unstructured particle bath. PMID:27051883

  3. Toxin activity assays, devices, methods and systems therefor

    DOEpatents

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Schaff, Ulrich Y.; Sommer, Gregory Jon

    2016-04-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward devices, system and method for conducting toxin activity assay using sedimentation. The toxin activity assay may include generating complexes which bind to a plurality of beads in a fluid sample. The complexes may include a target toxin and a labeling agent, or may be generated due to presence of active target toxin and/or labeling agent designed to be incorporated into complexes responsive to the presence of target active toxin. The plurality of beads including the complexes may be transported through a density media, wherein the density media has a lower density than a density of the beads and higher than a density of the fluid sample, and wherein the transporting occurs, at least in part, by sedimentation. Signal may be detected from the labeling agents of the complexes.

  4. Integration of active devices on smart polymers for neural interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avendano-Bolivar, Adrian Emmanuel

    The increasing ability to ever more precisely identify and measure neural interactions and other phenomena in the central and peripheral nervous systems is revolutionizing our understanding of the human body and brain. To facilitate further understanding, more sophisticated neural devices, perhaps using microelectronics processing, must be fabricated. Materials often used in these neural interfaces, while compatible with these fabrication processes, are not optimized for long-term use in the body and are often orders of magnitude stiffer than the tissue with which they interact. Using the smart polymer substrates described in this work, suitability for processing as well as chronic implantation is demonstrated. We explore how to integrate reliable circuitry onto these flexible, biocompatible substrates that can withstand the aggressive environment of the body. To increase the capabilities of these devices beyond individual channel sensing and stimulation, active electronics must also be included onto our systems. In order to add this functionality to these substrates and explore the limits of these devices, we developed a process to fabricate single organic thin film transistors with mobilities up to 0.4 cm2/Vs and threshold voltages close to 0V. A process for fabricating organic light emitting diodes on flexible substrates is also addressed. We have set a foundation and demonstrated initial feasibility for integrating multiple transistors onto thin-film flexible devices to create new applications, such as matrix addressable functionalized electrodes and organic light emitting diodes. A brief description on how to integrate waveguides for their use in optogenetics is addressed. We have built understanding about device constraints on mechanical, electrical and in vivo reliability and how various conditions affect the electronics' lifetime. We use a bi-layer gate dielectric using an inorganic material such as HfO 2 combined with organic Parylene-c. A study of

  5. Passive and active sol-gel materials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Mark P.; Najafi, S. Iraj

    1997-07-01

    This paper examines sol-gel materials for photonics in terms of partnerships with other material contenders for processing optical devices. The discussion in four sections identifies semiconductors, amorphous and crystalline inorganic dielectrics, and amorphous and crystalline organic dielectrics as strategic agents in the rapidly evolving area of materials and devices for data communications and telecommunications. With Zyss, we trace the hierarchical lineage that connects molecular hybridization (chemical functionality), through supramolecular hybridization (collective properties and responses), to functional hybridization (device and system level constructs). These three concepts thread their way through discussions of the roles sol-gel glasses might be anticipated to assume in a photonics marketplace. We assign a special place to glass integrated optics and show how high temperature consolidated sol-gel derived glasses fit into competitive glass fabrication technologies. Low temperature hybrid sol-gel glasses that combine attractive features of organic polymers and inorganic glasses are considered by drawing on examples of our own new processes for fabricating couplers, power splitters, waveguides and gratings by combining chemical synthesis and sol-gel processing with simple photomask techniques.

  6. Semiconductors for high temperature active devices: silicon, GaAs, and GaP. [For use in geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Coquat, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews developments during the past three years in the area of high-temperature active semiconductor devices for use at 275/sup 0/C in instrumentation needed to characterize geothermal resources. Surveys of silicon bipolar, MOS, and JFET devices operated at high temperature and development work on high temperature silicon CMOS logic and DI analog circuits are reviewed. The initial results of developmental work on GaAs and GaP diodes are discussed. These efforts have identified several promising devices for high temperature applications; however, further development is required to resolve such problems as excessive leakage currents, metallization degradation, device stability, and long term aging.

  7. The Use of Multiple Slate Devices to Support Active Reading Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nicholas Yen-Cherng

    2012-01-01

    Reading activities in the classroom and workplace occur predominantly on paper. Since existing electronic devices do not support these reading activities as well as paper, users have difficulty taking full advantage of the affordances of electronic documents. This dissertation makes three main contributions toward supporting active reading…

  8. Large-area nanofabrication and applications in advanced nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wei

    The research work presented in this dissertation includes novel large area nanofabrication techniques and their applications in advanced nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices. The fabrications and applications include: 1) high performance transparent electrodes, 2) a novel plasmonic nanocavity and its applications in organic solar cells and light emitting diodes, and 3) a bipolar plasmonic nonlinear optical device to enhance and tune second harmonic generation. Based upon these topics, the thesis is divided into the following parts. First, a novel transparent electrode (TE), metallic deep subwavelength mesh electrode is developed and fabricated, showing better transmittance and conductance than previous TEs. Its performance dependence on nanostructure geometries and materials are investigated. The deep-subwavelength mesh electrode also has excellent antiglare properties. Such electrodes are fabricated on 4" wafer by nanoimprint, scalable to meter sizes. Second, a novel plasmonic nanocavity from the MESH is developed, named "plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole-array (PlaCSH)", consisting of a thin MESH as a transparent front electrode, a thin metal back electrode, and in-between layer of active material. This structure is used to create high performance solar cells and LEDs. PlaCSH solar cell gives a solution to three central challenges in organic solar cells (light coupling into solar cell, light trapping in a sub-absorption-length-thick layer, and replacement of the indium-tin-oxide). Experimentally, the PlaCSH polymer SCs achieve high light coupling-efficiency/absorptance/power conversion efficiency, along with broad-band, Omni angle/polarization acceptance. In OLEDs, PlaCSH shows numerous benefits with both the small- molecule and polymer active materials. Enhanced light extraction, internal quantum efficiency, ambient light absorption, contrast, viewing angle, brightness, and decreased glare are all observed. The above experiments -- along with

  9. Laminated active matrix organic light-emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongyu; Sun, Runguang

    2008-02-01

    Laminated active matrix organic light-emitting device (AMOLED) realizing top emission by using bottom-emitting organic light-emitting diode (OLED) structure was proposed. The multilayer structure of OLED deposited in the conventional sequence is not on the thin film transistor (TFT) backplane but on the OLED plane. The contact between the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode of TFT backplane and metal cathode of OLED plane is implemented by using transfer electrode. The stringent pixel design for aperture ratio of the bottom-emitting AMOLED, as well as special technology for the top ITO electrode of top-emitting AMOLED, is unnecessary in the laminated AMOLED.

  10. Active control of excessive sound emission on a mobile device.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Se-Woon; Youn, Dae Hee; Park, Young-cheol; Lee, Gun-Woo

    2015-04-01

    During a phone conversation, loud vocal emission from the far-end to the near-end space can disturb nearby people. In this paper, the possibility of actively controlling such unwanted sound emission using a control source placed on the mobile device is investigated. Two different approaches are tested: Global control, minimizing the potential energy measured along a volumetric space surface, and local control, minimizing the squared sound pressure at a discrete point on the phone. From the test results, both approaches can reduce the unwanted sound emission by more than 6 dB in the frequency range up to 2 kHz. PMID:25920885

  11. Device for measuring oxygen activity in liquid sodium

    DOEpatents

    Roy, P.; Young, R.S.

    1973-12-01

    A composite ceramic electrolyte in a configuration (such as a closed end tube or a plate) suitable to separate liquid sodium from a reference electrode with a high impedance voltmeter connected to measure EMF between the sodium and the reference electrode as a measure of oxygen activity in the sodium is described. The composite electrolyte consists of zirconiacalcia with a bonded layer of thoria-yttria. The device is used with a gaseous reference electrode on the zirconia-calcia side and liquid sodium on the thoria-yttria side of the electrolyte. (Official Gazette)

  12. Active control of excessive sound emission on a mobile device.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Se-Woon; Youn, Dae Hee; Park, Young-cheol; Lee, Gun-Woo

    2015-04-01

    During a phone conversation, loud vocal emission from the far-end to the near-end space can disturb nearby people. In this paper, the possibility of actively controlling such unwanted sound emission using a control source placed on the mobile device is investigated. Two different approaches are tested: Global control, minimizing the potential energy measured along a volumetric space surface, and local control, minimizing the squared sound pressure at a discrete point on the phone. From the test results, both approaches can reduce the unwanted sound emission by more than 6 dB in the frequency range up to 2 kHz.

  13. An area efficient body contact for low and high voltage SOI MOSFET devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daghighi, Arash; Osman, Mohamed; Imam, Mohamed A.

    2008-02-01

    A simple and high-performance area efficient body-tied-source (BTS) contact for SOI MOSFET is presented. By simple modification to the physical layout and without introducing any increase to the fabrication process steps, the proposed body contact can be implemented. Three-dimensional (3D) non-isothermal simulation on SOI CMOS devices showed higher current drive while floating body effects were completely suppressed. In addition, improved performance is achieved when comparing on-resistance (RON) and breakdown voltage (VBR) with the conventional BTS structures. The new body contact structure is applicable to both low and high voltage (planar or trench) SOI and bulk devices. Experimental results obtained from fabricated bulk MOSFET devices utilizing the proposed body contact structure agreed well with the simulation findings.

  14. Polyimide microfluidic devices with integrated nanoporous filtration areas manufactured by micromachining and ion track technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, S.; Trautmann, C.; Bertsch, A.; Renaud, Ph

    2004-03-01

    This paper reports on polyimide microfluidic devices fabricated by photolithography and a layer transfer lamination technology. The microchannels are sealed by laminating an uncured polyimide film on a partially cured layer and subsequent imidization. Selected areas of the microchannels were irradiated with heavy ions of several hundred MeV and the generated ion tracks are chemically etched to submicron pores of high aspect ratio. The ion beam parameters and the track etching conditions define density, length, diameter and shape of the pores. Membrane permeability and separation performance is demonstrated in cross-flow filtration experiments. The devices can be used for selective delivery or probing of fluids to biological tissue, e.g. drug delivery or microdialysis. For chip-based devices the filters can be used as a sample pre-treatment unit for filtration or concentration of particles or molecules.

  15. Area x-ray detector based on a lens-coupled charge-coupled device

    SciTech Connect

    Tate, Mark W.; Chamberlain, Darol; Gruner, Sol M.

    2005-08-15

    An area x-ray detector constructed using commercially available 'off-the-shelf' parts is described and its performance is characterized. The detector consists of a 1024x1024 pixel charge-coupled device (CCD) camera optically coupled to x-ray sensitive phosphor screen using a standard 35 mm camera lens. The conversion efficiency, spatial nonuniformity, spatial resolution and the detective quantum efficiency of the detector have been measured. Also shown is an example of data taken with the detector. The detector is a relatively low-cost device suitable for a wide variety of quantitative x-ray experiments where the input area need not be larger than about 70 mm across.

  16. Inferring Human Activity in Mobile Devices by Computing Multiple Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruizhi; Chu, Tianxing; Liu, Keqiang; Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Yuwei

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for inferring human activities in mobile devices by computing spatial contexts, temporal contexts, spatiotemporal contexts, and user contexts. A spatial context is a significant location that is defined as a geofence, which can be a node associated with a circle, or a polygon; a temporal context contains time-related information that can be e.g., a local time tag, a time difference between geographical locations, or a timespan; a spatiotemporal context is defined as a dwelling length at a particular spatial context; and a user context includes user-related information that can be the user’s mobility contexts, environmental contexts, psychological contexts or social contexts. Using the measurements of the built-in sensors and radio signals in mobile devices, we can snapshot a contextual tuple for every second including aforementioned contexts. Giving a contextual tuple, the framework evaluates the posteriori probability of each candidate activity in real-time using a Naïve Bayes classifier. A large dataset containing 710,436 contextual tuples has been recorded for one week from an experiment carried out at Texas A&M University Corpus Christi with three participants. The test results demonstrate that the multi-context solution significantly outperforms the spatial-context-only solution. A classification accuracy of 61.7% is achieved for the spatial-context-only solution, while 88.8% is achieved for the multi-context solution. PMID:26343665

  17. Method and apparatus for actively controlling a micro-scale flexural plate wave device

    DOEpatents

    Dohner, Jeffrey L.

    2001-01-01

    An actively controlled flexural plate wave device provides a micro-scale pump. A method of actively controlling a flexural plate wave device produces traveling waves in the device by coordinating the interaction of a magnetic field with actively controlled currents. An actively-controlled flexural plate wave device can be placed in a fluid channel and adapted for use as a micro-scale fluid pump to cool or drive micro-scale systems, for example, micro-chips, micro-electrical-mechanical devices, micro-fluid circuits, or micro-scale chemical analysis devices.

  18. Synthesis of Large Area Graphene for High Performance in Flexible Optoelectronic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Polat, Emre O.; Balci, Osman; Kakenov, Nurbek; Uzlu, Hasan Burkay; Kocabas, Coskun; Dahiya, Ravinder

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrates an attractive low-cost route to obtain large area and high-quality graphene films by using the ultra-smooth copper foils which are typically used as the negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. We first compared the electronic transport properties of our new graphene film with the one synthesized by using commonly used standard copper foils in chemical vapor deposition (CVD). We observed a stark improvement in the electrical performance of the transistors realized on our graphene films. To study the optical properties on large area, we transferred CVD based graphene to transparent flexible substrates using hot lamination method and performed large area optical scanning. We demonstrate the promise of our high quality graphene films for large areas with ~400 cm2 flexible optical modulators. We obtained a profound light modulation over a broad spectrum by using the fabricated large area transparent graphene supercapacitors and we compared the performance of our devices with the one based on graphene from standard copper. We propose that the copper foils used in the lithium-ion batteries could be used to obtain high-quality graphene at much lower-cost, with the improved performance of electrical transport and optical properties in the devices made from them. PMID:26578425

  19. Synthesis of Large Area Graphene for High Performance in Flexible Optoelectronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Polat, Emre O; Balci, Osman; Kakenov, Nurbek; Uzlu, Hasan Burkay; Kocabas, Coskun; Dahiya, Ravinder

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrates an attractive low-cost route to obtain large area and high-quality graphene films by using the ultra-smooth copper foils which are typically used as the negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. We first compared the electronic transport properties of our new graphene film with the one synthesized by using commonly used standard copper foils in chemical vapor deposition (CVD). We observed a stark improvement in the electrical performance of the transistors realized on our graphene films. To study the optical properties on large area, we transferred CVD based graphene to transparent flexible substrates using hot lamination method and performed large area optical scanning. We demonstrate the promise of our high quality graphene films for large areas with ~400 cm(2) flexible optical modulators. We obtained a profound light modulation over a broad spectrum by using the fabricated large area transparent graphene supercapacitors and we compared the performance of our devices with the one based on graphene from standard copper. We propose that the copper foils used in the lithium-ion batteries could be used to obtain high-quality graphene at much lower-cost, with the improved performance of electrical transport and optical properties in the devices made from them. PMID:26578425

  20. Synthesis of Large Area Graphene for High Performance in Flexible Optoelectronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, Emre O.; Balci, Osman; Kakenov, Nurbek; Uzlu, Hasan Burkay; Kocabas, Coskun; Dahiya, Ravinder

    2015-11-01

    This work demonstrates an attractive low-cost route to obtain large area and high-quality graphene films by using the ultra-smooth copper foils which are typically used as the negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. We first compared the electronic transport properties of our new graphene film with the one synthesized by using commonly used standard copper foils in chemical vapor deposition (CVD). We observed a stark improvement in the electrical performance of the transistors realized on our graphene films. To study the optical properties on large area, we transferred CVD based graphene to transparent flexible substrates using hot lamination method and performed large area optical scanning. We demonstrate the promise of our high quality graphene films for large areas with ~400 cm2 flexible optical modulators. We obtained a profound light modulation over a broad spectrum by using the fabricated large area transparent graphene supercapacitors and we compared the performance of our devices with the one based on graphene from standard copper. We propose that the copper foils used in the lithium-ion batteries could be used to obtain high-quality graphene at much lower-cost, with the improved performance of electrical transport and optical properties in the devices made from them.

  1. A Novel Wearable Device for Food Intake and Physical Activity Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Muhammad; Sazonov, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Presence of speech and motion artifacts has been shown to impact the performance of wearable sensor systems used for automatic detection of food intake. This work presents a novel wearable device which can detect food intake even when the user is physically active and/or talking. The device consists of a piezoelectric strain sensor placed on the temporalis muscle, an accelerometer, and a data acquisition module connected to the temple of eyeglasses. Data from 10 participants was collected while they performed activities including quiet sitting, talking, eating while sitting, eating while walking, and walking. Piezoelectric strain sensor and accelerometer signals were divided into non-overlapping epochs of 3 s; four features were computed for each signal. To differentiate between eating and not eating, as well as between sedentary postures and physical activity, two multiclass classification approaches are presented. The first approach used a single classifier with sensor fusion and the second approach used two-stage classification. The best results were achieved when two separate linear support vector machine (SVM) classifiers were trained for food intake and activity detection, and their results were combined using a decision tree (two-stage classification) to determine the final class. This approach resulted in an average F1-score of 99.85% and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.99 for multiclass classification. With its ability to differentiate between food intake and activity level, this device may potentially be used for tracking both energy intake and energy expenditure. PMID:27409622

  2. A Novel Wearable Device for Food Intake and Physical Activity Recognition.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Muhammad; Sazonov, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Presence of speech and motion artifacts has been shown to impact the performance of wearable sensor systems used for automatic detection of food intake. This work presents a novel wearable device which can detect food intake even when the user is physically active and/or talking. The device consists of a piezoelectric strain sensor placed on the temporalis muscle, an accelerometer, and a data acquisition module connected to the temple of eyeglasses. Data from 10 participants was collected while they performed activities including quiet sitting, talking, eating while sitting, eating while walking, and walking. Piezoelectric strain sensor and accelerometer signals were divided into non-overlapping epochs of 3 s; four features were computed for each signal. To differentiate between eating and not eating, as well as between sedentary postures and physical activity, two multiclass classification approaches are presented. The first approach used a single classifier with sensor fusion and the second approach used two-stage classification. The best results were achieved when two separate linear support vector machine (SVM) classifiers were trained for food intake and activity detection, and their results were combined using a decision tree (two-stage classification) to determine the final class. This approach resulted in an average F1-score of 99.85% and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.99 for multiclass classification. With its ability to differentiate between food intake and activity level, this device may potentially be used for tracking both energy intake and energy expenditure. PMID:27409622

  3. Active Microfluidic Devices for Single-Molecule Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Meiners, Jens-Christian

    2003-03-01

    Microfluidic chips have become an increasingly powerful and versatile tool in the life sciences. Multilayer devices fabricated from soft silicone elastomers in a replication molding technique are especially promising, because they permit flexible integration of active elements such as valves and pumps. In addition, they are fairly easy and inexpensive to produce. In a wide range of applications, microfluidic chips are used in conjunction with optical detection and manipulation techniques. However their widespread use has been hampered due to problems with interconnect stability, optical accessibility, and ability to perform surface chemistry. We have developed a packaging technique that encapsulates the elastomer in an epoxy resin of high optical quality. This stabilizes the interconnects so that a chip can be repeatedly plugged in and out of a socket. Our technique also eliminates the need for a baking step that is conventionally used to attach a glass cover slip to the elastomer surface. This allows us to assemble devices that contain a cover slip coated with proteins, thereby permitting subsequent in situ attachment of DNA molecules to the bottom of the flow channels. We demonstrate the utility of our chips in single-molecule applications involving tethered-particles and optical tweezers. Support: NIH R01 GM065934 & Research Corporation

  4. PARduino: A Simple Device Measuring and Logging Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, H. R.; Findley, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400 to 700 nm) is one of the primary controls of forest carbon and water relations. In complex terrain, PAR has high spatial-variability. Given the high cost of commercial datalogging equipment, spatially-distributed measurements of PAR have been typically modeled using geographic coordinates and terrain indices. Here, we present a design for a low cost, field-deployable device for measuring and logging PAR built around an Arduino microcontroller (we named it PARduino). PARduino provides for widely distributed sensor arrays and tests the feasibility of using hobbyist-grade electronics for collecting scientific data. PARduino components include a LiCor quantum sensor, EME Systems signal converter/amplifier, and Sparkfun's Arduino Pro Mini microcontroller. Additional components include a real time clock, a microSD flash memory card, and a custom printed circuit board (PCB). We selected the components with an eye towards ease of assembly. Everything can be connected to the PCB using through-hole soldering techniques. Since the device will be deployed in remote research plots that lack easy access to line power, battery life was also a consideration in the design. Extended deployment is possible because PARduino's software keeps it in a low-power sleep mode until ready to make a measurement. PARduino will be open-source hardware for use and improvement by others.

  5. Upscaling of integrated photoelectrochemical water-splitting devices to large areas

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Bugra; Becker, Jan-Philipp; Urbain, Félix; Finger, Friedhelm; Rau, Uwe; Haas, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical water splitting promises both sustainable energy generation and energy storage in the form of hydrogen. However, the realization of this vision requires laboratory experiments to be engineered into a large-scale technology. Up to now only few concepts for scalable devices have been proposed or realized. Here we introduce and realize a concept which, by design, is scalable to large areas and is compatible with multiple thin-film photovoltaic technologies. The scalability is achieved by continuous repetition of a base unit created by laser processing. The concept allows for independent optimization of photovoltaic and electrochemical part. We demonstrate a fully integrated, wireless device with stable and bias-free operation for 40 h. Furthermore, the concept is scaled to a device area of 64 cm2 comprising 13 base units exhibiting a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 3.9%. The concept and its successful realization may be an important contribution towards the large-scale application of artificial photosynthesis. PMID:27601181

  6. Upscaling of integrated photoelectrochemical water-splitting devices to large areas.

    PubMed

    Turan, Bugra; Becker, Jan-Philipp; Urbain, Félix; Finger, Friedhelm; Rau, Uwe; Haas, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical water splitting promises both sustainable energy generation and energy storage in the form of hydrogen. However, the realization of this vision requires laboratory experiments to be engineered into a large-scale technology. Up to now only few concepts for scalable devices have been proposed or realized. Here we introduce and realize a concept which, by design, is scalable to large areas and is compatible with multiple thin-film photovoltaic technologies. The scalability is achieved by continuous repetition of a base unit created by laser processing. The concept allows for independent optimization of photovoltaic and electrochemical part. We demonstrate a fully integrated, wireless device with stable and bias-free operation for 40 h. Furthermore, the concept is scaled to a device area of 64 cm(2) comprising 13 base units exhibiting a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 3.9%. The concept and its successful realization may be an important contribution towards the large-scale application of artificial photosynthesis. PMID:27601181

  7. Upscaling of integrated photoelectrochemical water-splitting devices to large areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turan, Bugra; Becker, Jan-Philipp; Urbain, Félix; Finger, Friedhelm; Rau, Uwe; Haas, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Photoelectrochemical water splitting promises both sustainable energy generation and energy storage in the form of hydrogen. However, the realization of this vision requires laboratory experiments to be engineered into a large-scale technology. Up to now only few concepts for scalable devices have been proposed or realized. Here we introduce and realize a concept which, by design, is scalable to large areas and is compatible with multiple thin-film photovoltaic technologies. The scalability is achieved by continuous repetition of a base unit created by laser processing. The concept allows for independent optimization of photovoltaic and electrochemical part. We demonstrate a fully integrated, wireless device with stable and bias-free operation for 40 h. Furthermore, the concept is scaled to a device area of 64 cm2 comprising 13 base units exhibiting a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 3.9%. The concept and its successful realization may be an important contribution towards the large-scale application of artificial photosynthesis.

  8. Simulation of magnetic active polymers for versatile microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusenbauer, Markus; Özelt, Harald; Fischbacher, Johann; Reichel, Franz; Exl, Lukas; Bance, Simon; Kataeva, Nadezhda; Binder, Claudia; Brückl, Hubert; Schrefl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We propose to use a compound of magnetic nanoparticles (20-100 nm) embedded in a flexible polymer (Polydimethylsiloxane PDMS) to filter circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The analysis of CTCs is an emerging tool for cancer biology research and clinical cancer management including the detection, diagnosis and monitoring of cancer. The combination of experiments and simulations lead to a versatile microfluidic lab-on-chip device. Simulations are essential to understand the influence of the embedded nanoparticles in the elastic PDMS when applying a magnetic gradient field. It combines finite element calculations of the polymer, magnetic simulations of the embedded nanoparticles and the fluid dynamic calculations of blood plasma and blood cells. With the use of magnetic active polymers a wide range of tunable microfluidic structures can be created. The method can help to increase the yield of needed isolated CTCs.

  9. Using DNA devices to track anticancer drug activity.

    PubMed

    Kahanda, Dimithree; Chakrabarti, Gaurab; Mcwilliams, Marc A; Boothman, David A; Slinker, Jason D

    2016-06-15

    It is beneficial to develop systems that reproduce complex reactions of biological systems while maintaining control over specific factors involved in such processes. We demonstrated a DNA device for following the repair of DNA damage produced by a redox-cycling anticancer drug, beta-lapachone (β-lap). These chips supported ß-lap-induced biological redox cycle and tracked subsequent DNA damage repair activity with redox-modified DNA monolayers on gold. We observed drug-specific changes in square wave voltammetry from these chips at therapeutic ß-lap concentrations of high statistical significance over drug-free control. We also demonstrated a high correlation of this change with the specific ß-lap-induced redox cycle using rational controls. The concentration dependence of ß-lap revealed significant signal changes at levels of high clinical significance as well as sensitivity to sub-lethal levels of ß-lap. Catalase, an enzyme decomposing peroxide, was found to suppress DNA damage at a NQO1/catalase ratio found in healthy cells, but was clearly overcome at a higher NQO1/catalase ratio consistent with cancer cells. We found that it was necessary to reproduce key features of the cellular environment to observe this activity. Thus, this chip-based platform enabled tracking of ß-lap-induced DNA damage repair when biological criteria were met, providing a unique synthetic platform for uncovering activity normally confined to inside cells. PMID:26901461

  10. Field-induced activation of metal oxide semiconductor for low temperature flexible transparent electronic device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Noh, Joo Hyon; Wong, Anthony; Haglund, Amada; Ward, Thomas Zac; Mandrus, David; Rack, Philip

    Amorphous metal-oxide semiconductors have been extensively studied as an active channel material in thin film transistors due to their high carrier mobility, and excellent large-area uniformity. Here, we report the athermal activation of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide semiconductor channels by an electric field-induced oxygen migration via gating through an ionic liquid. Using field-induced activation, a transparent flexible thin film transistor is demonstrated on a polyamide substrate with transistor characteristics having a current ON-OFF ratio exceeding 108, and saturation field effect mobility of 8.32 cm2/(V.s) without a post-deposition thermal treatment. This study demonstrates the potential of field-induced activation as an athermal alternative to traditional post-deposition thermal annealing for metal oxide electronic devices suitable for transparent and flexible polymer substrates. Materials Science and Technology Division, ORBL, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA.

  11. Ultrasonic probe deployment device for increased wave transmission and rapid area scan inspections

    DOEpatents

    DiMambro, Joseph; Roach, Dennis P.; Rackow, Kirk A.; Nelson, Ciji L.; Dasch, Cameron J.; Moore, David G.

    2012-01-03

    An ultrasonic probe deployment device in which an ultrasound-transmitting liquid forms the portion of the ultrasonic wave path in contact with the surface being inspected (i.e., the inspection surface). A seal constrains flow of the liquid, for example preventing the liquid from surging out and flooding the inspection surface. The seal is not rigid and conforms to variations in the shape and unevenness of the inspection surface, thus forming a seal (although possibly a leaky seal) around the liquid. The probe preferably is held in place to produce optimum ultrasonic focus on the area of interest. Use of encoders can facilitate the production of C-scan area maps of the material being inspected.

  12. Ultrasonic probe deployment device for increased wave transmission and rapid area scan inspections

    DOEpatents

    DiMambro, Joseph; Roach, Dennis P; Rackow, Kirk A; Nelson, Ciji L; Dasch, Cameron J; Moore, David G

    2013-02-12

    An ultrasonic probe deployment device in which an ultrasound-transmitting liquid forms the portion of the ultrasonic wave path in contact with the surface being inspected (i.e., the inspection surface). A seal constrains flow of the liquid, for example preventing the liquid from surging out and flooding the inspection surface. The seal is not rigid and conforms to variations in the shape and unevenness of the inspection surface, thus forming a seal (although possibly a leaky seal) around the liquid. The probe preferably is held in place to produce optimum ultrasonic focus on the area of interest. Use of encoders can facilitate the production of C-scan area maps of the material being inspected.

  13. Controlled growth of larger heterojunction interface area for organic photosensitive devices

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Fan; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2009-12-29

    An optoelectronic device and a method of fabricating a photosensitive optoelectronic device includes depositing a first organic semiconductor material on a first electrode to form a continuous first layer having protrusions, a side of the first layer opposite the first electrode having a surface area at least three times greater than an underlying lateral cross-sectional area; depositing a second organic semiconductor material directly on the first layer to form a discontinuous second layer, portions of the first layer remaining exposed; depositing a third organic semiconductor material directly on the second layer to form a discontinuous third layer, portions of at least the second layer remaining exposed; depositing a fourth organic semiconductor material on the third layer to form a continuous fourth layer, filling any exposed gaps and recesses in the first, second, and third layers; and depositing a second electrode on the fourth layer, wherein at least one of the first electrode and the second electrode is transparent, and the first and third organic semiconductor materials are both of a donor-type or an acceptor-type relative to second and fourth organic semiconductor materials, which are of the other material type.

  14. Ionic Liquid Activation of Amorphous Metal-Oxide Semiconductors for Flexible Transparent Electronic Devices

    DOE PAGES

    Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Noh, Joo Hyon; Wong, Anthony T.; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Haglund, Amanda V.; Dai, Sheng; Ward, Thomas Zac; Mandrus, David; Rack, Philip D.

    2016-02-09

    To begin this abstract, amorphous metal-oxide semiconductors offer the high carrier mobilities and excellent large-area uniformity required for high performance, transparent, flexible electronic devices; however, a critical bottleneck to their widespread implementation is the need to activate these materials at high temperatures which are not compatible with flexible polymer substrates. The highly controllable activation of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide semiconductor channels using ionic liquid gating at room temperature is reported. Activation is controlled by electric field-induced oxygen migration across the ionic liquid-semiconductor interface. In addition to activation of unannealed devices, it is shown that threshold voltages of a transistormore » can be linearly tuned between the enhancement and depletion modes. Finally, the first ever example of transparent flexible thin film metal oxide transistor on a polyamide substrate created using this simple technique is demonstrated. Finally, this study demonstrates the potential of field-induced activation as a promising alternative to traditional postdeposition thermal annealing which opens the door to wide scale implementation into flexible electronic applications.« less

  15. SHADE: A Shape-Memory-Activated Device Promoting Ankle Dorsiflexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittaccio, S.; Viscuso, S.; Rossini, M.; Magoni, L.; Pirovano, S.; Villa, E.; Besseghini, S.; Molteni, F.

    2009-08-01

    Acute post-stroke rehabilitation protocols include passive mobilization as a means to prevent contractures. A device (SHADE) that provides repetitive passive motion to a flaccid ankle by using shape memory alloy actuators could be of great help in providing this treatment. A suitable actuator was designed as a cartridge of approximately 150 × 20 × 15 mm, containing 2.5 m of 0.25 mm diameter NiTi wire. This actuator was activated by Joule’s effect employing a 7 s current input at 0.7 A, which provided 10 N through 76 mm displacement. Cooling and reset by natural convection took 30 s. A prototype of SHADE was assembled with two thermoplastic shells hinged together at the ankle and strapped on the shin and foot. Two actuators were fixed on the upper shell while an inextensible thread connected each NiTi wire to the foot shell. The passive ankle motion (passive range of motion, PROM) generated by SHADE was evaluated optoelectronically on three flaccid patients (58 ± 5 years old); acceptability was assessed by a questionnaire presented to further three flaccid patients (44 ± 11.5 years old) who used SHADE for 5 days, 30 min a day. SHADE was well accepted by all patients, produced good PROM, and caused no pain. The results prove that suitable limb mobilization can be produced by SMA actuators.

  16. Diagnostic for two-mode variable valve activation device

    SciTech Connect

    Fedewa, Andrew M

    2014-01-07

    A method is provided for diagnosing a multi-mode valve train device which selectively provides high lift and low lift to a combustion valve of an internal combustion engine having a camshaft phaser actuated by an electric motor. The method includes applying a variable electric current to the electric motor to achieve a desired camshaft phaser operational mode and commanding the multi-mode valve train device to a desired valve train device operational mode selected from a high lift mode and a low lift mode. The method also includes monitoring the variable electric current and calculating a first characteristic of the parameter. The method also includes comparing the calculated first characteristic against a predetermined value of the first characteristic measured when the multi-mode valve train device is known to be in the desired valve train device operational mode.

  17. NASA's Spaceliner 100 Investment Area Technology Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's has established long term goals for access-to-space. The third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational around 2025. The goals for the third generation launch system are to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL has the agency lead to develop space transportation technologies. Within ASTP, under the Spaceliner100 Investment Area, third generation technologies are being pursued in the areas of propulsion, airframes, integrated vehicle health management (IVHM), launch systems, and operations and range. The ASTP program will mature these technologies through ground system testing. Flight testing where required, will be advocated on a case by case basis.

  18. NASA's Spaceliner Investment Area Technology Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's has established long term goals for access-to-space. The third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational around 2025. The goals for the third generation launch system are to significantly reduce cost and improve safety over current conditions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL has the agency lead to develop space transportation technologies. Within ASTP, under the Spaceliner Investment Area, third generation technologies are being pursued in the areas of propulsion, airframes, integrated vehicle health management (IVHM), avionics, power, operations, and range. The ASTP program will mature these technologies through both ground and flight system testing. The Spaceliner Investment Area plans to mature vehicle technologies to reduce the implementation risks for future commercially developed reusable launch vehicles (RLV). The plan is to substantially increase the design and operating margins of the third generation RLV (the Space Shuttle is the first generation) by incorporating advanced technologies in propulsion, materials, structures, thermal protection systems, avionics, and power. Advancements in design tools and better characterization of the operational environment will allow improvements in design margins. Improvements in operational efficiencies will be provided through use of advanced integrated health management, operations, and range technologies. The increase in margins will allow components to operate well below their design points resulting in improved component operating life, reliability, and safety which in turn reduces both maintenance and refurbishment costs. These technologies have the potential of enabling horizontal takeoff by reducing the takeoff weight and achieving the goal of airline-like operation. These factors in conjunction with increased flight rates from an expanding market will result in significant improvements in safety

  19. High-performance blazed GxL TM device for large-area laser projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Yasuyuki; Saruta, Kunihiko; Kasai, Hiroto; Nishida, Masato; Yamaguchi, Masanari; Yamashita, Keitaro; Taguchi, Ayumu; Oniki, Kazunao; Tamada, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    A blazed GxL device is described that has high optical efficiency (>70% for RGB lasers), and high contrast ratio (> 10,000:1), and that is highly reliable when used in a large-area laser projection system. The key features were a robust design and precise stress control technology to maintain a uniform shape (bow and tilt) of more than 6,000 ribbons, a 0.25-μm CMOS compatible fabrication processing and planarization techniques to reduce fluctuation of the ribbons, and a reliable Al-Cu reflective film that provided protection against a high-power laser. No degradation in characteristics of the GxL device was observed after operating a 5,000- lumen projector for 2,000 hours and conducting 2,000 temperature cycling tests at -20°C and +80°C. Consequently, the world's largest laser projection screen with a size of 2005 inches (10 m × 50 m) and 6 million pixels (1,080 × 5,760) was demonstrated at the 2005 World Exposition in Aichi, Japan.

  20. 50 CFR 218.120 - Specified activity and geographical area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Activities Area (GoA TMAA) § 218.120 Specified activity and geographical area. (a) Regulations in this... Alaska Temporary Maritime Activities Area (GoA TMAA) (as depicted in Figure 1-1 in the Navy's application for GoA TMAA), which is bounded by a hexagon with the following six corners: 57°30′ N. lat., 141°30′...

  1. Designing medical devices for conformance with harmonized standards: a case study of non-active implants.

    PubMed

    Gogins, J A

    1995-01-01

    The European Community's Medical Devices Directives represent an ambitious effort to streamline the regulation of medical devices within the European Economic Area, an area comprising more than 380 million people. In this, the second of two special reports, Jean A. Goggins uses a case study format to demonstrate the process that would be used to gain European approval for a hypothetical medical device. In the first report, appearing on page 284, Richard C. Fries and Mark D. Graber describe the Medical Devices Directives and their effect on the product-development process. PMID:7550496

  2. Method and device for remotely monitoring an area using a low peak power optical pump

    DOEpatents

    Woodruff, Steven D.; Mcintyre, Dustin L.; Jain, Jinesh C.

    2014-07-22

    A method and device for remotely monitoring an area using a low peak power optical pump comprising one or more pumping sources, one or more lasers; and an optical response analyzer. Each pumping source creates a pumping energy. The lasers each comprise a high reflectivity mirror, a laser media, an output coupler, and an output lens. Each laser media is made of a material that emits a lasing power when exposed to pumping energy. Each laser media is optically connected to and positioned between a corresponding high reflectivity mirror and output coupler along a pumping axis. Each output coupler is optically connected to a corresponding output lens along the pumping axis. The high reflectivity mirror of each laser is optically connected to an optical pumping source from the one or more optical pumping sources via an optical connection comprising one or more first optical fibers.

  3. Guide to good practices for control area activities

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Control Area Activities, Chapter III of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered for controlling the activities in control areas. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Control Area Activities is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for maintaining a formal environment in operational control areas to promote safe and efficient operations.

  4. Study of FBAR response with variation in active area of membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Gurpreet Singh; Singh, Tarandip; Prasad, Mahanth

    2016-04-01

    In most of the communication devices such as filter, duplexer and oscillator, the need of acoustic resonator is the key part because of their small size and high performances. The design of a resonator based on three layers: (1) Bottom metal electrode such as Pt, Mo, Al and Au etc. (2) Piezoelectric layer such as ZnO, AlN and PZT etc. and (3) Top metal electrode. In this paper, the effects of active area on resonance frequency and impedance response of FBAR device have been studied. The FBAR devices having different membrane sizes, 150×150 µm2, 300×300 µm2, 450×450 µm2 and 600×600 µm2 were designed and simulated using COMSOL software Tool. The variation in resonance frequencies are found to be 2.62-2.65 GHz. Based on simulation results, one of the membrane having size, 300×300 µm2 has been fabricated for FBAR device.

  5. Remedial activities effectiveness verification in tailing areas.

    PubMed

    Kluson, J; Thinova, L; Neznal, M; Svoboda, T

    2015-06-01

    The complex radiological study of the basin of sludge from the uranium ore mining and preprocessing was done. Air kerma rates (including its spectral analysis) at the reference height of 1 m above ground over the whole area were measured and radiation fields mapped during two measuring campaigns (years 2009 and 2014). K, U and Th concentrations in sludge and concentrations in depth profiles (including radon concentration and radon exhalation rates) in selected points were determined using gamma spectrometry for in situ as well as laboratory samples measurement. Results were used for the analysis, design evaluation and verification of the efficiency of the remediation measures. Efficiency of the sludge basin covering by the inert material was modelled using MicroShield code.

  6. Effects of a wireless local area network (LAN) system, a telemetry system, and electrosurgical devices on medical devices in a hospital environment.

    PubMed

    Tan, K S; Hinberg, I

    2000-01-01

    Concerns have been raised about interference of wireless local area network (LAN) systems and telemetry systems with medical devices in hospitals. The authors have investigated the susceptibility of 65 electromedical devices to a wireless LAN system and a telemetry system in preselected areas of a hospital. Testing was based on the American National Standards Institute Standard C63.18. The wireless LAN system operated at 2.42 GHz with an output power of 100 mW. The telemetry system operated at 466 MHz with an output power of 4 mW. Of the 65 devices tested, only two hand-held Doppler units, a Mini Doppler Model D900 (Huntleigh Healthcare Ltd) and a Ultrasonic Doppler Model 811 (Parks Medical Electronics, Inc.), were affected by the LAN system. Placed within 10 cm of the LAN system in standby mode, both units emitted periodic high-pitched beating sounds, which could be misinterpreted as normal beating sounds from the patient. These changed to random static noise during data transmission by the LAN. Under normal conditions of use, a LAN system would never be placed this close to a medical device. The quality of data transmission from the LAN system changed from "good" to "acceptable" in the colonoscopy room. This deterioration in transmission quality could have been caused by the lead shielding in the room. Electrosurgical devices operating at 0.5 to 1 MHz did not affect the LAN system at distances up to 3 m. None of the devices was affected by the telemetry system. These findings suggest that wireless LAN systems and telemetry systems can be acceptable for use in hospitals. Nevertheless, other systems should be tested on potentially susceptible devices by the hospital before use.

  7. Laser Activated Flow Regulator for Glaucoma Drainage Devices

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Jeffrey L.; Velez-Montoya, Raul; Bhandari, Ramanath

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the capabilities of a new glaucoma drainage device regulator in controlling fluid flow as well as to demonstrate that this effect may be titratable by noninvasive means. Methods A rigid eye model with two main ports was used. On the first port, we placed a saline solution column. On the second, we placed a glaucoma shunt. We then measured the flow and flow rate through the system. After placing the regulator device on the tip of the tube, we measured again with the intact membrane and with the membrane open 50% and 100%. For the ex vivo testing we used a similar setting, using a cadaveric porcine eye, we measured again the flow and flow rate. However, this time we opened the membrane gradually using laser shots. A one-way analysis of variance and a Fisher's Least Significant Difference test were used for statistical significance. We also calculated the correlation between the numbers of laser shots applied and the main outcomes. Results The flow through the system with the glaucoma drainage device regulator (membrane intact and 50% open) was statistically lower than with the membrane open 100% and without device (P < 0.05). The flow was successfully controlled by the number of laser shots applied, and showed a positive correlation (+ 0.9). The flow rate was almost doubled every 10 shots and statistically lower than without device at all time (P < 0.05). Conclusions The glaucoma drainage device regulator can be controlled noninvasively with laser, and allows titratable control of aqueous flow. Translational Relevance Initial results and evidence from this experiment will justify the initiation of in vivo animal trials with the glaucoma drainage device regulator; which brings us closer to possible human trials and the chance to significantly improve the existing technology to treat glaucoma surgically. PMID:25374772

  8. Compilation of historical information of 300 Area facilities and activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    This document is a compilation of historical information of the 300 Area activities and facilities since the beginning. The 300 Area is shown as it looked in 1945, and also a more recent (1985) look at the 300 Area is provided.

  9. Module process optimization and device efficiency improvement for stable, low-cost, large-area, cadmium telluride-based photovoltaic module production

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, S.P.; Ackerman, B.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Jordan, J.F. )

    1992-04-01

    This report describes work under a three-year phased subcontract to develop CdS/CdTe devices and modules and to further improve the technology base at Photon Energy, Inc. (PEI) to better address the commercialization issues and objectives of the PEI and the US Department of Energy. During this reporting period we (1) achieved efficiencies of 12.7% on small area devices, (2) achieved 1-ft{sup 2} modules with over 8% aperture-area efficiency (and active area efficiencies up to {approximately}10%), (3) tested 4-ft{sup 2} modules at NREL at 23.1 (21.3) watts, normalized (6.3% efficiency), and (4) found no inherent stability problems with CdTe technology during life testing, at both NREL and PEI. 7 refs.

  10. Activation of premotor vocal areas during musical discrimination.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven; Martinez, Michael J

    2007-02-01

    Two same/different discrimination tasks were performed by amateur-musician subjects in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study: Melody Discrimination and Harmony Discrimination. Both tasks led to activations not only in classic working memory areas--such as the cingulate gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex--but in a series of premotor areas involved in vocal-motor planning and production, namely the somatotopic mouth region of the primary and lateral premotor cortices, Broca's area, the supplementary motor area, and the anterior insula. A perceptual control task involving passive listening alone to monophonic melodies led to activations exclusively in temporal-lobe auditory areas. These results show that, compared to passive listening tasks, discrimination tasks elicit activation in vocal-motor planning areas. PMID:17027134

  11. Impact of optical antennas on active optoelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Bonakdar, Alireza; Mohseni, Hooman

    2014-10-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in the fabrication and characterization of optical antennas that are integrated with optoelectronic devices. Herein, we describe the fundamental reasons for and experimental evidence of the dramatic improvements that can be achieved by enhancing the light-matter interaction via an optical antenna in both photon-emitting and -detecting devices. In addition, integration of optical antennas with optoelectronic devices can lead to the realization of highly compact multifunctional platforms for future integrated photonics, such as low-cost lab-on-chip systems. In this review paper, we further focus on the effect of optical antennas on the detectivity of infrared photodetectors. One particular finding is that the antenna can have a dual effect on the specific detectivity, while it can elevate light absorption efficiency of sub-wavelength detectors, it can potentially increase the noise of the detectors due to the enhanced spontaneous emission rate. In particular, we predict that the detectivity of interband photon detectors can be negatively affected by the presence of optical antennas across a wide wavelength region covering visible to long wavelength infrared bands. In contrast, the detectivity of intersubband detectors could be generally improved with a properly designed optical antenna.

  12. Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) Device Being Developed for Active Cooling and Temperature Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Duane E.

    2003-01-01

    High-capacity cooling options remain limited for many small-scale applications such as microelectronic components, miniature sensors, and microsystems. A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) using a Stirling thermodynamic cycle to provide cooling or heating directly to a thermally loaded surface is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to meet this need. The device can be used strictly in the cooling mode or can be switched between cooling and heating modes in milliseconds for precise temperature control. Fabrication and assembly employ techniques routinely used in the semiconductor processing industry. Benefits of the MEMS cooler include scalability to fractions of a millimeter, modularity for increased capacity and staging to low temperatures, simple interfaces, limited failure modes, and minimal induced vibration. The MEMS cooler has potential applications across a broad range of industries such as the biomedical, computer, automotive, and aerospace industries. The basic capabilities it provides can be categorized into four key areas: 1) Extended environmental temperature range in harsh environments; 2) Lower operating temperatures for electronics and other components; 3) Precision spatial and temporal thermal control for temperature-sensitive devices; and 4) The enabling of microsystem devices that require active cooling and/or temperature control. The rapidly expanding capabilities of semiconductor processing in general, and microsystems packaging in particular, present a new opportunity to extend Stirling-cycle cooling to the MEMS domain. The comparatively high capacity and efficiency possible with a MEMS Stirling cooler provides a level of active cooling that is impossible at the microscale with current state-of-the-art techniques. The MEMS cooler technology builds on decades of research at Glenn on Stirling-cycle machines, and capitalizes on Glenn s emerging microsystems capabilities.

  13. rf-activated emergency locating and illuminating devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, Maurice L., III

    1995-05-01

    Law enforcement officials and medical personnel are, with increasing regularity, becoming involved in accident or hostage situations requiring transport of individuals by air. At the present time there are few acceptable or portable means for identification and demarcation of appropriate landing areas for inbound emergency aircraft in unprepared areas. The following paper describes a low cost, portable, and light weight solution to the problem of how to effectively demarcate a temporary landing zone as well as any hazards for use to assist pilots landing in unprepared areas.

  14. Emerging Vocabulary Learning: From a Perspective of Activities Facilitated by Mobile Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Zengning

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the current mobile vocabulary learning practice to discover how far mobile devices are being used to support vocabulary learning. An activity-centered perspective is undertaken, with the consideration of new practice against existing theories of learning activities including behaviorist activities, constructivist activities,…

  15. Feasibility of using a compact elliptical device to increase energy expenditure during sedentary activities

    PubMed Central

    Rovniak, Liza S.; Denlinger, LeAnn; Duveneck, Ellen; Sciamanna, Christopher N.; Kong, Lan; Freivalds, Andris; Ray, Chester A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a compact elliptical device to increase energy expenditure during sedentary activities. A secondary aim was to evaluate if two accelerometers attached to the elliptical device could provide reliable and valid assessments of participants’ frequency and duration of elliptical device use. Design Physically inactive adults (n = 32, age range = 25–65) were recruited through local advertisements and selected using stratified random sampling based on sex, body mass index (BMI), and age. Methods Indirect calorimetry was used to assess participants’ energy expenditure while seated and while using the elliptical device at a self-selected intensity level. Participants also self-reported their interest in using the elliptical device during sedentary activities. Two Actigraph GT3X accelerometers were attached to the elliptical device to record time-use patterns. Results Participants expended a median of 179.1 kilocalories per hour while using the elliptical device (range = 108.2–269.0), or a median of 87.9 more kilocalories (range = 19.7–178.6) than they would expend per hour of sedentary sitting. Participants reported high interest in using the elliptical device during TV watching and computer work, but relatively low interest in using the device during office meetings. Women reported greater interest in using the elliptical device than men. The two accelerometers recorded identical time-use patterns on the elliptical device and demonstrated concurrent validity with time-stamped computer records. Conclusions Compact elliptical devices could increase energy expenditure during sedentary activities, and may provide proximal environmental cues for increasing energy expenditure across multiple life domains. PMID:24035273

  16. MEMS Device Being Developed for Active Cooling and Temperature Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    2001-01-01

    High-capacity cooling options remain limited for many small-scale applications such as microelectronic components, miniature sensors, and microsystems. A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) is currently under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center to meet this need. It uses a thermodynamic cycle to provide cooling or heating directly to a thermally loaded surface. The device can be used strictly in the cooling mode, or it can be switched between cooling and heating modes in milliseconds for precise temperature control. Fabrication and assembly are accomplished by wet etching and wafer bonding techniques routinely used in the semiconductor processing industry. Benefits of the MEMS cooler include scalability to fractions of a millimeter, modularity for increased capacity and staging to low temperatures, simple interfaces and limited failure modes, and minimal induced vibration.

  17. Water Pollution Scrubber Activity Simulates Pollution Control Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Edward C., III; Waggoner, Todd C.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory activity caused students to think actively about water pollution. The students realized that it would be easier to keep water clean than to remove pollutants. They created a water scrubbing system allowing them to pour water in one end and have it emerge clean at the other end. (JOW)

  18. Fabric-based integrated energy devices for wearable activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungmook; Lee, Jongsu; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2014-09-01

    A wearable fabric-based integrated power-supply system that generates energy triboelectrically using human activity and stores the generated energy in an integrated supercapacitor is developed. This system can be utilized as either a self-powered activity monitor or as a power supply for external wearable sensors. These demonstrations give new insights for the research of wearable electronics. PMID:25070873

  19. Highly sensitive pyrogen detection on medical devices by the monocyte activation test.

    PubMed

    Stang, Katharina; Fennrich, Stefan; Krajewski, Stefanie; Stoppelkamp, Sandra; Burgener, Iwan Anton; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Post, Marcell

    2014-04-01

    Pyrogens are components of microorganisms, like bacteria, viruses or fungi, which can induce a complex inflammatory response in the human body. Pyrogen contamination on medical devices prior operation is still critical and associated with severe complications for the patients. The aim of our study was to develop a reliable test, which allows detection of pyrogen contamination on the surface of medical devices. After in vitro pyrogen contamination of different medical devices and incubation in a rotation model, the human whole blood monocyte activation test (MAT), which is based on an IL-1β-specific ELISA, was employed. Our results show that when combining a modified MAT protocol and a dynamic incubation system, even smallest amounts of pyrogens can be directly detected on the surface of medical devices. Therefore, screening of medical devices prior clinical application using our novel assay, has the potential to significantly reduce complications associated with pyrogen-contaminated medical devices.

  20. 78 FR 41065 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Medical Devices...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Medical Devices; Third-Party Review Under the Food and Drug...

  1. Multi-sensor fusion for enhanced contextual awareness of everyday activities with ubiquitous devices.

    PubMed

    Guiry, John J; van de Ven, Pepijn; Nelson, John

    2014-03-21

    In this paper, the authors investigate the role that smart devices, including smartphones and smartwatches, can play in identifying activities of daily living. A feasibility study involving N = 10 participants was carried out to evaluate the devices' ability to differentiate between nine everyday activities. The activities examined include walking, running, cycling, standing, sitting, elevator ascents, elevator descents, stair ascents and stair descents. The authors also evaluated the ability of these devices to differentiate indoors from outdoors, with the aim of enhancing contextual awareness. Data from this study was used to train and test five well known machine learning algorithms: C4.5, CART, Naïve Bayes, Multi-Layer Perceptrons and finally Support Vector Machines. Both single and multi-sensor approaches were examined to better understand the role each sensor in the device can play in unobtrusive activity recognition. The authors found overall results to be promising, with some models correctly classifying up to 100% of all instances.

  2. Heat-activated cooling devices: A guidebook for general audiences

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltsee, G.

    1994-02-01

    Heat-activated cooling is refrigeration or air conditioning driven by heat instead of electricity. A mill or processing facility can us its waste fuel to air condition its offices or plant; using waste fuel in this way can save money. The four basic types of heat-activated cooling systems available today are absorption cycle, desiccant system, steam jet ejector, and steam turbine drive. Each is discussed, along with cool storage and biomass boilers. Steps in determining the feasibility of heat-activated cooling are discussed, as are biomass conversion, system cost and integration, permits, and contractor selection. Case studies are given.

  3. Measurements of the PLT and PDX device activation

    SciTech Connect

    Stavely, J.; Barnes, C.W.; Chrien, R.E.; Strachan, J.D.

    1981-09-01

    Measurements of the activation levels around the PLT and PDX tokamaks have been made using a Ge(Li) gamma spectrometer and a Geiger counter. The activation results from radiation induced in the plasma by 14 MeV neutrons from the d(t,n)..cap alpha.. fusion reaction, 14.7 MeV protons from the d(/sup 3/He,p)..cap alpha.. fusion reaction, 10 ..-->.. 20 MeV hard x-rays from runaway electron induced bremmstrahlung, and 2.5 MeV neutrons from the d(d,n)/sup 3/He fusion reaction. The magnitude of the activation is compared to that predicted for PDX on the basis of one-dimensional activation codes.

