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Sample records for active dna demethylation

  1. Active DNA Demethylation in Plants and Animals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H.; Zhu, J.-K.

    2013-01-01

    Active DNA demethylation regulates many vital biological processes, including early development and locus-specific gene expression in plants and animals. In Arabidopsis, bifunctional DNA glycosylases directly excise the 5-methylcytosine base and then cleave the DNA backbone at the abasic site. Recent evidence suggests that mammals utilize DNA glycosylases after 5-methylcytosine is oxidized and/or deaminated. In both cases, the resultant single-nucleotide gap is subsequently filled with an unmodified cytosine through the DNA base excision repair pathway. The enzymatic removal of 5-methylcytosine is tightly integrated with histone modifications and possibly noncoding RNAs. Future research will increase our understanding of the mechanisms and critical roles of active DNA demethylation in various cellular processes as well as inspire novel genetic and chemical therapies for epigenetic disorders. PMID:23197304

  2. Active DNA demethylation at enhancers during the vertebrate phylotypic period.

    PubMed

    Bogdanović, Ozren; Smits, Arne H; de la Calle Mustienes, Elisa; Tena, Juan J; Ford, Ethan; Williams, Ruth; Senanayake, Upeka; Schultz, Matthew D; Hontelez, Saartje; van Kruijsbergen, Ila; Rayon, Teresa; Gnerlich, Felix; Carell, Thomas; Veenstra, Gert Jan C; Manzanares, Miguel; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Ecker, Joseph R; Vermeulen, Michiel; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Lister, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    The vertebrate body plan and organs are shaped during a conserved embryonic phase called the phylotypic stage. However, the mechanisms that guide the epigenome through this transition and their evolutionary conservation remain elusive. Here we report widespread DNA demethylation of enhancers during the phylotypic period in zebrafish, Xenopus tropicalis and mouse. These enhancers are linked to developmental genes that display coordinated transcriptional and epigenomic changes in the diverse vertebrates during embryogenesis. Binding of Tet proteins to (hydroxy)methylated DNA and enrichment of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in these regions implicated active DNA demethylation in this process. Furthermore, loss of function of Tet1, Tet2 and Tet3 in zebrafish reduced chromatin accessibility and increased methylation levels specifically at these enhancers, indicative of DNA methylation being an upstream regulator of phylotypic enhancer function. Overall, our study highlights a regulatory module associated with the most conserved phase of vertebrate embryogenesis and suggests an ancient developmental role for Tet dioxygenases.

  3. Role of the Arabidopsis DNA glycosylase/lyase ROS1 in active DNA demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Agius, Fernanda; Kapoor, Avnish; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2006-01-01

    DNA methylation is a stable epigenetic mark for transcriptional gene silencing in diverse organisms including plants and many animals. In contrast to the well characterized mechanism of DNA methylation by methyltransferases, the mechanisms and function of active DNA demethylation have been controversial. Genetic evidence suggested that the DNA glycosylase domain-containing protein ROS1 of Arabidopsis is a putative DNA demethylase, because loss-of-function ros1 mutations cause DNA hypermethylation and enhance transcriptional gene silencing. We report here the biochemical characterization of ROS1 and the effect of its overexpression on the DNA methylation of target genes. Our data suggest that the DNA glycosylase activity of ROS1 removes 5-methylcytosine from the DNA backbone and then its lyase activity cleaves the DNA backbone at the site of 5-methylcytosine removal by successive β- and δ-elimination reactions. Overexpression of ROS1 in transgenic plants led to a reduced level of cytosine methylation and increased expression of a target gene. These results demonstrate that ROS1 is a 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase/lyase important for active DNA demethylation in Arabidopsis. PMID:16864782

  4. Thymine DNA Glycosylase Is Essential for Active DNA Demethylation by Linked Deamination-Base Excision Repair

    PubMed Central

    Cortellino, Salvatore; Xu, Jinfei; Sannai, Mara; Moore, Robert; Caretti, Elena; Cigliano, Antonio; Le Coz, Madeleine; Devarajan, Karthik; Wessels, Andy; Soprano, Dianne; Abramowitz, Lara K.; Bartolomei, Marisa S.; Rambow, Florian; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Bruno, Tiziana; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Renner, Catherine; Klein-Szanto, Andres J.; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Kobi, Dominique; Davidson, Irwin; Alberti, Christophe; Larue, Lionel; Bellacosa, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Summary DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mechanism for gene silencing. While methyltransferases mediate cytosine methylation, it is less clear how unmethylated regions in mammalian genomes are protected from de novo methylation and whether an active demethylating activity is involved. Here we show that either knockout or catalytic inactivation of the DNA repair enzyme Thymine DNA Glycosylase (TDG) leads to embryonic lethality in mice. TDG is necessary for recruiting p300 to retinoic acid (RA)-regulated promoters, protection of CpG islands from hypermethylation, and active demethylation of tissue-specific, developmentally- and hormonally-regulated promoters and enhancers. TDG interacts with the deaminase AID and the damage-response protein GADD45a. These findings highlight a dual role for TDG in promoting proper epigenetic states during development and suggest a two-step mechanism for DNA demethylation in mammals, whereby 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine are first deaminated by AID to thymine and 5-hydroxymethyluracil, respectively, followed by TDG-mediated thymine and 5-hydroxymethyluracil excision repair. PMID:21722948

  5. Enzyme-based electrochemical biosensor for sensitive detection of DNA demethylation and the activity of DNA demethylase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yunlei; Li, Bingchen; Wang, Mo; Yang, Zhiqing; Yin, Huanshun; Ai, Shiyun

    2014-08-20

    A novel electrochemical method is developed for detection of DNA demethylation and assay of DNA demethylase activity. This method is constructed by hybridizing the probe with biotin tagged hemi-methylated complementary DNA and further capturing streptavidin tagged alkaline phosphatase (SA-ALP) to catalyze the hydrolysis reaction of p-nitrophenyl phosphate. The hydrolysate of p-nitrophenol (PNP) is then used as electrochemical probe for detecting DNA demethylation and assaying the activity of DNA demethylase. Demethylation of target DNA initiates a degradation reaction of the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) by restriction endonuclease of BstUI. It makes the failed immobilization of ALP, resulting in a decreased electrochemical oxidation signal of PNP. Through the change of this electrochemical signal, the DNA demethylation is identified and the activity of DNA demethylase is analyzed with low detection limit of 1.3 ng mL(-1). This method shows the advantages of simple operation, cheap and miniaturized instrument, high selectivity. Thus, it provides a useful platform for detecting DNA demethylation, analyzing demethylase activity and screening inhibited drug.

  6. Parp Inhibition Prevents Ten-Eleven Translocase Enzyme Activation and Hyperglycemia-Induced DNA Demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Dhliwayo, Nyembezi; Sarras, Michael P.; Luczkowski, Ernest; Mason, Samantha M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies from human cells, rats, and zebrafish have documented that hyperglycemia (HG) induces the demethylation of specific cytosines throughout the genome. We previously documented that a subset of these changes become permanent and may provide, in part, a mechanism for the persistence of complications referred to as the metabolic memory phenomenon. In this report, we present studies aimed at elucidating the molecular machinery that is responsible for the HG-induced DNA demethylation observed. To this end, RNA expression and enzymatic activity assays indicate that the ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family of enzymes are activated by HG. Furthermore, through the detection of intermediates generated via conversion of 5-methyl-cytosine back to the unmethylated form, the data were consistent with the use of the Tet-dependent iterative oxidation pathway. In addition, evidence is provided that the activity of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (Parp) enzyme is required for activation of Tet activity because the use of a Parp inhibitor prevented demethylation of specific loci and the accumulation of Tet-induced intermediates. Remarkably, this inhibition was accompanied by a complete restoration of the tissue regeneration deficit that is also induced by HG. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide potential new avenues for therapeutic discovery. PMID:24722243

  7. AP endonucleases process 5-methylcytosine excision intermediates during active DNA demethylation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiyoon; Jang, Hosung; Shin, Hosub; Choi, Woo Lee; Mok, Young Geun; Huh, Jin Hoe

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is a primary epigenetic modification regulating gene expression and chromatin structure in many eukaryotes. Plants have a unique DNA demethylation system in that 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is directly removed by DNA demethylases, such as DME/ROS1 family proteins, but little is known about the downstream events. During 5mC excision, DME produces 3′-phosphor-α, β-unsaturated aldehyde and 3′-phosphate by successive β- and δ-eliminations, respectively. The kinetic studies revealed that these 3′-blocking lesions persist for a significant amount of time and at least two different enzyme activities are required to immediately process them. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis AP endonucleases APE1L, APE2 and ARP have distinct functions to process such harmful lesions to allow nucleotide extension. DME expression is toxic to E. coli due to excessive 5mC excision, but expression of APE1L or ARP significantly reduces DME-induced cytotoxicity. Finally, we propose a model of base excision repair and DNA demethylation pathway unique to plants. PMID:25228464

  8. Active tissue-specific DNA demethylation conferred by somatic cell nuclei in stable heterokaryons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Pomerantz, Jason H.; Sen, George; Palermo, Adam T.; Blau, Helen M.

    2007-01-01

    DNA methylation is among the most stable epigenetic marks, ensuring tissue-specific gene expression in a heritable manner throughout development. Here we report that differentiated mesodermal somatic cells can confer tissue-specific changes in DNA methylation on epidermal progenitor cells after fusion in stable multinucleate heterokaryons. Myogenic factors alter regulatory regions of genes in keratinocyte cell nuclei, demethylating and activating a muscle-specific gene and methylating and silencing a keratinocyte-specific gene. Because these changes occur in the absence of DNA replication or cell division, they are mediated by an active mechanism. Thus, the capacity to transfer epigenetic changes to other nuclei is not limited to embryonic stem cells and oocytes but is also a property of highly specialized mammalian somatic cells. These results suggest the possibility of directing the reprogramming of readily available postnatal human progenitor cells toward specific tissue cell types. PMID:17360535

  9. An interplay of the base excision repair and mismatch repair pathways in active DNA demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Grin, Inga; Ishchenko, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Active DNA demethylation (ADDM) in mammals occurs via hydroxylation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by TET and/or deamination by AID/APOBEC family enzymes. The resulting 5mC derivatives are removed through the base excision repair (BER) pathway. At present, it is unclear how the cell manages to eliminate closely spaced 5mC residues whilst avoiding generation of toxic BER intermediates and whether alternative DNA repair pathways participate in ADDM. It has been shown that non-canonical DNA mismatch repair (ncMMR) can remove both alkylated and oxidized nucleotides from DNA. Here, a phagemid DNA containing oxidative base lesions and methylated sites are used to examine the involvement of various DNA repair pathways in ADDM in murine and human cell-free extracts. We demonstrate that, in addition to short-patch BER, 5-hydroxymethyluracil and uracil mispaired with guanine can be processed by ncMMR and long-patch BER with concomitant removal of distant 5mC residues. Furthermore, the presence of multiple mispairs in the same MMR nick/mismatch recognition region together with BER-mediated nick formation promotes proficient ncMMR resulting in the reactivation of an epigenetically silenced reporter gene in murine cells. These findings suggest cooperation between BER and ncMMR in the removal of multiple mismatches that might occur in mammalian cells during ADDM. PMID:26843430

  10. IL-2 and GM-CSF are regulated by DNA demethylation during activation of T cells, B cells and macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yan; Ohms, Stephen J.; Shannon, Frances M.; Sun, Chao; Fan, Jun Y.

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA methylation is dynamic and flexible and changes rapidly upon cell activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA methylation controls the inducible gene expression in a given cell type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some enzymes are involved in maintaining the methylation profile of immune cells. -- Abstract: DNA demethylation has been found to occur at the promoters of a number of actively expressed cytokines and is believed to play a critical role in transcriptional regulation. While many DNA demethylation studies have focused on T cell activation, proliferation and differentiation, changes in DNA methylation in other types of immune cells are less well studied. We found that the expression of two cytokines (IL-2 and GM-CSF) responded differently to activation in three types of immune cells: EL4, A20 and RAW264.7 cells. Using the McrBC and MeDIP approaches, we observed decreases in DNA methylation at a genome-wide level and at the promoters of the genes of these cytokines. The expression of several potential enzymes/co-enzymes involved in the DNA demethylation pathways seemed to be associated with immune cell activation.

  11. DNA demethylation in PD-1 gene promoter induced by 5-azacytidine activates PD-1 expression on Molt-4 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Xiao, Xin Q; Jiang, Yong F; Liang, Yun S; Peng, Min Y; Xu, Yun; Gong, Guo Z

    2011-01-01

    The expression of the programmed death 1 (PD-1) gene is an indicator of exhausted T-cells with decreased activation and function. It remains unknown, however, whether the methylation status of the PD-1 gene promoter is associated with PD-1 expression level. This study shows the changes of PD-1 expression levels and the demethylation status of the PD-1 promoter region in Molt-4 cells under different concentrations of 5-azacytidine (5-Zac). The result demonstrated that DNA demethylation at PD-1 promoter may contribute to PD-1 overexpression.

  12. The cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly component MET18 is required for the full enzymatic activity of ROS1 in active DNA demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaokang; Li, Qi; Yuan, Wei; Cao, Zhendong; Qi, Bei; Kumar, Suresh; Li, Yan; Qian, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation patterns in plants are dynamically regulated by DNA methylation and active DNA demethylation in response to both environmental changes and development of plant. Beginning with the removal of methylated cytosine by ROS1/DME family of 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases, active DNA demethylation in plants occurs through base excision repair. So far, many components involved in active DNA demethylation remain undiscovered. Through a forward genetic screening of Arabidopsis mutants showing DNA hypermethylation at the EPF2 promoter region, we identified the conserved iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein MET18. MET18 dysfunction caused DNA hypermethylation at more than 1000 loci as well as the silencing of reporter genes and some endogenous genes. MET18 can directly interact with ROS1 in vitro and in vivo. ROS1 activity was reduced in the met18 mutant plants and point mutation in the conserved Fe-S cluster binding motif of ROS1 disrupted its biological function. Interestingly, a large number of DNA hypomethylated loci, especially in the CHH context, were identified from the met18 mutants and most of the hypo-DMRs were from TE regions. Our results suggest that MET18 can regulate both active DNA demethylation and DNA methylation pathways in Arabidopsis. PMID:27193999

  13. Early steps of active DNA demethylation initiated by ROS1 glycosylase require three putative helix-invading residues.

    PubMed

    Parrilla-Doblas, Jara Teresa; Ponferrada-Marín, María Isabel; Roldán-Arjona, Teresa; Ariza, Rafael R

    2013-10-01

    Active DNA demethylation is crucial for epigenetic control, but the underlying enzymatic mechanisms are incompletely understood. REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 (ROS1) is a 5-methylcytosine (5-meC) DNA glycosylase/lyase that initiates DNA demethylation in plants through a base excision repair process. The enzyme binds DNA nonspecifically and slides along the substrate in search of 5-meC. In this work, we have used homology modelling and biochemical analysis to gain insight into the mechanism of target location and recognition by ROS1. We have found that three putative helix-intercalating residues (Q607, R903 and M905) are required for processing of 5-meC:G pairs, but dispensable for excision of mismatched 5-meC. Mutant proteins Q607A, R903A and M905G retain the capacity to process an abasic site opposite G, thus suggesting that all three residues play a critical role in early steps of the base extrusion process and likely contribute to destabilization of 5-meC:G pairs. While R903 and M905 are not essential for DNA binding, mutation of Q607 abrogates stable binding to both methylated and nonmethylated DNA. However, the mutant protein Q607A can form stable complexes with DNA substrates containing blocked ends, which suggests that Q607 intercalates into the helix and inhibits sliding. Altogether, our results suggest that ROS1 uses three predicted helix-invading residues to actively interrogate DNA in search for 5-meC.

  14. The methylcytosine dioxygenase Tet2 promotes DNA demethylation and activation of cytokine gene expression in T cells.

    PubMed

    Ichiyama, Kenji; Chen, Tingting; Wang, Xiaohu; Yan, Xiaowei; Kim, Byung-Seok; Tanaka, Shinya; Ndiaye-Lobry, Delphine; Deng, Yuhua; Zou, Yanli; Zheng, Pan; Tian, Qiang; Aifantis, Iannis; Wei, Lai; Dong, Chen

    2015-04-21

    Epigenetic regulation of lineage-specific genes is important for the differentiation and function of T cells. Ten-eleven translocation (Tet) proteins catalyze 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) conversion to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC) to mediate DNA demethylation. However, the roles of Tet proteins in the immune response are unknown. Here, we characterized the genome-wide distribution of 5 hmC in CD4(+) T cells and found that 5 hmC marks putative regulatory elements in signature genes associated with effector cell differentiation. Moreover, Tet2 protein was recruited to 5 hmC-containing regions, dependent on lineage-specific transcription factors. Deletion of Tet2 in T cells decreased their cytokine expression, associated with reduced p300 recruitment. In vivo, Tet2 plays a critical role in the control of cytokine gene expression in autoimmune disease. Collectively, our findings suggest that Tet2 promotes DNA demethylation and activation of cytokine gene expression in T cells.

  15. Dynamics of 5-carboxylcytosine during hepatic differentiation: potential general role for active demethylation by DNA repair in lineage specification.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Lara C; Lo, Peggy Cho Kiu; Foster, Jeremy M; Dai, Nan; Corrêa, Ivan R; Durczak, Paulina M; Duncan, Gary; Ramsawhook, Ashley; Aithal, Guruprasad Padur; Denning, Chris; Hannan, Nicholas R F; Ruzov, Alexey

    2017-03-07

    Patterns of DNA methylation (5-methylcytosine, 5mC) are rearranged during differentiation contributing to the regulation of cell type-specific gene expression. TET proteins oxidize 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Both 5fC and 5caC can be recognized and excised from DNA by thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) followed by the subsequent incorporation of unmodified cytosine into the abasic site via the base excision repair (BER) pathway. We previously demonstrated that 5caC accumulates during lineage specification of neural stem cells (NSCs) suggesting that such active demethylation pathway is operative in this system; however, it is still unknown if TDG/BER-dependent demethylation is utilized during other types of cellular differentiation. Here we analyze dynamics of the global levels of 5hmC and 5caC during differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells towards hepatic endoderm. We show that, similar to differentiating NSCs, 5caC transiently accumulates during hepatic differentiation. The levels of 5caC increase during specification of foregut, peak at the stage of hepatic endoderm commitment, and drop in differentiating cells concurrently with the onset of expression of alpha fetoprotein, a marker of committed hepatic progenitors. Moreover, we show that 5caC accumulates at promoter regions of several genes expressed during hepatic specification at differentiation stages corresponding to the beginning of their expression. Our data indicate that transient 5caC accumulation is a common feature of two different types (neural/glial and endoderm/hepatic) of cellular differentiation. This suggests that oxidation of 5mC may represent a general mechanism of rearrangement of 5mC profiles during lineage specification of somatic cells in mammals.

  16. A promoter DNA demethylation landscape of human hematopoietic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Calvanese, Vincenzo; Fernández, Agustín F.; Urdinguio, Rocío G.; Suárez-Alvarez, Beatriz; Mangas, Cristina; Pérez-García, Vicente; Bueno, Clara; Montes, Rosa; Ramos-Mejía, Verónica; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Ferrero, Cecilia; Assenov, Yassen; Bock, Christoph; Menendez, Pablo; Carrera, Ana Clara; Lopez-Larrea, Carlos; Fraga, Mario F.

    2012-01-01

    Global mechanisms defining the gene expression programs specific for hematopoiesis are still not fully understood. Here, we show that promoter DNA demethylation is associated with the activation of hematopoietic-specific genes. Using genome-wide promoter methylation arrays, we identified 694 hematopoietic-specific genes repressed by promoter DNA methylation in human embryonic stem cells and whose loss of methylation in hematopoietic can be associated with gene expression. The association between promoter methylation and gene expression was studied for many hematopoietic-specific genes including CD45, CD34, CD28, CD19, the T cell receptor (TCR), the MHC class II gene HLA-DR, perforin 1 and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and results indicated that DNA demethylation was not always sufficient for gene activation. Promoter demethylation occurred either early during embryonic development or later on during hematopoietic differentiation. Analysis of the genome-wide promoter methylation status of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from somatic CD34+ HSPCs and differentiated derivatives from CD34+ HSPCs confirmed the role of DNA methylation in regulating the expression of genes of the hemato-immune system, and indicated that promoter methylation of these genes may be associated to stemness. Together, these data suggest that promoter DNA demethylation might play a role in the tissue/cell-specific genome-wide gene regulation within the hematopoietic compartment. PMID:21911366

  17. Minimal role of base excision repair in TET-induced global DNA demethylation in HEK293T cells

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chunlei; Qin, Taichun; Barton, Michelle Craig; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Issa, Jean-Pierre J

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation of 5-methylcytosine by TET family proteins can induce DNA replication-dependent (passive) DNA demethylation and base excision repair (BER)-based (active) DNA demethylation. The balance of active vs. passive TET-induced demethylation remains incompletely determined. In the context of large scale DNA demethylation, active demethylation may require massive induction of the DNA repair machinery and thus compromise genome stability. To study this issue, we constructed a tetracycline-controlled TET-induced global DNA demethylation system in HEK293T cells. Upon TET overexpression, we observed induction of DNA damage and activation of a DNA damage response; however, BER genes are not upregulated to promote DNA repair. Depletion of TDG (thymine DNA glycosylase) or APEX1 (apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1), two key BER enzymes, enhances rather than impairs global DNA demethylation, which can be explained by stimulated proliferation. By contrast, growth arrest dramatically blocks TET-induced global DNA demethylation. Thus, in the context of TET-induction in HEK293T cells, the DNA replication-dependent passive mechanism functions as the predominant pathway for global DNA demethylation. In the same context, BER-based active demethylation is markedly restricted by limited BER upregulation, thus potentially preventing a disastrous DNA damage response to extensive active DNA demethylation. PMID:26440216

  18. An embryonic demethylation mechanism involving binding of transcription factors to replicating DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, K; Silke, J; Georgiev, O; Marti, P; Giovannini, N; Rungger, D

    1998-01-01

    In vertebrates, transcriptionally active promoters are undermethylated. Since the transcription factor Sp1, and more recently NF-kappaB, have been implicated in the demethylation process, we examined the effect of transcription factors on demethylation by injecting in vitro methylated plasmid DNA into Xenopus fertilized eggs. We found that various transactivation domains, including a strong acidic activation domain from the viral protein VP16, can enhance demethylation of a promoter region when fused to a DNA binding domain which recognizes the promoter. Furthermore, demethylation occurs only after the midblastula transition, when the general transcription machinery of the host embryo becomes available. Nevertheless, transcription factor binding need not be followed by actual transcription, since demethylation is not blocked by alpha-amanitin treatment. Finally, replication of the target DNA is a prerequisite for efficient demethylation since only plasmids that carry the bovine papilloma virus sequences which support plasmid replication after the midblastula transition are demethylated. No demethylation is detectable in the oocyte system where DNA is not replicated. These results suggest that, in the Xenopus embryo, promoters for which transcription factors are available are demethylated by a replication-dependent, possibly passive mechanism. PMID:9482741

  19. DNA methylation and demethylation as targets for antipsychotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Alessandro; Grayson, Dennis R

    2014-09-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) patients show a downregulation of GAD67, reelin (RELN), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and other genes expressed in telencephalic GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. This downregulation is associated with the enrichment of 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine proximally at gene regulatory domains at the respective genes. A pharmacological strategy to reduce promoter hypermethylation and to induce a more permissive chromatin conformation is to administer drugs, such as the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproate (VPA), that facilitate chromatin remodeling. Studies in mouse models of SZ indicate that clozapine induces DNA demethylation at relevant promoters, and that this action is potentiated by VPA. By activating DNA demethylation, clozapine or its derivatives with VPA or other more potent and selective HDAC inhibitors may be a promising treatment strategy to correct the gene expression deficits detected in postmortem brain of SZ and BPD patients.

  20. A pair of transposon-derived proteins function in a histone acetyltransferase complex for active DNA demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Cheng-Guo; Wang, Xingang; Xie, Shaojun; Pan, Li; Miki, Daisuke; Tang, Kai; Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Lei, Mingguang; Zhong, Yingli; Hou, Yueh-Ju; Wang, Zhijuan; Zhang, Zhengjing; Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Xu, Huawei; Zhang, Heng; Dilkes, Brian; Tao, W Andy; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2017-01-01

    Transposons are generally kept silent by epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation. Here, we identified a pair of Harbinger transposon-derived proteins (HDPs), HDP1 and HDP2, as anti-silencing factors in Arabidopsis. hdp1 and hdp2 mutants displayed an enhanced silencing of transgenes and some transposons. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that HDP1 and HDP2 were co-domesticated from the Harbinger transposon-encoded transposase and DNA-binding protein, respectively. HDP1 interacts with HDP2 in the nucleus, analogous to their transposon counterparts. Moreover, HDP1 and HDP2 are associated with IDM1, IDM2, IDM3 and MBD7 that constitute a histone acetyltransferase complex functioning in DNA demethylation. HDP2 and the methyl-DNA-binding protein MBD7 share a large set of common genomic binding sites, indicating that they jointly determine the target specificity of the histone acetyltransferase complex. Thus, our data revealed that HDP1 and HDP2 constitute a functional module that has been recruited to a histone acetyltransferase complex to prevent DNA hypermethylation and epigenetic silencing. PMID:27934869

  1. DNA demethylation and invasive cancer: implications for therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Cheishvili, David; Boureau, Lisa; Szyf, Moshe

    2015-06-01

    One of the hallmarks of cancer is aberrant DNA methylation, which is associated with abnormal gene expression. Both hypermethylation and silencing of tumour suppressor genes as well as hypomethylation and activation of prometastatic genes are characteristic of cancer cells. As DNA methylation is reversible, DNA methylation inhibitors were tested as anticancer drugs with the idea that such agents would demethylate and reactivate tumour suppressor genes. Two cytosine analogues, 5-azacytidine (Vidaza) and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, were approved by the Food and Drug Administration as antitumour agents in 2004 and 2006 respectively. However, these agents might cause activation of a panel of prometastatic genes in addition to activating tumour suppressor genes, which might lead to increased metastasis. This poses the challenge of how to target tumour suppressor genes and block cancer growth with DNA-demethylating drugs while avoiding the activation of prometastatic genes and precluding the morbidity of cancer metastasis. This paper reviews current progress in using DNA methylation inhibitors in cancer therapy and the potential promise and challenges ahead.

  2. DNA-demethylating and anti-tumor activity of synthetic miR-29b mimics in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Amodio, Nicola; Leotta, Marzia; Bellizzi, Dina; Di Martino, Maria Teresa; D'Aquila, Patrizia; Lionetti, Marta; Fabiani, Fernanda; Leone, Emanuela; Gullà, Anna Maria; Passarino, Giuseppe; Caraglia, Michele; Negrini, Massimo; Neri, Antonino; Giordano, Antonio; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Tassone, Pierfrancesco

    2012-10-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation plays a relevant role in multiple myeloma (MM) pathogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that recently emerged as master regulator of gene expression by targeting protein-coding mRNAs. However, miRNAs involvement in the regulation of the epigenetic machinery and their potential use as therapeutics in MM remain to be investigated. Here, we provide evidence that the expression of de novo DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) is deregulated in MM cells. Moreover, we show that miR-29b targets DNMT3A and DNMT3B mRNAs and reduces global DNA methylation in MM cells. In vitro transfection of MM cells with synthetic miR-29b mimics significantly impairs cell cycle progression and also potentiates the growth-inhibitory effects induced by the demethylating agent 5-azacitidine. Most importantly, in vivo intratumor or systemic delivery of synthetic miR-29b mimics, in two clinically relevant murine models of human MM, including the SCID-synth-hu system, induces significant anti-tumor effects. All together, our findings demonstrate that aberrant DNMTs expression is efficiently modulated by tumor suppressive synthetic miR-29b mimics, indicating that methyloma modulation is a novel matter of investigation in miRNA-based therapy of MM.

  3. DNA-demethylating and anti-tumor activity of synthetic miR-29b mimics in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Amodio, Nicola; Leotta, Marzia; Bellizzi, Dina; Di Martino, Maria Teresa; D'Aquila, Patrizia; Lionetti, Marta; Fabiani, Fernanda; Leone, Emanuela; Gullà, Anna Maria; Passarino, Giuseppe; Caraglia, Michele; Negrini, Massimo; Neri, Antonino; Giordano, Antonio; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Tassone, Pierfrancesco

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation plays a relevant role in multiple myeloma (MM) pathogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that recently emerged as master regulator of gene expression by targeting protein-coding mRNAs. However, miRNAs involvement in the regulation of the epigenetic machinery and their potential use as therapeutics in MM remain to be investigated. Here, we provide evidence that the expression of de novo DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) is deregulated in MM cells. Moreover, we show that miR-29b targets DNMT3A and DNMT3B mRNAs and reduces global DNA methylation in MM cells. In vitro transfection of MM cells with synthetic miR-29b mimics significantly impairs cell cycle progression and also potentiates the growth-inhibitory effects induced by the demethylating agent 5-azacitidine. Most importantly, in vivo intratumor or systemic delivery of synthetic miR-29b mimics, in two clinically relevant murine models of human MM, including the SCID-synth-hu system, induces significant anti-tumor effects. All together, our findings demonstrate that aberrant DNMTs expression is efficiently modulated by tumor suppressive synthetic miR-29b mimics, indicating that methyloma modulation is a novel matter of investigation in miRNA-based therapy of MM. PMID:23100393

  4. DNA demethylation is initiated in the central cells of Arabidopsis and rice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyunghyuk; Kim, M. Yvonne; Vickers, Martin; Park, Jin-Sup; Hyun, Youbong; Okamoto, Takashi; Zilberman, Daniel; Fischer, Robert L.; Feng, Xiaoqi; Choi, Yeonhee; Scholten, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Cytosine methylation is a DNA modification with important regulatory functions in eukaryotes. In flowering plants, sexual reproduction is accompanied by extensive DNA demethylation, which is required for proper gene expression in the endosperm, a nutritive extraembryonic seed tissue. Endosperm arises from a fusion of a sperm cell carried in the pollen and a female central cell. Endosperm DNA demethylation is observed specifically on the chromosomes inherited from the central cell in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, and maize, and requires the DEMETER DNA demethylase in Arabidopsis. DEMETER is expressed in the central cell before fertilization, suggesting that endosperm demethylation patterns are inherited from the central cell. Down-regulation of the MET1 DNA methyltransferase has also been proposed to contribute to central cell demethylation. However, with the exception of three maize genes, central cell DNA methylation has not been directly measured, leaving the origin and mechanism of endosperm demethylation uncertain. Here, we report genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in the central cells of Arabidopsis and rice—species that diverged 150 million years ago—as well as in rice egg cells. We find that DNA demethylation in both species is initiated in central cells, which requires DEMETER in Arabidopsis. However, we do not observe a global reduction of CG methylation that would be indicative of lowered MET1 activity; on the contrary, CG methylation efficiency is elevated in female gametes compared with nonsexual tissues. Our results demonstrate that locus-specific, active DNA demethylation in the central cell is the origin of maternal chromosome hypomethylation in the endosperm. PMID:27956642

  5. A replication-dependent passive mechanism modulates DNA demethylation in mouse primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Rika; Nakayama, Megumi; Naruse, Chie; Okashita, Naoki; Takano, Osamu; Tachibana, Makoto; Asano, Masahide; Saitou, Mitinori; Seki, Yoshiyuki

    2013-07-01

    Germline cells reprogramme extensive epigenetic modifications to ensure the cellular totipotency of subsequent generations and to prevent the accumulation of epimutations. Notably, primordial germ cells (PGCs) erase genome-wide DNA methylation and H3K9 dimethylation marks in a stepwise manner during migration and gonadal periods. In this study, we profiled DNA and histone methylation on transposable elements during PGC development, and examined the role of DNA replication in DNA demethylation in gonadal PGCs. CpGs in short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) B1 and B2 were substantially demethylated in migrating PGCs, whereas CpGs in long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs), such as LINE-1, were resistant to early demethylation. By contrast, CpGs in both LINE-1 and SINEs were rapidly demethylated in gonadal PGCs. Four major modifiers of DNA and histone methylation, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Glp and Uhrf1, were actively repressed at distinct stages of PGC development. DNMT1 was localised at replication foci in nascent PGCs, whereas the efficiency of recruitment of DNMT1 into replication foci was severely impaired in gonadal PGCs. Hairpin bisulphite sequencing analysis showed that strand-specific hemi-methylated CpGs on LINE-1 were predominant in gonadal PGCs. Furthermore, DNA demethylation in SINEs and LINE-1 was impaired in Cbx3-deficient PGCs, indicating abnormalities in G1 to S phase progression. We propose that PGCs employ active and passive mechanisms for efficient and widespread erasure of genomic DNA methylation.

  6. Tissue-specific DNA demethylation is required for proper B-cell differentiation and function

    PubMed Central

    Orlanski, Shari; Labi, Verena; Reizel, Yitzhak; Spiro, Adam; Lichtenstein, Michal; Levin-Klein, Rena; Koralov, Sergei B.; Skversky, Yael; Rajewsky, Klaus; Cedar, Howard; Bergman, Yehudit

    2016-01-01

    There is ample evidence that somatic cell differentiation during development is accompanied by extensive DNA demethylation of specific sites that vary between cell types. Although the mechanism of this process has not yet been elucidated, it is likely to involve the conversion of 5mC to 5hmC by Tet enzymes. We show that a Tet2/Tet3 conditional knockout at early stages of B-cell development largely prevents lineage-specific programmed demethylation events. This lack of demethylation affects the expression of nearby B-cell lineage genes by impairing enhancer activity, thus causing defects in B-cell differentiation and function. Thus, tissue-specific DNA demethylation appears to be necessary for proper somatic cell development in vivo. PMID:27091986

  7. Epigenetic targets and drug discovery Part 2: Histone demethylation and DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Liu, Yanli; Lau, Johnathan L; Min, Jinrong

    2015-07-01

    Chromatin structure is dynamically modulated by various chromatin modifications, such as histone/DNA methylation and demethylation. We have reviewed histone methyltransferases and methyllysine binders in terms of small molecule screening and drug discovery in the first part of this review series. In this part, we will summarize recent progress in chemical probe and drug discovery of histone demethylases and DNA methyltransferases. Histone demethylation and DNA methylation have attracted a lot of attention regarding their biology and disease implications. Correspondingly, many small molecule compounds have been designed to modulate the activity of histone demethylases and DNA methyltransferases, and some of them have been developed into therapeutic drugs or put into clinical trials.

  8. A Comparative Analysis of 5-Azacytidine- and Zebularine-Induced DNA Demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Patrick T.; Niederhuth, Chad E.; Schmitz, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The nonmethylable cytosine analogs, 5-azacytidine and zebularine, are widely used to inhibit DNA methyltransferase activity and reduce genomic DNA methylation. In this study, whole-genome bisulfite sequencing is used to construct maps of DNA methylation with single base pair resolution in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with each demethylating agent. We find that both inhibitor treatments result in nearly indistinguishable patterns of genome-wide DNA methylation and that 5-azacytidine had a slightly greater demethylating effect at higher concentrations across the genome. Transcriptome analyses revealed a substantial number of upregulated genes, with an overrepresentation of transposable element genes, in particular CACTA-like elements. This demonstrates that chemical demethylating agents have a disproportionately large effect on loci that are otherwise silenced by DNA methylation. PMID:27402357

  9. No Evidence for AID/MBD4-Coupled DNA Demethylation in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kaneto, Reiya; Izawa, Toshiaki; Yokoi, Hayato; Hashimoto, Naohiro; Kikuchi, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for active DNA demethylation remain elusive in Metazoa. A previous study that utilized zebrafish embryos provided a potent mechanism for active demethylation in which three proteins, AID, MBD4, and GADD45 are involved. We recently found age-dependent DNA hypomethylation in zebrafish, and it prompted us to examine if AID and MBD4 could be involved in the phenomenon. Unexpectedly, however, we found that most of the findings in the previous study were not reproducible. First, the injection of a methylated DNA fragment into zebrafish eggs did not affect either the methylation of genomic DNA, injected methylated DNA itself, or several loci tested or the expression level of aid, which has been shown to play a role in demethylation. Second, aberrant methylation was not observed at certain CpG islands following the injection of antisense morpholino oligonucleotides against aid and mbd4. Furthermore, we demonstrated that zebrafish MBD4 cDNA lacked a coding region for the methyl-CpG binding domain, which was assumed to be necessary for guidance to target regions. Taken together, we concluded that there is currently no evidence to support the proposed roles of AID and MBD4 in active demethylation in zebrafish embryos. PMID:25536520

  10. Neil DNA glycosylases promote substrate turnover by Tdg during DNA demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Khelifa; Kienhöfer, Sabine; von Seggern, Annika; Niehrs, Christof

    2016-01-01

    DNA 5-methylcytosine is a dynamic epigenetic mark which plays important roles in development and disease. In the Tet-Tdg demethylation pathway, methylated cytosine is iteratively oxidized by Tet dioxygenases and unmodified cytosine is restored via thymine DNA glycosylase (Tdg). Here we show that human NEIL1 and NEIL2 DNA glycosylases coordinate abasic site processing during TET–TDG DNA demethylation. NEIL1 and NEIL2 cooperate with TDG during base excision: TDG occupies the abasic site and is displaced by NEILs, which further process the baseless sugar, thereby stimulating TDG substrate turnover. In early Xenopus embryos Neil2 cooperates with Tdg to remove oxidized methylcytosines and to specify neural crest development together with Tet3. Thus, Neils function as AP lyases in the coordinated AP site hand-over during oxidative DNA demethylation. PMID:26751644

  11. Hydrogen Sulfide Maintains Mitochondrial DNA Replication via Demethylation of TFAM

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuangshuang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exerts a wide range of actions in the body, especially in the modulation of mitochondrial functions. The normal replication of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is critical for cellular energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H2S affects mtDNA replication and the underlying mechanisms. We hypothesize that H2S maintains mtDNA copy number via inhibition of Dnmt3a transcription and TFAM promoter methylation. Results: Here, we demonstrated that deficiency of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE), a major H2S-producing enzyme, reduces mtDNA copy number and mitochondrial contents, and it inhibits the expressions of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and mitochondrial marker genes in both smooth muscle cells and aorta tissues from mice. Supply of exogenous H2S stimulated mtDNA copy number and strengthened the expressions of TFAM and mitochondrial marker genes. TFAM knockdown diminished H2S-enhanced mtDNA copy number. In addition, CSE deficiency induced the expression of DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a) and TFAM promoter DNA methylation, and H2S repressed Dnmt3a expression, resulting in TFAM promoter demethylation. We further found that H2S S-sulfhydrates transcription repressor interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) and enhances the binding of IRF-1 with Dnmt3a promoter after reduced Dnmt3a transcription. H2S had little effects on the expression of Dnmt1 and Dnmt3b as well as on ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 1, 2, and 3. Innovation: A sufficient level of H2S is able to inhibit TFAM promoter methylation and maintain mtDNA copy number. Conclusion: CSE/H2S system contributes to mtDNA replication and cellular bioenergetics and provides a novel therapeutic avenue for cardiovascular diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 630–642. PMID:25758951

  12. DNA demethylation induced by 5-azacytidine does not affect fragile X expression.

    PubMed Central

    Glover, T W; Coyle-Morris, J; Pearce-Birge, L; Berger, C; Gemmill, R M

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the role of DNA demethylation in fragile X expression. Fragile X positive lymphoblastoid cells were treated with 5-azacytidine and harvested for analysis of fragile X expression both directly following treatment and after a recovery period in the absence of the drug. The effectiveness of 5-azacytidine treatment in inducing DNA demethylation was concurrently monitored by analysis of methylation changes at random autosomal loci in isolated DNA from treated cells. Under conditions where 5-azacytidine was found to inhibit fragile X expression, no DNA demethylation was observed. At the time when demethylation did occur, fragile X expression was not affected. These results strongly indicate that DNA demethylation is not involved in fragile X expression. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2420174

  13. Demethylation initiated by ROS1 glycosylase involves random sliding along DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ponferrada-Marín, María Isabel; Roldán-Arjona, Teresa; Ariza, Rafael R.

    2012-01-01

    Active DNA demethylation processes play a critical role in shaping methylation patterns, yet our understanding of the mechanisms involved is still fragmented and incomplete. REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 (ROS1) is a prototype member of a family of plant 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases that initiate active DNA demethylation through a base excision repair pathway. As ROS1 binds DNA non-specifically, we have critically tested the hypothesis that facilitated diffusion along DNA may contribute to target location by the enzyme. We have found that dissociation of ROS1 from DNA is severely restricted when access to both ends is obstructed by tetraloops obstacles. Unblocking any end facilitates protein dissociation, suggesting that random surface sliding is the main route to a specific target site. We also found that removal of the basic N-terminal domain of ROS1 significantly impairs the sliding capacity of the protein. Finally, we show that sliding increases the catalytic efficiency of ROS1 on 5-meC:G pairs, but not on T:G mispairs, thus suggesting that the enzyme achieves recognition and excision of its two substrate bases by different means. A model is proposed to explain how ROS1 finds its potential targets on DNA. PMID:23034804

  14. Demethylation initiated by ROS1 glycosylase involves random sliding along DNA.

    PubMed

    Ponferrada-Marín, María Isabel; Roldán-Arjona, Teresa; Ariza, Rafael R

    2012-12-01

    Active DNA demethylation processes play a critical role in shaping methylation patterns, yet our understanding of the mechanisms involved is still fragmented and incomplete. REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 (ROS1) is a prototype member of a family of plant 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases that initiate active DNA demethylation through a base excision repair pathway. As ROS1 binds DNA non-specifically, we have critically tested the hypothesis that facilitated diffusion along DNA may contribute to target location by the enzyme. We have found that dissociation of ROS1 from DNA is severely restricted when access to both ends is obstructed by tetraloops obstacles. Unblocking any end facilitates protein dissociation, suggesting that random surface sliding is the main route to a specific target site. We also found that removal of the basic N-terminal domain of ROS1 significantly impairs the sliding capacity of the protein. Finally, we show that sliding increases the catalytic efficiency of ROS1 on 5-meC:G pairs, but not on T:G mispairs, thus suggesting that the enzyme achieves recognition and excision of its two substrate bases by different means. A model is proposed to explain how ROS1 finds its potential targets on DNA.

  15. NF-κB mediates Gadd45β expression and DNA demethylation in the hippocampus during fear memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Jarome, Timothy J.; Butler, Anderson A.; Nichols, Jessica N.; Pacheco, Natasha L.; Lubin, Farah D.

    2015-01-01

    Gadd45-mediated DNA demethylation mechanisms have been implicated in the process of memory formation. However, the transcriptional mechanisms involved in the regulation of Gadd45 gene expression during memory formation remain unexplored. NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) controls transcription of genes in neurons and is a critical regulator of synaptic plasticity and memory formation. In silico analysis revealed several NF-κB (p65/RelA and cRel) consensus sequences within the Gadd45β gene promoter. Whether NF-κB activity regulates Gadd45 expression and associated DNA demethylation in neurons during memory formation is unknown. Here, we found that learning in a fear conditioning paradigm increased Gadd45β gene expression and brain-derivedneurotrophic factor (BDNF) DNA demethylation in area CA1 of the hippocampus, both of which were prevented with pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB activity. Further experiments found that conditional mutations in p65/RelA impaired fear memory formation but did not alter changes in Gadd45β expression. The learning-induced increases in Gadd45β mRNA levels, Gadd45β binding at the BDNF gene and BDNF DNA demethylation were blocked in area CA1 of the c-rel knockout mice. Additionally, local siRNA-mediated knockdown of c-rel in area CA1 prevented fear conditioning-induced increases in Gadd45β expression and BDNF DNA demethylation, suggesting that c-Rel containing NF-κB transcription factor complex is responsible for Gadd45β regulation during memory formation. Together, these results support a novel transcriptional role for NF-κB in regulation of Gadd45β expression and DNA demethylation in hippocampal neurons during fear memory. PMID:26441517

  16. Burning off DNA methylation: new evidence for oxygen-dependent DNA demethylation.

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Tomasz P; Jeltsch, Albert

    2011-11-25

    Where do you stop? Three recent publications have described how the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine by Tet dioxygenases does not stop at the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) state, rather further oxidation of 5hmC is involved in DNA demethylation. The nature of the enzymes involved in this process shed light on the dynamics of epigenetic signaling and its evolutionary origin.

  17. Epigenetic choreography of stem cells: the DNA demethylation episode of development.

    PubMed

    Kar, Swayamsiddha; Parbin, Sabnam; Deb, Moonmoon; Shilpi, Arunima; Sengupta, Dipta; Rath, Sandip Kumar; Rakshit, Madhumita; Patra, Aditi; Patra, Samir Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Reversible DNA methylation is a fundamental epigenetic manipulator of the genomic information in eukaryotes. DNA demethylation plays a very significant role during embryonic development and stands out for its contribution in molecular reconfiguration during cellular differentiation for determining stem cell fate. DNA demethylation arbitrated extensive make-over of the genome via reprogramming in the early embryo results in stem cell plasticity followed by commitment to the principal cell lineages. This article attempts to highlight the sequential phases and hierarchical mode of DNA demethylation events during enactment of the molecular strategy for developmental transition. A comprehensive knowledge regarding the pattern of DNA demethylation during embryogenesis and organogenesis and study of the related lacunae will offer exciting avenues for future biomedical research and stem cell-based regenerative therapy.

  18. Krüppel like factor 4 promoter undergoes active demethylation during monocyte/macrophage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Karpurapu, Manjula; Ranjan, Ravi; Deng, Jing; Chung, Sangwoon; Lee, Yong Gyu; Xiao, Lei; Nirujogi, Teja Srinivas; Jacobson, Jeffrey R; Park, Gye Young; Christman, John W

    2014-01-01

    The role of different lineage specific transcription factors in directing hematopoietic cell fate towards myeloid lineage is well established but the status of epigenetic modifications has not been defined during this important developmental process. We used non proliferating, PU.1 inducible myeloid progenitor cells and differentiating bone marrow derived macrophages to study the PU.1 dependent KLF4 transcriptional regulation and its promoter demethylation during monocyte/macrophage differentiation. Expression of KLF4 was regulated by active demethylation of its promoter and PU.1 specifically bound to KLF4 promoter oligo harboring the PU.1 consensus sequence. Methylation specific quantitative PCR and Bisulfite sequencing indicated demethylation of CpG residues most proximal to the transcription start site of KLF4 promoter. Cloned KLF4 promoter in pGL3 Luciferase and CpG free pcpgf-bas vectors showed accentuated reporter activity when co-transfected with the PU.1 expression vector. In vitro methylation of both KLF4 promoter oligo and cloned KLF4 promoter vectors showed attenuated in vitro DNA binding activity and Luciferase/mouse Alkaline phosphotase reporter activity indicating the negative influence of KLF4 promoter methylation on PU.1 binding. The Cytosine deaminase, Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AICDA) was found to be critical for KLF4 promoter demethylation. More importantly, knock down of AICDA resulted in blockade of KLF4 promoter demethylation, decreased F4/80 expression and other phenotypic characters of macrophage differentiation. Our data proves that AICDA mediated active demethylation of the KLF4 promoter is necessary for transcriptional regulation of KLF4 by PU.1 during monocyte/macrophage differentiation.

  19. Genistein promotes DNA demethylation of the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) promoter in endometrial stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matsukura, Hiroshi; Aisaki, Ken-ichi; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Matsushima, Yuko; Kanno, Jun; Muramatsu, Masaaki; Sudo, Katsuko; Sato, Noriko

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen found in soy products. {yields} GEN demethylated/unsilenced the steroidogenic factor 1 gene in endometrial tissue. {yields} GEN thus altered mRNA expression in uteri of ovariectomized (OVX) mice. {yields} A high-resolution melting assay was used to screen for epigenetic change. {yields} We isolated an endometrial cell clone that was epigenetically modulated by GEN. -- Abstract: It has recently been demonstrated that genistein (GEN), a phytoestrogen in soy products, is an epigenetic modulator in various types of cells; but its effect on endometrium has not yet been determined. We investigated the effects of GEN on mouse uterine cells, in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of GEN for 1 week induced mild proliferation of the endometrium in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, which was accompanied by the induction of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) gene expression. GEN administration induced demethylation of multiple CpG sites in the SF-1 promoter; these sites are extensively methylated and thus silenced in normal endometrium. The GEN-mediated promoter demethylation occurred predominantly on the luminal side, as opposed to myometrium side, indicating that the epigenetic change was mainly shown in regenerated cells. Primary cultures of endometrial stromal cell colonies were screened for GEN-mediated alterations of DNA methylation by a high-resolution melting (HRM) method. One out of 20 colony-forming cell clones showed GEN-induced demethylation of SF-1. This clone exhibited a high proliferation capacity with continuous colony formation activity through multiple serial clonings. We propose that only a portion of endometrial cells are capable of receiving epigenetic modulation by GEN.

  20. Kinetic studies of Escherichia coli AlkB using a new fluorescence-based assay for DNA demethylation.

    PubMed

    Roy, Todd W; Bhagwat, A S

    2007-01-01

    The Escherichia coli AlkB protein catalyzes the direct reversal of alkylation damage to DNA; primarily 1-methyladenine (1mA) and 3-methylcytosine (3mC) lesions created by endogenous or environmental alkylating agents. AlkB is a member of the non-heme iron (II) alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily, which removes the alkyl group through oxidation eliminating a methyl group as formaldehyde. We have developed a fluorescence-based assay for the dealkylation activity of this family of enzymes. It uses formaldehyde dehydrogenase to convert formaldehyde to formic acid and monitors the creation of an NADH analog using fluorescence. This assay is a great improvement over the existing assays for DNA demethylation in that it is continuous, rapid and does not require radioactively labeled material. It may also be used to study other demethylation reactions including demethylation of histones. We used it to determine the kinetic constants for AlkB and found them to be somewhat different than previously reported values. The results show that AlkB demethylates 1mA and 3mC with comparable efficiencies and has only a modest preference for a single-stranded DNA substrate over its double-stranded DNA counterpart.

  1. Inhibitors of DNA Methylation, Histone Deacetylation, and Histone Demethylation: A Perfect Combination for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zahnow, C A; Topper, M; Stone, M; Murray-Stewart, T; Li, H; Baylin, S B; Casero, R A

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing and inappropriate activation of gene expression are frequent events during the initiation and progression of cancer. These events involve a complex interplay between the hypermethylation of CpG dinucleotides within gene promoter and enhancer regions, the recruitment of transcriptional corepressors and the deacetylation and/or methylation of histone tails. These epigenetic regulators act in concert to block transcription or interfere with the maintenance of chromatin boundary regions. However, DNA/histone methylation and histone acetylation states are reversible, enzyme-mediated processes and as such, have emerged as promising targets for cancer therapy. This review will focus on the potential benefits and synergistic/additive effects of combining DNA-demethylating agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors or lysine-specific demethylase inhibitors together in epigenetic therapy for solid tumors and will highlight what is known regarding the mechanisms of action that contribute to the antitumor response.

  2. DNA demethylation and histone H3K9 acetylation determine the active transcription of the NKG2D gene in human CD8+ T and NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Sánchez, Alba; Baragaño Raneros, Aroa; Carvajal Palao, Reyes; Sanz, Ana B.; Ortiz, Alberto; Ortega, Francisco; Suárez-Álvarez, Beatriz; López-Larrea, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The human activating receptor NKG2D is mainly expressed by NK, NKT, γδ T and CD8+ T cells and, under certain conditions, by CD4+ T cells. This receptor recognizes a diverse family of ligands (MICA, MICB and ULBPs 1–6) leading to the activation of effector cells and triggering the lysis of target cells. The NKG2D receptor-ligand system plays an important role in the immune response to infections, tumors, transplanted graft and autoantigens. Elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms of NKG2D is therefore essential for therapeutic purposes. In this study, we speculate whether epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation, participate in NKG2D gene regulation in T lymphocytes and NK cells. DNA methylation in the NKG2D gene was observed in CD4+ T lymphocytes and T cell lines (Jurkat and HUT78), while this gene was unmethylated in NKG2D-positive cells (CD8+ T lymphocytes, NK cells and NKL cell line) and associated with high levels of histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9Ac). Treatment with the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitor curcumin reduces H3K9Ac levels in the NKG2D gene, downregulates NKG2D transcription and leads to a marked reduction in the lytic capacity of NKG2D-mediated NKL cells. These findings suggest that differential NKG2D expression in the different cell subsets is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms and that its modulation by epigenetic treatments might provide a new strategy for treating several pathologies. PMID:23235109

  3. Tet3 and DNA replication mediate demethylation of both the maternal and paternal genomes in mouse zygotes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li; Inoue, Azusa; He, Jin; Liu, Yuting; Lu, Falong; Zhang, Yi

    2014-10-02

    With the exception of imprinted genes and certain repeats, DNA methylation is globally erased during preimplantation development. Recent studies have suggested that Tet3-mediated oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and DNA replication-dependent dilution both contribute to global paternal DNA demethylation, but demethylation of the maternal genome occurs via replication. Here we present genome-scale DNA methylation maps for both the paternal and maternal genomes of Tet3-depleted and/or DNA replication-inhibited zygotes. In both genomes, we found that inhibition of DNA replication blocks DNA demethylation independently from Tet3 function and that Tet3 facilitates DNA demethylation largely by coupling with DNA replication. For both genomes, our data indicate that replication-dependent dilution is the major contributor to demethylation, but Tet3 plays an important role, particularly at certain loci. Our study thus defines the respective functions of Tet3 and DNA replication in paternal DNA demethylation and reveals an unexpected contribution of Tet3 to demethylation of the maternal genome.

  4. A re-investigation of the ribonuclease sensitivity of a DNA demethylation reaction in chicken embryo and G8 mouse myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Jost, J P; Siegmann, M; Thiry, S; Jost, Y C; Benjamin, D; Schwarz, S

    1999-04-23

    Recently published results (Nucleic Acids Res. 26, 5573-5580, 1998) suggest that the ribonuclease sensitivity of the DNA demethylation reaction may be an experimental artifact due to the possible tight binding of the nucleases to the methylated DNA substrate. Using an improved protocol we show for two different systems that demethylation of hemimethylated DNA is indeed sensitive to micrococcal nuclease, requires RNA and is not an experimental artifact. The purified 5-MeC-DNA glycosylase from chicken embryos and G8 mouse myoblasts was first incubated for 5 min at 37 degrees C with micrococcal nuclease in the presence of Ca2+ in the absence of the DNA substrate. Upon blocking the nuclease activity by the addition of 25 mM EGTA, the DNA demethylation reaction was initiated by adding the labeled hemimethylated DNA substrate to the reaction mixture. Under these conditions the DNA demethylation reaction was abolished. In parallel controls, where the purified 5-MeC-DNA glycosylase was pre-incubated at 37 degrees C with the nuclease, Ca2+ and EGTA or with the nuclease and EGTA, RNA was not degraded and no inhibition of the demethylation reaction was obtained. As has already been shown for chicken embryos, the loss of 5-MeC-DNA glycosylase activity from G8 myoblasts following nuclease treatment can also be restored by the addition of synthetic RNA complementary to the methylated strand of the substrate DNA. No reactivation of 5-MeC-DNA glycosylase is obtained by complementation with a random RNA sequence, the RNA sequence complementary to the non-methylated strand or DNA, thus ruling out a non-specific competition of the RNA for the binding of the nuclease to the labeled DNA substrate.

  5. DNA Demethylation of the Foxp3 Enhancer Is Maintained through Modulation of Ten-Eleven-Translocation and DNA Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Varun Sasidharan; Song, Mi Hye; Ko, Myunggon; Oh, Kwon Ik

    2016-01-01

    Stable expression of Foxp3 is ensured by demethylation of CpG motifs in the Foxp3 intronic element, the conserved non-coding sequence 2 (CNS2), which persists throughout the lifespan of regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, little is known about the mechanisms on how CNS2 demethylation is sustained. In this study, we found that Ten-Eleven-Translocation (Tet) DNA dioxygenase protects the CpG motifs of CNS2 from re-methylation by DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) and prevents Tregs from losing Foxp3 expression under inflammatory conditions. Upon stimulation of Tregs by interleukin-6 (IL6), Dnmt1 was recruited to CNS2 and induced methylation, which was inhibited by Tet2 recruited by IL2. Tet2 prevented CNS2 re-methylation by not only the occupancy of the CNS2 locus but also by its enzymatic activity. These results show that the CNS2 methylation status is dynamically regulated by a balance between Tets and Dnmts which influences the expression of Foxp3 in Tregs. PMID:27989104

  6. Antroquinonol D, isolated from Antrodia camphorata, with DNA demethylation and anticancer potential.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Chao; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Hsu, Chun-Hua; Chang, Yu-Jia; Chang, Man-Shan; Wang, Yi-Ching; Ho, Yuan-Soon; Wen, Wu-Che; Lin, Ruo-Kai

    2014-06-18

    DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) catalyzes DNA methylation and is overexpressed in various human diseases, including cancer. A rational approach to preventing tumorigenesis involves the use of pharmacologic inhibitors of DNA methylation; these inhibitors should reactivate tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in tumor cells and restore tumor suppressor pathways. Antroquinonol D (3-demethoxyl antroquinonol), a new DNMT1 inhibitor, was isolated from Antrodia camphorata and identified using nuclear magnetic resonance. Antroquinonol D inhibited the growth of MCF7, T47D, and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells without harming normal MCF10A and IMR-90 cells. The SRB assay showed that the 50% growth inhibition (GI50) in MCF7, T47D, and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells following treatment with antroquinonol D was 8.01, 3.57, and 25.08 μM, respectively. d-Antroquinonol also inhibited the migratory ability of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in wound healing and Transwell assays. In addition, antroquinonol D inhibited DNMT1 activity, as assessed by the DNMT1 methyltransferase activity assay. As the cofactor SAM level increased, the inhibitory effects of d-antroquinonol on DNMT1 gradually decreased. An enzyme activity assay and molecular modeling revealed that antroquinonol D is bound to the catalytic domain of DNMT1 and competes for the same binding pocket in the DNMT1 enzyme as the cofactor SAM, but does not compete for the binding pocket in the DNMT3B enzyme. An Illumina Methylation 450 K array-based assay and real-time PCR assay revealed that antroquinonol D decreased the methylation status and reactivated the expression of multiple TSGs in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. In conclusion, we showed that antroquinonol D induces DNA demethylation and the recovery of multiple tumor suppressor genes, while inhibiting breast cancer growth and migration potential.

  7. Epigenetic DNA Demethylation Causes Inner Ear Stem Cell Differentiation into Hair Cell-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Hu, Zhengqing

    2016-01-01

    The DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-aza) causes genomic demethylation to regulate gene expression. However, it remains unclear whether 5-aza affects gene expression and cell fate determination of stem cells. In this study, 5-aza was applied to mouse utricle sensory epithelia-derived progenitor cells (MUCs) to investigate whether 5-aza stimulated MUCs to become sensory hair cells. After treatment, MUCs increased expression of hair cell genes and proteins. The DNA methylation level (indicated by percentage of 5-methylcytosine) showed a 28.57% decrease after treatment, which causes significantly repressed DNMT1 protein expression and DNMT activity. Additionally, FM1-43 permeation assays indicated that the permeability of 5-aza-treated MUCs was similar to that of sensory hair cells, which may result from mechanotransduction channels. This study not only demonstrates a possible epigenetic approach to induce tissue specific stem/progenitor cells to become sensory hair cell-like cells, but also provides a cell model to epigenetically modulate stem cell fate determination. PMID:27536218

  8. Methylation-independent DNA Binding Modulates Specificity of Repressor of Silencing 1 (ROS1) and Facilitates Demethylation in Long Substrates*

    PubMed Central

    Ponferrada-Marín, María Isabel; Martínez-Macías, María Isabel; Morales-Ruiz, Teresa; Roldán-Arjona, Teresa; Ariza, Rafael R.

    2010-01-01

    DNA cytosine methylation is an epigenetic mark that promotes gene silencing and performs critical roles during reproduction and development in both plants and animals. The genomic distribution of DNA methylation is the dynamic outcome of opposing methylation and demethylation processes. In plants, active demethylation occurs through a base excision repair pathway initiated by 5-methycytosine (5-meC) DNA glycosylases of the REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 (ROS1)/DEMETER (DME) family. To gain insight into the mechanism by which Arabidopsis ROS1 recognizes and excises 5-meC, we have identified those protein regions that are required for efficient DNA binding and catalysis. We have found that a short N-terminal lysine-rich domain conserved in members of the ROS1/DME family mediates strong methylation-independent binding of ROS1 to DNA and is required for efficient activity on 5-meC·G, but not for T·G processing. Removal of this domain does not significantly affect 5-meC excision from short molecules, but strongly decreases ROS1 activity on long DNA substrates. This region is not required for product binding and is not involved in the distributive behavior of the enzyme on substrates containing multiple 5-meC residues. Altogether, our results suggest that methylation-independent DNA binding allows ROS1 to perform a highly redundant search for efficient excision of a nondamaged, correctly paired base such as 5-meC in long stretches of DNA. These findings may have implications for understanding the evolution of structure and target specificity in DNA glycosylases. PMID:20489198

  9. ROS1 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase is a slow-turnover catalyst that initiates DNA demethylation in a distributive fashion.

    PubMed

    Ponferrada-Marín, María Isabel; Roldán-Arjona, Teresa; Ariza, Rafael R

    2009-07-01

    Arabidopsis ROS1 belongs to a family of plant 5-methycytosine DNA glycosylases that initiate DNA demethylation through base excision. ROS1 displays the remarkable capacity to excise 5-meC, and to a lesser extent T, while retaining the ability to discriminate effectively against C and U. We found that replacement of the C5-methyl group by halogen substituents greatly decreased excision of the target base. Furthermore, 5-meC was excised more efficiently from mismatches, whereas excision of T only occurred when mispaired with G. These results suggest that ROS1 specificity arises by a combination of selective recognition at the active site and thermodynamic stability of the target base. We also found that ROS1 is a low-turnover catalyst because it binds tightly to the abasic site left after 5-meC removal. This binding leads to a highly distributive behaviour of the enzyme on DNA substrates containing multiple 5-meC residues, and may help to avoid generation of double-strand breaks during processing of bimethylated CG dinucleotides. We conclude that the biochemical properties of ROS1 are consistent with its proposed role in protecting the plant genome from excess methylation.

  10. ROS1 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase is a slow-turnover catalyst that initiates DNA demethylation in a distributive fashion

    PubMed Central

    Ponferrada-Marín, María Isabel; Roldán-Arjona, Teresa; Ariza, Rafael R.

    2009-01-01

    Arabidopsis ROS1 belongs to a family of plant 5-methycytosine DNA glycosylases that initiate DNA demethylation through base excision. ROS1 displays the remarkable capacity to excise 5-meC, and to a lesser extent T, while retaining the ability to discriminate effectively against C and U. We found that replacement of the C5-methyl group by halogen substituents greatly decreased excision of the target base. Furthermore, 5-meC was excised more efficiently from mismatches, whereas excision of T only occurred when mispaired with G. These results suggest that ROS1 specificity arises by a combination of selective recognition at the active site and thermodynamic stability of the target base. We also found that ROS1 is a low-turnover catalyst because it binds tightly to the abasic site left after 5-meC removal. This binding leads to a highly distributive behaviour of the enzyme on DNA substrates containing multiple 5-meC residues, and may help to avoid generation of double-strand breaks during processing of bimethylated CG dinucleotides. We conclude that the biochemical properties of ROS1 are consistent with its proposed role in protecting the plant genome from excess methylation. PMID:19443451

  11. DNMT3B gene amplification predicts resistance to DNA demethylating drugs.

    PubMed

    Simó-Riudalbas, Laia; Melo, Sónia A; Esteller, Manel

    2011-07-01

    Disruption of the DNA methylation landscape is one of the most common features of human tumors. However, genetic alterations of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) have not been described in carcinogenesis. Herein, we show that pancreatic and breast cancer cells undergo gene amplification of the DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B). The presence of extra copies of the DNMT3B gene is linked to higher levels of the corresponding mRNA and protein. Most importantly, the elevated gene dosage of DNMT3B is associated with increased resistance to the growth-inhibitory effect mediated by DNA demethylating agents. In particular, cancer cells harboring DNMT3B gene amplification are less sensitive to the decrease in cell viability caused by 5-azacytidine (Vidaza), 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (Decitabine), and SGI-1027. Overall, the data confirm DNMT3B as a bona fide oncogene in human cancer and support the incorporation of the DNMT3B copy number assay into current clinical trials assessing the efficacy of DNA demethylating drugs in solid tumors.

  12. Methylglyoxal induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and DNA demethylation in the Keap1 promoter of human lens epithelial cells and age-related cataracts.

    PubMed

    Palsamy, Periyasamy; Bidasee, Keshore R; Ayaki, Masahiko; Augusteyn, Robert C; Chan, Jefferson Y; Shinohara, Toshimichi

    2014-07-01

    Age-related cataracts are a leading cause of blindness. Previously, we have demonstrated the association of the unfolded protein response with various cataractogenic stressors. However, DNA methylation alterations leading to suppression of lenticular antioxidant protection remains unclear. Here, we report the methylglyoxal-mediated sequential events responsible for Keap1 promoter DNA demethylation in human lens epithelial cells, because Keap1 is a negative regulatory protein that regulates the Nrf2 antioxidant protein. Methylglyoxal induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and activates the unfolded protein response leading to overproduction of reactive oxygen species before human lens epithelial cell death. Methylglyoxal also suppresses Nrf2 and DNA methyltransferases but activates the DNA demethylation pathway enzyme TET1. Bisulfite genomic DNA sequencing confirms the methylglyoxal-mediated Keap1 promoter DNA demethylation leading to overexpression of Keap1 mRNA and protein. Similarly, bisulfite genomic DNA sequencing shows that human clear lenses (n = 15) slowly lose 5-methylcytosine in the Keap1 promoter throughout life, at a rate of 1% per year. By contrast, diabetic cataractous lenses (n = 21) lose an average of 90% of the 5-methylcytosine regardless of age. Overexpressed Keap1 protein is responsible for decreasing Nrf2 by proteasomal degradation, thereby suppressing Nrf2-dependent stress protection. This study demonstrates for the first time the associations of unfolded protein response activation, Nrf2-dependent antioxidant system failure, and loss of Keap1 promoter methylation because of altered active and passive DNA demethylation pathway enzymes in human lens epithelial cells by methylglyoxal. As an outcome, the cellular redox balance is altered toward lens oxidation and cataract formation.

  13. Gene structure and transcription in mouse cells with extensively demethylated DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Michalowsky, L A; Jones, P A

    1989-01-01

    In previous work, three clonal cell lines with extremely low DNA methylation levels were derived by multiple consecutive treatments of C3H 10T1/2 C18 (10T1/2) cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR). In this study we examined the methylation status of genes in these three methyl-deficient clones to assess the specificity of the induced hypomethylation. Complete demethylation of virtually all 5'-CCGG-3' sites was observed in four genes examined, but some sites common to all three clones were persistently methylated even after further exhaustive 5-aza-CdR treatment. Thus, there is a subset of methylation sites within these cells which can never be stably demethylated. The extensive demethylation was not always associated with changes in the level of RNA expression of the genes examined but was strongly correlated with an altered chromatin structure of the unexpressed alpha 1-globin gene and the muscle determination gene MyoD1. These results provide a direct correlation between hypomethylation and the induction of a transcriptionally competent chromatin state. Images PMID:2471061

  14. Herbivore-Induced DNA Demethylation Changes Floral Signalling and Attractiveness to Pollinators in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Philipp M.; Schiestl, Florian P.

    2016-01-01

    Plants have to fine-tune their signals to optimise the trade-off between herbivore deterrence and pollinator attraction. An important mechanism in mediating plant-insect interactions is the regulation of gene expression via DNA methylation. However, the effect of herbivore-induced DNA methylation changes on pollinator-relevant plant signalling has not been systematically investigated. Here, we assessed the impact of foliar herbivory on DNA methylation and floral traits in the model crop plant Brassica rapa. Methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) analysis showed that leaf damage by the caterpillar Pieris brassicae was associated with genome-wide methylation changes in both leaves and flowers of B. rapa as well as a downturn in flower number, morphology and scent. A comparison to plants with jasmonic acid-induced defence showed similar demethylation patterns in leaves, but both the floral methylome and phenotype differed significantly from P. brassicae infested plants. Standardised genome-wide demethylation with 5-azacytidine in five different B. rapa full-sib groups further resulted in a genotype-specific downturn of floral morphology and scent, which significantly reduced the attractiveness of the plants to the pollinator bee Bombus terrestris. These results suggest that DNA methylation plays an important role in adjusting plant signalling in response to changing insect communities. PMID:27870873

  15. DNA Demethylation Upregulated Nrf2 Expression in Alzheimer’s Disease Cellular Model

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huimin; Wang, Li; Chen, Beibei; Zheng, Peng; He, Yi; Ding, Yubin; Deng, Yushuang; Lu, Xi; Guo, Xiuming; Zhang, Yuping; Li, Yu; Yu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important transcription factor in the defense against oxidative stress. Cumulative evidence has shown that oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previous animal and clinical studies had observed decreased expression of Nrf2 in AD. However, the underlying regulation mechanisms of Nrf2 in AD remain unclear. Here, we used the DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-Aza) to test whether Nrf2 expression was regulated by methylation in N2a cells characterizing by expressing human Swedish mutant amyloid precursor protein (N2a/APPswe). We found 5-Aza treatment increased Nrf2 at both messenger RNA and protein levels via downregulating the expression of Dnmts and DNA demethylation. In addition, 5-Aza-mediated upregulation of Nrf2 expression was concomitant with increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and higher expression of Nrf2 downstream target gene NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductas (NQO1). Our study showed that DNA demethylation promoted the Nrf2 cell signaling pathway, which may enhance the antioxidant system against AD development. PMID:26779013

  16. Cell-Wide DNA De-Methylation and Re-Methylation of Purkinje Neurons in the Developing Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Feng C.; Resendiz, Marisol; Lo, Chiao-Ling; Chen, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Global DNA de-methylation is thought to occur only during pre-implantation and gametogenesis in mammals. Scalable, cell-wide de-methylation has not been demonstrated beyond totipotent stages. Here, we observed a large scale de-methylation and subsequent re-methylation (CDR) (including 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine (5hmC)) in post-mitotic cerebellar Purkinje cells (PC) through the course of normal development. Through single cell immuno-identification and cell-specific quantitative methylation assays, we demonstrate that the CDR event is an intrinsically scheduled program, occurring in nearly every PC. Meanwhile, cerebellar granule cells and basket interneurons adopt their own DNA methylation program, independent of PCs. DNA de-methylation was further demonstrated at the gene level, on genes pertinent to PC development. The PC, being one of the largest neurons in the brain, may showcase an amplified epigenetic cycle which may mediate stage transformation including cell cycle arrest, vast axonal-dendritic growth, and synaptogenesis at the onset of neuronal specificity. This discovery is a key step toward better understanding the breadth and role of DNA methylation and de-methylation during neural ontology. PMID:27583369

  17. Human concentrative nucleoside transporter 1-mediated uptake of 5-azacytidine enhances DNA demethylation.

    PubMed

    Rius, Maria; Stresemann, Carlo; Keller, Daniela; Brom, Manuela; Schirrmacher, Esther; Keppler, Dietrich; Lyko, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The DNA methyltransferase inhibitors 5-azacytidine (5-azaCyd) and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine have found increasing use for the treatment of myeloid leukemias and solid tumors. Both nucleoside analogues must be transported into cells and phosphorylated before they can be incorporated into DNA and inactivate DNA methyltransferases. The members of the human equilibrative and concentrative nucleoside transporter families mediate transport of natural nucleosides and some nucleoside analogues into cells. However, the molecular identity of the transport proteins responsible for mediating the uptake of 5-azanucleosides has remained unknown. To this end, we have generated a stably transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney strain II cell line expressing recombinant hCNT1. An antiserum directed against hCNT1 specifically detected the protein in the apical membrane of hCNT1-expressing Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Using [14C]5-azaCyd, we show here that hCNT1 mediated the Na+-dependent uptake of this drug with a Km value of 63 micromol/L. Na+-dependent transport of radiolabeled cytidine, uridine, and 5-fluoro-5'-deoxyuridine further showed the functionality of the transporter. hCNT1-expressing cells were significantly more sensitive to 5-azaCyd, and drug-dependent covalent trapping of DNA methyltransferase 1 was substantially more pronounced. Importantly, these results correlated with a significant sensitization of hCNT1-expressing cells toward the demethylating effects of 5-azaCyd and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. In conclusion, our study identifies 5-azaCyd as a novel substrate for hCNT1 and provides direct evidence that hCNT1 is involved in the DNA-demethylating effects of this drug.