  4. Rapid bench-top fabrication of poly(dimethylsiloxane)/polystyrene microfluidic devices incorporating high-surface-area sensing electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Sonney, Sanjay; Shek, Norman; Moran-Mirabal, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The development of widely applicable point-of-care sensing and diagnostic devices can benefit from simple and inexpensive fabrication techniques that expedite the design, testing, and implementation of lab-on-a-chip devices. In particular, electrodes integrated within microfluidic devices enable the use of electrochemical techniques for the label-free detection of relevant analytes. This work presents a novel, simple, and cost-effective bench-top approach for the integration of high surface area three-dimensional structured electrodes fabricated on polystyrene (PS) within poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based microfluidics. Optimization of PS-PDMS bonding results in integrated devices that perform well under pressure and fluidic flow stress. Furthermore, the fabrication and bonding processes are shown to have no effect on sensing electrode performance. Finally, the on-chip sensing capabilities of a three-electrode electrochemical cell are demonstrated with a model redox compound, where the high surface area structured electrodes exhibit ultra-high sensitivity. We propose that the developed approach can significantly expedite and reduce the cost of fabrication of sensing devices where arrays of functionalized electrodes can be used for point-of-care analysis and diagnostics. PMID:25945145

  5. An adaptive Hidden Markov Model for activity recognition based on a wearable multi-sensor device

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human activity recognition is important in the study of personal health, wellness and lifestyle. In order to acquire human activity information from the personal space, many wearable multi-sensor devices have been developed. In this paper, a novel technique for automatic activity recognition based o...

  6. A portable inhalational induction device provides co-operative induction of anaesthesia in preanaesthetic area for children

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Mi-Ja; Na, Hyo-Seok; Shin, Young Duck; Han, Jun-Sung; Hwang, Jung-Won; Kim, Chong Soo

    2010-01-01

    Background We introduce a new, simple portable inhalational induction device (PD) that provides co-operative inhalational induction of anaesthesia using N2O and subsequent sevoflurane in the preanaesthetic induction area in children. Methods Forty-five children (30 to 94 months old age, <35 kg) who were scheduled to undergo simple operations were assigned randomly to one of three regimens. Patients were encouraged by their parents to inhale N2O followed by sevoflurane (PD N2O-sevo group) or sevoflurane (PD sevo group) using a portable inhalational induction device in the preanaesthetic induction area until they were unable to respond to their names. They were then transferred to the operating room while maintaining inhalation of sevoflurane via the device. The control group underwent conventional inhalational induction in the operating room with the parents in attendance. Results Patients in the PD N2O-sevo group had a higher co-operative inhalation frequency than the patients in the PD sevo or the control group. Anaesthesia induction in the PD N2O-sevo and the PD sevo groups were faster than in the control group. Parent satisfaction score (0-100) was higher for the PD N2O-sevo group than for the control group. Conclusions A new portable inhalational induction device allows faster induction in co-operation with parents present in the preanaesthetic induction area compared to conventional inhalational induction in the unfamiliar operating room with the parents in attendance. PMID:20589175

  7. Re-active Passive (RAP) Devices for Control of Noise Transmission through a Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carneal, James P.; Giovanardi, Marco; Fuller, Chris R.; Palumbo, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    Re-Active Passive (RAP) devices have been developed to control low frequency (<1000 Hz) noise transmission through a panel. These devices use a combination of active, re-active, and passive technologies packaged into a single unit to control a broad frequency range utilizing the strength of each technology over its best suited frequency range. The RAP device uses passive constrained layer damping to cover the relatively high frequency range (>200 Hz), reactive distributed vibration absorber) to cover the medium frequency range (75 to 250 Hz), and active control for controlling low frequencies (<200 Hz). The device was applied to control noise transmission through a panel mounted in a transmission loss test facility. Experimental results are presented for the bare panel, and combinations of passive treatment, reactive treatment, and active control. Results indicate that three RAP devices were able to increase the overall broadband (15-1000 Hz) transmission loss by 9.4 dB. These three devices added a total of 285 grams to the panel mass of 6.0 kg, or approximately 5%, not including control electronics.

  8. Planar fuel cell utilizing nail current collectors for increased active surface area

    DOEpatents

    George, Thomas J.; Meacham, G. B. Kirby

    2002-03-26

    A plurality of nail current collector members are useful in the gas flow passages of an electrochemical device to optimize the active surfaces of the device and to provide structural support. In addition, the thicknesses of cathode and anode layers within the electrochemical device are varied according to current flow through the device to reduce resistance and increase operating efficiency.

  9. Semantic Wavelet-Induced Frequency-Tagging (SWIFT) Periodically Activates Category Selective Areas While Steadily Activating Early Visual Areas

    PubMed Central

    Koenig-Robert, Roger; VanRullen, Rufin; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2015-01-01

    Primate visual systems process natural images in a hierarchical manner: at the early stage, neurons are tuned to local image features, while neurons in high-level areas are tuned to abstract object categories. Standard models of visual processing assume that the transition of tuning from image features to object categories emerges gradually along the visual hierarchy. Direct tests of such models remain difficult due to confounding alteration in low-level image properties when contrasting distinct object categories. When such contrast is performed in a classic functional localizer method, the desired activation in high-level visual areas is typically accompanied with activation in early visual areas. Here we used a novel image-modulation method called SWIFT (semantic wavelet-induced frequency-tagging), a variant of frequency-tagging techniques. Natural images modulated by SWIFT reveal object semantics periodically while keeping low-level properties constant. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we indeed found that faces and scenes modulated with SWIFT periodically activated the prototypical category-selective areas while they elicited sustained and constant responses in early visual areas. SWIFT and the localizer were selective and specific to a similar extent in activating category-selective areas. Only SWIFT progressively activated the visual pathway from low- to high-level areas, consistent with predictions from standard hierarchical models. We confirmed these results with criterion-free methods, generalizing the validity of our approach and show that it is possible to dissociate neural activation in early and category-selective areas. Our results provide direct evidence for the hierarchical nature of the representation of visual objects along the visual stream and open up future applications of frequency-tagging methods in fMRI. PMID:26691722

  10. Semantic Wavelet-Induced Frequency-Tagging (SWIFT) Periodically Activates Category Selective Areas While Steadily Activating Early Visual Areas.

    PubMed

    Koenig-Robert, Roger; VanRullen, Rufin; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2015-01-01

    Primate visual systems process natural images in a hierarchical manner: at the early stage, neurons are tuned to local image features, while neurons in high-level areas are tuned to abstract object categories. Standard models of visual processing assume that the transition of tuning from image features to object categories emerges gradually along the visual hierarchy. Direct tests of such models remain difficult due to confounding alteration in low-level image properties when contrasting distinct object categories. When such contrast is performed in a classic functional localizer method, the desired activation in high-level visual areas is typically accompanied with activation in early visual areas. Here we used a novel image-modulation method called SWIFT (semantic wavelet-induced frequency-tagging), a variant of frequency-tagging techniques. Natural images modulated by SWIFT reveal object semantics periodically while keeping low-level properties constant. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we indeed found that faces and scenes modulated with SWIFT periodically activated the prototypical category-selective areas while they elicited sustained and constant responses in early visual areas. SWIFT and the localizer were selective and specific to a similar extent in activating category-selective areas. Only SWIFT progressively activated the visual pathway from low- to high-level areas, consistent with predictions from standard hierarchical models. We confirmed these results with criterion-free methods, generalizing the validity of our approach and show that it is possible to dissociate neural activation in early and category-selective areas. Our results provide direct evidence for the hierarchical nature of the representation of visual objects along the visual stream and open up future applications of frequency-tagging methods in fMRI. PMID:26691722

  11. New concept for organic light-emitting devices under high excitations using emission from a metal-free area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slowik, Irma; Fischer, Axel; Gutsche, Stefan; Brückner, Robert; Fröb, Hartmut; Lenk, Simone; Reineke, Sebastian; Leo, Karl

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a new organic light-emitting device (OLED) structure is proposed that allows light-emission from a metal-free device region, thus reducing the hurdles towards an electrically pumped organic solid state laser (OSL). Our design concept employs a stepwise change from a highly conductive but opaque metal part to a highly transparent but less conductive intrinsic emission layer. Here, the high current densities are localized to an area of a few micrometer in square, which is in the range of the mode volume of the transverse mode of an organic vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). Besides these experimental results, we present findings from simulations which further support the feasibility of our design concept. Using an equivalent circuit approach, representing the current flow in the device, we calculate the time-dependent length of the emission zone and give estimations for appropriate material parameters.

  12. Do active safety-needle devices cause spatter contamination?

    PubMed

    Roff, M; Basu, S; Adisesh, A

    2014-03-01

    Exposure to blood and body fluids is an occupational hazard in healthcare. Although the potential for blood-borne virus transmission through needlestick injury has been widely studied, the risk of this occurring through spatter contamination from safety-needle syringes is not well understood. This report examines this risk from three commonly used safety needles and suggests that this presents a new and significant hazard. Further work should be commissioned to quantify this hazard and determine which type of safety needle would minimize spatter contamination following syringe discharge and safety activation.

  13. Devices with extended area structures for mass transfer processing of fluids

    DOEpatents

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Whyatt, Greg A.; King, David L.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.

    2009-04-21

    A microchannel device includes several mass transfer microchannels to receive a fluid media for processing at least one heat transfer microchannel in fluid communication with a heat transfer fluid defined by a thermally conductive wall, and at several thermally conductive fins each connected to the wall and extending therefrom to separate the mass transfer microchannels from one another. In one form, the device may optionally include another heat transfer microchannel and corresponding wall that is positioned opposite the first wall and has the fins and the mass transfer microchannels extending therebetween.

  14. Active Learning Approaches by Visualizing ICT Devices with Milliseconds Resolution for Deeper Understanding in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Akizo; Okiharu, Fumiko

    2010-07-01

    We are developing various modularized materials in physics education to overcome students' misconceptions by use of ICT, i.e. video analysis software and ultra-high-speed digital movies, motion detector, force sensors, current and voltage probes, temperature sensors etc. Furthermore, we also present some new modules of active learning approaches on electric circuit using high speed camera and voltage probes with milliseconds resolution. We are now especially trying to improve conceptual understanding by use of ICT devices with milliseconds resolution in various areas of physics education We give some modules of mass measurements by video analysis of collision phenomena by using high speed cameras—Casio EX-F1(1200 fps), EX-FH20(1000 fps) and EX-FC100/150(1000 fps). We present several new modules on collision phenomena to establish deeper understanding of conservation laws of momentum. We discuss some effective results of trial on a physics education training courses for science educators, and those for science teachers during the renewal years of teacher's license after every ten years in Japan. Finally, we discuss on some typical results of pre-test and post-test in our active learning approaches based on ICT, i.e. some evidence on improvements of physics education (increasing ratio of correct answer are 50%-level).

  15. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit devices for active array antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittra, R.

    1984-01-01

    Two different aspects of active antenna array design were investigated. The transition between monolithic microwave integrated circuits and rectangular waveguides was studied along with crosstalk in multiconductor transmission lines. The boundary value problem associated with a discontinuity in a microstrip line is formulated. This entailed, as a first step, the derivation of the propagating as well as evanescent modes of a microstrip line. The solution is derived to a simple discontinuity problem: change in width of the center strip. As for the multiconductor transmission line problem. A computer algorithm was developed for computing the crosstalk noise from the signal to the sense lines. The computation is based on the assumption that these lines are terminated in passive loads.

  16. The effectiveness of activating electrical devices using alpha wave synchronisation contingent with eye closure.

    PubMed

    Craig, A; Tran, Y; McIsaac, P; Moses, P; Kirkup, L; Searle, A

    2000-08-01

    Increases in alpha wave amplitude occur with eye closure (EC) and decreases occur when the eyes are opened (EO). The research reports in this paper emphasise effectiveness of people using these alpha wave changes to activate electrical devices. Effectiveness was measured in terms of time taken and errors made when selecting the correct device. Ten non-disabled subjects significantly decreased the time taken and errors made to activate correctly a device using a six-option environmental control system (ECS) in the laboratory. In addition, a severely disabled person was shown to use the ECS successfully to control her television in her home environment. This research demonstrates that alpha wave manipulation contingent with EC and EO can be the basis for a reliable and quick switching system for controlling electrical devices. Applications to disability are discussed. PMID:10975664

  17. Defence force activities in marine protected areas: environmental management of Shoalwater Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen; Wang, Xiaohua; Paull, David; Kesby, Julie

    2010-05-01

    Environmental management of military activities is of growing global concern by defence forces. As one of the largest landholders in Australia, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is increasingly concerned with sustainable environmental management. This paper focuses on how the ADF is maintaining effective environmental management, especially in environmentally sensitive marine protected areas. It uses Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA) as a research example to examine environmental management strategies conducted by the ADF. SWBTA is one of the most significant Defence training areas in Australia, with a large number of single, joint and combined military exercises conducted in the area. With its maritime component contained in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), and abutting Queensland’s State Marine Parks, it has high protection values. It is therefore vital for the ADF to adopt environmentally responsible management while they are conducting military activities. As to various tools employed to manage environmental performance, the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) is widely used by the ADF. This paper examines military activities and marine environmental management within SWBTA, using the Talisman Saber (TS) exercise series as an example. These are extensive joint exercises conducted by the ADF and the United States defence forces. The paper outlines relevant legislative framework and environmental policies, analyses how the EMS operates in environmental management of military activities, and how military activities comply with these regulations. It discusses the implementation of the ADF EMS, including risk reduction measures, environmental awareness training, consultation and communication with stakeholders. A number of environmental management actions used in the TS exercises are presented to demonstrate the EMS application. Our investigations to this point indicate that the ADF is

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: STORMWATER SOURCE AREA TREATMENT DEVICE: STORMWATER MANAGEMENT INC., STORMSCREEN� TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification Testing of the Stormwater Management, Inc. StormScreen treatment technology was performed during a 12-month period starting in May, 2003. The system was previously installed in a city-owned right-of-way near downtown Griffin, GA., and is a device for removing trash,...

  19. Cognitive Neurostimulation: Learning to Volitionally Sustain Ventral Tegmental Area Activation.

    PubMed

    MacInnes, Jeff J; Dickerson, Kathryn C; Chen, Nan-kuei; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-03-16

    Activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and mesolimbic networks is essential to motivation, performance, and learning. Humans routinely attempt to motivate themselves, with unclear efficacy or impact on VTA networks. Using fMRI, we found untrained participants' motivational strategies failed to consistently activate VTA. After real-time VTA neurofeedback training, however, participants volitionally induced VTA activation without external aids, relative to baseline, Pre-test, and control groups. VTA self-activation was accompanied by increased mesolimbic network connectivity. Among two comparison groups (no neurofeedback, false neurofeedback) and an alternate neurofeedback group (nucleus accumbens), none sustained activation in target regions of interest nor increased VTA functional connectivity. The results comprise two novel demonstrations: learning and generalization after VTA neurofeedback training and the ability to sustain VTA activation without external reward or reward cues. These findings suggest theoretical alignment of ideas about motivation and midbrain physiology and the potential for generalizable interventions to improve performance and learning. PMID:26948894

  20. Cognitive Neurostimulation: Learning to Volitionally Sustain Ventral Tegmental Area Activation.

    PubMed

    MacInnes, Jeff J; Dickerson, Kathryn C; Chen, Nan-kuei; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-03-16

    Activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and mesolimbic networks is essential to motivation, performance, and learning. Humans routinely attempt to motivate themselves, with unclear efficacy or impact on VTA networks. Using fMRI, we found untrained participants' motivational strategies failed to consistently activate VTA. After real-time VTA neurofeedback training, however, participants volitionally induced VTA activation without external aids, relative to baseline, Pre-test, and control groups. VTA self-activation was accompanied by increased mesolimbic network connectivity. Among two comparison groups (no neurofeedback, false neurofeedback) and an alternate neurofeedback group (nucleus accumbens), none sustained activation in target regions of interest nor increased VTA functional connectivity. The results comprise two novel demonstrations: learning and generalization after VTA neurofeedback training and the ability to sustain VTA activation without external reward or reward cues. These findings suggest theoretical alignment of ideas about motivation and midbrain physiology and the potential for generalizable interventions to improve performance and learning.

  1. Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Speech-Generating Devices: Communication in Different Activities at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thunberg, Gunilla; Ahlsen, Elisabeth; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2007-01-01

    The communication of four children with autistic spectrum disorder was investigated when they were supplied with a speech-generating device (SGD) in three different activities in their home environment: mealtime, story reading and "sharing experiences of the preschool day". An activity based communication analysis, in which collective and…

  2. Effects of a Physical Education Supportive Curriculum and Technological Devices on Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Emily Dean; Sullivan, Eileen C.; Ciccomascolo, Lori E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a physical education supportive curriculum and technological devices, heart rate monitor (HRM) and pedometer (PED), on physical activity. A single-subject ABAB research design was used to examine amount and level of participation in physical activity among 106 suburban fourth and fifth…

  3. Activation of Premotor Vocal Areas during Musical Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven; Martinez, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Two same/different discrimination tasks were performed by amateur-musician subjects in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study: Melody Discrimination and Harmony Discrimination. Both tasks led to activations not only in classic working memory areas--such as the cingulate gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex--but in a series of…

  4. Bio-nanotextured high aspect ratio micropillar arrays for high surface area energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, S.; Gerasopoulos, K.; Ghodssi, R.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents fabrication and characterization of bio-nanotextured hierarchical nickel oxide (NiO) supercapacitor electrodes. The hierarchical electrode structure is created through self-assembly of Tobacco mosaic viruses (TMVs) on high aspect-ratio micropillar arrays. Enhanced assembly of the bio-nanoparticles was achieved by increasing TMV solution accessibility into the deep microcavities of the pillar arrays. Electrochemical characterization of the hierarchical NiO supercapacitor electrodes revealed a 25-fold increase in charge capacity compared to a planar NiO, and demonstrated excellent cycle stability over 1500 charge/discharge cycles at 2 mA/cm2. This study leverages the unique bio-nanoscaffolds for small scale energy storage devices through further optimization of the hierarchical structures and wetting techniques for significant improvements in micro/nano scale energy storage devices.

  5. Active mode-locked lasers and other photonic devices using electro-optic whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Techniques and devices using whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonators, where the optical materials of the WGM resonators exhibit an electro-optical effect to perform optical modulation. Examples of actively mode-locked lasers and other devices are described.

  6. Device and software used to carry out Cyclic Neutron Activation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-García, M. P.; Rey-Ronco, M. A.; Alonso-Sánchez, T.

    2014-11-01

    This paper discusses the device and software used to carry out Cyclic Neutron Activation Analysis (CNAA). The aim of this investigation is defining through this device the fluorite content present on different samples from fluorspar concentration plant through the DGNAA (Delayed Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) method. This device is made of americium-beryllium neutron source, NaI (2"×2") and BGO (2"×2") gamma rays detectors, multichannel and an automatic mechanism which moves the samples from activation and reading position. This mechanism is controlled by a software which allows moving the samples precisely and in a safe way (~ms), which it is very useful when the radioactive isotopes have to be detected with a half time less than 8s.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of high surface area molybdenum nitride electrodes for high energy density electrochemical storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberson, Scott Lee

    1998-12-01

    Polycrystalline high surface area (>20 msp2/g) Mosb{x}N (x = 1 and 2) films have been synthesized by the conversion of MoOsb3 films in controlled temperature reactions with NHsb3 and by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of either MoClsb5 or Mo(CO)sb6 and NHsb3. The formation of larger surface areas was achieved in films that were converted form MoOsb3; however, control of the composition of the Mosb{x}N films was achieved only by CVD. The increase in surface areas in the converted samples was credited to both the increase in specific density of the film during the conversion to Mosb{x}N and the topotactic nature of the conversion. Compositional control of the CVD Mosb{x}N films was accomplished by varying the deposition rate, the precursor employed, the deposition temperature and the NHsb3 flow rate. The electrochemical stability of the converted and CVD Mosb{x}N films occurred between ≈0.5 and ≈0.70 V vs. a standard hydrogen electrode (SHE). Control of the composition of the CVD Mosb{x}N films allowed the determination of the electrochemical stabilities of each phase (gamma-Mosb2N and delta-MoN). The CVD Mosb{x}N films were subsequently used as cathodes for the fabrication of hybrid capacitor devices. These devices were operational between 0-50 V and had a total capacitance of 5.0 mF at 1 V. Both the operating voltage and the capacitance of these devices are higher than devices currently used in government and medical applications.

  8. Large-Area, Highly Ordered Array of Graphitic Carbon Materials Using Surface Active Chitosan Prepatterns.

    PubMed

    Baek, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Dae Woo; Yang, Seung Bo; Lee, Jung-Goo; Kim, Young Kuk; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate that chitosan prepatterns can generate not only highly periodic DNA pattern but also various types of graphitic carbon materials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence imaging and Raman spectroscopic results revealed that the graphitic carbon materials were selectively deposited on the surface of the periodic chitosan patterns by the electrostatic interaction between protonated amine groups of chitosan and the negative charged carbon materials. One proof-of-concept application of the system to the fabrication of electrical devices based on the micropatterns of SWNTs and RGO was also demonstrated. The strategy to use highly surface active chitosan pattern that can easily fabricate highly periodic pattern via a variety of lithographic tools may pave the way for the production of periodic arrays of graphitic carbon materials for large area device integration. PMID:26353637

  9. A passive-active neutron device for assaying remote-handled transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Estep, R.J.; Coop, K.L.; Deane, T.M.; Lujan, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    A combined passive-active neutron assay device was constructed for assaying remote-handled transuranic waste. A study of matrix and source position effects in active assays showed that a knowledge of the source position alone is not sufficient to correct for position-related errors in highly moderating or absorbing matrices. An alternate function for the active assay of solid fuel pellets was derived, although the efficacy of this approach remains to be established. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Non-volatile memory devices with redox-active diruthenium molecular compound.

    PubMed

    Pookpanratana, S; Zhu, H; Bittle, E G; Natoli, S N; Ren, T; Richter, C A; Li, Q; Hacker, C A

    2016-03-01

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) active molecules hold potential for memory devices due to their many unique properties. We report the use of a novel diruthenium-based redox molecule incorporated into a non-volatile Flash-based memory device architecture. The memory capacitor device structure consists of a Pd/Al2O3/molecule/SiO2/Si structure. The bulky ruthenium redox molecule is attached to the surface by using a 'click' reaction and the monolayer structure is characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to verify the Ru attachment and molecular density. The 'click' reaction is particularly advantageous for memory applications because of (1) ease of chemical design and synthesis, and (2) provides an additional spatial barrier between the oxide/silicon to the diruthenium molecule. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy data identified the energy of the electronic levels of the surface before and after surface modification. The molecular memory devices display an unsaturated charge storage window attributed to the intrinsic properties of the redox-active molecule. Our findings demonstrate the strengths and challenges with integrating molecular layers within solid-state devices, which will influence the future design of molecular memory devices.

  11. Non-volatile memory devices with redox-active diruthenium molecular compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pookpanratana, S.; Zhu, H.; Bittle, E. G.; Natoli, S. N.; Ren, T.; Richter, C. A.; Li, Q.; Hacker, C. A.

    2016-03-01

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) active molecules hold potential for memory devices due to their many unique properties. We report the use of a novel diruthenium-based redox molecule incorporated into a non-volatile Flash-based memory device architecture. The memory capacitor device structure consists of a Pd/Al2O3/molecule/SiO2/Si structure. The bulky ruthenium redox molecule is attached to the surface by using a ‘click’ reaction and the monolayer structure is characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to verify the Ru attachment and molecular density. The ‘click’ reaction is particularly advantageous for memory applications because of (1) ease of chemical design and synthesis, and (2) provides an additional spatial barrier between the oxide/silicon to the diruthenium molecule. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy data identified the energy of the electronic levels of the surface before and after surface modification. The molecular memory devices display an unsaturated charge storage window attributed to the intrinsic properties of the redox-active molecule. Our findings demonstrate the strengths and challenges with integrating molecular layers within solid-state devices, which will influence the future design of molecular memory devices.

  12. Human movement activity classification approaches that use wearable sensors and mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaghyan, Sahak; Sarukhanyan, Hakob; Akopian, David

    2013-03-01

    Cell phones and other mobile devices become part of human culture and change activity and lifestyle patterns. Mobile phone technology continuously evolves and incorporates more and more sensors for enabling advanced applications. Latest generations of smart phones incorporate GPS and WLAN location finding modules, vision cameras, microphones, accelerometers, temperature sensors etc. The availability of these sensors in mass-market communication devices creates exciting new opportunities for data mining applications. Particularly healthcare applications exploiting build-in sensors are very promising. This paper reviews different approaches of human activity recognition.

  13. Flexible, transparent and ultra-broadband photodetector based on large-area WSe2 film for wearable devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhaoqiang; Zhang, Tanmei; Yao, Jiandomg; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Jiarui; Yang, Guowei

    2016-06-01

    Although two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted considerable research interest for use in the development of innovative wearable optoelectronic systems, the integrated optoelectronic performance of 2D materials photodetectors, including flexibility, transparency, broadband response and stability in air, remains quite low to date. Here, we demonstrate a flexible, transparent, high-stability and ultra-broadband photodetector made using large-area and highly-crystalline WSe2 films that were prepared by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD). Benefiting from the 2D physics of WSe2 films, this device exhibits excellent average transparency of 72% in the visible range and superior photoresponse characteristics, including an ultra-broadband detection spectral range from 370 to 1064 nm, reversible photoresponsivity approaching 0.92 A W‑1, external quantum efficiency of up to 180% and a relatively fast response time of 0.9 s. The fabricated photodetector also demonstrates outstanding mechanical flexibility and durability in air. Also, because of the wide compatibility of the PLD-grown WSe2 film, we can fabricate various photodetectors on multiple flexible or rigid substrates, and all these devices will exhibit distinctive switching behavior and superior responsivity. These indicate a possible new strategy for the design and integration of flexible, transparent and broadband photodetectors based on large-area WSe2 films, with great potential for practical applications in the wearable optoelectronic devices.

  14. Flexible, transparent and ultra-broadband photodetector based on large-area WSe2 film for wearable devices.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaoqiang; Zhang, Tanmei; Yao, Jiandomg; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Jiarui; Yang, Guowei

    2016-06-01

    Although two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted considerable research interest for use in the development of innovative wearable optoelectronic systems, the integrated optoelectronic performance of 2D materials photodetectors, including flexibility, transparency, broadband response and stability in air, remains quite low to date. Here, we demonstrate a flexible, transparent, high-stability and ultra-broadband photodetector made using large-area and highly-crystalline WSe2 films that were prepared by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD). Benefiting from the 2D physics of WSe2 films, this device exhibits excellent average transparency of 72% in the visible range and superior photoresponse characteristics, including an ultra-broadband detection spectral range from 370 to 1064 nm, reversible photoresponsivity approaching 0.92 A W(-1), external quantum efficiency of up to 180% and a relatively fast response time of 0.9 s. The fabricated photodetector also demonstrates outstanding mechanical flexibility and durability in air. Also, because of the wide compatibility of the PLD-grown WSe2 film, we can fabricate various photodetectors on multiple flexible or rigid substrates, and all these devices will exhibit distinctive switching behavior and superior responsivity. These indicate a possible new strategy for the design and integration of flexible, transparent and broadband photodetectors based on large-area WSe2 films, with great potential for practical applications in the wearable optoelectronic devices.

  15. Flexible, transparent and ultra-broadband photodetector based on large-area WSe2 film for wearable devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhaoqiang; Zhang, Tanmei; Yao, Jiandomg; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Jiarui; Yang, Guowei

    2016-06-01

    Although two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted considerable research interest for use in the development of innovative wearable optoelectronic systems, the integrated optoelectronic performance of 2D materials photodetectors, including flexibility, transparency, broadband response and stability in air, remains quite low to date. Here, we demonstrate a flexible, transparent, high-stability and ultra-broadband photodetector made using large-area and highly-crystalline WSe2 films that were prepared by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD). Benefiting from the 2D physics of WSe2 films, this device exhibits excellent average transparency of 72% in the visible range and superior photoresponse characteristics, including an ultra-broadband detection spectral range from 370 to 1064 nm, reversible photoresponsivity approaching 0.92 A W-1, external quantum efficiency of up to 180% and a relatively fast response time of 0.9 s. The fabricated photodetector also demonstrates outstanding mechanical flexibility and durability in air. Also, because of the wide compatibility of the PLD-grown WSe2 film, we can fabricate various photodetectors on multiple flexible or rigid substrates, and all these devices will exhibit distinctive switching behavior and superior responsivity. These indicate a possible new strategy for the design and integration of flexible, transparent and broadband photodetectors based on large-area WSe2 films, with great potential for practical applications in the wearable optoelectronic devices.

  16. High Surface Area Electrodes Derived from Polymer Wrapped Carbon Nanotubes for Enhanced Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiary Davijani, Amir A; Liu, H Clive; Gupta, Kishor; Kumar, Satish

    2016-09-21

    Electrical double layer capacitors store energy on two adjacent layers, resulting in fast charging and discharging, but their energy density is limited by the available surface area. In this study, using poly(methyl methacrylate) assisted sonication, carbon nanotube buckypapers with specific surface area as high as 950 m(2)/g have been processed. Performance of these high surface area buckypapers have been evaluated as supercapacitor electrodes. The energy density of these high surface area electrodes at low power density of 0.68 kW/kg was 22.3 Wh/kg, and at high power density of 84 kW/kg was 3.13 Wh/kg using the ionic liquid electrolyte. PMID:27556746

  17. High Surface Area Electrodes Derived from Polymer Wrapped Carbon Nanotubes for Enhanced Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiary Davijani, Amir A; Liu, H Clive; Gupta, Kishor; Kumar, Satish

    2016-09-21

    Electrical double layer capacitors store energy on two adjacent layers, resulting in fast charging and discharging, but their energy density is limited by the available surface area. In this study, using poly(methyl methacrylate) assisted sonication, carbon nanotube buckypapers with specific surface area as high as 950 m(2)/g have been processed. Performance of these high surface area buckypapers have been evaluated as supercapacitor electrodes. The energy density of these high surface area electrodes at low power density of 0.68 kW/kg was 22.3 Wh/kg, and at high power density of 84 kW/kg was 3.13 Wh/kg using the ionic liquid electrolyte.

  18. First OSIRIS observations of active areas on comet 67P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, J.-B.; Sierks, H.; Oklay, N.; Agarwal, J.; Güttler, C.; Bodewits, D.; Osiris Team

    2014-04-01

    After a successful exit from hibernation, Rosetta started observing its final target comet 67P in March 2014 with the two OSIRIS cameras WAC and NAC (Wide Angle and Narrow Angle Camera) [1]. By the time of this conference, the spacecraft will have flown from 5 million to 50 km from the nucleus surface, reaching a resolution of 1 meter/pixel in the NAC images. During that period, the comet heliocentric distance varies from 4.3 to 3.2 AU and we will observe how the early activity develops. We know that cometary surfaces are not fully active; only a small fraction of the surface emits gas and dust. However we do not yet understand why it happens in that way, and what to expect on 67P. Recent publications using data from ground-based telescopes have proposed different interpretations for the distribution of active sources, from one to three at various latitudes [2, 3]. There is some evidence for different levels of activity in the northern and southern hemispheres, but these variations can only be constrained with close range data. In August 2014, OSIRIS will map the surface of the comet at high resolution, and perform weekly monitoring of the activity, especially the faintest jets. With these images and the inversion code COSSIM [4], we will be able to link observed features in the coma or on the limb to physical spots on the surface. On other comets visited by spacecrafts the activity has sometimes been associated with smooth areas, rough terrains, or specific morphologic features (cliff, crater, rim, . . . ). We will present a first look at how activity and terrain are linked on 67P, and look at variations of composition, morphology, or both. We will compare this identification of active areas to previous publications.

  19. Nanosilver on nanostructured silica: Antibacterial activity and Ag surface area.

    PubMed

    Sotiriou, Georgios A; Teleki, Alexandra; Camenzind, Adrian; Krumeich, Frank; Meyer, Andreas; Panke, Sven; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2011-06-01

    Nanosilver is one of the first nanomaterials to be closely monitored by regulatory agencies worldwide motivating research to better understand the relationship between Ag characteristics and antibacterial activity. Nanosilver immobilized on nanostructured silica facilitates such investigations as the SiO2 support hinders the growth of nanosilver during its synthesis and, most importantly, its flocculation in bacterial suspensions. Here, such composite Ag/silica nanoparticles were made by flame spray pyrolysis of appropriate solutions of Ag-acetate or Ag-nitrate and hexamethyldisiloxane or tetraethylorthosilicate in ethanol, propanol, diethylene glucolmonobutyl ether, acetonitrile or ethylhexanoic acid. The effect of solution composition on nanosilver characteristics and antibacterial activity against the Gram negative Escherichia coli was investigated by monitoring their recombinantly synthesized green fluorescent protein. Suspensions with identical Ag mass concentration exhibited drastically different antibacterial activity pointing out that the nanosilver surface area concentration rather than its mass or molar or number concentration determine best its antibacterial activity. Nanosilver made from Ag-acetate showed a unimodal size distribution, while that made from inexpensive Ag-nitrate exhibited a bimodal one. Regardless of precursor composition or nanosilver size distribution, the antibacterial activity of nanosilver was correlated best with its surface area concentration in solution. PMID:23730198

  20. Nanosilver on nanostructured silica: Antibacterial activity and Ag surface area.

    PubMed

    Sotiriou, Georgios A; Teleki, Alexandra; Camenzind, Adrian; Krumeich, Frank; Meyer, Andreas; Panke, Sven; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2011-06-01

    Nanosilver is one of the first nanomaterials to be closely monitored by regulatory agencies worldwide motivating research to better understand the relationship between Ag characteristics and antibacterial activity. Nanosilver immobilized on nanostructured silica facilitates such investigations as the SiO2 support hinders the growth of nanosilver during its synthesis and, most importantly, its flocculation in bacterial suspensions. Here, such composite Ag/silica nanoparticles were made by flame spray pyrolysis of appropriate solutions of Ag-acetate or Ag-nitrate and hexamethyldisiloxane or tetraethylorthosilicate in ethanol, propanol, diethylene glucolmonobutyl ether, acetonitrile or ethylhexanoic acid. The effect of solution composition on nanosilver characteristics and antibacterial activity against the Gram negative Escherichia coli was investigated by monitoring their recombinantly synthesized green fluorescent protein. Suspensions with identical Ag mass concentration exhibited drastically different antibacterial activity pointing out that the nanosilver surface area concentration rather than its mass or molar or number concentration determine best its antibacterial activity. Nanosilver made from Ag-acetate showed a unimodal size distribution, while that made from inexpensive Ag-nitrate exhibited a bimodal one. Regardless of precursor composition or nanosilver size distribution, the antibacterial activity of nanosilver was correlated best with its surface area concentration in solution.

  1. Seismic Response Control Of Structures Using Semi-Active and Passive Variable Stiffness Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Mohamed M. A.

    Controllable devices such as Magneto-Rheological Fluid Dampers, Electro-Rheological Dampers, and controllable friction devices have been studied extensively with limited implementation in real structures. Such devices have shown great potential in reducing seismic demands, either as smart base isolation systems, or as smart devices for multistory structures. Although variable stiffness devices can be used for seismic control of structures, the vast majority of research effort has been given to the control of damping. The primary focus of this dissertation is to evaluate the seismic control of structures using semi-active and passive variable stiffness characteristics. Smart base isolation systems employing variable stiffness devices have been studied, and two semi-active control strategies are proposed. The control algorithms were designed to reduce the superstructure and base accelerations of seismically isolated structures subject to near-fault and far-field ground motions. Computational simulations of the proposed control algorithms on the benchmark structure have shown that excessive base displacements associated with the near-fault ground motions may be better mitigated with the use of variable stiffness devices. However, the device properties must be controllable to produce a wide range of stiffness changes for an effective control of the base displacements. The potential of controllable stiffness devices in limiting the base displacement due to near-fault excitation without compromising the performance of conventionally isolated structures, is illustrated. The application of passive variable stiffness devices for seismic response mitigation of multistory structures is also investigated. A stiffening bracing system (SBS) is proposed to replace the conventional bracing systems of braced frames. An optimization process for the SBS parameters has been developed. The main objective of the design process is to maintain a uniform inter-story drift angle over the

  2. Foraging Activities of Coptotermes formosanus in Subtropical Areas in China.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Guanhua; Song, Xiaogang; Hu, Yin; Han, Na; Zhang, Dayu

    2015-04-01

    The foraging activities, including foraging range and seasonal fluctuation of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were investigated in subtropical areas in China. Six mature C. formosanus colonies were selected for this study. Foraging distance and area were conducted in Anqing1, Hengyang, and Wuxi1 colonies, while the seasonal fluctuation was conducted in Wuxi2, Wuwei, and Anqing2 colonies. Mark-release-recapture method analysis showed that the Formosan termites foraged at least 11.5, 28.7, and 56.8 m away from the main nest and covered 98.1, 543.7, and 671.9 m2 of foraging area at Anqing1, Hengyang, and Wuxi1 site, respectively. The seasonal fluctuation in termite colony activity showed an "M shape" pattern according to the wood damages caused by termites at monitoring stations. Peak colony activity at Wuxi2, Wuwei, and Anqing2 occurred in July and October, June and September, July and October, respectively. This study provides critical information for the integrated management of C. formosanus, including baiting application in the subtropical regions of China, where it constitutes the most destructive pest for household structures. PMID:26470181

  3. Not all instability training devices enhance muscle activation in highly resistance-trained individuals.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Michael J; Behm, David G

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the soleus, bicep femoris, rectus femoris, lower abdominal, and lumbosacral erector spinae (LSES) muscles with a variety of (a) instability devices, (b) stable and unstable (Dyna Disc) exercises, and (c) a fatiguing exercise in 16 highly conditioned individuals. The device protocol had participants assume standing and squatting postures while balancing on a variety of unstable platforms (Dyna Disc, BOSU ball, wobble board, and a Swiss ball) and a stable floor. The exercise protocol had subjects performing, static front lunges, static side lunges, 1-leg hip extensions, 1-leg reaches, and calf raises on a floor or an unstable Dyna Disc. For the fatigue experiment, a wall sit position was undertaken under stable and unstable (BOSU ball) conditions. Results for the device experiment demonstrated increased activity for all muscles when standing on a Swiss ball and all muscles other than the rectus femoris when standing on a wobble board. Only lower abdominals and soleus EMG activity increased while squatting on a Swiss ball and wobble board. Devices such as the Dyna Disc and BOSU ball did not exhibit significant differences in muscle activation under any conditions, except the LSES in the standing Dyna Disc conditions. During the exercise protocol, there were no significant changes in muscle activity between stable and unstable (Dyna Disc) conditions. With the fatigue protocol, soleus EMG activity was 51% greater with a stable base. These results indicate that the use of moderately unstable training devices (i.e., Dyna Disc, BOSU ball) did not provide sufficient challenges to the neuromuscular system in highly resistance-trained individuals. Since highly trained individuals may already possess enhanced stability from the use of dynamic free weights, a greater degree of instability may be necessary.

  4. ACTIVE DELIVERY CABLE TUNED TO DEVICE DEPLOYMENT STATE: ENHANCED VISIBILITY OF NITINOL OCCLUDERS DURING PRE-CLINICAL INTERVENTIONAL MRI

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jamie A.; Saikus, Christina E.; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Barbash, Israel M.; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Franson, Dominique N.; Sonmez, Merdim; Slack, Michael C.; Lederman, Robert J.; Kocaturk, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To develop an active delivery system that enhances visualization of nitinol cardiac occluder devices during deployment under real-time MRI. Materials and Methods We constructed an active delivery cable incorporating a loopless antenna and a custom titanium microscrew to secure the occluder devices. The delivery cable was tuned and matched to 50Ω at 64 MHz with the occluder device attached. We used real-time balanced SSFP in a wide-bore 1.5T scanner. Device-related images were reconstructed separately and combined with surface-coil images. The delivery cable was tested in vitro in a phantom and in vivo in swine using a variety of nitinol cardiac occluder devices. Results In vitro, the active delivery cable provided little signal when the occluder device was detached and maximal signal with the device attached. In vivo, signal from the active delivery cable enabled clear visualization of occluder device during positioning and deployment. Device release resulted in decreased signal from the active cable. Post-mortem examination confirmed proper device placement. Conclusions The active delivery cable enhanced the MRI depiction of nitinol cardiac occluder devices during positioning and deployment, both in conventional and novel applications. We expect enhanced visibility to contribute to effectiveness and safety of new and emerging MRI-guided treatments. PMID:22707441

  5. Multi-Sensor Fusion for Enhanced Contextual Awareness of Everyday Activities with Ubiquitous Devices

    PubMed Central

    Guiry, John J.; van de Ven, Pepijn; Nelson, John

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate the role that smart devices, including smartphones and smartwatches, can play in identifying activities of daily living. A feasibility study involving N = 10 participants was carried out to evaluate the devices' ability to differentiate between nine everyday activities. The activities examined include walking, running, cycling, standing, sitting, elevator ascents, elevator descents, stair ascents and stair descents. The authors also evaluated the ability of these devices to differentiate indoors from outdoors, with the aim of enhancing contextual awareness. Data from this study was used to train and test five well known machine learning algorithms: C4.5, CART, Naïve Bayes, Multi-Layer Perceptrons and finally Support Vector Machines. Both single and multi-sensor approaches were examined to better understand the role each sensor in the device can play in unobtrusive activity recognition. The authors found overall results to be promising, with some models correctly classifying up to 100% of all instances. PMID:24662406

  6. Benzofurocarbazole and benzothienocarbazole as donors for improved quantum efficiency in blue thermally activated delayed fluorescent devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Ryun; Hwang, Seok-Ho; Jeon, Sang Kyu; Lee, Chil Won; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2015-05-11

    Benzofurocarbazole and benzothienocarbazole were used as electron donors of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters and the performances of the TADF devices were examined. The benzofurocarbazole and benzothienocarbazole donor moieties were better than carbazole as the electron donors of the TADF emitters. PMID:25869643

  7. Active system area networks for data intensive computations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    2002-04-01

    The goal of the Active System Area Networks (ASAN) project is to develop hardware and software technologies for the implementation of active system area networks (ASANs). The use of the term ''active'' refers to the ability of the network interfaces to perform application-specific as well as system level computations in addition to their traditional role of data transfer. This project adopts the view that the network infrastructure should be an active computational entity capable of supporting certain classes of computations that would otherwise be performed on the host CPUs. The result is a unique network-wide programming model where computations are dynamically placed within the host CPUs or the NIs depending upon the quality of service demands and network/CPU resource availability. The projects seeks to demonstrate that such an approach is a better match for data intensive network-based applications and that the advent of low-cost powerful embedded processors and configurable hardware makes such an approach economically viable and desirable.

  8. A new device for estimating active drag in swimming at maximal velocity.

    PubMed

    Xin-Feng, Wang; Lian-Ze, Wang; Wei-Xing, Yan; De-Jian, Li; Xiong, Shen

    2007-02-15

    A new device was designed to measure the active drag during maximal velocity swimming based on the assumption of equal useful power output in two cases: with and without a small additional drag. A gliding block was used to provide an adjustable drag, which was attached to the swimmer and measured by a force transducer. Six swimmers of national standard (3 males, 3 females) participated in the test. For the males, the mean active drag ranged from 48.57 to 105.88 N in the front crawl and from 54.14 to 76.37 N in the breaststroke. For the females, the mean active drag ranged from 36.31 to 50.27 N in the front crawl and from 36.25 to 77.01 N in the breaststroke. During testing, the swimmer's natural stroke and kick were not disturbed. We conclude that the device provides a useful method for measuring and studying active drag.

  9. Science and Technology of Water Lifting Devices. Teaching of Science and Technology in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, P. Ramachandra; Rao, N. R. Nagaraja

    Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in rural areas. Chapter 1 of this…

  10. Protected Areas in Tropical Africa: Assessing Threats and Conservation Activities

    PubMed Central

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M.; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A.; Davenport, Tim R. B.; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A.; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C.; Holbech, Lars H.; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K.; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G.; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J.; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M.; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

  11. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    PubMed

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A; Davenport, Tim R B; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C; Holbech, Lars H; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration.

  12. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    PubMed

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A; Davenport, Tim R B; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C; Holbech, Lars H; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

  13. ILO activities in the area of chemical safety.

    PubMed

    Obadia, Isaac

    2003-08-21

    The ILO has been active in the area of safety in the use of chemicals at work since the year of its creation in 1919, including the development of international treaties and other technical instruments, the provision of technical assistance to its member States, and the development of chemical safety information systems. The two key ILO standards in this area are the Conventions on safety in the use of chemicals at work (No. 170, 1990), and the Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents (No. 174, 1993). The ILO Programme on occupational safety, health and environment (Safe Work) is currently responsible for ILO chemical safety activities. In the past two decades, most of ILO work in this area has been carried out within the context of inter-agency collaboration frameworks linking the ILO, WHO, UNEP, FAO, UNIDO, UNITAR, and the OECD, including the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the Inter-Organisation Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), and the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS). Apart from the regular development, updating and dissemination of chemical safety information data bases such as the IPCS International Chemical Cards, the elaboration of a Globally harmonized system for the classification and labelling of Chemicals (GHS) has been the most outstanding achievement of this international collaboration on chemical safety.

  14. ILO activities in the area of chemical safety.

    PubMed

    Obadia, Isaac

    2003-08-21

    The ILO has been active in the area of safety in the use of chemicals at work since the year of its creation in 1919, including the development of international treaties and other technical instruments, the provision of technical assistance to its member States, and the development of chemical safety information systems. The two key ILO standards in this area are the Conventions on safety in the use of chemicals at work (No. 170, 1990), and the Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents (No. 174, 1993). The ILO Programme on occupational safety, health and environment (Safe Work) is currently responsible for ILO chemical safety activities. In the past two decades, most of ILO work in this area has been carried out within the context of inter-agency collaboration frameworks linking the ILO, WHO, UNEP, FAO, UNIDO, UNITAR, and the OECD, including the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the Inter-Organisation Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), and the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS). Apart from the regular development, updating and dissemination of chemical safety information data bases such as the IPCS International Chemical Cards, the elaboration of a Globally harmonized system for the classification and labelling of Chemicals (GHS) has been the most outstanding achievement of this international collaboration on chemical safety. PMID:12909402

  15. Well completion practices in active U. S. areas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This work presents results of field visits and meetings with oil companies and independent operators to determine the latest in drilling and well completion practices in active US areas. Those areas and practices include S. Texas (operations to control annular gas flow during cementing); offshore Texas (rapidly changing pressure gradients require numerous casing strings); Cotton Valley (large sandstone frac jobs); Sonora Basin (smaller, low-rate fracturing); W. Texas (minor Permian basin infill drilling problems); Tuscaloosa trend (drilling operations planned around pressure transition zones); offshore Louisiana (geology and directional work complicate drilling); Overthrust Belt (abnormally low pressure zones and hydrogen sulfide problems); Williston basin (logistics problems); and California (well designs used for steam stimulated production).

  16. Use of an activity monitor and GPS device to assess community activity and participation in transtibial amputees.

    PubMed

    Hordacre, Brenton; Barr, Christopher; Crotty, Maria

    2014-03-25

    This study characterized measures of community activity and participation of transtibial amputees based on combined data from separate accelerometer and GPS devices. The relationship between community activity and participation and standard clinical measures was assessed. Forty-seven participants were recruited (78% male, mean age 60.5 years). Participants wore the accelerometer and GPS devices for seven consecutive days. Data were linked to assess community activity (community based step counts) and community participation (number of community visits). Community activity and participation were compared across amputee K-level groups. Forty-six participants completed the study. On average each participant completed 16,645 (standard deviation (SD) 13,274) community steps and 16 (SD 10.9) community visits over seven days. There were differences between K-level groups for measures of community activity (F(2,45) = 9.4, p < 0.001) and participation (F(2,45) = 6.9, p = 0.002) with lower functioning K1/2 amputees demonstrating lower levels of community activity and participation than K3 and K4 amputees. There was no significant difference between K3 and K4 for community activity (p = 0.28) or participation (p = 0.43). This study demonstrated methodology to link accelerometer and GPS data to assess community activity and participation in a group of transtibial amputees. Differences in K-levels do not appear to accurately reflect actual community activity or participation in higher functioning transtibial amputees.

  17. A passive-flow microfluidic device for imaging latent HIV activation dynamics in single T cells

    PubMed Central

    Gearhart, Larisa M.; Miller-Jensen, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying cell-to-cell variability in drug response dynamics is important when evaluating therapeutic efficacy. For example, optimizing latency reversing agents (LRAs) for use in a clinical “activate-and-kill” strategy to purge the latent HIV reservoir in patients requires minimizing heterogeneous viral activation dynamics. To evaluate how heterogeneity in latent HIV activation varies across a range of LRAs, we tracked drug-induced response dynamics in single cells via live-cell imaging using a latent HIV–GFP reporter virus in a clonal Jurkat T cell line. To enable these studies in suspension cells, we designed a simple method to capture an array of single Jurkat T cells using a passive-flow microfluidic device. Our device, which does not require external pumps or tubing, can trap hundreds of cells within minutes with a high retention rate over 12 hours of imaging. Using this device, we quantified heterogeneity in viral activation stimulated by transcription factor (TF) activators and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Generally, TF activators resulted in both faster onset of viral activation and faster rates of production, while HDAC inhibitors resulted in more uniform onset times, but more heterogeneous rates of production. Finally, we demonstrated that while onset time of viral gene expression and rate of viral production together predict total HIV activation, rate and onset time were not correlated within the same individual cell, suggesting that these features are regulated independently. Overall, our results reveal drug-specific patterns of noisy HIV activation dynamics not previously identified in static single-cell assays, which may require consideration for the most effective activate-and-kill regime. PMID:26138068

  18. A passive-flow microfluidic device for imaging latent HIV activation dynamics in single T cells.

    PubMed

    Ramji, Ramesh; Wong, Victor C; Chavali, Arvind K; Gearhart, Larisa M; Miller-Jensen, Kathryn

    2015-09-01

    Quantifying cell-to-cell variability in drug response dynamics is important when evaluating therapeutic efficacy. For example, optimizing latency reversing agents (LRAs) for use in a clinical "activate-and-kill" strategy to purge the latent HIV reservoir in patients requires minimizing heterogeneous viral activation dynamics. To evaluate how heterogeneity in latent HIV activation varies across a range of LRAs, we tracked drug-induced response dynamics in single cells via live-cell imaging using a latent HIV-GFP reporter virus in a clonal Jurkat T cell line. To enable these studies in suspension cells, we designed a simple method to capture an array of single Jurkat T cells using a passive-flow microfluidic device. Our device, which does not require external pumps or tubing, can trap hundreds of cells within minutes with a high retention rate over 12 hours of imaging. Using this device, we quantified heterogeneity in viral activation stimulated by transcription factor (TF) activators and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Generally, TF activators resulted in both faster onset of viral activation and faster rates of production, while HDAC inhibitors resulted in more uniform onset times, but more heterogeneous rates of production. Finally, we demonstrated that while onset time of viral gene expression and rate of viral production together predict total HIV activation, rate and onset time were not correlated within the same individual cell, suggesting that these features are regulated independently. Overall, our results reveal drug-specific patterns of noisy HIV activation dynamics not previously identified in static single-cell assays, which may require consideration for the most effective activate-and-kill regime.

  19. Devices for Self-Monitoring Sedentary Time or Physical Activity: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Loveday, Adam; Pearson, Natalie; Edwardson, Charlotte; Yates, Thomas; Biddle, Stuart JH; Esliger, Dale W

    2016-01-01

    Background It is well documented that meeting the guideline levels (150 minutes per week) of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA) is protective against chronic disease. Conversely, emerging evidence indicates the deleterious effects of prolonged sitting. Therefore, there is a need to change both behaviors. Self-monitoring of behavior is one of the most robust behavior-change techniques available. The growing number of technologies in the consumer electronics sector provides a unique opportunity for individuals to self-monitor their behavior. Objective The aim of this study is to review the characteristics and measurement properties of currently available self-monitoring devices for sedentary time and/or PA. Methods To identify technologies, four scientific databases were systematically searched using key terms related to behavior, measurement, and population. Articles published through October 2015 were identified. To identify technologies from the consumer electronic sector, systematic searches of three Internet search engines were also performed through to October 1, 2015. Results The initial database searches identified 46 devices and the Internet search engines identified 100 devices yielding a total of 146 technologies. Of these, 64 were further removed because they were currently unavailable for purchase or there was no evidence that they were designed for, had been used in, or could readily be modified for self-monitoring purposes. The remaining 82 technologies were included in this review (73 devices self-monitored PA, 9 devices self-monitored sedentary time). Of the 82 devices included, this review identified no published articles in which these devices were used for the purpose of self-monitoring PA and/or sedentary behavior; however, a number of technologies were found via Internet searches that matched the criteria for self-monitoring and provided immediate feedback on PA (ActiGraph Link, Microsoft Band, and Garmin Vivofit) and sedentary time

  20. [A fully-implantable active hearing device in congenital auricular atresia].

    PubMed

    Siegert, R; Neumann, C

    2014-07-01

    Active implantable hearing devices were primarily developed for sensorineural hearing loss. The vibrator coupling mechanisms were oriented towards normal middle ear anatomy and function. The aim of this project was to modify the only fully implantable hearing device with an implantable microphone for application in congenital auricular atresia, Carina™, and to introduce the modified device into the clinic. A special prosthesis was developed for the transducer and its individual coupling achieved by a special cramping system. The system was implanted in 5 patients with congenital auricular atresia. Audiological results were good; with patients' hearing gain exceeding 30 dB HL. Anatomic limits to the system's indications and technical drawbacks are also discussed. PMID:25056646

  1. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-22

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  2. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter. PMID:27103586

  3. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  4. Development and testing of an active area neutron dosemeter.