  18. Allele-specific FKBP5 DNA demethylation mediates gene–childhood trauma interactions

    PubMed Central

    Klengel, Torsten; Mehta, Divya; Anacker, Christoph; Rex-Haffner, Monika; Pruessner, Jens C; Pariante, Carmine M; Pace, Thaddeus W W; Mercer, Kristina B; Mayberg, Helen S; Bradley, Bekh; Nemeroff, Charles B; Holsboer, Florian; Heim, Christine M; Ressler, Kerry J; Rein, Theo; Binder, Elisabeth B

    2014-01-01

    Although the fact that genetic predisposition and environmental exposures interact to shape development and function of the human brain and, ultimately, the risk of psychiatric disorders has drawn wide interest, the corresponding molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. We found that a functional polymorphism altering chromatin interaction between the transcription start site and long-range enhancers in the FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) gene, an important regulator of the stress hormone system, increased the risk of developing stress-related psychiatric disorders in adulthood by allele-specific, childhood trauma–dependent DNA demethylation in functional glucocorticoid response elements of FKBP5. This demethylation was linked to increased stress-dependent gene transcription followed by a long-term dysregulation of the stress hormone system and a global effect on the function of immune cells and brain areas associated with stress regulation. This identification of molecular mechanisms of genotype-directed long-term environmental reactivity will be useful for designing more effective treatment strategies for stress-related disorders. PMID:23201972

  19. Dioxin induces Ahr-dependent robust DNA demethylation of the Cyp1a1 promoter via Tdg in the mouse liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amenya, Hesbon Z.; Tohyama, Chiharu; Ohsako, Seiichiroh

    2016-10-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) is a highly conserved nuclear receptor that plays an important role in the manifestation of toxicity induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. As a xenobiotic sensor, Ahr is involved in chemical biotransformation through activation of drug metabolizing enzymes. The activated Ahr cooperates with coactivator complexes to induce epigenetic modifications at target genes. Thus, it is conceivable that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent Ahr ligand, may elicit robust epigenetic changes in vivo at the Ahr target gene cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1). A single dose of TCDD administered to adult mice induced Ahr-dependent CpG hypomethylation, changes in histone modifications, and thymine DNA glycosylase (Tdg) recruitment at the Cyp1a1 promoter in the liver within 24 hrs. These epigenetic changes persisted until 40 days post-TCDD treatment and there was Cyp1a1 mRNA hyperinduction upon repeat administration of TCDD at this time-point. Our demethylation assay using siRNA knockdown and an in vitro methylated plasmid showed that Ahr, Tdg, and the ten-eleven translocation methyldioxygenases Tet2 and Tet3 are required for the TCDD-induced DNA demethylation. These results provide novel evidence of Ahr-driven active DNA demethylation and epigenetic memory. The epigenetic alterations influence response to subsequent chemical exposure and imply an adaptive mechanism to xenobiotic stress.

  20. Dioxin induces Ahr-dependent robust DNA demethylation of the Cyp1a1 promoter via Tdg in the mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Amenya, Hesbon Z.; Tohyama, Chiharu; Ohsako, Seiichiroh

    2016-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) is a highly conserved nuclear receptor that plays an important role in the manifestation of toxicity induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. As a xenobiotic sensor, Ahr is involved in chemical biotransformation through activation of drug metabolizing enzymes. The activated Ahr cooperates with coactivator complexes to induce epigenetic modifications at target genes. Thus, it is conceivable that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent Ahr ligand, may elicit robust epigenetic changes in vivo at the Ahr target gene cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1). A single dose of TCDD administered to adult mice induced Ahr-dependent CpG hypomethylation, changes in histone modifications, and thymine DNA glycosylase (Tdg) recruitment at the Cyp1a1 promoter in the liver within 24 hrs. These epigenetic changes persisted until 40 days post-TCDD treatment and there was Cyp1a1 mRNA hyperinduction upon repeat administration of TCDD at this time-point. Our demethylation assay using siRNA knockdown and an in vitro methylated plasmid showed that Ahr, Tdg, and the ten-eleven translocation methyldioxygenases Tet2 and Tet3 are required for the TCDD-induced DNA demethylation. These results provide novel evidence of Ahr-driven active DNA demethylation and epigenetic memory. The epigenetic alterations influence response to subsequent chemical exposure and imply an adaptive mechanism to xenobiotic stress. PMID:27713569

  1. Induced DNA demethylation can reshape chromatin topology at the IGF2-H19 locus

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yoko; Nativio, Raffaella; Murrell, Adele

    2013-01-01

    Choriocarcinomas are embryonal tumours with loss of imprinting and hypermethylation at the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2)-H19 locus. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-Aza-2′deoxycytidine (5-AzaCdR) is an approved epigenetic cancer therapy. However, it is not known to what extent 5-AzaCdR influences other epigenetic marks. In this study, we set out to determine whether 5-AzaCdR treatment can reprogram the epigenomic organization of the IGF2-H19 locus in a choriocarcinoma cancer cell line (JEG3). We found that localized DNA demethylation at the H19 imprinting control region (ICR) induced by 5-AzaCdR, reduced IGF2, increased H19 expression, increased CTCF and cohesin recruitment and changed histone modifications. Furthermore chromatin accessibility was increased locus-wide and chromatin looping topography was altered such that a CTCF site downstream of the H19 enhancers switched its association with the CTCF site upstream of the IGF2 promoters to associate with the ICR. We identified a stable chromatin looping domain, which forms independently of DNA methylation. This domain contains the IGF2 gene and is marked by a histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation block between CTCF site upstream of the IGF2 promoters and the Centrally Conserved Domain upstream of the ICR. Together, these data provide new insights into the responsiveness of chromatin topography to DNA methylation changes. PMID:23585276

  2. Epigenetic alteration by DNA-demethylating treatment restores apoptotic response to glucocorticoids in dexamethasone-resistant human malignant lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoids (GCs) are often included in the therapy of lymphoid malignancies because they kill several types of malignant lymphoid cells. GCs activate the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), to regulate a complex genetic network, culminating in apoptosis. Normal lymphoblasts and many lymphoid malignancies are sensitive to GC-driven apoptosis. Resistance to GCs can be a significant clinical problem, however, and correlates with resistance to several other major chemotherapeutic agents. Methods We analyzed the effect of treatment with the cytosine analogue 5 aza-2’ deoxycytidine (AZA) on GC resistance in two acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T or pre-T ALL) cell lines- CEM and Molt-4- and a (B-cell) myeloma cell line, RPMI 8226. Methods employed included tissue culture, flow cytometry, and assays for clonogenicity, cytosine extension, immunochemical identification of proteins, and gene transactivation. High throughput DNA sequencing was used to confirm DNA methylation status. Conclusions Treatment of these cells with AZA resulted in altered DNA methylation and restored GC-evoked apoptosis in all 3 cell lines. In CEM cells the altered epigenetic state resulted in site-specific phosphorylation of the GR, increased GR potency, and GC-driven induction of the GR from promoters that lie in CpG islands. In RPMI 8226 cells, expression of relevant coregulators of GR function was altered. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is central to a feed-forward mechanism of site-specific GR phosphorylation and ultimately, apoptosis, occurred in all 3 cell lines. These data show that in certain malignant hematologic B- and T-cell types, epigenetically controlled GC resistance can be reversed by cell exposure to a compound that causes DNA demethylation. The results encourage studies of application to in vivo systems, looking towards eventual clinical applications. PMID:24795534

  3. Evidence that active demethylation mechanisms maintain the genome of carcinoma in situ cells hypomethylated in the adult testis

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, D G; Nielsen, J E; Jørgensen, A; Skakkebæk, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Almstrup, K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Developmental arrest of fetal germ cells may lead to neoplastic transformation and formation of germ cell tumours via carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells. Normal fetal germ cell development requires complete erasure and re-establishment of DNA methylation. In contrast to normal spermatogonia, the genome of CIS cells remains unmethylated in the adult testis. We here investigated the possible active and passive pathways that can sustain the CIS genome hypomethylated in the adult testis. Methods: The levels of 5-methyl-cytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxy-methyl-cytosine (5hmC) in DNA from micro-dissected CIS cells were assessed by quantitative measurements. The expression of TET1, TET2, APOBEC1, MBD4, APEX1, PARP1, DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B and DNMT3L in adult testis specimens with CIS and in human fetal testis was investigated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Results: DNA from micro-dissected CIS cells contained very low levels of 5hmC produced by ten eleven translocation (TET) enzymes. CIS cells and fetal germ cells expressed the suggested initiator of active demethylation, APOBEC1, and the base excision repair proteins MBD4, APEX1 and PARP1, whereas TETs – the alternative initiators were absent. Both maintenance and de novo methyltransferases were detected in CIS cells. Conclusion: The data are consistent with the presence of an active DNA de-methylation pathway in CIS cells. The hypomethylated genome of CIS cells may contribute to phenotypic plasticity and invasive capabilities of this testicular cancer precursor. PMID:24292451

  4. Implication of DNA demethylation and bivalent histone modification for selective gene regulation in mouse primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Kentaro; Tachibana, Makoto; Saitou, Mitinori; Tokitake, Yuko; Matsui, Yasuhisa

    2012-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) sequentially induce specific genes required for their development. We focused on epigenetic changes that regulate PGC-specific gene expression. mil-1, Blimp1, and Stella are preferentially expressed in PGCs, and their expression is upregulated during PGC differentiation. Here, we first determined DNA methylation status of mil-1, Blimp1, and Stella regulatory regions in epiblast and in PGCs, and found that they were hypomethylated in differentiating PGCs after E9.0, in which those genes were highly expressed. We used siRNA to inhibit a maintenance DNA methyltransferase, Dnmt1, in embryonic stem (ES) cells and found that the flanking regions of all three genes became hypomethylated and that expression of each gene increased 1.5- to 3-fold. In addition, we also found 1.5- to 5-fold increase of the PGC genes in the PGCLCs (PGC-like cells) induced form ES cells by knockdown of Dnmt1. We also obtained evidence showing that methylation of the regulatory region of mil-1 resulted in 2.5-fold decrease in expression in a reporter assay. Together, these results suggested that DNA demethylation does not play a major role on initial activation of the PGC genes in the nascent PGCs but contributed to enhancement of their expression in PGCs after E9.0. However, we also found that repression of representative somatic genes, Hoxa1 and Hoxb1, and a tissue-specific gene, Gfap, in PGCs was not dependent on DNA methylation; their flanking regions were hypomethylated, but their expression was not observed in PGCs at E13.5. Their promoter regions showed the bivalent histone modification in PGCs, that may be involved in repression of their expression. Our results indicated that epigenetic status of PGC genes and of somatic genes in PGCs were distinct, and suggested contribution of epigenetic mechanisms in regulation of the expression of a specific gene set in PGCs.

  5. Impacts of Activated Carbon Amendment on Hg Methylation, Demethylation and Microbial Activity in Marsh Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmour, C. C.; Ghosh, U.; Santillan, E. F. U.; Soren, A.; Bell, J. T.; Butera, D.; McBurney, A. W.; Brown, S.; Henry, E.; Vlassopoulos, D.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ sorbent amendments are a low-impact approach for remediation of contaminants in sediments, particular in habitats like wetlands that provide important ecosystem services. Laboratory microcosm trials (Gilmour et al. 2013) and early field trials show that activated carbon (AC) can effectively increase partitioning of both inorganic Hg and methylmercury to the solid phase. Sediment-water partitioning can serve as a proxy for Hg and MeHg bioavailability in soils. One consideration in using AC in remediation is its potential impact on organisms. For mercury, a critical consideration is the potential impact on net MeHg accumulation and bioavailability. In this study, we specifically evaluated the impact of AC on rates of methylmercury production and degradation, and on overall microbial activity, in 4 different Hg-contaminated salt marsh soils. The study was done over 28 days in anaerobic, sulfate-reducing slurries. A double label of enriched mercury isotopes (Me199Hg and inorganic 201Hg) was used to separately follow de novo Me201Hg production and Me199Hg degradation. AC amendments decreased both methylation and demethylation rate constants relative to un-amended controls, but the impact on demethylation was stronger. The addition of 5% (dry weight) regenerated AC to soil slurries drove demethylation rate constants to nearly zero; i.e. MeHg sorption to AC almost totally blocked its degradation. The net impact was increased solid phase MeHg concentrations in some of the soil slurries with the highest methylation rate constants. However, the net impact of AC amendments was to increase MeHg (and inorganic Hg) partitioning to the soil phase and decrease concentrations in the aqueous phase. AC significantly decreased aqueous phase inorganic Hg and MeHg concentrations after 28 days. Overall, the efficacy of AC in reducing aqueous MeHg was highest in the soils with the highest MeHg concentrations. The AC addition did not significantly impact microbial activity, as

  6. Expression of Caveolin 1 is enhanced by DNA demethylation during adipocyte differentiation. status of insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Ortega, Sara; Varela-Guruceaga, Maider; Milagro, Fermín Ignacio; Martínez, José Alfredo; de Miguel, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Caveolin 1 (Cav-1) is an essential constituent of adipocyte caveolae which binds the beta subunit of the insulin receptor (IR) and is implicated in the regulation of insulin signaling. We have found that, during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells the promoter, exon 1 and first intron of the Cav-1 gene undergo a demethylation process that is accompanied by a strong induction of Cav-1 expression, indicating that epigenetic mechanisms must have a pivotal role in this differentiation process. Furthermore, IR, PKB-Akt and Glut-4 expression are also increased during the differentiation process suggesting a coordinated regulation with Cav-1. Activation of Cav-1 protein by phosphorylation arises during the differentiation process, yet in fully mature adipocytes insulin is no longer able to significantly increase Cav-1 phosphorylation. However, these long-term differentiated cells are still able to respond adequately to insulin, increasing IR and PKB-Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake. The activation of Cav-1 during the adipocyte differentiation process could facilitate the maintenance of insulin sensitivity by these fully mature adipocytes isolated from additional external stimuli. However, under the influence of physiological conditions associated to obesity, such as chronic inflammation and hypoxia, insulin sensitivity would finally be compromised.

  7. Expression of Caveolin 1 Is Enhanced by DNA Demethylation during Adipocyte Differentiation. Status of Insulin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Palacios-Ortega, Sara; Varela-Guruceaga, Maider; Milagro, Fermín Ignacio; Martínez, José Alfredo; de Miguel, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Caveolin 1 (Cav-1) is an essential constituent of adipocyte caveolae which binds the beta subunit of the insulin receptor (IR) and is implicated in the regulation of insulin signaling. We have found that, during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells the promoter, exon 1 and first intron of the Cav-1 gene undergo a demethylation process that is accompanied by a strong induction of Cav-1 expression, indicating that epigenetic mechanisms must have a pivotal role in this differentiation process. Furthermore, IR, PKB-Akt and Glut-4 expression are also increased during the differentiation process suggesting a coordinated regulation with Cav-1. Activation of Cav-1 protein by phosphorylation arises during the differentiation process, yet in fully mature adipocytes insulin is no longer able to significantly increase Cav-1 phosphorylation. However, these long-term differentiated cells are still able to respond adequately to insulin, increasing IR and PKB-Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake. The activation of Cav-1 during the adipocyte differentiation process could facilitate the maintenance of insulin sensitivity by these fully mature adipocytes isolated from additional external stimuli. However, under the influence of physiological conditions associated to obesity, such as chronic inflammation and hypoxia, insulin sensitivity would finally be compromised. PMID:24751908

  8. Combination of PDT and a DNA demethylating agent produces anti-tumor immune response in a mouse tumor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mroz, Pawel; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2009-06-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms, which involve DNA methylation and histone modifications, result in the heritable silencing of genes without a change in their coding sequence. However, these changes must be actively maintained after each cell division rendering them a promising target for pharmacologic inhibition. DNA methyltransferase inhibitors like 5-aza-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) induce and/or up-regulate the expression of MAGE-type antigens in human and mice cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been shown to be an effective locally ablative anti-cancer treatment that has the additional advantage of stimulating tumor-directed immune response. We studied the effects of a new therapy that combined the demethylating agent 5-aza-dC with PDT in the breast cancer model 4T1 syngenic to immunocompetent BALB/c mice. PDT was used as a locally ablating tumor treatment that is capable of eliciting strong and tumor directed immune response while 5-aza-dC pretreatment was used promote de novo induction of the expression of P1A.protein. This is the mouse homolog of human MAGE family antigens and is reported to function as a tumor rejection antigen in certain mouse tumors. This strategy led to an increase in PDT-mediated immune response and better treatment outcome. These results strongly suggest that the MAGE family antigens are important target for PDT mediated immune response but that their expression can be silenced by epigenetic mechanisms. Therefore the possibility that PDT can be combined with epigenetic strategies to elicit anti-tumor immunity in MAGE-positive tumor models is highly clinically significant and should be studied in detail.

  9. H3K4me3 demethylation by the histone demethylase KDM5C/JARID1C promotes DNA replication origin firing.

    PubMed

    Rondinelli, Beatrice; Schwerer, Hélène; Antonini, Elena; Gaviraghi, Marco; Lupi, Alessio; Frenquelli, Michela; Cittaro, Davide; Segalla, Simona; Lemaitre, Jean-Marc; Tonon, Giovanni

    2015-03-11

    DNA replication is a tightly regulated process that initiates from multiple replication origins and leads to the faithful transmission of the genetic material. For proper DNA replication, the chromatin surrounding origins needs to be remodeled. However, remarkably little is known on which epigenetic changes are required to allow the firing of replication origins. Here, we show that the histone demethylase KDM5C/JARID1C is required for proper DNA replication at early origins. JARID1C dictates the assembly of the pre-initiation complex, driving the binding to chromatin of the pre-initiation proteins CDC45 and PCNA, through the demethylation of the histone mark H3K4me3. Fork activation and histone H4 acetylation, additional early events involved in DNA replication, are not affected by JARID1C downregulation. All together, these data point to a prominent role for JARID1C in a specific phase of DNA replication in mammalian cells, through its demethylase activity on H3K4me3.

  10. DNA demethylation of the TIM-3 promoter is critical for its stable expression on T cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, F-C; Kuo, C-C; Chen, H-Y; Chen, H-H; Sytwu, H-K

    2016-04-01

    The T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (TIM-3) is selectively expressed on terminally differentiated T helper 1 (Th1) cells and acts as a negative regulator that terminates Th1 responses. The dysregulation of TIM-3 expression on T cells is associated with several autoimmune phenotypes and with chronic viral infections; however, the mechanism of this regulation is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of DNA methylation on the expression of TIM-3. By analyzing the sequences of TIM-3 promoter regions in human and mouse, we identified a CpG island within the TIM-3 promoter and demonstrated that the promoter activity was controlled by DNA methylation. Furthermore, treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine enhanced TIM-3 expression on mouse primary CD4(+) T cells under Th0-, Th1- or Th2-polarizing conditions. Finally, pyrosequencing analysis revealed that the methylation level of the TIM-3 promoter gradually decreased after each round of T-cell polarization, and this decrease was inversely correlated with TIM-3 expression. These data suggest that the DNA methylation of the TIM-3 promoter cooperates with lineage-specific transcription factors in the control of Th-cell development. In conclusion, DNA methylation-based regulation of TIM-3 may provide novel insights into understanding the dysregulation of TIM-3 expression under pathogenic conditions.

  11. Genistein mediated histone acetylation and demethylation activates tumor suppressor genes in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kikuno, Nobuyuki; Shiina, Hiroaki; Urakami, Shinji; Kawamoto, Ken; Hirata, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Majid, Shahana; Igawa, Mikio; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2008-08-01

    Genistein is a phytoestrogen that has been reported to suppress the AKT signaling pathway in several malignancies. However, the molecular mechanism of genistein action is not known. We tested the hypothesis that genistein activates expression of several aberrantly silenced tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) that have unmethylated promoters such as PTEN, CYLD, p53 and FOXO3a. We report here that genistein activates TSGs through remodeling of the heterochromatic domains at promoters in prostate cancer cells by modulating histone H3-Lysine 9 (H3-K9) methylation and deacetylation. Genistein activation involved demethylation and acetylation of H3-K9 at the PTEN and the CYLD promoter, while acetylation of H3-K9 at the p53 and the FOXO3a promoter occurred through reduction of endogenous SIRT1 activity. There was a decrease of SIRT1 expression and accumulation of SIRT1 in the cytoplasm from the nucleus. Increased expression of these TSGs was also reciprocally related to attenuation of phosphorylated-AKT and NF-kappaB binding activity in prostate cancer cells. This is the first report describing a novel epigenetic pathway that activates TSGs by modulating either histone H3-Lysine 9 (H3-K9) methylation or deacetylation at gene promoters leading to inhibition of the AKT signaling pathway. These findings strengthen the understanding of how genistein may be chemoprotective in prostate cancer.

  12. H(2)-CO(2)-Dependent Anaerobic O-Demethylation Activity in Subsurface Sediments and by an Isolated Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Suflita, J M

    1993-05-01

    The ability of microorganisms in sediments from the Atlantic Coastal Plain to biodegrade methoxylated aromatic compounds was examined. O-demethylation activity was detected in deep (121- and 406-m) sediments, as well as in the surface soil. A syringate-demethylating consortium, containing at least three types of bacteria, was enriched from a deep-sediment sample in a medium containing syringate as the sole organic carbon source and with a N(2)-CO(2) atmosphere. An isolate which demethylated syringate was obtained from the enrichment on an agar medium incubated under a H(2)-CO(2) but not a N(2)-CO(2) or N(2) atmosphere. O demethylation of syringate of this isolate was dependent on the presence of both H(2) and CO(2) in the gas phase. The metabolism of syringate occurred in a sequential manner: methylgallate accumulated transiently before it was converted to gallate. Mass balance analysis suggests that the stoichiometry of the reaction in this isolate proceeds in accordance with the following generalized equation: C(7)H(3)O(3)(OCH(3))(n) + nHCO(3) + nH(2) --> C(7)H(3)O(3)(OH)(n) + nCH(3)COO + nH(2)O.

  13. DNA demethylation caused by 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine induces mitotic alterations and aneuploidy

    PubMed Central

    Lentini, Laura; Cilluffo, Danilo; Di Leonardo, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Aneuploidy, the unbalanced number of chromosomes in a cell, is considered a prevalent form of genetic instability and is largely acknowledged as a condition implicated in tumorigenesis. Epigenetic alterations like DNA hypomethylation have been correlated with cancer initiation/progression. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence suggests the involvement of epigenome-wide disruption as a cause of global DNA hypomethylation in aneuploidy generation. Here, we report that the DNA hypomethylating drug 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (DAC), affects the correct ploidy of nearly diploid HCT-116 human cells by altering the methylation pattern of the chromosomes. Specifically, we show that a DAC-induced reduction of 5-Methyl Cytosine at the pericentromeric region of chromosomes correlates with aneuploidy and mitotic defects. Our results suggest that DNA hypomethylation leads to aneuploidy by altering the DNA methylation landscape at the centromere that is necessary to ensure proper chromosomes segregation by recruiting the proteins necessary to build up a functional kinetochore. PMID:26771138

  14. Enhancing the Cytotoxic Effects of PARP Inhibitors with DNA Demethylating Agents - A Potential Therapy for Cancer.

    PubMed

    Muvarak, Nidal E; Chowdhury, Khadiza; Xia, Limin; Robert, Carine; Choi, Eun Yong; Cai, Yi; Bellani, Marina; Zou, Ying; Singh, Zeba N; Duong, Vu H; Rutherford, Tyler; Nagaria, Pratik; Bentzen, Søren M; Seidman, Michael M; Baer, Maria R; Lapidus, Rena G; Baylin, Stephen B; Rassool, Feyruz V

    2016-10-10

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPis) are clinically effective predominantly for BRCA-mutant tumors. We introduce a mechanism-based strategy to enhance PARPi efficacy based on DNA damage-related binding between DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and PARP1. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and breast cancer cells, DNMT inhibitors (DNMTis) alone covalently bind DNMTs into DNA and increase PARP1 tightly bound into chromatin. Low doses of DNMTis plus PARPis, versus each drug alone, increase PARPi efficacy, increasing amplitude and retention of PARP1 directly at laser-induced DNA damage sites. This correlates with increased DNA damage, synergistic tumor cytotoxicity, blunting of self-renewal, and strong anti-tumor responses, in vivo in unfavorable AML subtypes and BRCA wild-type breast cancer cells. Our combinatorial approach introduces a strategy to enhance efficacy of PARPis in treating cancer.

  15. Automated Quantification of DNA Demethylation Effects in Cells via 3D Mapping of Nuclear Signatures and Population Homogeneity Assessment1

    PubMed Central

    Gertych, Arkadiusz; Wawrowsky, Kolja A.; Lindsley, Erik; Vishnevsky, Eugene; Farkas, Daniel L.; Tajbakhsh, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Background Today’s advanced microscopic imaging applies to the preclinical stages of drug discovery that employ high-throughput and high-content three-dimensional (3D) analysis of cells to more efficiently screen candidate compounds. Drug efficacy can be assessed by measuring response homogeneity to treatment within a cell population. In this study topologically quantified nuclear patterns of methylated cytosine and global nuclear DNA are utilized as signatures of cellular response to the treatment of cultured cells with the demethylating anti-cancer agents: 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) and octreotide (OCT). Methods Mouse pituitary folliculostellate TtT-GF cells treated with 5-AZA and OCT for 48 hours, and untreated populations, were studied by immunofluorescence with a specific antibody against 5-methylcytosine (MeC), and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) for delineation of methylated sites and global DNA in nuclei (n=163). Cell images were processed utilizing an automated 3D analysis software that we developed by combining seeded watershed segmentation to extract nuclear shells with measurements of Kullback-Leibler’s (K-L) divergence to analyze cell population homogeneity in the relative nuclear distribution patterns of MeC versus DAPI stained sites. Each cell was assigned to one of the four classes: similar, likely similar, unlikely similar and dissimilar. Results Evaluation of the different cell groups revealed a significantly higher number of cells with similar or likely similar MeC/DAPI patterns among untreated cells (~100%), 5-AZA-treated cells (90%), and a lower degree of same type of cells (64%) in the OCT-treated population. The latter group contained (28%) of unlikely similar or dissimilar (7%) cells. Conclusion Our approach was successful in the assessment of cellular behavior relevant to the biological impact of the applied drugs, i.e. the reorganization of MeC/DAPI distribution by demethylation. In a comparison with other metrics, K-L divergence has

  16. A mediator methylation mystery: JMJD1C demethylates MDC1 to regulate DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian; Matunis, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Mediator of DNA-damage checkpoint 1 (MDMDC1) has a central role in repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by both homologous recombination and nonhomologous end joining, and its function is regulated by post-translational phosphorylation, ubiquitylation and sumoylation. In this issue, a new study by Watanabe et al. reveals that methylation of MDMDC1 is also critical for its function in DSB repair and specifically affects repair through BRCA1-dependent homologous recombination.

  17. Vitamin C down-regulate apo(a) expression via Tet2-dependent DNA demethylation in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Qu, Kai; Ma, Xiao-Feng; Li, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Hai; Liu, Ya-Mi; Zhang, Kai; Zeng, Jun-Fa; Lei, Jian-Jun; Wei, Dang-Heng; Wang, Zuo

    2017-05-01

    Lipoprotein(a)[Lp(a)] is a risk factor for coronary heart diseases. However, the metabolism of this protein remains poorly understood. Efficient and specific drugs that can decrease high plasma levels of Lp(a) have not been developed yet. Vitamin C is responsible for maintaining the catalytic activity of a group of iron and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenases and induces the generation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) via Ten-eleven translocation (Tet) dioxygenases. In addition, It has been reported vitamin C deficiency induces atherosclerosis and increases Lp(a) and apo(a) plasma levels in Lp(a)+ mice. However, the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of vitamin C on apo(a) expression and the possible molecular mechanism of vitamin C that influences apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] biosynthesis in HepG2 cells. Results showed that vitamin C significantly inhibited the expression and secretion levels of apo(a). Vitamin C can also increase ELK1 expression and hydroxymethylation of ELK1 promoter and the globle DNA in HepG2 cells. In addition, the effects of vitamin C inhibiting the apo(a) expression were attenuated by ELK1siRNA and Tet2siRNA. These results suggested vitamin C down-regulate apo(a) expression via Tet2-dependent DNA demethylation in HepG2 cells.

  18. CNS germinomas are characterized by global demethylation, chromosomal instability and mutational activation of the Kit-, Ras/Raf/Erk- and Akt-pathways

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Simone Laura; Waha, Andreas; Steiger, Barbara; Denkhaus, Dorota; Dörner, Evelyn; Calaminus, Gabriele; Leuschner, Ivo; Pietsch, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    CNS germinomas represent a unique germ cell tumor entity characterized by undifferentiated tumor cells and a high response rate to current treatment protocols. Limited information is available on their underlying genomic, epigenetic and biological alterations. We performed a genome-wide analysis of genomic copy number alterations in 49 CNS germinomas by molecular inversion profiling. In addition, CpG dinucleotide methylation was studied by immunohistochemistry for methylated cytosine residues. Mutational analysis was performed by resequencing of candidate genes including KIT and RAS family members. Ras/Erk and Akt pathway activation was analyzed by immunostaining with antibodies against phospho-Erk, phosho-Akt, phospho-mTOR and phospho-S6. All germinomas coexpressed Oct4 and Kit but showed an extensive global DNA demethylation compared to other tumors and normal tissues. Molecular inversion profiling showed predominant genomic instability in all tumors with a high frequency of regional gains and losses including high level gene amplifications. Activating mutations of KIT exons 11, 13, and 17 as well as a case with genomic KIT amplification and activating mutations or amplifications of RAS gene family members including KRAS, NRAS and RRAS2 indicated mutational activation of crucial signaling pathways. Co-activation of Ras/Erk and Akt pathways was present in 83% of germinomas. These data suggest that CNS germinoma cells display a demethylated nuclear DNA similar to primordial germ cells in early development. This finding has a striking coincidence with extensive genomic instability. In addition, mutational activation of Kit-, Ras/Raf/Erk- and Akt- pathways indicate the biological importance of these pathways and their components as potential targets for therapy. PMID:27391150

  19. Analysis of the machinery and intermediates of the 5hmC-mediated DNA demethylation pathway in aging on samples from the MARK-AGE Study

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, Elisabetta; Zampieri, Michele; Malavolta, Marco; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Calabrese, Roberta; Guastafierro, Tiziana; Reale, Anna; Franceschi, Claudio; Hervonen, Antti; Koller, Bernhard; Bernhardt, Jürgen; Slagboom, P. Eline; Toussaint, Olivier; Sikora, Ewa; Gonos, Efstathios S.; Breusing, Nicolle; Grune, Tilman; Jansen, Eugène; Dollé, Martijn E.T.; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Sindlinger, Thilo; Bürkle, Alexander; Ciccarone, Fabio; Caiafa, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Gradual changes in the DNA methylation landscape occur throughout aging virtually in all human tissues. A widespread reduction of 5-methylcytosine (5mC), associated with highly reproducible site-specific hypermethylation, characterizes the genome in aging. Therefore, an equilibrium seems to exist between general and directional deregulating events concerning DNA methylation controllers, which may underpin the age-related epigenetic changes. In this context, 5mC-hydroxylases (TET enzymes) are new potential players. In fact, TETs catalyze the stepwise oxidation of 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC), driving the DNA demethylation process based on thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG)-mediated DNA repair pathway. The present paper reports the expression of DNA hydroxymethylation components, the levels of 5hmC and of its derivatives in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of age-stratified donors recruited in several European countries in the context of the EU Project ‘MARK-AGE’. The results provide evidence for an age-related decline of TET1, TET3 and TDG gene expression along with a decrease of 5hmC and an accumulation of 5caC. These associations were independent of confounding variables, including recruitment center, gender and leukocyte composition. The observed impairment of 5hmC-mediated DNA demethylation pathway in blood cells may lead to aberrant transcriptional programs in the elderly. PMID:27587280

  20. Analysis of the machinery and intermediates of the 5hmC-mediated DNA demethylation pathway in aging on samples from the MARK-AGE Study.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Elisabetta; Zampieri, Michele; Malavolta, Marco; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Calabrese, Roberta; Guastafierro, Tiziana; Reale, Anna; Franceschi, Claudio; Hervonen, Antti; Koller, Bernhard; Bernhardt, Jürgen; Slagboom, P Eline; Toussaint, Olivier; Sikora, Ewa; Gonos, Efstathios S; Breusing, Nicolle; Grune, Tilman; Jansen, Eugène; Dollé, Martijn E T; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Sindlinger, Thilo; Bürkle, Alexander; Ciccarone, Fabio; Caiafa, Paola

    2016-08-29

    Gradual changes in the DNA methylation landscape occur throughout aging virtually in all human tissues. A widespread reduction of 5-methylcytosine (5mC), associated with highly reproducible site-specific hypermethylation, characterizes the genome in aging. Therefore, an equilibrium seems to exist between general and directional deregulating events concerning DNA methylation controllers, which may underpin the age-related epigenetic changes. In this context, 5mC-hydroxylases (TET enzymes) are new potential players. In fact, TETs catalyze the stepwise oxidation of 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC), driving the DNA demethylation process based on thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG)-mediated DNA repair pathway. The present paper reports the expression of DNA hydroxymethylation components, the levels of 5hmC and of its derivatives in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of age-stratified donors recruited in several European countries in the context of the EU Project 'MARK-AGE'. The results provide evidence for an age-related decline of TET1, TET3 and TDG gene expression along with a decrease of 5hmC and an accumulation of 5caC. These associations were independent of confounding variables, including recruitment center, gender and leukocyte composition. The observed impairment of 5hmC-mediated DNA demethylation pathway in blood cells may lead to aberrant transcriptional programs in the elderly.

  1. Nucleosome repositioning links DNA (de)methylation and differential CTCF binding during stem cell development

    PubMed Central

    Teif, Vladimir B.; Beshnova, Daria A.; Vainshtein, Yevhen; Marth, Caroline; Mallm, Jan-Philipp; Höfer, Thomas; Rippe, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    During differentiation of embryonic stem cells, chromatin reorganizes to establish cell type-specific expression programs. Here, we have dissected the linkages between DNA methylation (5mC), hydroxymethylation (5hmC), nucleosome repositioning, and binding of the transcription factor CTCF during this process. By integrating MNase-seq and ChIP-seq experiments in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) and their differentiated counterparts with biophysical modeling, we found that the interplay between these factors depends on their genomic context. The mostly unmethylated CpG islands have reduced nucleosome occupancy and are enriched in cell type-independent binding sites for CTCF. The few remaining methylated CpG dinucleotides are preferentially associated with nucleosomes. In contrast, outside of CpG islands most CpGs are methylated, and the average methylation density oscillates so that it is highest in the linker region between nucleosomes. Outside CpG islands, binding of TET1, an enzyme that converts 5mC to 5hmC, is associated with labile, MNase-sensitive nucleosomes. Such nucleosomes are poised for eviction in ESCs and become stably bound in differentiated cells where the TET1 and 5hmC levels go down. This process regulates a class of CTCF binding sites outside CpG islands that are occupied by CTCF in ESCs but lose the protein during differentiation. We rationalize this cell type-dependent targeting of CTCF with a quantitative biophysical model of competitive binding with the histone octamer, depending on the TET1, 5hmC, and 5mC state. PMID:24812327

  2. Fungal demethylation of Kraft lignin.

    PubMed

    Zou, Linyou; Ross, Brian M; Hutchison, Leonard J; Christopher, Lew P; Dekker, Robert F H; Malek, Lada

    2015-06-01

    Demethylation of industrial lignin has been for long coveted as a pathway to the production of an abundant natural substitute for fossil-oil derived phenol. In an attempt to possibly identify a novel Kraft lignin-demethylating enzyme, we surveyed a collection of fungi by using selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). This method readily identifies methanol resulting from lignin demethylation activity. Absidia cylindrospora, and unidentified Cylindrocladium sp. and Aspergillus sp. were shown to metabolize lignin via different pathways, based on the HPLC analysis of lignin fragments. Of these three, Cylindrocladium and Aspergillus were shown to retain most of the lignin intact after 3 weeks in culture, while removing about 40% of the available methoxy groups. Our results demonstrate that after optimization of culture and lignin recovery methods, biological modification of Kraft lignin may be a feasible pathway to obtaining demethylated lignin for further industrial use.