    PubMed

    Brushwood, J M; Gow, J P D; Beeley, P A; Spyrou, N M

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the design, development and testing of an active area neutron dosemeter (AAND). The classic moderator and central detector is retained but in AAND this arrangement is augmented by small thermal neutron detectors positioned within the moderating body. The outputs from these detectors are combined using an appropriately weighted linear superposition to fit both the ambient dose equivalent and the radiation weighting factor. Experimental verifications of both the modelled detector energy reponses and the overall AAND response are given. In the relatively soft D2O moderated 252Cf spectra, the AAND determined both the H*(10) and mean radiation weighting factor to better than +10%.

  5. Classification of team sport activities using a single wearable tracking device.

    PubMed

    Wundersitz, Daniel W T; Josman, Casey; Gupta, Ritu; Netto, Kevin J; Gastin, Paul B; Robertson, Sam

    2015-11-26

    Wearable tracking devices incorporating accelerometers and gyroscopes are increasingly being used for activity analysis in sports. However, minimal research exists relating to their ability to classify common activities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether data obtained from a single wearable tracking device can be used to classify team sport-related activities. Seventy-six non-elite sporting participants were tested during a simulated team sport circuit (involving stationary, walking, jogging, running, changing direction, counter-movement jumping, jumping for distance and tackling activities) in a laboratory setting. A MinimaxX S4 wearable tracking device was worn below the neck, in-line and dorsal to the first to fifth thoracic vertebrae of the spine, with tri-axial accelerometer and gyroscope data collected at 100Hz. Multiple time domain, frequency domain and custom features were extracted from each sensor using 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5s movement capture durations. Features were further screened using a combination of ANOVA and Lasso methods. Relevant features were used to classify the eight activities performed using the Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Logistic Model Tree (LMT) algorithms. The LMT (79-92% classification accuracy) outperformed RF (32-43%) and SVM algorithms (27-40%), obtaining strongest performance using the full model (accelerometer and gyroscope inputs). Processing time can be reduced through feature selection methods (range 1.5-30.2%), however a trade-off exists between classification accuracy and processing time. Movement capture duration also had little impact on classification accuracy or processing time. In sporting scenarios where wearable tracking devices are employed, it is both possible and feasible to accurately classify team sport-related activities. PMID:26472301

  6. Classification of team sport activities using a single wearable tracking device.

    PubMed

    Wundersitz, Daniel W T; Josman, Casey; Gupta, Ritu; Netto, Kevin J; Gastin, Paul B; Robertson, Sam

    2015-11-26

    Wearable tracking devices incorporating accelerometers and gyroscopes are increasingly being used for activity analysis in sports. However, minimal research exists relating to their ability to classify common activities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether data obtained from a single wearable tracking device can be used to classify team sport-related activities. Seventy-six non-elite sporting participants were tested during a simulated team sport circuit (involving stationary, walking, jogging, running, changing direction, counter-movement jumping, jumping for distance and tackling activities) in a laboratory setting. A MinimaxX S4 wearable tracking device was worn below the neck, in-line and dorsal to the first to fifth thoracic vertebrae of the spine, with tri-axial accelerometer and gyroscope data collected at 100Hz. Multiple time domain, frequency domain and custom features were extracted from each sensor using 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5s movement capture durations. Features were further screened using a combination of ANOVA and Lasso methods. Relevant features were used to classify the eight activities performed using the Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Logistic Model Tree (LMT) algorithms. The LMT (79-92% classification accuracy) outperformed RF (32-43%) and SVM algorithms (27-40%), obtaining strongest performance using the full model (accelerometer and gyroscope inputs). Processing time can be reduced through feature selection methods (range 1.5-30.2%), however a trade-off exists between classification accuracy and processing time. Movement capture duration also had little impact on classification accuracy or processing time. In sporting scenarios where wearable tracking devices are employed, it is both possible and feasible to accurately classify team sport-related activities.

  7. Methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for detection of an active enzymatic agent

    DOEpatents

    Sommer, Gregory J; Hatch, Anson V; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih

    2014-10-28

    Embodiments of the present invention provide methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for the detection of an active target agent in a fluid sample. A substrate molecule is used that contains a sequence which may cleave in the presence of an active target agent. A SNAP25 sequence is described, for example, that may be cleaved in the presence of Botulinum Neurotoxin. The substrate molecule includes a reporter moiety. The substrate molecule is exposed to the sample, and resulting reaction products separated using electrophoretic separation. The elution time of the reporter moiety may be utilized to identify the presence or absence of the active target agent.

  8. The Timing of Noise-Sensitive Activities in Residential Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative survey of time use was analyzed to provide estimates of the percentage of the population which is engaged in noise sensitive activities during each hour of the day on weekdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays. Estimates are provided of the percentage engaged in aural communication activities at home, sleeping at home, or simply at home. The day can be roughly divided into four noise sensitivity periods consisting of two relatively steady state periods, night and day and the early morning and evening transition periods. Weekends differ from weekdays in that the morning transition period is one hour later and the numbers of people engaged in aural communication during the day at home are approximately one-half to three-quarters greater. The extent and timing of noise sensitive activities was found to be similiar for all parts of the United States, for different sizes of urban areas, and for the three seasons surveyed (September through May). The timing of activity periods does not differ greatly by sex or age even though women and people over 65 are much more likely to be at home during the daytime.

  9. Brainstem areas activated by intermittent apnea in awake unrestrained rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, C B; Schoorlemmer, G H; Rossi, M V; Takakura, A C; Barna, B F; Moreira, T S; Cravo, S L

    2015-06-25

    We investigated the role of the autonomic nervous system to cardiovascular responses to obstructive apnea in awake, unrestrained rats, and measured expression of Fos induced by apnea in the brainstem. We implanted a tracheal balloon contained in a rigid tube to allow the induction of apnea without inducing pain in the trachea. During bouts of 15s of apnea, heart rate fell from 371±8 to 161±11bpm (mean±SEM, n=15, p<0.01) and arterial pressure increased from 115±2 to 131±4mmHg (p<0.01). Bradycardia was due to parasympathetic activity because it was blocked by the muscarinic antagonist, methylatropine. The pressor response was due to vasoconstriction caused by sympathetic activation because it was blocked by the α1 antagonist, prazosin. Apnea induced Fos expression in several brainstem areas involved in cardiorespiratory control such as the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), ventrolateral medulla (VLM), and pons. Ligation of the carotid body artery reduced apnea-induced bradycardia, blocked heart rate responses to i.v. injection of cyanide, reduced Fos expression in the caudal NTS, and increased Fos expression in the rostral VLM. In conclusion, apnea activates neurons in regions that process signals from baroreceptors, chemoreceptors, pulmonary receptors, and regions responsible for autonomic and respiratory activity both in the presence and absence of carotid chemoreceptors.

  10. The timing of noise-sensitive activities in residential areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, J. M.

    1985-07-01

    Data from a nationally representative survey of time use was analyzed to provide estimates of the percentage of the population which is engaged in noise sensitive activities during each hour of the day on weekdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays. Estimates are provided of the percentage engaged in aural communication activities at home, sleeping at home, or simply at home. The day can be roughly divided into four noise sensitivity periods consisting of two relatively steady state periods, night and day and the early morning and evening transition periods. Weekends differ from weekdays in that the morning transition period is one hour later and the numbers of people engaged in aural communication during the day at home are approximately one-half to three-quarters greater. The extent and timing of noise sensitive activities was found to be similiar for all parts of the United States, for different sizes of urban areas, and for the three seasons surveyed (September through May). The timing of activity periods does not differ greatly by sex or age even though women and people over 65 are much more likely to be at home during the daytime.

  11. Dry etching techniques for active devices based on hexagonal boron nitride epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Grenadier, Samuel; Li, Jing; Lin, Jingyu; Jiang, Hongxing

    2013-11-15

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) has emerged as a fundamentally and technologically important material system owing to its unique physical properties including layered structure, wide energy bandgap, large optical absorption, and neutron capture cross section. As for any materials under development, it is necessary to establish device processing techniques to realize active devices based on hBN. The authors report on the advancements in dry etching techniques for active devices based on hBN epilayers via inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The effect of ICP radio frequency (RF) power on the etch rate and vertical side wall profile was studied. The etching depth and angle with respect to the surface were measured using atomic force microscopy showing that an etching rate ∼1.25 μm/min and etching angles >80° were obtained. Profilometer data and scanning electron microscope images confirmed these results. This work demonstrates that SF{sub 6} is very suitable for etching hBN epilayers in RF plasma environments and can serve as a guide for future hBN device processing.

  12. Protein assembly onto patterned microfabricated devices through enzymatic activation of fusion pro-tag.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Angela T; Yi, Hyunmin; Luo, Xiaolong; Payne, Gregory F; Ghodssi, Reza; Rubloff, Gary W; Bentley, William E

    2008-02-15

    We report a versatile approach for covalent surface-assembly of proteins onto selected electrode patterns of pre-fabricated devices. Our approach is based on electro-assembly of the aminopolysaccharide chitosan scaffold as a stable thin film onto patterned conductive surfaces of the device, which is followed by covalent assembly of the target protein onto the scaffold surface upon enzymatic activation of the protein's "pro-tag." For our demonstration, the model target protein is green fluorescent protein (GFP) genetically fused with a pentatyrosine pro-tag at its C-terminus, which assembles onto both two-dimensional chips and within fully packaged microfluidic devices in situ and under flow. Our surface-assembly approach enables spatial selectivity and orientational control under mild experimental conditions. We believe that our integrated approach harnessing genetic manipulation, in situ enzymatic activation, and electro-assembly makes it advantageous for a wide variety of bioMEMS and biosensing applications that require facile "biofunctionalization" of microfabricated devices. PMID:17625789

  13. A comparative study of the bactericidal activity and daily disinfection housekeeping surfaces by a new portable pulsed UV radiation device.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Kazuo; Asai, Satomi; Inokuchi, Sadaki; Miyachi, Hayato

    2012-06-01

    Daily cleaning and disinfecting of non-critical surfaces in the patient-care areas are known to reduce the occurrence of health care-associated infections. However, the conventional means for decontamination of housekeeping surfaces of sites of frequent hand contact such as manual disinfection using ethanol wipes are laborious and time-consuming in daily practice. This study evaluated a newly developed portable pulsed ultraviolet (UV) radiation device for its bactericidal activity in comparison with continuous UV-C, and investigated its effect on the labor burden when implemented in a hospital ward. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin-resistant A. baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Bacillus cereus were irradiated with pulsed UV or continuous UV-C. Pulsed UV and continuous UV-C required 5 and 30 s of irradiation, respectively, to attain bactericidal activity with more than 2Log growth inhibition of all the species. The use of pulsed UV in daily disinfection of housekeeping surfaces reduced the working hours by half in comparison to manual disinfection using ethanol wipes. The new portable pulsed UV radiation device was proven to have a bactericidal activity against critical nosocomial bacteria, including antimicrobial-resistant bacteria after short irradiation, and was thus found to be practical as a method for disinfecting housekeeping surfaces and decreasing the labor burden.

  14. Large area flexible SERS active substrates using engineered nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Aram J.; Huh, Yun Suk; Erickson, David

    2011-07-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is an analytical sensing method that provides label-free detection, molecularly specific information, and extremely high sensitivity. The Raman enhancement that makes this method attractive is mainly attributed to the local amplification of the incident electromagnetic field that occurs when a surface plasmon mode is excited at a metallic nanostructure. Here, we present a simple, cost effective method for creating flexible, large area SERS-active substrates using a new technique we call shadow mask assisted evaporation (SMAE). The advantage of large, flexible SERS substrates such as these is they have more area for multiplexing and can be incorporated into irregular surfaces such as clothing. We demonstrate the formation of four different types of nanostructure arrays (pillar, nib, ellipsoidal cylinder, and triangular tip) by controlling the evaporation angle, substrate rotation, and deposition rate of metals onto anodized alumina nanoporous membranes as large as 27 mm. In addition, we present experimental results showing how a hybrid structure comprising of gold nanospheres embedded in a silver nano-pillar structure can be used to obtain a 50× SERS enhancement over the raw nanoparticles themselves.Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is an analytical sensing method that provides label-free detection, molecularly specific information, and extremely high sensitivity. The Raman enhancement that makes this method attractive is mainly attributed to the local amplification of the incident electromagnetic field that occurs when a surface plasmon mode is excited at a metallic nanostructure. Here, we present a simple, cost effective method for creating flexible, large area SERS-active substrates using a new technique we call shadow mask assisted evaporation (SMAE). The advantage of large, flexible SERS substrates such as these is they have more area for multiplexing and can be incorporated into irregular surfaces such as

  15. Properties of nanosheets of 2D-borocarbonitrides related to energy devices, transistors and other areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreedhara, M. B.; Gopalakrishnan, K.; Bharath, B.; Kumar, Ram; Kulkarni, G. U.; Rao, C. N. R.

    2016-07-01

    We have prepared borocarbonitrides of various compositions with extended sheet morphology, by the reaction of few-layer graphene with boric acid and urea at 900 °C and characterized them in detail. Supercapacitor performance of the borocarbonitrides has been studied in detail, the composition containing more pyridinc nitrogen exhibiting a specific capacitance of 306 F/g at 0.2 A/g. This composition also shows good oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity with an electron transfer number close to 4. The extended sheet structures of the BxCyNz samples has enabled us to fabricate field-effect transistors. These materials also show reasonable UV photoresponse.

  16. Detection of high tritium activity on the central titanium electrode of a plasma focus device

    SciTech Connect

    Rout, R.K.; Spinivasan, M.; Shyam, A.; Chitra, V. )

    1991-03-01

    In this paper a 2-kJ Mather plasma focus device is used to deuterate the top end surface (or tip) of its central titanium electrode to investigate the occurrence of anomalous nuclear reactions in the context of the cold fusion phenomenon. The tip of the central titanium electrode is found to develop at least a few tens of microcuries of tritium after several plasma focus discharges. Neither the tritium impurity level in the deuterium gas used in the experiment nor the tritium branch of the d-d reactions that are known to occur in plasma focus devices can account for such activity in the electrode. Anomalous nuclear reactions in the deuterated titanium lattice appear to be the most probable source of this high activity.

  17. Novel adiabatic tapered couplers for active III-V/SOI devices fabricated through transfer printing.

    PubMed

    Dhoore, Sören; Uvin, Sarah; Van Thourhout, Dries; Morthier, Geert; Roelkens, Gunther

    2016-06-13

    We present the design of two novel adiabatic tapered coupling structures that allow efficient and alignment tolerant mode conversion between a III-V membrane waveguide and a single-mode SOI waveguide in active heterogeneously integrated devices. Both proposed couplers employ a broad intermediate waveguide to facilitate highly alignment tolerant coupling. This robustness is needed to comply with the current misalignment tolerance requirements for high-throughput transfer printing. The proposed coupling structures are expected to pave the way for transfer-printing-based heterogeneous integration of active III-V devices such as semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), photodetectors, electro-absorption modulators (EAMs) and single wavelength lasers on silicon photonic integrated circuits. PMID:27410317

  18. Flame-powered trigger device for activating explosion-suppression barrier. Rept. of Investigations/1991

    SciTech Connect

    Cortese, R.A.; Sapko, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed a flame-radiation-powered trigger device to explosively activate suppression barriers to quench gas and coal dust explosions. The major component of the device is a silicon solar panel, which converts radiation from the developing explosion into electrical energy to initiate an electric detonator, which releases an extinguishing agent into the advancing flame front. Solar panels that are rated to produce 20 W of electrical power when exposed to the sunlight are producing about 200 W when exposed to a full-scale dust explosion. The solar panel is electrically isolated from the detonator by a pressure-sensitive switch until the arrival of the precursor pressure pulse, which always precedes a deflagration. The combination of pressure arming and flame-powered photogenerator prevents false barrier activation and requires no external power supply.

  19. An active drop counting device using condenser microphone for superheated emulsion detector

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Mala; Marick, C.; Kanjilal, D.; Saha, S.

    2008-11-15

    An active device for superheated emulsion detector is described. A capacitive diaphragm sensor or condenser microphone is used to convert the acoustic pulse of drop nucleation to electrical signal. An active peak detector is included in the circuit to avoid multiple triggering of the counter. The counts are finally recorded by a microprocessor based data acquisition system. Genuine triggers, missed by the sensor, were studied using a simulated clock pulse. The neutron energy spectrum of {sup 252}Cf fission neutron source was measured using the device with R114 as the sensitive liquid and compared with the calculated fission neutron energy spectrum of {sup 252}Cf. Frequency analysis of the detected signals was also carried out.

  20. Electromagnetic and structural coupled finite element analysis of active control in an anti-vibration device

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamoto, Eiji; Chen, Q.M.; Takeuchi, Hitoshi; Brauer, J.R.

    1997-03-01

    An active control model of an anti-vibration device is analyzed using a coupled electromagnetic and structural finite element technique. The model consists of two parallel conducting wires moving in a uniform magnetic field. Displacement and velocity of the wires are detected and transformed into voltages. Those voltages are fed back to each wire to control the motion by Lorentz force. Calculated response of the motion is shown to agree with the theory of the equivalent mechanical model.

  1. Three-dimensional integration of passive and active polymer waveguide devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, Sean Matthew

    This thesis presents the design, fabrication, and experimental results of three dimensionally integrated optics. This vertical and horizontal integration of polymer waveguide structures increases the integration density, reduces interconnection routing difficulties, and expands the functional diversity of adjacent devices. The devices discussed depend on the fabrication of vertical slopes using unconventional photolithography and reactive ion etching techniques. The slopes produced allow fully functional three dimensionally integrated optics that incorporate both passive and active waveguide elements. Passive structures such as vertical waveguide bends, power splitters, and polarization splitters enable three dimensional routing of the optical power among multiple vertical levels. Single mode vertical waveguide bends are demonstrated with polarization insensitive excess losses of 0.2dB. These waveguide structures incorporated bending angles up to 1.5°. Three dimensional 1 x 4 splitters, possess excess losses of 0.5dB and show the ability to fabricate complex waveguide structures in both the horizontal and vertical directions. These vertical power splitters showed controllable power splitting ratios in the output waveguides by controlling the spin cast film thickness within 0.5μM and the slope angle within 0.5°. The vertical polarization splitters incorporated birefringent polymer materials to create an adiabatic mode splitter. These possessed power extinction ratios of about 15dB for both input polarizations. The passive structures of vertical waveguide bends, power splitters, and polarization splitters enable practical three dimensional integrated optics by providing vertical routing capability of the optical signal analogous to those typically found in conventional two dimensional waveguide interconnects. Three dimensionally integrated active devices such as low-loss hybrid modulators and vertically integrated modulator designs create fully functional

  2. Use of a Far-Infrared Active Warming Device in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Zarndt, Bethany S; Buchta, Jessica N; Garver, Lindsey S; Davidson, Silas A; Rowton, Edgar D; Despain, Kenneth E

    2015-01-01

    Small mammals have difficulty maintaining body temperature under anesthesia. This hypothermia is a potential detriment not only to the health and comfort of the animal but also to the integrity of any treatment given or data gathered during the anesthetic period. Using an external warming device to assist with temperature regulation can mitigate these effects. In this study, we investigated the ability of an advanced warming device that uses far-infrared (FIR) heating and responds to real-time core temperature monitoring to maintain a normothermic core temperature in guinea pigs. Body temperatures were measured during 30 min of ketamine–xylazine general anesthesia with and without application of the heating device. The loss of core body heat from anesthetized guinea pigs under typical (unwarmed) conditions was significant, and this loss was almost completely mitigated by application of the FIR heating pad. The significant difference between the temperatures of the actively warmed guinea pigs as compared with the control group began as early as 14 min after anesthetic administration, leading to a 2.6 °C difference at 30 min. Loss of core body temperature was not correlated with animals’ body weight; however, weight influences the efficiency of FIR warming slightly. These study results show that the FIR heating device accurately controls core body temperature in guinea pigs, therefore potentially alleviating the effects of body heat loss on animal physiology. PMID:26632788

  3. Fabric Active Transducer Stimulated by Water Motion for Self-Powered Wearable Device.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Won Keun; Park, Junwoo; Yang, YoungJun; Yoo, Byungwook; Han, Chul Jong; Kim, Youn Sang

    2016-09-21

    The recent trend of energy-harvesting devices is an adoption of fabric materials with flexible and stretchable according to the increase of wearable electronics. But it is a difficult process to form a core structure of dielectric layer or electrode on fabric materials. In particular, a fabric-based energy-harvesting device in contact with water has not been studied, though there are many challenging issues including insulation and water absorption in a harsh environment. So we propose an effective method to obtain an electrical energy from the water contact using our new fabric energy harvesting device. Our water motion active transducer (WMAT) is designed to obtain electrical energy from the variable capacitance through the movement and contact of water droplet. In this paper, we succeeded in generating an electrical energy with peak to peak power of 280 μW using a 30 μL of water droplet with the fabric WMAT device of 70 mm × 50 mm dimension. Furthermore, we specially carried out spray-coating and transfer processes instead of the conventional spin-coating process on fabric materials to overcome the limitation of its uneven morphology and porous and deformable assembly. PMID:27564593

  4. Use of a Far-Infrared Active Warming Device in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Zarndt, Bethany S; Buchta, Jessica N; Garver, Lindsey S; Davidson, Silas A; Rowton, Edgar D; Despain, Kenneth E

    2015-11-01

    Small mammals have difficulty maintaining body temperature under anesthesia. This hypothermia is a potential detriment not only to the health and comfort of the animal but also to the integrity of any treatment given or data gathered during the anesthetic period. Using an external warming device to assist with temperature regulation can mitigate these effects. In this study, we investigated the ability of an advanced warming device that uses far-infrared (FIR) heating and responds to real-time core temperature monitoring to maintain a normothermic core temperature in guinea pigs. Body temperatures were measured during 30 min of ketamine-xylazine general anesthesia with and without application of the heating device. The loss of core body heat from anesthetized guinea pigs under typical (unwarmed) conditions was significant, and this loss was almost completely mitigated by application of the FIR heating pad. The significant difference between the temperatures of the actively warmed guinea pigs as compared with the control group began as early as 14 min after anesthetic administration, leading to a 2.6 °C difference at 30 min. Loss of core body temperature was not correlated with animals' body weight; however, weight influences the efficiency of FIR warming slightly. These study results show that the FIR heating device accurately controls core body temperature in guinea pigs, therefore potentially alleviating the effects of body heat loss on animal physiology. PMID:26632788

  5. Active Fault Characterization in the Urban Area of Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Kurt; Grupe, Sabine; Hintersberger, Esther

    2016-04-01

    The identification of active faults that lie beneath a city is of key importance for seismic hazard assessment. Fault mapping and characterization in built-up areas with strong anthropogenic overprint is, however, a challenging task. Our study of Quaternary faults in the city of Vienna starts from the re-assessment of a borehole database of the municipality containing several tens of thousands of shallow boreholes. Data provide tight constraints on the geometry of Quaternary deposits and highlight several locations with fault-delimited Middle to Late Pleistocene terrace sediments of the Danube River. Additional information is obtained from geological descriptions of historical outcrops which partly date back to about 1900. The latter were found to be particularly valuable by providing unprejudiced descriptions of Quaternary faults, sometimes with stunning detail. The along-strike continuations of some of the identified faults are further imaged by industrial 2D/3D seismic acquired outside the city limits. The interpretation and the assessment of faults identified within the city benefit from a very well constrained tectonic model of the active Vienna Basin fault system which derived from data obtained outside the city limits. This data suggests that the urban faults are part of a system of normal faults compensating fault-normal extension at a releasing bend of the sinistral Vienna Basin Transfer Fault. Slip rates estimated for the faults in the city are in the range of several hundredths of millimetres per year and match the slip rates of normal faults that were trenched outside the city. The lengths/areas of individual faults estimated from maps and seismic reach up to almost 700 km² suggesting that all of the identified faults are capable of producing earthquakes with magnitudes M>6, some with magnitudes up to M~6.7.

  6. Large area flexible SERS active substrates using engineered nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Chung, Aram J; Huh, Yun Suk; Erickson, David

    2011-07-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is an analytical sensing method that provides label-free detection, molecularly specific information, and extremely high sensitivity. The Raman enhancement that makes this method attractive is mainly attributed to the local amplification of the incident electromagnetic field that occurs when a surface plasmon mode is excited at a metallic nanostructure. Here, we present a simple, cost effective method for creating flexible, large area SERS-active substrates using a new technique we call shadow mask assisted evaporation (SMAE). The advantage of large, flexible SERS substrates such as these is they have more area for multiplexing and can be incorporated into irregular surfaces such as clothing. We demonstrate the formation of four different types of nanostructure arrays (pillar, nib, ellipsoidal cylinder, and triangular tip) by controlling the evaporation angle, substrate rotation, and deposition rate of metals onto anodized alumina nanoporous membranes as large as 27 mm. In addition, we present experimental results showing how a hybrid structure comprising of gold nanospheres embedded in a silver nano-pillar structure can be used to obtain a 50× SERS enhancement over the raw nanoparticles themselves.

  7. Mapping and Monitoring of Dynamic Seafloor Features with Hydroacoustic Devices in Sandy Coastal Areas (German Bight, North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papenmeier, S.; Mielck, F.; Hass, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    In order to understand marine ecosystems and to provide basic data for a sustainable management in these vulnerable areas, seafloor mapping has become increasingly important. Since the knowledge regarding the seabed environments and their dynamics are still sparse, new mapping techniques have evolved in the last years and hydroacoustic devices became an important tool for quick and reliable mapping. In 2007 we started a monitoring program in the German Bight (North Sea) using sidescan sonar (Imagenex YellowFin, 330 kHz) in a study site comprising approximately 1,500 km2. In subsequent years, the area was mapped repeatedly with a resolution of ~25 cm. For ground truthing, several hundred sediment samples were taken. The investigations reveal that the area is mainly characterized by fine to coarse sand which is arranged in different seafloor features such as subaquatic dunes or relicts of Pleistocene moraines. While the alignment and position of the moraines was stable throughout the years, the dunes can be highly dynamic. Their migration indicates the amount of sediment transport in these areas. Some seafloor features could be identified as so-called sorted bedforms, which are spatially-grain-size-sorted patterns on the seafloor consisting of small rippled medium sand surrounded by smooth fine sand. These flow-transverse features are morphological linked to ridges and depressions and are further maintained by ebb and flood currents of almost equal strengths. The medium sand is separated from the fine sand by sharp boundaries in all directions which were generated by the bidirectional flow field. The extend and alignment of the sorted bedforms seem to be relatively stable in a time frame of 6 years, however small-scale variabilities up to serveral meters could be detected. We suppose that these processes mainly occur during storm surges while the fine-sand layers are winnowed away and hence the shapes of the bedforms changes.

  8. An adaptive Hidden Markov model for activity recognition based on a wearable multi-sensor device.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Wei, Zhiqiang; Yue, Yaofeng; Wang, Hao; Jia, Wenyan; Burke, Lora E; Baranowski, Thomas; Sun, Mingui

    2015-05-01

    Human activity recognition is important in the study of personal health, wellness and lifestyle. In order to acquire human activity information from the personal space, many wearable multi-sensor devices have been developed. In this paper, a novel technique for automatic activity recognition based on multi-sensor data is presented. In order to utilize these data efficiently and overcome the big data problem, an offline adaptive-Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is proposed. A sensor selection scheme is implemented based on an improved Viterbi algorithm. A new method is proposed that incorporates personal experience into the HMM model as a priori information. Experiments are conducted using a personal wearable computer eButton consisting of multiple sensors. Our comparative study with the standard HMM and other alternative methods in processing the eButton data have shown that our method is more robust and efficient, providing a useful tool to evaluate human activity and lifestyle.

  9. Copper(I) Complexes for Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence: From Photophysical to Device Properties.

    PubMed

    Leitl, Markus J; Zink, Daniel M; Schinabeck, Alexander; Baumann, Thomas; Volz, Daniel; Yersin, Hartmut

    2016-06-01

    Molecules that exhibit thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) represent a very promising emitter class for application in electroluminescent devices since all electrically generated excitons can be transferred into light according to the singlet harvesting mechanism. Cu(I) compounds are an important class of TADF emitters. In this contribution, we want to give a deeper insight into the photophysical properties of this material class and demonstrate how the emission properties depend on molecular and host rigidity. Moreover, we show that with molecular optimization a significant improvement of selected emission properties can be achieved. From the discussed materials, we select one specific dinuclear complex, for which the two Cu(I) centers are four-fold bridged to fabricate an organic light emitting diode (OLED). This device shows the highest efficiency (of 23 % external quantum efficiency) reported so far for OLEDs based on Cu(I) emitters. PMID:27573265

  10. Using Passive Sampling Devices to Assess Chemistry and Toxicity in Streams from six U.S Metropolitan Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steven, G. L.; Cuffney, T.; Tate, C.

    2005-05-01

    The U.S. population is growing by almost 3 million people a year with concomitant increase in urban development. Increased urbanization causes changes to watersheds which may affect aquatic biota by altering the physical and chemical environment. We deployed semi-membrane-permeable-devices (SPMDs) for 30 days to passively sample hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) from 180 streams in six major metropolitan areas in the U.S.: Atlanta, Georgia, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas, Denver, Colorado, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Portland, Oregon, and Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina. SPMD extracts were tested with two assays: (1)Fluoroscan which estimates PAH concentration (pyrene index) by exposing samples to UV light and (2)P450RGS which measures induction of CYP1A a liver enzyme involved in detoxification of organic contaminants. There was a strong positive relation between urban intensity and both the pyrene index and CYP1A in streams from all six metropolitan areas indicating higher HOC concentrations and greater potential toxicity at higher urbanization levels. Invertebrate community responses as measured by EPT taxa richness and benthic index of biotic integrity were also significantly and negatively correlated with both the pyrene index and CYP1A. Our results suggest that toxicity may be a factor in degradation of invertebrate communities in urban environments.

  11. Development of a closed-loop J-T cryoablation device with a long cooling area and multiple expansion parts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheonkyu; Baek, Seungwhan; Lee, Jisung; Hwang, Gyuwan; Jeong, Sangkwon; Park, Sang Woo

    2014-11-01

    Cryoablation is a surgical procedure used to freeze defective cells by inserting a low temperature probe into a human body to destroy malignant tissues. Miniaturized Joule-Thomson (J-T) refrigerators are often used to minimize the volume of the cooling device and reduce the destruction zone of normal tissue. The cooling effects of the existing probes are not uniformly generated along the longitudinal direction of the probe, which makes their applications less effective in surgeries of incompetent great saphenous veins (GSVs), where the target cells are distributed over a broad range. Long uniform refrigeration is required across the entire area of the probe to apply the same cooling effects. In this paper, a closed-loop J-T cryoablation probe was designed and fabricated to provide uniform refrigeration over a large area, with multiple expansion parts. Using flow boiling heat transfer, uniform cooling of a 200 mm-long and 0.3 mm thickness piece of target tissue was possible and simulated in a gelatin solution. The developed probe produced a greater than 53 K min(-1) cooling rate and the cooling temperature was below 253 K to satisfy the required cell death conditions.

  12. How Accurately Can Your Wrist Device Recognize Daily Activities and Detect Falls?

    PubMed

    Gjoreski, Martin; Gjoreski, Hristijan; Luštrek, Mitja; Gams, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    Although wearable accelerometers can successfully recognize activities and detect falls, their adoption in real life is low because users do not want to wear additional devices. A possible solution is an accelerometer inside a wrist device/smartwatch. However, wrist placement might perform poorly in terms of accuracy due to frequent random movements of the hand. In this paper we perform a thorough, large-scale evaluation of methods for activity recognition and fall detection on four datasets. On the first two we showed that the left wrist performs better compared to the dominant right one, and also better compared to the elbow and the chest, but worse compared to the ankle, knee and belt. On the third (Opportunity) dataset, our method outperformed the related work, indicating that our feature-preprocessing creates better input data. And finally, on a real-life unlabeled dataset the recognized activities captured the subject's daily rhythm and activities. Our fall-detection method detected all of the fast falls and minimized the false positives, achieving 85% accuracy on the first dataset. Because the other datasets did not contain fall events, only false positives were evaluated, resulting in 9 for the second, 1 for the third and 15 for the real-life dataset (57 days data). PMID:27258282

  13. How Accurately Can Your Wrist Device Recognize Daily Activities and Detect Falls?

    PubMed Central

    Gjoreski, Martin; Gjoreski, Hristijan; Luštrek, Mitja; Gams, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    Although wearable accelerometers can successfully recognize activities and detect falls, their adoption in real life is low because users do not want to wear additional devices. A possible solution is an accelerometer inside a wrist device/smartwatch. However, wrist placement might perform poorly in terms of accuracy due to frequent random movements of the hand. In this paper we perform a thorough, large-scale evaluation of methods for activity recognition and fall detection on four datasets. On the first two we showed that the left wrist performs better compared to the dominant right one, and also better compared to the elbow and the chest, but worse compared to the ankle, knee and belt. On the third (Opportunity) dataset, our method outperformed the related work, indicating that our feature-preprocessing creates better input data. And finally, on a real-life unlabeled dataset the recognized activities captured the subject’s daily rhythm and activities. Our fall-detection method detected all of the fast falls and minimized the false positives, achieving 85% accuracy on the first dataset. Because the other datasets did not contain fall events, only false positives were evaluated, resulting in 9 for the second, 1 for the third and 15 for the real-life dataset (57 days data). PMID:27258282

  14. A status of the activities of the NASA. Marshall Space Flight Center Combustion Devices Technology Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    The Consortium for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Applications in Propulsion Technology was established to focus on computational fluid dynamics applications in propulsion. Specific areas of effort include developing the CFD technology required to address rocket propulsion issues, validating the technology, and applying the validated technology to design problems. The Combustion Devices Technology Team was formed to implement the above objectives in the broad area of combustion driven flows. In an effort to bring CFD to bear in the design environment, the team has focused its efforts on the Space Transportation Main Engine nozzle. The main emphasis has been on the film cooling scheme used to cool the nozzle wall. Benchmark problems have been chosen to validate CFD film cooling capabilities. CFD simulations of the subscale nozzle have been made. Also, CFD predictions of the base flow resulting from this type of nozzle have been made. The status of these calculations is presented along with future plans. Information is given in viewgraph form.

  15. Module process optimization and device efficiency improvement for stable, low-cost, large-area, cadmium telluride-based photovoltaic module production. Annual subcontract report, 1 July 1990--31 December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, S.P.; Ackerman, B.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Jordan, J.F.

    1992-04-01

    This report describes work under a three-year phased subcontract to develop CdS/CdTe devices and modules and to further improve the technology base at Photon Energy, Inc. (PEI) to better address the commercialization issues and objectives of the PEI and the US Department of Energy. During this reporting period we (1) achieved efficiencies of 12.7% on small area devices, (2) achieved 1-ft{sup 2} modules with over 8% aperture-area efficiency (and active area efficiencies up to {approximately}10%), (3) tested 4-ft{sup 2} modules at NREL at 23.1 (21.3) watts, normalized (6.3% efficiency), and (4) found no inherent stability problems with CdTe technology during life testing, at both NREL and PEI. 7 refs.

  16. Large area scanning probe microscope in ultra-high vacuum demonstrated for electrostatic force measurements on high-voltage devices

    PubMed Central

    Glatzel, Thilo; Schmölzer, Thomas; Schöner, Adolf; Reshanov, Sergey; Bartolf, Holger; Meyer, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background: The resolution in electrostatic force microscopy (EFM), a descendant of atomic force microscopy (AFM), has reached nanometre dimensions, necessary to investigate integrated circuits in modern electronic devices. However, the characterization of conducting or semiconducting power devices with EFM methods requires an accurate and reliable technique from the nanometre up to the micrometre scale. For high force sensitivity it is indispensable to operate the microscope under high to ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions to suppress viscous damping of the sensor. Furthermore, UHV environment allows for the analysis of clean surfaces under controlled environmental conditions. Because of these requirements we built a large area scanning probe microscope operating under UHV conditions at room temperature allowing to perform various electrical measurements, such as Kelvin probe force microscopy, scanning capacitance force microscopy, scanning spreading resistance microscopy, and also electrostatic force microscopy at higher harmonics. The instrument incorporates beside a standard beam deflection detection system a closed loop scanner with a scan range of 100 μm in lateral and 25 μm in vertical direction as well as an additional fibre optics. This enables the illumination of the tip–sample interface for optically excited measurements such as local surface photo voltage detection. Results: We present Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements before and after sputtering of a copper alloy with chromium grains used as electrical contact surface in ultra-high power switches. In addition, we discuss KPFM measurements on cross sections of cleaved silicon carbide structures: a calibration layer sample and a power rectifier. To demonstrate the benefit of surface photo voltage measurements, we analysed the contact potential difference of a silicon carbide p/n-junction under illumination. PMID:26885461

  17. An Exploration into How Physical Activity Data-Recording Devices Could Be Used in Computer-Supported Data Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Victor R.; DuMont, Maneksha

    2010-01-01

    There is a great potential opportunity to use portable physical activity monitoring devices as data collection tools for educational purposes. Using one such device, we designed and implemented a weeklong workshop with high school students to test the utility of such technology. During that intervention, students performed data investigations of…

  18. Keep Taking the Tablets? Assessing the Use of Tablet Devices in Learning and Teaching Activities in the Further Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabian, Khristin; MacLean, Donald

    2014-01-01

    This article summarises the methodology and outcomes of an interventionist/action research project to assess the benefits, and potential pitfalls, of the use of mobile devices in learning and teaching activities in a Further Education environment. A bank of 15 tablet devices were purchased and prepared for classroom use. Staff members were…

  19. An Educational Device for a Hands-on Activity to Visualize the Effect of Atherosclerosis on Blood Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Almeida, J. P. P. G. L.; de Lima, J. L. M. P.

    2013-01-01

    An educational device was created to develop a hands-on activity to illustrate how atherosclerosis can dramatically reduce blood flow in human vessels. The device was conceived, designed, and built at the University of Coimbra, in response to a request from the Exploratorio Infante D. Henrique Science Centre Museum, where it is presently…

  20. Investigating the Efficacy of a Computerized Prompting Device to Assist Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder with Activities of Daily Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimbrahw, Justin; Boger, Jennifer; Mihailidis, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Learning to perform self-care skills can pose a major challenge for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as well as the parents and caregivers who support them. The computerized device described in this paper has been used by children with ASD and their carers to autonomously assist with self-care activities. The device uses computer…

  1. Flexible and mechanical strain resistant large area SERS active substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, J. P.; Chu, Hsiaoyun; Abell, Justin; Tripp, Ralph A.; Zhao, Yiping

    2012-05-01

    We report a cost effective and facile way to synthesize flexible, uniform, and large area surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates using an oblique angle deposition (OAD) technique. The flexible SERS substrates consist of 1 μm long, tilted silver nanocolumnar films deposited on flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheets using OAD. The SERS enhancement activity of these flexible substrates was determined using 10-5 M trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl) ethylene (BPE) Raman probe molecules. The in situ SERS measurements on these flexible substrates under mechanical (tensile/bending) strain conditions were performed. Our results show that flexible SERS substrates can withstand a tensile strain (ε) value as high as 30% without losing SERS performance, whereas the similar bending strain decreases the SERS performance by about 13%. A cyclic tensile loading test on flexible PDMS SERS substrates at a pre-specified tensile strain (ε) value of 10% shows that the SERS intensity remains almost constant for more than 100 cycles. These disposable and flexible SERS substrates can be integrated with biological substances and offer a novel and practical method to facilitate biosensing applications.

  2. Health-Promoting Physical Activity of Children Who Use Assistive Mobility Devices: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Jirikowic, Tracy L; Kerfeld, Cheryl I

    2016-01-01

    Children with physical disabilities who use assistive mobility devices (AMDs) are at risk for obesity and other secondary health conditions. Habitual physical activity is one lifestyle factor that may prevent obesity and contribute to overall health, and an active lifestyle in childhood improves prospects for lifelong healthy behaviors. Child, family, and environmental facilitators and barriers influence health-promoting physical activity (HPPA) for children without disabilities, but comparable models and levels of understanding for children who use AMDs are lacking. In this scoping review, we identified a similar set of child, family, and environmental facilitators and barriers relevant to HPPA participation among children who use AMDs. Noted gaps in the literature included limited reporting of AMD use, inconsistent HPPA definitions, and inadequate measurement tools for children who are nonambulatory. The identified child, family, and environmental factors provide a framework for occupational therapy practitioners and interprofessional teams to develop HPPA opportunities and interventions for an underserved population. PMID:27548861

  3. Photonic crystal slab reflectors for compact passive and active optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutami, S.; Benbakir, B.; Leclercq, J. L.; Letartre, X.; Regreny, P.; Garrigues, M.; Viktorovitch, P.; Le Gratiet, L.; Beaudoin, G.; Sagnes, I.

    2007-02-01

    Compact photonic crystal mirrors (PCM) formed in suspended InP membranes are theoretically and experimentally studied under normal incidence. They are based on the coupling of free space waves with slow Bloch modes of the crystal. These mirrors provide high-efficiency and broadband reflectivity (stop-band superior to 400nm), when involving two slow Bloch modes of the crystal. They allow also for an accurate control of the polarization. These PCMs can be used in new photonic devices, where they replace DBR mirrors. The authors report on the demonstration of a compact and highly selective (Q>1000) tunable filter at 1.55μm, using a Fabry-Perot resonator combining a bottom micromachined 3-pair-InP/air-gap Bragg reflector with a top InP/air PCM. Micromechanical tuning of the device via electrostatic actuation is also demonstrated over a 20nm range for a maximum 4V tuning voltage. The active version of this device is also considered: a PCM-VCSEL is studied, combining a solid 40 quarter wavelength InP/InGaAlAs DBR with a top PCM. First experimental results show a high Q-factor (around 2000) compatible with a laser regime. We finally demonstrate in this paper a vertical-cavity Fabry-Perot filter with ultimate compactness, associating two PCMs.

  4. 76 FR 71041 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Medical Device...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Medical Device Recall Authority AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... on the information collection requirements for medical device recall authority. DATES: Submit either... of information technology. Medical Device Recall Authority--21 CFR Part 810 (OMB Control Number...

  5. Conceiving semi-active control devices for large-size monolithic monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casciati, Fabio; El Attar, Adel; Casciati, Sara

    2001-07-01

    CHIME is a research project, funded by the European Union, which investigates the adoption of innovative structural control techniques in view of the seismic rehabilitation of the wide monumental cultural heritage in Mediterranean countries as Egypt, Tunisia and Cyprus. The structural control devices are mainly of the semi-active type. In this particular paper one reports the first results achieved within a case study. It considers an Egyptian large size monolithic monument. Alternative solutions for its seismic rehabilitation are eventually conceived and discussed.

  6. Use of a consumer market activity monitoring and feedback device improves exercise capacity and activity levels in COPD.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Brian; Kaljo, Indira; Donnelly, Seamas

    2014-01-01

    COPD is associated with a gradual decline in physical activity, which itself contributes to a worsening of the underlying condition. Strategies that improve physical activity levels are critical to halt this cycle. Wearable sensor based activity monitoring and persuasive feedback might offer a potential solution. However it is not clear just how much intervention might be needed in this regard - i.e. whether programmes need to be tailored specifically for the target clinical population or whether more simple activity monitoring and feedback solutions, such as that offered in consumer market devices, might be sufficient. This research was carried out to investigate the impact of 4 weeks of using an off the shelf consumer market activity monitoring and feedback application on measures of physical activity, exercise capacity, and health related quality of life in a population of 10 Stage I and II COPD patients. Results demonstrate a significant and positive effect on exercise capacity (measured using a 6-minute walk test) and activity levels (measured in terms of average number of steps per hour) yet no impact on health related quality of life (St Georges Respiratory Disease Questionnaire).

  7. Physical Activity Measurement Device Agreement: Pedometer Steps/Minute and Physical Activity Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Philip W.; Mungen, Jonathan D.; Oh, Yoonsin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine agreement between the Walk4Life DUO pedometer (W4L; Walk4Life, Plainfield, Illinois, USA) and two criterion instruments in the measurement of physical activity. Participants (N = 189, M = 16.74 years, SD = 0.99) in high school physical education concurrently wore the DUO (i.e., comparison instrument) and…

  8. Nano Sensing Devices - Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Nora

    Nanotechnology offers tremendous opportunities for developing sensing and monitoring devices that are small and inexpensive with rapid response time of multiple analyte detection. In addition, there is the potential for these sensors to have "smart" or active capabilities embedded in them. These devices can help meet critical challenges identified in the environmental, occupational, biological and national security areas.

  9. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  10. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  11. High speed, intermediate resolution, large area laser beam induced current imaging and laser scribing system for photovoltaic devices and modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Adam B.; Song, Zhaoning; DeWitt, Jonathan L.; Stone, Jon M.; Krantz, Patrick W.; Royston, John M.; Zeller, Ryan M.; Mapes, Meghan R.; Roland, Paul J.; Dorogi, Mark D.; Zafar, Syed; Faykosh, Gary T.; Ellingson, Randy J.; Heben, Michael J.

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a laser beam induced current imaging tool for photovoltaic devices and modules that utilizes diode pumped Q-switched lasers. Power densities on the order of one sun (100 mW/cm2) can be produced in a ˜40 μm spot size by operating the lasers at low diode current and high repetition rate. Using galvanostatically controlled mirrors in an overhead configuration and high speed data acquisition, large areas can be scanned in short times. As the beam is rastered, focus is maintained on a flat plane with an electronically controlled lens that is positioned in a coordinated fashion with the movements of the mirrors. The system can also be used in a scribing mode by increasing the diode current and decreasing the repetition rate. In either mode, the instrument can accommodate samples ranging in size from laboratory scale (few cm2) to full modules (1 m2). Customized LabVIEW programs were developed to control the components and acquire, display, and manipulate the data in imaging mode.

  12. Active implantable medical device EMI assessment for wireless power transfer operating in LF and HF bands.

    PubMed

    Hikage, Takashi; Nojima, Toshio; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    2016-06-21

    The electromagnetic interference (EMI) imposed on active implantable medical devices by wireless power transfer systems (WPTSs) is discussed based upon results of in vitro experiments. The purpose of this study is to present comprehensive EMI test results gathered from implantable-cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators exposed to the electromagnetic field generated by several WPTSs operating in low-frequency (70 kHz-460 kHz) and high-frequency (6.78 MHz) bands. The constructed in vitro experimental test system based upon an Irnich's flat torso phantom was applied. EMI test experiments are conducted on 14 types of WPTSs including Qi-compliant system and EV-charging WPT system mounted on current production EVs. In addition, a numerical simulation model for active implantable medical device (AIMD) EMI estimation based on the experimental test system is newly proposed. The experimental results demonstrate the risk of WPTSs emitting intermittent signal to affect the correct behavior of AIMDs when operating at very short distances. The proposed numerical simulation model is applicable to obtain basically the EMI characteristics of various types of WPTSs. PMID:27224201

  13. New cosurface capacitive stimulators for the development of active osseointegrative implantable devices.

    PubMed

    Soares Dos Santos, Marco P; Marote, Ana; Santos, T; Torrão, João; Ramos, A; Simões, José A O; da Cruz E Silva, Odete A B; Furlani, Edward P; Vieira, Sandra I; Ferreira, Jorge A F

    2016-01-01

    Non-drug strategies based on biophysical stimulation have been emphasized for the treatment and prevention of musculoskeletal conditions. However, to date, an effective stimulation system for intracorporeal therapies has not been proposed. This is particularly true for active intramedullary implants that aim to optimize osseointegration. The increasing demand for these implants, particularly for hip and knee replacements, has driven the design of innovative stimulation systems that are effective in bone-implant integration. In this paper, a new cosurface-based capacitive system concept is proposed for the design of implantable devices that deliver controllable and personalized electric field stimuli to target tissues. A prototype architecture of this system was constructed for in vitro tests, and its ability to deliver controllable stimuli was numerically analyzed. Successful results were obtained for osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation in the in vitro tests. This work provides, for the first time, a design of a stimulation system that can be embedded in active implantable devices for controllable bone-implant integration and regeneration. The proposed cosurface design holds potential for the implementation of novel and innovative personalized stimulatory therapies based on the delivery of electric fields to bone cells. PMID:27456818

  14. New cosurface capacitive stimulators for the development of active osseointegrative implantable devices

    PubMed Central

    Soares dos Santos, Marco P.; Marote, Ana; Santos, T.; Torrão, João; Ramos, A.; Simões, José A. O.; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A. B.; Furlani, Edward P.; Vieira, Sandra I.; Ferreira, Jorge A. F.

    2016-01-01

    Non-drug strategies based on biophysical stimulation have been emphasized for the treatment and prevention of musculoskeletal conditions. However, to date, an effective stimulation system for intracorporeal therapies has not been proposed. This is particularly true for active intramedullary implants that aim to optimize osseointegration. The increasing demand for these implants, particularly for hip and knee replacements, has driven the design of innovative stimulation systems that are effective in bone-implant integration. In this paper, a new cosurface-based capacitive system concept is proposed for the design of implantable devices that deliver controllable and personalized electric field stimuli to target tissues. A prototype architecture of this system was constructed for in vitro tests, and its ability to deliver controllable stimuli was numerically analyzed. Successful results were obtained for osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation in the in vitro tests. This work provides, for the first time, a design of a stimulation system that can be embedded in active implantable devices for controllable bone-implant integration and regeneration. The proposed cosurface design holds potential for the implementation of novel and innovative personalized stimulatory therapies based on the delivery of electric fields to bone cells. PMID:27456818

  15. Stimulus-active polymer actuators for next-generation microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilber, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    Microfluidic devices have not yet evolved into commercial off-the-shelf products. Although highly integrated microfluidic structures, also known as lab-on-a-chip (LOC) and micrototal-analysis-system (µTAS) devices, have consistently been predicted to revolutionize biomedical assays and chemical synthesis, they have not entered the market as expected. Studies have identified a lack of standardization and integration as the main obstacles to commercial breakthrough. Soft microfluidics, the utilization of a broad spectrum of soft materials (i.e., polymers) for realization of microfluidic components, will make a significant contribution to the proclaimed growth of the LOC market. Recent advances in polymer science developing novel stimulus-active soft-matter materials may further increase the popularity and spreading of soft microfluidics. Stimulus-active polymers and composite materials change shape or exert mechanical force on surrounding fluids in response to electric, magnetic, light, thermal, or water/solvent stimuli. Specifically devised actuators based on these materials may have the potential to facilitate integration significantly and hence increase the operational advantage for the end-user while retaining cost-effectiveness and ease of fabrication. This review gives an overview of available actuation concepts that are based on functional polymers and points out promising concepts and trends that may have the potential to promote the commercial success of microfluidics.

  16. Active implantable medical device EMI assessment for wireless power transfer operating in LF and HF bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikage, Takashi; Nojima, Toshio; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    The electromagnetic interference (EMI) imposed on active implantable medical devices by wireless power transfer systems (WPTSs) is discussed based upon results of in vitro experiments. The purpose of this study is to present comprehensive EMI test results gathered from implantable-cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators exposed to the electromagnetic field generated by several WPTSs operating in low-frequency (70 kHz-460 kHz) and high-frequency (6.78 MHz) bands. The constructed in vitro experimental test system based upon an Irnich’s flat torso phantom was applied. EMI test experiments are conducted on 14 types of WPTSs including Qi-compliant system and EV-charging WPT system mounted on current production EVs. In addition, a numerical simulation model for active implantable medical device (AIMD) EMI estimation based on the experimental test system is newly proposed. The experimental results demonstrate the risk of WPTSs emitting intermittent signal to affect the correct behavior of AIMDs when operating at very short distances. The proposed numerical simulation model is applicable to obtain basically the EMI characteristics of various types of WPTSs.

  17. Computer-aided design of modular protein devices: Boolean AND gene activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salis, H.; Kaznessis, Y. N.

    2006-12-01

    Many potentially useful synthetic gene networks require the expression of an engineered gene if and only if two different DNA-binding proteins exist in sufficient concentration. While some natural and engineered systems activate gene expression according to a logical AND-like behavior, they often utilize allosteric or cooperative protein-protein interactions, rendering their components unsuitable for a toolbox of modular parts for use in multiple applications. Here, we develop a quantitative model to demonstrate that a small system of interacting fusion proteins, called a protein device, can activate an engineered gene according to the Boolean AND behavior while using only modular protein domains and DNA sites. The fusion proteins are created from transactivating, DNA-binding, non-DNA binding, and protein-protein interaction domains along with the corresponding peptide ligands. Using a combined kinetic and thermodynamic model, we identify the characteristics of the molecular components and their rates of constitutive production that maximize the fidelity of AND behavior. These AND protein devices facilitate the creation of complex genetic programs and may be used to create gene therapies, biosensors and other biomedical and biotechnological applications that turn on gene expression only when multiple DNA-binding proteins are simultaneously present.

  18. Comparisons of three practical field devices used to measure personal light exposures and activity levels

    PubMed Central

    Figueiro, M G; Hamner, R; Bierman, A; Rea, M S

    2012-01-01

    This paper documents the spectral and spatial performance characteristics of two new versions of the Daysimeter, devices developed and calibrated by the Lighting Research Center to measure and record personal circadian light exposure and activity levels, and compares them to those of the Actiwatch Spectrum (Philips Healthcare). Photometric errors from the Daysimeters and the Actiwatch Spectrum were also determined for various types of light sources. The Daysimeters had better photometric performance than the Actiwatch Spectrum. To assess differences associated with measuring light and activity levels at different locations on the body, older adults wore four Daysimeters and an Actiwatch Spectrum for five consecutive days. Wearing the Daysimeter or Actiwatch Spectrum on the wrist compromises accurate light measurements relative to locating a calibrated photosensor at the plane of the cornea. PMID:24443644

  19. Validation of a computed radiography device to monitor the HIV-1 RNase H activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, F.; Fanti, V.; Marzeddu, R.; Randaccio, P.; Tramontano, E.; Zinzula, L.