  3. Integrated genomic analysis of colorectal cancer progression reveals activation of EGFR through demethylation of the EREG promoter

    PubMed Central

    Qu, X; Sandmann, T; Frierson, H; Fu, L; Fuentes, E; Walter, K; Okrah, K; Rumpel, C; Moskaluk, C; Lu, S; Wang, Y; Bourgon, R; Penuel, E; Pirzkall, A; Amler, L; Lackner, M R; Tabernero, J; Hampton, G M; Kabbarah, O

    2016-01-01

    Key molecular drivers that underlie transformation of colonic epithelium into colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) are well described. However, the mechanisms through which clinically targeted pathways are activated during CRC progression have yet to be elucidated. Here, we used an integrative genomics approach to examine CRC progression. We used laser capture microdissection to isolate colonic crypt cells, differentiated surface epithelium, adenomas, carcinomas and metastases, and used gene expression profiling to identify pathways that were differentially expressed between the different cell types. We identified a number of potentially important transcriptional changes in developmental and oncogenic pathways, and noted a marked upregulation of EREG in primary and metastatic cancer cells. We confirmed this pattern of gene expression by in situ hybridization and observed staining consistent with autocrine expression in the tumor cells. Upregulation of EREG during the adenoma–carcinoma transition was associated with demethylation of two key sites within its promoter, and this was accompanied by an increase in the levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation, as assessed by reverse-phase protein analysis. In CRC cell lines, we demonstrated that EREG demethylation led to its transcriptional upregulation, higher levels of EGFR phosphorylation, and sensitization to EGFR inhibitors. Low levels of EREG methylation in patients who received cetuximab as part of a phase II study were associated with high expression of the ligand and a favorable response to therapy. Conversely, high levels of promoter methylation and low levels of EREG expression were observed in tumors that progressed after treatment. We also noted an inverse correlation between EREG methylation and expression levels in several other cancers, including those of the head and neck, lung and bladder. Therefore, we propose that upregulation of EREG expression through promoter demethylation

  4. DNA Demethylation Rescues the Impaired Osteogenic Differentiation Ability of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells in High Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Chen, Tian; Sun, Wenhua; Yuan, Zongyi; Yu, Mei; Chen, Guoqing; Guo, Weihua; Xiao, Jingang; Tian, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, characterized by abnormally high blood glucose levels, gives rise to impaired bone remodeling. In response to high glucose (HG), the attenuated osteogenic differentiation capacity of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) is associated with the loss of alveolar bone. Recently, DNA methylation was reported to affect osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in pathological states. However, the intrinsic mechanism linking DNA methylation to osteogenic differentiation ability in the presence of HG is still unclear. In this study, we found that diabetic rats with increased DNA methylation levels in periodontal ligaments exhibited reduced bone mass and density. In vitro application of 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, to decrease DNA methylation levels in hPDLSCs, rescued the osteogenic differentiation capacity of hPDLSCs under HG conditions. Moreover, we demonstrated that the canonical Wnt signaling pathway was activated during this process and, under HG circumstances, the 5-aza-dC-rescued osteogenic differentiation capacity was blocked by Dickkopf-1, an effective antagonist of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that suppression of DNA methylation is able to facilitate the osteogenic differentiation capacity of hPDLSCs exposed to HG, through activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. PMID:27273319

  5. Demethylated HSATII DNA and HSATII RNA Foci Sequester PRC1 and MeCP2 into Cancer-Specific Nuclear Bodies.

    PubMed

    Hall, Lisa L; Byron, Meg; Carone, Dawn M; Whitfield, Troy W; Pouliot, Gayle P; Fischer, Andrew; Jones, Peter; Lawrence, Jeanne B

    2017-03-21

    This study reveals that high-copy satellite II (HSATII) sequences in the human genome can bind and impact distribution of chromatin regulatory proteins and that this goes awry in cancer. In many cancers, master regulatory proteins form two types of cancer-specific nuclear bodies, caused by locus-specific deregulation of HSATII. DNA demethylation at the 1q12 mega-satellite, common in cancer, causes PRC1 aggregation into prominent Cancer-Associated Polycomb (CAP) bodies. These loci remain silent, whereas HSATII loci with reduced PRC1 become derepressed, reflecting imbalanced distribution of UbH2A on these and other PcG-regulated loci. Large nuclear foci of HSATII RNA form and sequester copious MeCP2 into Cancer-Associated Satellite Transcript (CAST) bodies. Hence, HSATII DNA and RNA have an exceptional capacity to act as molecular sponges and sequester chromatin regulatory proteins into abnormal nuclear bodies in cancer. The compartmentalization of regulatory proteins within nuclear structure, triggered by demethylation of "junk" repeats, raises the possibility that this contributes to further compromise of the epigenome and neoplastic progression.

  6. DNA modifications: Another stable base in DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazauskas, Pijus; Kriaucionis, Skirmantas

    2014-12-01

    Oxidation of 5-methylcytosine has been proposed to mediate active and passive DNA demethylation. Tracking the history of DNA modifications has now provided the first solid evidence that 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is a stable epigenetic modification.

  7. Rescue of Early bace-1 and Global DNA Demethylation by S-Adenosylmethionine Reduces Amyloid Pathology and Improves Cognition in an Alzheimer’s Model

    PubMed Central

    Do Carmo, Sonia; Hanzel, Cecilia E.; Jacobs, Marie L.; Machnes, Ziv; Iulita, M. Florencia; Yang, Jingyun; Yu, Lei; Ducatenzeiler, Adriana; Danik, Marc; Breuillaud, Lionel S.; Bennett, David A.; Szyf, Moshe; Cuello, A. Claudio

    2016-01-01

    General DNA hypomethylation is associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but it is unclear when DNA hypomethylation starts or plays a role in AD pathology or whether DNA re-methylation would rescue early amyloid-related cognitive impairments. In an APP transgenic mouse model of AD-like amyloid pathology we found that early intraneuronal amyloid beta build-up is sufficient to unleash a global and beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (bace-1) DNA demethylation in AD-vulnerable brain regions. S-adenosylmethionine administration at these early stages abolished this hypomethylation, diminished the amyloid pathology and restored cognitive capabilities. To assess a possible human significance of findings, we examined the methylation at 12 CpGs sites in the bace-1 promoter, using genome-wide DNA methylation data from 740 postmortem human brains. Thus, we found significant associations of bace-1 promoter methylation with β-amyloid load among persons with AD dementia, and PHFtau tangle density. Our results support a plausible causal role for the earliest amyloid beta accumulation to provoke DNA hypomethylation, influencing AD pathological outcomes. PMID:27681803

  8. Interplay among nucleosomal DNA, histone tails, and corepressor CoREST underlies LSD1-mediated H3 demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Pilotto, Simona; Speranzini, Valentina; Tortorici, Marcello; Durand, Dominique; Fish, Alexander; Valente, Sergio; Mai, Antonello; Sixma, Titia K.; Vachette, Patrice; Mattevi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    With its noncatalytic domains, DNA-binding regions, and a catalytic core targeting the histone tails, LSD1-CoREST (lysine-specific demethylase 1; REST corepressor) is an ideal model system to study the interplay between DNA binding and histone modification in nucleosome recognition. To this end, we covalently associated LSD1-CoREST to semisynthetic nucleosomal particles. This enabled biochemical and biophysical characterizations of nucleosome binding and structural elucidation by small-angle X-ray scattering, which was extensively validated through binding assays and site-directed mutagenesis of functional interfaces. Our results suggest that LSD1-CoREST functions as an ergonomic clamp that induces the detachment of the H3 histone tail from the nucleosomal DNA to make it available for capture by the enzyme active site. The key notion emerging from these studies is the inherently competitive nature of the binding interactions because nucleosome tails, chromatin modifiers, transcription factors, and DNA represent sites for multiple and often mutually exclusive interactions. PMID:25730864

  9. [Phenylhexyl isothiocyanate induces gene p15 re-expression by regulating histone methylation and DNA demethylation in Molt-4 cells].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xu-Dong; Huang, Yi-Qun; Jiang, Shao-Hong; Zheng, Rui-Ji

    2010-06-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the regulatory effect of phenylhexyl isothiocyanate (PHI) on methylation of histone H3K4, H3K9 and demethylation of p15 gene in acute leukemia cell line Molt-4, and to explore the possible mechanism inducing re-expression of silent gene. The methylation status of histone H3K4, H3K9 and the expression of P15 protein in the Molt-4 cells treated with PHI were detected by Western blot; the methylation status of p15 gene in the Molt-4 cells before and after treatment with PHI was determined by methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP); the expression level of p15 gene mRNA in Molt-4 cells treated with PHI was assayed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR. The results indicated that the PHI could increase methylation of histone H3K4 and decrease methylation of histone H3K9 in concentration-and time-dependent manners. After treatment of Molt-4 cells with PHI for 5 days, the methylation of p15 gene was reduced, the significant hypermethylation of p15 gene was reversed, the silenced p15 gene re-expressed; the expressions of p15 mRNA and P15 protein were enhanced in concentration-dependent manner. It is concluded that probably through specifically regulating the methylation level of histone H3K4 and H3K9, the PHI causes the changes of chromosome space structure and results in the demethylation of CPG island in p15 gene, thereby induces the re-expression of p15 gene which was silenced.

  10. [Phenylhexyl isothiocyanate induces gene p15 demethylation by down-regulating DNA methyltransferases in Molt-4 cells].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shao-hong; Ma, Xu-dong; Huang, Yi-qun; Xu, Yun-lu; Zheng, Rui-ji

    2009-04-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of phenylhexyl isothiocyanate (PHI), which has been proved to be a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) recently, on gene p15 de novo expression in acute leukemia cell line Molt-4, and to further study its potential mechanism. Modified methylation specific PCR (MSP) was used to screen p15-M and p15-U mRNA. DNA methyltransferasel (DNMT1), 3A (DNMT3A), 3B (DNMT3B) and p15 mRNA were measured by RT-PCR. P15 protein was detected by Western blotting. Hypermethylation of gene p15 was reversed and activation transcription of gene p15 in Molt-4 was de novo after 5 days exposure to PHI in a concentration dependent manner. DNMT1 and DNMT3B were inhibited by exposure to PHI for 5 days (P < 0.05). Alteration of DNMT3A was not significant. It is showed that PHI could reverse hypermethylation of gene p15 and transcriptional activation of gene p15 is de novo by PHI. It may result from down-regulating DNA methyltransferases, DNMT1 and DNMT3B, or up-regulating the histone acetylation that allows chromatin unfolding and the accessibility of regulators for transcriptional activation in the p15 promoter.

  11. Monozygotic twins discordant for common variable immunodeficiency reveal impaired DNA demethylation during naïve-to-memory B-cell transition

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Cortez, Virginia C.; del Pino-Molina, Lucia; Rodríguez-Ubreva, Javier; Ciudad, Laura; Gómez-Cabrero, David; Company, Carlos; Urquiza, José M.; Tegnér, Jesper; Rodríguez-Gallego, Carlos; López-Granados, Eduardo; Ballestar, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most frequent primary immunodeficiency characterized by loss of B-cell function, depends partly on genetic defects, and epigenetic changes are thought to contribute to its aetiology. Here we perform a high-throughput DNA methylation analysis of this disorder using a pair of CVID-discordant MZ twins and show predominant gain of DNA methylation in CVID B cells with respect to those from the healthy sibling in critical B lymphocyte genes, such as PIK3CD, BCL2L1, RPS6KB2, TCF3 and KCNN4. Individual analysis confirms hypermethylation of these genes. Analysis in naive, unswitched and switched memory B cells in a CVID patient cohort shows impaired ability to demethylate and upregulate these genes in transitioning from naive to memory cells in CVID. Our results not only indicate a role for epigenetic alterations in CVID but also identify relevant DNA methylation changes in B cells that could explain the clinical manifestations of CVID individuals. PMID:26081581

  12. Berberine reverses abnormal expression of L-type pyruvate kinase by DNA demethylation and histone acetylation in the livers of the non-alcoholic fatty disease rat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuhao; Chang, Xinxia; Song, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Chen, Hongyan; Lu, Zhiqiang; Gao, Xin; Lu, Daru

    2015-01-01

    Berberine (BBR) can potentially be used as a drug against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes. Our previous study found that BBR could change the pattern of DNA methylation. But the mechanisms underlying berberine are still far from completely understood. In this study, the function of L-PK in cell metabolism was explored, and high-fat-diet induced SD rats NAFLD models were created. The NAFLD rats were randomly grouped to be oral administration with BBR at a dosage of 200 mg/kg daily. Then DNA methylation and histone acetylation around the L-type Pyruvate Kinase (L-PK) gene were examined. In the results, we found that L-PK had a positive effect on cell proliferation, glucose utilization and triglyceride metabolism. However, the expression of L-PK was reduced in the livers of NAFLD rats, in accord with the decrease of DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation in the regulatory regions of L-PK. Notably, BBR treatment can restore the expression of L-PK by the demethylation of L-PK promoter and the increase in acetylation levels of histone H3 and H4 around L-PK, which indicated that BBR may be a potential drug for epigenetic-included diseases. PMID:26221297

  13. Interleukin-4-Mediated 15-Lipoxygenase-1 Trans-Activation Requires UTX Recruitment and H3K27me3 Demethylation at the Promoter in A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hongya; Xu, Dawei; Liu, Cheng; Claesson, Hans-Erik; Björkholm, Magnus; Sjöberg, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase-1 (ALOX15) oxygenates polyunsaturated fatty acids and bio-membranes, generating multiple lipid signalling mediators involved in inflammation. Several lines of evidence indicate that ALOX15 activation in the respiratory tract contributes to asthma progression. Recent experimental data reveals that histone modification at the promoter plays a critical role in ALOX15 gene transcription. In the present study, we examined the status of histone H3 trimethyl-lysine 27 (H3K27me3) at the ALOX15 promoter by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay in human lung epithelial carcinoma A549 cells incubated with or without interleukin (IL)-4. We identified demethylation of H3K27me3 at the ALOX15 promoter after IL-4 treatment. Furthermore, we found that the H3K27me2/3-specific demethylase, ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat, X chromosome (UTX), mediates the H3K27me3 demethylation during ALOX15 transcriptional activation. When UTX expression was knocked down using siRNA, IL-4-mediated H3K27me3 demethylation and ALOX15 induction were significantly attenuated. The critical role of UTX in ALOX15 expression was confirmed in human monocytes and the Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cell line L1236, but was in these cells not related to H3K27me3-demethylase activity. These results demonstrate that UTX is implicated in IL-4 mediated transcriptional activation of the ALOX15 gene. PMID:24465480

  14. Protein arginine methylation/demethylation and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Poulard, Coralie; Corbo, Laura; Le Romancer, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Protein arginine methylation is a common post-translational modification involved in numerous cellular processes including transcription, DNA repair, mRNA splicing and signal transduction. Currently, there are nine known members of the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family, but only one arginine demethylase has been identified, namely the Jumonji domain-containing 6 (JMJD6). Although its demethylase activity was initially challenged, its dual activity as an arginine demethylase and a lysine hydroxylase is now recognized. Interestingly, a growing number of substrates for arginine methylation and demethylation play key roles in tumorigenesis. Though alterations in the sequence of these enzymes have not been identified in cancer, their overexpression is associated with various cancers, suggesting that they could constitute targets for therapeutic strategies. In this review, we present the recent knowledge of the involvement of PRMTs and JMJD6 in tumorigenesis. PMID:27556302

  15. Fluconazole Binding and Sterol Demethylation in Three CYP51 Isoforms Indicate Differences in Active Site Topology

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamine, A.; Lepesheva, Galina I.; Waterman, Mike

    2010-11-16

    14{alpha}-Demethylase (CYP51) is a key enzyme in all sterol biosynthetic pathways (animals, fungi, plants, protists, and some bacteria), catalyzing the removal of the C-14 methyl group following cyclization of squalene. Based on mutations found in CYP51 genes from Candida albicans azole-resistant isolates obtained after fluconazole treatment of fungal infections, and using site-directed mutagenesis, we have found that fluconazole binding and substrate metabolism vary among three different CYP51 isoforms: human, fungal, and mycobacterial. In C. albicans, the Y132H mutant from isolates shows no effect on fluconazole binding, whereas the F145L mutant results in a 5-fold increase in its IC{sub 50} for fluconazole, suggesting that F145 (conserved only in fungal 14{alpha}-demethylases) interacts with this azole. In C. albicans, F145L accounts, in part, for the difference in fluconazole sensitivity reported between mammals and fungi, providing a basis for treatment of fungal infections. The C. albicans Y132H and human Y145H CYP51 mutants show essentially no effect on substrate metabolism, but the Mycobacterium tuberculosis F89H CYP51 mutant loses both its substrate binding and metabolism. Because these three residues align in the three isoforms, the results indicate that their active sites contain important structural differences, and further emphasize that fluconazole and substrate binding are uncoupled properties.

  16. HBD-2 is downregulated in oral carcinoma cells by DNA hypermethylation, and increased expression of hBD-2 by DNA demethylation and gene transfection inhibits cell proliferation and invasion.

    PubMed

    Kamino, Yoshitaka; Kurashige, Yoshihito; Uehara, Osamu; Sato, Jun; Nishimura, Michiko; Yoshida, Koki; Arakawa, Toshiya; Nagayasu, Hiroki; Saitoh, Masato; Abiko, Yoshihiro

    2014-08-01

    Human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is a type of epithelial antimicrobial peptide. The expression level of hBD-2 mRNA is lower in oral carcinoma cells (OCCs) than in healthy oral epithelium. Yet, it is still unknown how hBD-2 expression is downregulated in OCCs. The present study investigated DNA hypermethylation of hBD-2 in OCCs and the effect of the demethylation and increased expression of hBD-2 on cell proliferation and invasion. Six different types of oral carcinoma cell lines (OSC-19, BSC-OF, SAS, HSC-2, HSC-4 and HSY) and normal oral keratinocytes (NOKs) were used. The expression levels of hBD-2 in all OCCs were significantly lower than that in the NOKs. Treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-dC, at the concentration of 50 µM significantly induced upregulation of expression of hBD-2 in the OCCs. Using methylation-specific PCR, DNA hypermethylation was observed in all OCCs. These results suggest that DNA hypermethylation is, at least in part, involved in the decreased expression of hBD-2 in OCCs. We examined the effect of 5-aza-dC on the cell proliferation and invasive ability of OCCs. The cell invasion assays showed that the number of OCCs treated with 5-aza-dC on the filters was significantly lower than that of the controls. We examined whether increased expression of hBD-2 generated by gene transfection inhibited the proliferation and invasion of SAS cells. The number of SAS cells exhibiting increased expression of hBD-2 on the filters in the invasion assay were significantly lower on day 7 when compared with the control. hBD-2 may function as a tumor suppressor. Increased expression of hBD-2 induced by demethylation or increased expression generated by gene transfection may be useful therapeutic methods for oral carcinoma.

  17. Generation of antigen-presenting cells from tumor-infiltrated CD11b myeloid cells with DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine.

    PubMed

    Daurkin, Irina; Eruslanov, Evgeniy; Vieweg, Johannes; Kusmartsev, Sergei

    2010-05-01

    Tumor-recruited CD11b myeloid cells, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells, play a significant role in tumor progression, as these cells are involved in tumor-induced immune suppression and tumor neovasculogenesis. On the other hand, the tumor-infiltrated CD11b myeloid cells could potentially be a source of immunostimulatory antigen-presenting cells (APCs), since most of these cells represent common precursors of both dendritic cells and macrophages. Here, we investigated the possibility of generating mature APCs from tumor-infiltrated CD11b myeloid cells. We demonstrate that in vitro exposure of freshly excised mouse tumors to DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine, AZA) results in selective elimination of tumor cells, but, surprisingly it also enriches CD45(+) tumor-infiltrated cells. The majority of "post-AZA" surviving CD45(+) tumor-infiltrated cells were represented by CD11b myeloid cells. A culture of isolated tumor-infiltrated CD11b cells in the presence of AZA and GM-CSF promoted their differentiation into mature F4/80/CD11c/MHC class II-positive APCs. These tumor-derived myeloid APCs produced substantially reduced amounts of immunosuppressive (IL-13, IL-10, PGE(2)), pro-angiogenic (VEGF, MMP-9) and pro-inflammatory (IL-1beta, IL-6, MIP-2) mediators than their precursors, freshly isolated tumor-infiltrated CD11b cells. Vaccinating naïve mice with ex vivo generated tumor-derived APCs resulted in the protection of 70% mice from tumor outgrowth. Importantly, no loading of tumor-derived APC with exogenous antigen was needed to stimulate T cell response and induce the anti-tumor effect. Collectively, our results for the first time demonstrate that tumor-infiltrated CD11b myeloid cells can be enriched and differentiated in the presence of DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine into mature tumor-derived APCs, which could be used for cancer immunotherapy.

  18. Demethylation of methylarsonic acid by a microbial community.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Cai, Yong; Rosen, Barry P

    2011-05-01

    Arsenic is one of the most widespread environmental carcinogens and has created devastating human health problems worldwide, yet little is known about mechanisms of biotransformation in contaminated regions. Methylarsonic acid [MAs(V)], extensively utilized as an herbicide, is largely demethylated to more toxic inorganic arsenite, which causes environmental problems. To understand the process of demethylation of methylarsenicals, soil samples commonly used on Florida golf courses were studied. Several soil extracts were found to demethylate MAs(V) to inorganic arsenite [As(III)]. From these extracts, a bacterial isolate was capable of reducing MAs(V) to MAs(III) but not of demethylating to As(III). A second bacterial isolate was capable of demethylating MAs(III) to As(III) but not of reducing MAs(V). A mixed culture could carry out the complete process of reduction and demethylation, demonstrating that demethylation of MAs(V) to As(III) is a two-step process. Analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of the two organisms identified the MAs(V)-reducing and the MAs(III)-demethylating isolates as belong to Burkholderia and Streptomyces species respectively. This is the first report of a novel pathway of degradation of a methylarsenical herbicide by sequential reduction and demethylation in a microbial soil community, which we propose plays a significant role in the arsenic biogeocycle.

  19. Demethylation of methylarsonic acid by a microbial community

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Cai, Yong; Rosen, Barry P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Arsenic is one of the most widespread environmental carcinogens and has created devastating human health problems worldwide, yet little is known about mechanisms of biotransformation in contaminated regions. Methylarsonic acid [MAs(V)], extensively utilized as an herbicide, is largely demethylated to more toxic inorganic arsenite, which causes environmental problems. To understand the process of demethylation of methylarsenicals, soil samples commonly used on Florida golf courses were studied. Several soil extracts were found to demethylate MAs(V) to inorganic arsenite [As(III)]. From these extracts, a bacterial isolate was capable of reducing MAs(V) to MAs(III) but not of demethylating to As(III). A second bacterial isolate was capable of demethylating MAs(III) to As(III) but not of reducing MAs(V). A mixed culture could carry out the complete process of reduction and demethylation, demonstrating that demethylation of MAs(V) to As(III) is a two-step process. Analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of the two organisms identified the MAs(V)-reducing and the MAs(III)-demethylating isolates as belong to Burkholderia and Streptomyces species respectively. This is the first report of a novel pathway of degradation of a methylarsenical herbicide by sequential reduction and demethylation in a microbial soil community, which we propose plays a significant role in the arsenic biogeocycle. PMID:21272184

  20. A DEMETER-like DNA demethylase governs tomato fruit ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work shows that active DNA demethylation governs ripening, an important plant developmental process. Our work defines a molecular mechanism, which has until now been missing, to explain the correlation between genomic DNA demethylation and fruit ripening. It demonstrates a direct cause-and-effe...

  1. Clinical development of demethylating agents in hematology

    PubMed Central

    Navada, Shyamala C.; Steinmann, Juliane; Lübbert, Michael; Silverman, Lewis R.

    2014-01-01

    The term epigenetics refers to the heritable changes in gene expression that are not associated with a change in the actual DNA sequence. Epigenetic dysregulation is linked to the pathogenesis of a number of malignancies and has been studied extensively in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia. DNA methylation is frequently altered in cancerous cells and likely results in transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes. Re-expression of these genes by inhibition of the DNA methyltransferases has been successful in the treatment of benign and malignant disease. In this Review, we discuss the clinical development of demethylating agents in hematology, with a focus on azacitidine and decitabine. PMID:24382388

  2. Re-expression of Selected Epigenetically Silenced Candidate Tumor Suppressor Genes in Cervical Cancer by TET2-directed Demethylation.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Christian; van der Wijst, Monique G P; Schokker, Matthijs; Blancafort, Pilar; Terpstra, Martijn M; Kok, Klaas; van der Zee, Ate G J; Schuuring, Ed; Wisman, G Bea A; Rots, Marianne G

    2016-03-01

    DNA hypermethylation is extensively explored as therapeutic target for gene expression modulation in cancer. Here, we re-activated hypermethylated candidate tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) (C13ORF18, CCNA1, TFPI2, and Maspin) by TET2-induced demethylation in cervical cancer cell lines. To redirect TET2 to hypermethylated TSGs, we engineered zinc finger proteins (ZFPs), which were first fused to the transcriptional activator VP64 to validate effective gene re-expression and confirm TSG function. ChIP-Seq not only revealed enriched binding of ZFPs to their intended sequence, but also considerable off-target binding, especially at promoter regions. Nevertheless, results obtained by targeted re-expression using ZFP-VP64 constructs were in line with cDNA overexpression; both revealed strong growth inhibition for C13ORF18 and TFPI2, but not for CCNA1 and Maspin. To explore effectivity of locus-targeted demethylation, ZFP-TET2 fusions were constructed which efficiently demethylated genes with subsequent gene re-activation. Moreover, targeting TET2 to TFPI2 and C13ORF18, but not CCNA1, significantly decreased cell growth, viability, and colony formation in cervical cancer cells compared to a catalytically inactive mutant of TET2. These data underline that effective re-activation of hypermethylated genes can be achieved through targeted DNA demethylation by TET2, which can assist in realizing sustained re-expression of genes of interest.

  3. Tumor hypoxia causes DNA hypermethylation by reducing TET activity

    PubMed Central

    Kuchnio, Anna; Ploumakis, Athanasios; Ghesquière, Bart; Van Dyck, Laurien; Boeckx, Bram; Schoonjans, Luc; Hermans, Els; Amant, Frederic; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Peng Koh, Kian; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Coleman, Mathew; Carell, Thomas; Carmeliet, Peter; Lambrechts, Diether

    2016-01-01

    Summary Hypermethylation of tumor suppressor gene (TSG) promoters confers growth advantages to cancer cells, but how these changes arise is poorly understood. Here, we report that tumor hypoxia reduces the activity of oxygen-dependent TET enzymes, which catalyze DNA de-methylation through 5-methylcytosine oxidation. This occurs independently of hypoxia-associated alterations in TET expression, proliferation, metabolism, HIF activity or reactive oxygen, but directly depends on oxygen shortage. Hypoxia-induced loss of TET activity increases hypermethylation at gene promoters in vitro. Also in patients, TSG promoters are markedly more methylated in hypoxic tumors, independently of proliferation, stromal cell infiltration and tumor characteristics. Our data suggest cellular selection of hypermethylation events, with almost half of them being ascribable to hypoxia across tumor types. Accordingly, increased hypoxia after vessel pruning in murine breast tumors increases hypermethylation, while restored tumor oxygenation by vessel normalization abrogates this effect. Tumor hypoxia thus acts as a novel regulator underlying DNA methylation. PMID:27533040

  4. A DEMETER-like DNA demethylase governs tomato fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruie; How-Kit, Alexandre; Stammitti, Linda; Teyssier, Emeline; Rolin, Dominique; Mortain-Bertrand, Anne; Halle, Stefanie; Liu, Mingchun; Kong, Junhua; Wu, Chaoqun; Degraeve-Guibault, Charlotte; Chapman, Natalie H.; Maucourt, Mickael; Hodgman, T. Charlie; Tost, Jörg; Bouzayen, Mondher; Hong, Yiguo; Seymour, Graham B.; Giovannoni, James J.; Gallusci, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In plants, genomic DNA methylation which contributes to development and stress responses can be actively removed by DEMETER-like DNA demethylases (DMLs). Indeed, in Arabidopsis DMLs are important for maternal imprinting and endosperm demethylation, but only a few studies demonstrate the developmental roles of active DNA demethylation conclusively in this plant. Here, we show a direct cause and effect relationship between active DNA demethylation mainly mediated by the tomato DML, SlDML2, and fruit ripening— an important developmental process unique to plants. RNAi SlDML2 knockdown results in ripening inhibition via hypermethylation and repression of the expression of genes encoding ripening transcription factors and rate-limiting enzymes of key biochemical processes such as carotenoid synthesis. Our data demonstrate that active DNA demethylation is central to the control of ripening in tomato. PMID:26261318

  5. TET1 promotes cisplatin-resistance via demethylating the vimentin promoter in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Han, Xi; Zhou, Yuanyuan; You, Yuanyi; Lu, Jiaojiao; Wang, Lijie; Hou, Huilian; Li, Jing; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Le; Li, Xu

    2017-04-01

    The development of chemo-resistance impairs the outcome of the first line platinum-based chemotherapies for ovarian cancer. Deregulation of DNA methylation/demethylation provides a critical mechanism for the occurrence of chemo-resistance. The ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of dioxygenases including TET1/2/3 plays an important part in DNA demethylation, but their roles in cisplatin resistance have not been elucidated. Using cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell models, we found that TET1 was significantly upregulated in cisplatin-resistant CP70 cells compared with that in cisplatin-sensitive A2780 cells. Ectopic expression of TET1 in A2780 cells promoted cisplatin resistance and decreased cytotoxicity induced by cisplatin, while inhibition of TET1 by siRNA transfection in CP70 cells attenuated cisplatin resistance and enhanced cytotoxicity of cisplatin. Increased TET1 induced re-expression of vimentin through active DNA demethylation, and cause partial epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) in A2780 cells. Contrarily, knocking down of TET1 in CP70 cells reduced vimentin expression and reversed EMT process. Immunohistochemical analysis of TET1 in human ovarian cancer tissues revealed that TET1 existed in nucleus and cytoplasm in ovarian cancer tissues. And the expression of nuclear TET1 was positively correlated with residual tumor and chemotherapeutic response. Thus, TET1 expression causes resistance to cisplatin and one of the targets of TET1 action is vimentin in ovarian cancer.

  6. Photochemical N-demethylation of alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Ripper, J A; Tiekink, E R; Scammells, P J

    2001-02-26

    Certain alkaloids were observed to undergo N-demethylation processes under photochemical conditions. Tropine, acetyltropine, tropinone, and atropine were cleanly N-demethylated upon treatment with tetraphenylporphin, oxygen, and light. Dextromethorphan also underwent a N-demethylation reaction, but reacted further to afford an imine. In contrast, 14-acyloxycodeinones underwent a photochemically induced tandem N-demethylation acyl migration.

  7. Promoter demethylation of Keap1 gene in human diabetic cataractous lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Palsamy, Periyasamy; Ayaki, Masahiko; Elanchezhian, Rajan; Shinohara, Toshimichi

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found significant Keap1 promoter demethylation in diabetic cataractous lenses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demethylation of Keap1 gene upregulated the expression of Keap1 mRNA and protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated levels of Keap1 are known to decrease the levels of Nrf2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thereby, the levels of antioxidant enzymes are suppressed by decreased Nrf2 level. -- Abstract: Age-related cataracts (ARCs) are the major cause of visual impairments worldwide, and diabetic adults tend to have an earlier onset of ARCs. Although age is the strongest risk factor for cataracts, little is known how age plays a role in the development of ARCs. It is known that oxidative stress in the lens increases with age and more so in the lenses of diabetics. One of the central adaptive responses against the oxidative stresses is the activation of the nuclear transcriptional factor, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which then activates more than 20 different antioxidative enzymes. Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1) targets and binds to Nrf2 for proteosomal degradation. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia will lead to a dysfunction of the Nrf2-dependent antioxidative protection in the lens of diabetics. We studied the methylation status of the CpG islands in 15 clear and 21 diabetic cataractous lenses. Our results showed significant levels of demethylated DNA in the Keap1 promoter in the cataractous lenses from diabetic patients. In contrast, highly methylated DNA was found in the clear lens and tumorized human lens epithelial cell (HLEC) lines (SRA01/04). HLECs treated with a demethylation agent, 5-aza-2 Prime deoxycytidine (5-Aza), had a 10-fold higher levels of Keap1 mRNA, 3-fold increased levels of Keap1 protein, produced higher levels of ROS, and increased cell death. Our results indicated that demethylation of the CpG islands in the Keap1 promoter will activate the expression of Keap1 protein, which

  8. Pluripotency Transcription Factor Oct4 Mediates Stepwise Nucleosome Demethylation and Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Shakya, Arvind; Callister, Catherine; Goren, Alon; Yosef, Nir; Garg, Neha; Khoddami, Vahid; Nix, David; Regev, Aviv

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms whereby the crucial pluripotency transcription factor Oct4 regulates target gene expression are incompletely understood. Using an assay system based on partially differentiated embryonic stem cells, we show that Oct4 opposes the accumulation of local H3K9me2 and subsequent Dnmt3a-mediated DNA methylation. Upon binding DNA, Oct4 recruits the histone lysine demethylase Jmjd1c. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) time course experiments identify a stepwise Oct4 mechanism involving Jmjd1c recruitment and H3K9me2 demethylation, transient FACT (facilitates chromatin transactions) complex recruitment, and nucleosome depletion. Genome-wide and targeted ChIP confirms binding of newly synthesized Oct4, together with Jmjd1c and FACT, to the Pou5f1 enhancer and a small number of other Oct4 targets, including the Nanog promoter. Histone demethylation is required for both FACT recruitment and H3 depletion. Jmjd1c is required to induce endogenous Oct4 expression and fully reprogram fibroblasts to pluripotency, indicating that the assay system identifies functional Oct4 cofactors. These findings indicate that Oct4 sequentially recruits activities that catalyze histone demethylation and depletion. PMID:25582194

  9. Biochemistry and Occurrence of O-Demethylation in Plant Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Hagel, Jillian M.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Demethylases play a pivitol role in numerous biological processes from covalent histone modification and DNA repair to specialized metabolism in plants and microorganisms. Enzymes that catalyze O- and N-demethylation include 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases, cytochromes P450, Rieske-domain proteins and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent oxidases. Proposed mechanisms for demethylation by 2OG/Fe(II)-dependent enzymes involve hydroxylation at the O- or N-linked methyl group followed by formaldehyde elimination. Members of this enzyme family catalyze a wide variety of reactions in diverse plant metabolic pathways. Recently, we showed that 2OG/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases catalyze the unique O-demethylation steps of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy, which provides a rational basis for the widespread occurrence of demethylases in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism. PMID:21423357

  10. Non-small-cell lung cancer-induced immunosuppression by increased human regulatory T cells via Foxp3 promoter demethylation.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xing; Zhang, Shuping; Xu, Jian; Liu, Genyan; Zhang, Lixia; Xie, Erfu; Gao, Li; Li, Daqian; Sun, Ruihong; Wang, Fang; Pan, Shiyang

    2016-05-01

    Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have immune defects that are poorly understood. Forkhead box protein P3 (Foxp3) is crucial for immunosuppression by CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). It is not well known how NSCLC induces Foxp3 expression and causes immunosuppression in tumor-bearing patients. Our study found a higher percentage of CD4(+) Tregs in the peripheral blood of NSCLC compared with healthy donors. NSCLC patients showed demethylation of eight CpG sites within the Foxp3 promoter with methylation ratios negatively correlated with CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T levels. Foxp3 expression in CD4(+) Tregs was directly regulated by Foxp3 promoter demethylation and was involved in immunosuppression by NSCLC. To verify the effect of tumor cells on the phenotype and function of CD4(+) Tregs, we established a coculture system using NSCLC cell line and healthy CD4(+) T cells and showed that SPC-A1 induced IL-10 and TGF-β1 secretion by affecting the function of CD4(+) Tregs. The activity of DNA methyltransferases from CD4(+) T was decreased during this process. Furthermore, eight CpG sites within the Foxp3 promoter also appeared to have undergone demethylation. Foxp3 is highly expressed in CD4(+) T cells, and this may be caused by gene promoter demethylation. These induced Tregs are highly immunosuppressive and dramatically inhibit the proliferative activity of naïve CD4(+) T cells. Our study provides one possible mechanism describing Foxp3 promoter demethylation changes by which NSCLC down-regulates immune responses and contributes to tumor progression. Foxp3 represents an important target for NSCLC anti-tumor immunotherapy.

  11. All-trans retinoic acid enhances the effect of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine on p16INK4a demethylation, and the two drugs synergistically activate retinoic acid receptor β gene expression in the human erythroleukemia K562 cell line.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lili; Dong, Weimin; Wang, Rong; Wei, Jiang; Qiu, Guoqiang; Cen, Jiannong; Chen, Zixing; Zheng, Xiao; Hu, Shaoyan; Xie, Xiaobao; Cao, Xiangshan; Gu, Weiying

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the antineoplastic activities of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (also known as decitabine; DAC) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), administered alone or in combination, in K562 cells in vitro, as well as the effects on the expression of the tumor suppressor genes, p16INK4a (p16) and retinoic acid receptor β (RAR-β). Cell growth inhibition, differentiation and apoptosis in K562 cells treated with DAC and/or ATRA were detected. The methylation of the p16 and RAR-β genes in the K562 cells was detected using the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Quantitative PCR was used for the detection of the mRNA expression of the p16 and RAR-β genes, and western blot analysis was used to detect protein expression. DAC and ATRA, alone or in combination, had no effect on the growth inhibition, differentiation and apoptosis of the K562 cells. DAC alone induced the demethylation of the p16 gene, and combination of DAC and ATRA demonstrated more evident demethylation of the p16 gene, however, ATRA alone had no effect on methylation. The RAR-β promoter region was not methylated in the K562 cells. DAC in combination with ATRA appeared to produce a greater activation of the RAR-β gene, which led to the upregulation of the RAR-β expression level. ATRA enhanced the effect of DAC on p16 demethylation, and the combination of the two drugs was found to activate RAR-β expression, which indicated that DAC used in combination with ATRA has clinical potential in the treatment of human erythroleukemia.

  12. DNMT3L interacts with transcription factors to target DNMT3L/DNMT3B to specific DNA sequences: role of the DNMT3L/DNMT3B/p65-NFκB complex in the (de-)methylation of TRAF1.

    PubMed

    Pacaud, Romain; Sery, Quentin; Oliver, Lisa; Vallette, François M; Tost, Jörg; Cartron, Pierre-François

    2014-09-01

    DNMT3L i.e. DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3-like protein, is devoid of cytosine methyltransferase activity, despite clear homology to DNMT3A and DNMT3B, due to the mutation of key catalytic residues. However, DNMT3L participates in de novo methylation reactions through its direct interaction with DNMT3A and DNMT3B. In the present study, we investigated if DNMT3L interacts also directly with transcription factors (TFs). Using TF arrays, we identified 73 TFs that interacted with DNMT3L, 13 of which (ASH2L, ATF1, ATF3, BLZF1, CDX2, CERM, E2F3, E2F4, GCNF, GTF2I, GTF3C5, NFkB-p65 and RXRα) interacted only with DNMT3L, but not with DNMT3A/B. By focusing on the interaction with NFkB-p65, we demonstrate that DNMT3L forms a complex with DNMT3B and NFkB-p65 and that this complex is required for the control of DNA methylation at the TRAF1 promoter in the T98G glioma cell line. In addition, our experiments describe the DNA methylation at TRAF1 as being dynamic with a demethylation phase involving TET3. Thus, our data suggests that DNMT3L can address DNMT3A/B to specific sites by directly interacting with TFs that do not directly interact with DNMT3A/B. In summary, our data provide a new avenue for the direction of site-specific de novo DNA methylation catalyzed by DNMT3A/B.

  13. Anaerobic O-demethylation of phenylmethylethers

    SciTech Connect

    Frazer, A.C.; Young, L.Y.

    1990-01-01

    Anaerobic O-demethylation (AOD) of phenylmethylethers is a process of both basic and applied significance. The aryl-O-methyl ethers are abundant in natural products, particularly as components of lignin. They are present as methoxylated lignin monomers in anaerobic environments and can be completely degraded there by mixed microbial populations. AOD is an essential early step in this process, and it is also a key reaction in the utilization of the O-methyl substituent as a C-one substrate by acetogens. An understanding of the AOD reaction mechanism might suggest new ways in which chemicals could be derived from lignocellulosic materials. The biochemical mechanism for the anaerobic cleavage of the aryl-O-methyl ether bond is an intriguing, but relatively unexplored process. In contrast to aerobic O-demethylating enzymes, AOD appears to involve methyl group transfer. Thus, novel biochemical information on an important biotransformation reaction will be gained from the research proposed. Recently, we have shown that AOD activity is inducible and have developed an assay for detecting AOD activity in cell-free extracts of Acetobacterium woodii. AOD activity is stimulated in vitro by the addition of ATP (1mM) and pyruvate (30 mM), the K{sub M} for vanillate being 0.4 mM. In collaboration with protein purification experts, we proposed to purify the AOD enzyme and characterize the protein(s) and the enzymatic reaction involved. 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Emodin enhances the demethylation by 5-Aza-CdR of pancreatic cancer cell tumor-suppressor genes P16, RASSF1A and ppENK.

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng-Ping; Zhou, Hong-Kun; Bu, He-Qi; Chen, Zi-Qiang; Zhang, Hao; Xu, Lu-Ping; Tang, Jian; Yu, Qing-Jiang; Chu, Yong-Quan; Pan, Jie; Fei, Yong; Lin, Sheng-Zhang; Liu, Dian-Lei; Chen, Liang

    2016-04-01

    5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) is currently acknowledged as a demethylation drug, and causes a certain degree of demethylation in a variety of cancer cells, including pancreatic cancer cells. Emodin, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is an effective monomer extracted from rhubarb and has been reported to exhibit antitumor activity in different manners in pancreatic cancer. In the present study, we examined whether emodin caused demethylation and increased the demethylation of three tumor-suppressor genes P16, RASSF1A and ppENK with a high degree of methylation in pancreatic cancer when combined with 5-Aza-CdR. Our research showed that emodin inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Dot-blot results showed that emodin combined with 5-Aza-CdR significantly suppressed the expression of genome 5mC in PANC-1 cells. In order to verify the effect of methylation, methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfite genomic sequencing PCR (BSP) combined with TA were selected for the cloning and sequencing. Results of MSP and BSP confirmed that emodin caused faint demethylation, and 5-Aza-CdR had a certain degree of demethylation. When emodin was combined with 5-Aza-CdR, the demethylation was more significant. At the same time, fluorescent quantitative PCR and western blot analysis results confirmed that when emodin was combined with 5-Aza-CdR, the expression levels of P16, RASSF1A and ppENK were increased more significantly compared to either treatment alone. In contrast, the expression levels of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and DNMT3a were more significantly reduced with the combination treatment than the control or either agent alone, further proving that emodin in combination with 5-Aza-CdR enhanced the demethylation effect of 5-Aza-CdR by reducing the expression of methyltransferases. In conclusion, the present study confirmed that emodin in combination with 5-Aza-CdR enhanced the demethylation by 5-Aza-CdR of tumor

  15. Emodin enhances the demethylation by 5-Aza-CdR of pancreatic cancer cell tumor-suppressor genes P16, RASSF1A and ppENK

    PubMed Central

    PAN, FENG-PING; ZHOU, HONG-KUN; BU, HE-QI; CHEN, ZI-QIANG; ZHANG, HAO; XU, LU-PING; TANG, JIAN; YU, QING-JIANG; CHU, YONG-QUAN; PAN, JIE; FEI, YONG; LIN, SHENG-ZHANG; LIU, DIAN-LEI; CHEN, LIANG

    2016-01-01

    5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) is currently acknowledged as a demethylation drug, and causes a certain degree of demethylation in a variety of cancer cells, including pancreatic cancer cells. Emodin, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is an effective monomer extracted from rhubarb and has been reported to exhibit antitumor activity in different manners in pancreatic cancer. In the present study, we examined whether emodin caused demethylation and increased the demethylation of three tumor-suppressor genes P16, RASSF1A and ppENK with a high degree of methylation in pancreatic cancer when combined with 5-Aza-CdR. Our research showed that emodin inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Dot-blot results showed that emodin combined with 5-Aza-CdR significantly suppressed the expression of genome 5mC in PANC-1 cells. In order to verify the effect of methylation, methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfite genomic sequencing PCR (BSP) combined with TA were selected for the cloning and sequencing. Results of MSP and BSP confirmed that emodin caused faint demethylation, and 5-Aza-CdR had a certain degree of demethylation. When emodin was combined with 5-Aza-CdR, the demethylation was more significant. At the same time, fluorescent quantitative PCR and western blot analysis results confirmed that when emodin was combined with 5-Aza-CdR, the expression levels of P16, RASSF1A and ppENK were increased more significantly compared to either treatment alone. In contrast, the expression levels of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and DNMT3a were more significantly reduced with the combination treatment than the control or either agent alone, further proving that emodin in combination with 5-Aza-CdR enhanced the demethylation effect of 5-Aza-CdR by reducing the expression of meth-yltransferases. In conclusion, the present study confirmed that emodin in combination with 5-Aza-CdR enhanced the demethylation by 5-Aza-CdR of

  16. DNA endonuclease activities on psoralen plus ultraviolet light treated DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, M.W.; Clark, M.

    1986-03-01

    Activities of nuclear DNA endonucleases (Endos) from normal human lymphoblastoid cells on DNA treated with the DNA interstrand cross-linking agents 4,5'8-trimethyl psoralen (TMP) or 8-methoxypsoralen (MOP) plus long-wavelength (320-400 nm) ultraviolet light (UVA) were examined. Chromatin-associated DNA Endos were isolated from both cell lines and subjected to isoelectric focusing (IF). Each IF fraction was assayed for DNA Endo activity. Peaks of activity were pooled and assayed for activity on undamaged PM2 bacteriophage DNA and on PM2 DNA that had been treated with 15 ..mu..g/ml TMP or MOP in the dark and then exposed to UVA light. Unbound psoralen was removed by dialysis and a second dose of UVA light was given in order to increase the number of DNA cross-links. Two Endo activities were found which were active on TMP- and MOP-DNA: a major one, pI 4.6, which is also active on intercalated DNA, and a second, lesser one, pI 7.6, which is active on UVC (254 nm) light irradiated DNA. These results indicate that there are two different DNA Endos which act on both TMP- and MOP-treated DNA and that the major activity recognizes the intercalation of, and/or the cross-link produced by interaction of, psoralen with DNA.

  17. In vitro identification of the cytochrome P450 isozymes involved in the N-demethylation of the active opioid metabolite nortilidine to bisnortilidine.

    PubMed

    Wustrow, Isabel; Riedel, Klaus-Dieter; Mikus, Gerd; Weiss, Johanna

    2012-06-01

    Tilidine exhibits the highest consumption of opioids in Germany. The prodrug is hepatically metabolised in a sequential N-demethylation reaction. Its primary metabolite nortilidine is a selective μ-opioid receptor agonist which can penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Cytochrome P450 isozymes (CYP) 3A4 and CYP2C19 were previously identified as isozymes mediating the formation of nortilidine. This study was set up to identify the enzymes and kinetics of the subsequent N-demethylation to bisnortilidine, thus being able to understand clinical interactions. Human liver microsomes and recombinant CYPs were used to investigate the metabolism of nortilidine to bisnortilidine. Nortilidine and bisnortilidine were quantified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Inhibitor screening kits were used to quantify the inhibition of CYP3A4, CYP2C19, CYP2B6 and CYP2D6 by bisnortilidine. Nortilidine metabolism to bisnortilidine followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics with K (m) = 141.6 ± 15 μM and V (max) = 46.2 ± 3 nmol/mg/h. Inhibitors of CYP3A4, CYP2C19 and CYP2B6 inhibited this reaction. Assays with recombinant CYPs verified that the N-demethylation is catalysed by CYP3A4, CYP2C19 and CYP2B6. Our results also demonstrated that the metabolism from tilidine to nortilidine is not only mediated by CYP3A4 and CYP2C19, but also by CYP2B6. Moreover, bisnortilidine is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6, a strong inhibitor of CYP2D6, but not an inhibitor of CYP2C19. Our study demonstrated that nortilidine is metabolised via the same CYP isozymes as the prodrug tilidine, whereas the formation of bisnortilidine appears to be the rate-limiting step in the metabolism of tilidine. Pharmacokinetic interactions can be expected with inhibitors or inducers of CYP3A4, CYP2C19 or CYP2B6.

  18. Simultaneous quantitative determination of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine genomic incorporation and DNA demethylation by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry as exposure-response measures of nucleoside analog DNA methyltransferase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Anders, Nicole M; Liu, Jianyong; Wanjiku, Teresia; Giovinazzo, Hugh; Zhou, Jianya; Vaghasia, Ajay; Nelson, William G; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Rudek, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    The epigenetic and anti-cancer activities of the nucleoside analog DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, DAC), azacitidine, and guadecitabine are thought to require cellular uptake, metabolism to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine triphosphate, and incorporation into DNA. This genomic incorporation can then lead to trapping and degradation of DNMT enzymes, and ultimately, passive loss of DNA methylation. To facilitate measurement of critical exposure-response relationships of nucleoside analog DNMT inhibitors, a sensitive and reliable method was developed to simultaneously quantitate 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine genomic incorporation and genomic 5-methylcytosine content using LC-MS/MS. Genomic DNA was extracted and digested into single nucleosides. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a Thermo Hyperpcarb porous graphite column (100mm×2.1mm, 5μm) and isocratic elution with a 10mM ammonium acetate:acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid (70:30, v/v) mobile phase over a 5min total analytical run time. An AB Sciex 5500 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in positive electrospray ionization mode was used for the detection of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, 2'-deoxycytidine, and 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine. The assay range was 2-400ng/mL for 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, 50-10,000ng/mL for 2'-deoxycytidine, and was 5-1000ng/mL for 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine. The assay proved to be accurate (93.0-102.2%) and precise (CV≤6.3%) across all analytes. All analytes exhibited long-term frozen digest matrix stability at -70°C for at least 117 days. The method was applied for the measurement of genomic 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine content following exposure of in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal models to decitabine.

  19. Green tea polyphenol EGCG reverse cisplatin resistance of A549/DDP cell line through candidate genes demethylation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youwei; Wang, Xiang; Han, Liang; Zhou, Yizhou; Sun, Sanyuan

    2015-02-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, has been extensively studied as a potential demethylating agent. Our hypothesis is that EGCG could resensitize non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to cisplatin (DDP) through candidate genes demethylation. The A549/DDP cell line was established by continuous exposure of A549 cells to increasing concentrations of DDP. MTT, colony formation assay, flow cytometric analysis, Hoechst staining, real time-PCR, quantitative methylation-specific PCR and in vivo experiments were performed in this study. EGCG+DDP treatment significantly caused proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest in G1 phase, increase of apoptosis in A549/DDP cells, along with inhibition of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, reversal of hypermethylated status and downregulated expression of GAS1, TIMP4, ICAM1 and WISP2 gene in A549/DDP cells. Furthermore, pre-treatment with EGCG followed by DDP caused significant tumor inhibition in vivo. Methylation levels of GAS1, TIMP4, ICAM1 and WISP2 were decreased and their expression levels were increased in EGCG-treatment groups, but only combinatorial treatment group caused growth inhibition. In conclusion, we identified EGCG pretreatment resensitized cells to DDP, along with the demethylation and restoration of expression of candidate genes.

  20. Active DNA unwinding dynamics during processive DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Morin, José A; Cao, Francisco J; Lázaro, José M; Arias-Gonzalez, J Ricardo; Valpuesta, José M; Carrascosa, José L; Salas, Margarita; Ibarra, Borja

    2012-05-22

    Duplication of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) requires a fine-tuned coordination between the DNA replication and unwinding reactions. Using optical tweezers, we probed the coupling dynamics between these two activities when they are simultaneously carried out by individual Phi29 DNA polymerase molecules replicating a dsDNA hairpin. We used the wild-type and an unwinding deficient polymerase variant and found that mechanical tension applied on the DNA and the DNA sequence modulate in different ways the replication, unwinding rates, and pause kinetics of each polymerase. However, incorporation of pause kinetics in a model to quantify the unwinding reaction reveals that both polymerases destabilize the fork with the same active mechanism and offers insights into the topological strategies that could be used by the Phi29 DNA polymerase and other DNA replication systems to couple unwinding and replication reactions.

  1. Control of DEMETER DNA demethylase gene transcription in male and female gamete companion cells in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Sup; Frost, Jennifer M.; Park, Kyunghyuk; Ohr, Hyonhwa; Park, Guen Tae; Kim, Seohyun; Eom, Hyunjoo; Lee, Ilha; Brooks, Janie S.; Fischer, Robert L.; Choi, Yeonhee

    2017-01-01

    The DEMETER (DME) DNA glycosylase initiates active DNA demethylation via the base-excision repair pathway and is vital for reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana. DME-mediated DNA demethylation is preferentially targeted to small, AT-rich, and nucleosome-depleted euchromatic transposable elements, influencing expression of adjacent genes and leading to imprinting in the endosperm. In the female gametophyte, DME expression and subsequent genome-wide DNA demethylation are confined to the companion cell of the egg, the central cell. Here, we show that, in the male gametophyte, DME expression is limited to the companion cell of sperm, the vegetative cell, and to a narrow window of time: immediately after separation of the companion cell lineage from the germline. We define transcriptional regulatory elements of DME using reporter genes, showing that a small region, which surprisingly lies within the DME gene, controls its expression in male and female companion cells. DME expression from this minimal promoter is sufficient to rescue seed abortion and the aberrant DNA methylome associated with the null dme-2 mutation. Within this minimal promoter, we found short, conserved enhancer sequences necessary for the transcriptional activities of DME and combined predicted binding motifs with published transcription factor binding coordinates to produce a list of candidate upstream pathway members in the genetic circuitry controlling DNA demethylation in gamete companion cells. These data show how DNA demethylation is regulated to facilitate endosperm gene imprinting and potential transgenerational epigenetic regulation, without subjecting the germline to potentially deleterious transposable element demethylation. PMID:28130550

  2. Control of DEMETER DNA demethylase gene transcription in male and female gamete companion cells in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Sup; Frost, Jennifer M; Park, Kyunghyuk; Ohr, Hyonhwa; Park, Guen Tae; Kim, Seohyun; Eom, Hyunjoo; Lee, Ilha; Brooks, Janie S; Fischer, Robert L; Choi, Yeonhee

    2017-02-21

    The DEMETER (DME) DNA glycosylase initiates active DNA demethylation via the base-excision repair pathway and is vital for reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana DME-mediated DNA demethylation is preferentially targeted to small, AT-rich, and nucleosome-depleted euchromatic transposable elements, influencing expression of adjacent genes and leading to imprinting in the endosperm. In the female gametophyte, DME expression and subsequent genome-wide DNA demethylation are confined to the companion cell of the egg, the central cell. Here, we show that, in the male gametophyte, DME expression is limited to the companion cell of sperm, the vegetative cell, and to a narrow window of time: immediately after separation of the companion cell lineage from the germline. We define transcriptional regulatory elements of DME using reporter genes, showing that a small region, which surprisingly lies within the DME gene, controls its expression in male and female companion cells. DME expression from this minimal promoter is sufficient to rescue seed abortion and the aberrant DNA methylome associated with the null dme-2 mutation. Within this minimal promoter, we found short, conserved enhancer sequences necessary for the transcriptional activities of DME and combined predicted binding motifs with published transcription factor binding coordinates to produce a list of candidate upstream pathway members in the genetic circuitry controlling DNA demethylation in gamete companion cells. These data show how DNA demethylation is regulated to facilitate endosperm gene imprinting and potential transgenerational epigenetic regulation, without subjecting the germline to potentially deleterious transposable element demethylation.

  3. miR-29b induces SOCS-1 expression by promoter demethylation and negatively regulates migration of multiple myeloma and endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Amodio, Nicola; Bellizzi, Dina; Leotta, Marzia; Raimondi, Lavinia; Biamonte, Lavinia; D'Aquila, Patrizia; Di Martino, Maria Teresa; Calimeri, Teresa; Rossi, Marco; Lionetti, Marta; Leone, Emanuela; Passarino, Giuseppe; Neri, Antonino; Giordano, Antonio; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Tassone, Pierfrancesco

    2013-12-01

    Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes frequently occurs and may account for their inactivation in cancer cells. We previously demonstrated that miR-29b is a tumor suppressor microRNA (miRNA) that targets de novo DNA methyltransferases and reduces the global DNA methylation of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Here, we provide evidence that epigenetic activity of miR-29b leads to promoter demethylation of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1), a hypermethylated tumor suppressor gene. Enforced expression of synthetic miR-29b mimics in MM cell lines resulted in SOCS-1 gene promoter demethylation, as assessed by Sequenom MassARRAY EpiTYPER analysis, and SOCS-1 protein upregulation. miR-29b-induced SOCS-1 demethylation was associated with reduced STAT3 phosphorylation and impaired NFκB activity. Downregulation of VEGF-A and IL-8 mRNAs could be detected in MM cells transfected with miR-29b mimics as well as in endothelial (HUVEC) or stromal (HS-5) cells treated with conditioned medium from miR-29b-transfected MM cells. Notably, enforced expression of miR-29b mimics increased adhesion of MM cells to HS-5 and reduced migration of both MM and HUVEC cells. These findings suggest that miR-29b is a negative regulator of either MM or endothelial cell migration. Finally, the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, which induces the expression of miR-29b, decreased global DNA methylation by a miR-29b-dependent mechanism and induced SOCS-1 promoter demethylation and protein upregulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that miR-29b is endowed with epigenetic activity and mediates previously unknown functions of bortezomib in MM cells.

  4. miR-29b induces SOCS-1 expression by promoter demethylation and negatively regulates migration of multiple myeloma and endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Amodio, Nicola; Bellizzi, Dina; Leotta, Marzia; Raimondi, Lavinia; Biamonte, Lavinia; D’Aquila, Patrizia; Di Martino, Maria Teresa; Calimeri, Teresa; Rossi, Marco; Lionetti, Marta; Leone, Emanuela; Passarino, Giuseppe; Neri, Antonino; Giordano, Antonio; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Tassone, Pierfrancesco

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes frequently occurs and may account for their inactivation in cancer cells. We previously demonstrated that miR-29b is a tumor suppressor microRNA (miRNA) that targets de novo DNA methyltransferases and reduces the global DNA methylation of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Here, we provide evidence that epigenetic activity of miR-29b leads to promoter demethylation of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1), a hypermethylated tumor suppressor gene. Enforced expression of synthetic miR-29b mimics in MM cell lines resulted in SOCS-1 gene promoter demethylation, as assessed by Sequenom MassARRAY EpiTYPER analysis, and SOCS-1 protein upregulation. miR-29b-induced SOCS-1 demethylation was associated with reduced STAT3 phosphorylation and impaired NFκB activity. Downregulation of VEGF-A and IL-8 mRNAs could be detected in MM cells transfected with miR-29b mimics as well as in endothelial (HUVEC) or stromal (HS-5) cells treated with conditioned medium from miR-29b-transfected MM cells. Notably, enforced expression of miR-29b mimics increased adhesion of MM cells to HS-5 and reduced migration of both MM and HUVEC cells. These findings suggest that miR-29b is a negative regulator of either MM or endothelial cell migration. Finally, the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, which induces the expression of miR-29b, decreased global DNA methylation by a miR-29b-dependent mechanism and induced SOCS-1 promoter demethylation and protein upregulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that miR-29b is endowed with epigenetic activity and mediates previously unknown functions of bortezomib in MM cells. PMID:24091729

  5. Methylmercury decomposition in sediments and bacterial cultures: Involvement of methanogens and sulfate reducers in oxidative demethylation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Culbertson, C.W.; Winfrey, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Demethylation of monomethylmercury in freshwater and estuarine sediments and in bacterial cultures was investigated with 14CH3HgI. Under anaerobiosis, results with inhibitors indicated partial involvement of both sulfate reducers and methanogens, the former dominating estuarine sediments, while both were active in freshwaters. Aerobes were the most significant demethylators in estuarine sediments, but were unimportant in freshwater sediments. Products of anaerobic demethylation were mainly 14CO2 as well as lesser amounts of 14CH4. Acetogenic activity resulted in fixation of some 14CO2 produced from 14CH3HgI into acetate. Aerobic demethylation in estuarine sediments produced only 14CH4, while aerobic demethylation in freshwater sediments produced small amounts of both 14CH4 and 14CO2. Two species of Desulfovibrio produced only traces of 14CH4 from 14CH3HgI, while a culture of a methylotrophic methanogen formed traces of 14CO2 and 14CH4 when grown on trimethylamine in the presence of the 14CH3HgI. These results indicate that both aerobes and anaerobes demethylate mercury in sediments, but that either group may dominate in a particular sediment type. Aerobic demethylation in the estuarine sediments appeared to proceed by the previously characterized organomercurial-lyase pathway, because methane was the sole product. However, aerobic demethylation in freshwater sediments as well as anaerobic demethylation in all sediments studied produced primarily carbon dioxide. This indicates the presence of an oxidative pathway, possibly one in which methylmercury serves as an analog of one-carbon substrates.

  6. Inhibition of DNA Methylation Suppresses Intestinal Tumor Organoids by Inducing an Anti-Viral Response.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshimasa; Nakaoka, Toshiaki; Sakai, Kasumi; Muramatsu, Toshihide; Toshimitsu, Kohta; Kimura, Masaki; Kanai, Takanori; Sato, Toshiro; Saito, Hidetsugu

    2016-05-04

    Recent studies have proposed that the major anti-tumor effect of DNA methylation inhibitors is induction of interferon-responsive genes via dsRNAs-containing endogenous retroviruses. Recently, a 3D culture system for stem cells known as organoid culture has been developed. Lgr5-positive stem cells form organoids that closely recapitulate the properties of original tissues. To investigate the effect of DNA demethylation on tumor organoids, we have established organoids from intestinal tumors of Apc(Min/+) (Min) mice and subjected them to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) treatment and Dnmt1 knockdown. DNA demethylation induced by 5-Aza-CdR treatment and Dnmt1 knockdown significantly reduced the cell proliferation of the tumor organoids. Microarray analyses of the tumor organoids after 5-Aza-CdR treatment and Dnmt1 knockdown revealed that interferon-responsive genes were activated by DNA demethylation. Gene ontology and pathway analyses clearly demonstrated that these genes activated by DNA demethylation are involved in the anti-viral response. These findings indicate that DNA demethylation suppresses the proliferation of intestinal tumor organoids by inducing an anti-viral response including activation of interferon-responsive genes. Treatment with DNA methylation inhibitors to activate a growth-inhibiting immune response may be an effective therapeutic approach for colon cancers.

  7. AlkB homolog 3-mediated tRNA demethylation promotes protein synthesis in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Yuko; Ooshio, Ikumi; Fusamae, Yasuyuki; Kitae, Kaori; Kawaguchi, Megumi; Jingushi, Kentaro; Hase, Hiroaki; Harada, Kazuo; Hirata, Kazumasa; Tsujikawa, Kazutake

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian AlkB homolog (ALKBH) family of proteins possess a 2-oxoglutarate- and Fe(II)-dependent oxygenase domain. A similar domain in the Escherichia coli AlkB protein catalyzes the oxidative demethylation of 1-methyladenine (1-meA) and 3-methylcytosine (3-meC) in both DNA and RNA. AlkB homolog 3 (ALKBH3) was also shown to demethylate 1-meA and 3-meC (induced in single-stranded DNA and RNA by a methylating agent) to reverse the methylation damage and retain the integrity of the DNA/RNA. We previously reported the high expression of ALKBH3 in clinical tumor specimens and its involvement in tumor progression. In this study, we found that ALKBH3 effectively demethylated 1-meA and 3-meC within endogenously methylated RNA. Moreover, using highly purified recombinant ALKBH3, we identified N6-methyladenine (N6-meA) in mammalian transfer RNA (tRNA) as a novel ALKBH3 substrate. An in vitro translation assay showed that ALKBH3-demethylated tRNA significantly enhanced protein translation efficiency. In addition, ALKBH3 knockdown in human cancer cells impaired cellular proliferation and suppressed the nascent protein synthesis that is usually accompanied by accumulation of the methylated RNAs. Thus, our data highlight a novel role for ALKBH3 in tumor progression via RNA demethylation and subsequent protein synthesis promotion. PMID:28205560

  8. Oxidative demethylation of 2-picolines on vanadium oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Suvorov, B.V.; Glubokovskikh, L.K.; Demin, V.V.; Kan, I.I.

    1988-07-10

    One of the known methods for the preparation of pyridine is based on the dealkylation of alkylpyridines in the presence of vanadium-containing catalysts, molecular oxygen and steam. By using the oxidative demethylation of 2-picoline in the presence of steam on a fused vanadium(V) oxide, pyridine can be obtained in a yield of up to 88% of theory. To lower the consumption of vanadium(V) oxide and increase the thermostability of the catalyst, they studied the possible use of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ catalysts on various carriers (diatomite, silica gel, porcelain balls), including the industrially produced brand SVD and SVS catalysts. The SVS brand catalyst has a satisfactory activity and selectivity in the oxidation demethylation of 2-picoline into pyridine. Under optimal conditions, pyridine is formed on this catalyst in a yield of 88% of the theoretical.

  9. DNA Methyltransferase Activity Assays: Advances and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Wan Jun; Wee, Cayden Pang Pee; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases (MTases), a family of enzymes that catalyse the methylation of DNA, have a profound effect on gene regulation. A large body of evidence has indicated that DNA MTase is potentially a predictive biomarker closely associated with genetic disorders and genetic diseases like cancer. Given the attention bestowed onto DNA MTases in molecular biology and medicine, highly sensitive detection of DNA MTase activity is essential in determining gene regulation, epigenetic modification, clinical diagnosis and therapeutics. Conventional techniques such as isotope labelling are effective, but they often require laborious sample preparation, isotope labelling, sophisticated equipment and large amounts of DNA, rendering them unsuitable for uses at point-of-care. Simple, portable, highly sensitive and low-cost assays are urgently needed for DNA MTase activity screening. In most recent technological advances, many alternative DNA MTase activity assays such as fluorescent, electrochemical, colorimetric and chemiluminescent assays have been proposed. In addition, many of them are coupled with nanomaterials and/or enzymes to significantly enhance their sensitivity. Herein we review the progress in the development of DNA MTase activity assays with an emphasis on assay mechanism and performance with some discussion on challenges and perspectives. It is hoped that this article will provide a broad coverage of DNA MTase activity assays and their latest developments and open new perspectives toward the development of DNA MTase activity assays with much improved performance for uses in molecular biology and clinical practice. PMID:26909112

  10. The Ciona intestinalis cleavage clock is independent of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Miho M; Mori, Tomoko; Satoh, Noriyuki

    2016-10-01

    The initiation of embryonic gene expression in ascidian embryos appears to be tightly regulated by the number of DNA replication cycles. DNA methylation is thought to contribute to the clock mechanism that counts the rounds of DNA replication. We used mass spectrometry and whole genome bisulfite sequencing to characterize DNA methylation changes that occur in early developmental stages of the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis. We found that global DNA methylation in early Ciona development was static, and a base-wise comparison between the genomes of consecutive developmental stages found no DNA demethylation that was related to zygotic gene activation. Additionally, 5hmC was hardly detected by mass spectrometry in the developmental samples, suggesting a lack of demethylation mediated by ten eleven translocation (TET) methylcytosine dioxygenase in C. intestinalis. We conclude that DNA methylation is not involved in regulating DNA replication-dependent transcriptional activation.

  11. Microarrays Made Simple: "DNA Chips" Paper Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Betsy

    2006-01-01

    DNA microarray technology is revolutionizing biological science. DNA microarrays (also called DNA chips) allow simultaneous screening of many genes for changes in expression between different cells. Now researchers can obtain information about genes in days or weeks that used to take months or years. The paper activity described in this article…

  12. The DNA methylation signature of human TCRαβ+CD4-CD8- double negative T cells reveals CG demethylation and a unique epigenetic architecture permissive to a broad stimulatory immune response.

    PubMed

    Renauer, Paul A; Coit, Patrick; Sawalha, Amr H

    2015-01-01

    T cell receptor (TCR) αβ+CD4-CD8- double negative T cells represent a rare T cell subset implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. We investigated the DNA methylation signature of double negative T cells to gain insight into the epigenetic architecture of peripheral blood primary human double negative T cells compared to autologous CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We identified 2984 CG sites across the genome with unique loss of DNA methylation in double negative T cells, and showed significant reduction in mRNA expression of DNA methyltransferases DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B. DNA methylation was increased in CD8A/CD8B and CD4 consistent with epigenetic repression of both the CD8 and CD4 genetic loci in double negative T cells. We show a consistent increase in non-CG methylation in double negative T cells, a finding suggestive of pluripotency. Network analyses indicate a strong relationship between double negative T cells and functions related to cell-cell interaction, cell adhesion, and cell activation pathways. Our data also suggest a robust pro-inflammatory epigenetic signature in double negative T cells, consistent with a transcriptional permissiveness in key inflammatory cytokines including IFNγ, IL-17F, IL-12B, IL-5, IL-18, TNFSF11 (RANKL), and TNFSF13B (BLYS or BAFF). These findings highlight an epigenetic basis for a role of double negative T cells in autoimmunity.

  13. The DNA methylation signature of human TCRαβ+CD4−CD8− double negative T cells reveals CG demethylation and a unique epigenetic architecture permissive to a broad stimulatory immune response

    PubMed Central

    Renauer, Paul A.; Coit, Patrick; Sawalha, Amr H.