    2009-08-01

    A commercially available computed radiography (CR) system for dental radiography was used to produce images from radiolabeled polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) assays. Typically, similar investigations require specific and expensive autoradiography devices. The CR unit was characterized in terms of sensitivity and fading by means of a 90Sr source that well simulates the experimental conditions, and then used for quantitative analyses of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase-independent ribonuclease H (RNase H) activity monitored by PAGE analysis. The results showed that the present methodology allows quantifying effectively the RNase H catalyses and that the obtained data are in good agreement with previous reference works. Finally, in order to further validate the present method in terms of relationship between enzyme activity, the rate of products formation and signal intensity, a PAGE analyses of the HIV-1 RNase H inhibition by the known diketo acid derivative RDS1643 was carried out.

  20. INVITED PAPER: Application of an active device for helicopter noise reduction in JAXA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shigeru; Kobiki, Noboru; Tanabe, Yasutada

    2010-02-01

    Important issues in noise problems for current helicopters are described. An active tab (AT) was developed as a new active device for noise/vibration reduction under research cooperation between Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Kawada Industries, Inc. The wind tunnel test was conducted in order to investigate the effectiveness of the AT on the aeroacoustic characteristics of a helicopter. From the wind tunnel test, the capability of reducing blade vortex interaction (BVI) noise by an AT was verified. A new control law using instantaneous pressure change on a blade during BVI phenomena was introduced and applied to the wind tunnel testing. This new control law shows reasonable controllability for helicopter noise reduction. Furthermore, in order to analyze noise characteristics, the advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code named JAXA_ov3d was developed in JAXA and extended to include CFD-CSD (computational structure dynamics) coupling by using the beam theory for blade deformation.

  1. Origami-inspired active graphene-based paper for programmable instant self-folding walking devices

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Jiuke; Hou, Chengyi; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Yaogang; Zhang, Qinghong; Zhu, Meifang

    2015-01-01

    Origami-inspired active graphene-based paper with programmed gradients in vertical and lateral directions is developed to address many of the limitations of polymer active materials including slow response and violent operation methods. Specifically, we used function-designed graphene oxide as nanoscale building blocks to fabricate an all-graphene self-folding paper that has a single-component gradient structure. A functional device composed of this graphene paper can (i) adopt predesigned shapes, (ii) walk, and (iii) turn a corner. These processes can be remote-controlled by gentle light or heating. We believe that this self-folding material holds potential for a wide range of applications such as sensing, artificial muscles, and robotics. PMID:26601135

  2. 36 CFR 294.26 - Other activities in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.26 Other activities in Idaho Roadless Areas. (a... Roadless Areas. Decisions concerning the future management of existing roads or trails in Idaho Roadless... subpart shall be construed as affecting existing grazing permits in Idaho Roadless Areas. Future...

  3. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  4. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  5. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  6. Behavioral Economics, Wearable Devices, and Cooperative Games: Results From a Population-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Health care literature supports the development of accessible interventions that integrate behavioral economics, wearable devices, principles of evidence-based behavior change, and community support. However, there are limited real-world examples of large scale, population-based, member-driven reward platforms. Subsequently, a paucity of outcome data exists and health economic effects remain largely theoretical. To complicate matters, an emerging area of research is defining the role of Superusers, the small percentage of unusually engaged digital health participants who may influence other members. Objective The objective of this preliminary study is to analyze descriptive data from GOODcoins, a self-guided, free-to-consumer engagement and rewards platform incentivizing walking, running and cycling. Registered members accessed the GOODcoins platform through PCs, tablets or mobile devices, and had the opportunity to sync wearables to track activity. Following registration, members were encouraged to join gamified group challenges and compare their progress with that of others. As members met challenge targets, they were rewarded with GOODcoins, which could be redeemed for planet- or people-friendly products. Methods Outcome data were obtained from the GOODcoins custom SQL database. The reporting period was December 1, 2014 to May 1, 2015. Descriptive self-report data were analyzed using MySQL and MS Excel. Results The study period includes data from 1298 users who were connected to an exercise tracking device. Females consisted of 52.6% (n=683) of the study population, 33.7% (n=438) were between the ages of 20-29, and 24.8% (n=322) were between the ages of 30-39. 77.5% (n=1006) of connected and active members met daily-recommended physical activity guidelines of 30 minutes, with a total daily average activity of 107 minutes (95% CI 90, 124). Of all connected and active users, 96.1% (n=1248) listed walking as their primary activity. For members who

  7. Sensor-actuator coupled device for active tracheal tube using solid polymer electrolyte membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihara, Tadashi; Nakamura, Taro; Mukai, Toshiharu; Asaka, Kinji

    2007-04-01

    A sensor-actuator coupled device was developed using solid polymer electrolyte membrane (SPM) as an active tracheal tube for ventilator. Active tracheal tube is a novel type of tube for ventilator that removes patient's phlegm automatically upon sensing the narrowing of trachea by phlegm. This type of active tube is extremely useful in clinical settings as currently the sole measure to remove phlegm from patient's tube is to do it manually by a nurse every few hours. As SPM works both as a sensor and an actuator, an effective compact device was developed. SPM based sensor-actuator coupled device was fabricated with modified gold plating method. Prepared SPM was fixed as an array on a plastic pipe of diameter 22 mm and was connected to a ventilator circuit and driven by a ventilator with a volume control ventilation (VCV) mode. SPM was connected both to a sensing unit and an actuation unit. Generated voltage developed by the membrane with the setting of the maximum pressure from 5 cmH IIO to 20 cmH IIO was in order of several hundred μV. SPM sensor demonstrated a biphasic response to the ventilator flow. The sensor data showed nearly linearly proportional voltage development to the intra-tracheal pressure. The sensed signal was filtered and digitized with an A/D converting unit on a PC board. A real time operating program was used to detect the sensed signal that indicates the narrowing of trachea. The program then activated a driving signal to control the actuation of the membrane. The signal was sent to a D/A converting unit. The output of the D/A unit was sent to an amplifier and the galvanostat unit which drives the membrane with constant current regardless of the change in the load. It was demonstrated that the sensor-actuator unit detects the narrowing of trachea within several hundreds milli-seconds and responds by actuating the same membrane with the driving voltage of 3-4 V and driving current of several hundred milli-ampere for each membrane. SPM array

  8. Environmental Print Activities for Teaching Mathematics and Content Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C., Ed.; McIntyre, Sandra, Ed.; Ranous, Meg, Ed.

    Twenty-three mathematics activities that use environmental print materials are presented, along with two activities that focus on music education, one that highlights history concepts, and five science activities. The environmental print materials are words and images cut from food or other product packaging and mounted on mat board cards.…

  9. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITIES FOR CHROMIUM IN THE 100 AREAS

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN SW

    2009-07-02

    {sm_bullet} Primary Objective: Protect the Columbia River - Focus is control and treatment of contamination at or near the shoreline, which is influenced by bank storage {sm_bullet} Secondary Objective: Reduce hexavalent chromium to <48 parts per billion (ppb) in aquifer (drinking water standard) - Large plumes with isolated areas of high chromium concentrations (> 40,000 ppb), - Unknown source location(s); probably originating in reactor operation areas

  10. Precise Spatiotemporal Control of Optogenetic Activation Using an Acousto-Optic Device

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanmeng; Song, Peipei; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zeng, Shaoqun; Wang, Zuoren

    2011-01-01

    Light activation and inactivation of neurons by optogenetic techniques has emerged as an important tool for studying neural circuit function. To achieve a high resolution, new methods are being developed to selectively manipulate the activity of individual neurons. Here, we report that the combination of an acousto-optic device (AOD) and single-photon laser was used to achieve rapid and precise spatiotemporal control of light stimulation at multiple points in a neural circuit with millisecond time resolution. The performance of this system in activating ChIEF expressed on HEK 293 cells as well as cultured neurons was first evaluated, and the laser stimulation patterns were optimized. Next, the spatiotemporally selective manipulation of multiple neurons was achieved in a precise manner. Finally, we demonstrated the versatility of this high-resolution method in dissecting neural circuits both in the mouse cortical slice and the Drosophila brain in vivo. Taken together, our results show that the combination of AOD-assisted laser stimulation and optogenetic tools provides a flexible solution for manipulating neuronal activity at high efficiency and with high temporal precision. PMID:22174813

  11. Characterisation of a novel light activated adhesive scaffold: Potential for device attachment.

    PubMed

    Ark, Morris; Boughton, Philip; Lauto, Antonio; Tran, Giang T; Chen, Yongjuan; Cosman, Peter H; Dunstan, Colin R

    2016-09-01

    The most common methods for attaching a device to the internal tissues of the human body are via sutures, clips or staples. These attachment techniques require penetration and manipulation of the tissue. Tears and leaks can often be a complication post-attachment, and scarring usually occurs around the attachment sites. To resolve these issues, it is proposed to develop a soft tissue scaffold impregnated with Rose Bengal/Chitosan solution (RBC-scaffold, 0.01% w/v Rose Bengal, 1.7% w/v Medium Molecular Weight Chitosan). This scaffold will initially attach to the tissue via a light activation method. The light activates the dye in the scaffold which causes cross-links to form between the scaffold and tissue, thus adhering them together. This is done without mechanically manipulating the surrounding tissue, thus avoiding the issues associated with current techniques. Eventually, the scaffold will be resorbed and tissue will integrate for long-term attachment. A variety of tests were performed to characterise the RBC-scaffold. Porosity, interconnectivity, and mechanical strength were measured. Light activation was performed with a broad spectrum (380-780nm) 10W LED lamp exposed to various time lengths (2-15min, Fluence range 0.4-3J/cm(2) ). Adhesive strength of the light-activated bond was measured with lap-shear tests performed on porcine stomach tissue. Cell culture viability was also assessed to confirm tissue integration potential. These properties were compared to Variotis™, an aliphatic polyester soft tissue scaffold which has proven to be viable for soft tissue regeneration. The RBC-scaffolds were found to have high porosity (86.46±2.95%) and connectivity, showing rapid fluid movement. The elastic modulus of the RBC-scaffolds (3.55±1.28MPa) was found to be significantly higher than the controls (0.15±0.058MPa, p<0.01) and approached reported values for human gastrointestinal tissue (2.3MPa). The maximum adhesion strength achieved of the RBC-scaffolds was 8

  12. Characterisation of a novel light activated adhesive scaffold: Potential for device attachment.

    PubMed

    Ark, Morris; Boughton, Philip; Lauto, Antonio; Tran, Giang T; Chen, Yongjuan; Cosman, Peter H; Dunstan, Colin R

    2016-09-01

    The most common methods for attaching a device to the internal tissues of the human body are via sutures, clips or staples. These attachment techniques require penetration and manipulation of the tissue. Tears and leaks can often be a complication post-attachment, and scarring usually occurs around the attachment sites. To resolve these issues, it is proposed to develop a soft tissue scaffold impregnated with Rose Bengal/Chitosan solution (RBC-scaffold, 0.01% w/v Rose Bengal, 1.7% w/v Medium Molecular Weight Chitosan). This scaffold will initially attach to the tissue via a light activation method. The light activates the dye in the scaffold which causes cross-links to form between the scaffold and tissue, thus adhering them together. This is done without mechanically manipulating the surrounding tissue, thus avoiding the issues associated with current techniques. Eventually, the scaffold will be resorbed and tissue will integrate for long-term attachment. A variety of tests were performed to characterise the RBC-scaffold. Porosity, interconnectivity, and mechanical strength were measured. Light activation was performed with a broad spectrum (380-780nm) 10W LED lamp exposed to various time lengths (2-15min, Fluence range 0.4-3J/cm(2) ). Adhesive strength of the light-activated bond was measured with lap-shear tests performed on porcine stomach tissue. Cell culture viability was also assessed to confirm tissue integration potential. These properties were compared to Variotis™, an aliphatic polyester soft tissue scaffold which has proven to be viable for soft tissue regeneration. The RBC-scaffolds were found to have high porosity (86.46±2.95%) and connectivity, showing rapid fluid movement. The elastic modulus of the RBC-scaffolds (3.55±1.28MPa) was found to be significantly higher than the controls (0.15±0.058MPa, p<0.01) and approached reported values for human gastrointestinal tissue (2.3MPa). The maximum adhesion strength achieved of the RBC-scaffolds was 8

  13. PROGRESS ON INSERTION DEVICE RELATED ACTIVITIES AT THE NSLS-II AND ITS FUTURE PLANS

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, T.; Chubar, O.; Corwin, T.; Harder, D. A.; He, P.; Rank, J.; Rakowsky, G.; Spataro, C.

    2010-05-23

    National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) project is now in the construction stage. A new insertion device (ID) magnetic measurement facility (MMF) is being set up at Brookhaven National Laboratory in order to satisfy the stringent requirement on the magnetic field measurement of IDs. ISO-Class7 temperature stabilized clean room is being constructed for this purpose. A state-of-the-art Hall probe bench and integrated field measurement system will be installed therein. IDs in the project baseline scope include six damping wigglers, two elliptically polarizing undulators (EPUs), three 3.0m long in-vacuum undulators (IVUs) and one 1.5m long IVU. Three-pole wigglers with peak field over 1 Tesla will be utilized to accommodate the users of bending magnet radiation at the NSLS. Future plans includes: (1) an in-vacuum magnetic measurement system, (2) use of PrFeB magnet for improved cryo undulator, (3) development of advanced optimization program for sorting and shimming of IDs, (4) development of a closed loop He gas refrigerator, (5) switchable quasi-periodic EPU. Design features of the baseline devices, IDMMF and the future plans for NSLS-II ID activities are described.

  14. Electro-active device using radial electric field piezo-diaphragm for sonic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An electro-active transducer for sonic applications includes a ferroelectric material sandwiched by first and second electrode patterns to form a piezo-diaphragm coupled to a mounting frame. When the device is used as a sonic actuator, the first and second electrode patterns are configured to introduce an electric field into the ferroelectric material when voltage is applied to the electrode patterns. When the device is used as a sonic sensor, the first and second electrode patterns are configured to introduce an electric field into the ferroelectric material when the ferroelectric material experiences deflection in a direction substantially perpendicular thereto. In each case, the electrode patterns are designed to cause the electric field to: i) originate at a region of the ferroelectric material between the first and second electrode patterns, and ii) extend radially outward from the region of the ferroelectric material (at which the electric field originates) and substantially parallel to the plane of the ferroelectric material. The mounting frame perimetrically surrounds the peizo-diaphragm and enables attachment of the piezo-diaphragm to a housing.

  15. Assessment of a Newly Developed, Active Pneumatic-Driven, Sensorimotor Test and Training Device

    PubMed Central

    Haslinger, Wolfram; Müller, Lisa; Mildner, Esmeralda; Löfler, Stefan; Kern, Helmut; Raschner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The sensorimotor system (SMS) plays an important role in sports and in every day movement. Several tools for assessment and training have been designed. Many of them are directed to specific populations, and have major shortcomings due to the training effect or safety. The aim of the present study was to design and assess a dynamic sensorimotor test and training device that can be adjusted for all levels of performance. The novel pneumatic-driven mechatronic device can guide the trainee, allow independent movements or disrupt the individual with unpredicted perturbations while standing on a platform. The test-reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Subjects were required to balance their center of pressure (COP) in a target circle (TITC). The time in TITC and the COP error (COPe) were recorded for analysis. The results of 22 males and 14 females (23.7 ± 2.6 years) showed good to excellent test-retest reliability. The newly designed Active Balance System (ABS) was then compared with the Biodex Balance System SD® (BBS). The results of 15 females, 14 males (23.4 ± 1.6 years) showed modest correlation in static and acceptable correlation in dynamic conditions, suggesting that ABS could be a reliable and comparable tool for dynamic balance assessments. PMID:25517695

  16. Active photonic devices based on colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals and organometallic halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez Alvarez, Isaac

    2016-10-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals have arisen as outstanding materials to develop a new generation of optoelectronic devices. Their fabrication under simple and low cost colloidal chemistry methods results in cheap nanostructures able to provide a wide range of optical functionalities. Their attractive optical properties include a high absorption cross section below the band gap, a high quantum yield emission at room temperature, or the capability of tuning the band-gap with the size or the base material. In addition, their solution process nature enables an easy integration on several substrates and photonic structures. As a consequence, these nanoparticles have been extensively proposed to develop several photonic applications, such as detection of light, optical gain, generation of light or sensing. This manuscript reviews the great effort undertaken by the scientific community to construct active photonic devices based on these nanoparticles. The conditions to demonstrate stimulated emission are carefully studied by comparing the dependence of the optical properties of the nanocrystals with their size, shape and composition. In addition, this paper describes the design of different photonic architectures (waveguides and cavities) to enhance the generation of photoluminescence, and hence to reduce the threshold of optical gain. Finally, semiconductor nanocrystals are compared to organometallic halide perovskites, as this novel material has emerged as an alternative to colloidal nanoparticles.

  17. Modelling and experimental validation of Textile Pockets based active inflatable device.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, A; Basset, M; Orjuela, R; Dupuis, R; Drean, J Y

    2014-11-01

    This paper aims with the mathematical modelling of an active inflatable device. This device is composed of a compressor, an Electro-pneumatic Pressure Converter (EPC) and an Inflatable Textile fabric Pocket (ITP). The later has interesting mechanical properties and is fabricated using Jacquard knitting technique which allows automatic production of unlimited varieties of pattern weaving without any mould. Thanks to these features, these ITPs have provided a better alternative to the classical airbags made by stretchable polymer material. The proposed mathematical model is obtained by combining sub-models of two main parts of the whole system. In this way, a generalised and flexible model is obtained which can easily take into consideration the ITPs of different shapes. The pressure dynamics inside the ITP are considered by taking into account the air flow rate, variation of the volume of ITP and the length of pneumatic lines joining ITP with compressed air source. The parameters of the whole mathematical model are obtained via identification techniques. The effectiveness of the model is assessed through several experimental tests with the help of a servo hydraulic fatigue testing machine. PMID:25200116

  18. System and method of active vibration control for an electro-mechanically cooled device

    DOEpatents

    Lavietes, Anthony D.; Mauger, Joseph; Anderson, Eric H.

    2000-01-01

    A system and method of active vibration control of an electro-mechanically cooled device is disclosed. A cryogenic cooling system is located within an environment. The cooling system is characterized by a vibration transfer function, which requires vibration transfer function coefficients. A vibration controller generates the vibration transfer function coefficients in response to various triggering events. The environments may differ by mounting apparatus, by proximity to vibration generating devices, or by temperature. The triggering event may be powering on the cooling system, reaching an operating temperature, or a reset action. A counterbalance responds to a drive signal generated by the vibration controller, based on the vibration signal and the vibration transfer function, which adjusts vibrations. The method first places a cryogenic cooling system within a first environment and then generates a first set of vibration transfer function coefficients, for a vibration transfer function of the cooling system. Next, the cryogenic cooling system is placed within a second environment and a second set of vibration transfer function coefficients are generated. Then, a counterbalance is driven, based on the vibration transfer function, to reduce vibrations received by a vibration sensitive element.

  19. Lower rotation speed stimulates sympathetic activation during continuous-flow left ventricular assist device treatment.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Teruhiko; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Nitta, Daisuke; Fujino, Takeo; Inaba, Toshiro; Maki, Hisataka; Hatano, Masaru; Kinoshita, Osamu; Nawata, Kan; Kyo, Shunei; Ono, Minoru

    2015-03-01

    Although the suppression of sympathetic activity is an essential mission for the current heart failure treatment strategy, little is known about the relationship between the rotation speed setting and autonomic nervous activity during continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) treatment. We evaluated 23 adult patients with sinus rhythm (36 ± 13 years) who had received continuous-flow LVAD and been followed at our institute between March 2013 and August 2014. Heart rate variability measurement was executed along with hemodynamic study at 3 rotation speeds (low, middle, and high) at 5 weeks after LVAD implantation. Lower rotation speed was associated with higher ratio of low-frequency over high-frequency spectral level (LF/HF), representing enhanced sympathetic activation (p < 0.05 by repeated analyses of variance). Among hemodynamic parameters, cardiac index was exclusively associated with LFNU = LF/(LF + HF), representing relative sympathetic activity over parasympathetic one (p < 0.05). After 6 months LVAD support at middle rotation speed, 19 patients with higher LFNU eventually had higher plasma levels of B-type natriuretic peptide and achieved less LV reverse remodeling. A logistic regression analysis demonstrated that lower LFNU was significantly associated with improvement of LV reverse remodeling (p = 0.021, odds ratio 0.903) with a cut-off level of 55 % calculated by the ROC analysis (AUC 0.869). In conclusion, autonomic activity can vary in various rotation speeds. Patients with higher LFNU may better be controlled at higher rotation speed with the view point to suppress sympathetic activity and achieve LV reverse remodeling.

  20. A Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Device (μPAD) for Aerosol Oxidative Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sameenoi, Yupaporn; Panymeesamer, Pantila; Supalakorn, Natcha; Koehler, Kirsten; Chailapakul, Orawon; Henry, Charles S.; Volckens, John

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution has been linked with respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases, in addition to various cancers. Consistent among all of these associations is the hypothesis that PM induces inflammation and oxidative stress in the affected tissue. Consequently, a variety of assays have been developed to quantify the oxidative activity of PM as a means to characterize its ability to induced oxidative stress. The vast majority of these assays rely on high-volume, fixed-location sampling methods due to limitations in assay sensitivity and detection limit. As a result, our understanding of how personal exposure contributes to the intake of oxidative air pollution is limited. To further this understanding, we present a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) for measuring PM oxidative activity on filters collected by personal sampling. The μPAD is inexpensive to fabricate and provides fast and sensitive analysis of aerosol oxidative activity. The oxidative activity measurement is based on the dithiothreitol assay (DTT assay), uses colorimetric detection, and can be completed in the field within 30 min following sample collection. The μPAD assay was validated against the traditional DTT assay using 13 extracted aerosol samples including urban aerosols, biomass burning PM, cigarette smoke and incense smoke. The results showed no significant differences in DTT consumption rate measured by the two methods. To demonstrate the utility of the approach, personal samples were collected to estimate human exposures to PM from indoor air, outdoor air on a clean day, and outdoor air on a wildfire-impacted day in Fort Collins, CO. Filter samples collected on the wildfire day gave the highest oxidative activity on a mass normalized basis, whereas typical ambient background air showed the lowest oxidative activity. PMID:23227907

  1. Electro-Active Device Using Radial Electric Field Piezo-Diaphragm for Control of Fluid Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Working, Dennis C. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A fluid-control electro-active device includes a piezo-diaphragm made from a ferroelectric material sandwiched by first and second electrode patterns configured to introduce an electric field into the ferroelectric material when voltage is applied thereto. The electric field originates at a region of the ferroelectric material between the first and second electrode patterns, and extends radially outward from this region of the ferroelectric material and substantially parallel to the plane of the ferroelectric material. The piezo-diaphragm deflects symmetrically about this region in a direction substantially perpendicular to the electric field. An annular region coupled to and extending radially outward from the piezo-diaphragm perimetrically borders the piezo-diaphragm, A housing is connected to the region and at least one fluid flow path with piezo-diaphragm disposed therein.

  2. 50 CFR 218.170 - Specified activity and specified geographical area and effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... use below): (1) Range Activities Using Active Acoustic Devices: (i) General range tracking: Narrow.... (vii) Other Acoustic Sources: (A) Acoustic Modems: Emit pulses at frequencies from 10 to 300 kHz with..., and UUV engine noise): Acoustic energy from engines usually from 50 Hz to 10 kHz at SLs less than...

  3. 50 CFR 218.170 - Specified activity and specified geographical area and effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (estimate amounts of use below): (1) Range Activities Using Active Acoustic Devices: (i) General range.... (vii) Other Acoustic Sources: (A) Acoustic Modems: Emit pulses at frequencies from 10 to 300 kHz with..., and UUV engine noise): Acoustic energy from engines usually from 50 Hz to 10 kHz at SLs less than...

  4. 50 CFR 218.170 - Specified activity and specified geographical area and effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (estimate amounts of use below): (1) Range Activities Using Active Acoustic Devices: (i) General range.... (vii) Other Acoustic Sources: (A) Acoustic Modems: Emit pulses at frequencies from 10 to 300 kHz with..., and UUV engine noise): Acoustic energy from engines usually from 50 Hz to 10 kHz at SLs less than...

  5. 50 CFR 218.170 - Specified activity and specified geographical area and effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (estimate amounts of use below): (1) Range Activities Using Active Acoustic Devices: (i) General range.... (vii) Other Acoustic Sources: (A) Acoustic Modems: Emit pulses at frequencies from 10 to 300 kHz with..., and UUV engine noise): Acoustic energy from engines usually from 50 Hz to 10 kHz at SLs less than...

  6. Using optical dating to assess the recent activity of active faults in Hsinchu Area, northwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanuki, T.; Chen, Y.

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the recent activity of active fault systems mapped in Hsinchu area, northwestern Taiwan. Since it is the largest site of industrial park and highly populated, it is essential to assess potential of earthquake hazards. As a result of previous work, two active fault systems (Hsinchu and Hsincheng) were identified as active. However, they have not been included in dangerous active faults on published map because Holocene offset has not been confirmed yet. Relationship between five river terraces and faults were discussed by mapping on geomorphic features; both of these thrust faults contain active anticlines in their hanging walls based on folded terraces that are composed of young alluvial deposits. Neither long-term nor short-term slip rate has been reported due to lack of age control on development timing of the terraces mentioned above. We collected samples from these terraces and open-pit trench on the highest terrace, where intercalated sandy layers are found within cobbles. As literatures optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating method can directly measure the burial ages of sedimentary deposits that underwent a short period of sunlight bleaching. Therefore, OSL dating is applied via single aliquot regeneration method on sand size quartz extract from our study terraces. OSL ages about 46ka and 68-75ka are obtained from 4 fluvial deposits at trenching site. We tentatively suggest that the terrace was abandoned by the main channel after 68ka and then upper strata were subsequently deposited by local small creeks. The vertical displacements cross these Hsinchu and Hsincheng active faults are ca. 90m and 70m, respectively since 68ka. Consequently, the derived long-term rates of vertical slip are 1.3 and 1.0 m/ka respectively for both of them. The details of the other age results and discussion on recent structural behavior will be presented.

  7. 50 CFR 218.110 - Specified activity and specified geographical area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... geographical area. 218.110 Section 218.110 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL... Training Range Complex (NWTRC) § 218.110 Specified activity and specified geographical area. (a... area outlined in paragraph (b) of this section and that occur incidental to the activities described...

  8. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Juneau Area Activities Report, 1975-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Joan E.

    Reflecting the changing role of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), this 1975-76 annual report on the BIA's Juneau Area Office and its activities focuses upon the BIA resources, services, and technical assistance afforded Alaska Natives in the Juneau area. Highlights of Juneau Area Office Activities are presented in conjunction with the office's…

  9. 36 CFR 294.25 - Mineral activities in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mineral activities in Idaho... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.25 Mineral activities in Idaho Roadless Areas. (a) Nothing in this subpart shall be construed as restricting mineral leases, contracts, permits,...

  10. 36 CFR 294.25 - Mineral activities in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral activities in Idaho... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.25 Mineral activities in Idaho Roadless Areas. (a) Nothing in this subpart shall be construed as restricting mineral leases, contracts, permits,...

  11. 36 CFR 294.25 - Mineral activities in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mineral activities in Idaho... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.25 Mineral activities in Idaho Roadless Areas. (a) Nothing in this subpart shall be construed as restricting mineral leases, contracts, permits,...

  12. 36 CFR 294.25 - Mineral activities in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mineral activities in Idaho... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.25 Mineral activities in Idaho Roadless Areas. (a) Nothing in this subpart shall be construed as restricting mineral leases, contracts, permits,...

  13. 36 CFR 294.25 - Mineral activities in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mineral activities in Idaho... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.25 Mineral activities in Idaho Roadless Areas. (a) Nothing in this subpart shall be construed as restricting mineral leases, contracts, permits,...

  14. Nanostructure and strain effects in active thin films for novel electronic device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zheng

    2007-12-01

    There are many potential applications of ferroelectric thin films that take advantage of their unique dielectric and piezoelectric properties, such as tunable microwave devices and thin-film active sensors for structural health monitoring (SHM). However, many technical issues still restrict practical applications of ferroelectric thin films, including high insertion loss, limited figure of merit, soft mode effect, large temperature coefficients, and others. The main theme of this thesis is the advanced technique developments, and the new ferroelectric thin films syntheses and investigations for novel device applications. A novel method of additional doping has been adopted to (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 (BSTO) thin films on MgO. By introducing 2% Mn into the stoichiometric BSTO, Mn:BSTO thin films have shown a greatly enhanced dielectric tunability and a reduced insertion loss at high frequencies (10-30 GHz). A new record of a large tunability of 80% with a high dielectric constant of 3800 and an extra low dielectric loss of 0.001 at 1 MHz at room-temperature was achieved. Meanwhile, the new highly epitaxial ferroelectric (Pb,Sr)TiO3 (PSTO) thin films have been synthesized on (001) MgO substrates. PSTO films demonstrated excellent high frequency dielectric properties with high dielectric constants above 1420 and large dielectric tunabilities above 34% at room-temperature up to 20 GHz. In addition, a smaller temperature coefficient from 80 K to 300 K was observed in PSTO films compared to BSTO films. These results indicate that the Mn:BSTO and PSTO films are both good candidates for developing room-temperature tunable microwave devices. Furthermore, crystalline ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BTO) thin films have been deposited directly on metal substrate Ni through a unique in-situ substrate pre-oxidation treatment. The highly oriented nanopillar structural BTO films were grown on the buffered layers created by the pre-oxidation treatment. No interdiffusion or reaction was observed at the

  15. Continuous Monitoring of Electrical Activity of Pancreatic β-Cells Using Semiconductor-Based Biosensing Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Toshiya; Sugimoto, Haruyo

    2011-02-01

    The electrical activity of rat pancreatic β-cells caused by introduction of glucose was directly and noninvasively detected using a cell-based field-effect transistor (FET). Rat pancreatic β-cells were adhered to the gate sensing surface of the cell-based FET. The principle of cell-based FETs is based on the detection of charge density changes such as pH variation at the interface between the cell membrane and the gate surface. The gate surface potential of pancreatic β-cell-based FET increased continuously after introduction of glucose at a high concentration of 10 mg/ml. This result indicates that the electrical activity of β-cells was successfully monitored on the basis of pH changes, i.e., increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions, at the cell/gate interface using the pancreatic β-cell-based FET. We assume that the pH variation based on hydrogen ion accumulation at the cell/gate interface was induced by activation of respiration accompanied by insulin secretion process following glucose addition. The platform based on the field-effect devices is suitable for application in a real-time, noninvasive, and label-free detection system for cell functional analyses.

  16. Redox-Active Nitroxide Radical Polymers: From Green Catalysts to Energy Storage Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waskitoaji, Wihatmoko; Suga, Takeo; Nishide, Hiroyuki

    2009-09-01

    Robust but redox-active radical polymers bearing 2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidin-N-oxy (TEMPO) were investigated as a metal-free, green mediator/catalyst for the oxidation of alcohol derivatives, and as a new electrode-active and charge-storage material. The TEMPO-mediated oxidation of the primary alcohol group of the natural cellulose improved the water-dispersivity of cellulose, and the polymer-supported catalysts or redox resins allow facile removal of catalysts from products by simple filtration. Other radical molecule (e.g. galvinoxyl) was also used as a mediator, which is coupled with the molecular oxygen. A reversible one-electron redox reaction of TEMPO allowed its application as an electrode-active material featuring high cyclability (>500 cycles), relatively high battery electrode capacity (100-135 mAh/g), and fast electrode kinetics, leading to the high power rate capability of the battery. The radical polymer-based electrodes also provided good processability and shape flexibility, which promised the paper-like and wearable energy-storage devices.

  17. Anti-biofilm activity of ultrashort cinnamic acid peptide derivatives against medical device-related pathogens.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Garry; McCloskey, Alice P; Gorman, Sean P; Gilmore, Brendan F

    2015-10-01

    The threat of antimicrobial resistance has placed increasing emphasis on the development of innovative approaches to eradicate multidrug-resistant pathogens. Biofilm-forming microorganisms, for example, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, are responsible for increased incidence of biomaterial infection, extended hospital stays and patient morbidity and mortality. This paper highlights the potential of ultrashort tetra-peptide conjugated to hydrophobic cinnamic acid derivatives. These peptidomimetic molecules demonstrate selective and highly potent activity against resistant biofilm forms of Gram-positive medical device-related pathogens. 3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)propionic)-Orn-Orn-Trp-Trp-NH2 displays particular promise with minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) values of 125 µg/ml against methicillin sensitive (ATCC 29213) and resistant (ATCC 43300) S. aureus and activity shown against biofilm forms of Escherichia coli (MBEC: 1000 µg/ml). Kill kinetics confirms complete eradication of established 24-h biofilms at MBEC with 6-h exposure. Reduced cell cytotoxicity, relative to Gram-positive pathogens, was proven via tissue culture (HaCaT) and haemolysis assays (equine erythrocytes). Existing in nature as part of the immune response, antimicrobial peptides display great promise for exploitation by the pharmaceutical industry in order to increase the library of available therapeutic molecules. Ultrashort variants are particularly promising for translation as clinical therapeutics as they are more cost-effective, easier to synthesise and can be tailored to specific functional requirements based on the primary sequence allowing factors such as spectrum of activity to be varied.

  18. Modeling activities on the negative-ion-based Neutral Beam Injectors of the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Chitarin, G.; Pilan, N.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.; Nakano, H.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.

    2011-09-26

    At the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) large-scaled negative ion sources have been widely used for the Neutral Beam Injectors (NBIs) mounted on the Large Helical Device (LHD), which is the world-largest superconducting helical system. These injectors have achieved outstanding performances in terms of beam energy, negative-ion current and optics, and represent a reference for the development of heating and current drive NBIs for ITER.In the framework of the support activities for the ITER NBIs, the PRIMA test facility, which includes a RF-drive ion source with 100 keV accelerator (SPIDER) and a complete 1 MeV Neutral Beam system (MITICA) is under construction at Consorzio RFX in Padova.An experimental validation of the codes has been undertaken in order to prove the accuracy of the simulations and the soundness of the SPIDER and MITICA design. To this purpose, the whole set of codes have been applied to the LHD NBIs in a joint activity between Consorzio RFX and NIFS, with the goal of comparing and benchmarking the codes with the experimental data. A description of these modeling activities and a discussion of the main results obtained are reported in this paper.

  19. Anti-biofilm activity of ultrashort cinnamic acid peptide derivatives against medical device-related pathogens.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Garry; McCloskey, Alice P; Gorman, Sean P; Gilmore, Brendan F

    2015-10-01

    The threat of antimicrobial resistance has placed increasing emphasis on the development of innovative approaches to eradicate multidrug-resistant pathogens. Biofilm-forming microorganisms, for example, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, are responsible for increased incidence of biomaterial infection, extended hospital stays and patient morbidity and mortality. This paper highlights the potential of ultrashort tetra-peptide conjugated to hydrophobic cinnamic acid derivatives. These peptidomimetic molecules demonstrate selective and highly potent activity against resistant biofilm forms of Gram-positive medical device-related pathogens. 3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)propionic)-Orn-Orn-Trp-Trp-NH2 displays particular promise with minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) values of 125 µg/ml against methicillin sensitive (ATCC 29213) and resistant (ATCC 43300) S. aureus and activity shown against biofilm forms of Escherichia coli (MBEC: 1000 µg/ml). Kill kinetics confirms complete eradication of established 24-h biofilms at MBEC with 6-h exposure. Reduced cell cytotoxicity, relative to Gram-positive pathogens, was proven via tissue culture (HaCaT) and haemolysis assays (equine erythrocytes). Existing in nature as part of the immune response, antimicrobial peptides display great promise for exploitation by the pharmaceutical industry in order to increase the library of available therapeutic molecules. Ultrashort variants are particularly promising for translation as clinical therapeutics as they are more cost-effective, easier to synthesise and can be tailored to specific functional requirements based on the primary sequence allowing factors such as spectrum of activity to be varied. PMID:26310860

  20. Active control of near-field coupling in conductively coupled microelectromechanical system metamaterial devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Manjappa, Manukumara; Ho, Chong Pei; Qian, You; Singh, Ranjan; Singh, Navab; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-03-01

    We experimentally report a structurally reconfigurable metamaterial for active switching of near-field coupling in conductively coupled, orthogonally twisted split ring resonators (SRRs) operating in the terahertz spectral region. Out-of-plane reconfigurable microcantilevers integrated into the dark SRR geometry are used to provide active frequency tuning of dark SRR resonance. The geometrical parameters of individual SRRs are designed to have identical inductive-capacitive resonant frequency. This allows for the excitation of classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) due to the strong conductive coupling between the SRRs. When the microcantilevers are curved up, the resonant frequency of dark SRR blue-shifts and the EIT peak is completely modulated while the SRRs are still conductively connected. EIT modulation contrast of ˜50% is experimentally achieved with actively switchable group delay of ˜2.5 ps. Electrical control, miniaturized size, and readily integrable fabrication process of the proposed structurally reconfigurable metamaterial make it an ideal candidate for the realization of various terahertz communication devices such as electrically controllable terahertz delay lines, buffers, and tunable data-rate channels.

  1. PAH assessment in the main Brazilian offshore oil and gas production area using semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD) and transplanted bivalves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André Lourenço, Rafael; Francisco de Oliveira, Fábio; Haddad Nudi, Adriana; Rebello Wagener, Ângela de Luca; Guadalupe Meniconi, Maria de Fátima; Francioni, Eleine

    2015-06-01

    The Campos Basin is Brazil's main oil and gas production area. In 2013, more than 50 million cubic meters of produced water (PW) was discharged into these offshore waters. Despite the large volumes of PW that are discharged in the Campos Basin each day, the ecological concern of the chemicals in the PW are not completely understood. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are the most important contributors to the ecological hazards that are posed by discharged PW. This study aimed to evaluate the potential bioaccumulation of PAH using transplanted bivalves (Nodipecten nodosus) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD). The study was conducted in two platforms that discharge PW (P19 and P40). Another platform that does not discharge PW (P25) was investigated for comparison with the obtained results. Time-integrated hydrocarbon concentrations using SPMD and transplanted bivalves were estimated from the seawater near the three platforms. The bioaccumulation of the PAH in the transplanted bivalves at platforms P19 and P40 were up to fivefold greater than the bioaccumulation of the PAH at platform P25. The lowest PAH concentrations were estimated for platform P25 (4.3-6.2 ng L-1), and the highest PAH concentrations were estimated for platform P19 (9.2-37.3 ng L-1). Both techniques were effective for determining the bioavailability of the PAH and for providing time-integrated hydrocarbon concentrations regarding oil and gas production activities.

  2. Wide-area SWIR arrays and active illuminators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDougal, Michael; Hood, Andrew; Geske, Jon; Wang, Chad; Renner, Daniel; Follman, David; Heu, Paula

    2012-01-01

    We describe the factors that go into the component choices for a short wavelength (SWIR) imager, which include the SWIR sensor, the lens, and the illuminator. We have shown the factors for reducing dark current, and shown that we can achieve well below 1.5 nA/cm2 for 15 μm devices at 7°C. We have mated our InGaAs detector arrays to 640x512 readout integrated integrated circuits (ROICs) to make focal plane arrays (FPAs). In addition, we have fabricated high definition 1920x1080 FPAs for wide field of view imaging. The resulting FPAs are capable of imaging photon fluxes with wavelengths between 1 and 1.6 microns at low light levels. The dark current associated with these FPAs is extremely low, exhibiting a mean dark current density of 0.26 nA/cm2 at 0°C. FLIR has also developed a high definition, 1920x1080, 15 um pitch SWIR sensor. In addition, FLIR has developed laser arrays that provide flat illumination in scenes that are normally light-starved. The illuminators have 40% wall-plug efficiency and provide low-speckle illumination, provide artifact-free imagery versus conventional laser illuminators.

  3. 50 CFR 218.120 - Specified activity and geographical area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-mounted active sonar)—up to 2,890 hours over the course of 5 years (an average of 578 hours per year); (ii) AN/SQS-56 (hull-mounted active sonar)—up to 260 hours over the course of 5 years (an average of 52.... long.; 59°36′ N. lat., 148°10′ W. long.; 58°57′ N. lat., 150°04′ W. long.; 58°20′ N. lat., 151°00′...

  4. 50 CFR 218.120 - Specified activity and geographical area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-mounted active sonar)—up to 2,890 hours over the course of 5 years (an average of 578 hours per year); (ii) AN/SQS-56 (hull-mounted active sonar)—up to 260 hours over the course of 5 years (an average of 52.... long.; 59°36′ N. lat., 148°10′ W. long.; 58°57′ N. lat., 150°04′ W. long.; 58°20′ N. lat., 151°00′...

  5. 50 CFR 218.120 - Specified activity and geographical area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-mounted active sonar)—up to 2,890 hours over the course of 5 years (an average of 578 hours per year); (ii) AN/SQS-56 (hull-mounted active sonar)—up to 260 hours over the course of 5 years (an average of 52.... long.; 59°36′ N. lat., 148°10′ W. long.; 58°57′ N. lat., 150°04′ W. long.; 58°20′ N. lat., 151°00′...

  6. Energy expenditure prediction via a footwear-based physical activity monitor: Accuracy and comparison to other devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannecker, Kathryn

    2011-12-01

    Accurately estimating free-living energy expenditure (EE) is important for monitoring or altering energy balance and quantifying levels of physical activity. The use of accelerometers to monitor physical activity and estimate physical activity EE is common in both research and consumer settings. Recent advances in physical activity monitors include the ability to identify specific activities (e.g. stand vs. walk) which has resulted in improved EE estimation accuracy. Recently, a multi-sensor footwear-based physical activity monitor that is capable of achieving 98% activity identification accuracy has been developed. However, no study has compared the EE estimation accuracy for this monitor and compared this accuracy to other similar devices. Purpose . To determine the accuracy of physical activity EE estimation of a footwear-based physical activity monitor that uses an embedded accelerometer and insole pressure sensors and to compare this accuracy against a variety of research and consumer physical activity monitors. Methods. Nineteen adults (10 male, 9 female), mass: 75.14 (17.1) kg, BMI: 25.07(4.6) kg/m2 (mean (SD)), completed a four hour stay in a room calorimeter. Participants wore a footwear-based physical activity monitor, as well as three physical activity monitoring devices used in research: hip-mounted Actical and Actigraph accelerometers and a multi-accelerometer IDEEA device with sensors secured to the limb and chest. In addition, participants wore two consumer devices: Philips DirectLife and Fitbit. Each individual performed a series of randomly assigned and ordered postures/activities including lying, sitting (quietly and using a computer), standing, walking, stepping, cycling, sweeping, as well as a period of self-selected activities. We developed branched (i.e. activity specific) linear regression models to estimate EE from the footwear-based device, and we used the manufacturer's software to estimate EE for all other devices. Results. The shoe

  7. Microfluidic Device for Electric Field-Driven Single-Cell Captureand Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Toriello, Nicholas M.; Douglas, Erik S.; Mathies, Richard A.

    2005-09-20

    A microchip that performs directed capture and chemical activation of surface-modified single-cells has been developed. The cell-capture system is comprised of interdigitated gold electrodes microfabricated on a glass substrate within PDMS channels. The cell surface is labeled with thiol functional groups using endogenous RGD receptors and adhesion to exposed gold pads on the electrodes is directed by applying a driving electric potential. Multiple cell types can thus be sequentially and selectively captured on desired electrodes. Single-cell capture efficiency is optimized by varying the duration of field application. Maximum single-cell capture is attained for the 10 min trial, with 63+-9 percent (n=30) of the electrode pad rows having a single cell. In activation studies, single M1WT3 CHO cells loaded with the calcium-sensitive dye fluo-4 AM were captured; exposure to the muscarinic agonist carbachol increased the fluorescence to 220+-74percent (n=79) of the original intensity. These results demonstrate the ability to direct the adhesion of selected living single cells on electrodes in a microfluidic device and to analyze their response to chemical stimuli.

  8. Propeller-based wireless device for active capsular endoscopy in the gastric district.

    PubMed

    Tortora, Giuseppe; Valdastri, Pietro; Susilo, Ekawahyu; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo; Rieber, Fabian; Schurr, Marc Oliver

    2009-01-01

    An innovative approach to active locomotion for capsular endoscopy in the gastric district is reported in this paper. Taking advantage of the ingestion of 500 ml of transparent liquid by the patient, an effective distension of the stomach is safely achieved for a timeframe of approximately 30 minutes. Given such a scenario, an active swallowable capsule able to navigate inside the stomach thanks to a four propeller system has been developed. The capsule is 15 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length, and it is composed of a supporting shell containing a wireless microcontroller, a battery and four motors. The motors enable the rotation of propellers located in the rear side of the device, thus obtaining a reliable locomotion and steering of the capsule in all directions in a liquid. The power consumption has been properly optimized in order to achieve an operative lifetime consistent with the time of the diagnostic inspection of the gastric district, assumed to be no more than 30 minutes. The capsule can be easily remotely controlled by the endoscopist using a joystick together with a purposely developed graphical user interface. The capsule design, prototyping, in vitro, ex vivo and preliminary in vivo tests are described in this work.

  9. Areas of Unsolved Problems in Caribbean Active Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    I review some unsolved problems in Caribbean active tectonics. At the regional and plate scale: 1) confirm the existence of intraplate deformation zones of the central Caribbean plate that are within the margin of error of ongoing GPS measurements; 2) carry out field studies to evaluate block models versus models for distributed fault shear on the densely populated islands of Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; 3) carry out paleoseismological research of key plate boundary faults that may have accumulated large strains but have not been previously studied in detail; 4) determine the age of onset and far-field effects of the Cocos ridge and the Central America forearc sliver; 4) investigate the origin and earthquake-potential of obliquely-sheared rift basins along the northern coast of Venezuela; 5) determine the age of onset and regional active, tectonic effects of the Panama-South America collision including the continued activation of the Maracaibo block; and 6) validate longterm rates on active subduction zones with improving, tomographic maps of subducted slabs. At the individual fault scale: 1) determine the mode of termination of large and active strike -slip faults and application of the STEP model (Septentrional, Polochic, El Pilar, Bocono, Santa Marta-Bucaramanaga); 2) improve the understanding of the earthquake potential on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone given "off-fault" events such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake; how widespread is this behavior?; and 3) estimate size of future tsunamis from studies of historic or prehistoric slump scars and mass transport deposits; what potential runups can be predicted from this information?; and 4) devise ways to keep rapidly growing, circum-Caribbean urban populations better informed and safer in the face of inevitable and future, large earthquakes.

  10. Devices and methods to measure H2 and CO2 concentrations in gases released from soils and low temperature fumaroles in volcanic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Martino, R. M. R.; Camarda, M.; Gurrieri, S.; Valenza, M.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrogen solubility and diffusion have a great relevance to change the redox state of magmas, usually expressed by oxygen fugacity. This influences many chemical and physical properties, such as oxidation state of multivalent elements, kind and abundance of minerals and gas species. These processes change the phase ratios into the volcanic system and so the magma movement capability toward the earth surface and the eruptive dynamics. In past studies several authors (Carapezza et al., 1980; Sato et al., 1982; Sato and McGee, 1985; Wakita et al., 1980) proposed the application of the fuel cells in order to measure reducing capacity of volcanic gases. Their found some clear correlations between variation peaks and volcanic activity but a few reducing capacity changes showed no correlation with it. In this study we characterize a fuel cell device designed to measure hydrogen concentration in a gas mixture. We present test results obtained in laboratory and in field trip, carried out to verify the major interferences of others reducing gas species, commonly present in volcanic emissions, in the measurement carried out with a hydrogen fuel cell sensor. Tests were performed at controlled temperature ad pressure conditions and at air saturated pressure vapour in the cell cathode. A new device to measure simultaneously hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in soil and in low temperature fumaroles in volcanic areas was proposed. The H2-detector is a hydrogen fuel cell, whereas CO2 is measured using an I.R. spectrometer. To build a continuous monitoring station of volcanic activity both sensors were put in a case together with a data logger. Our device has 0.2 mV ppm-1 sensitivity, accuracy of ± 5 ppm and about 10 ppm resolution whit respect to the hydrogen concentration. These instrumental characteristics were obtained applying a 500 ohm resistor to the external circuit that represents the best compromise between sensitivity, resolution, instrumental

  11. Application of a high surface area solid-phase microextraction air sampling device: collection and analysis of chemical warfare agent surrogate and degradation compounds.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Michael E; Tipple, Christopher A; Smith, Philip A; Cho, David S; Mustacich, Robert V; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2013-09-17

    This work examines a recently improved, dynamic air sampling technique, high surface area solid-phase microextraction (HSA-SPME), developed for time-critical, high-volume sampling and analysis scenarios. The previously reported HSA-SPME sampling device, which provides 10-fold greater surface area compared to commercially available SPME fibers, allowed for an increased analyte uptake per unit time relative to exhaustive sampling through a standard sorbent tube. This sampling device has been improved with the addition of a type-K thermocouple and a custom heater control circuit for direct heating, providing precise (relative standard deviation ∼1%) temperature control of the desorption process for trapped analytes. Power requirements for the HSA-SPME desorption process were 30-fold lower than those for conventional sorbent-bed-based desorption devices, an important quality for a device that could be used for field analysis. Comparisons of the HSA-SPME device when using fixed sampling times for the chemical warfare agent (CWA) surrogate compound, diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), demonstrated that the HSA-SPME device yielded a greater chromatographic response (up to 50%) relative to a sorbent-bed method. Another HSA-SPME air sampling approach, in which two devices are joined in tandem, was also evaluated for very rapid, low-level, and representative analysis when using discrete sampling times for the compounds of interest. The results indicated that subparts per billion by volume concentration levels of DIMP were detectable with short sampling times (∼15 s). Finally, the tandem HSA-SPME device was employed for the headspace sampling of a CWA degradation compound, 2-(diisopropylaminoethyl) ethyl sulfide, present on cloth material, which demonstrated the capability to detect trace amounts of a CWA degradation product that is estimated to be less volatile than sarin. The rapid and highly sensitive detection features of this device may be beneficial in decision

  12. Ag5IO6: novel antibiofilm activity of a silver compound with application to medical devices.

    PubMed

    Incani, Vanessa; Omar, Amin; Prosperi-Porta, Graeme; Nadworny, Patricia

    2015-06-01

    This work explores the unique antibiofilm activity of pentasilver hexaoxoiodate (Ag(5)IO(6)). To test this activity, wound dressings were impregnated with Ag(5)IO(6) and compared with various commercially available silver-containing dressings, as well as dressings containing chlorhexidine, iodine and polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB). The materials were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans for their ability to prevent micro-organism adherence, eliminate planktonic micro-organisms and disrupt/eliminate mature biofilms generated using the MBEC™ assay within 24 h of microbial exposure. Only the Ag(5)IO(6)-containing dressings were able to prevent adherence and eliminate surrounding planktonic micro-organisms for all species tested for ≥28 days of elution with log reductions >4. Two other silver dressings succeeded against P. aeruginosa only after 28 elution days, whilst the PHMB dressing succeeded after 28 days of elution against C. albicans only. Ag(5)IO(6)-containing dressings were able to generate >4 log reductions against all biofilms tested. The only commercial dressings able to generate >4 log reductions against biofilms were iodine against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, and PHMB against S. aureus. The Ag(5)IO(6) dressings demonstrated complete kill (>4 log reduction) in a standard 30-min planktonic log reduction assay against all species. These results demonstrate that Ag(5)IO(6) has superior activity to a number of antimicrobials, with broad-spectrum efficacy that includes long-term prevention of microbial adherence, rapid kill of planktonic micro-organisms, and the ability to disrupt and eliminate mature biofilms. Thus, Ag(5)IO(6) may be a valuable antimicrobial agent for use in a number of medical device applications, including wound dressings, various catheters or implants. PMID:25604278

  13. Ag5IO6: novel antibiofilm activity of a silver compound with application to medical devices.

    PubMed

    Incani, Vanessa; Omar, Amin; Prosperi-Porta, Graeme; Nadworny, Patricia

    2015-06-01

    This work explores the unique antibiofilm activity of pentasilver hexaoxoiodate (Ag(5)IO(6)). To test this activity, wound dressings were impregnated with Ag(5)IO(6) and compared with various commercially available silver-containing dressings, as well as dressings containing chlorhexidine, iodine and polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB). The materials were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans for their ability to prevent micro-organism adherence, eliminate planktonic micro-organisms and disrupt/eliminate mature biofilms generated using the MBEC™ assay within 24 h of microbial exposure. Only the Ag(5)IO(6)-containing dressings were able to prevent adherence and eliminate surrounding planktonic micro-organisms for all species tested for ≥28 days of elution with log reductions >4. Two other silver dressings succeeded against P. aeruginosa only after 28 elution days, whilst the PHMB dressing succeeded after 28 days of elution against C. albicans only. Ag(5)IO(6)-containing dressings were able to generate >4 log reductions against all biofilms tested. The only commercial dressings able to generate >4 log reductions against biofilms were iodine against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, and PHMB against S. aureus. The Ag(5)IO(6) dressings demonstrated complete kill (>4 log reduction) in a standard 30-min planktonic log reduction assay against all species. These results demonstrate that Ag(5)IO(6) has superior activity to a number of antimicrobials, with broad-spectrum efficacy that includes long-term prevention of microbial adherence, rapid kill of planktonic micro-organisms, and the ability to disrupt and eliminate mature biofilms. Thus, Ag(5)IO(6) may be a valuable antimicrobial agent for use in a number of medical device applications, including wound dressings, various catheters or implants.

  14. Spot temperatures and area coverages on active dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarr, Steven H.; Neff, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Two active K dwarfs are examined to determine the temperatures of the stars and to estimate the locations and sizes of cool spots on the stellar surfaces. Two wavelength regions with TiO absorption bands at different temperature sensitivities are modeled simultaneously using the method developed by Huenemoerder and Ramsey (1987). The spectrum of BD +26deg730 shows excess absorption in the TiO band, and the absence of the 8860 A band in HD 82558 indicates that its spots are warmer than those of BD +26deg730.

  15. 78 FR 46347 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Medical Devices...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... international standards ``ISO 9001: Quality Systems Model for Quality Assurance in Design/Development... device CGMP requirements with QS specifications in the international standard ``ISO 9001: Quality...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT. STORMWATER SOURCE AREA TREATMENT DEVICE. THE TERRE HILL CONCRETE PRODUCTS TERRE KLEEN™ 09

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Terre Hill Concrete Products Terre Kleen™ 09 was conducted on a 1.27 acre portion of the City of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Department of Public Works facility. The Terre Kleen™ devices combines primary and secondary chambers, baffles, a screen, and incl...