    2014-01-01

    T cell receptor (TCR) αβ+CD4−CD8− double negative T cells represent a rare T cell subset implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. We investigated the DNA methylation signature of double negative T cells to gain insight into the epigenetic architecture of peripheral blood primary human double negative T cells compared to autologous CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We identified 2984 CG sites across the genome with unique loss of DNA methylation in double negative T cells, and showed significant reduction in mRNA expression of DNA methyltransferases DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B. DNA methylation was increased in CD8A/CD8B and CD4 consistent with epigenetic repression of both the CD8 and CD4 genetic loci in double negative T cells. We show a consistent increase in non-CG methylation in double negative T cells, a finding suggestive of pluripotency. Network analyses indicate a strong relationship between double negative T cells and functions related to cell –cell interaction, cell adhesion, and cell activation pathways. Our data also suggest a robust pro-inflammatory epigenetic signature in double negative T cells, consistent with a transcriptional permissiveness in key inflammatory cytokines including IFNγ, IL-17F, IL-12B, IL-5, IL-18, TNFSF11 (RANKL), and TNFSF13B (BLYS or BAFF). These findings highlight an epigenetic basis for a role of double negative T cells in autoimmunity. PMID:25451162

  14. Chromatin and DNA methylation dynamics during retinoic acid-induced RET gene transcriptional activation in neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Angrisano, T.; Sacchetti, S.; Natale, F.; Cerrato, A.; Pero, R.; Keller, S.; Peluso, S.; Perillo, B.; Avvedimento, V. E.; Fusco, A.; Bruni, C. B.; Lembo, F.; Santoro, M.; Chiariotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Although it is well known that RET gene is strongly activated by retinoic acid (RA) in neuroblastoma cells, the mechanisms underlying such activation are still poorly understood. Here we show that a complex series of molecular events, that include modifications of both chromatin and DNA methylation state, accompany RA-mediated RET activation. Our results indicate that the primary epigenetic determinants of RA-induced RET activation differ between enhancer and promoter regions. At promoter region, the main mark of RET activation was the increase of H3K4me3 levels while no significant changes of the methylation state of H3K27 and H3K9 were observed. At RET enhancer region a bipartite chromatin domain was detected in unstimulated cells and a prompt demethylation of H3K27me3 marked RET gene activation upon RA exposure. Moreover, ChIP experiments demonstrated that EZH2 and MeCP2 repressor complexes were associated to the heavily methylated enhancer region in the absence of RA while both complexes were displaced during RA stimulation. Finally, our data show that a demethylation of a specific CpG site at the enhancer region could favor the displacement of MeCP2 from the heavily methylated RET enhancer region providing a novel potential mechanism for transcriptional regulation of methylated RA-regulated loci. PMID:20952403

  15. First evidence of DNA methylation in insect Tribolium castaneum: environmental regulation of DNA methylation within heterochromatin.

    PubMed

    Feliciello, Isidoro; Parazajder, Josip; Akrap, Ivana; Ugarković, Durđica

    2013-05-01

    DNA methylation has been studied in many eukaryotic organisms, in particular vertebrates, and was implicated in developmental and phenotypic variations. Little is known about the role of DNA methylation in invertebrates, although insects are considered as excellent models for studying the evolution of DNA methylation. In the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera), no evidence of DNA methylation has been found till now. In this paper, a cytosine methylation in Tribolium castaneum embryos was detected by methylation sensitive restriction endonucleases and immuno-dot blot assay. DNA methylation in embryos is followed by a global demethylation in larvae, pupae and adults. DNA demethylation seems to proceed actively through 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, most probably by the action of TET enzyme. Bisulfite sequencing of a highly abundant satellite DNA located in pericentromeric heterochromatin revealed similar profile of cytosine methylation in adults and embryos. Cytosine methylation was not only restricted to CpG sites but was found at CpA, CpT and CpC sites. In addition, complete cytosine demethylation of heterochromatic satellite DNA was induced by heat stress. The results reveal existence of DNA methylation cycling in T. castaneum ranging from strong overall cytosine methylation in embryos to a weak DNA methylation in other developmental stages. Nevertheless, DNA methylation is preserved within heterochromatin during development, indicating its role in heterochromatin formation and maintenance. It is, however, strongly affected by heat stress, suggesting a role for DNA methylation in heterochromatin structure modulation during heat stress response.

  16. Monkey liver cytochrome P450 2C9 is involved in caffeine 7-N-demethylation to form theophylline.

    PubMed

    Utoh, Masahiro; Murayama, Norie; Uno, Yasuhiro; Onose, Yui; Hosaka, Shinya; Fujino, Hideki; Shimizu, Makiko; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a phenotyping substrate for human cytochrome P450 1A2. 3-N-Demethylation of caffeine is the main human metabolic pathway, whereas monkeys extensively mediate the 7-N-demethylation of caffeine to form pharmacological active theophylline. Roles of monkey P450 enzymes in theophylline formation from caffeine were investigated using individual monkey liver microsomes and 14 recombinantly expressed monkey P450 enzymes, and the results were compared with those for human P450 enzymes. Caffeine 7-N-demethylation activity in microsomes from 20 monkey livers was not strongly inhibited by α-naphthoflavone, quinidine or ketoconazole, and was roughly correlated with diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation activities. Monkey P450 2C9 had the highest activity for caffeine 7-N-demethylation. Kinetic analysis revealed that monkey P450 2C9 had a high Vmax/Km value for caffeine 7-N-demethylation, comparable to low Km value for monkey liver microsomes. Caffeine could dock favorably with monkey P450 2C9 modeled for 7-N-demethylation and with human P450 1A2 for 3-N-demethylation. The primary metabolite theophylline was oxidized to 8-hydroxytheophylline in similar ways by liver microsomes and by recombinant P450s in both humans and monkeys. These results collectively suggest a high activity for monkey liver P450 2C9 toward caffeine 7-N-demethylation, whereas, in humans, P450 1A2-mediated caffeine 3-N-demethylation is dominant.

  17. Characterizing Requirements for Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) Modification and Binding on Base Excision Repair Activity of Thymine-DNA Glycosylase in Vivo.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Dylan; Coey, Christopher T; Yang, Wei-Chih; Drohat, Alexander C; Matunis, Michael J

    2016-04-22

    Thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) plays critical roles in DNA base excision repair and DNA demethylation. It has been proposed, based on structural studies and in vitro biochemistry, that sumoylation is required for efficient TDG enzymatic turnover following base excision. However, whether sumoylation is required for TDG activity in vivo has not previously been tested. We have developed an in vivo assay for TDG activity that takes advantage of its recently discovered role in DNA demethylation and selective recognition and repair of 5-carboxylcytosine. Using this assay, we investigated the role of sumoylation in regulating TDG activity through the use of TDG mutants defective for sumoylation and Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) binding and by altering TDG sumoylation through SUMO and SUMO protease overexpression experiments. Our findings indicate that sumoylation and SUMO binding are not essential for TDG-mediated excision and repair of 5-carboxylcytosine bases. Moreover, in vitro assays revealed that apurinic/apyrimidinic nuclease 1 provides nearly maximum stimulation of TDG processing of G·caC substrates. Thus, under our assay conditions, apurinic/apyrimidinic nuclease 1-mediated stimulation or other mechanisms sufficiently alleviate TDG product inhibition and promote its enzymatic turnover in vivo.

  18. Active loss of DNA methylation in two-cell stage goat embryos.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung S; Lee, Doosoo; Cho, Sunwha; Shin, Sang-Tae; Kang, Yong-Kook

    2010-01-01

    Early mammalian embryos are thought to gain nuclear totipotency through DNA methylation reprogramming (DMR). By this process, DNA methylation patterns acquired during gametogenesis that are unnecessary for zygotic development are erased. The DMR patterns of various mammalian species have been studied; however, they do not seem to have a conserved pattern. We examined early goat embryos to find conforming rules underlying mammalian DMR patterns. Immunocytochemical results showed that the overall level of DNA methylation was not greatly changed during the pronucleus stage. At the two-cell stage, active demethylation occurred and simultaneously affected both parental DNAs, resulting in a global loss of 5-methylcytosine. The level of DNA methylation was lowest in the four-cell stage, with increased de novo methylation during the eight-cell stage. Histone H3-lysine 9 was gradually trimethylated in the sperm-derived chromatin, continuing from the pronucleus stage through the two-cell stage. This goat DMR pattern is novel and distinct from the DMRs of other mammalian species. The more mammalian species we included for DMR analysis, the more multifarious patterns we obtained, adding an extra diversity each time to the known mammalian DMR patterns. Nevertheless, the evolutionary significance and developmental consequence of such diverse DMR patterns are currently unknown.

  19. Promoted Interaction of C/EBPα with Demethylated Cxcr3 Gene Promoter Contributes to Neuropathic Pain in Mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bao-Chun; He, Li-Na; Wu, Xiao-Bo; Shi, Hui; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Cao, De-Li; Li, Chun-Hua; Gu, Jun; Gao, Yong-Jing

    2017-01-18

    DNA methylation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic pain. However, the specific genes regulated by DNA methylation under neuropathic pain condition remain largely unknown. Here we investigated how chemokine receptor CXCR3 is regulated by DNA methylation and how it contributes to neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in mice. SNL increased Cxcr3 mRNA and protein expression in the neurons of the spinal cord. Meanwhile, the CpG (5'-cytosine-phosphate-guanine-3') island in the Cxcr3 gene promoter region was demethylated, and the expression of DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) was decreased. SNL also increased the binding of CCAAT (cytidine-cytidine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine)/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) with Cxcr3 promoter and decreased the binding of DNMT3b with Cxcr3 promoter in the spinal cord. C/EBPα expression was increased in spinal neurons after SNL, and inhibition of C/EBPα by intrathecal small interfering RNA attenuated SNL-induced pain hypersensitivity and reduced Cxcr3 expression. Furthermore, SNL-induced mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia were markedly reduced in Cxcr3(-/-) mice. Spinal inhibition of Cxcr3 by shRNA or CXCR3 antagonist also attenuated established neuropathic pain. Moreover, CXCL10, the ligand of CXCR3, was increased in spinal neurons and astrocytes after SNL. Superfusing spinal cord slices with CXCL10 enhanced spontaneous EPSCs and potentiated NMDA-induced and AMPA-induced currents of lamina II neurons. Finally, intrathecal injection of CXCL10 induced CXCR3-dependent pain hypersensitivity in naive mice. Collectively, our results demonstrated that CXCR3, increased by DNA demethylation and the enhanced interaction with C/EBPα, can be activated by CXCL10 to facilitate excitatory synaptic transmission and contribute to the maintenance of neuropathic pain.

  20. Promoted interaction of C/EBPα with demethylated Cxcr3 gene promoter contributes to neuropathic pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bao-Chun; He, Li-Na; Wu, Xiao-Bo; Shi, Hui; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Cao, De-Li; Li, Chun-Hua; Gu, Jun; Gao, Yong-Jing

    2016-12-09

    DNA methylation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic pain. However, the specific genes that are regulated by DNA methylation under neuropathic pain condition remain largely unknown. Here we investigated how chemokine receptor CXCR3 is regulated by DNA methylation and its contribution to neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in mice. SNL increased Cxcr3 mRNA and protein expression in the neurons of spinal cord. Meanwhile, the CpG island in the Cxcr3 gene promoter region was demethylated, and the expression of DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) was decreased. SNL also increased the binding of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) with Cxcr3 promoter and decreased the binding of DNMT3b with Cxcr3 promoter in the spinal cord. C/EBPα expression was increased in spinal neurons after SNL, and inhibition of C/EBPα by intrathecal siRNA attenuated SNL-induced pain hypersensitivity and reduced Cxcr3 expression. Furthermore, SNL-induced mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia were markedly reduced in Cxcr3(-/-) mice. Spinal inhibition of Cxcr3 by shRNA or CXCR3 antagonist also attenuated established neuropathic pain. Moreover, CXCL10, the ligand of CXCR3 was increased in spinal neurons and astrocytes after SNL. Superfusing spinal cord slices with CXCL10 enhanced spontaneous EPSCs and potentiated NMDA- and AMPA-induced currents of lamina II neurons. Finally, intrathecal injection of CXCL10 induced CXCR3-dependent pain hypersensitivity in naïve mice. Collectively, our results demonstrated that CXCR3, increased by DNA demethylation and the enhanced interaction with C/EBPα, can be activated by CXCL10 to facilitate excitatory synaptic transmission and contribute to the maintenance of neuropathic pain.

  1. Synergistic Cytotoxic Effect of L-Asparaginase Combined with Decitabine as a Demethylating Agent in Pediatric T-ALL, with Specific Epigenetic Signature

    PubMed Central

    Melchionda, Fraia; Pession, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    T-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL) remains a subgroup of pediatric ALL, with a lower response to standard chemotherapy. Some recent studies established the fundamental role of epigenetic aberrations such as DNA hypermethylation, to influence patients' outcome and response to chemotherapy. Moreover, L-asparaginase is an important chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of ALL and resistance to this drug has been linked to ASNS expression, which can be silenced through methylation. Therefore, we tested whether the sensitivity of T-ALL cell lines towards L-asparaginase is correlated to the epigenetic status of ASNS gene and whether the sensitivity can be modified by concurrent demethylating treatment. Hence we treated different T-ALL cell lines with L-asparaginase and correlated different responses to the treatment with ASNS expression. Then we demonstrated that the ASNS expression was dependent on the methylation status of the promoter. Finally we showed that, despite the demethylating effect on the ASNS gene expression, the combined treatment with the demethylating agent Decitabine could synergistically improve the L-asparaginase sensitivity in those T-ALL cell lines characterized by hypermethylation of the ASNS gene. In conclusion, this preclinical study identified an unexpected synergistic activity of L-asparaginase and Decitabine in the subgroup of T-ALL with low ASNS expression due to hypermethylation of the ASNS promoter, while it did not restore sensitivity in the resistant cell lines characterized by higher ASNS expression. PMID:28003999

  2. Conserved DNA methylation in Gadd45a(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Engel, Nora; Tront, Jennifer S; Erinle, Toyin; Nguyen, Nghi; Latham, Keith E; Sapienza, Carmen; Hoffman, Barbara; Liebermann, Dan A

    2009-02-16

    Gadd45a (growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45 alpha) plays a pivotal role in cellular stress responses and is implicated in DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.(1) Recently, it was proposed that GADD45A is a key regulator of active DNA demethylation by way of its role in DNA repair.(2) Barreto et al. reported that Gadd45a overexpression activated transcription from methylation-silenced reporter plasmids and promoted global DNA demethylation. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Gadd45a levels resulted in increased levels of DNA methylation at specific endogenous loci. Based on these exciting results, Gadd45a(-/-) mice might be predicted to have a hypermethylation phenotype. We report here that neither global nor locus-specific methylation is increased in Gadd45a(-/-) mice.

  3. Excision of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine by DEMETER family DNA glycosylases

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hosung; Shin, Hosub; Eichman, Brandt F.; Huh, Jin Hoe

    2016-01-01

    In plants and animals, 5-methylcytosine (5mC) serves as an epigenetic mark to repress gene expression, playing critical roles for cellular differentiation and transposon silencing. Mammals also have 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), resulting from hydroxylation of 5mC by TET family-enzymes. 5hmC is abundant in mouse Purkinje neurons and embryonic stem cells, and regarded as an important intermediate for active DNA demethylation in mammals. However, the presence of 5hmC in plants has not been clearly demonstrated. In Arabidopsis, the DEMETER (DME) family DNA glycosylases efficiently remove 5mC, which results in DNA demethylation and transcriptional activation of target genes. Here we show that DME and ROS1 have a significant 5hmC excision activity in vitro, although we detected no 5hmC in Arabidopsis, suggesting that it is very unlikely for plants to utilize 5hmC as a DNA demethylation intermediate. Our results indicate that both plants and animals have 5mC in common but DNA demethylation systems have independently evolved with distinct mechanisms. PMID:24661881

  4. Molecular Mechanisms of DNA Replication Checkpoint Activation

    PubMed Central

    Recolin, Bénédicte; van der Laan, Siem; Tsanov, Nikolay; Maiorano, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    The major challenge of the cell cycle is to deliver an intact, and fully duplicated, genetic material to the daughter cells. To this end, progression of DNA synthesis is monitored by a feedback mechanism known as replication checkpoint that is untimely linked to DNA replication. This signaling pathway ensures coordination of DNA synthesis with cell cycle progression. Failure to activate this checkpoint in response to perturbation of DNA synthesis (replication stress) results in forced cell division leading to chromosome fragmentation, aneuploidy, and genomic instability. In this review, we will describe current knowledge of the molecular determinants of the DNA replication checkpoint in eukaryotic cells and discuss a model of activation of this signaling pathway crucial for maintenance of genomic stability. PMID:24705291

  5. Ligand binding affinities of arctigenin and its demethylated metabolites to estrogen receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jong-Sik; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Hattori, Masao

    2013-01-16

    Phytoestrogens are defined as plant-derived compounds with estrogen-like activities according to their chemical structures and activities. Plant lignans are generally categorized as phytoestrogens. It was reported that (-)-arctigenin, the aglycone of arctiin, was demethylated to (-)-dihydroxyenterolactone (DHENL) by Eubacterium (E.) sp. ARC-2. Through stepwise demethylation, E. sp. ARC-2 produced six intermediates, three mono-desmethylarctigenins and three di-desmethylarctigenins. In the present study, ligand binding affinities of (-)-arctigenin and its seven metabolites, including DHENL, were investigated for an estrogen receptor alpha, and found that demethylated metabolites had stronger binding affinities than (-)-arctigenin using a ligand binding screen assay method. The IC(50) value of (2R,3R)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-3-(3,4-dihydroxybenzyl)-butyrolactone was 7.9 × 10⁻⁴ M.

  6. Acetylation of Werner syndrome protein (WRN): relationships with DNA damage, DNA replication and DNA metabolic activities

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Enerlyn; Yi, Jingjie; Luo, Jianyuan; Orren, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of WRN function causes Werner Syndrome, characterized by increased genomic instability, elevated cancer susceptibility and premature aging. Although WRN is subject to acetylation, phosphorylation and sumoylation, the impact of these modifications on WRN’s DNA metabolic function remains unclear. Here, we examined in further depth the relationship between WRN acetylation and its role in DNA metabolism, particularly in response to induced DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that endogenous WRN is acetylated somewhat under unperturbed conditions. However, levels of acetylated WRN significantly increase after treatment with certain DNA damaging agents or the replication inhibitor hydroxyurea. Use of DNA repair-deficient cells or repair pathway inhibitors further increase levels of acetylated WRN, indicating that induced DNA lesions and their persistence are at least partly responsible for increased acetylation. Notably, acetylation of WRN correlates with inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that replication blockage might underlie this effect. Moreover, WRN acetylation modulates its affinity for and activity on certain DNA structures, in a manner that may enhance its relative specificity for physiological substrates. Our results also show that acetylation and deacetylation of endogenous WRN is a dynamic process, with sirtuins and other histone deacetylases contributing to WRN deacetylation. These findings advance our understanding of the dynamics of WRN acetylation under unperturbed conditions and following DNA damage induction, linking this modification not only to DNA damage persistence but also potentially to replication stalling caused by specific DNA lesions. Our results are consistent with proposed metabolic roles for WRN and genomic instability phenotypes associated with WRN deficiency. PMID:24965941

  7. [Effects of phospholipids on oxidative demethylation of dimethylcyclohexylamine by cumene hydroperoxide involving methemoglobin].

    PubMed

    Kiseleva, S N; Khatyleva, S Iu; Kisel', M A; Kiselev, P A; Akhrem, A A

    1981-12-01

    The reaction of oxidative demethylation of N-dimethylcyclohexylamine by cumene hydroperoxide involving methemoglobin was studied. Data from differential spectroscopy and kinetic analysis revealed the formation of a methemoglobin--N-dimethylcyclohexylamine--cumene hydroperoxide complex. The inhibiting analysis revealed the radical stages in the process of demethylation. An addition to the reaction mixture of phosphatidyl serine, phosphatidyl inositol and lysophosphatidyl choline at a ratio of 50 divided by 500 molecules per 1 molecule of protein increased the rate of the reaction product accumulation 2--3-fold. Phosphatidyl choline and the ionic detergent sodium cholate did not practically affect the reaction rate under the given experimental conditions. The nature of the activating effect of some phospholipids on oxidative demethylation is discussed.

  8. Methylmercury decomposition in sediments and bacterial cultures: Involvement of methanogens and sulfate reducers in oxidative demethylation

    SciTech Connect

    Oremland, R.S.; Culbertson, C.W. ); Winfrey, M.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of mercury has received considerable attention because of the toxicity of methylmercury, its bioaccumulation in biota, and its biomagnification in aquatic food chains. The formation of methylmercury is mediated primarily by microorganisms. Demethylation of monomethylmercury in freshwater and estuarine sediments and in bacterial cultures was investigated with {sup 14}CH{sub 3}HgI. Under anaerobiosis, results with inhibitors indicated partial involvement of both sulfate reducers and methanogens, the former dominated estuarine sediments, while both were active in freshwaters. Aerobes were the most significant demethylators in estuarine sediments, but were unimportant in freshwater sediments. Products of anaerobic demthylation were mainly {sup 14}CO{sub 2} as well as lesser amounts of {sup 14}CH{sub 4}. Acetogenic activity resulted in fixation of some {sup 14}CO{sub 2} produced from {sup 14}CH{sub 3}HgI into acetate. Aerobic demethylation in estuarine sediments produced only {sup 14}CH{sub 4}, while aerobic demethylation in freshwater sediments produced small amounts of both {sup 14}CH{sub 4} and {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. Two species of Desulfovibrio produced only traces of {sup 14}CH{sub 4} from {sup 14}CH{sub 3}HgI, while a culture of a methylotrophic methanogen formed traces of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and {sup 14}CH{sub 4} when grown on trimethylamine in the presence of the {sup 14}CH{sub 3}HgI. These results indicate that both aerobes and anaerobes demethylate mercury in sediments, but that either group may dominate in a particular sediment type. Aerobic demethylation in the estuarine sediments appeared to proceed by the previously characterized organomercurial-lyase pathway, because methane was the sole product. This indicates the presence of an oxidative pathway, possibly one in which methylmercury serves as an analog of one-carbon substrates.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of N-demethylated metabolites of malachite green and leucomalachite green.

    PubMed

    Cho, Bongsup P; Yang, Tianle; Blankenship, Lonnie R; Moody, Joanna D; Churchwell, Mona; Beland, Frederick A; Culp, Sandra J

    2003-03-01

    Malachite green (MG), a triphenylmethane dye used to treat fungal and protozoan infections in fish, undergoes sequential oxidation to produce various N-demethylated derivatives (monodes-, dides(sym)-, dides(unsym)-, trides-, and tetrades-) both before and after reduction to leucomalachite green (LMG). The close structure resemblance of the metabolites with aromatic amine carcinogens implicates a potential genotoxicity from exposure to MG. The availability of the synthetic standards is important for metabolic and DNA adduct studies of MG. This paper describes a simple and versatile method for the synthesis of MG, LMG, and their N-demethylated metabolites. The synthesis involves a coupling of 4-(dimethylamino)benzophenone or 4-nitrobenzophenone with the aryllithium reagents derived from appropriately substituted 4-bromoaniline derivatives, followed by treatment with HCl in methanol. The resulting cationic MG and their leuco analogues showed systematic UV/vis spectral and tandem mass fragmentation patterns consistent with sequential N-demethylation. The extensive (1)H and (13)C spectral assignments of the metabolites were aided by the availability of (13)C(7)-labeled MG and LMG. The results indicate the existence of a resonance structure with the cationic charge located in the central methane carbon (C(7)). The synthetic procedure is general in scope so that it can be extended to the preparation of N-demethylated metabolites of other structurally related N-methylated triphenylmethane dyes.

  10. Testosterone Depletion Induces Demethylation of Murine Reelin Promoter CpG Dinucleotides: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Victor Augusto Moraes; Dantas, Marília de Souza; Silva, Leonardo Agostinho de Castro; Carneiro, Juliana Garcia; Schamber-Reis, Bruno Luiz Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a debilitating mental disorder characterized by psychotic events, abnormal social behavior, false beliefs, and auditory hallucinations. Hypermethylation of the promoter region of reelin (RELN), a gene involved in regulation of neuronal positioning during telencephalic development, is strongly associated with low protein expression in several cortical structures and promoter hypermethylation in brain from postmortem SZ subjects. Recent experimental data suggests that testosterone is able to promote RELN demethylation, although no direct evidence of hormonal influence on reelin promoter methylation was obtained. We investigated if reduced levels of plasma testosterone in adult male mice lead to Reln promoter demethylation. Animals were administered with flutamide, an antiandrogenic compound, and reelin promoter methylation was assessed using methylationspecific PCR using bisulfite DNA from cerebellum. We found that flutamide was able to significantly lower plasma testosterone when compared to control mice, and treatment did not influence animal survival and body weight. We also show that low plasma testosterone was associated with demethylation of a cytosine residue located at −860 in reelin promoter region. These preliminary data suggest that androgenic hormones can influence cerebral reelin demethylation. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental approach directly linking testosterone depletion and RELN promoter methylation. PMID:26526966

  11. Profiling of methylation and demethylation pathways during brain development and ageing.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Theo F J; Kilinc, Selma; Steinmaurer, Martina; Stieglitz, Marc; Guibourt, Virginie; Kretzschmar, Hans A

    2016-03-01

    Numerous signal pathways are epigenetically controlled during brain development and ageing. Thereby, both 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and the newly described 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) are highly exhibited in the brain. As there is an uneven distribution of 5hmC in the brain depending on age and region, there is the need to investigate the underlying mechanisms being responsible for 5hmC generation and decline. The aim of this study was to quantify expression levels of genes that are associated with DNA methylation/demethylation in different brain regions and at different ages. Therefore, we investigated frontal cortex and cerebellum of 40 mice (strain C57BL/6), each eight mice sacrificed at day 0, 7, 15, 30 and 120 after birth. We performed expression profiling of methylation/demethylation genes depending on age and brain region. Interestingly, we see significant expression differences of genes being responsible for methylation/demethylation with a significant reduction of expression levels during ageing. Validating selected expression data on protein level using immunohistochemistry verified the expression data. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the regulation of methylation/demethylation pathways is highly controlled depending on brain region and age. Thus our data will help to better understand the complexity and plasticity of the brain epigenome.

  12. Curcumin inhibits growth of human breast cancer cells through demethylation of DLC1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yufei; Zhou, Jun; Hu, Yuchang; Wang, Junjie; Yuan, Chengfu

    2017-01-01

    The heterogeneity of breast cancer makes it a challenging solid tumor to diagnose and treat. A tumor suppressor Deleted in Liver Cancer 1 (DLC1) has been reported to be down-regulated or even silenced in several kinds of cancer including breast cancer. Curcumin has been reported to modulate the growth of tumor cells through regulation of multiple cell signaling pathways and modulate epigenetic changes by CpG demethylation of many tumor suppressor genes. This study was designed to investigate the effect of curcumin on the expression of Deleted in Liver Cancer 1 (DLC1) in human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-361 and the underlying mechanism in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin induced DLC1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. In curcumin-treated cells, methylation of DLC1 promoter was reduced and active forms of RhoA and Cdc42 were also decreased. DLC1 expression was closely related to tumor cell growth, demonstrated by Ki67 staining. Curcumin inhibited DNA methyltransferase 1 expression through down-regulation of transcription factor Sp1. Consistent with the in vitro data, in vivo administration of curcumin inhibited the growth of implanted MDA-MB-361 cells and induced DLC1 expression in tumor tissue. In MDA-MB-361 cells, curcumin down-regulates the expression of Sp1 to inhibit the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1, thus subsequently reducing hypermethylation of DLC1 promoter to induce DLC1 expression.

  13. DNA polymerase activity of tomato fruit chromoplasts.

    PubMed

    Serra, E C; Carrillo, N

    1990-11-26

    DNA polymerase activity was measured in chromoplasts of ripening tomato fruits. Plastids isolated from young leaves or mature red fruits showed similar DNA polymerase activities. The same enzyme species was present in either chloroplasts or chromoplasts as judged by pH and temperature profiles, sensitivities towards different inhibitors and relative molecular mass (Mr 88 kDa). The activities analyzed showed the typical behaviour of plastid-type polymerases. The results presented here suggest that chromoplast maintain their DNA synthesis potential in fruit tissue at chloroplast levels. Consequently, the sharp decrease of the plastid chromosome transcription observed at the onset of fruit ripening could not be due to limitations in the availability of template molecules. Other mechanisms must be involved in the inhibition of chromoplast RNA synthesis.

  14. Enzymatic DNA oxidation: mechanisms and biological significance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Walsh, Colum P

    2014-11-01

    DNA methylation at cytosines (5mC) is a major epigenetic modification involved in the regulation of multiple biological processes in mammals. How methylation is reversed was until recently poorly understood. The family of dioxygenases commonly known as Ten-eleven translocation (Tet) proteins are responsible for the oxidation of 5mC into three new forms, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Current models link Tet-mediated 5mC oxidation with active DNA demethylation. The higher oxidation products (5fC and 5caC) are recognized and excised by the DNA glycosylase TDG via the base excision repair pathway. Like DNA methyltransferases, Tet enzymes are important for embryonic development. We will examine the mechanism and biological significance of Tet-mediated 5mC oxidation in the context of pronuclear DNA demethylation in mouse early embryos. In contrast to its role in active demethylation in the germ cells and early embryo, a number of lines of evidence suggest that the intragenic 5hmC present in brain may act as a stable mark instead. This short review explores mechanistic aspects of TET oxidation activity, the impact Tet enzymes have on epigenome organization and their contribution to the regulation of early embryonic and neuronal development.

  15. Modulating DNA methylation in activated CD8+ T cells inhibits regulatory T cell-induced binding of Foxp3 to the CD8+ T Cell IL-2 promoter.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michelle M; Akaronu, Nnenna; Thompson, Elizabeth M; Hood, Sylvia F; Fogle, Jonathan E

    2015-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) activated during the course of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection suppress CD8(+) CTL function in a TGF-β-dependent fashion, inhibiting IFN-γ and IL-2 production and inducing G1 cell-cycle arrest. In this article, we describe the molecular events occurring at the IL-2 promoter leading to suppression of IL-2 production. These experiments demonstrate that Foxp3 induced by lentivirus-activated Tregs in the CD8(+) target cells binds to the IL-2 promoter, actively repressing IL-2 transcription. We further demonstrate that the chronic activation of CD8(+) T cells during FIV infection results in chromatin remodeling at the IL-2 promoter, specifically, demethylation of CpG residues. These DNA modifications occur during active transcription and translation of IL-2; however, these changes render the IL-2 promoter permissive to Foxp3-induced transcriptional repression. These data help explain, in part, the seemingly paradoxical observations that CD8(+) T cells displaying an activation phenotype exhibit altered antiviral function. Further, we demonstrate that blocking demethylation of CpG residues at the IL-2 promoter inhibits Foxp3 binding, suggesting a potential mechanism for rescue and/or reactivation of CD8(+) T cells. Using the FIV model for lentiviral persistence, these studies provide a framework for understanding how immune activation combined with Treg-mediated suppression may affect CD8(+) T cell IL-2 transcription, maturation, and antiviral function.

  16. Dynamic DNA methylation orchestrates cardiomyocyte development, maturation and disease

    PubMed Central

    Gilsbach, Ralf; Preissl, Sebastian; Grüning, Björn A.; Schnick, Tilman; Burger, Lukas; Benes, Vladimir; Würch, Andreas; Bönisch, Ulrike; Günther, Stefan; Backofen, Rolf; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Schübeler, Dirk; Hein, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The heart is a highly specialized organ with essential function for the organism throughout life. The significance of DNA methylation in shaping the phenotype of the heart remains only partially known. Here we generate and analyse DNA methylomes from highly purified cardiomyocytes of neonatal, adult healthy and adult failing hearts. We identify large genomic regions that are differentially methylated during cardiomyocyte development and maturation. Demethylation of cardiomyocyte gene bodies correlates strongly with increased gene expression. Silencing of demethylated genes is characterized by the polycomb mark H3K27me3 or by DNA methylation. De novo methylation by DNA methyltransferases 3A/B causes repression of fetal cardiac genes, including essential components of the cardiac sarcomere. Failing cardiomyocytes partially resemble neonatal methylation patterns. This study establishes DNA methylation as a highly dynamic process during postnatal growth of cardiomyocytes and their adaptation to pathological stress in a process tightly linked to gene regulation and activity. PMID:25335909

  17. Dynamic DNA methylation orchestrates cardiomyocyte development, maturation and disease.

    PubMed

    Gilsbach, Ralf; Preissl, Sebastian; Grüning, Björn A; Schnick, Tilman; Burger, Lukas; Benes, Vladimir; Würch, Andreas; Bönisch, Ulrike; Günther, Stefan; Backofen, Rolf; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Schübeler, Dirk; Hein, Lutz

    2014-10-22

    The heart is a highly specialized organ with essential function for the organism throughout life. The significance of DNA methylation in shaping the phenotype of the heart remains only partially known. Here we generate and analyse DNA methylomes from highly purified cardiomyocytes of neonatal, adult healthy and adult failing hearts. We identify large genomic regions that are differentially methylated during cardiomyocyte development and maturation. Demethylation of cardiomyocyte gene bodies correlates strongly with increased gene expression. Silencing of demethylated genes is characterized by the polycomb mark H3K27me3 or by DNA methylation. De novo methylation by DNA methyltransferases 3A/B causes repression of fetal cardiac genes, including essential components of the cardiac sarcomere. Failing cardiomyocytes partially resemble neonatal methylation patterns. This study establishes DNA methylation as a highly dynamic process during postnatal growth of cardiomyocytes and their adaptation to pathological stress in a process tightly linked to gene regulation and activity.

  18. Promoter demethylation of cystathionine-β-synthetase gene contributes to inflammatory pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Qi, Feihu; Zhou, Youlang; Xiao, Ying; Tao, Jin; Gu, Jianguo; Jiang, Xinghong; Xu, Guang-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), an endogenous gas molecule synthesized by cystathionine-β-synthetase (CBS), is involved in inflammation and nociceptive signaling. However, the molecular and epigenetic mechanisms of CBS-H(2)S signaling in peripheral nociceptive processing remain unknown. We demonstrated that peripheral inflammation induced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund adjuvant significantly up-regulated expression of CBS at both protein and mRNA levels in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG). The CBS inhibitors hydroxylamine and aminooxyacetic acid attenuated mechanical hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent manner and reversed hyperexcitability of DRG neurons in inflamed rats. Intraplantar administration of NaHS (its addition mimics CBS production of H(2)S) or l-cysteine in healthy rats elicited mechanical hyperalgesia. Application of NaHS in vitro enhanced excitability and tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant sodium current of DRG neurons from healthy rats, which was attenuated by pretreatment of protein kinase A inhibitor H89. Methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing demonstrated that promoter region of cbs gene was less methylated in DRG samples from inflamed rats than that from controls. Peripheral inflammation did not alter expression of DNA methyltransferase 3a and 3b, the 2 major enzymes for DNA methylation, but led to a significant up-regulation of methyl-binding domain protein 4 and growth arrest and DNA damage inducible protein 45α, the enzymes involved in active DNA demethylation. Our findings suggest that epigenetic regulation of CBS expression may contribute to inflammatory hyperalgesia. H(2)S seems to increase TTX-resistant sodium channel current, which may be mediated by protein kinase A pathway, thus identifying a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of chronic pain.

  19. DNA-based control of protein activity

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, W.; Janssen, B. M. G.

    2016-01-01

    DNA has emerged as a highly versatile construction material for nanometer-sized structures and sophisticated molecular machines and circuits. The successful application of nucleic acid based systems greatly relies on their ability to autonomously sense and act on their environment. In this feature article, the development of DNA-based strategies to dynamically control protein activity via oligonucleotide triggers is discussed. Depending on the desired application, protein activity can be controlled by directly conjugating them to an oligonucleotide handle, or expressing them as a fusion protein with DNA binding motifs. To control proteins without modifying them chemically or genetically, multivalent ligands and aptamers that reversibly inhibit their function provide valuable tools to regulate proteins in a noncovalent manner. The goal of this feature article is to give an overview of strategies developed to control protein activity via oligonucleotide-based triggers, as well as hurdles yet to be taken to obtain fully autonomous systems that interrogate, process and act on their environments by means of DNA-based protein control. PMID:26812623

  20. Production of Hydrolysable Tannin-Like Structures During the Microbial Demethylation of lignin: An Assessment Using13C-Labeled Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide Thermochemolysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filley, T.; Blanchette, R.; Nierop, K.; Gamblin, D.