  17. Coordination of groundwater activities in the 100 N Area

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    The initiation of the N Springs Expedited Response Action (ERA) in the 100 N Area will affect the groundwater monitoring networks of two Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) units. The 1301-N and 325-N facilities are treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) units that have been monitored under RCRA since 1987. In September 1994, the Washington State Department of Ecology issued an action memorandum, instructing the US Department of Energy (DOE) to take the action. The planned pump-and-treat system will preclude meeting the specific objectives of interim-status RCRA groundwater monitoring representative samples and detect adverse impacts of the TSD units on. However, under RCRA final-status requirements, which will be implemented in 1999, corrective action for groundwater contamination will probably be required. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared parity between RCRA corrective action and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 remedial action decisions. The 1301-N and 1325-N facilities are still in interim-status and therefore are not in the category of ``RCRA corrective action.`` However, DOE`s position is that parity exists between RCRA and the ERA because RCRA corrective action will almost certainly be required in the future.

  18. Agriculture in an area impacted by past uranium mining activities

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, F. P.; Oliveira, J. M.; Neves, O.; Vicente, E. M.; Abreu, M. M.

    2007-07-01

    The shallow aquifer near the old Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Viseu, Portugal) was contaminated by acid mine drainage. Concentration of radionuclides in water from irrigation wells and in the topsoil layer of the agriculture fields nearby display enhanced concentrations of uranium, radium and polonium. Two types of agriculture land in this area were selected, one with enhanced and another with low uranium concentrations, for controlled growth of lettuce and potatoes. Plants were grown in replicate portions of land (two plots) in each soil type and were periodically irrigated with water from wells. In each soil, one plot was irrigated with water containing low concentration of dissolved uranium and the other plot with water containing enhanced concentration of dissolved uranium. At the end of the growth season, plants were harvested and analysed, along with soil and irrigation water samples. Results show the accumulation of radionuclides in edible parts of plants, specially in the field plots with higher radionuclide concentrations in soil. Radionuclides in irrigation water contributed less to the radioactivity accumulated in plants than radionuclides from soils. (authors)

  19. Potentiometric bioimaging with a large-scale integration (LSI)-based electrochemical device for detection of enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Yusuke; Ino, Kosuke; Sakamoto, Chika; Inoue, Kumi Y; Matsudaira, Masahki; Suda, Atsushi; Kunikata, Ryota; Ishikawa, Tomohiro; Abe, Hiroya; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2016-03-15

    This paper describes potentiometric bioimaging for enzyme activity using a large-scale integration (LSI)-based electrochemical device with 400 sensors. Potentiometric detection is useful for bioimaging because redox species are not consumed or produced during the detection process; therefore, there is no effect on cell activity and the detectable signal is sustained. In this study, the potentiometer mode of the LSI-based device was applied for the detection of glucose oxidase (GOx) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. The enzyme activities were quantitatively detected within the concentration ranges of 25-250 μg/mL and 0.10-5.0 ng/mL. In addition, GOx activity in hydrogels and the ALP activity of embryoid bodies (EBs) from embryonic stem (ES) cells were successfully imaged based on detection of the open circuit potentials of individual sensors in real time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of potentiometric imaging using LSI-based electrochemical arrays to detect enzyme activity in ES cells. The LSI-based device is thus demonstrated to be a promising tool for bioimaging of enzyme activity.

  20. Processing-Induced Electrically Active Defects in Black Silicon Nanowire Devices.

    PubMed

    Carapezzi, Stefania; Castaldini, Antonio; Mancarella, Fulvio; Poggi, Antonella; Cavallini, Anna

    2016-04-27

    Silicon nanowires (Si NWs) are widely investigated nowadays for implementation in advanced energy conversion and storage devices, as well as many other possible applications. Black silicon (BSi)-NWs are dry etched NWs that merge the advantages related to low-dimensionality with the special industrial appeal connected to deep reactive ion etching (RIE). In fact, RIE is a well established technique in microelectronics manufacturing. However, RIE processing could affect the electrical properties of BSi-NWs by introducing deep states into their forbidden gap. This work applies deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) to identify electrically active deep levels and the associated defects in dry etched Si NW arrays. Besides, the successful fitting of DLTS spectra of BSi-NWs-based Schottky barrier diodes is an experimental confirmation that the same theoretical framework of dynamic electronic behavior of deep levels applies in bulk as well as in low dimensional structures like NWs, when quantum confinement conditions do not occur. This has been validated for deep levels associated with simple pointlike defects as well as for deep levels associated with defects with richer structures, whose dynamic electronic behavior implies a more complex picture.

  1. Atypical self-activation of Ga dopant for Ge nanowire devices.

    PubMed

    Zeiner, Clemens; Lugstein, Alois; Burchhart, Thomas; Pongratz, Peter; Connell, Justin G; Lauhon, Lincoln J; Bertagnolli, Emmerich

    2011-08-10

    In this Letter we report the atypical self-activation of gallium (Ga) implanted by focused ion beam (FIB) into germanium nanowires (Ge-NWs). By FIB implantation of 30 keV Ga(+) ions at room temperature, the Ge-NW conductivity increases up to 3 orders of magnitude with increasing ion fluence. Cu(3)Ge heterostructures were formed by diffusion to ensure well-defined contacts to the NW and enable two point I/V measurements. Additional four point measurements prove that the conductivity enhancement emerges from the modification of the wires themselves and not from contact property modifications. The Ga distribution in the implanted Ge-NWs was measured using atom probe tomography. For high ion fluences, and beginning amorphization of the NWs, the conductivity decreases exponentially. Temperature dependent conductivity measurements show strong evidence for an in situ doping of the Ge-NWs without any further annealing. Finally the feasibility of improving the device performance of top-gated Ge-NW MOSFETs by FIB implantation was shown. PMID:21744779

  2. Activation of cortical areas in music execution and imagining: a high-resolution EEG study.

    PubMed

    Kristeva, Rumyana; Chakarov, Vihren; Schulte-Mönting, Jürgen; Spreer, Joachim

    2003-11-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that execution of a musical sequence on an instrument activates bilateral frontal opercular regions, in addition to bilateral sensorimotor and supplementary motor areas. During imagining activation of the same areas without primary sensorimotor areas was shown. We recorded EEG from 58 scalp positions to investigate the temporal sequence and the time course of activation of these areas while violin players prepared to execute, executed, prepared to imagine, or imagined a musical sequence on a violin. During the preparation for the sequence in three of seven musicians investigated the bilateral frontal opercular regions became active earlier than the motor areas and in one of them simultaneously with the motor areas. In two of the musicians a rather variable pattern of activation was observed. The frontal opercular regions were also strongly involved throughout the period of music execution or imagining. The supplementary motor area was involved in both preparation for the sequence and during execution and imagining of the sequence. The left primary sensorimotor area was involved in the preparation and termination of the musical sequence for both execution and imagining. The right sensorimotor area was strongly involved in the preparation for and during the execution of the sequence. We conclude that the bilateral frontal opercular regions are crucial in both preparation for and during music execution and imagining. They may have "mirror neurone" properties that underlie observation or imagining of one's own performance. The motor areas are differentially activated during the preparation and execution or imagining the sequence.

  3. Using a partial sum method and GPS tracking data to identify area restricted search by artisanal fishers at moored fish aggregating devices in the Commonwealth of Dominica.

    PubMed

    Alvard, Michael; Carlson, David; McGaffey, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Foragers must often travel from a central place to exploit aggregations of prey. These patches can be identified behaviorally when a forager shifts from travel to area restricted search, identified by a decrease in speed and an increase in sinuosity of movement. Faster, more directed movement is associated with travel. Differentiating foraging behavior at patches from travel to patches is important for a variety of research questions and has now been made easier by the advent of small, GPS devices that can track forager movement with high resolution. In the summer and fall of 2012, movement data were collected from GPS devices placed on foraging trips originating in the artisanal fishing village of Desa Ikan (pseudonym), on the east coast of the Caribbean island nation of the Commonwealth Dominica. Moored FADs are human-made structures anchored to the ocean floor with fish attraction material on or near the surface designed to effectively create a resource patch. The ultimate goal of the research is to understand how property rights are emerging after the introduction of fish aggregating device (FAD) technology at the site in 1999. This paper reports on research to identify area-restricted search foraging behavior at FAD patches. For 22 foraging trips simultaneous behavioral observations were made to ground-truth the GPS movement data. Using a cumulative sum method, area restricted search was identified as negative deviations from the mean travel speed and the method was able to correctly identify FAD patches in every case.

  4. Using a Partial Sum Method and GPS Tracking Data to Identify Area Restricted Search by Artisanal Fishers at Moored Fish Aggregating Devices in the Commonwealth of Dominica

    PubMed Central

    Alvard, Michael; Carlson, David; McGaffey, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Foragers must often travel from a central place to exploit aggregations of prey. These patches can be identified behaviorally when a forager shifts from travel to area restricted search, identified by a decrease in speed and an increase in sinuosity of movement. Faster, more directed movement is associated with travel. Differentiating foraging behavior at patches from travel to patches is important for a variety of research questions and has now been made easier by the advent of small, GPS devices that can track forager movement with high resolution. In the summer and fall of 2012, movement data were collected from GPS devices placed on foraging trips originating in the artisanal fishing village of Desa Ikan (pseudonym), on the east coast of the Caribbean island nation of the Commonwealth Dominica. Moored FADs are human-made structures anchored to the ocean floor with fish attraction material on or near the surface designed to effectively create a resource patch. The ultimate goal of the research is to understand how property rights are emerging after the introduction of fish aggregating device (FAD) technology at the site in 1999. This paper reports on research to identify area-restricted search foraging behavior at FAD patches. For 22 foraging trips simultaneous behavioral observations were made to ground-truth the GPS movement data. Using a cumulative sum method, area restricted search was identified as negative deviations from the mean travel speed and the method was able to correctly identify FAD patches in every case. PMID:25647288

  5. Activating Students' Interest and Participation in Lectures and Practical Courses Using Their Electronic Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijtmans, Maikel; van Rens, Lisette; van Muijlwijk-Koezen, Jacqueline E.

    2014-01-01

    Interactive teaching with larger groups of students can be a challenge, but the use of mobile electronic devices by students (smartphones, tablets, laptops) can be used to improve classroom interaction. We have examined several types of tasks that can be electronically enacted in classes and practical courses using these devices: multiple choice…

  6. 75 FR 69447 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Medical Devices...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... response to the 60-day notice of February 5, 2008 (73 FR 6729) (Docket No. FDA-2008-N-0050). FDA... the Federal Register of February 8, 2002 (67 FR 5943), FDA issued a final rule which conformed... Collection; Comment Request; Medical Devices; Device Tracking AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration,...

  7. BioInnovate Ireland--fostering entrepreneurial activity through medical device innovation training.

    PubMed

    Bruzzi, M S; Linehan, J H

    2013-09-01

    In the midst of a rich environment for medical device development and manufacturing, universities can play a critical role by developing relevant training programs to produce entrepreneurs who can be efficient and successful in creating early stage companies by understanding deeply the issues involved in creating a useful device, how to raise money, designing early clinical studies and locating manufacturing partners. PMID:23494126

  8. BioInnovate Ireland--fostering entrepreneurial activity through medical device innovation training.

    PubMed

    Bruzzi, M S; Linehan, J H

    2013-09-01

    In the midst of a rich environment for medical device development and manufacturing, universities can play a critical role by developing relevant training programs to produce entrepreneurs who can be efficient and successful in creating early stage companies by understanding deeply the issues involved in creating a useful device, how to raise money, designing early clinical studies and locating manufacturing partners.

  9. Mountain-Plains Master Course List. Curriculum Areas: Job Titles: Learning Activity Packages: Courses: Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document contains a master listing of all Mountain-Plains curriculum, compiled by job title, course, unit and LAP (Learning Activity Package), and arranged in numerical order by curriculum area. Preceding each curriculum area is a page of explanatory notes describing the curriculum area and including relevant job descriptions. Where a job…

  10. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 552 - Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access C Appendix C to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF.... 552, App. C Appendix C to Part 552—Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access...

  12. Research activities in nuclear astrophysics and related areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA/GRO grant NAG 5-2081, at the University of Chicago, has provided support for a broad program of theoretical research in nuclear astrophysics and related areas, with regard to gamma-ray and hard X-ray emission from classical nova explosions. This research emphasized the possible detection of 22Na gamma-ray line emission from nearby novae involving ONeMg white dwarfs, the detailed examination of 26Al production in novae, and the possible detection of the predicted early gamma ray emission from novae that arises from the decay of the short lived, positron emitting isotopes of CNO elements. Studies of nova related problems have consumed an increasing fraction of the Principal Investigator's research efforts over the past decade. Current research addresses problems associated with the standard model for the outbursts of the classical novae: the occurrence of thermonuclear runaways (TNR) in the accreted hydrogen rich envelopes on white dwarfs in close binary systems (see, e.g., the reviews by Truran 1982; and Shara 1989). Research in progress and planned for the next three years has three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of the early evolution of the light curves of, particularly, the fastest novae; (2) to gain an improved understanding of the relative importance of the various possible mechanisms of envelope hydrogen depletion (e.g. winds, common envelope driven mass loss, and nuclear burning) to the long term evolution of novae in outburst; and (3) to seek to provide a somewhat more definitive statement of the role of classical novae in nucleosynthesis. Our proposed 2-D studies of convection during the early phases of the TNR and our systematic attempt to incorporate an improved treatment of radiation hydrodynamics into the hydrodynamic code utilized in our calculations, are particularly relevant to the first of these objectives. Further 2-D studies of the effects of common envelope evolution are intended to provide more realistic constraints

  13. From black box to toolbox: Outlining device functionality, engagement activities, and the pervasive information architecture of mHealth interventions

    PubMed Central

    Danaher, Brian G.; Brendryen, Håvar; Seeley, John R.; Tyler, Milagra S.; Woolley, Tim

    2015-01-01

    mHealth interventions that deliver content via mobile phones represent a burgeoning area of health behavior change. The current paper examines two themes that can inform the underlying design of mHealth interventions: (1) mobile device functionality, which represents the technological toolbox available to intervention developers; and (2) the pervasive information architecture of mHealth interventions, which determines how intervention content can be delivered concurrently using mobile phones, personal computers, and other devices. We posit that developers of mHealth interventions will be better able to achieve the promise of this burgeoning arena by leveraging the toolbox and functionality of mobile devices in order to engage participants and encourage meaningful behavior change within the context of a carefully designed pervasive information architecture. PMID:25750862

  14. The application of machine learning in multi sensor data fusion for activity recognition in mobile device space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marhoubi, Asmaa H.; Saravi, Sara; Edirisinghe, Eran A.

    2015-05-01

    The present generation of mobile handheld devices comes equipped with a large number of sensors. The key sensors include the Ambient Light Sensor, Proximity Sensor, Gyroscope, Compass and the Accelerometer. Many mobile applications are driven based on the readings obtained from either one or two of these sensors. However the presence of multiple-sensors will enable the determination of more detailed activities that are carried out by the user of a mobile device, thus enabling smarter mobile applications to be developed that responds more appropriately to user behavior and device usage. In the proposed research we use recent advances in machine learning to fuse together the data obtained from all key sensors of a mobile device. We investigate the possible use of single and ensemble classifier based approaches to identify a mobile device's behavior in the space it is present. Feature selection algorithms are used to remove non-discriminant features that often lead to poor classifier performance. As the sensor readings are noisy and include a significant proportion of missing values and outliers, we use machine learning based approaches to clean the raw data obtained from the sensors, before use. Based on selected practical case studies, we demonstrate the ability to accurately recognize device behavior based on multi-sensor data fusion.

  15. Cell-based microfluidic device for screening anti-proliferative activity of drugs in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, R; Muñoz-Berbel, X; Demming, S; Büttgenbach, S; Herrera, M D; Llobera, A

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic device consisting of five parallel microchambers with integrated readout-grid for the screening of anti-proliferative activity of drugs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). A two-level SU-8 master was fabricated and replicated with poly(dimethylsiloxane), PDMS, using standard soft-lithographic methods. The relative small height (4-10 μm) of the integrated grid allowed the identification of single-cells or cell groups and the monitoring of their motility, morphology and size with time, without disturbing their proliferation pattern. This is of particular interest when considering VSMC which, apart of being crucial in the atherosclerotic process, do not proliferate in a single layer but in a non-homogenous hill and valley phenotype. The performance of the microfluidic device has been validated by comparison with conventional culturing methods, proving that the cell proliferation remains unaffected by the microchamber structure (with the integrated grid) and the experimental conditions. Finally, the microfluidic device was also used to evaluate the anti-proliferative activity of curcumin and colchicine in VSMC. With this cellular type, the anti-proliferative activity of curcumin (IC(50) =35 ± 5 μM) was found to be much lower than colchicine (IC(50) =3.2 ± 1.2 μM). These results demonstrate the good performance of the microfluidic device in the evaluation of the anti-proliferative activity (or cytotoxicity) of drugs.

  16. Acute Effects of a Therapeutic Mobility Device on Physical Activity and Heart Rate in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauck, Janet L.; Ulrich, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this feasibility study was to provide an opportunity to increase physical activity (PA) and heart rate (HR) for children with Down syndrome (DS) during unstructured group exercise utilizing a riding device called the Power Pumper®. Method: Twenty-four children aged 5 to 7 years old participated in this case-control study,…

  17. A novel method for the activity measurement of large-area beta reference sources.

    PubMed

    Stanga, D; De Felice, P; Keightley, J; Capogni, M; Ioan, M R

    2016-03-01

    A novel method has been developed for the activity measurement of large-area beta reference sources. It makes use of two emission rate measurements and is based on the weak dependence between the source activity and the activity distribution for a given value of transmission coefficient. The method was checked experimentally by measuring the activity of two ((60)Co and (137)Cs) large-area reference sources constructed from anodized aluminum foils. Measurement results were compared with the activity values measured by gamma spectrometry. For each source, they agree within one standard uncertainty and also agree within the same limits with the certified values of the source activity. PMID:26701656

  18. Detection of active faults using EMR-Technique and Cerescope at Landau area in central Upper Rhine Graben, SW Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagag, Wael; Obermeyer, Hennes

    2016-01-01

    Two conjugate sets of active faults oriented NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE have been detected at Landau area in SW Germany. These faults follow the old trends of the rift-related structures predominating in the Upper Rhine Graben (URG), which originated during Late Eocene-Miocene time. Linear and horizontal measurements were performed by using the Cerescope device and interpreted, applying the Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) Technique. Linear EMR-profiles were helpful for mapping active faults, while the main horizontal stress (σH, N to NNE) was easily identified with EMR-horizontal measurements. Reactivation of rift-related structures of the Upper Rhine Graben at Landau area produces a new system of active shallow fractures following old trends, and has been detected through the present study by Cerescope applying the EMR-Technique. The present results imply that the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) to the south of Landau has a great impact on reactivation of the pre-existing rift-related faults by mechanical hydro-fracturing occurring within the reservoir rocks underneath the area.

  19. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1... waterline to 30°09′57.5″ N, 085°44′37″ W; then northerly to point of origin. (2) Area BA-1. The area...

  20. Experimental/computational analysis of active cooling of stacked device using multidimensional configured thermoelectric modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Vaidehi Bharat

    Stacked devices are currently used widely because of their smaller footprint and corresponding ability to accommodate heterogeneous devices such as memory and logic and enable a silicon efficiency greater than 100%. This configuration will results in thermal management challenges due to the torturous heat dissipation path. In addition, the non-uniformity in chip power distribution results in an increased spreading resistance as well as temperature gradient at the device level that can degrade performance and reliability. In this study the Thermoelectric Modules were configured in a multidimensional form surrounding a three dimensional cold core. The corresponding Computational Fluid Dynamics model is validated using the experimental data.

  1. Decreased Activation of Subcortical Brain Areas in the Motor Fatigue State: An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li J; Song, Zheng; Pan, Zhu J; Cheng, Jia L; Yu, Yong; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    One aspect of motor fatigue is the exercise-induced reduction of neural activity to voluntarily drive the muscle or muscle group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides access to investigate the neural activation on the whole brain level and studies observed changes of activation intensity after exercise-induced motor fatigue in the sensorimotor cortex. However, in human, little evidence exists to demonstrate the role of subcortical brain regions in motor fatigue, which is contradict to abundant researches in rodent indicating that during simple movement, the activity of the basal ganglia is modulated by the state of motor fatigue. Thus, in present study, we explored the effect of motor fatigue on subcortical areas in human. A series of fMRI data were collected from 11 healthy subjects while they were executing simple motor tasks in two conditions: before and under the motor fatigue state. The results showed that in both conditions, movements evoked activation volumes in the sensorimotor areas, SMA, cerebellum, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Of primary importance are the results that the intensity and size of activation volumes in the subcortical areas (i.e., thalamus and basal ganglia areas) are significantly decreased during the motor fatigue state, implying that motor fatigue disturbs the motor control processing in a way that both sensorimotor areas and subcortical brain areas are less active. Further study is needed to clarify how subcortical areas contribute to the overall decreased activity of CNS during motor fatigue state.

  2. Decreased Activation of Subcortical Brain Areas in the Motor Fatigue State: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Li J.; Song, Zheng; Pan, Zhu J.; Cheng, Jia L.; Yu, Yong; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    One aspect of motor fatigue is the exercise-induced reduction of neural activity to voluntarily drive the muscle or muscle group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides access to investigate the neural activation on the whole brain level and studies observed changes of activation intensity after exercise-induced motor fatigue in the sensorimotor cortex. However, in human, little evidence exists to demonstrate the role of subcortical brain regions in motor fatigue, which is contradict to abundant researches in rodent indicating that during simple movement, the activity of the basal ganglia is modulated by the state of motor fatigue. Thus, in present study, we explored the effect of motor fatigue on subcortical areas in human. A series of fMRI data were collected from 11 healthy subjects while they were executing simple motor tasks in two conditions: before and under the motor fatigue state. The results showed that in both conditions, movements evoked activation volumes in the sensorimotor areas, SMA, cerebellum, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Of primary importance are the results that the intensity and size of activation volumes in the subcortical areas (i.e., thalamus and basal ganglia areas) are significantly decreased during the motor fatigue state, implying that motor fatigue disturbs the motor control processing in a way that both sensorimotor areas and subcortical brain areas are less active. Further study is needed to clarify how subcortical areas contribute to the overall decreased activity of CNS during motor fatigue state. PMID:27536264

  3. Decreased Activation of Subcortical Brain Areas in the Motor Fatigue State: An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li J; Song, Zheng; Pan, Zhu J; Cheng, Jia L; Yu, Yong; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    One aspect of motor fatigue is the exercise-induced reduction of neural activity to voluntarily drive the muscle or muscle group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides access to investigate the neural activation on the whole brain level and studies observed changes of activation intensity after exercise-induced motor fatigue in the sensorimotor cortex. However, in human, little evidence exists to demonstrate the role of subcortical brain regions in motor fatigue, which is contradict to abundant researches in rodent indicating that during simple movement, the activity of the basal ganglia is modulated by the state of motor fatigue. Thus, in present study, we explored the effect of motor fatigue on subcortical areas in human. A series of fMRI data were collected from 11 healthy subjects while they were executing simple motor tasks in two conditions: before and under the motor fatigue state. The results showed that in both conditions, movements evoked activation volumes in the sensorimotor areas, SMA, cerebellum, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Of primary importance are the results that the intensity and size of activation volumes in the subcortical areas (i.e., thalamus and basal ganglia areas) are significantly decreased during the motor fatigue state, implying that motor fatigue disturbs the motor control processing in a way that both sensorimotor areas and subcortical brain areas are less active. Further study is needed to clarify how subcortical areas contribute to the overall decreased activity of CNS during motor fatigue state. PMID:27536264

  4. Active flow control of subsonic flow in an adverse pressure gradient using synthetic jets and passive micro flow control devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denn, Michael E.

    Several recent studies have shown the advantages of active and/or passive flow control devices for boundary layer flow modification. Many current and future proposed air vehicles have very short or offset diffusers in order to save vehicle weight and create more optimal vehicle/engine integration. Such short coupled diffusers generally result in boundary layer separation and loss of pressure recovery which reduces engine performance and in some cases may cause engine stall. Deployment of flow control devices can alleviate this problem to a large extent; however, almost all active flow control devices have some energy penalty associated with their inclusion. One potential low penalty approach for enhancing the diffuser performance is to combine the passive flow control elements such as micro-ramps with active flow control devices such as synthetic jets to achieve higher control authority. The goal of this dissertation is twofold. The first objective is to assess the ability of CFD with URANS turbulence models to accurately capture the effects of the synthetic jets and micro-ramps on boundary layer flow. This is accomplished by performing numerical simulations replicating several experimental test cases conducted at Georgia Institute of Technology under the NASA funded Inlet Flow Control and Prediction Technologies Program, and comparing the simulation results with experimental data. The second objective is to run an expanded CFD matrix of numerical simulations by varying various geometric and other flow control parameters of micro-ramps and synthetic jets to determine how passive and active control devices interact with each other in increasing and/or decreasing the control authority and determine their influence on modification of boundary layer flow. The boundary layer shape factor is used as a figure of merit for determining the boundary layer flow quality/modification and its tendency towards separation. It is found by a large number of numerical experiments and

  5. PARduino: a simple and inexpensive device for logging photosynthetically active radiation.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Holly R; Findley, Matthew C; Csavina, Janae

    2014-06-01

    Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) is one of the primary controls of forest carbon and water relations. In complex terrain, PAR has high spatial variability. Given the high cost of commercial datalogging equipment, spatially distributed measurements of PAR have been typically modeled using geographic coordinates and terrain indices. Here, we present a design for a low-cost, field-deployable device for measuring and recording PAR built around an Arduino microcontroller-named PARduino. PARduino provides for widely distributed sensor arrays and tests the feasibility of using open-source, hobbyist-grade electronics for collecting scientific data. PARduino components include a quantum sensor, an EME Systems signal converter/amplifier and an Arduino Pro Mini microcontroller. Additional components include a real-time clock, a microSD Flash memory card and a custom printed circuit board. The components were selected for ease of assembly. We found strong agreement between the PARduino datalogger system and National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable sensors logged by an industry standard datalogger (slope = 0.99, SE < 0.01, P < 0.01; intercept = - 14.84, SE = 0.78, P < 0.01). The average difference between the two systems was 22.0 µmol m(-2) s(-1) with PARduino typically underestimating PAR. The average percentage difference between systems was 3.49%. On average, PARduino performed within the factory absolute calibration of the PAR sensor; however, larger errors occurred at low PAR levels. Using open-source technologies such as this can make it possible to develop a spatially distributed sensor network within the constraints of a typical research budget. PMID:24935916

  6. Control of electro-rheological fluid based resistive torque elements for use in active rehabilitation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitczuk, Jason; Weinberg, Brian; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we present control algorithms for novel electro-rheological fluid based resistive torque generation elements that will be used to drive the joint of a new type of portable and controllable active knee rehabilitation orthotic device (AKROD) for iso-inertial, isokinetic, and isometric exercising as well as gait retraining. The AKROD is composed of straps and rigid components for attachment to the leg, with a central hinge mechanism where a gear system is connected. The key features of AKROD include: a compact, lightweight design with highly tunable torque capabilities through a variable damper component, full portability with on-board power, control circuitry, and sensors (encoder and torque), and real-time capabilities for closed loop computer control for optimizing gait retraining. The variable damper component is achieved through an electro-rheological fluid (ERF) element that connects to the output of the gear system. Using the electrically controlled rheological properties of ERFs, compact brakes capable of supplying high resistive and controllable torques are developed. In this project, a prototype for the AKROD has been developed and tested. The AKROD's ERF resistive actuator was tested in laboratory experiments using a custom-made ERF testing apparatus (ETA). ETA provides a computer-controlled environment to test ERF brakes and actuators in various conditions and scenarios including emulating the interaction between human muscles involved with the knee and the AKROD's ERF actuators/brakes. The AKROD's ERF resistive actuator was tested in closed loop torque control experiments. A hybrid (non-linear, adaptive) proportional-integral (PI) torque controller was implemented to achieve this goal.

  7. PARduino: a simple and inexpensive device for logging photosynthetically active radiation.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Holly R; Findley, Matthew C; Csavina, Janae

    2014-06-01

    Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) is one of the primary controls of forest carbon and water relations. In complex terrain, PAR has high spatial variability. Given the high cost of commercial datalogging equipment, spatially distributed measurements of PAR have been typically modeled using geographic coordinates and terrain indices. Here, we present a design for a low-cost, field-deployable device for measuring and recording PAR built around an Arduino microcontroller-named PARduino. PARduino provides for widely distributed sensor arrays and tests the feasibility of using open-source, hobbyist-grade electronics for collecting scientific data. PARduino components include a quantum sensor, an EME Systems signal converter/amplifier and an Arduino Pro Mini microcontroller. Additional components include a real-time clock, a microSD Flash memory card and a custom printed circuit board. The components were selected for ease of assembly. We found strong agreement between the PARduino datalogger system and National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable sensors logged by an industry standard datalogger (slope = 0.99, SE < 0.01, P < 0.01; intercept = - 14.84, SE = 0.78, P < 0.01). The average difference between the two systems was 22.0 µmol m(-2) s(-1) with PARduino typically underestimating PAR. The average percentage difference between systems was 3.49%. On average, PARduino performed within the factory absolute calibration of the PAR sensor; however, larger errors occurred at low PAR levels. Using open-source technologies such as this can make it possible to develop a spatially distributed sensor network within the constraints of a typical research budget.

  8. Functional Specificity of the Visual Word Form Area: General Activation for Words and Symbols but Specific Network Activation for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Karen; Fernandes, Myra; Schwindt, Graeme; O'Craven, Kathleen; Grady, Cheryl L.

    2008-01-01

    The functional specificity of the brain region known as the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) was examined using fMRI. We explored whether this area serves a general role in processing symbolic stimuli, rather than being selective for the processing of words. Brain activity was measured during a visual 1-back task to English words, meaningful symbols…

  9. Individual Human Brain Areas Can Be Identified from Their Characteristic Spectral Activation Fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Keitel, Anne; Gross, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The human brain can be parcellated into diverse anatomical areas. We investigated whether rhythmic brain activity in these areas is characteristic and can be used for automatic classification. To this end, resting-state MEG data of 22 healthy adults was analysed. Power spectra of 1-s long data segments for atlas-defined brain areas were clustered into spectral profiles (“fingerprints”), using k-means and Gaussian mixture (GM) modelling. We demonstrate that individual areas can be identified from these spectral profiles with high accuracy. Our results suggest that each brain area engages in different spectral modes that are characteristic for individual areas. Clustering of brain areas according to similarity of spectral profiles reveals well-known brain networks. Furthermore, we demonstrate task-specific modulations of auditory spectral profiles during auditory processing. These findings have important implications for the classification of regional spectral activity and allow for novel approaches in neuroimaging and neurostimulation in health and disease. PMID:27355236

  10. Individual Human Brain Areas Can Be Identified from Their Characteristic Spectral Activation Fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Keitel, Anne; Gross, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    The human brain can be parcellated into diverse anatomical areas. We investigated whether rhythmic brain activity in these areas is characteristic and can be used for automatic classification. To this end, resting-state MEG data of 22 healthy adults was analysed. Power spectra of 1-s long data segments for atlas-defined brain areas were clustered into spectral profiles ("fingerprints"), using k-means and Gaussian mixture (GM) modelling. We demonstrate that individual areas can be identified from these spectral profiles with high accuracy. Our results suggest that each brain area engages in different spectral modes that are characteristic for individual areas. Clustering of brain areas according to similarity of spectral profiles reveals well-known brain networks. Furthermore, we demonstrate task-specific modulations of auditory spectral profiles during auditory processing. These findings have important implications for the classification of regional spectral activity and allow for novel approaches in neuroimaging and neurostimulation in health and disease. PMID:27355236

  11. Nematic and blue phase liquid crystals for temperature stabilization and active optical tuning of silicon photonic devices (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptasinski, Joanna N.; Khoo, Iam Choon; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2015-10-01

    We describe the underlying theories and experimental demonstrations of passive temperature stabilization of silicon photonic devices clad in nematic liquid crystal mixtures, and active optical tuning of silicon photonic resonant structures combined with dye-doped nematic and blue phase liquid crystals. We show how modifications to the resonator device geometry allow for not only enhanced tuning of the resonator response, but also aid in achieving complete athermal operations of silicon photonic circuits. [Ref.: I.C. Khoo, "DC-field-assisted grating formation and nonlinear diffractions in methyl-red dye-doped blue phase liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 40, 60-63 (2015); J. Ptasinski, I.C. Khoo, and Y. Fainman, "Enhanced optical tuning of modified-geometry resonators clad in blue phase liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 39, 5435-5438 (2014); J. Ptasinski, I.C. Khoo, and Y. Fainman, "Passive Temperature Stabilization of Silicon Photonic Devices Using Liquid Crystals," Materials 7(3), 2229-2241 (2014)].

  12. COMPARISON OF TRUNK AND LOWER EXTREMITY MUSCLE ACTIVITY AMONG FOUR STATIONARY EQUIPMENT DEVICES: UPRIGHT BIKE, RECUMBENT BIKE, TREADMILL, AND ELLIPTIGO®

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Ryan; Gibson, Chris; Kearney, Andrew; Busemeyer, Tommy

    2016-01-01

    Background Stationary equipment devices are often used to improve fitness. The ElliptiGO® was recently developed that blends the elements of an elliptical trainer and bicycle, allowing reciprocal lower limb pedaling in an upright position. However, it is unknown whether the muscle activity used for the ElliptiGO® is similar to walking or cycling. To date, there is no information comparing muscle activity for exercise on the treadmill, stationary upright and recumbent bikes, and the ElliptiGO®. Purpose/Hypothesis The purpose of this study was to assess trunk and lower extremity muscle activity among treadmill walking, cycling (recumbent and upright) and the ElliptiGO® cycling. It was hypothesized that the ElliptiGO® and treadmill would elicit similar electromyographic muscle activity responses compared to the stationary bike and recumbent bike during an exercise session. Study Design Cohort, repeated measures Methods Twelve recreationally active volunteers participated in the study and were assigned a random order of exercise for each of the four devices (ElliptiGO®, stationary upright cycle ergometer, recumbent ergometer, and a treadmill). Two-dimensional video was used to monitor the start and stop of exercise and surface electromyography (SEMG) were used to assess muscle activity during two minutes of cycling or treadmill walking at 40-50% heart rate reserve (HRR). Eight muscles on the dominant limb were used for analysis: gluteus maximus (Gmax), gluteus medius (Gmed), biceps femoris (BF), lateral head of the gastrocnemius (LG), tibialis anterior (TA), rectus femoris (RF). Two trunk muscles were assessed on the same side; lumbar erector spinae at L3-4 level (LES) and rectus abdominus (RA). Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) were determined for each muscle and SEMG data were expressed as %MVIC in order to normalize outputs. Results The %MVIC for RF during ElliptiGO® cycling was higher than recumbent cycling. The LG muscle activity was highest

  13. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1... in this section shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama...

  14. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1... in this section shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama...

  15. Previewing Pictures: A Means of Activating Prior Knowledge in Content Area Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchholz, Tom

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the importance prior knowledge plays in learning in the content areas. Discusses previewing pictures as a prereading activity and presents a picture analysis activity which can be used to activate prior knowledge to use as a foundation for good bridge building. (MG)

  16. Carbon-dioxide flow measurement in geodynamically active area of West Bohemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlcek, Josef; Fischer, Tomas; Heinicke, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Geodynamically active area of West Bohemia is interesting not only due to its earthquake swarms occurrence but also due to degassing flux of magmatic origin occurring in natural moffettes and mineral springs. While monitoring of earthquakes is done by a standard local seismic network, monitoring of amount of CO2 is at its initial stage. Despite lack of data, the 2014 earthquake swarm showed also very interesting increase in CO2 flow. This correlation with seismicity motivated us to develop robust and reliable methods of CO2 flow measurement, which would be sufficient to create denser monitoring network. Standard usage of gas-flowmeter for the purpose of gas flow measurement is dependent on the weather and device conditions, which makes the measurement instable in time and unreliable. Although gas-flowmeter is also accompanied with measurement of the gas pressure in the well to check flow rate value, reliability of this method is still low. This problematic behavior of the flow measurement was the reason to test new methods to measure CO2 amount - the first is based on measuring the density water with bubbles in the well by differential pressure gauge. The second one utilizes electric conductivity measurement to determine the density of bubbles in the water-gas mixture. Advantage of these methods is that their probes are directly in the well or moffette, where the concentration is measured. This approach is free of the influence of moving parts and assures the independence of measurements of environmental conditions. In this paper we show examples of obtained data series from selected sites and compare the trend of the curves, the mutual relations of the measured quantities and the influence of environmental conditions.

  17. Improving global fire carbon emissions estimates by combining moderate resolution burned area and active fire observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; Giglio, L.; Rogers, B. M.; van der Werf, G.

    2011-12-01

    In several important biomes, including croplands and tropical forests, many small fires exist that have sizes that are well below the detection limit for the current generation of burned area products derived from moderate resolution spectroradiometers. These fires likely have important effects on greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and regional air quality. Here we developed an approach for combining 1km thermal anomalies (active fires; MOD14A2) and 500m burned area observations (MCD64A1) to estimate the prevalence of these fires and their likely contribution to burned area and carbon emissions. We first estimated active fires within and outside of 500m burn scars in 0.5 degree grid cells during 2001-2010 for which MCD64A1 burned area observations were available. For these two sets of active fires we then examined mean fire radiative power (FRP) and changes in enhanced vegetation index (EVI) derived from 16-day intervals immediately before and after each active fire observation. To estimate the burned area associated with sub-500m fires, we first applied burned area to active fire ratios derived solely from within burned area perimeters to active fires outside of burn perimeters. In a second step, we further modified our sub-500m burned area estimates using EVI changes from active fires outside and within of burned areas (after subtracting EVI changes derived from control regions). We found that in northern and southern Africa savanna regions and in Central and South America dry forest regions, the number of active fires outside of MCD64A1 burned areas increased considerably towards the end of the fire season. EVI changes for active fires outside of burn perimeters were, on average, considerably smaller than EVI changes associated with active fires inside burn scars, providing evidence for burn scars that were substantially smaller than the 25 ha area of a single 500m pixel. FRP estimates also were lower for active fires outside of burn perimeters. In our

  18. A new way towards high-efficiency thermally activated delayed fluorescence devices via external heavy-atom effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenzhi; Jin, Jiangjiang; Huang, Zhi; Zhuang, Shaoqing; Wang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) mechanism is a significant method that enables the harvesting of both triplet and singlet excitons for emission. However, up to now most efforts have been devoted to dealing with the relation between singlet-triplet splitting (ΔEST) and fluorescence efficiency, while the significance of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is usually ignored. In this contribution, a new method is developed to realize high-efficiency TADF-based devices through simple device-structure optimizations. By inserting an ultrathin external heavy-atom (EHA) perturber layer in a desired manner, it provides useful means of accelerating the T1 → S1 reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) in TADF molecules without affecting the corresponding S1 → T1 process heavily. Furthermore, this strategy also promotes the utilization of host triplets through Förster mechanism during host → guest energy transfer (ET) processes, which helps to get rid of the solely dependence upon Dexter mechanism. Based on this strategy, we have successfully raised the external quantum efficiency (EQE) in 4CzPN-based devices by nearly 38% in comparison to control devices. These findings provide keen insights into the role of EHA played in TADF-based devices, offering valuable guidelines for utilizing certain TADF dyes which possess high radiative transition rate but relatively inefficient RISC.

  19. A new way towards high-efficiency thermally activated delayed fluorescence devices via external heavy-atom effect

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenzhi; Jin, Jiangjiang; Huang, Zhi; Zhuang, Shaoqing; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) mechanism is a significant method that enables the harvesting of both triplet and singlet excitons for emission. However, up to now most efforts have been devoted to dealing with the relation between singlet-triplet splitting (ΔEST) and fluorescence efficiency, while the significance of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is usually ignored. In this contribution, a new method is developed to realize high-efficiency TADF-based devices through simple device-structure optimizations. By inserting an ultrathin external heavy-atom (EHA) perturber layer in a desired manner, it provides useful means of accelerating the T1 → S1 reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) in TADF molecules without affecting the corresponding S1 → T1 process heavily. Furthermore, this strategy also promotes the utilization of host triplets through Förster mechanism during host → guest energy transfer (ET) processes, which helps to get rid of the solely dependence upon Dexter mechanism. Based on this strategy, we have successfully raised the external quantum efficiency (EQE) in 4CzPN-based devices by nearly 38% in comparison to control devices. These findings provide keen insights into the role of EHA played in TADF-based devices, offering valuable guidelines for utilizing certain TADF dyes which possess high radiative transition rate but relatively inefficient RISC. PMID:27439967

  20. Moving through Life-Space Areas and Objectively Measured Physical Activity of Older People

    PubMed Central

    Portegijs, Erja; Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantanen, Taina; Rantakokko, Merja

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Physical activity–an important determinant of health and function in old age–may vary according to the life-space area reached. Our aim was to study how moving through greater life-space areas is associated with greater physical activity of community-dwelling older people. The association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space area reached on different days by the same individual was studied using one-week longitudinal data, to provide insight in causal relationships. Methods One-week surveillance of objectively assessed physical activity of community-dwelling 70–90-year-old people in central Finland from the “Life-space mobility in old age” cohort substudy (N = 174). In spring 2012, participants wore an accelerometer for 7 days and completed a daily diary including the largest life-space area reached (inside home, outside home, neighborhood, town, and beyond town). The daily step count, and the time in moderate (incl. walking) and low activity and sedentary behavior were assessed. Differences in physical activity between days on which different life-space areas were reached were tested using Generalized Estimation Equation models (within-group comparison). Results Participants’ mean age was 80.4±4.2 years and 63.5% were female. Participants had higher average step counts (p < .001) and greater moderate and low activity time (p < .001) on days when greater life-space areas were reached, from the home to the town area. Only low activity time continued to increase when moving beyond the town. Conclusion Community-dwelling older people were more physically active on days when they moved through greater life-space areas. While it is unknown whether physical activity was a motivator to leave the home, intervention studies are needed to determine whether facilitation of daily outdoor mobility, regardless of the purpose, may be beneficial in terms of promoting physical activity. PMID:26252537

  1. Effect of Activating Agent on the Preparation of Bamboo-Based High Surface Area Activated Carbon by Microwave Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hongying; Wu, Jian; Srinivasakannan, Chandrasekar; Peng, Jinhui; Zhang, Libo

    2016-06-01

    The present work attempts to convert bamboo into a high surface area activated carbon via microwave heating. Different chemical activating agents such as KOH, NaOH, K2CO3 and Na2CO3 were utilized to identify a most suitable activating agent. Among the activating agents tested KOH was found to generate carbon with the highest porosity and surface area. The effect of KOH/C ratio on the porous nature of the activated carbon has been assessed. An optimal KOH/C ratio of 4 was identified, beyond which the surface area as well as the pore volume were found to decrease. At the optimized KOH/C ratio the surface area and the pore volume were estimated to be 3,441 m2/g and 2.093 ml/g, respectively, with the significant proportion of which being microporous (62.3%). Activated carbon prepared under the optimum conditions was further characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Activated carbons with so high surface area and pore volume are very rarely reported, which could be owed to the nature of the precursor and the optimal conditions of mixture ratio adopted in the present work.

  2. Cardiac supporting device using artificial rubber muscle: preliminary study to active dynamic cardiomyoplasty.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Goto, Takeshi; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Minakawa, Masahito; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic cardiomyoplasty is a surgical treatment that utilizes the patient's skeletal muscle to support circulation. To overcome the limitations of autologous skeletal muscles in dynamic cardiomyoplasty, we studied the use of a wrapped-type cardiac supporting device using pneumatic muscles. Four straight rubber muscles (Fluidic Muscle, FESTO, Esslingen, Germany) were used and connected to pressure sensors, solenoid valves, a controller and an air compressor. The driving force was compressed air. A proportional-integral-derivative system was employed to control the device movement. An overflow-type mock circulation system was used to analyze the power and the controllability of this new device. The device worked powerfully with pumped flow against afterload of 88 mmHg, and the beating rate and contraction/dilatation time were properly controlled using simple software. Maximum pressure inside the ventricle and maximum output were 187 mmHg and 546.5 ml/min, respectively, in the setting of 50 beats per minute, a contraction/dilatation ratio of 1:2, a preload of 18 mmHg, and an afterload of 88 mmHg. By changing proportional gain, contraction speed could be modulated. This study showed the efficacy and feasibility of a pneumatic muscle for use in a cardiac supporting device.

  3. IEEE 802.15.4 MAC with GTS transmission for heterogeneous devices with application to wheelchair body-area sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Bharat; Hossain, Ekram; Camorlinga, Sergio

    2011-09-01

    In wireless personal area networks, such as wireless body-area sensor networks, stations or devices have different bandwidth requirements and, thus, create heterogeneous traffics. For such networks, the IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control (MAC) can be used in the beacon-enabled mode, which supports guaranteed time slot (GTS) allocation for time-critical data transmissions. This paper presents a general discrete-time Markov chain model for the IEEE 802.15.4-based networks taking into account the slotted carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance and GTS transmission phenomena together in the heterogeneous traffic scenario and under nonsaturated condition. For this purpose, the standard GTS allocation scheme is modified. For each non-identical device, the Markov model is solved and the average service time and the service utilization factor are analyzed in the non-saturated mode. The analysis is validated by simulations using network simulator version 2.33. Also, the model is enhanced with a wireless propagation model and the performance of the MAC is evaluated in a wheelchair body-area sensor network scenario.

  4. Low-Cost, Large-Area, Facile, and Rapid Fabrication of Aligned ZnO Nanowire Device Arrays.

    PubMed

    Cadafalch Gazquez, Gerard; Lei, Sidong; George, Antony; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Boukamp, Bernard A; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Ten Elshof, Johan E

    2016-06-01

    Well aligned nanowires of ZnO have been made with an electrospinning technique using zinc acetate precursor solutions. Employment of two connected parallel collector plates with a separating gap of 4 cm resulted in a very high degree of nanowire alignment. By adjusting the process parameters, the deposition density of the wires could be controlled. Field effect transistors were prepared by depositing wires between two gold electrodes on top of a heavily doped Si substrate covered with a 300 nm oxide layer. These devices showed good FET characteristics and photosensitivity under UV-illumination. The method provides a fast and scalable fabrication route for functional nanowire arrays with a high degree of alignment and control over nanowire spacing. PMID:27173007

  5. MIDAS prototype Multispectral Interactive Digital Analysis System for large area earth resources surveys. Volume 2: Charge coupled device investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriegler, F.; Marshall, R.; Sternberg, S.

    1976-01-01

    MIDAS is a third-generation, fast, low cost, multispectral recognition system able to keep pace with the large quantity and high rates of data acquisition from large regions with present and projected sensors. MIDAS, for example, can process a complete ERTS frame in forty seconds and provide a color map of sixteen constituent categories in a few minutes. A principal objective of the MIDAS Program is to provide a system well interfaced with the human operator and thus to obtain large overall reductions in turn-around time and significant gains in throughput. The need for advanced onboard spacecraft processing of remotely sensed data is stated and approaches to this problem are described which are feasible through the use of charge coupled devices. Tentative mechanizations for the required processing operations are given in large block form. These initial designs can serve as a guide to circuit/system designers.

  6. Optimal area of retinal photocoagulation necessary for suppressing active iris neovascularisation associated with diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Shiraya, Tomoyasu; Kato, Satoshi; Shigeeda, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    To determine the optimal area of retinal photocoagulation required for suppressing active neovascularisation (NVI) associated with diabetic retinopathy. We studied 1 eye each of 4 patients in whom active NVI was ophthalmoscopically shown to have been suppressed by additional photocoagulation. These patients initially underwent pan-retinal photocoagulation for diabetic retinopathy at another hospital, but NVI developed subsequently. We compared the areas of photocoagulation before and after additional photocoagulation and compared the area of retinal photocoagulation. The photocoagulated areas before and after additional photocoagulation in the four eyes were 20.7 and 45.2, 36.6 and 56.3, 30.4 and 67.4, and 11.7 and 53.4 %, respectively. The area of retinal photocoagulation required to suppress active NVI is calculated to be ~50 %.

  7. Prediction of prognosis of ALS: Importance of active denervation findings of the cervical-upper limb area and trunk area.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoko; Nakatani, Eiji; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Fukushima, Masanori; Nakashima, Kenji; Kannagi, Mari; Kanatani, Yasuhiro; Mizushima, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease characterized by serious muscle atrophy and weakness. The purpose of this study was to find prognostic factors in patients with mild ALS using application forms for the Specified Disease Treatment Research Program in Japan. We classified ALS as mild, moderate and severe. The subjects consisted of 363 patients with mild ALS who underwent needle electromyography at registration and were followed for more than one year. Time to progression to severe ALS and time to deterioration of activities of daily living such as speech dysfunction, upper limb dysfunction, and walking disability were used as outcomes. Cox proportional hazards model analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors. Of the patients with initially mild ALS, 38.3% (139/363) had progressed severe ALS at the last follow-up. In multivariate analysis of time to progression to severe ALS, bulbar onset (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.68 [1.13-2.49], p = 0.010), tongue atrophy (1.69 [1.14-2.51], p = 0.009), dyspnea (1.57 [1.02-2.41], p = 0.042) and active denervation findings (ADFs) of the cervical-upper limb area (1.81 [1.25-2.63], p = 0.002) emerged as prognostic factors. Furthermore ADFs in the trunk area were prognostic factors for upper limb dysfunction and walking disability (1.72 [1.05-2.81], p = 0.031, and 1.97 [1.09-3.59], p = 0.026). In conclusion ADFs of the cervical-upper limb area and trunk area were prognostic factors in ALS patients.

  8. 78 FR 35612 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Targeted Teacher Shortage Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... collection of information from Chief State School Officers to support and document the request for teacher... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Targeted Teacher Shortage Areas Nationwide... to this notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Targeted Teacher...

  9. 50 CFR 218.10 - Specified activity and specified geographical area and effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Training in the Jacksonville Range Complex (JAX Range Complex) § 218.10 Specified activity and specified... the Navy is only authorized if it occurs within the JAX Range Complex Operation Areas (OPAREAs),...

  10. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban streams as assessed using semipermeable membrane devices, Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, J. Bruce

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this fact sheet are to summarize the occurrence of water-borne PAHs in three urban streams in the Dallas- Fort Worth metropolitan area and to assess the use of semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as PAH samplers. One site on each of three streams was selected for monitoring the occurrence of PAHs (fig. 1). The sites were chosen to reflect varied urban land uses and the influences of point- and nonpointsource pollution. The monitoring was done using SPMDs during a 30-day period in late May and June 1994.

  11. Diagnostic significance of the pancreatic displacement with extrapancreatic oval-shaped low activity area on scintigram.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Nakayama, C; Kamoi, I; Matsuura, K

    1977-01-01

    To aid in the differential diagnosis of upper abdominal tumors, pancreatic scintigraphy was performed in 62 cases. The findings were rather characteristic for pancreatic cysts; namely, pancreatic displacement and, adjacently, an oval-shaped activity area whose count was lower than background. Pancreatic displacement was observed with comparatively large retroperitoneal masses. Low activity areas were observed in cystic lesions. Both findings were noted in 7 (54%) of 13 pancreatic cyst cases. Among the 12 cases with these findings, 7 (58%) had pancreatic cysts.

  12. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 552 - Unauthorized Activities in Fort Lewis Maneuver Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Areas D Appendix D to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Pt. 552, App. D Appendix D to Part 552—Unauthorized Activities in Fort Lewis Maneuver Areas Civilian...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 552 - Unauthorized Activities in Fort Lewis Maneuver Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Areas D Appendix D to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Pt. 552, App. D Appendix D to Part 552—Unauthorized Activities in Fort Lewis Maneuver Areas Civilian...

  14. Biocompatibility analysis of an electrically-activated silver-based antibacterial surface system for medical device applications.

    PubMed

    Samberg, Meghan E; Tan, Zhuo; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A; Orndorff, Paul E; Shirwaiker, Rohan A

    2013-03-01

    The costs associated with the treatment of medical device and surgical site infections are a major cause of concern in the global healthcare system. To prevent transmission of such infections, a prophylactic surface system that provides protracted release of antibacterial silver ions using low intensity direct electric current (LIDC; 28 μA system current at 6 V) activation has been recently developed. To ensure the safety for future in vivo studies and potential clinical applications, this study assessed the biocompatibility of the LIDC-activated interdigitated silver electrodes-based surface system; in vitro toxicity to human epidermal keratinocytes, human dermal fibroblasts, and normal human osteoblasts, and antibacterial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was evaluated. The study concluded that the technological applications of the surface system for medical devices and surgical tools, which contact human tissues for less than 1.5 h, are expected to be self-sterilizing without causing toxicity in vivo.

  15. Cargo-towing synthetic nanomachines: towards active transport in microchip devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Joseph

    2012-05-01

    This review article discusses the use of synthetic catalytic nano motors for cargo manipulations and for developing miniaturized lab-on-chip systems based on autonomous transport. The ability of using chemically-powered artificial nanomotors to capture, transport and release therapeutic payloads or nanostructured biomaterials represents one of the next major prospects for nanomotor development. The increased cargo-towing force of such self-propelled nanomotors, along with their precise motion control within microchannel networks, versatility and facile functionalization, pave the way to new integrated functional lab-on-a-chip powered by active transport and perform a series of tasks. Such use of cargo-towing artificial nanomotors has been inspired by on-chip kinesin molecular shuttles. Functionalized nano/microscale motors can thus be used to pick a selected nano/microscale chemical or biological payload target at the right place, transport and deliver them to a target location in a timely manner. Key challenges for using synthetic nanomachines for driving transport processes along microchannel networks are discussed, including loading and unloading of cargo and precise motion control, along with recent examples of related cargo manipulation processes and guided transport in lab-on-a-chip formats. The exciting research area of cargo-carrying catalytic man-made nanomachines is expected to grow rapidly, to lead to new lab-on-a-chip formats and to provide a wide range of future microchip opportunities.