    2003-12-01

    Phenolic compounds in soils are important mediators of microbial activity, metal mobility, soil redox, and soil organic matter building processes. Direct tannin input and the microbial decomposition of lignin in litter and soil are important contributors to this pool of phenols. The ability to accurately assess the relative differences in lignin decay (which are initiated by demethylation and side chain oxidation) among synapyl, coniferyl, and p-coumaryl components of detrital lignin requires the ability to determine microbial demethylation within the complex soil residues. Differentiating between hydrolysable tannins and contributions from advanced lignin decay can be problematic for many of the most common molecular techniques such as alkaline CuO oxidation, pyrolysis GC, and tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis because of either the masking effects of derivatizing agents, oxidative damage to ortho-phenols or low volatility of lignin monomers. In this study we investigate lignin demethylation and polyhydroxyl-aromatic production in BC and C horizons of sandy forest soils dominated by oak, the A horizon from a red spruce forest, and controlled microbial inoculation studies of woody tissue using in-line 13C-labeled tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis. Both white-rot and brown-rot decay resulted in syringyl demethylation, with the latter exhibiting more aggressive demethylation chemistry, while coniferyl monomer demethylation was essentially restricted to brown-rot decay. In a typical brown-rot sequence demethylation of syringyl components occurs more rapidly than coniferyl units within the same tissue and lower molecular weight fragments are likewise more demethylated than lignin monomers containing the full glycerol side chain. Demethylation of both methoxyl groups in the syringyl monomer is evident in soil horizons as well as laboratory inoculations. The latter may suggest demethylation after lignin depolymerization. Low molecular weight

  1. Global identification of genes regulated by estrogen signaling and demethylation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Putnik, Milica; Zhao, Chunyan; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Dahlman-Wright, Karin

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estrogen signaling and demethylation can both control gene expression in breast cancers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cross-talk between these mechanisms is investigated in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 137 genes are influenced by both 17{beta}-estradiol and demethylating agent 5-aza-2 Prime -deoxycytidine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A set of genes is identified as targets of both estrogen signaling and demethylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is no direct molecular interplay of mediators of estrogen and epigenetic signaling. -- Abstract: Estrogen signaling and epigenetic modifications, in particular DNA methylation, are involved in regulation of gene expression in breast cancers. Here we investigated a potential regulatory cross-talk between these two pathways by identifying their common target genes and exploring underlying molecular mechanisms in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Gene expression profiling revealed that the expression of approximately 140 genes was influenced by both 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) and a demethylating agent 5-aza-2 Prime -deoxycytidine (DAC). Gene ontology (GO) analysis suggests that these genes are involved in intracellular signaling cascades, regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Based on previously reported association with breast cancer, estrogen signaling and/or DNA methylation, CpG island prediction and GO analysis, we selected six genes (BTG3, FHL2, PMAIP1, BTG2, CDKN1A and TGFB2) for further analysis. Tamoxifen reverses the effect of E2 on the expression of all selected genes, suggesting that they are direct targets of estrogen receptor. Furthermore, DAC treatment reactivates the expression of all selected genes in a dose-dependent manner. Promoter CpG island methylation status analysis revealed that only the promoters of BTG3 and FHL2 genes are methylated, with DAC inducing demethylation, suggesting DNA methylation directs repression of

  2. DNA methylation governs the dynamic regulation of inflammation by apoptotic cells during efferocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Notley, Clare A.; Jordan, Christine K.; McGovern, Jenny L.; Brown, Mark A.; Ehrenstein, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Efficient clearance of apoptotic cells (AC) is pivotal in preventing autoimmunity and is a potent immunosuppressive stimulus. However, activation of cells prior to apoptosis abolishes their immunoregulatory properties. Here we show using the antigen-induced model of arthritis that the degree of DNA methylation within AC confers their immunomodulatory plasticity. DNA isolated from resting and activated AC mimicked their respective immune effects. Demethylation of DNA abrogated the protective effect of AC whereas remethylation of AC DNA reversed the effects of activation and restored the ability to inhibit inflammation. Disease suppression or lack thereof was associated with TGFβ and IL-6 production respectively. Apoptotic CD4+ T cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus were demethylated compared to healthy controls and favoured production of IL-6 when cultured with healthy macrophages, in contrast to the TGFβ produced in response to healthy AC. Our data implicate AC DNA methylation as the molecular switch that imprints their regulatory properties. PMID:28169339

  3. Curcuminoid Demethylation as an Alternative Metabolism by Human Intestinal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Burapan, Supawadee; Kim, Mihyang; Han, Jaehong

    2017-04-14

    Curcumin and other curcuminoids from Curcuma longa are important bioactive compounds exhibiting various pharmacological activities. In addition to the known reductive metabolism of curcuminoids, an alternative biotransformation of curcuminoids by human gut microbiota is reported herein. A curcuminoid mixture, composed of curcumin (1), demethoxycurcumin (2), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (3), was metabolized by the human intestinal bacterium Blautia sp. MRG-PMF1. 1 and 2 were converted to new metabolites by the methyl aryl ether cleavage reaction. Two metabolites, demethylcurcumin (4) and bisdemethylcurcumin (5), were sequentially produced from 1, and demethyldemethoxycurcumin (6) was produced from 2. Until now, sequential reduction of the heptadienone backbone of curcuminoids was the only known metabolism to occur in the human intestine. In this study, a new intestinal metabolism of curcuminoids was discovered. Demethylation of curcuminoids produced three new colonic metabolites that were already known as promising synthetic curcumin analogues. The results could explain the observed beneficial effects of turmeric.

  4. DNA synthesis and DNA polymerase activity of herpes simplex virus type 1 temperature-sensitive mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Aron, G M; Purifoy, D J; Schaffer, P A

    1975-01-01

    Fifteen temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 were studied with regard to the relationship between their ability to synthesize viral DNA and to induce viral DNA polymerase (DP) activity at permissive (34 C) and nonpermissive (39 C) temperatures. At 34 C, all mutants synthesized viral DNA, while at 39 C four mutants demonstrated a DNA+ phenotype, three were DNA+/-, and eight were DNA-. DNA+ mutants induced levels of DP activity similar to thhose of the wild-type virus at both temperatures, and DNA+/- mutants induced reduced levels of DP activity at 39 C but not at 34 C. Among the DNA- mutants three were DP+, two were DP+/-, and three showed reduced DP activity at 34 C with no DP activity at 39 C. DNA-, DP- mutants induced the synthesis of a temperature-sensitive DP as determined by in vivo studies. PMID:169388

  5. The DNA-remodelling activity of DnaD is the sum of oligomerization and DNA-binding activities on separate domains

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Maria J. V. M.; Zhang, Wenke; Ioannou, Charikleia; Scott, David J.; Allen, Stephanie; Roberts, Clive J.; Soultanas, Panos

    2011-01-01

    Summary The Bacillus subtilis DnaD protein is an essential protein that has been implicated in the primosomal step of DNA replication, and recently in global DNA remodelling. Here we show that DnaD consists of two domains with distinct activities; an N-terminal domain (Nd) with oligomerization activity, and a C-terminal domain (Cd) with DNA-binding activity and a second DNA-induced oligomerization activity. Although Cd can bind to DNA and form large nucleoprotein complexes, it does not exhibit global DNA-remodelling activity. The presence of separate Nd does not restore this activity. Our data suggest that the global DNA-remodelling activity of DnaD is the sum of three separate oligomerization and DNA-binding activities residing on two distinct but linked domains. PMID:16677303

  6. Activation of ATM by DNA Damaging Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    serine 139. Pretreatment of cells with NAC partially, peroxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase - 1 (37). This but significantly, attenuated the... Gy , concentrations of wortmannin (lanes 3-5) for 30 min prior to the addi- 2 h) (Fig. 4A). tion of 1 gm doxorubicin (lanes 2-5) and further incubation...AD Award Number: DAMD17-02- 1 -0318 TITLE: Activation of ATM by DNA Damaging Agents PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ebba U. Kurz, Ph.D. Susan P. Lees-Miller

  7. Demethylation and cleavage of dimethylsulfoniopropionate in marine intertidal sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Visscher, P.T.; Kiene, R.P.; Taylor, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    Demethylation and cleavage of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) was measured in three different types of,intertidal marine sediments: a cyanobacterial mat, a diatom-covered tidal flat and a carbonate sediment. Consumption rates of added DMSP were highest in cyanobacterial mat slurries (59 ?? mol DMSP l-1 slurry h-1) and lower in slurries from a diatom mat and a carbonate tidal sediment (24 and 9 ??mol DMSP l-1 h-1, respectively). Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and 3-mercaptopropionate (MPA) were produced simultaneously during DMSP consumption, indicating that cleavage and demethylation occurred at the same time. Viable counts of DMSP-utilizing bacteria revealed a population of 2 x 107 cells cm-3 sediment (90% of these cleaved DMSP to DMS, 10% demethylated DMSP to MPA) in the cyanobacterial mat, 7 x 105 cells cm-3 in the diatom mat (23% cleavers, 77% demethylators), and 9 x 104 cells cm-3 (20% cleavers and 80% demethylators) in the carbonate sediment. In slurries of the diatom mat, the rate of MPA production from added 3-methiolpropionate (MMPA) was 50% of the rate of MPA formation from DMSP. The presence of a large population of demethylating bacteria and the production of MPA from DMSP suggest that the demethylation pathway, in addition to cleavage, contributes significantly to DMSP consumption in coastal sediments.

  8. Dynamic DNA methylation controls glutamate receptor trafficking and synaptic scaling.

    PubMed

    Sweatt, J David

    2016-05-01

    Hebbian plasticity, including long-term potentiation and long-term depression, has long been regarded as important for local circuit refinement in the context of memory formation and stabilization. However, circuit development and stabilization additionally relies on non-Hebbian, homeostatic, forms of plasticity such as synaptic scaling. Synaptic scaling is induced by chronic increases or decreases in neuronal activity. Synaptic scaling is associated with cell-wide adjustments in postsynaptic receptor density, and can occur in a multiplicative manner resulting in preservation of relative synaptic strengths across the entire neuron's population of synapses. Both active DNA methylation and demethylation have been validated as crucial regulators of gene transcription during learning, and synaptic scaling is known to be transcriptionally dependent. However, it has been unclear whether homeostatic forms of plasticity such as synaptic scaling are regulated via epigenetic mechanisms. This review describes exciting recent work that has demonstrated a role for active changes in neuronal DNA methylation and demethylation as a controller of synaptic scaling and glutamate receptor trafficking. These findings bring together three major categories of memory-associated mechanisms that were previously largely considered separately: DNA methylation, homeostatic plasticity, and glutamate receptor trafficking. This review describes exciting recent work that has demonstrated a role for active changes in neuronal DNA methylation and demethylation as a controller of synaptic scaling and glutamate receptor trafficking. These findings bring together three major categories of memory-associated mechanisms that were previously considered separately: glutamate receptor trafficking, DNA methylation, and homeostatic plasticity.

  9. Inhibition of pea chloroplast DNA helicase unwinding and ATPase activities by DNA-interacting ligands.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, N; Phan, T N

    1998-03-27

    DNA helicases unwind the duplex DNA in an ATP dependent manner and thus play an essential role in DNA replication, repair, recombination and transcription. Any DNA-interacting ligand which will modulate DNA helicase activity may interrupt practically all kinds of DNA transactions. There are no studies on the effect of various cytotoxic DNA-interacting ligands on organelle helicases. We have determined the effect of camptothecin, VP-16 (etoposide), ellipticine, genistein, novobiocin, m-AMSA, actinomycin C1, ethidium bromide, daunorubicin and nogalamycin on unwinding and ATPase activities of purified chloroplast DNA helicase from pea (Pisum sativum). Our study has shown that DNA-intercalating ligands actinomycin C1, ethidium bromide, daunorubicin and nogalamycin were inhibiting the DNA unwinding activity with an apparent Ki of 2.9 microM, 3.0 microM, 1.4 microM and 1.0 microM, respectively. These four inhibitors also inhibited the ATPase activity of pea chloroplast DNA helicase. These results indicate that the intercalation of the inhibitors into DNA generates a complex that impedes the translocation of chloroplast DNA helicase, resulting in both inhibition of unwinding activity and ATP hydrolysis. This study would be useful for understanding the mechanism of organelle DNA helicase unwinding and the mechanism by which these DNA-interacting ligands inhibit cellular function.

  10. DNA methylation remodeling in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Amander T

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, global DNA demethylation in vivo occurs in the pre-implantation embryo and in primordial germ cells (PGCs) where it is hypothesized to create a blank slate or “tabula rasa” upon which new DNA methylation patterns are written. However, global DNA demethylation in vivo is far from complete with a small number of loci protected from demethylation. Failure to demethylate, or overt demethylation results in compromised differentiation. Recent work has shown that reversion of primed human pluripotent stem cells to the naïve state leads to unbridled DNA demethylation which has unknown consequences on the quality differentiated cells created in vitro. Taken together understanding DNA methylation remodeling is critical for understanding the epigenetic foundations of life, and the quality of stem cells for regenerative medicine. PMID:26451496

  11. DNA methylation as a target of epigenetic therapeutics in cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Keqin K; Li, Fangcheng; Li, Qiushi S; Yang, Kun; Jin, Bilian

    2013-02-01

    Epigenetic alterations have been implicated in the development and progression of human cancer. It is noteworthy that epigenetic modifications, in contrast to genetic mutations, are intrinsically reversible. This triggers an impressive interest of researchers in treatment of cancer patients via targeting epigenetic mechanisms, leading to subsequent intensive investigations of epigenetic drugs as a novel therapeutic intervention. DNA methylation, the major form of epigenetic modifications, is catalyzed by the maintenance DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1 and/or the de novo methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B. Aberrant expression of DNMTs and disruption of DNA methylation are closely associated with multiple forms of cancer, although the exact mechanisms underlying this link remain elusive. An array of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) frequently sustain promoter hypermethylation, which results in epigenetic silencing of these genes and makes cancer cells acquire growth advantages. DNA demethylating agents, re-activating TSGs via inhibiting hypermethylation of their promoter regions, are currently being tested in clinical trials, and several of them are already applied in clinics. DNA demethylating agents, used either alone or in combination with other agents, such as chemotherapeutic drugs and the histone deacetylase inhibitors, have shown to be effective in treatment of cancer, although only in a small set of patients. In this review, we examine and discuss the most recent advances in epigenetic therapy of cancer, with a focus on DNA demethylating agents.

  12. Regioselective demethylation of quinoline derivatives. A DFT rationalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belferdi, Fatiha; Merabet, Naima; Belkhiri, Lotfi; Douara, Bachir

    2016-08-01

    Demethylation of compound 2,7-dimethoxyquinoline-3-carbaldehyde 1, is carried out using BBr3. However, all attempts led, either to the starting material or to the regioselective demethylation at position 2 affording the product 4a. The nature (donor or acceptor) and the position of the R (CHO or CN) group is likely to play a role in the preventing the demethylation at position 7. To address this phenomena, the demethylation of 2-chloro-7-methoxyquinoline-3-carbaldehyde 2 and 2,7-dimethoxyquinoline-3-carbaldehyde 3 has been carried out. To support the results obtained, theoretical computations at DFT level (vide infra) have been carried out upon compound 1. The exploration of how the gas-phase demethylation process on Quinoline can be affected at a position 7 center by stepwise substation effects using different electro-donor and attractor groups, show that demethylation process seems to be more favorable when substituent is an electro-donor. This is sustained by bond energy and thermodynamic analyses (vide infra).

  13. Simulated vibrational spectra of aflatoxins and their demethylated products and the estimation of the energies of the demethylation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billes, Ferenc; Móricz, Ágnes M.; Tyihák, Ernő; Mikosch, Hans

    2006-06-01

    The structure of four natural mycotoxins, the aflatoxin B 1, B 2, G 1 and G 2 and their demethylated products were optimized with quantum chemical method. The energies and the thermodynamic functions of the molecules were calculated and applied to calculation of the reaction energies of the demethylations. Further results of the calculations are the vibrational force constants, the infrared spectra of the molecules and the assignments of the spectral bands.

  14. Direct transfection of miR-137 mimics is more effective than DNA demethylation of miR-137 promoter to augment anti-tumor mechanisms of delphinidin in human glioblastoma U87MG and LN18 cells.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Ray, Swapan K

    2015-11-15

    Glioblastoma is the deadliest brain tumor in humans. Recent studies suggested that 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (AzaC) could inhibit cell cycle progression in human glioblastoma stem cells by an indirect increase in expression of the tumor suppressor microRNA-137 (miR-137). Delphinidin (DPN), a new anthocyanidin, inhibits cell growth in different cancers. We investigated inhibition of glioblastoma growth after indirect or direct overexpression of miR-137 and then DPN treatment. The highest inhibition of cell growth occurred due to treatment with combination of 10 μM AzaC and 50 μM DPN in human glioblastoma U87MG and LN18 cells. The methylation sensitive-polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) results showed that AzaC inhibited methylation of miR-137 promoter region, which was hypermethylated in both glioblastoma cell lines, to cause indirect increase in miR-137 expression. Our results also indicated the highest miR-137 expression after direct transfection of miR-137 mimics and DPN treatment. Combination of miR-137 mimics transfection and DPN treatment caused the highest inhibition of cell invasion and prevented angiogenic network formation due to the least expression of angiogenic factor (VEGF) in human glioblastoma cells in co-culture with human microvascular endothelial cells. This combination strategy most effectively inhibited survival factors (p-Akt and NF-κB), angiogenic factors (VEGF and b-FGF), growth factor receptor (EGFR), and invasive factors (MMP-9 and MMP-2). Direct overexpression of miR-137 most effectively augmented efficacy of DPN to induce apoptosis with activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. So, sequential miR-137 overexpression and DPN treatment could be a promising combination treatment to inhibit growth of human glioblastoma cells.

  15. Simultaneous determination of the novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor meditinib and its active metabolite demethylation meditinib in monkey plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Liang, Feng; Kong, Qi; Guo, Yongqi; Wang, Yu; Sun, Dejie; Liu, Shi; Cai, Jinling; Guan, Yongbiao; Ding, Rigao

    2015-08-01

    Meditinib (ME) is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor used as an antichronic myeloid leukemia drug. A simple, sensitive and specific LC/MS/MS method was developed and validated for the analysis of ME and its metabolite demethylation meditinib (PI) in monkey plasma using naltrexone as the internal standard. Sample preparation involved protein precipitation with methanol. The analysis was carried out on an Agilent C8 column (3.5 µm, 2.1 × 50 mm). Elution was achieved with a mobile phase gradient varying the proportion of a water solution containing 0.1% formic acid (solvent A) and a 0.1% formic acid in methanol solution (solvent B) at a flow rate of 300 μL/min. The method had a linear calibration curve over the concentration range of 2-1000 ng/mL for ME and 2-1000 ng/mL for PI. The lower limits of quantification of ME and PI were 2 and 2 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision values were <15% and accuracy values were within ±10.0%. The mean recoveries of ME and PI from plasma were >85%. The assay has been successfully used for pharmacokinetic evaluation of ME and PI using the monkey as an animal model, and those data are reported for the first time.

  16. DNA evidence uncompromised by active oxygen.

    PubMed

    Castelló, Ana; Francés, Francesc; Verdú, Fernando

    2010-03-05

    Currently, forensic sciences can make use of the potential of instrumental analysis techniques to obtain information from the smallest, even invisible, samples. However, as laboratory techniques improve, so too should the procedures applied in the search for and initial testing of clues in order to be equally effective. This requires continuous revision so that those procedures may resolve the problems that samples present. As far as bloodstains are concerned, there are methods available that are recognized as being both highly sensitive and effective. Nevertheless, the marketing of new cleaning products, those that contain active oxygen, has raised doubts about the ability of those procedures to detect blood. It has been shown that stains washed with these detergents (and still visible) invalidated both the presumptive test (reduced phenolphthalein, luminol, and Bluestar) and that applied for determining human hemoglobin. These findings have caused considerable concern both within the forensic and scientific community, and among the general public, so obliging us to seek solutions. In this work, the effect of these new cleaning products on DNA analyses is studied. The results, encouraging ones, show that these detergents, despite invalidating all other tests, do not hinder the extraction, or the subsequent analysis, of DNA.

  17. Single-molecule study of DNA polymerization activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase on DNA templates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangjin; Schroeder, Charles M; Xie, X Sunney

    2010-02-05

    HIV-1 RT (human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase) is a multifunctional polymerase responsible for reverse transcription of the HIV genome, including DNA replication on both RNA and DNA templates. During reverse transcription in vivo, HIV-1 RT replicates through various secondary structures on RNA and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) templates without the need for a nucleic acid unwinding protein, such as a helicase. In order to understand the mechanism of polymerization through secondary structures, we investigated the DNA polymerization activity of HIV-1 RT on long ssDNA templates using a multiplexed single-molecule DNA flow-stretching assay. We observed that HIV-1 RT performs fast primer extension DNA synthesis on single-stranded regions of DNA (18.7 nt/s) and switches its activity to slow strand displacement synthesis at DNA hairpin locations (2.3 nt/s). Furthermore, we found that the rate of strand displacement synthesis is dependent on the GC content in hairpin stems and template stretching force. This indicates that the strand displacement synthesis occurs through a mechanism that is neither completely active nor passive: that is, the opening of the DNA hairpin is driven by a combination of free energy released during dNTP (deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate) hydrolysis and thermal fraying of base pairs. Our experimental observations provide new insight into the interchanging modes of DNA replication by HIV-1 RT on long ssDNA templates.

  18. Continuous Zebularine Treatment Effectively Sustains Demethylation in Human Bladder Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jonathan C.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Gonzales, Felicidad A.; Liang, Gangning; Xu, Guo-Liang; Hu, Ye-Guang; Marquez, Victor E.; Jones, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    During tumorigenesis, tumor suppressor and cancer-related genes are commonly silenced by aberrant DNA methylation in their promoter regions. Recently, we reported that zebularine [1-(β-d-ribofuranosyl)-1,2-dihydropyrimidin-2-one] acts as an inhibitor of DNA methylation and exhibits chemical stability and minimal cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Here we show that continuous application of zebularine to T24 cells induces and maintains p16 gene expression and sustains demethylation of the 5′ region for over 40 days, preventing remethylation. In addition, continuous zebularine treatment effectively and globally demethylated various hypermethylated regions, especially CpG-poor regions. The drug caused a complete depletion of extractable DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and partial depletion of DNMT3a and DNMT3b3. Last, sequential treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine followed by zebularine hindered the remethylation of the p16 5′ region and gene resilencing, suggesting the possible combination use of both drugs as a potential anticancer regimen. PMID:14729971

  19. Integrity and Biological Activity of DNA after UV Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Delina Y.; Monier, Jean-Michel; Dupraz, Sébastien; Freissinet, Caroline; Simonet, Pascal; Vogel, Timothy M.

    2010-04-01

    The field of astrobiology lacks a universal marker with which to indicate the presence of life. This study supports the proposal to use nucleic acids, specifically DNA, as a signature of life (biosignature). In addition to its specificity to living organisms, DNA is a functional molecule that can confer new activities and characteristics to other organisms, following the molecular biology dogma, that is, DNA is transcribed to RNA, which is translated into proteins. Previous criticisms of the use of DNA as a biosignature have asserted that DNA molecules would be destroyed by UV radiation in space. To address this concern, DNA in plasmid form was deposited onto different surfaces and exposed to UVC radiation. The surviving DNA was quantified via the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results demonstrate increased survivability of DNA attached to surfaces versus non-adsorbed DNA. The DNA was also tested for biological activity via transformation into the bacterium Acinetobacter sp. and assaying for antibiotic resistance conferred by genes encoded by the plasmid. The success of these methods to detect DNA and its gene products after UV exposure (254 nm, 3.5 J/m2s) not only supports the use of the DNA molecule as a biosignature on mineral surfaces but also demonstrates that the DNA retained biological activity.

  20. A New Class of Quinoline-Based DNA Hypomethylating Agents Reactivates Tumor Suppressor Genes by Blocking DNA Methyltransferase 1 Activity and Inducing Its Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Jharna; Ghoshal, Kalpana; Denny, William A.; Gamage, Swarna A.; Brooke, Darby G.; Phiasivongsa, Pasit; Redkar, Sanjeev; Jacob, Samson T.

    2010-01-01

    Reactivation of silenced tumor suppressor genes by 5-azacytidine (Vidaza) and its congener 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (decitabine) has provided an alternate approach to cancer therapy. We have shown previously that these drugs selectively and rapidly induce degradation of the maintenance DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1 by a proteasomal pathway. Because the toxicity of these compounds is largely due to their incorporation into DNA, it is critical to explore novel, nonnucleoside compounds that can effectively reactivate the silenced genes. Here, we report that a quinoline-based compound, designated SGI-1027, inhibits the activity of DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B as well M. SssI with comparable IC50 (6–13 µ mol/L) by competing with S-adenosylmethionine in the methylation reaction. Treatment of different cancer cell lines with SGI-1027 resulted in selective degradation of DNMT1 with minimal or no effects on DNMT3A and DNMT3B. At a concentration of 2.5 to 5 µmol/L (similar to that of decitabine), complete degradation of DNMT1 protein was achieved within 24 h without significantly affecting its mRNA level. MG132 blocked SGI-1027–induced depletion of DNMT1, indicating the involvement of proteasomal pathway. Prolonged treatment of RKO cells with SGI-1027 led to demethylation and reexpression of the silenced tumor suppressor genes P16, MLH1, and TIMP3. Further, this compound did not exhibit significant toxicity in a rat hepatoma (H4IIE) cell line. This study provides a novel class of DNA hypomethylating agents that have the potential for use in epigenetic cancer therapy. PMID:19417133

  1. Escherichia coli DnaE Polymerase Couples Pyrophosphatase Activity to DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Lapenta, Fabio; Montón Silva, Alejandro; Brandimarti, Renato; Lanzi, Massimiliano; Gratani, Fabio Lino; Vellosillo Gonzalez, Perceval; Perticarari, Sofia; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    DNA Polymerases generate pyrophosphate every time they catalyze a step of DNA elongation. This elongation reaction is generally believed as thermodynamically favoured by the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate, catalyzed by inorganic pyrophosphatases. However, the specific action of inorganic pyrophosphatases coupled to DNA replication in vivo was never demonstrated. Here we show that the Polymerase-Histidinol-Phosphatase (PHP) domain of Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase III α subunit features pyrophosphatase activity. We also show that this activity is inhibited by fluoride, as commonly observed for inorganic pyrophosphatases, and we identified 3 amino acids of the PHP active site. Remarkably, E. coli cells expressing variants of these catalytic residues of α subunit feature aberrant phenotypes, poor viability, and are subject to high mutation frequencies. Our findings indicate that DNA Polymerases can couple DNA elongation and pyrophosphate hydrolysis, providing a mechanism for the control of DNA extension rate, and suggest a promising target for novel antibiotics. PMID:27050298

  2. Design, assembly, and activity of antisense DNA nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Keum, Jung-Won; Ahn, Jin-Ho; Bermudez, Harry

    2011-12-16

    Discrete DNA nanostructures allow simultaneous features not possible with traditional DNA forms: encapsulation of cargo, display of multiple ligands, and resistance to enzymatic digestion. These properties suggested using DNA nanostructures as a delivery platform. Here, DNA pyramids displaying antisense motifs are shown to be able to specifically degrade mRNA and inhibit protein expression in vitro, and they show improved cell uptake and gene silencing when compared to linear DNA. Furthermore, the activity of these pyramids can be regulated by the introduction of an appropriate complementary strand. These results highlight the versatility of DNA nanostructures as functional devices.

  3. A new specific DNA endonuclease activity in yeast mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Sargueil, B; Delahodde, A; Hatat, D; Tian, G L; Lazowska, J; Jacq, C

    1991-02-01

    Two group I intron-encoded proteins from the yeast mitochondrial genome have already been shown to have a specific DNA endonuclease activity. This activity mediates intron insertion by cleaving the DNA sequence corresponding to the splice junction of an intronless strain. We have discovered in mitochondrial extracts from the yeast strain 777-3A a new DNA endonuclease activity which cleaves the fused exon A3-exon A4 junction sequence of the CO XI gene.

  4. SINGLE-MOLECULE STUDY OF DNA POLYMERIZATION ACTIVITY OF HIV-1 REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE ON DNA TEMPLATES

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangjin; Schroeder, Charles M.; Xie, X. Sunney

    2009-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) is a multifunctional polymerase responsible for reverse transcription of the HIV genome, including DNA replication on both RNA and DNA templates. During reverse transcription in vivo, HIV-1 RT replicates through various secondary structures on RNA and single-stranded DNA templates without the need for a nucleic acid unwinding protein, such as a helicase. In order to understand the mechanism of polymerization through secondary structures, we investigated the DNA polymerization activity of HIV-1 RT on long single-stranded DNA templates using a multiplexed single-molecule DNA flow-stretching assay. We observed that HIV-1 RT performs fast primer extension DNA synthesis on single-stranded regions of DNA (18.7 nt/s) and switches its activity to slow strand displacement synthesis at DNA hairpin locations (2.3 nt/s). Furthermore, we found that the rate of strand displacement synthesis is dependent on the GC content in hairpin stems and template stretching force. This indicates that the strand displacement synthesis occurs through a mechanism that is neither completely active nor passive, i.e. the opening of the DNA hairpin is driven by a combination of free energy released during dNTP hydrolysis and thermal fraying of base pairs. Our experimental observations provide new insight into the interchanging modes of DNA replication by HIV-1 RT on long single-stranded DNA templates. PMID:19968999

  5. Influence of HIV antiretrovirals on methadone N-demethylation and transport.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Scott D; Gadel, Sarah; Friedel, Christina; Crafford, Amanda; Regina, Karen J; Kharasch, Evan D

    2015-05-15

    Drug interactions involving methadone and/or HIV antiretrovirals can be problematic. Mechanisms whereby antiretrovirals induce clinical methadone clearance are poorly understood. Methadone is N-demethylated to 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) by CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 in vitro, but by CYP2B6 in vivo. This investigation evaluated human hepatocytes as a model for methadone induction, and tested the hypothesis that methadone and EDDP are substrates for human drug transporters. Human hepatocyte induction by several antiretrovirals of methadone N-demethylation, and CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 transcription, protein expression and catalytic activity, and pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation were evaluated. Methadone and EDDP uptake and efflux by overexpressed transporters were also determined. Methadone N-demethylation was generally not significantly increased by the antiretrovirals. CYP2B6 mRNA and activity (bupropion N-demethylation) were induced by several antiretrovirals, as were CYP3A4 mRNA and protein expression, but only indinavir increased CYP3A activity (alfentanil dealkylation). CYP upregulation appeared related to PXR activation. Methadone was not a substrate for uptake (OCT1, OCT2, OCT3, OATP1A2, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1) or efflux (P-gp, BCRP) transporters. EDDP was a good substrate for P-gp, BCRP, OCT1, OCT3, OATP1A2, and OATP1B1. OATP1A2- and OCT3-mediated EDDP uptake, and BCRP-mediated EDDP efflux transport, was inhibited by several antiretrovirals. Results show that hepatocyte methadone N-demethylation resembles expressed and liver microsomal metabolism more than clinical metabolism. Compared with clinical studies, hepatocytes underreport induction of methadone metabolism by HIV drugs. Hepatocytes are not a good predictive model for clinical antiretroviral induction of methadone metabolism and not a substitute for clinical studies. EDDP is a transporter substrate, and is susceptible to transporter-mediated interactions.

  6. Potent inhibition of DNA unwinding and ATPase activities of pea DNA helicase 45 by DNA-binding agents.

    PubMed

    Pham, Xuan Hoi; Tuteja, Narendra

    2002-06-07

    Pea DNA helicase 45 (PDH45) is an ATP-dependent DNA unwinding enzyme, with intrinsic DNA-dependent ATPase activity [Plant J. 24 (2000) 219]. We have determined the effect of various DNA-binding agents, such as daunorubicin, ethidium bromide, ellipticine, cisplatin, nogalamycin, actinomycin C1, and camptothecin on the DNA unwinding and ATPase activities of the plant nuclear DNA helicase PDH45. The results show that all the agents except actinomycin C1, and camptothecin inhibited the helicase (apparent K(i) values ranging from 1.5 to 7.0 microM) and ATPase (apparent K(i) values ranging from 2.5 to 11.9 microM) activities. This is the first study to show the effect of various DNA-binding agents on the plant nuclear helicase and also first to demonstrate inhibition of any helicase by cisplatin. Another striking finding that the actinomycin C1 and ellipticine act differentially on PDH45 as compared to pea chloroplast helicase suggests that the mechanism of DNA unwinding could be different in nucleus and chloroplast. These results suggest that the intercalation of the inhibitors into duplex DNA generates a complex that impedes translocation of PDH45, resulting in both the inhibitions of unwinding activity and ATP hydrolysis. This study would be useful to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of plant nuclear DNA helicase unwinding and the mechanism by which these agents can disturb genome integrity.

  7. Homologous DNA strand exchange activity of the human mitochondrial DNA helicase TWINKLE

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Doyel; Patel, Gayatri; Patel, Smita S.

    2016-01-01

    A crucial component of the human mitochondrial DNA replisome is the ring-shaped helicase TWINKLE—a phage T7-gene 4-like protein expressed in the nucleus and localized in the human mitochondria. Our previous studies showed that despite being a helicase, TWINKLE has unique DNA annealing activity. At the time, the implications of DNA annealing by TWINKLE were unclear. Herein, we report that TWINKLE uses DNA annealing function to actively catalyze strand-exchange reaction between the unwinding substrate and a homologous single-stranded DNA. Using various biochemical experiments, we demonstrate that the mechanism of strand-exchange involves active coupling of unwinding and annealing reactions by the TWINKLE. Unlike strand-annealing, the strand-exchange reaction requires nucleotide hydrolysis and greatly stimulated by short region of homology between the recombining DNA strands that promote joint molecule formation to initiate strand-exchange. Furthermore, we show that TWINKLE catalyzes branch migration by resolving homologous four-way junction DNA. These four DNA modifying activities of TWINKLE: strand-separation, strand-annealing, strand-exchange and branch migration suggest a dual role of TWINKLE in mitochondrial DNA maintenance. In addition to playing a major role in fork progression during leading strand DNA synthesis, we propose that TWINKLE is involved in recombinational repair of the human mitochondrial DNA. PMID:26887820

  8. IDH mutation impairs histone demethylation and results in a block to cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chao; Ward, Patrick S; Kapoor, Gurpreet S; Rohle, Dan; Turcan, Sevin; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Edwards, Christopher R; Khanin, Raya; Figueroa, Maria E; Melnick, Ari; Wellen, Kathryn E; O'Rourke, Donald M; Berger, Shelley L; Chan, Timothy A; Levine, Ross L; Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Thompson, Craig B

    2012-02-15

    Recurrent mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 have been identified in gliomas, acute myeloid leukaemias (AML) and chondrosarcomas, and share a novel enzymatic property of producing 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) from α-ketoglutarate. Here we report that 2HG-producing IDH mutants can prevent the histone demethylation that is required for lineage-specific progenitor cells to differentiate into terminally differentiated cells. In tumour samples from glioma patients, IDH mutations were associated with a distinct gene expression profile enriched for genes expressed in neural progenitor cells, and this was associated with increased histone methylation. To test whether the ability of IDH mutants to promote histone methylation contributes to a block in cell differentiation in non-transformed cells, we tested the effect of neomorphic IDH mutants on adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Introduction of either mutant IDH or cell-permeable 2HG was associated with repression of the inducible expression of lineage-specific differentiation genes and a block to differentiation. This correlated with a significant increase in repressive histone methylation marks without observable changes in promoter DNA methylation. Gliomas were found to have elevated levels of similar histone repressive marks. Stable transfection of a 2HG-producing mutant IDH into immortalized astrocytes resulted in progressive accumulation of histone methylation. Of the marks examined, increased H3K9 methylation reproducibly preceded a rise in DNA methylation as cells were passaged in culture. Furthermore, we found that the 2HG-inhibitable H3K9 demethylase KDM4C was induced during adipocyte differentiation, and that RNA-interference suppression of KDM4C was sufficient to block differentiation. Together these data demonstrate that 2HG can inhibit histone demethylation and that inhibition of histone demethylation can be sufficient to block the differentiation of non-transformed cells.

  9. Anaerobic Mercury Methylation and Demethylation by Geobacter bemidjiensis Bem

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Xia; Liu, Yurong; Johs, Alexander; ...