  16. 77 FR 57055 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Unique Device Identification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... Federal Register of July 10, 2012 (77 FR 40736). The Agency is taking this action in response to requests... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of July 10, 2012 (77 FR 40736), FDA published a... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jay Crowley, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug...

  17. 75 FR 61494 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Medical Devices...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... November 30, 2004 (69 FR 69606), FDA published a notice of availability of the guidance entitled ``Use of... Symbols on Labels and in Labeling of In Vitro Diagnostic Devices Intended for Professional Use AGENCY... ``Recommended Glossary and Educational Outreach to Support Use of Symbols on Labels and in Labeling of In...

  18. Extraterritorial reach of the FCPA: recommendations for U.S. medical device companies with activities in Europe.

    PubMed

    Vollebregt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally medical devices companies manage business compliance with anti-corruption and anti-fraud rules in a document-oriented way that does not always yield optimal results for the company. As a result, compliance issues are not optimally managed by the companies. Now that medical devices companies become ever more internationally active, they must also take into account the international dimensions of business compliance. This article intends to provide U.S. medical devices companies with activities in Europe with an insight in business compliance risks in the European Union (EU) and the risks related to U.S. statutes that may be applicable to a U.S. company's activities overseas. The article proposes a process-oriented and IT-supported way of structuring an international business compliance program, resulting in increased effectiveness of the program and increased competitiveness and risk management of the company as well as a high degree of acceptance of the procedures by the company's employees. PMID:24475545

  19. Extraterritorial reach of the FCPA: recommendations for U.S. medical device companies with activities in Europe.

    PubMed

    Vollebregt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally medical devices companies manage business compliance with anti-corruption and anti-fraud rules in a document-oriented way that does not always yield optimal results for the company. As a result, compliance issues are not optimally managed by the companies. Now that medical devices companies become ever more internationally active, they must also take into account the international dimensions of business compliance. This article intends to provide U.S. medical devices companies with activities in Europe with an insight in business compliance risks in the European Union (EU) and the risks related to U.S. statutes that may be applicable to a U.S. company's activities overseas. The article proposes a process-oriented and IT-supported way of structuring an international business compliance program, resulting in increased effectiveness of the program and increased competitiveness and risk management of the company as well as a high degree of acceptance of the procedures by the company's employees.

  20. Installation and commissioning of a large area coating system for neutron and X-ray optical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, A. Haque, Sk. Maidul Misal, J. Sampathkumar, R.; Ajaykumar,; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K.; Lagoo, K. D.; Veerapur, R. D.; Padmanabhan, M.; Puri, R. K.; Bhattacharya, Debarati

    2014-04-24

    A 9 meter long DC/RF sputtering cylindrical coating system which is designed and built indigenously for coating of neutron supermirrors and grazing incidence hard X-ray mirrors on large area substrates has been installed and commissioned recently. The performance of the system has been tested by depositing Ti films on glass substrate of 1500mm X 150mm size. By depositing Ti films on several small area c-Si substrates placed over the length and breadth of the substrate holder, and by subsequent characterization by GIXR measurement, it has been observed that films with bulk-like density and very low surface roughness can be obtained in the above system. The thickness uniformity achieved in the deposited films is within ±3.5% over the 1500mm length and within ±4.8% over the 150mm width.

  1. Installation and commissioning of a large area coating system for neutron and X-ray optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, A.; Haque, Sk. Maidul; Misal, J.; Lagoo, K. D.; Veerapur, R. D.; Padmanabhan, M.; Puri, R. K.; Sampathkumar, R.; Ajaykumar, Bhattacharya, Debarati; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2014-04-01

    A 9 meter long DC/RF sputtering cylindrical coating system which is designed and built indigenously for coating of neutron supermirrors and grazing incidence hard X-ray mirrors on large area substrates has been installed and commissioned recently. The performance of the system has been tested by depositing Ti films on glass substrate of 1500mm X 150mm size. By depositing Ti films on several small area c-Si substrates placed over the length and breadth of the substrate holder, and by subsequent characterization by GIXR measurement, it has been observed that films with bulk-like density and very low surface roughness can be obtained in the above system. The thickness uniformity achieved in the deposited films is within ±3.5% over the 1500mm length and within ±4.8% over the 150mm width.

  2. Large area ion beam sputtered YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) films for novel device structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauzzi, A.; Lucia, M. L.; Kellett, B. J.; James, J. H.; Pavuna, D.

    1992-03-01

    A simple single-target ion-beam system is employed to manufacture large areas of uniformly superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) films which can be reproduced. The required '123' stoichiometry is transferred from the target to the substrate when ion-beam power, target/ion-beam angle, and target temperature are adequately controlled. Ion-beam sputtering is experimentally demonstrated to be an effective technique for producing homogeneous YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) films.

  3. Black-footed ferret areas of activity during late summer and fall at Meeteetse, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagerstone, K.A.; Biggins, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Radiotelemetry was used during 1983 and 1984 to collect information on short-term areas of activity for black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) near Meeteetse, Wyoming. This population ultimately provided ferrets for the captive-breeding program that bred and released offspring into the wild since 1991. We fitted 5 adult ferrets and 13 juveniles with radiotransmitters and followed their movements during late summer and fall. Adult males had 7-day areas of activity that were >6 times as large as those of adult females. Activity areas of adult males varied little in coverage or location on a weekly basis, but females sequentially shifted their areas. Unlike juvenile females, juvenile males tended to leave their natal colonies. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  4. Natural Environments, Obesity, and Physical Activity in Nonmetropolitan Areas of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the associations of the natural environment with obesity and physical activity in nonmetropolitan areas of the United States among representative samples by using 2 indices of outdoor activity potential (OAP) at the county level. Methods: We used the data from 457,820 and 473,296 noninstitutionalized adults aged over 18 years…

  5. High-Tc superconducting quantum interference device recordings of spontaneous brain activity: Towards high-Tc magnetoencephalography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öisjöen, F.; Schneiderman, J. F.; Figueras, G. A.; Chukharkin, M. L.; Kalabukhov, A.; Hedström, A.; Elam, M.; Winkler, D.

    2012-03-01

    We have performed single- and two-channel high transition temperature (high-Tc) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of spontaneous brain activity in two healthy human subjects. We demonstrate modulation of two well-known brain rhythms: the occipital alpha rhythm and the mu rhythm found in the motor cortex. We further show that despite higher noise-levels compared to their low-Tc counterparts, high-Tc SQUIDs can be used to detect and record physiologically relevant brain rhythms with comparable signal-to-noise ratios. These results indicate the utility of high-Tc technology in MEG recordings of a broader range of brain activity.

  6. Activation of extrastriate and frontal cortical areas by visual words and word-like stimuli

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, S.E.; Fox, P.T.; Snyder, A.Z.; Raichle, M.E. )

    1990-08-31

    Visual presentation of words activates extrastriate regions of the occipital lobes of the brain. When analyzed by positron emission tomography (PET), certain areas in the left, medial extrastriate visual cortex were activated by visually presented pseudowords that obey English spelling rules, as well as by actual words. These areas were not activated by nonsense strings of letters or letter-like forms. Thus visual word form computations are based on learned distinctions between words and nonwords. In addition, during passive presentation of words, but not pseudowords, activation occurred in a left frontal area that is related to semantic processing. These findings support distinctions made in cognitive psychology and computational modeling between high-level visual and semantic computations on single words and describe the anatomy that may underlie these distinctions.

  7. P-Them Response for Geologically Active and Non-Active Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A.

    2011-12-01

    Time Domain Electromagnetic air-borne systems are widely used in geological exploration for minerals associated with conductive rocks, underground water resources and geological underground mapping. The newly designed P-THEM system has been test-flown at the Reid Mahaffy geological test site in Northern Ontario, Canada; and then over an area near Newmarket, north of Toronto. While the flight in Reid Mahaffy was made to verify real characteristics of the system: stability and repeatability of results, the flight over the Newmarket area was made to verify correct operation of the EM system with a magnetometer and gamma-ray spectrometer. Interesting and significant response of the TDEM observations to geological, agricultural and engineering objects were observed during the test flights. These results demonstrate a possibility of TDEM method for mineral research and environmental tasks. The Reid Mahaffy Test Site is located in the Abitibi Subprovince, immediately east of the Mattagami River Fault in Ontario, Canada. The test site was created in 1999 by the Ontario Geological Survey, initially to enable various airborne geophysical systems to demonstrate their basic performance capabilities. The general geology of the site contains known overburden thickness based on almost 50 diamond drill holes, with geological logs available for these. The survey flights over Reid Mahaffy test site were performed in April 2010. The altitude and direction tests were flown on three lines over the test survey area. The response of early times represents overburden and correlates with its known thickness. The conductive body appears on later time channels and remains detectable over noise level. The electrical inversion of the results allows distinguishing a structure of several vertical conductor slices, forming the conductive body. The Newmarket area selected for tests in June 2010 is a highly developed urban zone in the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, Canada. Geologically, the area is

  8. Brain areas activated by uncertain reward-based decision-making in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zongjun; Chen, Juan; Liu, Shien; Li, Yuhuan; Sun, Bo; Gao, Zhenbo

    2013-12-15

    Reward-based decision-making has been found to activate several brain areas, including the ventrolateral prefrontal lobe, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, ventral striatum, and mesolimbic dopaminergic system. In this study, we observed brain areas activated under three degrees of uncertainty in a reward-based decision-making task (certain, risky, and ambiguous). The tasks were presented using a brain function audiovisual stimulation system. We conducted brain scans of 15 healthy volunteers using a 3.0T magnetic resonance scanner. We used SPM8 to analyze the location and intensity of activation during the reward-based decision-making task, with respect to the three conditions. We found that the orbitofrontal cortex was activated in the certain reward condition, while the prefrontal cortex, precentral gyrus, occipital visual cortex, inferior parietal lobe, cerebellar posterior lobe, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, limbic lobe, and midbrain were activated during the 'risk' condition. The prefrontal cortex, temporal pole, inferior temporal gyrus, occipital visual cortex, and cerebellar posterior lobe were activated during ambiguous decision-making. The ventrolateral prefrontal lobe, frontal pole of the prefrontal lobe, orbitofrontal cortex, precentral gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and cerebellar posterior lobe exhibited greater activation in the 'risk' than in the 'certain' condition (P < 0.05). The frontal pole and dorsolateral region of the prefrontal lobe, as well as the cerebellar posterior lobe, showed significantly greater activation in the 'ambiguous' condition compared to the 'risk' condition (P < 0.05). The prefrontal lobe, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, limbic lobe, midbrain, and posterior lobe of the cerebellum were activated during decision-making about uncertain rewards. Thus, we observed different levels and regions of activation for different

  9. Effect of Copolymer Chain Architecture on Active Layer Morphology and Device Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amonoo, Jojo; Li, Anton; Sykes, Matthew; Huang, Bingyuan; Palermo, Edmund; McNeil, Anne; Shtein, Max; Green, Peter

    2014-03-01

    The optimum morphological structure that determines the device performance of bulk heterojunction thin film polymer solar cells is greatly influenced by the extent of phase separation between the polymer and fullerene components, which ultimately defines the length scales and purity of the donor- and acceptor-rich phases. Block copolymer thin films have been widely studied for their ability to microphase separate into well-defined nanostructures. Nickel-catalyzed chain-growth copolymerizations of thiophene and selenophene derivatives afforded well-defined π-conjugated copolymers of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(3-hexylselenophene) (P3HS) to achieve diblock, random and gradient copolymer chain architectures. This allowed us to study the effect of copolymer sequence and nanoscale morphology of P3HT-P3HS copolymer/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) on device performance. With the use of energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy and conductive and photoconductive atomic force microscopy we found that copolymer sequence strongly influences the phase separation capabilities of the copolymer-fullerene blend in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices.

  10. Areas of activity in biofilms through the biospeckle and the spectral domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, J. K.; Braga, R. A.; Pereira, J.

    2010-09-01

    The dynamic laser speckle or biospeckle laser has been used to analyze the activity of biological and non-biological material by means of various statistical techniques and image processing. However, a challenge to adopt this technique is the ability to identify, in the same material, an area of low activity immersed in an environment of a higher activity. This work was carried out to evaluate the spectral approach associated to biospeckle laser technique as an alternative to identify distinct activities areas in the same material. Biofilm samples, which present well known protocols to be prepared, and a simpler structure than vegetal and animal tissues, were prepared with potato starch and corn starch with areas of different levels of moisture and were analyzed using the biospeckle laser associated with the wavelets transform in order to evaluate the data in the spectral domain. The effect of a black or white background below the samples was also tested. The image analysis was conducted using Generalized Difference and Fujii techniques before and after the implementation of the wavelets transform producing the filtration of the data. The results allowed the visualization of different activities areas in different frequency bands. The areas of activity were presented clearer than the traditional procedures without filtering. A new way to present the results of the biospeckle and the frequency domain information was proposed to enhance the visualization of a whole picture. It was also noted that the greatest contrast between areas of different activity were promoted by materials of different compositions. In some experimental configurations there were possible to tag the relationship between the frequency and depth of the active or inactive material. The influence of the color, black or white, of the background was also noticed in the results, but with white background better in some configurations and with the black better in others.

  11. Vegetation burned areas derived from multiple satellite-based active fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyang; Kondragunta, Shobha

    2008-08-01

    Biomass burning releases a significant amount of trace gases and aerosol emissions into the atmosphere. If unaccounted for in the modeling of climate, carbon cycle, and air quality, it leads to large uncertainties. The amount of biomass burning emissions depends significantly on burned areas. This study estimates near-real time burned areas from multiple satellite-based active fires in Hazard Mapping System (HMS) developed in NOAA, which capitalizes automated fire detections from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Imager, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The HMS fire counts are compared with a set of Landsat ETM+ burn scars for various ecosystems to investigate the rate of burned area in a fire count. The fire size and fire duration derived from multiple satellites are then used to calculate burned area every half hour. The estimated burned areas are evaluated using national inventory of burned area across the United States for 2005.

  12. Odours stimulate neuronal activity in the dorsolateral area of the hippocampal formation during path integration.

    PubMed

    Jorge, P E; Phillips, J B; Gonçalves, A; Marques, P A M; Nĕmec, P

    2014-05-22

    The dorsolateral area of the hippocampal formation of birds is commonly assumed to play a central role in processing information needed for geographical positioning and homing. Previous work has interpreted odour-induced activity in this region as evidence for an 'olfactory map'. Here, we show, using c-Fos expression as a marker, that neuronal activation in the dorsolateral area of the hippocampal formation of pigeons is primarily a response to odour novelty, not to the spatial distribution of odour sources that would be necessary for an olfactory map. Pigeons exposed to odours had significantly more neurons activated in this area of the brain than pigeons exposed to filtered air with odours removed. This increased activity was observed only in response to unfamiliar odours. No change in activity was observed when pigeons were exposed to home odours. These findings are consistent with non-home odours activating non-olfactory components of the pigeon's navigation system. The pattern of neuronal activation in the triangular and dorsomedial areas of the hippocampal formation was, by contrast, consistent with the possibility that odours play a role in providing spatial information. PMID:24671977

  13. Odours stimulate neuronal activity in the dorsolateral area of the hippocampal formation during path integration

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, P. E.; Phillips, J. B.; Gonçalves, A.; Marques, P. A. M.; Nĕmec, P.

    2014-01-01

    The dorsolateral area of the hippocampal formation of birds is commonly assumed to play a central role in processing information needed for geographical positioning and homing. Previous work has interpreted odour-induced activity in this region as evidence for an ‘olfactory map’. Here, we show, using c-Fos expression as a marker, that neuronal activation in the dorsolateral area of the hippocampal formation of pigeons is primarily a response to odour novelty, not to the spatial distribution of odour sources that would be necessary for an olfactory map. Pigeons exposed to odours had significantly more neurons activated in this area of the brain than pigeons exposed to filtered air with odours removed. This increased activity was observed only in response to unfamiliar odours. No change in activity was observed when pigeons were exposed to home odours. These findings are consistent with non-home odours activating non-olfactory components of the pigeon's navigation system. The pattern of neuronal activation in the triangular and dorsomedial areas of the hippocampal formation was, by contrast, consistent with the possibility that odours play a role in providing spatial information. PMID:24671977

  14. Optimal wide-area monitoring and nonlinear adaptive coordinating neurocontrol of a power system with wind power integration and multiple FACTS devices.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wei; Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh K; Harley, Ronald G

    2008-01-01

    Wide-area coordinating control is becoming an important issue and a challenging problem in the power industry. This paper proposes a novel optimal wide-area coordinating neurocontrol (WACNC), based on wide-area measurements, for a power system with power system stabilizers, a large wind farm and multiple flexible ac transmission system (FACTS) devices. An optimal wide-area monitor (OWAM), which is a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), is designed to identify the input-output dynamics of the nonlinear power system. Its parameters are optimized through particle swarm optimization (PSO). Based on the OWAM, the WACNC is then designed by using the dual heuristic programming (DHP) method and RBFNNs, while considering the effect of signal transmission delays. The WACNC operates at a global level to coordinate the actions of local power system controllers. Each local controller communicates with the WACNC, receives remote control signals from the WACNC to enhance its dynamic performance and therefore helps improve system-wide dynamic and transient performance. The proposed control is verified by simulation studies on a multimachine power system.

  15. Progress of Systematic Hands on Devices for Active Learning Methods by Visualizing ICT Tools in Physics with Milliseconds Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Akizo; Okiharu, Fumiko

    We are developing various systematic hands on devices for progress of active learning (AL) to improve students' conceptual understanding in physics laws. We are promoting AL methods in physics education for getting deeper conceptual understanding by using various ICT-based hands on devices and using visualizing ICT tools with milliseconds resolution. Here we investigate AL modules on collisions of big balloon pendulum with another known mass pendulum to get directly the air mass in the big balloon. We also discuss on Newton's laws of blowgun darts systems by using tapioca straws where we get definite works and energy just proportional to the length of the pipes of connected tapioca straws. These AL plans by using modules of big balloon system and blowgun-darts system are shown to be very effective for deeper conceptual understanding of Newton's Laws in almost frictionless worlds.

  16. Water Activated Graphene Oxide Transfer Using Wax Printed Membranes for Fast Patterning of a Touch Sensitive Device.

    PubMed

    Baptista-Pires, Luis; Mayorga-Martínez, Carmen C; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Montón, Helena; Merkoçi, Arben

    2016-01-26

    We demonstrate a graphene oxide printing technology using wax printed membranes for the fast patterning and water activation transfer using pressure based mechanisms. The wax printed membranes have 50 μm resolution, longtime stability and infinite shaping capability. The use of these membranes complemented with the vacuum filtration of graphene oxide provides the control over the thickness. Our demonstration provides a solvent free methodology for printing graphene oxide devices in all shapes and all substrates using the roll-to-roll automatized mechanism present in the wax printing machine. Graphene oxide was transferred over a wide variety of substrates as textile or PET in between others. Finally, we developed a touch switch sensing device integrated in a LED electronic circuit.

  17. Active layers of high-performance lead zirconate titanate at temperatures compatible with silicon nano- and microeletronic [corrected] devices.

    PubMed

    Bretos, Iñigo; Jiménez, Ricardo; Tomczyk, Monika; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Vilarinho, Paula M; Calzada, M Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Applications of ferroelectric materials in modern microelectronics will be greatly encouraged if the thermal incompatibility between inorganic ferroelectrics and semiconductor devices is overcome. Here, solution-processable layers of the most commercial ferroelectric compound--morphotrophic phase boundary lead zirconate titanate, namely Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT)--are grown on silicon substrates at temperatures well below the standard CMOS process of semiconductor technology. The method, potentially transferable to a broader range of Zr:Ti ratios, is based on the addition of crystalline nanoseeds to photosensitive solutions of PZT resulting in perovskite crystallization from only 350 °C after the enhanced decomposition of metal precursors in the films by UV irradiation. A remanent polarization of 10.0 μC cm(-2) is obtained for these films that is in the order of the switching charge densities demanded for FeRAM devices. Also, a dielectric constant of ~90 is measured at zero voltage which exceeds that of current single-oxide candidates for capacitance applications. The multifunctionality of the films is additionally demonstrated by their pyroelectric and piezoelectric performance. The potential integration of PZT layers at such low fabrication temperatures may redefine the concept design of classical microelectronic devices, besides allowing inorganic ferroelectrics to enter the scene of the emerging large-area, flexible electronics.

  18. Active layers of high-performance lead zirconate titanate at temperatures compatible with silicon nano- and microelecronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretos, Iñigo; Jiménez, Ricardo; Tomczyk, Monika; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Vilarinho, Paula M.; Calzada, M. Lourdes

    2016-02-01

    Applications of ferroelectric materials in modern microelectronics will be greatly encouraged if the thermal incompatibility between inorganic ferroelectrics and semiconductor devices is overcome. Here, solution-processable layers of the most commercial ferroelectric compound - morphotrophic phase boundary lead zirconate titanate, namely Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) - are grown on silicon substrates at temperatures well below the standard CMOS process of semiconductor technology. The method, potentially transferable to a broader range of Zr:Ti ratios, is based on the addition of crystalline nanoseeds to photosensitive solutions of PZT resulting in perovskite crystallization from only 350 °C after the enhanced decomposition of metal precursors in the films by UV irradiation. A remanent polarization of 10.0 μC cm-2 is obtained for these films that is in the order of the switching charge densities demanded for FeRAM devices. Also, a dielectric constant of ~90 is measured at zero voltage which exceeds that of current single-oxide candidates for capacitance applications. The multifunctionality of the films is additionally demonstrated by their pyroelectric and piezoelectric performance. The potential integration of PZT layers at such low fabrication temperatures may redefine the concept design of classical microelectronic devices, besides allowing inorganic ferroelectrics to enter the scene of the emerging large-area, flexible electronics.

  19. Active layers of high-performance lead zirconate titanate at temperatures compatible with silicon nano- and microelecronic devices

    PubMed Central

    Bretos, Iñigo; Jiménez, Ricardo; Tomczyk, Monika; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Vilarinho, Paula M.; Calzada, M. Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Applications of ferroelectric materials in modern microelectronics will be greatly encouraged if the thermal incompatibility between inorganic ferroelectrics and semiconductor devices is overcome. Here, solution-processable layers of the most commercial ferroelectric compound ─ morphotrophic phase boundary lead zirconate titanate, namely Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) ─ are grown on silicon substrates at temperatures well below the standard CMOS process of semiconductor technology. The method, potentially transferable to a broader range of Zr:Ti ratios, is based on the addition of crystalline nanoseeds to photosensitive solutions of PZT resulting in perovskite crystallization from only 350 °C after the enhanced decomposition of metal precursors in the films by UV irradiation. A remanent polarization of 10.0 μC cm−2 is obtained for these films that is in the order of the switching charge densities demanded for FeRAM devices. Also, a dielectric constant of ~90 is measured at zero voltage which exceeds that of current single-oxide candidates for capacitance applications. The multifunctionality of the films is additionally demonstrated by their pyroelectric and piezoelectric performance. The potential integration of PZT layers at such low fabrication temperatures may redefine the concept design of classical microelectronic devices, besides allowing inorganic ferroelectrics to enter the scene of the emerging large-area, flexible electronics. PMID:26837240

  20. Active layers of high-performance lead zirconate titanate at temperatures compatible with silicon nano- and microeletronic [corrected] devices.

    PubMed

    Bretos, Iñigo; Jiménez, Ricardo; Tomczyk, Monika; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Vilarinho, Paula M; Calzada, M Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Applications of ferroelectric materials in modern microelectronics will be greatly encouraged if the thermal incompatibility between inorganic ferroelectrics and semiconductor devices is overcome. Here, solution-processable layers of the most commercial ferroelectric compound--morphotrophic phase boundary lead zirconate titanate, namely Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT)--are grown on silicon substrates at temperatures well below the standard CMOS process of semiconductor technology. The method, potentially transferable to a broader range of Zr:Ti ratios, is based on the addition of crystalline nanoseeds to photosensitive solutions of PZT resulting in perovskite crystallization from only 350 °C after the enhanced decomposition of metal precursors in the films by UV irradiation. A remanent polarization of 10.0 μC cm(-2) is obtained for these films that is in the order of the switching charge densities demanded for FeRAM devices. Also, a dielectric constant of ~90 is measured at zero voltage which exceeds that of current single-oxide candidates for capacitance applications. The multifunctionality of the films is additionally demonstrated by their pyroelectric and piezoelectric performance. The potential integration of PZT layers at such low fabrication temperatures may redefine the concept design of classical microelectronic devices, besides allowing inorganic ferroelectrics to enter the scene of the emerging large-area, flexible electronics. PMID:26837240

  1. Decoding Target Distance and Saccade Amplitude from Population Activity in the Macaque Lateral Intraparietal Area (LIP)

    PubMed Central

    Bremmer, Frank; Kaminiarz, Andre; Klingenhoefer, Steffen; Churan, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Primates perform saccadic eye movements in order to bring the image of an interesting target onto the fovea. Compared to stationary targets, saccades toward moving targets are computationally more demanding since the oculomotor system must use speed and direction information about the target as well as knowledge about its own processing latency to program an adequate, predictive saccade vector. In monkeys, different brain regions have been implicated in the control of voluntary saccades, among them the lateral intraparietal area (LIP). Here we asked, if activity in area LIP reflects the distance between fovea and saccade target, or the amplitude of an upcoming saccade, or both. We recorded single unit activity in area LIP of two macaque monkeys. First, we determined for each neuron its preferred saccade direction. Then, monkeys performed visually guided saccades along the preferred direction toward either stationary or moving targets in pseudo-randomized order. LIP population activity allowed to decode both, the distance between fovea and saccade target as well as the size of an upcoming saccade. Previous work has shown comparable results for saccade direction (Graf and Andersen, 2014a,b). Hence, LIP population activity allows to predict any two-dimensional saccade vector. Functional equivalents of macaque area LIP have been identified in humans. Accordingly, our results provide further support for the concept of activity from area LIP as neural basis for the control of an oculomotor brain-machine interface.

  2. Decoding Target Distance and Saccade Amplitude from Population Activity in the Macaque Lateral Intraparietal Area (LIP)

    PubMed Central

    Bremmer, Frank; Kaminiarz, Andre; Klingenhoefer, Steffen; Churan, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Primates perform saccadic eye movements in order to bring the image of an interesting target onto the fovea. Compared to stationary targets, saccades toward moving targets are computationally more demanding since the oculomotor system must use speed and direction information about the target as well as knowledge about its own processing latency to program an adequate, predictive saccade vector. In monkeys, different brain regions have been implicated in the control of voluntary saccades, among them the lateral intraparietal area (LIP). Here we asked, if activity in area LIP reflects the distance between fovea and saccade target, or the amplitude of an upcoming saccade, or both. We recorded single unit activity in area LIP of two macaque monkeys. First, we determined for each neuron its preferred saccade direction. Then, monkeys performed visually guided saccades along the preferred direction toward either stationary or moving targets in pseudo-randomized order. LIP population activity allowed to decode both, the distance between fovea and saccade target as well as the size of an upcoming saccade. Previous work has shown comparable results for saccade direction (Graf and Andersen, 2014a,b). Hence, LIP population activity allows to predict any two-dimensional saccade vector. Functional equivalents of macaque area LIP have been identified in humans. Accordingly, our results provide further support for the concept of activity from area LIP as neural basis for the control of an oculomotor brain-machine interface. PMID:27630547

  3. Decoding Target Distance and Saccade Amplitude from Population Activity in the Macaque Lateral Intraparietal Area (LIP).

    PubMed

    Bremmer, Frank; Kaminiarz, Andre; Klingenhoefer, Steffen; Churan, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Primates perform saccadic eye movements in order to bring the image of an interesting target onto the fovea. Compared to stationary targets, saccades toward moving targets are computationally more demanding since the oculomotor system must use speed and direction information about the target as well as knowledge about its own processing latency to program an adequate, predictive saccade vector. In monkeys, different brain regions have been implicated in the control of voluntary saccades, among them the lateral intraparietal area (LIP). Here we asked, if activity in area LIP reflects the distance between fovea and saccade target, or the amplitude of an upcoming saccade, or both. We recorded single unit activity in area LIP of two macaque monkeys. First, we determined for each neuron its preferred saccade direction. Then, monkeys performed visually guided saccades along the preferred direction toward either stationary or moving targets in pseudo-randomized order. LIP population activity allowed to decode both, the distance between fovea and saccade target as well as the size of an upcoming saccade. Previous work has shown comparable results for saccade direction (Graf and Andersen, 2014a,b). Hence, LIP population activity allows to predict any two-dimensional saccade vector. Functional equivalents of macaque area LIP have been identified in humans. Accordingly, our results provide further support for the concept of activity from area LIP as neural basis for the control of an oculomotor brain-machine interface. PMID:27630547

  4. Burned area, active fires and biomass burning - approaches to account for emissions from fires in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruecker, Gernot; Hoffmann, Anja; Leimbach, David; Tiemann, Joachim; Ng'atigwa, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Eleven years of data from the globally available MODIS burned area and the MODS Active Fire Product have been analysed for Tanzania in conjunction with GIS data on land use and cover to provide a baseline for fire activity in this East African country. The total radiated energy (FRE) emitted by fires that were picked up by the burned area and active fire product is estimated based on a spatio-temporal clustering algorithm over the burned areas, and integration of the fire radiative power from the MODIS Active Fires product over the time of burning and the area of each burned area cluster. Resulting biomass combusted by unit area based on Woosteŕs scaling factor for FRE to biomass combusted is compared to values found in the literature, and to values found in the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Pyrogenic emissions are then estimated using emission factors. According to our analysis, an average of 11 million ha burn annually (ranging between 8.5 and 12.9 million ha) in Tanzania corresponding to between 10 and 14 % of Tanzaniás land area. Most burned area is recorded in the months from May to October. The land cover types most affected are woodland and shrubland cover types: they comprise almost 70 % of Tanzania's average annual burned area or 6.8 million ha. Most burning occurs in gazetted land, with an annual average of 3.7 million ha in forest reserves, 3.3 million ha in game reserves and 1.46 million ha in national parks, totalling close to 8.5 million ha or 77 % of the annual average burned area of Tanzania. Annual variability of burned area is moderate for most of the analysed classes, and in most cases there is no clear trend to be detected in burned area, except for the Lindi region were annual burned area appears to be increasing. Preliminary results regarding emissions from fires show that for larger fires that burn over a longer time, biomass burned derived through the FRP method compares well to literature values, while the integration over

  5. Assessment of heart rate variability based on mobile device for planning physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirin, I. S.; Epishina, E. V.; Voronin, V. V.; Semenishchev, E. A.; Solodova, E. N.; Nabilskaya, N. V.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we present a method for the functional analysis of human heart based on electrocardiography (ECG) signals. The approach using the apparatus of analytical and differential geometry and correlation and regression analysis. ECG contains information on the current condition of the cardiovascular system as well as on the pathological changes in the heart. Mathematical processing of the heart rate variability allows to obtain a great set of mathematical and statistical characteristics. These characteristics of the heart rate are used when solving research problems to study physiological changes that determine functional changes of an individual. The proposed method implemented for up-to-date mobile Android and iOS based devices.

  6. Noble metal nanowires: from plasmon waveguides to passive and active devices.

    PubMed

    Lal, Surbhi; Hafner, Jason H; Halas, Naomi J; Link, Stephan; Nordlander, Peter

    2012-11-20

    Using chemical synthesis, researchers can produce noble metal nanowires with highly regular, crystalline properties unachievable by alternative, top-down nanofabrication methods. Sitting at the intersection of nanochemistry and nanooptics, noble metal nanowires have generated intense and growing research interest. These nanostructures combine subwavelength transverse dimensions (50-100 nm) and longitudinal dimensions that can reach tens of micrometers or more, which makes them an ideal platform to launch surface plasmon waves by direct illumination of one end of the structure. Because of this property, researchers are using noble metal nanowires as a tool for fundamental studies of subwavelength plasmon-based optics and the properties of surface plasmon guided wave propagation in highly confined geometries below the classical optical diffraction limit. In this Account, we review some of the recent developments in plasmonic nanowire fabrication, nanowire plasmon imaging, and nanowire optical components and devices. The addition of an adjacent nanowire, substrate, or other symmetry-breaking defect can enable the direct coupling of light to and from free space to the guided waves on a nanowire structure. Such structures lead to more complex nanowire-based geometries with multiple optical inputs and outputs. Additional nanowire imaging methods are also possible: plasmon propagation on nanowires produces intense near-field diffraction, which can induce fluorescence in nearby quantum dots or photobleach adjacent molecules. When the nanowire is deposited on a dielectric substrate, the plasmon propagation along chemically synthesized nanowires exceeds 10 μm, which makes these structures useful in nonlocal applications such as remote surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensing. Nanowires can be used as passive optical devices, which include, for example, polarization manipulators, linear polarization rotators, or even broadband linear-to-circular polarization

  7. Noble metal nanowires: from plasmon waveguides to passive and active devices.

    PubMed

    Lal, Surbhi; Hafner, Jason H; Halas, Naomi J; Link, Stephan; Nordlander, Peter

    2012-11-20

    Using chemical synthesis, researchers can produce noble metal nanowires with highly regular, crystalline properties unachievable by alternative, top-down nanofabrication methods. Sitting at the intersection of nanochemistry and nanooptics, noble metal nanowires have generated intense and growing research interest. These nanostructures combine subwavelength transverse dimensions (50-100 nm) and longitudinal dimensions that can reach tens of micrometers or more, which makes them an ideal platform to launch surface plasmon waves by direct illumination of one end of the structure. Because of this property, researchers are using noble metal nanowires as a tool for fundamental studies of subwavelength plasmon-based optics and the properties of surface plasmon guided wave propagation in highly confined geometries below the classical optical diffraction limit. In this Account, we review some of the recent developments in plasmonic nanowire fabrication, nanowire plasmon imaging, and nanowire optical components and devices. The addition of an adjacent nanowire, substrate, or other symmetry-breaking defect can enable the direct coupling of light to and from free space to the guided waves on a nanowire structure. Such structures lead to more complex nanowire-based geometries with multiple optical inputs and outputs. Additional nanowire imaging methods are also possible: plasmon propagation on nanowires produces intense near-field diffraction, which can induce fluorescence in nearby quantum dots or photobleach adjacent molecules. When the nanowire is deposited on a dielectric substrate, the plasmon propagation along chemically synthesized nanowires exceeds 10 μm, which makes these structures useful in nonlocal applications such as remote surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensing. Nanowires can be used as passive optical devices, which include, for example, polarization manipulators, linear polarization rotators, or even broadband linear-to-circular polarization

  8. Device Therapies: New Indications and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prabhat; Schwartz, Jennifer D

    2015-01-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICDs), cardiac resynchronization (CRT) and combination (CRT-D) therapy have be-come an integral part of the management of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). ICDs treat ventricular arrhythmia and CRTs improve left ventricular systolic function by resynchronizing ventricular contraction. De-vice therapies (ICD, CRT-D), have been shown to reduce all-cause mortality, including sudden cardiac death. Hospitaliza-tions are reduced with CRT and CRT-D therapy. Major device related complications include device infection, inappropriate shocks, lead malfunction and complications related to extraction of devices. Improvements in device design and implantation have included progressive miniaturization and increasing battery life of the device, optimization of response to CRT, and minimizing inappropriate device therapy. Additionally, better definition of the population with the greatest benefit is an area of active research. PMID:25391852

  9. Voltage-sensitive dye imaging of primary motor cortex activity produced by ventral tegmental area stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kunori, Nobuo; Kajiwara, Riichi; Takashima, Ichiro

    2014-06-25

    The primary motor cortex (M1) receives dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) through the mesocortical dopamine pathway. However, few studies have focused on changes in M1 neuronal activity caused by VTA activation. To address this issue, we used voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSD) to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of M1 activity induced by single-pulse stimulation of VTA in anesthetized rats. VSD imaging showed that brief electrical stimulation of unilateral VTA elicited a short-latency excitatory-inhibitory sequence of neuronal activity not only in the ipsilateral but also in the contralateral M1. The contralateral M1 response was not affected by pharmacological blockade of ipsilateral M1 activity, but it was completely abolished by corpus callosum transection. Although the VTA-evoked neuronal activity extended throughout the entire M1, we found the most prominent activity in the forelimb area of M1. The 6-OHDA-lesioned VTA failed to evoke M1 activity. Furthermore, both excitatory and inhibitory intact VTA-induced activity was entirely extinguished by blocking glutamate receptors in the target M1. When intracortical microstimulation of M1 was paired with VTA stimulation, the evoked forelimb muscle activity was facilitated or inhibited, depending on the interval between the two stimuli. These findings suggest that VTA neurons directly modulate the excitability of M1 neurons via fast glutamate signaling and, consequently, may control the last cortical stage of motor command processing. PMID:24966388

  10. Active faulting and neotectonics in the Baelo Claudia area, Campo de Gibraltar (southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grützner, Christoph; Reicherter, Klaus; Hübscher, Christian; Silva, Pablo G.

    2012-07-01

    The Strait of Gibraltar area is part of the western Eurasian-African convergence zone characterized by a complex pattern of deformation, including thrusting and folding and active normal faulting. Generally, the area is of low-seismicity; only some minor earthquakes have been recorded in the last hundred years. Archaeoseismological data evidences earthquake destruction occurring twice during Roman times. A better neotectonic framework and knowledge on the paleostress evolution of the Strait of Gibraltar area is necessary to find the local sources for those events and to establish an understanding of the recent deformation. Paleoseismic evidence for one moderate earthquake event around 6000-5000 BP along the normal Carrizales Fault is described in this paper. Off-shore high-resolution seismic investigations, structural and paleostress data, high-resolution GPR and geoelectrical resistivity measurements, outcrop investigations and trenching studies are discussed. The data reveal that active faulting takes place along N-S trending normal faults. Hence, N-S directed normal faults in the area are claimed as local candidates for moderate earthquake activity. Return periods of moderate earthquakes in the order of at least 2000-2500 years in the study area may have to be taken into account. Structural data, such a paleostress data and joints are presented and a deformation history for the Strait of Gibraltar area in southern Spain is developed in this study.

  11. PLASMA DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.; Brathenahl, A.; Furth, H.P.

    1962-04-10

    A device for producing a confined high temperature plasma is described. In the device the concave inner surface of an outer annular electrode is disposed concentrically about and facing the convex outer face of an inner annular electrode across which electrodes a high potential is applied to produce an electric field there between. Means is provided to create a magnetic field perpendicular to the electric field and a gas is supplied at reduced pressure in the area therebetween. Upon application of the high potential, the gas between the electrodes is ionized, heated, and under the influence of the electric and magnetic fields there is produced a rotating annular plasma disk. The ionized plasma has high dielectric constant properties. The device is useful as a fast discharge rate capacitor, in controlled thermonuclear research, and other high temperature gas applications. (AEC)

  12. Signal intensity, clinical activity and cross-sectional areas on MRI scans in thyroid eye disease.

    PubMed

    Mayer, E J; Fox, D L; Herdman, G; Hsuan, J; Kabala, J; Goddard, P; Potts, M J; Lee, R W J

    2005-10-01

    The signal intensity from inflamed extra-ocular muscles on short tau inversion recovery (STIR)-sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is known to correlate with clinical scores of thyroid eye disease (TED) severity. Twenty-one patients who had undergone repeated MRI scanning for TED were studied retrospectively. Signal intensity of extra-ocular muscles (from STIR-sequence MRI) and cross-sectional area (from STIR and T1 MRI) were correlated with Mourits' clinical activity score (CAS). The area of highest signal intensity within the most inflamed extra-ocular muscle, and the average cross-sectional signal intensity of the most inflamed extra-ocular muscle reliably correlated with CAS, and this was maintained as disease activity changed over time. In contrast, isolated measures of muscle cross-sectional area did not correlate with CAS. The extra-ocular muscle cross-sectional area calculated from STIR-sequence MR images was greater than that measured on T1 images. This suggests that muscle area from STIR-sequence MRI may also detect peri-muscular inflammation. We conclude that the peak signal intensity from the most inflamed extra-ocular muscle remains the most reliable correlate of clinical disease activity obtained from these images. STIR-sequence MRI scans provide a number of useful measures of disease activity in TED.

  13. Poor supplementary motor area activation differentiates auditory verbal hallucination from imagining the hallucination☆

    PubMed Central

    Raij, Tuukka T.; Riekki, Tapani J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal underpinnings of auditory verbal hallucination remain poorly understood. One suggested mechanism is brain activation that is similar to verbal imagery but occurs without the proper activation of the neuronal systems that are required to tag the origins of verbal imagery in one's mind. Such neuronal systems involve the supplementary motor area. The supplementary motor area has been associated with awareness of intention to make a hand movement, but whether this region is related to the sense of ownership of one's verbal thought remains poorly known. We hypothesized that the supplementary motor area is related to the distinction between one's own mental processing (auditory verbal imagery) and similar processing that is attributed to non-self author (auditory verbal hallucination). To test this hypothesis, we asked patients to signal the onset and offset of their auditory verbal hallucinations during functional magnetic resonance imaging. During non-hallucination periods, we asked the same patients to imagine the hallucination they had previously experienced. In addition, healthy control subjects signaled the onset and offset of self-paced imagery of similar voices. Both hallucinations and the imagery of hallucinations were associated with similar activation strengths of the fronto-temporal language-related circuitries, but the supplementary motor area was activated more strongly during the imagery than during hallucination. These findings suggest that auditory verbal hallucination resembles verbal imagery in language processing, but without the involvement of the supplementary motor area, which may subserve the sense of ownership of one's own verbal imagery. PMID:24179739

  14. Poor supplementary motor area activation differentiates auditory verbal hallucination from imagining the hallucination.

    PubMed

    Raij, Tuukka T; Riekki, Tapani J J

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal underpinnings of auditory verbal hallucination remain poorly understood. One suggested mechanism is brain activation that is similar to verbal imagery but occurs without the proper activation of the neuronal systems that are required to tag the origins of verbal imagery in one's mind. Such neuronal systems involve the supplementary motor area. The supplementary motor area has been associated with awareness of intention to make a hand movement, but whether this region is related to the sense of ownership of one's verbal thought remains poorly known. We hypothesized that the supplementary motor area is related to the distinction between one's own mental processing (auditory verbal imagery) and similar processing that is attributed to non-self author (auditory verbal hallucination). To test this hypothesis, we asked patients to signal the onset and offset of their auditory verbal hallucinations during functional magnetic resonance imaging. During non-hallucination periods, we asked the same patients to imagine the hallucination they had previously experienced. In addition, healthy control subjects signaled the onset and offset of self-paced imagery of similar voices. Both hallucinations and the imagery of hallucinations were associated with similar activation strengths of the fronto-temporal language-related circuitries, but the supplementary motor area was activated more strongly during the imagery than during hallucination. These findings suggest that auditory verbal hallucination resembles verbal imagery in language processing, but without the involvement of the supplementary motor area, which may subserve the sense of ownership of one's own verbal imagery. PMID:24179739

  15. Microwave annealing, a low-thermal-budget process for dopant activation in phosphorus-implanted MOSFET devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Cheol-Min; Cho, Won-Ju

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we investigated a low-thermal-budget dopant activation process based on microwave annealing (MWA) of phosphorus ions implanted by plasma doping and compared the proposed technique with the conventional furnace annealing and the rapid thermal annealing processes. We fabricated p-n junction diodes and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) on silicon and silicon-on-insulator substrates, respectively, in order to examine the dopant activation resulting from MWA. The investigated low-thermal-budget MWA technique proved effective for implanted dopant atom activation and diffusion suppression. In addition, a good interface property between the gate oxide and the silicon channel was achieved. Thus, low-thermal-budget MWA is a promising and effective method for the fabrication of highly-integrated semiconductor devices.

  16. Sustained activity in topographic areas of human posterior parietal cortex during memory-guided saccades

    PubMed Central

    Schluppeck, Denis; Curtis, Clayton E.; Glimcher, Paul W.; Heeger, David J.

    2006-01-01

    In a previous study we identified three cortical areas in human posterior parietal cortex that exhibited topographic responses during memory-guided saccades (V7, IPS1, and IPS2), which are candidate homologues of macaque parietal areas such as the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) and parietal reach region (PRR). Here, we show that these areas exhibit sustained delay-period activity, a critical physiological signature of areas in macaque parietal areas. By varying delay duration we disambiguated delay-period activity from sensory and motor responses. Mean time-courses in the parietal areas were well-fit by a linear model comprising 3 components representing responses to: (1) the visual target, (2) the delay period, and (3) the eye movement interval. We estimated the contributions of each component: the response amplitude during the delay period was substantially smaller (<30%) than that elicited by the transient visual target. All 3 parietal regions showed comparable delay period response amplitudes, with a trend towards larger responses from V7, to IPS1, and IPS2. Responses to the cue and during the delay period showed clear lateralization with larger responses to trials in which the target was placed in the contralateral visual field, suggesting that both these components contributed to the topography we measured. PMID:16687501

  17. Terahertz generation and detection with InGaAs-based large-area photoconductive devices excited at 1.55 μm

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ming; Mittendorff, Martin; Helm, Manfred; Dietz, Roman J. B.; Künzel, Harald; Sartorius, Bernd; Göbel, Thorsten; Schneider, Harald; Winnerl, Stephan

    2013-12-16

    We report on scalable large-area terahertz emitters and detectors based on In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As/In{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.48}As heterostructures for excitation with 1.55 μm radiation. Different geometries involving three different electrode gap sizes are compared with respect to terahertz (THz) emission, bias field distribution, and Joule heating. The field distribution becomes more favorable for THz emission as gap size increases, while Joule heating exhibits the opposite dependence. Devices with three different gap sizes, namely 3 μm, 5 μm, and 7.5 μm, have been investigated experimentally, the emitter with a gap size of 7.5 μm showed the best performance. The scalable devices are furthermore employed as detectors. The scalable electrode geometry enables spatially integrated detection, which is attractive for specific applications, e.g., where an unfocused THz beam has to be used.

  18. Seasonal Variability in Boreal Wildfire Activity Associated with Landscape Patterns of Burned Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, K. M.; Kasischke, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfire is the most prominent disturbance in the boreal forest, effecting changes in stand age and vegetation composition often over thousands of square kilometers. The effect of wildfire on ecosystem structure and function depends heavily on the seasonality of the burn, and periods of seasonally high fire activity are highly sporadic. The majority of area in Alaska that burns in a fire season does so during relatively short periods of high fire activity. These periods, which can be determined from active fire detections or fire management agency data records, are caused by elevated air temperatures and low precipitation which decrease fuel moisture and encourage the spread of fire. While fire fronts dominate during periods of low fire activity, more active periods have a higher proportion of residual burning which remains after a front has passed through. Residual burning is likely responsible for the extensive combustion of surface organic materials in the boreal forest, which can lead to post-fire changes in dominant vegetation type. Seasonal variations in fire activity are therefore an important factor in the mosaic of severity conditions across large burned areas and shifts in land cover over successional time scales. The purpose of this study is to characterize the temporal and spatial variability in periods of seasonal high fire activity that influence patterns of burned area. In large burns, unburned areas within a fire scar may serve as an important seed stock during post-fire recruitment. These areas may also feedback to future fire regimes through the preservation of more fire-resistant vegetation in unburned "islands".

  19. [Effects of Different Reclaimed Scenarios on Soil Microbe and Enzyme Activities in Mining Areas].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-jian; Liu, Feng; Zhou, Xiao-mei

    2015-05-01

    Abstract: Ecological degradation in the mining areas is greatly aggravated in recent several decades, and ecological restoration has become the primary measure for the sustainable development. Soil microbe and enzyme activity are sensitive indices to evaluate soil quality. Ecological reconstruction was initiated in Antaibao mining area, and we tested soil physicochemical properties, microbial populations of azotobacteria, nitrifying-bacteria and denitrifying-bacteria, and enzyme activities (including sucrose, polyphenol oxidase, dehydrogenase and urease) under different regeneration scenarios. Regeneration scenarios had significant effects on soil physicochemical properties, microbial population and enzyme activities. Total nitrogen was strongly correlated with azotobacteria and nitrifying-bacteria, however, total nitrogen was not correlated with denitrifying-bacteria. Phenol oxidase activity was negatively correlated with soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, but other enzyme activities were positively correlated with soil organic carbon and total nitrogen. Principal Component Analysis ( PCA) was applied to analyze the integrated fertility index (IFI). The highest and lowest IFIs were in Robinia pseudoacacia-Pinus tabuliformis mixed forests and un-reclaimed area, respectively. R. pseudoacacia-P. tabuliformis mixed forests were feasible for reclaimed mining areas in semi-arid region Northwest Shanxi.

  20. Regulatory perspectives and research activities at the FDA on the use of phantoms with in vivo diagnostic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Anant; Gavrielides, Marios A.; Weininger, Sandy; Chakrabarti, Kish; Pfefer, Joshua

    2008-02-01

    For a number of years, phantoms have been used to optimize device parameters and validate performance in the primary medical imaging modalities (CT, MRI, PET/SPECT, ultrasound). Furthermore, the FDA under the Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) requires image quality evaluation of mammography systems using FDA-approved phantoms. The oldest quantitative optical diagnostic technology, pulse oximetry, also benefits from the use of active phantoms known as patient simulators to validate certain performance characteristics under different clinically-relevant conditions. As such, guidance provided by the FDA to its staff and to industry on the contents of pre-market notification and approval submissions includes suggestions on how to incorporate the appropriate phantoms in establishing device effectiveness. Research at the FDA supports regulatory statements on the use of phantoms by investigating how phantoms can be designed, characterized, and utilized to determine critical device performance characteristics. These examples provide a model for how novel techniques in the rapidly growing field of optical diagnostics can use phantoms during pre- and post-market regulatory testing.

  1. Integrated device for optical stimulation and spatiotemporal electrical recording of neural activity in light-sensitized brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiayi; Laiwalla, Farah; Kim, Jennifer A; Urabe, Hayato; Van Wagenen, Rick; Song, Yoon-Kyu; Connors, Barry W; Zhang, Feng; Deisseroth, Karl; Nurmikko, Arto V

    2010-01-01

    Neural stimulation with high spatial and temporal precision is desirable both for studying the real-time dynamics of neural networks and for prospective clinical treatment of neurological diseases. Optical stimulation of genetically targeted neurons expressing the light sensitive channel protein Channelrhodopsin (ChR2) has recently been reported as a means for millisecond temporal control of neuronal spiking activities with cell-type selectivity. This offers the prospect of enabling local delivery of optical stimulation and the simultaneous monitoring of the neural activity by electrophysiological means, both in the vicinity of and distant to the stimulation site. We report here a novel dual-modality hybrid device, which consists of a tapered coaxial optical waveguide (‘optrode’) integrated into a 100 element intra-cortical multi-electrode recording array. We first demonstrate the dual optical delivery and electrical recording capability of the single optrode in in vitro preparations of mouse retina, photo-stimulating the native retinal photoreceptors while recording light-responsive activities from ganglion cells. The dual-modality array device was then used in ChR2 transfected mouse brain slices. Specifically, epileptiform events were reliably optically triggered by the optrode and their spatiotemporal patterns were simultaneously recorded by the multi-electrode array. PMID:19721185

  2. Occurrence and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in semipermeable membrane devices and clams in three urban streams of the Dallas-Fort Worth Metropolitan Area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, J.B.; Rose, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and Asiatic clams, Corbicula fluminea (MuLLER), were deployed at stream sites in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metropolitan Area to assess the presence of bioavailable, dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Twenty-four PAHs were detected in SPMDs, 20 of which occurred at all sites. Only three PAHs were detected in the co-deployed clams. Throughout all sites, non-alkylated PAHs were found at greater levels in SPMDs than alkylated forms. Nine of 16 Priority Pollutant PAHs were detected in SPMDs. Estimated concentrations of PAHs in water were generally two to three orders of magnitude less than standard minimum analytical reporting levels; however, for bent (a) anthracene, benzo (a) pyrene, and chrysene, estimated concentrations in water exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's human health criteria for these carcinogens in water and aquatic organisms.

  3. Carrier tests to assess microbicidal activities of chemical disinfectants for use on medical devices and environmental surfaces.

    PubMed

    Springthorpe, V Susan; Sattar, Syed A

    2005-01-01

    For well over a decade, many deficiencies have been identified in current AOAC methods used to assess the microbicidal activities of chemical disinfectants on medical devices and environmental surfaces. This report discusses the development of quantitative carrier tests (QCT) designed to address these concerns. Decontamination of surfaces with dried inocula is invariably more difficult than when microorganisms are in suspension. For medical device as well as environmental decontamination, microbicides are used on contaminated surfaces, thus making it necessary to evaluate their microbicidal action on representative carrier materials contaminated with a dried challenge microorganism(s). Our approach is a 2-tiered QCT. The first tier (QCT-1) uses relatively ideal conditions to assess performance of the microbicide for screening purposes; the test uses smooth glass surfaces and quantities of disinfectant in excess of those likely to be experienced in the field. The second tier of testing (QCT-2) is more stringent because it uses (1) disks of brushed stainless steel as carriers, (2) only 50 microL of the test formulation on each carrier as compared to 1 mL in QCT-1, and (3) an added soil load to simulate the presence of residual body fluids or accumulated surface dirt. This review also discusses the factors that affect disinfection of medical devices and environmental surfaces in the context of the methodology used to evaluate the potency of microbicides. Specific recommendations for discussion are included, and performance criteria are suggested based on a risk-reduction approach for different classes of disinfectants. The focus is on improving the relevance of the test methodology to actual field use of disinfectants for devices and facilities in health care, and potentially in other settings. It is hoped that this review and its recommendations will initiate needed discussion and resolution of the many issues identified.

  4. Validation of a device for the active manipulation of the tumor microenvironment during intravital imaging

    PubMed Central

    Williams, James K.; Entenberg, David; Wang, Yarong; Avivar-Valderas, Alvaro; Padgen, Michael; Clark, Ashley; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.; Castracane, James; Condeelis, John S.

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is recognized as playing a significant role in the behavior of tumor cells and their progression to metastasis. However, tools to manipulate the tumor microenvironment directly, and image the consequences of this manipulation with single cell resolution in real time in vivo, are lacking. We describe here a method for the direct, local manipulation of microenvironmental parameters through the use of an implantable Induction Nano Intravital Device (iNANIVID) and simultaneous in vivo visualization of the results at single-cell resolution. As a proof of concept, we deliver both a sustained dose of EGF to tumor cells while intravital imaging their chemotactic response as well as locally induce hypoxia in defined microenvironments in solid tumors.

  5. Imaging of Active Microwave Devices at Cryogenic Temperatures using Scanning Near-Field Microwave Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanawalla, Ashfaq S.; Dutta, S. K.; Vlahacos, C. P.; Steinhauer, D. E.; Feenstra, B. J.; Anlage, Steven M.; Wellstood, F. C.

    1998-03-01

    The ability to image electric fields in operating microwave devices is interesting both from the fundamental point of view and for diagnostic purposes. To that end we have constructed a scanning near-field microwave microscope which uses an open-ended coaxial probe and operates at cryogenic temperatures.(For related publications see: C. P. Vlahacos, R. C. Black, S. M. Anlage, A. Amar and F. C. Wellstood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69), 3274 (1996) and S. M. Anlage, C. P. Vlahacos, Sudeep Dutta and F. C. Wellstood, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 7, 3686 (1997). Using this system we have imaged electric fields generated by both normal metal and superconducting microstrip resonators at temperatures ranging from 77 K to 300 K. We will present images and discuss our results including observations of clear standing wave patterns at the fundamental resonant frequency and an increased quality factor of the resonators at low temperatures.

  6. Public Parks in Hong Kong: Characteristics of Physical Activity Areas and Their Users

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Bik C.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Sit, Cindy H. P.

    2016-01-01

    Public parks, salient locations for engaging populations in health promoting physical activity, are especially important in high-density cities. We used the System for Observing Physical Activity in Communities (SOPARC) to conduct the first-ever surveillance study of nine public parks in Hong Kong (288 observation sessions during 36 weekdays and 36 weekend days) and observed 28,585 visitors in 262 diverse areas/facilities. Parks were widely used throughout the day on weekdays and weekend days and across summer and autumn; visitor rates were among the highest seen in 24 SOPARC studies. In contrast to other studies where teens and children dominated park use, most visitors (71%) were adults and seniors. More males (61%) than females used the parks, and they dominated areas designed for sports. Over 60% of visitors were observed engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, a rate higher than other SOPARC studies. Facilities with user fees were less accessible than non-fee areas, but they provided relatively more supervised and organized activities. Assessing parks by age, gender, and physical activity can provide useful information relative to population health. This study not only provides information useful to local administrators for planning and programming park facilities relative to physical activity, but it also provides a baseline for comparison by other high-density cities. PMID:27367709

  7. Public Parks in Hong Kong: Characteristics of Physical Activity Areas and Their Users.

    PubMed

    Chow, Bik C; McKenzie, Thomas L; Sit, Cindy H P

    2016-01-01

    Public parks, salient locations for engaging populations in health promoting physical activity, are especially important in high-density cities. We used the System for Observing Physical Activity in Communities (SOPARC) to conduct the first-ever surveillance study of nine public parks in Hong Kong (288 observation sessions during 36 weekdays and 36 weekend days) and observed 28,585 visitors in 262 diverse areas/facilities. Parks were widely used throughout the day on weekdays and weekend days and across summer and autumn; visitor rates were among the highest seen in 24 SOPARC studies. In contrast to other studies where teens and children dominated park use, most visitors (71%) were adults and seniors. More males (61%) than females used the parks, and they dominated areas designed for sports. Over 60% of visitors were observed engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, a rate higher than other SOPARC studies. Facilities with user fees were less accessible than non-fee areas, but they provided relatively more supervised and organized activities. Assessing parks by age, gender, and physical activity can provide useful information relative to population health. This study not only provides information useful to local administrators for planning and programming park facilities relative to physical activity, but it also provides a baseline for comparison by other high-density cities.

  8. Optoelectronic device

    DOEpatents

    Bonekamp, Jeffrey E.; Boven, Michelle L.; Gaston, Ryan S.

    2014-09-09

    The invention is an optoelectronic device comprising an active portion which converts light to electricity or converts electricity to light, the active portion having a front side for the transmittal of the light and a back side opposite from the front side, at least two electrical leads to the active portion to convey electricity to or from the active portion, an enclosure surrounding the active portion and through which the at least two electrical leads pass wherein the hermetically sealed enclosure comprises at the front side of the active portion a barrier material which allows for transmittal of light, one or more getter materials disposed so as to not impede the transmission of light to or from the active portion, and a contiguous gap pathway to the getter material which pathway is disposed between the active portion and the barrier material.

  9. SU-E-T-557: Measuring Neutron Activation of Cardiac Devices Irradiated During Proton Therapy Using Indium Foils

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, S; Christodouleas, J; Delaney, K; Diffenderfer, E; Brown, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Measuring Neutron Activation of Cardiac devices Irradiated during Proton Therapy using Indium Foils Methods: The foils had dimensions of 25mm x 25mm x 1mm. After being activated, the foils were placed in a Canberra Industries well chamber utilizing a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The resulting gamma spectrum was acquired and analyzed using Genie 2000 spectroscopy software. One activation foil was placed over the upper, left chest of RANDO where a pacemaker would be. The rest of the foils were placed over the midline of the patient at different distances, providing a spatial distribution over the phantom. Using lasers and BBs to align the patient, 200 MU square fields were delivered to various treatment sites: the brain, the pancreas, and the prostate. Each field was shot at least a day apart, giving more than enough time for activity of the foil to decay (t1=2 = 54.12 min). Results: The net counts (minus background) of the three aforementioned peaks were used for our measurements. These counts were adjusted to account for detector efficiency, relative photon yields from decay, and the natural abundance of 115-In. The average neutron flux for the closed multi-leaf collimator irradiation was measured to be 1.62 x 106 - 0.18 x 106 cm2 s-1. An order of magnitude estimate of the flux for neutrons up to 1 keV from Diffenderfer et al. gives 3 x 106 cm2 s-1 which does agree on the order of magnitude. Conclusion: Lower energy neutrons have higher interaction cross-sections and are more likely to damage pacemakers. The thermal/slow neutron component may be enough to estimate the overall risk. The true test of the applicability of activation foils is whether or not measurements are capable of predicting cardiac device malfunction. For that, additional studies are needed to provide clinical evidence one way or the other.

  10. Mobile input device type, texting style and screen size influence upper extremity and trapezius muscle activity, and cervical posture while texting.

    PubMed

    Kietrys, David M; Gerg, Michael J; Dropkin, Jonathan; Gold, Judith E

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of input device type, texting style, and screen size on upper extremity and trapezius muscle activity and cervical posture during a short texting task in college students. Users of a physical keypad produced greater thumb, finger flexor, and wrist extensor muscle activity than when texting with a touch screen device of similar dimensions. Texting on either device produced greater wrist extensor muscle activity when texting with 1 hand/thumb compared with both hands/thumbs. As touch screen size increased, more participants held the device on their lap, and chose to use both thumbs less. There was also a trend for greater finger flexor, wrist extensor, and trapezius muscle activity as touch screen size increased, and for greater cervical flexion, although mean differences for cervical flexion were small. Future research can help inform whether the ergonomic stressors observed during texting are associated with musculoskeletal disorder risk. PMID:25959323

  11. Dynamics of brain activity in motor and frontal cortical areas during music listening: a magnetoencephalographic study.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Mihai; Otsuka, Asuka; Ioannides, Andreas A

    2004-04-01

    There are formidable problems in studying how 'real' music engages the brain over wide ranges of temporal scales extending from milliseconds to a lifetime. In this work, we recorded the magnetoencephalographic signal while subjects listened to music as it unfolded over long periods of time (seconds), and we developed and applied methods to correlate the time course of the regional brain activations with the dynamic aspects of the musical sound. We showed that frontal areas generally respond with slow time constants to the music, reflecting their more integrative mode; motor-related areas showed transient-mode responses to fine temporal scale structures of the sound. The study combined novel analysis techniques designed to capture and quantify fine temporal sequencing from the authentic musical piece (characterized by a clearly defined rhythm and melodic structure) with the extraction of relevant features from the dynamics of the regional brain activations. The results demonstrated that activity in motor-related structures, specifically in lateral premotor areas, supplementary motor areas, and somatomotor areas, correlated with measures of rhythmicity derived from the music. These correlations showed distinct laterality depending on how the musical performance deviated from the strict tempo of the music score, that is, depending on the musical expression.

  12. Radiomic Texture Analysis Mapping Predicts Areas of True Functional MRI Activity.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Islam; Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bakhtiari, Ali Shojaee; Thomas, Ginu A; Weinberg, Jeffrey S; Kumar, Ashok J; Sawaya, Raymond; Luedi, Markus M; Zinn, Pascal O; Colen, Rivka R

    2016-01-01

    Individual analysis of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scans requires user-adjustment of the statistical threshold in order to maximize true functional activity and eliminate false positives. In this study, we propose a novel technique that uses radiomic texture analysis (TA) features associated with heterogeneity to predict areas of true functional activity. Scans of 15 right-handed healthy volunteers were analyzed using SPM8. The resulting functional maps were thresholded to optimize visualization of language areas, resulting in 116 regions of interests (ROIs). A board-certified neuroradiologist classified different ROIs into Expected (E) and Non-Expected (NE) based on their anatomical locations. TA was performed using the mean Echo-Planner Imaging (EPI) volume, and 20 rotation-invariant texture features were obtained for each ROI. Using forward stepwise logistic regression, we built a predictive model that discriminated between E and NE areas of functional activity, with a cross-validation AUC and success rate of 79.84% and 80.19% respectively (specificity/sensitivity of 78.34%/82.61%). This study found that radiomic TA of fMRI scans may allow for determination of areas of true functional activity, and thus eliminate clinician bias. PMID:27151623

  13. 50 CFR 218.100 - Specified activity and specified geographical area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Training Range Complex (MIRC) § 218.100 Specified activity and specified geographical area. (a) Regulations...) sources for U.S. Navy anti-submarine warfare (ASW) training, maintenance, and research, development... as part of the training events indicated in this paragraph (c)(2)(ii): (i) Underwater Explosives...

  14. Radiomic Texture Analysis Mapping Predicts Areas of True Functional MRI Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Islam; Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bakhtiari, Ali Shojaee; Thomas, Ginu A.; Weinberg, Jeffrey S.; Kumar, Ashok J.; Sawaya, Raymond; Luedi, Markus M.; Zinn, Pascal O.; Colen, Rivka R.

    2016-01-01

    Individual analysis of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scans requires user-adjustment of the statistical threshold in order to maximize true functional activity and eliminate false positives. In this study, we propose a novel technique that uses radiomic texture analysis (TA) features associated with heterogeneity to predict areas of true functional activity. Scans of 15 right-handed healthy volunteers were analyzed using SPM8. The resulting functional maps were thresholded to optimize visualization of language areas, resulting in 116 regions of interests (ROIs). A board-certified neuroradiologist classified different ROIs into Expected (E) and Non-Expected (NE) based on their anatomical locations. TA was performed using the mean Echo-Planner Imaging (EPI) volume, and 20 rotation-invariant texture features were obtained for each ROI. Using forward stepwise logistic regression, we built a predictive model that discriminated between E and NE areas of functional activity, with a cross-validation AUC and success rate of 79.84% and 80.19% respectively (specificity/sensitivity of 78.34%/82.61%). This study found that radiomic TA of fMRI scans may allow for determination of areas of true functional activity, and thus eliminate clinician bias. PMID:27151623

  15. A Process of Environmental Education Communication through Community Cultural Activity Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongpaibool, Duangporn; Rawang, Wee; Supapongpichate, Ratchanont; Pichayapibool, Pataraboon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was: 1. To investigate social context, environment, way of life and community culture. 2. To gather the views and opinions regarding environmental conservation and restoration. 3. To synthesize a process of environmental education communication based on community cultural activity area. 4. To evaluate the efficacy of…

  16. 50 CFR 218.1 - Specified activity, specified geographical area and effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in the Virginia Capes Range Complex (VACAPES Range Complex) § 218.1 Specified activity, specified... the Navy is only authorized if it occurs within the VACAPES Range Complex Operation Area (OPAREA... Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. The northernmost boundary of the VACAPES Range...

  17. Sakharov and the Grey Zone: Difficult Areas of Human Rights Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, Yuri

    2006-04-01

    Drawing on my experience in human rights work and my discussions with A. D. Sakharov, I will explore some difficult areas of human rights activity in which human rights defenders cannot reach a consensus on how to proceed, and even on how to define the problem.

  18. Monitoring Animal Activity Rhythms in the Laboratory: Four Easily Assembled Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Sheridan V.

    1989-01-01

    The use of actographs for studying animal activity is discussed. Described are running recorders for rodents, perching and feeding recorders for birds, and tilting box recorders for studying the movement of reptiles, amphibians, and arthropods. (CW)

  19. Effects of Active and Passive Hearing Protection Devices on Sound Source Localization, Speech Recognition, and Tone Detection

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew D.; Beemer, Brianne T.; Greene, Nathaniel T.; Argo, Theodore; Meegan, G. Douglas; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Hearing protection devices (HPDs) such as earplugs offer to mitigate noise exposure and reduce the incidence of hearing loss among persons frequently exposed to intense sound. However, distortions of spatial acoustic information and reduced audibility of low-intensity sounds caused by many existing HPDs can make their use untenable in high-risk (e.g., military or law enforcement) environments where auditory situational awareness is imperative. Here we assessed (1) sound source localization accuracy using a head-turning paradigm, (2) speech-in-noise recognition using a modified version of the QuickSIN test, and (3) tone detection thresholds using a two-alternative forced-choice task. Subjects were 10 young normal-hearing males. Four different HPDs were tested (two active, two passive), including two new and previously untested devices. Relative to unoccluded (control) performance, all tested HPDs significantly degraded performance across tasks, although one active HPD slightly improved high-frequency tone detection thresholds and did not degrade speech recognition. Behavioral data were examined with respect to head-related transfer functions measured using a binaural manikin with and without tested HPDs in place. Data reinforce previous reports that HPDs significantly compromise a variety of auditory perceptual facilities, particularly sound localization due to distortions of high-frequency spectral cues that are important for the avoidance of front-back confusions. PMID:26313145

  20. Effects of Active and Passive Hearing Protection Devices on Sound Source Localization, Speech Recognition, and Tone Detection.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew D; Beemer, Brianne T; Greene, Nathaniel T; Argo, Theodore; Meegan, G Douglas; Tollin, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Hearing protection devices (HPDs) such as earplugs offer to mitigate noise exposure and reduce the incidence of hearing loss among persons frequently exposed to intense sound. However, distortions of spatial acoustic information and reduced audibility of low-intensity sounds caused by many existing HPDs can make their use untenable in high-risk (e.g., military or law enforcement) environments where auditory situational awareness is imperative. Here we assessed (1) sound source localization accuracy using a head-turning paradigm, (2) speech-in-noise recognition using a modified version of the QuickSIN test, and (3) tone detection thresholds using a two-alternative forced-choice task. Subjects were 10 young normal-hearing males. Four different HPDs were tested (two active, two passive), including two new and previously untested devices. Relative to unoccluded (control) performance, all tested HPDs significantly degraded performance across tasks, although one active HPD slightly improved high-frequency tone detection thresholds and did not degrade speech recognition. Behavioral data were examined with respect to head-related transfer functions measured using a binaural manikin with and without tested HPDs in place. Data reinforce previous reports that HPDs significantly compromise a variety of auditory perceptual facilities, particularly sound localization due to distortions of high-frequency spectral cues that are important for the avoidance of front-back confusions. PMID:26313145

  1. Interspecies activity correlations reveal functional correspondence between monkey and human brain areas.

    PubMed

    Mantini, Dante; Hasson, Uri; Betti, Viviana; Perrucci, Mauro G; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio; Orban, Guy A; Vanduffel, Wim

    2012-02-05

    Evolution-driven functional changes in the primate brain are typically assessed by aligning monkey and human activation maps using cortical surface expansion models. These models use putative homologous areas as registration landmarks, assuming they are functionally correspondent. For cases in which functional changes have occurred in an area, this assumption prohibits to reveal whether other areas may have assumed lost functions. Here we describe a method to examine functional correspondences across species. Without making spatial assumptions, we assessed similarities in sensory-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging responses between monkey (Macaca mulatta) and human brain areas by temporal correlation. Using natural vision data, we revealed regions for which functional processing has shifted to topologically divergent locations during evolution. We conclude that substantial evolution-driven functional reorganizations have occurred, not always consistent with cortical expansion processes. This framework for evaluating changes in functional architecture is crucial to building more accurate evolutionary models.

  2. The Importance of Landscape Elements for Bat Activity and Species Richness in Agricultural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Olga; Treitler, Julia T.; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is regarded as a key factor for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in production landscapes. We investigated whether grassland sites at close vicinity to forested areas are more frequently used by bats. Considering that bats are important consumers of herbivorous insects, including agricultural pest, this is important for sustainable land management. Bat activity and species richness were assessed using repeated monitoring from May to September in 2010 with acoustic monitoring surveys on 50 grassland sites in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (North-East Germany). Using spatial analysis (GIS), we measured the closest distance of each grassland site to potentially connecting landscape elements (e.g., trees, linear vegetation, groves, running and standing water). In addition, we assessed the distance to and the percent land cover of forest remnants and urban areas in a 200 m buffer around the recording sites to address differences in the local landscape setting. Species richness and bat activity increased significantly with higher forest land cover in the 200 m buffer and at smaller distance to forested areas. Moreover, species richness increased in proximity to tree groves. Larger amount of forest land cover and smaller distance to forest also resulted in a higher activity of bats on grassland sites in the beginning of the year during May, June and July. Landscape elements near grassland sites also influenced species composition of bats and species richness of functional groups (open, edge and narrow space foragers). Our results highlight the importance of forested areas, and suggest that agricultural grasslands that are closer to forest remnants might be better buffered against outbreaks of agricultural pest insects due to higher species richness and higher bat activity. Furthermore, our data reveals that even for highly mobile species such as bats, a very dense network of connecting elements within the landscape is

  3. The Importance of Landscape Elements for Bat Activity and Species Richness in Agricultural Areas.

    PubMed

    Heim, Olga; Treitler, Julia T; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is regarded as a key factor for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in production landscapes. We investigated whether grassland sites at close vicinity to forested areas are more frequently used by bats. Considering that bats are important consumers of herbivorous insects, including agricultural pest, this is important for sustainable land management. Bat activity and species richness were assessed using repeated monitoring from May to September in 2010 with acoustic monitoring surveys on 50 grassland sites in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (North-East Germany). Using spatial analysis (GIS), we measured the closest distance of each grassland site to potentially connecting landscape elements (e.g., trees, linear vegetation, groves, running and standing water). In addition, we assessed the distance to and the percent land cover of forest remnants and urban areas in a 200 m buffer around the recording sites to address differences in the local landscape setting. Species richness and bat activity increased significantly with higher forest land cover in the 200 m buffer and at smaller distance to forested areas. Moreover, species richness increased in proximity to tree groves. Larger amount of forest land cover and smaller distance to forest also resulted in a higher activity of bats on grassland sites in the beginning of the year during May, June and July. Landscape elements near grassland sites also influenced species composition of bats and species richness of functional groups (open, edge and narrow space foragers). Our results highlight the importance of forested areas, and suggest that agricultural grasslands that are closer to forest remnants might be better buffered against outbreaks of agricultural pest insects due to higher species richness and higher bat activity. Furthermore, our data reveals that even for highly mobile species such as bats, a very dense network of connecting elements within the landscape is

  4. The Importance of Landscape Elements for Bat Activity and Species Richness in Agricultural Areas.

    PubMed

    Heim, Olga; Treitler, Julia T; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is regarded as a key factor for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in production landscapes. We investigated whether grassland sites at close vicinity to forested areas are more frequently used by bats. Considering that bats are important consumers of herbivorous insects, including agricultural pest, this is important for sustainable land management. Bat activity and species richness were assessed using repeated monitoring from May to September in 2010 with acoustic monitoring surveys on 50 grassland sites in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (North-East Germany). Using spatial analysis (GIS), we measured the closest distance of each grassland site to potentially connecting landscape elements (e.g., trees, linear vegetation, groves, running and standing water). In addition, we assessed the distance to and the percent land cover of forest remnants and urban areas in a 200 m buffer around the recording sites to address differences in the local landscape setting. Species richness and bat activity increased significantly with higher forest land cover in the 200 m buffer and at smaller distance to forested areas. Moreover, species richness increased in proximity to tree groves. Larger amount of forest land cover and smaller distance to forest also resulted in a higher activity of bats on grassland sites in the beginning of the year during May, June and July. Landscape elements near grassland sites also influenced species composition of bats and species richness of functional groups (open, edge and narrow space foragers). Our results highlight the importance of forested areas, and suggest that agricultural grasslands that are closer to forest remnants might be better buffered against outbreaks of agricultural pest insects due to higher species richness and higher bat activity. Furthermore, our data reveals that even for highly mobile species such as bats, a very dense network of connecting elements within the landscape is

  5. Active Flash: Performance-Energy Tradeoffs for Out-of-Core Processing on Non-Volatile Memory Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Boboila, Simona; Kim, Youngjae; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S; Desnoyers, Peter; Shipman, Galen M

    2012-01-01

    In this abstract, we study the performance and energy tradeoffs involved in migrating data analysis into the flash device, a process we refer to as Active Flash. The Active Flash paradigm is similar to 'active disks', which has received considerable attention. Active Flash allows us to move processing closer to data, thereby minimizing data movement costs and reducing power consumption. It enables true out-of-core computation. The conventional definition of out-of-core solvers refers to an approach to process data that is too large to fit in the main memory and, consequently, requires access to disk. However, in Active Flash, processing outside the host CPU literally frees the core and achieves real 'out-of-core' analysis. Moving analysis to data has long been desirable, not just at this level, but at all levels of the system hierarchy. However, this requires a detailed study on the tradeoffs involved in achieving analysis turnaround under an acceptable energy envelope. To this end, we first need to evaluate if there is enough computing power on the flash device to warrant such an exploration. Flash processors require decent computing power to run the internal logic pertaining to the Flash Translation Layer (FTL), which is responsible for operations such as address translation, garbage collection (GC) and wear-leveling. Modern SSDs are composed of multiple packages and several flash chips within a package. The packages are connected using multiple I/O channels to offer high I/O bandwidth. SSD computing power is also expected to be high enough to exploit such inherent internal parallelism within the drive to increase the bandwidth and to handle fast I/O requests. More recently, SSD devices are being equipped with powerful processing units and are even embedded with multicore CPUs (e.g. ARM Cortex-A9 embedded processor is advertised to reach 2GHz frequency and deliver 5000 DMIPS; OCZ RevoDrive X2 SSD has 4 SandForce controllers, each with 780MHz max frequency

  6. Complex-envelope alternating-direction-implicit FDTD method for simulating active photonic devices with semiconductor/solid-state media.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurpreet; Ravi, Koustuban; Wang, Qian; Ho, Seng-Tiong

    2012-06-15

    A complex-envelope (CE) alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach to treat light-matter interaction self-consistently with electromagnetic field evolution for efficient simulations of active photonic devices is presented for the first time (to our best knowledge). The active medium (AM) is modeled using an efficient multilevel system of carrier rate equations to yield the correct carrier distributions, suitable for modeling semiconductor/solid-state media accurately. To include the AM in the CE-ADI-FDTD method, a first-order differential system involving CE fields in the AM is first set up. The system matrix that includes AM parameters is then split into two time-dependent submatrices that are then used in an efficient ADI splitting formula. The proposed CE-ADI-FDTD approach with AM takes 22% of the time as the approach of the corresponding explicit FDTD, as validated by semiconductor microdisk laser simulations.

  7. 'Syntactic Perturbation' During Production Activates the Right IFG, but not Broca's Area or the ATL.

    PubMed

    Matchin, William; Hickok, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Research on the neural organization of syntax - the core structure-building component of language - has focused on Broca's area and the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) as the chief candidates for syntactic processing. However, these proposals have received considerable challenges. In order to better understand the neural basis of syntactic processing, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment using a constrained sentence production task. We examined the BOLD response to sentence production for active and passive sentences, unstructured word lists, and syntactic perturbation. Perturbation involved cued restructuring of the planned syntax of a sentence mid utterance. Perturbation was designed to capture the effects of syntactic violations previously studied in sentence comprehension. Our experiment showed that Broca's area and the ATL did not exhibit response profiles consistent with syntactic operations - we found no increase of activation in these areas for sentences > lists or for perturbation. Syntactic perturbation activated a cortical-subcortical network including robust activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG). This network is similar to one previously shown to be involved in motor response inhibition. We hypothesize that RIFG activation in our study and in previous studies of sentence comprehension is due to an inhibition mechanism that may facilitate efficient syntactic restructuring. PMID:26941692

  8. Cerebellar theta burst stimulation modulates the neural activity of interconnected parietal and motor areas

    PubMed Central

    Casula, Elias Paolo; Pellicciari, Maria Concetta; Ponzo, Viviana; Stampanoni Bassi, Mario; Veniero, Domenica; Caltagirone, Carlo; Koch, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary movement control and execution are regulated by the influence of the cerebellar output over different interconnected cortical areas, through dentato-thalamo connections. In the present study we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) to directly assess the effects of cerebellar theta-burst stimulation (TBS) over the controlateral primary motor cortex (M1) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in a group of healthy volunteers. We found a TBS-dependent bidirectional modulation over TMS-evoked activity; specifically, cTBS increased whereas iTBS decreased activity between 100 and 200 ms after TMS, in a similar manner over both M1 and PPC areas. On the oscillatory domain, TBS induced specific changes over M1 natural frequencies of oscillation: TMS-evoked alpha activity was decreased by cTBS whereas beta activity was enhanced by iTBS. No effects were observed after sham stimulation. Our data provide novel evidence showing that the cerebellum exerts its control on the cortex likely by impinging on specific set of interneurons dependent on GABA-ergic activity. We show that cerebellar TBS modulates cortical excitability of distant interconnected cortical areas by acting through common temporal, spatial and frequency domains. PMID:27796359

  9. On the abundance and activity pattern of zoobenthos inhabiting a tropical reef area, Cebu, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faubel, A.

    1984-12-01

    A benthic faunal study was carried out in the tidal area of Mactan Island (Cebu, Philippines). The area was subdivided along a transect from the beach to the reef according to benthic assemblages. The sediments are largely composed of calcareous skeletal remains of the indigenous biota and surrounding calcareous rocks. The content of protein and carbohydrates of the sediment was estimated, providing an approximation of organic matter in terms of feeding efficiency. Total number of zoobenthos, both as regards the sediment samples and as to the epifaunal communities associated with seaweeds, is rather uniformly distributed justifying the 95% confidence level ( P>0.05). Distinct differences are apparent in abundance values of individual taxa. Although the study area showed the expected distribution pattern, with dominance of Nematoda (39%) living in sediment and Harpacticoida (36 66%) dwelling on Thalassia and algae, Polychaeta reveal a dominant attraction to both these habitats. The reasons for this phenomenon are discussed in relation to the absolute lack of macrofaunal predators The zoobenthos adjust their distribution and activity to fluctuating conditions of the environment. Light is mainly suggested as stimulating diel migration activities of the benthic fauna, moving upwards from the sediment to the algae and Thalassia during daytime. In a field experiment the zoobenthos was investigated for digestion activity over a diurnal cycle. The results reveal that feeding activity of zoobenthos follows a diel cycle showing maximum activity during the morning and evening obviously influenced by changes of light.

  10. 'Syntactic Perturbation' During Production Activates the Right IFG, but not Broca's Area or the ATL.

    PubMed

    Matchin, William; Hickok, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Research on the neural organization of syntax - the core structure-building component of language - has focused on Broca's area and the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) as the chief candidates for syntactic processing. However, these proposals have received considerable challenges. In order to better understand the neural basis of syntactic processing, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment using a constrained sentence production task. We examined the BOLD response to sentence production for active and passive sentences, unstructured word lists, and syntactic perturbation. Perturbation involved cued restructuring of the planned syntax of a sentence mid utterance. Perturbation was designed to capture the effects of syntactic violations previously studied in sentence comprehension. Our experiment showed that Broca's area and the ATL did not exhibit response profiles consistent with syntactic operations - we found no increase of activation in these areas for sentences > lists or for perturbation. Syntactic perturbation activated a cortical-subcortical network including robust activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG). This network is similar to one previously shown to be involved in motor response inhibition. We hypothesize that RIFG activation in our study and in previous studies of sentence comprehension is due to an inhibition mechanism that may facilitate efficient syntactic restructuring.

  11. Malumfashi Endemic Diseases Research Project, XI. Water-contact activities in the schistosomiasis study area.

    PubMed

    Tayo, M A; Pugh, R N; Bradley, A K

    1980-06-01

    Fishing, bathing, swimming and playing in water were the most important activities at the Ruwan Sanyi dam site, northern Nigeria, in terms of schistosomiasis transmission. Various washing activities were important in exposure to the infection. Males were responsible for 98% of activity involving contamination and exposure. This accounted for the marked male predominance of Schitosoma haematobium infection in the Muslim communities of this area, where boys under the age of 21 years were responsible for more than 77% of environmental egg contamination. Peak water-contact activity occurred in the afternoon and this coincided with the peak cercarial shedding period and the peak urinary egg output. As a result of the construction of many such dams in this part of northern Nigeria, the recent upward trend in schistosomiasis tramission is likely to be maintained. Fishing is a new and a potentially important activity in transmission. Any future programme to control urinary schistosomiasis in this area should pay particular attention to this activity as well as group swimming activity by young males, who should be the prime target.

  12. Large-area flexible monolithic ITO/WO3/Nb2O5/NiVOχ/ITO electrochromic devices prepared by using magnetron sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chien-Jen; Ye, Jia-Ming; Yang, Yueh-Ting; He, Ju-Liang

    2016-05-01

    Electrochromic devices (ECDs) have been applied in smart windows to control the transmission of sunlight in green buildings, saving up to 40-50% electricity consumption and ultimately reducing carbon dioxide emissions. However, the high manufacturing costs and difficulty of transportation of conventional massive large area ECDs has limited widespread applications. A unique design replacing the glass substrate commonly used in the ECD windows with inexpensive, light-weight and flexible polymeric substrate materials would accelerate EC adoption allowing them to be supplemented for regular windows without altering window construction. In this study, an ITO/WO3/Nb2O5/NiVOχ/ITO all-solid-state monolithic ECD with an effective area of 24 cm × 18 cm is successfully integrated on a PET substrate by using magnetron sputter deposition. The electrochromic performance and bending durability of the resultant material are also investigated. The experimental results indicate that the ultimate response times for the prepared ECD is 6 s for coloring at an applied voltage of -3 V and 5 s for bleaching at an applied voltage of +3 V, respectively. The optical transmittances for the bleached and colored state at a wavelength of 633 nm are 53% and 11%, respectively. The prepared ECD can sustain over 8000 repeated coloring and bleaching cycles, as well as tolerate a bending radius of curvature of 7.5 cm.

  13. Brain stimulation used as biofeedback in neuronal activation of the temporal lobe area in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vernon Furtado da; Calomeni, Mauricio Rocha; Nunes, Rodolfo Alkmim Moreira; Pimentel, Carlos Elias; Martins, Gabriela Paes; Oliveira, Patrícia da Cruz Araruna; Silva, Patrícia Bagno; Silva, Alair Pedro Ribeiro de Souza E

    2016-08-01

    This study focused upon the functional capacity of mirror neurons in autistic children. 30 individuals, 10 carriers of the autistic syndrome (GCA), 10 with intellectual impairments (GDI), and 10 non-autistics (GCN) had registered eletroencephalogram from the brain area theoretically related to mirror neurons. Data collection procedure occurred prior to brain stimulation and after the stimulation session. During the second session, participants had to alternately process figures evoking neutral, happy, and/or sorrowful feelings. Results proved that, for all groups, the stimulation process in fact produced additional activation in the neural area under study. The level of activation was related to the format of emotional stimuli and the likelihood of boosting such stimuli. Since the increase of activation occurred in a model similar to the one observed for the control group, we may suggest that the difficulty people with autism have at expressing emotions is not due to nonexistence of mirror neurons. PMID:27556374

  14. Hybrid Si-LiNbO₃ microring electro-optically tunable resonators for active photonic devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoo Seung; Kim, Gun-Duk; Kim, Woo-Ju; Lee, Sang-Shin; Lee, Wan-Gyu; Steier, William H

    2011-04-01

    Hybrid Si-LiNbO₃ electro-optic tunable ring resonators have been proposed and demonstrated as a path to achieving ultracompact and high-speed electro-optic devices. Free standing single crystal LiNbO₃ microplatelets (~mm long and ~1 μm thick) were obtained from a z-cut LiNbO₃ substrate by ion implantation and thermal treatment. The platelets were transferred and thermally bonded on top of Si resonators that were fabricated in a Si-on-insulator platform by a 0.18 μm standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process. For the hybrid microring resonator, a free spectral range of 16.5 nm, a finesse F of ~1.67 × 10², a Q-factor of ~1.68 × 10⁴, and an effective r coefficient of ~1.7 pm/V were achieved for the TE mode. These values are in good agreement with the calculated results. PMID:21479002

  15. CONTROL OF NONLINEAR DYNAMICS BY ACTIVE AND PASSIVE METHODS FOR THE NSLS-II INSERTION DEVICES

    SciTech Connect

    Bengtsson J.; Chubar, O.; Kitegi, C.; Tanabe, T.

    2012-05-20

    Nonlinear effects from insertion devices are potentially a limiting factor for the electron beam quality of modern ring-based light sources, i.e., the on and off-dynamical aperture, leading to reduced injection efficiency and beam lifetime. These effects can be modelled by e.g. kick maps ({approx}1/{gamma}{sup 2}) and controlled by e.g. first-order thin or thick magnetic kicks introduced by 'magic fingers,' 'L-shims,' or 'current strips'. However, due to physical or technological constraints, these corrections are typically only partial. Therefore, a precise model is needed to correctly minimize the residual nonlinear effects for the entire system. We outline a systematic method for integrated design and rapid prototyping based on evaluation of the 3D magnetic field and control of the local trajectory with RADIA, and particle tracking with Tracy-3 for validation. The optimal geometry for the compensating magnetic fields is determined from the results of these simulations using a combination of linear algebra and genetic optimization.

  16. An active intracellular device to prevent lethal disease outcomes in virus-infected bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Bagh, Sangram; Mandal, Mahuya; Ang, Jordan; McMillen, David R

    2011-03-01

    Synthetic biology includes an effort to logically control cellular behavior. One long-term goal is to implement medical interventions inside living cells, creating intracellular "disease fighters"; one may imagine a system that detects viral infection and responds to halt the spread of the virus. Here, we explore a system designed to display some of the qualitative features that such disease prevention systems should have, while not claiming that the system itself has any medical application. An intracellular disease prevention mechanism should: lie dormant in the absence of the disease state; detect the onset of a lethal disease pathway; respond to halt or mitigate the disease's effects; and be subject to external deactivation when required. We have created a device that displays these properties, in the highly simplified case of a bacterial viral disease. Our system detects the onset of the lytic phase of bacteriophage lambda in Escherichia coli, responds by preventing this lethal pathway from being followed, and is deactivated by a temperature shift. We have formulated a mathematical model of the engineered system, using parameters obtained from the literature and by local experimental measurement, and shown that the model captures the essential experimental behavior of the system in most parameter regimes.

  17. An Active Area Model of Rapid Infiltration Response at Substantial Depth in the Unsaturated Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, L.; Nimmo, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    In a porous medium subject to preferential flow, response to surface water infiltration can occur rapidly even at substantial depth in the unsaturated zone. In a ponding experiment at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) the profile of undisturbed natural soil, seasonally dry at the start, was observed to approach field saturation throughout a 2 meter depth within 6 hours (Nimmo and Perkins, 2007). Traditional use of Richards' equation would require an unrealistically large unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of 40 m/day to capture the observed non-classic wetting behavior. Here we present a model for rapid flow using an active area concept similar to the active fracture model (Liu and others, 1998, WRR 34:2633-2646). The active area concept is incorporated within the preferential flow domain (which allows rapid downward movement) of a dual-domain model that also contains a diffuse-flow domain in which flow can be described by Richards' equation. Development of the active area model is motivated by observation of rapid wetting at substantial depth, as well as a phenomenon in which deep flow is observed before shallow flow. In this model water movement in the preferential domain can be physically conceptualized as laminar flow in free-surface films of constant average thickness. For a given medium, the preferential domain is characterized by an effective areal density (area per unit bulk volume) that describes the free-surface film capacity of the domain as a function of depth. The active area is defined as a portion of the effective areal density that dictates the depth and temporal distribution of domain-exchange and new infiltration within the preferential domain. With the addition of the active area concept, the model is capable of simulating non-diffusive vertical transport patterns. Advantages of the model include simulating rapid response for a variety of infiltration types, including ponding and rain events, as well as modeling relatively rapid aquifer

  18. A multimodal optical and electrochemical device for monitoring surface reactions: redox active surfaces in porous silicon Rugate filters.

    PubMed

    Ciampi, Simone; Guan, Bin; Darwish, Nadim A; Zhu, Ying; Reece, Peter J; Gooding, J Justin

    2012-12-21

    Herein, mesoporous silicon (PSi) is configured as a single sensing device that has dual readouts; as a photonic crystal sensor in a Rugate filter configuration, and as a high surface area porous electrode. The as-prepared PSi is chemically modified to provide it with stability in aqueous media and to allow for the subsequent coupling of chemical species, such as via Cu(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions between 1-alkynes and azides ("click" reactions). The utility of the bimodal capabilities of the PSi sensor for monitoring surface coupling procedures is demonstrated by the covalent coupling of a ferrocene derivative, as well as by demonstrating ligand-exchange reactions (LER) at the PSi surface. Both types of reactions were monitored through optical reflectivity measurements, as well as electrochemically via the oxidation/reduction of the surface tethered redox species.

  19. Electrical active defects in HfO2 based metal/oxide/metal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kamel, F.

    2016-01-01

    Dielectric as well as thermally stimulated current measurements were performed on metal/HfO2/Pt capacitors in order to study the electrical active defects in hafnia thin films. Two thermally activated relaxation processes have been carried out from both measurements. At low temperatures, the relaxation process can be ascribed to the shallow traps level localized at 0.65 eV and generally evidenced by the second ionization of oxygen vacancies. At high temperatures, the relaxation process arises from the diffusion of positively charged oxygen vacancies by overcoming an energetic barrier of about 1 eV.

  20. 78 FR 13712 - U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Planned Monitoring Activities for F-Area Tank Farm at the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... COMMISSION U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Planned Monitoring Activities for F-Area Tank Farm at the... Savannah River Site F-Area Tank Farm Facility in Accordance with the National Defense Authorization Act for... DOE's waste disposal activities at the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site, in accordance...

  1. Silent play in a loud theatre - soil development in a geomorphically active proglacial area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlaar, Piet; Temme, Arnaud; Heckmann, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    Proglacial areas are scientifically famous for two sets of processes: first, the tumultuous geomorphic response to glacial retreat including enhanced fluvial activity and mass movements such as debris flows, rock fall and landslides. Second, the slow and somewhat regular development of soil and vegetation. These two sets of processes have usually been studied in isolation: soil development is best observed in wide, flat proglacial areas where not much geomorphic work is done. This has left questions unanswered that relate to the effect of geomorphic disturbance on high mountain soil formation, and vice versa. We attempted to characterize these interactions in the geomorphically active proglacial area of the Gepatsch Ferner in the Kaunertal in Austria. Geomorphic activity in this area is intensively studied in the PROSA project. In our study, several dozen soils were sampled in order to describe soil properties. Sampling locations were selected with Latin Hypercube sampling to best cover the variation in soil-forming factors. Results clearly showed that soil properties were not only a function of age, but also of erosion-deposition amounts and geomorphic regime. In contrast to what is reported in literature, soil pH in very young soils rose before it dropped as soils became older. The early pH rise probably reflects the leaching of pyrite in the parent material.

  2. Body-selective areas in the visual cortex are less active in children than in adults

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Paddy D.; de Gelder, Beatrice; Crabbe, Frances; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Our ability to read other people’s non-verbal signals gets refined throughout childhood and adolescence. How this is paralleled by brain development has been investigated mainly with regards to face perception, showing a protracted functional development of the face-selective visual cortical areas. In view of the importance of whole-body expressions in interpersonal communication it is important to understand the development of brain areas sensitive to these social signals. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare brain activity in a group of 24 children (age 6–11) and 26 adults while they passively watched short videos of body or object movements. We observed activity in similar regions in both groups; namely the extra-striate body area (EBA), fusiform body area (FBA), posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), amygdala and premotor regions. Adults showed additional activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Within the main body-selective regions (EBA, FBA and pSTS), the strength and spatial extent of fMRI signal change was larger in adults than in children. Multivariate Bayesian (MVB) analysis showed that the spatial pattern of neural representation within those regions did not change over age. Our results indicate, for the first time, that body perception, like face perception, is still maturing through the second decade of life. PMID:25484863

  3. Dialyzer membranes: effect of surface area and chemical modification of cellulose on complement and platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Mahiout, A; Meinhold, H; Kessel, M; Schulze, H; Baurmeister, U

    1987-04-01

    Using an ex vivo model, the effects of membrane composition and surface area on both the complement system (as reflected by plasma C3a levels) and platelets [as indicated by plasma concentrations of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and platelet factor 4 (PF4)] were studied. In this model, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was associated with less complement activation than cuprammonium cellulose (CC). A new "modified cellulose" (MC) membrane, in which a small number of the free hydroxyl groups on cellulose are substituted with a tertiary amino compound, was also associated with a low degree of complement activation, similar to that with PAN. However, the extent of hydroxyl group substitution in four MC membrane subtypes did not correlate with the reduction in complement activation. In studies using CC, the amount of generated C3a correlated with the membrane surface area, although the relationship was curvilinear. Plasma concentrations at the "dialyzer" outlet of TXB2 and PF4 were similar with CC, PAN, and MC. In studies with the MC subtypes, increasing the extent of hydroxyl group substitution paradoxically increased, albeit slightly, the amount of TXB2 generation. In studies with CC, a linear relationship between membrane surface area and TXB2 generation was found. The results suggest a dissociation between platelet and complement effects among different dialyzer membranes, and underline the importance of membrane surface area.

  4. On the area expansion of magnetic flux tubes in solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Dudík, Jaroslav; Dzifčáková, Elena; Cirtain, Jonathan W. E-mail: elena@asu.cas.cz

    2014-11-20

    We calculated the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of the area expansion factors in a potential magnetic field, extrapolated from the high-resolution Hinode/SOT magnetogram of the quiescent active region NOAA 11482. Retaining only closed loops within the computational box, we show that the distribution of area expansion factors show significant structure. Loop-like structures characterized by locally lower values of the expansion factor are embedded in a smooth background. These loop-like flux tubes have squashed cross-sections and expand with height. The distribution of the expansion factors show an overall increase with height, allowing an active region core characterized by low values of the expansion factor to be distinguished. The area expansion factors obtained from extrapolation of the Solar Optical Telescope magnetogram are compared to those obtained from an approximation of the observed magnetogram by a series of 134 submerged charges. This approximation retains the general flux distribution in the observed magnetogram, but removes the small-scale structure in both the approximated magnetogram and the 3D distribution of the area expansion factors. We argue that the structuring of the expansion factor can be a significant ingredient in producing the observed structuring of the solar corona. However, due to the potential approximation used, these results may not be applicable to loops exhibiting twist or to active regions producing significant flares.

  5. From Data Acquisition to Data Fusion: A Comprehensive Review and a Roadmap for the Identification of Activities of Daily Living Using Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Ivan Miguel; Garcia, Nuno M.; Pombo, Nuno; Flórez-Revuelta, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the research on the state of the art for sensor fusion techniques, applied to the sensors embedded in mobile devices, as a means to help identify the mobile device user’s daily activities. Sensor data fusion techniques are used to consolidate the data collected from several sensors, increasing the reliability of the algorithms for the identification of the different activities. However, mobile devices have several constraints, e.g., low memory, low battery life and low processing power, and some data fusion techniques are not suited to this scenario. The main purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the state of the art to identify examples of sensor data fusion techniques that can be applied to the sensors available in mobile devices aiming to identify activities of daily living (ADLs). PMID:26848664

  6. Site-specific characterization of Castromil Brownfield area related to gold mining activities.

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Serrano Pinto, Luís; Patinha, Carla; Cardoso Fonseca, Edmundo

    2004-03-01

    Castromil is one of the gold mining areas in Portugal that has been abandoned since 1940. This area, which was first mined in Roman times, is located within a Hercynian granite body near the contact with Silurian metasediments. Gold is essentially disseminated along veins in the silicified granite, running NW-SE, related with a shear zone and frequently associated with sulphides (arsenopyrite and basically pyrite). In paragenetic terms, three stages of mineralization are considered: ferro-arseniferous (quartz + arsenopyrite I + pyrite I + pyrrhotite + bismuth), zinciferous (sphalerite + chalcopyrite), and remobilization (arsenopyrite II + galena + gold). Due to the lack of laws and environmental education, Castromil is today a gold mining heritage site where we can detect the consequences of an incautious exploration (tailings, wells and adits located in the old explored zone) and where a residential area is located. In order to characterize the actual state of the old mining area the trace metal contamination of soils and waters by mining activities was investigated. In the studied area 106 soil samples, 15 waters and 20 plants were sampled and analysed. The soil samples were analysed for 32 elements by ICP-AES. Waters were analysed by ionic chromatography and ICP-MS for major and trace elements. Plants were analysed for As, Fe and Pb by AAS. The results are discussed taking into account the risk-based standards for soils and groundwater's (target and intervention values) proposed by Swartjes (1999). The results show elevated concentration of As and Pb which were found in soils collected from agricultural areas. Foodstuff plants species collected in the Castromil agricultural area show high concentrations of As in the leaves (cabbage and lettuce) and in the tubers (potatoes). Groundwaters in the mining area contain high concentrations of As that exceeds the intervention values. The area must to be subject to a remediation process, considering the actual risks to

  7. Site-specific characterization of Castromil Brownfield area related to gold mining activities.

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Serrano Pinto, Luís; Patinha, Carla; Cardoso Fonseca, Edmundo

    2004-03-01

    Castromil is one of the gold mining areas in Portugal that has been abandoned since 1940. This area, which was first mined in Roman times, is located within a Hercynian granite body near the contact with Silurian metasediments. Gold is essentially disseminated along veins in the silicified granite, running NW-SE, related with a shear zone and frequently associated with sulphides (arsenopyrite and basically pyrite). In paragenetic terms, three stages of mineralization are considered: ferro-arseniferous (quartz + arsenopyrite I + pyrite I + pyrrhotite + bismuth), zinciferous (sphalerite + chalcopyrite), and remobilization (arsenopyrite II + galena + gold). Due to the lack of laws and environmental education, Castromil is today a gold mining heritage site where we can detect the consequences of an incautious exploration (tailings, wells and adits located in the old explored zone) and where a residential area is located. In order to characterize the actual state of the old mining area the trace metal contamination of soils and waters by mining activities was investigated. In the studied area 106 soil samples, 15 waters and 20 plants were sampled and analysed. The soil samples were analysed for 32 elements by ICP-AES. Waters were analysed by ionic chromatography and ICP-MS for major and trace elements. Plants were analysed for As, Fe and Pb by AAS. The results are discussed taking into account the risk-based standards for soils and groundwater's (target and intervention values) proposed by Swartjes (1999). The results show elevated concentration of As and Pb which were found in soils collected from agricultural areas. Foodstuff plants species collected in the Castromil agricultural area show high concentrations of As in the leaves (cabbage and lettuce) and in the tubers (potatoes). Groundwaters in the mining area contain high concentrations of As that exceeds the intervention values. The area must to be subject to a remediation process, considering the actual risks to

  8. 33 CFR 104.270 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... detection devices, which if used must activate an audible and/or visual alarm at a location that is... measures may include: (1) Restricting access to additional areas; and (2) Searching restricted areas...

  9. 33 CFR 104.270 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... detection devices, which if used must activate an audible and/or visual alarm at a location that is... measures may include: (1) Restricting access to additional areas; and (2) Searching restricted areas...

  10. Underwater Sound Levels at a Wave Energy Device Testing Facility in Falmouth Bay, UK.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Joanne K; Witt, Matthew J; Johanning, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring devices were deployed at FaBTest in Falmouth Bay, UK, a marine renewable energy device testing facility during trials of a wave energy device. The area supports considerable commercial shipping and recreational boating along with diverse marine fauna. Noise monitoring occurred during (1) a baseline period, (2) installation activity, (3) the device in situ with inactive power status, and (4) the device in situ with active power status. This paper discusses the preliminary findings of the sound recording at FabTest during these different activity periods of a wave energy device trial.

  11. Underwater Sound Levels at a Wave Energy Device Testing Facility in Falmouth Bay, UK.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Joanne K; Witt, Matthew J; Johanning, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring devices were deployed at FaBTest in Falmouth Bay, UK, a marine renewable energy device testing facility during trials of a wave energy device. The area supports considerable commercial shipping and recreational boating along with diverse marine fauna. Noise monitoring occurred during (1) a baseline period, (2) installation activity, (3) the device in situ with inactive power status, and (4) the device in situ with active power status. This paper discusses the preliminary findings of the sound recording at FabTest during these different activity periods of a wave energy device trial. PMID:26610976

  12. MELANOPHORE BANDS AND AREAS DUE TO NERVE CUTTING, IN RELATION TO THE PROTRACTED ACTIVITY OF NERVES

    PubMed Central

    Parker, G. H.

    1941-01-01

    1. When appropriate chromatic nerves are cut caudal bands, cephalic areas, and the pelvic fins of the catfish Ameiurus darken. In pale fishes all these areas will sooner or later blanch. By recutting their nerves all such blanched areas will darken again. 2. These observations show that the darkening of caudal bands, areas, and fins on cutting their nerves is not due to paralysis (Brücke), to the obstruction of central influences such as inhibition (Zoond and Eyre), nor to vasomotor disturbances (Hogben), but to activities emanating from the cut itself. 3. The chief agents concerned with the color changes in Ameiurus are three: intermedin from the pituitary gland, acetylcholine from the dispersing nerves (cholinergic fibers), and adrenalin from the concentrating nerves (adrenergic fibers). The first two darken the fish; the third blanches it. In darkening the dispersing nerves appear to initiate the process and to be followed and substantially supplemented by intermedin. 4. Caudal bands blanch by lateral invasion, cephalic areas by lateral invasion and internal disintegration, and pelvic fins by a uniform process of general loss of tint equivalent to internal disintegration. 5. Adrenalin may be carried in such an oil as olive oil and may therefore act as a lipohumor; it is soluble in water and hence may act as a hydrohumor. In lateral invasion (caudal bands, cephalic areas) it probably acts as a lipohumor and in internal disintegration (cephalic areas, pelvic fins) it probably plays the part of a hydrohumor. 6. The duration of the activity of dispersing nerves after they had been cut was tested by means of the oscillograph, by anesthetizing blocks, and by cold-blocks. The nerves of Ameiurus proved to be unsatisfactory for oscillograph tests. An anesthetizing block, magnesium sulfate, is only partly satisfactory. A cold-block, 0°C., is successful to a limited degree. 7. By means of a cold-block it can be shown that dispersing autonomic nerve fibers in Ameiurus can

  13. Are Currently Available Wearable Devices for Activity Tracking and Heart Rate Monitoring Accurate, Precise, and Medically Beneficial?

    PubMed Central

    El-Amrawy, Fatema

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The new wave of wireless technologies, fitness trackers, and body sensor devices can have great impact on healthcare systems and the quality of life. However, there have not been enough studies to prove the accuracy and precision of these trackers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy, precision, and overall performance of seventeen wearable devices currently available compared with direct observation of step counts and heart rate monitoring. Methods Each participant in this study used three accelerometers at a time, running the three corresponding applications of each tracker on an Android or iOS device simultaneously. Each participant was instructed to walk 200, 500, and 1,000 steps. Each set was repeated 40 times. Data was recorded after each trial, and the mean step count, standard deviation, accuracy, and precision were estimated for each tracker. Heart rate was measured by all trackers (if applicable), which support heart rate monitoring, and compared to a positive control, the Onyx Vantage 9590 professional clinical pulse oximeter. Results The accuracy of the tested products ranged between 79.8% and 99.1%, while the coefficient of variation (precision) ranged between 4% and 17.5%. MisFit Shine showed the highest accuracy and precision (along with Qualcomm Toq), while Samsung Gear 2 showed the lowest accuracy, and Jawbone UP showed the lowest precision. However, Xiaomi Mi band showed the best package compared to its price. Conclusions The accuracy and precision of the selected fitness trackers are reasonable and can indicate the average level of activity and thus average energy expenditure. PMID:26618039

  14. The internal disruption as hard Magnetohydrodynamic limit of 1/2 sawtooth like activity in large helical device

    SciTech Connect

    Varela, J.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Ohdachi, S.

    2012-08-15

    Large helical device (LHD) inward-shifted configurations are unstable to resistive MHD pressure-gradient-driven modes. Sawtooth like activity was observed during LHD operation. The main drivers are the unstable modes 1/2 and 1/3 in the middle and inner plasma region which limit the plasma confinement efficiency of LHD advanced operation scenarios. The aim of the present research is to study the hard MHD limit of 1/2 sawtooth like activity, not observed yet in LHD operation, and to predict its effects on the device performance. Previous investigations pointed out this system relaxation can be an internal disruption [J. Varela et al., 'Internal disruptions and sawtooth like activity in LHD,' 38th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics (2011), P5.077]. In the present work, we simulate an internal disruption; we study the equilibria properties before and after the disruptive process, its effects on the plasma confinement efficiency during each disruptive phase, the relation between the n/m = 1/2 hard MHD events and the soft MHD events, and how to avoid or reduce their adverse effects. The simulation conclusions point out that the large stochastic region in the middle plasma strongly deforms and tears the flux surfaces when the pressure gradient increases above the hard MHD limit. If the instability reaches the inner plasma, the iota profiles will be perturbed near the plasma core and three magnetic islands can appear near the magnetic axis. If the instability is strong enough to link the stochastic regions in the middle plasma (around the half minor radius {rho}) and the plasma core ({rho}<0.25), an internal disruption is driven.

  15. Relationship between the objectively-assessed neighborhood area and activity behavior in Swiss youth

    PubMed Central

    Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Kriemler, Susi; Mäder, Urs; Dössegger, Alain; Hofmann, Heidi; Puder, Jardena J.; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background Neighborhood attributes are modifiable determinants of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). We tested whether the objectively-assessed built and social environment was associated with PA and SB in Swiss youth and whether sex, age and the socioeconomic position (Swiss-SEP) modified such associations. Methods We combined data of 1742 youth (ages 4 to 17) from seven studies conducted within Switzerland between 2005–2010. All youth provided accelerometer data and a home address, which was linked to objective environmental data and the Swiss-SEP-index. Associations between neighborhood attributes and PA were analyzed by multivariable multilevel regression analyses. Results The extent of green areas and building density was positively associated with PA in the total sample (p < 0.05). Factors representing centrally located areas, and more schoolchildren living nearby tended to increase PA in secondary schoolchildren, boys and those from lower-ranked socioeconomic areas. In primary schoolchildren, the extent of green areas was positively associated with PA (p = 0.05). Associations between neighborhood attributes and PA were more pronounced in youth from low socioeconomic areas. Conclusions The results indicate that some associations between neighborhood attributes and PA differ by age, sex and socioeconomic area. This should be taken into account when planning interventions to increase childhood PA. PMID:26844034

  16. Coherent phonon optics in a chip with an electrically controlled active device.

    PubMed

    Poyser, Caroline L; Akimov, Andrey V; Campion, Richard P; Kent, Anthony J

    2015-02-05

    Phonon optics concerns operations with high-frequency acoustic waves in solid media in a similar way to how traditional optics operates with the light beams (i.e. photons). Phonon optics experiments with coherent terahertz and sub-terahertz phonons promise a revolution in various technical applications related to high-frequency acoustics, imaging, and heat transport. Previously, phonon optics used passive methods for manipulations with propagating phonon beams that did not enable their external control. Here we fabricate a phononic chip, which includes a generator of coherent monochromatic phonons with frequency 378 GHz, a sensitive coherent phonon detector, and an active layer: a doped semiconductor superlattice, with electrical contacts, inserted into the phonon propagation path. In the experiments, we demonstrate the modulation of the coherent phonon flux by an external electrical bias applied to the active layer. Phonon optics using external control broadens the spectrum of prospective applications of phononics on the nanometer scale.

  17. Smart phone: a popular device supports amylase activity assay in fisheries research.

    PubMed

    Thongprajukaew, Karun; Choodum, Aree; Sa-E, Barunee; Hayee, Ummah

    2014-11-15

    Colourimetric determinations of amylase activity were developed based on a standard dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) staining method, using maltose as the analyte. Intensities and absorbances of red, green and blue (RGB) were obtained with iPhone imaging and Adobe Photoshop image analysis. Correlation of green and analyte concentrations was highly significant, and the accuracy of the developed method was excellent in analytical performance. The common iPhone has sufficient imaging ability for accurate quantification of maltose concentrations. Detection limits, sensitivity and linearity were comparable to a spectrophotometric method, but provided better inter-day precision. In quantifying amylase specific activity from a commercial source (P>0.02) and fish samples (P>0.05), differences compared with spectrophotometric measurements were not significant. We have demonstrated that iPhone imaging with image analysis in Adobe Photoshop has potential for field and laboratory studies of amylase.

  18. Coherent phonon optics in a chip with an electrically controlled active device

    PubMed Central

    Poyser, Caroline L.; Akimov, Andrey V.; Campion, Richard P.; Kent, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Phonon optics concerns operations with high-frequency acoustic waves in solid media in a similar way to how traditional optics operates with the light beams (i.e. photons). Phonon optics experiments with coherent terahertz and sub-terahertz phonons promise a revolution in various technical applications related to high-frequency acoustics, imaging, and heat transport. Previously, phonon optics used passive methods for manipulations with propagating phonon beams that did not enable their external control. Here we fabricate a phononic chip, which includes a generator of coherent monochromatic phonons with frequency 378 GHz, a sensitive coherent phonon detector, and an active layer: a doped semiconductor superlattice, with electrical contacts, inserted into the phonon propagation path. In the experiments, we demonstrate the modulation of the coherent phonon flux by an external electrical bias applied to the active layer. Phonon optics using external control broadens the spectrum of prospective applications of phononics on the nanometer scale. PMID:25652241

  19. Coherent phonon optics in a chip with an electrically controlled active device.

    PubMed

    Poyser, Caroline L; Akimov, Andrey V; Campion, Richard P; Kent, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Phonon optics concerns operations with high-frequency acoustic waves in solid media in a similar way to how traditional optics operates with the light beams (i.e. photons). Phonon optics experiments with coherent terahertz and sub-terahertz phonons promise a revolution in various technical applications related to high-frequency acoustics, imaging, and heat transport. Previously, phonon optics used passive methods for manipulations with propagating phonon beams that did not enable their external control. Here we fabricate a phononic chip, which includes a generator of coherent monochromatic phonons with frequency 378 GHz, a sensitive coherent phonon detector, and an active layer: a doped semiconductor superlattice, with electrical contacts, inserted into the phonon propagation path. In the experiments, we demonstrate the modulation of the coherent phonon flux by an external electrical bias applied to the active layer. Phonon optics using external control broadens the spectrum of prospective applications of phononics on the nanometer scale. PMID:25652241

  20. Finite volume analysis of temperature effects induced by active MRI implants with cylindrical symmetry: 1. Properly working devices

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Martin HJ; Vollmann, Wolfgang; Schnorr, Jörg; Grönemeyer, Dietrich HW

    2005-01-01

    Background Active Magnetic Resonance Imaging implants are constructed as resonators tuned to the Larmor frequency of a magnetic resonance system with a specific field strength. The resonating circuit may be embedded into or added to the normal metallic implant structure. The resonators build inductively coupled wireless transmit and receive coils and can amplify the signal, normally decreased by eddy currents, inside metallic structures without affecting the rest of the spin ensemble. During magnetic resonance imaging the resonators generate heat, which is additional to the usual one described by the specific absorption rate. This induces temperature increases of the tissue around the circuit paths and inside the lumen of an active implant and may negatively influence patient safety. Methods This investigation provides an overview of the supplementary power absorbed by active implants with a cylindrical geometry, corresponding to vessel implants such as stents, stent grafts or vena cava filters. The knowledge of the overall absorbed power is used in a finite volume analysis to estimate temperature maps around different implant structures inside homogeneous tissue under worst-case assumptions. The "worst-case scenario" assumes thermal heat conduction without blood perfusion inside the tissue around the implant and mostly without any cooling due to blood flow inside vessels. Results The additional power loss of a resonator is proportional to the volume and the quality factor, as well as the field strength of the MRI system and the specific absorption rate of the applied sequence. For properly working devices the finite volume analysis showed only tolerable heating during MRI investigations in most cases. Only resonators transforming a few hundred mW into heat may reach temperature increases over 5 K. This requires resonators with volumes of several ten cubic centimeters, short inductor circuit paths with only a few 10 cm and a quality factor above ten. Using MR

  1. Isomeric Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitters for Color Purity-Improved Emission in Organic Light-Emitting Devices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong-Yang; Liu, Wei; Zheng, Cai-Jun; Wang, Kai; Li, Fan; Tao, Si Lu; Ou, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Xiao-Hong

    2016-07-01

    To improve the color purity of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters, two isomeric compounds, oPTC (5'-(phenoxazin-10-yl)-[1,1':3',1″-terphenyl]-2'-carbonitrile) and mPTC (2'-(phenoxazin-10-yl)-[1,1':3',1″-terphenyl]-5'-carbonitrile), were designed and synthesized with same skeleton but different molecular restrictions. Both compounds exhibit similar highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital distributions and energy levels, photophysical properties in nonpolar cyclohexane solution, and high external quantum efficiencies (19.9% for oPTC and 17.4% for mPTC) in the devices. With the increased molecular space restriction induced by the additional phenyl substitutions at meta-position of the cyano group from mPTC to oPTC, much weaker positive solvatochromic effect is observed for mPTC. And the color purity of emission from mPTC (full width at half-maximum (fwhm) of 86 nm) is also improved contrasted with that of oPTC (fwhm of 97 nm) in the devices. These results prove that increased restriction of the molecular structure is a simple and effective method to improve the color purity of the TADF emitters. PMID:27296853

  2. The analysis of interseismic GPS observation and its implication to seismic activity in Taiwan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, M. C.; Yu, S. B.; Shin, T. C.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan is an active tectonic area with about 80 mm/yr plate convergence rate. To understand the crustal deformation and seismic potential in Taiwan area. We derived 2009-2014 interseismic GPS velocity field and strain rate, implicate to seismic activity of 2005-2014. Data collected by 281 sites of Taiwan Continuous GPS (cGPS) Array and processed with GAMIT/GLOBK software. Stacking of power spectral densities from cGPS data in Taiwan, we found the errors type can be described as a combination of white noise and flicker noise. The common errors are removed by stacking 50 cGPS sites with data period larger than 5 years. By removing the common errors, the precision of GPS data has been further improved to 2.3 mm, 1.9 mm, and 6.9 mm in the E, N, U components, respectively. After strictly data quality control, time series analysis and noise analysis, we derive an interseismic ITRF2008 velocity field from 2009 to 2014 in the Taiwan area. The general pattern is quite similar with previous studies, but the station density is much larger and spatial coverage better. Based on this interseismic velocity field, we estimate the crustal strain rate in Taiwan area. Approximately half of plate convergence strain rate is accommodated on the fold and thrust belt of western Taiwan and another half is taken up in the Longitudinal Valley and the Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan. The maximum dilatation rates is about -0.75~-0.9 μstrain/yr in WNW-ESE direction. The velocities in western Taiwan generally show a fan-shaped pattern, consistent with the direction of maximum compression tectonic stress. Extension in the E-W direction is observed at the Central Range area, the focal mechanism results also indicate the earthquake type here most are normal faults. In northern Taiwan, the velocity vectors reveal clockwise rotation, indicating the on-going extensional deformation related to the back-arc extension of the Okinawa Trough. In southern Taiwan, the horizontal velocity increases from

  3. Determination of the required surface area of a final clarifier for an activated-sludge system.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Weng Ah

    2004-01-01

    A generic methodology for determining the required surface area of a final clarifier is presented. Clarification and thickening requirements are integrated to form a unified procedure for final clarifier design. The new method is based on results obtained by Yuen (2002) on the solids flux theory for a secondary clarifier; it does not require the specification of recycle rate, which is computed as an output of the method. The author shows that there is a minimum required surface area (A(m)) for a final clarifier under the thickening requirement when the designed recycle rate is set at the maximum allowable value (FR)m (at the critical state). The designed surface area and the return activated sludge pumping capacity can be determined by applying a safety factor to A(m) and (FR)m, respectively. The method is shown to conform to conventional design criteria under typical design conditions.

  4. Social safety, self-rated general health and physical activity: changes in area crime, area safety feelings and the role of social cohesion.

    PubMed

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Groenewegen, Peter P; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether changes over time in reported area crime and perceived area safety were related to self-rated general health and physical activity (PA), in order to provide support for a causal relationship between social safety and health. Additionally, we investigated whether social cohesion protects the residents against the negative impact of unsafe areas on health and PA. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on Dutch survey data, including 47,926 respondents living in 2974 areas. An increase in area level unsafety feelings between 2009 and 2011 was associated with more people reporting poor general health in 2012 in that area, but was not related to PA. Changes in reported area crime were not related to either poor general health or PA. The social cohesion in the area did not modify the effect of changes in social safety on health and PA. The results suggest that tackling feelings of unsafety in an area might contribute to the better general health of the residents. Because changes in area social safety were not associated with PA, we found no leads that such health benefits were achieved through an increase in physical activity.

  5. [Experience of DMAT rescue activity by doctor-helicopter in Tohoku Area after the earthquake].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Naomi; Yamashita, Ako; Kimura, Yoshinobu; Aimono, Mako; Kobayashi, Iwao; Nanba, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Akihiko; Sumita, Shinzou

    2012-07-01

    We operated rescue activities in Tohoku area after the earthquake of March 11th, 2011. From our hospital, a doctor-helicopter flew to the staging care unit at Hanamaki airport with two members of the disaster medical assistance team (DMAT), one of whom was an anesthesiologist. The helicopter carried ten patients by nine flight missions, who were the victims of tsunami after the earthquake. There were seven doctor-helicopters from all over Japan and did the missions based at Hanamaki airport. The missions was quite different from our usual job as an anesthesiologist, but we could transfer the patients safely by using some knowledge of stabilizing the unstable patients as flight doctors. We report the details of our activities by our doctor-helicopters in Tohoku area.

  6. Preliminary results of systematic sampling of gas manifestations in geodynamically active areas of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; D'Alessandro, Walter; Calabrese, Sergio; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Greece is located on a convergent plate boundary comprising the subduction of the African Plate beneath the Eurasian, while the Arabian plate approaches the Eurasian in a northwestward motion. It is considered to be one of the most tectonically active regions of Earth with a complex geodynamic setting, deriving from a long and complicated geological history. Due to this specific geological background, conditions for the formation of many thermal springs are favoured. In the past years, almost all the already known sites of degassing (fumaroles, soil gases, mofettes, gas bubbling in cold and thermal waters) located in the Hellenic area were sampled at least one time. Collected samples were analysed for their chemical (He, Ne, Ar, O2, N2, H2, H2S, CO, CH4 and CO2) and isotopic composition (He, C and N). Some of these sites have been selected for systematic sampling. Four of them have records longer than 10 years with tens of samplings also considering some literature data. Two of the sites are located in active volcanic areas (Santorini and Nisyros) while the other two are close to actively spreading graben structures with intense seismic activity (Gulf of Korinth and Sperchios basin). Results allowed to define long term background values and also some interesting variation related to seismic or volcanic activity.

  7. Reliability of negative BOLD in ipsilateral sensorimotor areas during unimanual task activity.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Keith M; Sudhyadhom, Atchar; Nocera, Joe; Seff, Ari; Crosson, Bruce; Butler, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    Research using functional magnetic resonance imaging has for numerous years now reported the existence of a negative blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response. Based on accumulating evidence, this negative BOLD signal appears to represent an active inhibition of cortical areas in which it is found during task activity. This particularly important with respect to motor function given that it is fairly well-established that, in younger adults, the ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex exhibits negative BOLD during unimanual movements in fMRI. This interhemispheric suppression of cortical activity may have useful implications for our understanding of both basic motor function and rehabilitation of injury or disease. However, to date, we are aware of no study that has tested the reliability of evoked negative BOLD in ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex in individuals across sessions. The current study employs a unimanual finger opposition task previously shown to evoke negative BOLD in ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex across three sessions. Reliability metrics across sessions indicates that both the magnitude and location of ipsilateral sensorimotor negative BOLD response is relatively stable over each of the three sessions. Moreover, the volume of negative BOLD in ipsilateral cortex was highly correlated with volume of positive BOLD activity in the contralateral primary motor cortex. These findings show that the negative BOLD signal can be reliably evoked in unimanual task paradigms, and that the signal dynamic could represent an active suppression of the ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex originating from the contralateral motor areas.

  8. Nondirective meditation activates default mode network and areas associated with memory retrieval and emotional processing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Vik, Alexandra; Groote, Inge R; Lagopoulos, Jim; Holen, Are; Ellingsen, Oyvind; Håberg, Asta K; Davanger, Svend

    2014-01-01

    Nondirective meditation techniques are practiced with a relaxed focus of attention that permits spontaneously occurring thoughts, images, sensations, memories, and emotions to emerge and pass freely, without any expectation that mind wandering should abate. These techniques are thought to facilitate mental processing of emotional experiences, thereby contributing to wellness and stress management. The present study assessed brain activity by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 14 experienced practitioners of Acem meditation in two experimental conditions. In the first, nondirective meditation was compared to rest. Significantly increased activity was detected in areas associated with attention, mind wandering, retrieval of episodic memories, and emotional processing. In the second condition, participants carried out concentrative practicing of the same meditation technique, actively trying to avoid mind wandering. The contrast nondirective meditation > concentrative practicing was characterized by higher activity in the right medial temporal lobe (parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala). In conclusion, the present results support the notion that nondirective meditation, which permits mind wandering, involves more extensive activation of brain areas associated with episodic memories and emotional processing, than during concentrative practicing or regular rest.

  9. Surveillance and maintenance activities of waste area groupings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.; Jones, R.G.

    1991-12-01

    Surveillance and maintenance (S M) of 75 sites were conductd by the Remedial Action Section for the Environmental Restoration Program for surplus facilities and sites contaminated with radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals. S M activities on these sites were conducted from the end of their operating life until final facility disposal or site stabilization. The objectives of the Waste Area Grouping S M Program are met by maintaining a program of routine S M as well as by implementing interim corrective maintenance when deemed necessary as a result of site surveillance. This report briefly presents this program's activities and includes tables indicating tank levels and dry well data for FY 1991.

  10. Porous concrete block as an environmental enrichment device increases activity of laying hens in cages.

    PubMed

    Holcman, A; Gorjanc, G; Stuhec, I

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider the influence of simple and cheap environmental enrichment such as porous concrete on the behavior of laying hens in conventional cages. Forty brown laying hens were housed in individual wire mesh cages: 20 in experimental cages with porous concrete block provided for pecking and 20 in a control group without concrete block provided. Porous concrete block (5 cm length x 5 cm width x 5 cm height) was mounted on the side wall at the height of the hen's head. Behavior was studied from 42 to 48 wk of age. A group of 8 hens was filmed for 24 h, and the camera was moved each day so that all 40 hens were recorded over 5 d each wk. Videotaping was performed in wk 1, 3, 5, and 7 of the experiment. States (long-term behavior) were observed with 5-min interval recording (feeding, preening, resting, and remaining inactive), whereas events (short-term activities) were observed with instantaneous recording (drinking, pecking concrete, pecking neighbors, pecking cage, and attempting to escape). Data were analyzed with generalized linear mixed model with binomial distribution for states, and Poisson distribution for events. Monte Carlo Markov Chain methods were used to estimate model parameters. Because posterior distributions of quantities of interest were skewed, medians and standard errors are reported. Hens in experimental cages were more active in long-term behavior than controls (64.9 +/- 1.9 and 59.3 +/- 1.9% of the light period, respectively). Correspondingly, hens in the control group showed more long-term inactivity. In addition to pecking the porous concrete block, hens in experimental cages also showed other short-term activities with greater frequency (4.10 +/- 0.31 and 3.51 +/- 0.25 events per h, respectively). Our hypothesis that hens in enriched cages would have a greater level of activity was confirmed. Provision of a piece of porous concrete block as a pecking substrate enriched the environment of the birds at negligible

  11. Network activity evoked by neocortical stimulation in area 36 of the guinea pig perirhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Biella, G; Uva, L; de Curtis, M

    2001-07-01

    The perirhinal cortex is a key structure involved in memory consolidation and retrieval. In spite of the extensive anatomical studies that describe the intrinsic and extrinsic associative connections of the perirhinal cortex, the activity generated within such a network has been poorly investigated. We describe here the pattern of synaptic interactions that subtend the responses evoked in area 36 of the perirhinal cortex by neocortical and local stimulation. The experiments were carried out in the in vitro isolated guinea pig brain. The synaptic perirhinal circuit was reconstructed by integrating results obtained during intracellular recordings from layer II-III neurons with simultaneous current source density analysis of laminar profiles performed with 16-channel silicon probes. Both neocortical and local stimulation of area 36 determined a brief monosynaptic excitatory potential in layer II-III neurons, followed by a biphasic synaptic inhibitory potential possibly mediated by a feed-forward inhibitory circuit at sites close to the stimulation electrode and a late excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) that propagated at distance within area 36 along the rhinal sulcus. During a paired-pulse stimulation test, the inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) and the late EPSP were abolished in the second conditioned response, suggesting that they are generated by poli-synaptic circuits. Current source density analysis of the field responses demonstrated that 1) the monosynaptic activity was generated in layers II-III and 2) the sink associated to the disynaptic responses was localized within the superficial layer of area 36. We conclude that the neocortical input induces a brief monosynaptic excitation in area 36 of the perirhinal cortex, that is curtailed by a prominent inhibition and generates a recurrent excitatory associative response that travels at distance within area 36 itself. The results suggest that the perirhinal cortex network has the potentials to

  12. Isohelical DNA-Binding Oligomers: Antiviral Activity and Application for the Design of Nanostructured Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gursky, Georgy; Nikitin, Alexei; Surovaya, Anna; Grokhovsky, Sergey; Andronova, Valeria; Galegov, Georgy

    We performed a systematic search for new structural motifs isohelical to double-stranded DNA and found five motifs that can be used for the design and synthesis of new DNA-binding oligomers. Some of the DNA-binding oligomers can be equipped with fluorescence chromophores and metal-chelating groups and may serve as conductive wires in nano-scaled electric circuits. A series of new DNA-binding ligands were synthesized by a modular assembly of pyrrole carboxamides and novel pseudopeptides of the form (XY)n. Here, Y is a glycine residue; n is the degree of polymerization. X is an unusual amino acid residue containing a five-membered aromatic ring. Antiviral activity of bis-linked netropsin derivatives is studied. Bis-netropsins containing 15 and 31 lysine residues at the N-termini inhibit most effectively reproduction of the herpes virus type 1 in the Vero cell culture, including virus variants resistant to acyclovir and its analogues. Antiviral activity of bis-linked netropsin derivatives is correlated with their ability to interact with long clusters of AT-base pairs in the origin of replication of the viral DNA.

  13. Analysis of the neutron component at high altitude mountains using active and passive measurement devices.

    PubMed

    Hajek, M; Berger, T; Schoner, W; Vana, N

    2002-01-01

    The European Council directive 96/29/Euratom requires dosimetric precautions if the effective dose exceeds 1 mSv/a. On an average, this value is exceeded by aircrew members. Roughly half of the radiation exposure at flight altitudes is caused by cosmic ray-induced neutrons. Active (6LiI(Eu)-scintillator) and passive (TLDs) Bonner sphere spectrometers were used to determine the neutron energy spectra atop Mt. Sonnblick (3105 m) and Mt. Kitzsteinhorn (3029 m). Further measurements in a mixed radiation field at CERN as well as in a proton beam of 62 MeV at Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland, confirmed that not only neutrons but also charged particles contribute to the readings of active detectors, whereas TLD-600 and TLD-700 in pair allow the determination of the thermal neutron flux. Unfolding of the detector data obtained atop both mountains shows two relative maxima around 1 MeV and 85 MeV, which have to be considered for the assessment of the biologically relevant dose equivalent. By convoluting the spectra with appropriate conversion functions the neutron dose equivalent rate was determined to be 150 +/- 15 nSv/h. The total dose equivalent rate determined by the HTR-method was 210 +/- 15 nSv/h. The results are in good agreement with LET-spectrometer and Sievert counter measurements carried out simultaneously.

  14. Analysis of the neutron component at high altitude mountains using active and passive measurement devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, M.; Berger, T.; Schöner, W.; Vana, N.

    2002-01-01

    The European Council directive 96/29/Euratom requires dosimetric precautions if the effective dose exceeds 1 mSv/a. On an average, this value is exceeded by aircrew members. Roughly half of the radiation exposure at flight altitudes is caused by cosmic ray-induced neutrons. Active ( 6LiI(Eu)-scintillator) and passive (TLDs) Bonner sphere spectrometers were used to determine the neutron energy spectra atop Mt. Sonnblick (3105 m) and Mt. Kitzsteinhorn (3029 m). Further measurements in a mixed radiation field at CERN as well as in a proton beam of 62 MeV at Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland, confirmed that not only neutrons but also charged particles contribute to the readings of active detectors, whereas TLD-600 and TLD-700 in pair allow the determination of the thermal neutron flux. Unfolding of the detector data obtained atop both mountains shows two relative maxima around 1 MeV and 85 MeV, which have to be considered for the assessment of the biologically relevant dose equivalent. By convoluting the spectra with appropriate conversion functions the neutron dose equivalent rate was determined to be 150±15 nSv/h. The total dose equivalent rate determined by the HTR-method was 210±15 nSv/h. The results are in good agreement with LET-spectrometer and Sievert counter measurements carried out simultaneously.

  15. LOADING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-10-01

    A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

  16. Areas activated during naturalistic reading comprehension overlap topological visual, auditory, and somatotomotor maps.

    PubMed

    Sood, Mariam R; Sereno, Martin I

    2016-08-01

    Cortical mapping techniques using fMRI have been instrumental in identifying the boundaries of topological (neighbor-preserving) maps in early sensory areas. The presence of topological maps beyond early sensory areas raises the possibility that they might play a significant role in other cognitive systems, and that topological mapping might help to delineate areas involved in higher cognitive processes. In this study, we combine surface-based visual, auditory, and somatomotor mapping methods with a naturalistic reading comprehension task in the same group of subjects to provide a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the cortical overlap between sensory-motor maps in all major sensory modalities, and reading processing regions. Our results suggest that cortical activation during naturalistic reading comprehension overlaps more extensively with topological sensory-motor maps than has been heretofore appreciated. Reading activation in regions adjacent to occipital lobe and inferior parietal lobe almost completely overlaps visual maps, whereas a significant portion of frontal activation for reading in dorsolateral and ventral prefrontal cortex overlaps both visual and auditory maps. Even classical language regions in superior temporal cortex are partially overlapped by topological visual and auditory maps. By contrast, the main overlap with somatomotor maps is restricted to a small region on the anterior bank of the central sulcus near the border between the face and hand representations of M-I. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2784-2810, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Areas activated during naturalistic reading comprehension overlap topological visual, auditory, and somatotomotor maps.

    PubMed

    Sood, Mariam R; Sereno, Martin I

    2016-08-01

    Cortical mapping techniques using fMRI have been instrumental in identifying the boundaries of topological (neighbor-preserving) maps in early sensory areas. The presence of topological maps beyond early sensory areas raises the possibility that they might play a significant role in other cognitive systems, and that topological mapping might help to delineate areas involved in higher cognitive processes. In this study, we combine surface-based visual, auditory, and somatomotor mapping methods with a naturalistic reading comprehension task in the same group of subjects to provide a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the cortical overlap between sensory-motor maps in all major sensory modalities, and reading processing regions. Our results suggest that cortical activation during naturalistic reading comprehension overlaps more extensively with topological sensory-motor maps than has been heretofore appreciated. Reading activation in regions adjacent to occipital lobe and inferior parietal lobe almost completely overlaps visual maps, whereas a significant portion of frontal activation for reading in dorsolateral and ventral prefrontal cortex overlaps both visual and auditory maps. Even classical language regions in superior temporal cortex are partially overlapped by topological visual and auditory maps. By contrast, the main overlap with somatomotor maps is restricted to a small region on the anterior bank of the central sulcus near the border between the face and hand representations of M-I. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2784-2810, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27061771

  18. Local field potential activity associated with temporal expectations in the macaque lateral intraparietal area.

    PubMed

    Premereur, Elsie; Vanduffel, Wim; Janssen, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Oscillatory brain activity is attracting increasing interest in cognitive neuroscience. Numerous EEG (magnetoencephalography) and local field potential (LFP) measurements have related cognitive functions to different types of brain oscillations, but the functional significance of these rhythms remains poorly understood. Despite its proven value, LFP activity has not been extensively tested in the macaque lateral intraparietal area (LIP), which has been implicated in a wide variety of cognitive control processes. We recorded action potentials and LFPs in area LIP during delayed eye movement tasks and during a passive fixation task, in which the time schedule was fixed so that temporal expectations about task-relevant cues could be formed. LFP responses in the gamma band discriminated reliably between saccade targets and distractors inside the receptive field (RF). Alpha and beta responses were much less strongly affected by the presence of a saccade target, however, but rose sharply in the waiting period before the go signal. Surprisingly, conditions without visual stimulation of the LIP-RF-evoked robust LFP responses in every frequency band--most prominently in those below 50 Hz--precisely time-locked to the expected time of stimulus onset in the RF. These results indicate that in area LIP, oscillations in the LFP, which reflect synaptic input and local network activity, are tightly coupled to the temporal expectation of task-relevant cues. PMID:22390466

  19. Areas activated during naturalistic reading comprehension overlap topological visual, auditory, and somatotomotor maps

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cortical mapping techniques using fMRI have been instrumental in identifying the boundaries of topological (neighbor‐preserving) maps in early sensory areas. The presence of topological maps beyond early sensory areas raises the possibility that they might play a significant role in other cognitive systems, and that topological mapping might help to delineate areas involved in higher cognitive processes. In this study, we combine surface‐based visual, auditory, and somatomotor mapping methods with a naturalistic reading comprehension task in the same group of subjects to provide a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the cortical overlap between sensory‐motor maps in all major sensory modalities, and reading processing regions. Our results suggest that cortical activation during naturalistic reading comprehension overlaps more extensively with topological sensory‐motor maps than has been heretofore appreciated. Reading activation in regions adjacent to occipital lobe and inferior parietal lobe almost completely overlaps visual maps, whereas a significant portion of frontal activation for reading in dorsolateral and ventral prefrontal cortex overlaps both visual and auditory maps. Even classical language regions in superior temporal cortex are partially overlapped by topological visual and auditory maps. By contrast, the main overlap with somatomotor maps is restricted to a small region on the anterior bank of the central sulcus near the border between the face and hand representations of M‐I. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2784–2810, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27061771

  20. Study of electronicaly active defects in GaAlAs:Sn devices and their role in degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paviot, J.-L.

    The physical properties of deep levels in Sn-doped Ga(1-x)Al(x)As layers (heterostructures that are intended for the design of solar cells working in conditions of solar-ray concentration) are characterized. Samples were made by liquid-phase epitaxy (x = 0-0.6) on a GaAs substrate. A reliable technique for the fabrication of high-quality Schottky diodes, where the ohmic contact is annealed by a pulsed electron beam, is described. The electronically active centers were investigated by current and capacitance transient spectroscopy. It is shown that tin is responsible for the formation of DX centers in the layer, associated with complex centers arising around the impurity in the lattice. Aging measurments performed on double-heterostructure optoelectronic transducers fabricated using liquid-phase epitaxy indicate that tin plays an important role in the degradation of such devices.

  1. Packaging of an optoelectronic-VLSI chip supporting a 32 X 32 array of surface-active devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayliffe, Michael H.; Rolston, D. R.; Chuah, E. L.; Bernier, Eric; Michael, Feras S. J.; Kabal, D.; Kirk, Andrew G.; Plant, David V.

    2000-05-01

    Innovative approaches to the packaging of a high-performance module accommodating a 32 X 32 array of surface-active devices indium bump bonded to a 9 X 9 mm2 VLSI chip are described. The module integrates a mini-lens array, a copper heat spreader, a thermoelectric cooler and an aluminum heatsink. The mini-lens array is aligned and packaged with the chip using a novel six degrees of freedom alignment technique. The module is compact (44 X 44 X 45 mm3), easy to assemble and can be passively removed and inserted into a free-space optical system with no need for further adjustments. The chip is mounted directly on a flexible printed-circuit board using a chip-on-board approach, providing 207 bond pad connections to the chip. The junction-to-TEC thermal resistance is only 0.4 degree(s)C/W.

  2. Graphene-polymer hybrid nanostructure-based bioenergy storage device for real-time control of biological motor activity.

    PubMed

    Byun, Kyung-Eun; Choi, Dong Shin; Kim, Eunji; Seo, David H; Yang, Heejun; Seo, Sunae; Hong, Seunghun

    2011-11-22

    We report a graphene-polymer hybrid nanostructure-based bioenergy storage device to turn on and off biomotor activity in real-time. In this strategy, graphene was functionalized with amine groups and utilized as a transparent electrode supporting the motility of biomotors. Conducting polymer patterns doped with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were fabricated on the graphene and utilized for the fast release of ATP by electrical stimuli through the graphene. The controlled release of biomotor fuel, ATP, allowed us to control the actin filament transportation propelled by the biomotor in real-time. This strategy should enable the integrated nanodevices for the real-time control of biological motors, which can be a significant stepping stone toward hybrid nanomechanical systems based on motor proteins.

  3. Method and apparatus for active tamper indicating device using optical time-domain reflectometry

    DOEpatents

    Smith, D. Barton; Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Pickett, Chris A.; Earl, D. Duncan

    1999-01-01

    An optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) launches pulses of light into a link or a system of multiplexed links and records the waveform of pulses reflected by the seals in the link(s). If a seal is opened, the link of cables will become a discontinuous transmitter of the light pulses and the OTDR can immediately detect that a seal has been opened. By analyzing the waveform, the OTDR can also quickly determine which seal(s) were opened. In this way the invention functions as a system of active seals. The invention is intended for applications that require long-term surveillance of a large number of closures. It provides immediate tamper detection, allows for periodic access to secured closures, and can be configured for many different distributions of closures. It can monitor closures in indoor and outdoor locations and it can monitor containers or groups of containers located many kilometers apart.

  4. A portable device for real time drowsiness detection using novel active dry electrode system.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pai-Yuan; Hu, Weichih; Kuo, Terry B J; Shyu, Liang-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals give important information about the vigilance states of a subject. Therefore, this study constructs a real-time EEG-based system for detecting a drowsy driver. The proposed system uses a novel six channels active dry electrode system to acquire EEG non-invasively. In addition, it uses a TMS320VC5510 DSP chip as the algorithm processor, and a MSP430F149 chip as a controller to achieve a real-time portable system. This study implements stationary wavelet transform to extract two features of EEG signal: integral of EEG and zero crossings as the input to a back propagation neural network for vigilance states classification. This system can discriminate alertness and drowsiness in real-time. The accuracy of the system is 79.1% for alertness and 90.91% for drowsiness states. When the system detects drowsiness, it will warn drivers by using a vibrator and a beeper.

  5. Influence of vegetation spatial heterogeneity on soil enzyme activity in burned Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, Á. G.; Goirán, S.; Bautista, S.

    2009-04-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly considered resilient to wildfires. However, depending on fire severity and recurrence, post-fire climatic conditions and plant community type, the recovery rate of the vegetation can greatly vary. Often, the post-fire vegetation cover remains low and sparsely distributed many years after the wildfire, which could have profound impacts on ecosystem functioning. In this work, we studied the influence of vegetation patchiness on soil enzyme activity (acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase and urease), at the patch and landscape scales, in degraded dry Mediterranean shrublands affected by wildfires. At the patch scale, we assessed the variation in soil enzyme between bare soils and vegetation patches. At the landscape scale, we studied the relationships between soil enzyme activity and various landscape metrics (total patch cover, average interpatch length, average patch width, and patch density). The study was conducted in 19 sites in the Valencia Region (eastern Spain), which had been affected by large wildfires in 1991. Site selection aimed at capturing a wide range of the variability of post-fire plant recovery rates in Mediterranean areas. The activities of the three enzymes were significantly higher in soils under the vegetation canopies than in adjacent bare areas, which we attributed to the effect of plants on the soil amount of both enzyme substrates and enzymes. The differences between bare and plant microsites were larger in the case of the acid phosphatase and less marked for urease. The activity of acid phosphatase was also higher under patches of resprouter species than under patches of seeder species, probably due to the faster post-fire recovery and older age of resprouter patches in fire-prone ecosystems. Soil enzyme activities of β-glucosidase and urease in both bare soils and vegetation patches showed no relationships with any of the landscape metrics analysed. However, the activity of acid phosphatase increased

  6. Active Travel by Built Environment and Lifecycle Stage: Case Study of Osaka Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Waygood, E. Owen D.; Sun, Yilin; Letarte, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Active travel can contribute to physical activity achieved over a day. Previous studies have examined active travel associated with trips in various western countries, but few studies have examined this question for the Asian context. Japan has high levels of cycling, walking and public transport, similar to The Netherlands. Most studies have focused either on children or on adults separately, however, having children in a household will change the travel needs and wants of that household. Thus, here a household lifecycle stage approach is applied. Further, unlike many previous studies, the active travel related to public transport is included. Lastly, further to examining whether the built environment has an influence on the accumulation of active travel minutes, a binary logistic regression examines the built environment’s influence on the World Health Organization’s recommendations of physical activity. The findings suggest that there is a clear distinction between the urbanized centers and the surrounding towns and unurbanized areas. Further, active travel related to public transport trips is larger than pure walking trips. Females and children are more likely to achieve the WHO recommendations. Finally, car ownership is a strong negative influence. PMID:26694429

  7. Active Travel by Built Environment and Lifecycle Stage: Case Study of Osaka Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Waygood, E Owen D; Sun, Yilin; Letarte, Laurence

    2015-12-01

    Active travel can contribute to physical activity achieved over a day. Previous studies have examined active travel associated with trips in various western countries, but few studies have examined this question for the Asian context. Japan has high levels of cycling, walking and public transport, similar to The Netherlands. Most studies have focused either on children or on adults separately, however, having children in a household will change the travel needs and wants of that household. Thus, here a household lifecycle stage approach is applied. Further, unlike many previous studies, the active travel related to public transport is included. Lastly, further to examining whether the built environment has an influence on the accumulation of active travel minutes, a binary logistic regression examines the built environment's influence on the World Health Organization's recommendations of physical activity. The findings suggest that there is a clear distinction between the urbanized centers and the surrounding towns and unurbanized areas. Further, active travel related to public transport trips is larger than pure walking trips. Females and children are more likely to achieve the WHO recommendations. Finally, car ownership is a strong negative influence.

  8. Bat mortality and activity at a Northern Iowa wind resource area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jain, A.A.; Koford, Rolf R.; Hancock, A.W.; Zenner, G.G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined bat collision mortality, activity and species composition at an 89-turbine wind resource area in farmland of north-central Iowa from mid-Apr. to mid-Dec., 2003 and mid-Mar. to mid-Dec., 2004. We found 30 bats beneath turbines on cleared ground and gravel access areas in 2003 and 45 bats in 2004. After adjusting for search probability, search efficiency and scavenging rate, we estimated total bat mortality at 396 ?? 72 (95 ci) in 2003 and 636 ?? 112 (95 ci) in 2004. Although carcasses were mostly migratory tree bats, we found a considerable proportion of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus). We recorded 1465 bat echolocation call files at turbine sites ( 34.88 call files/detector-night) and 1536 bat call files at adjacent non-turbine sites ( 36.57 call files/detector-night). Bat activity did not differ significantly between turbine and non-turbine sites. A large proportion of recorded call files were made by Myotis sp. but this may be because we detected activity at ground level only. There was no relationship between types of turbine lights and either collision mortality or echolocation activity. The highest levels of bat echolocation activity and collision mortality were recorded during Jul. and Aug. during the autumn dispersal and migration period. The fatality rates for bats in general and little brown bats in particular were higher at the Top of Iowa Wind Resource Area than at other, comparable studies in the region. Future efforts to study behavior of bats in flight around turbines as well as cumulative impact studies should not ignore non-tree dwelling bats, generally regarded as minimally affected. ?? 2011, American Midland Naturalist.

  9. A DAQ-Device-Based Continuous Wave Near-Infrared Spectroscopy System for Measuring Human Functional Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoli; Liu, Xiaomin

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is getting more and more popular as a neuroimaging technique. The fNIRS instrument can be used to measure local hemodynamic response, which indirectly reflects the functional neural activities in human brain. In this study, an easily implemented way to establish DAQ-device-based fNIRS system was proposed. Basic instrumentation components (light sources driving, signal conditioning, sensors, and optical fiber) of the fNIRS system were described. The digital in-phase and quadrature demodulation method was applied in LabVIEW software to distinguish light sources from different emitters. The effectiveness of the custom-made system was verified by simultaneous measurement with a commercial instrument ETG-4000 during Valsalva maneuver experiment. The light intensity data acquired from two systems were highly correlated for lower wavelength (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = 0.92, P < 0.01) and higher wavelength (r = 0.84, P < 0.01). Further, another mental arithmetic experiment was implemented to detect neural activation in the prefrontal cortex. For 9 participants, significant cerebral activation was detected in 6 subjects (P < 0.05) for oxyhemoglobin and in 8 subjects (P < 0.01) for deoxyhemoglobin. PMID:25180044

  10. State-of-the-Art Automated Patch Clamp Devices: Heat Activation, Action Potentials, and High Throughput in Ion Channel Screening

    PubMed Central

    Stoelzle, Sonja; Obergrussberger, Alison; Brüggemann, Andrea; Haarmann, Claudia; George, Michael; Kettenhofen, Ralf; Fertig, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Ion channels are essential in a wide range of cellular functions and their malfunction underlies many disease states making them important targets in drug discovery. The availability of standardized cell lines expressing ion channels of interest lead to the development of diverse automated patch clamp (APC) systems with high-throughput capabilities. These systems are now available for drug screening, but there are limitations in the application range. However, further development of existing devices and introduction of new systems widen the range of possible experiments and increase throughput. The addition of well controlled and fast solution exchange, temperature control and the availability of the current clamp mode are required to analyze standard cell lines and excitable cells such as stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in a more physiologically relevant environment. Here we describe two systems with different areas of applications that meet the needs of drug discovery researchers and basic researchers alike. The here utilized medium throughput APC device is a planar patch clamp system capable of recording up to eight cells simultaneously. Features such as temperature control and recordings in the current clamp mode are described here. Standard cell lines and excitable cells such as stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes have been used in the voltage clamp and current clamp modes with the view to finding new drug candidates and safety testing methods in a more physiologically relevant environment. The high-throughput system used here is a planar patch clamp screening platform capable of recording from 96 cells in parallel and offers a throughput of 5000 data points per day. Full dose response curves can be acquired from individual cells reducing the cost per data point. The data provided reveals the suitability and relevance of both APC platforms for drug discovery, ion channel research, and safety testing. PMID:22131976

  11. State-of-the-Art Automated Patch Clamp Devices: Heat Activation, Action Potentials, and High Throughput in Ion Channel Screening.

    PubMed

    Stoelzle, Sonja; Obergrussberger, Alison; Brüggemann, Andrea; Haarmann, Claudia; George, Michael; Kettenhofen, Ralf; Fertig, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Ion channels are essential in a wide range of cellular functions and their malfunction underlies many disease states making them important targets in drug discovery. The availability of standardized cell lines expressing ion channels of interest lead to the development of diverse automated patch clamp (APC) systems with high-throughput capabilities. These systems are now available for drug screening, but there are limitations in the application range. However, further development of existing devices and introduction of new systems widen the range of possible experiments and increase throughput. The addition of well controlled and fast solution exchange, temperature control and the availability of the current clamp mode are required to analyze standard cell lines and excitable cells such as stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in a more physiologically relevant environment. Here we describe two systems with different areas of applications that meet the needs of drug discovery researchers and basic researchers alike. The here utilized medium throughput APC device is a planar patch clamp system capable of recording up to eight cells simultaneously. Features such as temperature control and recordings in the current clamp mode are described here. Standard cell lines and excitable cells such as stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes have been used in the voltage clamp and current clamp modes with the view to finding new drug candidates and safety testing methods in a more physiologically relevant environment. The high-throughput system used here is a planar patch clamp screening platform capable of recording from 96 cells in parallel and offers a throughput of 5000 data points per day. Full dose response curves can be acquired from individual cells reducing the cost per data point. The data provided reveals the suitability and relevance of both APC platforms for drug discovery, ion channel research, and safety testing. PMID:22131976

  12. Wireless device monitoring systems and monitoring devices, and associated methods

    DOEpatents

    McCown, Steven H; Derr, Kurt W; Rohde, Kenneth W

    2014-05-27

    Wireless device monitoring systems and monitoring devices include a communications module for receiving wireless communications of a wireless device. Processing circuitry is coupled with the communications module and configured to process the wireless communications to determine whether the wireless device is authorized or unauthorized to be present at the monitored area based on identification information of the wireless device. Methods of monitoring for the presence and identity of wireless devices are also provided.

  13. Remanagement of Singlet and Triplet Excitons in Single-Emissive-Layer Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescent Blue Exciplex.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Ke; Chen, Zhan; Qing, Jian; Zhang, Wen-Jun; Wu, Bo; Tam, Hoi Lam; Zhu, Furong; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2015-11-25

    A high-performance hybrid white organic light-emitting device (WOLED) is demonstrated based on an efficient novel thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) blue exciplex system. This device shows a low turn-on voltage of 2.5 V and maximum forward-viewing external quantum efficiency of 25.5%, which opens a new avenue for achieving high-performance hybrid WOLEDs with simple structures.

  14. [The influence of proficiency level of foreign language on the activation patterns of language areas].

    PubMed

    Bryll, Amira; Binder, Marek; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The of aim of the present study was the estimation of the influence of proficiency level of the second language on activation patterns of language areas. 30 volunteers participated in the experiment (15 females and 15 males) from 18 to 40 years of age. Mean age was 28 years. All participants were divided by linguist into two groups according to their proficiency level of the foreign language: high proficiency group (HP) and low proficiency group (LP). Block design method was used in the performed experiment. The experimental task was speech production in the form of sentences, the control tusk was silence. The experiment was performed using 1,5 T MR system. Functional data analysis was performed using SPM2 software (Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Great Britain). In low proficiency group (LP) stronger activation was found in right inferior frontal gyrus (pars tiangulris) incuding insula and in the left hemisphere on the border of supramarginal and superior temporal gyrus. In high proficiency group (HP) more activated in second language (L2) was the left inferior frontal gyrus (pars tiangulris), and a small part of left middle frontal gyrus. Proficiency level of the second language influences the pattern of activation of language areas.

  15. SU-E-T-590: An Activation Study of Materials and Devices Present in a Proton Treatment Room

    SciTech Connect

    Spitznagel, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The use of protons for radiation therapy is growing rapidly. One consequence of protons interacting with different media is activation. These nuclear reactions induced by the protons, scattered neutrons, and gamma rays, activate different materials encountered, particularly by the therapists. The purpose of this study was to examine the derived nuclides from the activation, and also the decay rate. Methods: The study was conducted in our proton therapy facility. Protons are derived from a synchrocyclotron and pass through field shipping systems, apertures, and range compensators to define the beam within the patient.Included materials of concerns measured; the patient support couch, sheet rock in the wall, solid plastics used for quality assurance and dosimetry, and the passive scattering system itself, which includes brass apertures, and Lucite or blue wax compensators. All devices were studied post irradiation using gamma spectroscopy to determine the nuclides, and a sodium iodine scintillation detector to measure decay, particularly when the dose rate fell to background levels. Results: We have also determined from the measurements we will maintain brass apertures for three months before sending them for scrap. Some of the radionuclides arrived from these measurements included Na-22 for the blue wax compensator, C1-34m for the sheetrock, and Sc-44 and Co-60 for the brass apertures. We found compensators made out of Lucite or wax decayed to background in 2 hours. The patient support couch decayed to background in approximately 40 minutes, and sheet rock decayed in 80 minutes. In terms of the aperture layers, the most proximal aperture slab had much higher activity than the distal slab. Also the proximal sides of the slabs were much more activate than the distal. Conclusion: We have given proper instruction to therapists performing quality assurance in terms of the handled plastics, and to handle apertures rapidly as possible.

  16. Systems biology and brain activity in neuronal pathways by smart device and advanced signal processing

    PubMed Central

    Castellani, Gastone; Intrator, Nathan; Remondini, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary biomedicine is producing large amount of data, especially within the fields of “omic” sciences. Nevertheless, other fields, such as neuroscience, are producing similar amount of data by using non-invasive techniques such as imaging, functional magnetic resonance and electroencephalography. Nowadays a big challenge and a new research horizon for Systems Biology is to develop methods to integrate and model this data in an unifying framework capable to disentangle this amazing complexity. In this paper we show how methods from genomic data analysis can be applied to brain data. In particular the concept of pathways, networks and multiplex are discussed. These methods can lead to a clear distinction of various regimes of brain activity. Moreover, this method could be the basis for a Systems Biology analysis of brain data and for the integration of these data in a multivariate and multidimensional framework. The feasibility of this integration is strongly dependent from the feature extraction method used. In our case we used an “alphabet” derived from a multi-resolution analysis that is capable to capture the most relevant information from these complex signals. PMID:25206359

  17. A novel device based on smart textile to control heart's activity during exercise.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Marco; Alis, Rafael; Guillen, Javier; Basterra, Javier; Villacastin, J P; Guillen, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, several systems have been developed to control cardiac function during exercise, and some are also capable of recording RR data to provide heart rate variability (HRV) analyses. In this study we compare time between heart beats and HRV parameters obtained with a smart textile system (GOW; Weartech sl., Spain) and an electrocardiogram machine commonly used in hospitals during continuous cycling tests. Twelve cardiology patients performed a 30-min cycling test at stable submaximal intensity. RR interval data were recorded during the test by both systems. 3-min RR segments were taken to compare the time intervals between beats and HRV variables using Bland-Altman analyses and intraclass correlation coefficients. Limits of agreement (LoAs) on RR intervals were stable at around 3 ms (widest LoAs -5.754 to 6.094 ms, tightest LoAs -2.557 to 3.105 ms, medium LoAs -3.638 ± 0.812 to 3.145 ± 0.539 ms). HRV parameters related to short-term change presented wide LoAs (RMSSD -0.17 to 18.41 %, HF -17.64 to 33.21 %, SD1 -0.50 to 17.54 %) as an effect of the error measurement of the GOW system. The GOW system is a valid tool for controlling HR during physical activity, although its use as a clinical tool for HRV cannot be supported.

  18. A novel device based on smart textile to control heart's activity during exercise.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Marco; Alis, Rafael; Guillen, Javier; Basterra, Javier; Villacastin, J P; Guillen, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, several systems have been developed to control cardiac function during exercise, and some are also capable of recording RR data to provide heart rate variability (HRV) analyses. In this study we compare time between heart beats and HRV parameters obtained with a smart textile system (GOW; Weartech sl., Spain) and an electrocardiogram machine commonly used in hospitals during continuous cycling tests. Twelve cardiology patients performed a 30-min cycling test at stable submaximal intensity. RR interval data were recorded during the test by both systems. 3-min RR segments were taken to compare the time intervals between beats and HRV variables using Bland-Altman analyses and intraclass correlation coefficients. Limits of agreement (LoAs) on RR intervals were stable at around 3 ms (widest LoAs -5.754 to 6.094 ms, tightest LoAs -2.557 to 3.105 ms, medium LoAs -3.638 ± 0.812 to 3.145 ± 0.539 ms). HRV parameters related to short-term change presented wide LoAs (RMSSD -0.17 to 18.41 %, HF -17.64 to 33.21 %, SD1 -0.50 to 17.54 %) as an effect of the error measurement of the GOW system. The GOW system is a valid tool for controlling HR during physical activity, although its use as a clinical tool for HRV cannot be supported. PMID:24756693

  19. Rain-Related Impacts on Selected Transportation Activities and Utility Services in the Chicago Area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertness, Jan

    1980-05-01

    An intensive meteorological study of summer precipitation in the Chicago area during 1976-78 furnished detailed data needed to perform a study of the impacts of rain on selected transportation-related activities and on certain utility services. Degree of effect on these activities was studied on a rain day versus non-rain day basis and further on a land use basis to help infer changes in impacts due to urban-influenced increases in rain occurrences, rainfall amounts and storm activity. Added rain resulted in over 100% more vehicle accidents, particularly in the urban area, but the accident severity associated with rain was greater in the rural areas. Rainfall decreased ridership of mass transit systems by 3-5% and apparently this was disproportionately due to midday discretionary riders such as shoppers. Little relationship of rain to pleasure boat emergencies was found but more rain decreased usage of pleasure boats. The number of delays in flight departures from O'Hare Airport was highly related to rain, increasing from only 0.3% of all flights delayed on non-rain days to 18.2% delayed on heavy (1.3 cm) rain days. The percentage of the total electrical power outage time which was due to storms varied greatly by power district, ranging from 33% to over 80%. In general, downtown Chicago experienced less time without power due to storms, than did suburban areas. Telephone service was unaffected by rain conditions in Chicago but usage was increased. The results of these selected impacts indicate that an urban-related increase in summer rainfall will lead to certain undesirable impacts on those traveling, particularly by auto or air.

  20. Geology is the Key to Explain Igneous Activity in the Mediterranean Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustrino, M.

    2014-12-01

    Igneous activity in tectonically complex areas can be interpreted in many different ways, producing completely different petrogenetic models. Processes such as oceanic and continental subduction, lithospheric delamination, changes in subduction polarity, slab break-off and mantle plumes have all been advocated as causes for changes in plate boundaries and magma production, including rate and temporal distribution, in the circum-Mediterranean area. This region thus provides a natural laboratory to investigate a range of geodynamic and magmatic processes. Although many petrologic and tectonic models have been proposed, a number of highly controversial questions still remain. No consensus has yet been reached about the capacity of plate-tectonic processes to explain the origin and style of the magmatism. Similarly, there is still not consensus on the ability of geochemical and petrological arguments to reveal the geodynamic evolution of the area. The wide range of chemical and mineralogical magma compositions produced within and around the Mediterranean, from carbonatites to strongly silica-undersaturated silico-carbonatites and melilitites to strongly silica-oversaturated rhyolites, complicate models and usually require a large number of unconstrained assumptions. Can the calcalkaline-sodic alkaline transition be related to any common petrogenetic point? Is igneous activity plate-tectonic- (top-down) or deep-mantle-controlled (bottom-up)? Do the rare carbonatites and carbonate-rich igneous rocks derive from the deep mantle or a normal, CO2-bearing upper mantle? Do ultrapotassic compositions require continental subduction? Understanding chemically complex magmas emplaced in tectonically complex areas require open minds, and avoiding dogma and assumptions. Studying the geology and shallow dynamics, not speculating about the deep lower mantle, is the key to understanding the igneous activity.