    2016-03-28

    Two competing processes controlling the net production and bioaccumulation of neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) in natural ecosystems are microbial methylation and demethylation. Though mercury (Hg) methylation by anaerobic microorganisms and demethylation by aerobic Hg-resistant bacteria have both been extensively studied, little attention has been given to MeHg degradation by anaerobic bacteria, particularly the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter bemidjensis Bem. Here we report, for the first time, that the strain G. bemidjensis Bem can methylate inorganic Hg and degrade MeHg concurrently under anoxic conditions. Our results suggest that G. bemidjensis cells utilize a reductive demethylation pathway to degrade MeHg, with elemental Hg(0) asmore » the major reaction product, possibly due to the presence of homologs encoding both organo-mercurial lyase (MerB) and mercuric reductase (MerA) in this organism. In addition, the cells can mediate multiple reactions including Hg/MeHg sorption, Hg reduction and oxidation, resulting in both time and concentration dependent Hg species transformations. Moderate concentrations (10 500 M) of Hg-binding ligands such as cysteine enhance Hg(II) methylation but inhibit MeHg degradation. These findings indicate a cycle of methylation and demethylation among anaerobic bacteria and suggest that mer-mediated demethylation may play a role in the net balance of MeHg production in anoxic water and sediments.« less

  10. Metabolic demethylation of the insecticide dimethylvinphos in rats, in dogs, and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Crawford, M J; Hutson, D H; King, P A

    1976-12-01

    1. The alkenyl phosphate insecticide, dimethylvinphos, is rapidly metabolized and eliminated by rats and dogs. 2. Metabolism proceeds via demethylation followed by the hydrolysis of desmethyl dimethylvinphos to 2,4-dichlorophenacyl chloride which is further metabolized mainly to 2,4-dichloromandelic acid, 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)ethanol (glucuronide) and 2,4-dichlorphenylethanediol (glucuronide). 3. The dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenacyl chloride to 2,4-dichloroacetophenone proceeds via the spontaneous formation of S-(2,4-dichlorophenacyl) glutathione which is converted to the ketone by an enzyme-catalysed glutathione-dependent reaction. 4. Demethylation of dimethylvinphos occurs in liver fractions via the action of two enzymes: glutathione S-methyl transferase in the cytosol, and microsomal mono-oxygenase. The relatively high activities of both enzymes in dog liver (compared with rat liver) partly account for the observed differences in metabolism and toxicity of dimethylvinphos in the two species. 5. The glutathione transferase is enhanced twofold by pre-treatment of rats with 0-1% phenobarbital in their drinking water. This treatment also induces the microsomal demethylation 45-fold and results in a greater than 13-fold protective effect against the acute toxic effects of dimethylvinphos.

  11. Electronic Activation of a DNA Nanodevice Using a Multilayer Nanofilm.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyejoong; Ranallo, Simona; Rossetti, Marianna; Heo, Jiwoong; Shin, Jooseok; Park, Kwangyong; Ricci, Francesco; Hong, Jinkee

    2016-10-01

    A method to control activation of a DNA nanodevice by supplying a complementary DNA (cDNA) strand from an electro-responsive nanoplatform is reported. To develop functional nanoplatform, hexalayer nanofilm is precisely designed by layer-by-layer assembly technique based on electrostatic interaction with four kinds of materials: Hydrolyzed poly(β-amino ester) can help cDNA release from the film. A cDNA is used as a key building block to activate DNA nanodevice. Reduced graphene oxides (rGOs) and the conductive polymer provide conductivity. In particular, rGOs efficiently incorporate a cDNA in the film via several interactions and act as a barrier. Depending on the types of applied electronic stimuli (reductive and oxidative potentials), a cDNA released from the electrode can quantitatively control the activation of DNA nanodevice. From this report, a new system is successfully demonstrated to precisely control DNA release on demand. By applying more advanced form of DNA-based nanodevices into multilayer system, the electro-responsive nanoplatform will expand the availability of DNA nanotechnology allowing its improved application in areas such as diagnosis, biosensing, bioimaging, and drug delivery.

  12. Cytochrome P450 3A Enzymes Catalyze the O6-Demethylation of Thebaine, a Key Step in Endogenous Mammalian Morphine Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kramlinger, Valerie M; Alvarado Rojas, Mónica; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Guengerich, F Peter

    2015-08-14

    Morphine, first characterized in opium from the poppy Papaver somniferum, is one of the strongest known analgesics. Endogenous morphine has been identified in several mammalian cells and tissues. The synthetic pathway of morphine in the opium poppy has been elucidated. The presence of common intermediates in plants and mammals suggests that biosynthesis occurs through similar pathways (beginning with the amino acid L-tyrosine), and the pathway has been completely delineated in plants. Some of the enzymes in the mammalian pathway have been identified and characterized. Two of the latter steps in the morphine biosynthesis pathway are demethylation of thebaine at the O(3)- and the O(6)-positions, the latter of which has been difficult to demonstrate. The plant enzymes responsible for both the O(3)-demethylation and the O(6)-demethylation are members of the Fe(II)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase family. Previous studies showed that human cytochrome P450 (P450) 2D6 can catalyze thebaine O(3)-demethylation. We report that demethylation of thebaine at the O(6)-position is selectively catalyzed by human P450s 3A4 and 3A5, with the latter being more efficient, and rat P450 3A2. Our results do not support O(6)-demethylation of thebaine by an Fe(II)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase. In rat brain microsomes, O(6)-demethylation was inhibited by ketoconazole, but not sulfaphenazole, suggesting that P450 3A enzymes are responsible for this activity in the brain. An alternate pathway to morphine, oripavine O(6)-demethylation, was not detected. The major enzymatic steps in mammalian morphine synthesis have now been identified.

  13. Effect of. gamma. -irradiated DNA on the activity of DNA polymerase. [/sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Leadon, S.A.; Ward, J.F.

    1981-06-01

    A cell-free assay was developed to measure the effect of ..gamma..-irradiated DNA template on the ability of DNA polymerase to copy unirradiated template. Doses as low as 1 krad were able to decrease (approx. 15%) the activity of both bacterial and mammalian DNA polymerases in the assay. The percentage of polymerase activity decreased as the dose received by the template increased. The reduction in DNA polymerase activity was shown to be due to an inhibition of the enzyme by the irradiated DNA. Irradiated poly(dA-dT) was more effective in reducing polymerase activity than calf thymus DNA. Thus the polymerase-inhibition site(s) appears to be associated with base damage, specifically adenine or thymine. Using a free-radical scavenger, OH radicals were found to be involved in producing the damage sites. The interaction between irradiated DNA and DNA polymerase was found to be specific for the enzyme and not for other proteins present in the assay. The inhibition of DNA polymerase occurred prior to or during the initiation of DNA synthesis rather than after initiation of synthesis, i.e., during elongation.

  14. DNA replication origin activation in space and time.

    PubMed

    Fragkos, Michalis; Ganier, Olivier; Coulombe, Philippe; Méchali, Marcel

    2015-06-01

    DNA replication begins with the assembly of pre-replication complexes (pre-RCs) at thousands of DNA replication origins during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. At the G1-S-phase transition, pre-RCs are converted into pre-initiation complexes, in which the replicative helicase is activated, leading to DNA unwinding and initiation of DNA synthesis. However, only a subset of origins are activated during any S phase. Recent insights into the mechanisms underlying this choice reveal how flexibility in origin usage and temporal activation are linked to chromosome structure and organization, cell growth and differentiation, and replication stress.

  15. A DNA enzyme with N-glycosylase activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, T. L.; Ordoukhanian, P.; Joyce, G. F.

    2000-01-01

    In vitro evolution was used to develop a DNA enzyme that catalyzes the site-specific depurination of DNA with a catalytic rate enhancement of about 10(6)-fold. The reaction involves hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of a particular deoxyguanosine residue, leading to DNA strand scission at the apurinic site. The DNA enzyme contains 93 nucleotides and is structurally complex. It has an absolute requirement for a divalent metal cation and exhibits optimal activity at about pH 5. The mechanism of the reaction was confirmed by analysis of the cleavage products by using HPLC and mass spectrometry. The isolation and characterization of an N-glycosylase DNA enzyme demonstrates that single-stranded DNA, like RNA and proteins, can form a complex tertiary structure and catalyze a difficult biochemical transformation. This DNA enzyme provides a new approach for the site-specific cleavage of DNA molecules.

  16. A strong strand displacement activity of thermostable DNA polymerase markedly improves the results of DNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Ignatov, Konstantin B; Barsova, Ekaterina V; Fradkov, Arkady F; Blagodatskikh, Konstantin A; Kramarova, Tatiana V; Kramarov, Vladimir M

    2014-08-01

    The sensitivity and robustness of various DNA detection and amplification techniques are to a large extent determined by the properties of the DNA polymerase used. We have compared the performance of conventional Taq and Bst DNA polymerases to a novel Taq DNA polymerase mutant (SD DNA polymerase), which has a strong strand displacement activity, in PCR (including amplification of GC-rich and complex secondary structure templates), long-range PCR (LR PCR), loop-mediated amplification (LAMP), and polymerase chain displacement reaction (PCDR). Our results demonstrate that the strand displacement activity of SD DNA polymerase, in combination with the robust polymerase activity, provides a notable improvement in the sensitivity and efficiency of all these methods.

  17. New methodology for the N-demethylation of opiate alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zemin; Scammells, Peter J

    2007-12-21

    N-Demethylation is a key step in the preparation of a number of semisynthetic opiate pharmaceuticals. Herein we report a high-yielding, catalytic procedure for the N-demethylation of opiates which has a number of advantages over existing methods. For example, tetrasodium 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-sulfophenyl)porphyrinatoiron(II) (0.3 molar equiv) effected the transformation of codeine methyl ether to the corresponding N-nor analogue in 91% yield. The catalyst was readily removed and recycled.

  18. Stimulation of the DNA unwinding activity of human DNA helicase II/Ku by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ochem, Alexander E; Rechreche, Hocine; Skopac, Doris; Falaschi, Arturo

    2008-02-01

    The Ku autoantigen is a heterodimeric protein of 70- and 83-kDa subunits, endowed with duplex DNA end-binding capacity and DNA helicase activity (Human DNA Helicase II, HDH II). HDH II/Ku is well established as the DNA binding component, the regulatory subunit as well as a substrate for the DNA-dependent protein kinase DNA-PK, a complex involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks and in V(D)J recombination in eukaryotes. The effects of phosphorylation by this kinase on the helicase activity of Escherichia coli-produced HDH II/Ku were studied. The rate of DNA unwinding by recombinant HDH II/Ku heterodimer is stimulated at least fivefold upon phosphorylation by DNA-PK(cs). This stimulation is due to the effective transfer of phosphate residues to the helicase rather than the mere presence of the complex. In vitro dephosphorylation of HeLa cellular HDH II/Ku caused a significant decrease in the DNA helicase activity of this enzyme.

  19. The quinobenzoxazines: relationship between DNA binding and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Y; Sun, D; Clement, J J; Hurley, L H

    1999-10-01

    The quinobenzoxazine compounds, derived from antibacterial quinolones, is active in vitro and in vivo against murine and human tumors. In this contribution, we show that the relative DNA binding affinity of the quinobenzoxazine compounds correlates with their cytotoxicity, their ability to inhibit gyrase-DNA complex formation, and the decatenation of kinetoplast DNA by human topoisomerase II. DNA binding studies with the descarboxy-A-62176 analogue indicate that the beta-keto acid moiety of the quinobenzoxazine compounds plays an important role in their interaction with DNA.

  20. Heavy-ion radiation induces both activation of multiple endogenous transposable elements and alterations in DNA methylation in rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meng; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Xishan; Xiaolin, Cui; Li, Xiang

    2012-07-01

    Space radiation represents a complex environmental condition in which several interacting factors such as electron, neutron, proton, heavy-ion are involved, which may provoke stress responses and jeopardize genome integrity. Given the inherent property of epigenetic modifications to respond to intrinsic aswell as external perturbations, it is conceivable that epigenetic markers like DNA methylation and transposition may undergo alterations in response to space radiation. Cytosine DNA methylation plays important roles in maintaining genome stability and controlling gene expression. A predominant means for Transposable elements (TEs) to cause genetic instability is via their transpositional activation. To find the detailed molecular characterization of the nature of genomic changes induced by space radiation, the seeds of rice were exposed to 0.02, 0.2, 1, 2 and 20 Gy dose of ^{12}C heavy-ion radiation, respectively. We found that extensive alteration in both DNA methylation and gene expression occurred in rice plants after different dose of heavy-ion radiation. Here we shown that heavy-ion radiation has induced transposition of mPing and Tos17 in rice, which belong to distinct classes including the miniature inverted terminal repeat TEs (MITEs) and long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, respectively. mPing and Tos17 mobility were found to correlate with cytosine methylation alteration detected by MSAP and genetic variation detected by AFLP. The result showed that at least in some cases transposition of TEs was associated with cytosine demethylation within the elements. Our results implicate that the heavy-ion radiation represents a potent mutagenic agent that can cause genomic instabilities by eliciting transposition of endogenous TEs in rice. Keywords: Heavy-ion radiation, DNA methylation, Transposable elements, mPing, Tos17

  1. DNA nuclease activity of Rev-coupled transition metal chelates.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Jeff C; Keuper, Kevin D; Cowan, J A

    2012-06-07

    Artificial nucleases containing Rev-coupled metal chelates based on combinations of the transition metals Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), and Cu(2+) and the chelators DOTA, DTPA, EDTA, NTA, tripeptide GGH, and tetrapeptide KGHK have been tested for DNA nuclease activity. Originally designed to target reactive transition metal chelates (M-chelates) to the HIV-1 Rev response element mRNA, attachment to the arginine-rich Rev peptide also increases DNA-binding affinity for the attached M-chelates. Apparent K(D) values ranging from 1.7 to 3.6 µM base pairs for binding of supercoiled pUC19 plasmid DNA by Ni-chelate-Rev complexes were observed, as a result of electrostatic attraction between the positively-charged Rev peptide and negatively-charged DNA. Attachment of M-chelates to the Rev peptide resulted in enhancements of DNA nuclease activity ranging from 1-fold (no enhancement) to at least 13-fold (for Cu-DTPA-Rev), for the rate of DNA nicking, with second order rate constants for conversion of DNA(supercoiled) to DNA(nicked) up to 6 × 10(6) M(-1) min(-1), and for conversion of DNA(nicked) to DNA(linear) up to 1 × 10(5) M(-1) min(-1). Freifelder-Trumbo analysis and the ratios of linearization and nicking rate constants (k(lin)/k(nick)) revealed concerted mechanisms for nicking and subsequent linearization of plasmid DNA for all of the Rev-coupled M-chelates, consistent with higher DNA residency times for the Rev-coupled M-chelates. Observed rates for Rev-coupled M-chelates were less skewed by differing DNA-binding affinities than for M-chelates lacking Rev, as a result of the narrow range of DNA-binding affinities observed, and therefore relationships between DNA nuclease activity and other catalyst properties, such as coordination unsaturation, the ability to consume ascorbic acid and generate diffusible radicals, and the identity of the metal center, are now clearly illustrated in light of the similar DNA-binding affinities of all M-chelate-Rev complexes. This work

  2. Heterogeneity of mammalian DNA ligase detected on activity and DNA sequencing gels.

    PubMed Central

    Mezzina, M; Sarasin, A; Politi, N; Bertazzoni, U

    1984-01-01

    A new method to detect DNA ligase activity in situ after NaDodSO4 polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis has been developed. After renaturation of active polypeptides the ligase reaction occurs in situ by incubating the intact gel in the presence of Mg++ and ATP. Further treatment with alkaline phosphatase removes the unligated 5'-32P-end of oligo (dT) used as a substrate and active polypeptides having ligase activity are identified by autoradiography. Analysis on DNA sequencing gels of the oligo (dT) reaction products present in the activity bands ensures that the radioactive material detected in activity gels or in standard in vitro ligase assays corresponds unambiguously to a ligase activity. Using these methods, we have analysed the purified phage T4 DNA ligase, and the activities present in crude extracts and in purified fractions from monkey kidney (CV1-P) cells. The purified T4 enzyme yields one or two active peptides with Mr values of 60,000 and 70,000. Crude extracts from CV1-P cells contain several polypeptides having DNA ligase activity. Partial purification of these extracts shows that DNA ligase I isolated from hydroxylapatite column is enriched in polypeptides with Mr 200,000, 150,000 and 120,000, while DNA ligase II is enriched in those with Mr 60,000 and 70,000. Images PMID:6377238

  3. Covalent modification of DNA regulates memory formation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Courtney A; Sweatt, J David

    2007-03-15

    DNA methylation is a covalent chemical modification of DNA catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). DNA methylation is associated with transcriptional silencing and has been studied extensively as a lifelong molecular information storage mechanism put in place during development. Here we report that DNMT gene expression is upregulated in the adult rat hippocampus following contextual fear conditioning and that DNMT inhibition blocks memory formation. In addition, fear conditioning is associated with rapid methylation and transcriptional silencing of the memory suppressor gene PP1 and demethylation and transcriptional activation of the synaptic plasticity gene reelin, indicating both methyltransferase and demethylase activity during consolidation. DNMT inhibition prevents the PP1 methylation increase, resulting in aberrant transcription of the gene during the memory-consolidation period. These results demonstrate that DNA methylation is dynamically regulated in the adult nervous system and that this cellular mechanism is a crucial step in memory formation.

  4. Reduced DNA topoisomerase II activity in ataxia-telangiectasia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, S P; Mohamed, R; Salmond, C; Lavin, M F

    1988-01-01

    Considerable evidence supports a defect at the level of chromatin structure or recognition of that structure in cells from patients with the human genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia. Accordingly, we have investigated the activities of enzymes that alter the topology of DNA in Epstein Barr Virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cells from patients with this syndrome. Reduced activity of DNA topoisomerase II, determined by unknotting of P4 phage DNA, was observed in partially purified extracts from 5 ataxia-telangiectasia cell lines. The levels of enzyme activity was reduced substantially in 4 of these cell lines and to a lesser extent in the other cell line compared to controls. DNA topoisomerase I, assayed by relaxation of supercoiled DNA, was found to be present at comparable levels in both cell types. Reduced activity of topoisomerase II in ataxia-telangiectasia is compatible with the molecular, cellular and clinical changes described in this syndrome. Images PMID:2836804

  5. 5-Methylcytosine DNA glycosylase activity is also present in the human MBD4 (G/T mismatch glycosylase) and in a related avian sequence.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B; Zheng, Y; Angliker, H; Schwarz, S; Thiry, S; Siegmann, M; Jost, J P

    2000-11-01

    A 1468 bp cDNA coding for the chicken homolog of the human MBD4 G/T mismatch DNA glycosylase was isolated and sequenced. The derived amino acid sequence (416 amino acids) shows 46% identity with the human MBD4 and the conserved catalytic region at the C-terminal end (170 amino acids) has 90% identity. The non-conserved region of the avian protein has no consensus sequence for the methylated DNA binding domain. The recombinant proteins from human and chicken have G/T mismatch as well as 5-methylcytosine (5-MeC) DNA glycosylase activities. When tested by gel shift assays, human recombinant protein with or without the methylated DNA binding domain binds equally well to symmetrically, hemimethylated DNA and non-methylated DNA. However, the enzyme has only 5-MeC DNA glycosylase activity with the hemimethylated DNA. Footprinting of human MBD4 and of an N-terminal deletion mutant with partially depurinated and depyrimidinated substrate reveal a selective binding of the proteins to the modified substrate around the CpG. As for 5-MeC DNA glycosylase purified from chicken embryos, MBD4 does not use oligonucleotides containing mCpA, mCpT or mCpC as substrates. An mCpG within an A+T-rich oligonucleotide is a much better substrate than an A+T-poor sequence. The K:(m) of human MBD4 for hemimethylated DNA is approximately 10(-7) M with a V:(max) of approximately 10(-11) mol/h/microgram protein. Deletion mutations show that G/T mismatch and 5-MeC DNA glycosylase are located in the C-terminal conserved region. In sharp contrast to the 5-MeC DNA glycosylase isolated from the chicken embryo DNA demethylation complex, the two enzymatic activities of MBD4 are strongly inhibited by RNA. In situ hybridization with antisense RNA indicate that MBD4 is only located in dividing cells of differentiating embryonic tissues.

  6. Heterochromatin Protein 1a stimulates histone H3 lysine 36 demethylation by the Drosophila KDM4A demethylase

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Hui; Li, Bing; Swanson, Selene; Zhang, Ying; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Abmayr, Susan M.; Workman, Jerry L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Recent discoveries of histone demethylases demonstrate that histone methylation is reversible. However, mechanisms governing the targeting and regulation of histone demethylation remain elusive. Here we report that a Drosophila melanogaster JmjC domain-containing protein, dKDM4A, is a histone H3K36 demethylase. dKDM4A specifically demethylates H3K36me2 and me3 both in vitro and in vivo. Affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis revealed that Heterochromatin Protein 1a (HP1a) associates with dKDMA4A. We found that the chromoshadow domain of HP1a and a HP1-interacting motif of dKDM4A are responsible for this interaction. HP1a stimulates the histone H3K36 demethylation activity of dKDM4A and this stimulation depends on the H3K9me binding motif of HP1a. Finally, we provide in vivo evidence suggesting that HP1a and dKDM4A interact with each other and loss of HP1a leads to increased level of histone H3K36me3. Collectively, these results suggest a function of HP1a in transcription facilitating H3K36 demethylation at transcribed and/or heterochromatin regions. PMID:19061644

  7. Anaerobic Mercury Methylation and Demethylation by Geobacter bemidjiensis Bem.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xia; Liu, Yurong; Johs, Alexander; Zhao, Linduo; Wang, Tieshan; Yang, Ziming; Lin, Hui; Elias, Dwayne A; Pierce, Eric M; Liang, Liyuan; Barkay, Tamar; Gu, Baohua

    2016-04-19

    Microbial methylation and demethylation are two competing processes controlling the net production and bioaccumulation of neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) in natural ecosystems. Although mercury (Hg) methylation by anaerobic microorganisms and demethylation by aerobic Hg-resistant bacteria have both been extensively studied, little attention has been given to MeHg degradation by anaerobic bacteria, particularly the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter bemidjiensis Bem. Here we report, for the first time, that the strain G. bemidjiensis Bem can mediate a suite of Hg transformations, including Hg(II) reduction, Hg(0) oxidation, MeHg production and degradation under anoxic conditions. Results suggest that G. bemidjiensis utilizes a reductive demethylation pathway to degrade MeHg, with elemental Hg(0) as the major reaction product, possibly due to the presence of genes encoding homologues of an organomercurial lyase (MerB) and a mercuric reductase (MerA). In addition, the cells can strongly sorb Hg(II) and MeHg, reduce or oxidize Hg, resulting in both time and concentration-dependent Hg species transformations. Moderate concentrations (10-500 μM) of Hg-binding ligands such as cysteine enhance Hg(II) methylation but inhibit MeHg degradation. These findings indicate a cycle of Hg methylation and demethylation among anaerobic bacteria, thereby influencing net MeHg production in anoxic water and sediments.

  8. Environmental DNA (eDNA) Detection Probability Is Influenced by Seasonal Activity of Organisms

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Lesley S.; Godwin, James C.; Renshaw, Mark A.; Larson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) holds great promise for conservation applications like the monitoring of invasive or imperiled species, yet this emerging technique requires ongoing testing in order to determine the contexts over which it is effective. For example, little research to date has evaluated how seasonality of organism behavior or activity may influence detection probability of eDNA. We applied eDNA to survey for two highly imperiled species endemic to the upper Black Warrior River basin in Alabama, US: the Black Warrior Waterdog (Necturus alabamensis) and the Flattened Musk Turtle (Sternotherus depressus). Importantly, these species have contrasting patterns of seasonal activity, with N. alabamensis more active in the cool season (October-April) and S. depressus more active in the warm season (May-September). We surveyed sites historically occupied by these species across cool and warm seasons over two years with replicated eDNA water samples, which were analyzed in the laboratory using species-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. We then used occupancy estimation with detection probability modeling to evaluate both the effects of landscape attributes on organism presence and season of sampling on detection probability of eDNA. Importantly, we found that season strongly affected eDNA detection probability for both species, with N. alabamensis having higher eDNA detection probabilities during the cool season and S. depressus have higher eDNA detection probabilities during the warm season. These results illustrate the influence of organismal behavior or activity on eDNA detection in the environment and identify an important role for basic natural history in designing eDNA monitoring programs. PMID:27776150

  9. Environmental DNA (eDNA) Detection Probability Is Influenced by Seasonal Activity of Organisms.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Lesley S; Godwin, James C; Renshaw, Mark A; Larson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) holds great promise for conservation applications like the monitoring of invasive or imperiled species, yet this emerging technique requires ongoing testing in order to determine the contexts over which it is effective. For example, little research to date has evaluated how seasonality of organism behavior or activity may influence detection probability of eDNA. We applied eDNA to survey for two highly imperiled species endemic to the upper Black Warrior River basin in Alabama, US: the Black Warrior Waterdog (Necturus alabamensis) and the Flattened Musk Turtle (Sternotherus depressus). Importantly, these species have contrasting patterns of seasonal activity, with N. alabamensis more active in the cool season (October-April) and S. depressus more active in the warm season (May-September). We surveyed sites historically occupied by these species across cool and warm seasons over two years with replicated eDNA water samples, which were analyzed in the laboratory using species-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. We then used occupancy estimation with detection probability modeling to evaluate both the effects of landscape attributes on organism presence and season of sampling on detection probability of eDNA. Importantly, we found that season strongly affected eDNA detection probability for both species, with N. alabamensis having higher eDNA detection probabilities during the cool season and S. depressus have higher eDNA detection probabilities during the warm season. These results illustrate the influence of organismal behavior or activity on eDNA detection in the environment and identify an important role for basic natural history in designing eDNA monitoring programs.

  10. DNA helicase activity in purified human RECQL4 protein.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Ishimi, Yukio

    2009-09-01

    Human RECQL4 protein was expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus protein expression system and it was purified to near homogeneity. The protein sedimented at a position between catalase (230 kDa) and ferritin (440 kDa) in glycerol gradient centrifugation, suggesting that it forms homo-multimers. Activity to displace annealed 17-mer oligonucleotide in the presence of ATP was co-sedimented with hRECQL4 protein. In ion-exchange chromatography, both DNA helicase activity and single-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase activity were co-eluted with hRECQL4 protein. The requirements of ATP and Mg for the helicase activity were different from those for the ATPase activity. The data suggest that the helicase migrates on single-stranded DNA in a 3'-5' direction. These results suggest that the hRECQL4 protein exhibits DNA helicase activity.

  11. MES16, a member of the methylesterase protein family, specifically demethylates fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites during chlorophyll breakdown in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Christ, Bastien; Schelbert, Silvia; Aubry, Sylvain; Süssenbacher, Iris; Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard; Hörtensteiner, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    During leaf senescence, chlorophyll (Chl) is broken down to nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs). These arise from intermediary fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (FCCs) by an acid-catalyzed isomerization inside the vacuole. The chemical structures of NCCs from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) indicate the presence of an enzyme activity that demethylates the C13(2)-carboxymethyl group present at the isocyclic ring of Chl. Here, we identified this activity as methylesterase family member 16 (MES16; At4g16690). During senescence, mes16 leaves exhibited a strong ultraviolet-excitable fluorescence, which resulted from large amounts of different FCCs accumulating in the mutants. As confirmed by mass spectrometry, these FCCs had an intact carboxymethyl group, which slowed down their isomerization to respective NCCs. Like a homologous protein cloned from radish (Raphanus sativus) and named pheophorbidase, MES16 catalyzed the demethylation of pheophorbide, an early intermediate of Chl breakdown, in vitro, but MES16 also demethylated an FCC. To determine the in vivo substrate of MES16, we analyzed pheophorbide a oxygenase1 (pao1), which is deficient in pheophorbide catabolism and accumulates pheophorbide in the chloroplast, and a mes16pao1 double mutant. In the pao1 background, we additionally mistargeted MES16 to the chloroplast. Normally, MES16 localizes to the cytosol, as shown by analysis of a MES16-green fluorescent protein fusion. Analysis of the accumulating pigments in these lines revealed that pheophorbide is only accessible for demethylation when MES16 is targeted to the chloroplast. Together, these data demonstrate that MES16 is an integral component of Chl breakdown in Arabidopsis and specifically demethylates Chl catabolites at the level of FCCs in the cytosol.

  12. The exonuclease activity of DNA polymerase γ is required for ligation during mitochondrial DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Macao, Bertil; Uhler, Jay P.; Siibak, Triinu; Zhu, Xuefeng; Shi, Yonghong; Sheng, Wenwen; Olsson, Monica; Stewart, James B.; Gustafsson, Claes M.; Falkenberg, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase γ (POLγ) harbours a 3′–5′ exonuclease proofreading activity. Here we demonstrate that this activity is required for the creation of ligatable ends during mtDNA replication. Exonuclease-deficient POLγ fails to pause on reaching a downstream 5′-end. Instead, the enzyme continues to polymerize into double-stranded DNA, creating an unligatable 5′-flap. Disease-associated mutations can both increase and decrease exonuclease activity and consequently impair DNA ligation. In mice, inactivation of the exonuclease activity causes an increase in mtDNA mutations and premature ageing phenotypes. These mutator mice also contain high levels of truncated, linear fragments of mtDNA. We demonstrate that the formation of these fragments is due to impaired ligation, causing nicks near the origin of heavy-strand DNA replication. In the subsequent round of replication, the nicks lead to double-strand breaks and linear fragment formation. PMID:26095671

  13. Oxidized mitochondrial DNA activates the NLRP3 inflammasome during apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kenichi; Crother, Timothy R; Karlin, Justin; Dagvadorj, Jargalsaikhan; Chiba, Norika; Chen, Shuang; Ramanujan, V Krishnan; Wolf, Andrea J; Vergnes, Laurent; Ojcius, David M; Rentsendorj, Altan; Vargas, Mario; Guerrero, Candace; Wang, Yinsheng; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Underhill, David M; Town, Terrence; Arditi, Moshe

    2012-03-23

    We report that in the presence of signal 1 (NF-κB), the NLRP3 inflammasome was activated by mitochondrial apoptotic signaling that licensed production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). NLRP3 secondary signal activators such as ATP induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, resulting in release of oxidized mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the cytosol, where it bound to and activated the NLRP3 inflammasome. The antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 inversely regulated mitochondrial dysfunction and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Mitochondrial DNA directly induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, because macrophages lacking mtDNA had severely attenuated IL-1β production, yet still underwent apoptosis. Both binding of oxidized mtDNA to the NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1β secretion could be competitively inhibited by the oxidized nucleoside 8-OH-dG. Thus, our data reveal that oxidized mtDNA released during programmed cell death causes activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. These results provide a missing link between apoptosis and inflammasome activation, via binding of cytosolic oxidized mtDNA to the NLRP3 inflammasome.

  14. Oxidized Mitochondrial DNA Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome During Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Kenichi; Crother, Timothy R.; Karlin, Justin; Dagvadorj, Jargalsaikhan; Chiba, Norika; Chen, Shuang; Ramanujan, V. Krishnan; Wolf, Andrea J.; Vergnes, Laurent; Ojcius, David M.; Rentsendorj, Altan; Vargas, Mario; Guerrero, Candace; Wang, Yinsheng; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Underhill, David M.; Town, Terrence; Arditi, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY We report that in the presence of signal 1 (NF-κB), the NLRP3 inflammasome was activated by mitochondrial apoptotic signaling that licensed production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). NLRP3 secondary signal activators such as ATP induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, resulting in release of oxidized mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the cytosol, where it bound to and activated the NLRP3 inflammasome. The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 inversely regulated mitochondrial dysfunction and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Mitochondrial DNA directly induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, because macrophages lacking mtDNA had severely attenuated IL-1β production, yet still underwent apoptosis. Both binding of oxidized mtDNA to the NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1β secretion could be competitively inhibited by the oxidized nucleoside, 8-OH-dG. Thus, our data reveal that oxidized mtDNA released during programmed cell death causes activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. These results provide a missing link between apoptosis and inflammasome activation, via binding of cytosolic oxidized mtDNA to the NLRP3 inflammasome. PMID:22342844

  15. The DnaE polymerase from Deinococcus radiodurans features RecA-dependent DNA polymerase activity

    PubMed Central

    Randi, Lorenzo; Perrone, Alessandro; Maturi, Mirko; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Camerani, Michela; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    We report in the present study on the catalytic properties of the Deinococcus radiodurans DNA polymerase III α subunit (αDr). The αDr enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, both in soluble form and as inclusion bodies. When purified from soluble protein extracts, αDr was found to be tightly associated with E. coli RNA polymerase, from which αDr could not be dissociated. On the contrary, when refolded from inclusion bodies, αDr was devoid of E. coli RNA polymerase and was purified to homogeneity. When assayed with different DNA substrates, αDr featured slower DNA extension rates when compared with the corresponding enzyme from E. coli (E. coli DNA Pol III, αEc), unless under high ionic strength conditions or in the presence of manganese. Further assays were performed using a ssDNA and a dsDNA, whose recombination yields a DNA substrate. Surprisingly, αDr was found to be incapable of recombination-dependent DNA polymerase activity, whereas αEc was competent in this action. However, in the presence of the RecA recombinase, αDr was able to efficiently extend the DNA substrate produced by recombination. Upon comparing the rates of RecA-dependent and RecA-independent DNA polymerase activities, we detected a significant activation of αDr by the recombinase. Conversely, the activity of αEc was found maximal under non-recombination conditions. Overall, our observations indicate a sharp contrast between the catalytic actions of αDr and αEc, with αDr more performing under recombination conditions, and αEc preferring DNA substrates whose extension does not require recombination events. PMID:27789781

  16. Importance of tetrahydrofolate and ATP in the anaerobic O-demethylation reaction for phenylmethylethers

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.H.; Frazer, A.C. )

    1992-03-01

    DL-Tetrahydrofolate (THF) and ATP were necessary for the anaerobic O-demethylation of phenylmethylethers in cell extracts of the type strain (ATCC 29683) of the homoacetogen Acetobacterium woodii. The reactants for this enzymatic activity have not been previously demonstrated in any system, nor has the mediating enzyme been studied. An assay using reaction mixtures containing 1 mM THF, 2 mM ATP, and 2 mM hydroferulate (i.e., 4-hydroxy,3-methoxyphenylpropionate) was developed and was performed under stringent anaerobic conditions. Pyridine nucleotides and several other possible cofactors were tested but had no effect on the activity. After centrifugation of disrupted cells at 27,000 x g, the activity was found primarily in the supernatant, which had a specific activity of 14.2 {plus minus} 0.5 nmol/min/mg of protein. At saturating levels of each of the other two substrates, apparent K{sub m} values for the variable substrate were 0.65 mM hydroferulate, 0.27 mM ATP, and 0.17 mM THF. Activity was significantly decreased when extract was preincubated at 60C and was completely lost after preincubation in air for 30 min. Thus, the soluble anaerobic O-demethylating enzyme system of A. woodii is oxygen sensitive. The THF- and ATP-dependent activity measurable in the soluble fraction of cell extracts constituted about 34% of the activity seen with intact cells.

  17. Cytosolic DNA triggers inflammasome activation in keratinocytes in psoriatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Dombrowski, Yvonne; Peric, Mark; Koglin, Sarah; Kammerbauer, Claudia; Göss, Christine; Anz, David; Simanski, Maren; Gläser, Regine; Harder, Jürgen; Hornung, Veit; Gallo, Richard L; Ruzicka, Thomas; Besch, Robert; Schauber, Jürgen

    2011-05-11

    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) plays a central role in the pathogenesis and the course of inflammatory skin diseases, including psoriasis. Posttranscriptional activation of IL-1β is mediated by inflammasomes; however, the mechanisms triggering IL-1β processing remain unknown. Recently, cytosolic DNA has been identified as a danger signal that activates inflammasomes containing the DNA sensor AIM2. In this study, we detected abundant cytosolic DNA and increased AIM2 expression in keratinocytes in psoriatic lesions but not in healthy skin. In cultured keratinocytes, interferon-γ induced AIM2, and cytosolic DNA triggered the release of IL-1β via the AIM2 inflammasome. Moreover, the antimicrobial cathelicidin peptide LL-37, which can interact with DNA in psoriatic skin, neutralized cytosolic DNA in keratinocytes and blocked AIM2 inflammasome activation. Together, these data suggest that cytosolic DNA is an important disease-associated molecular pattern that can trigger AIM2 inflammasome and IL-1β activation in psoriasis. Furthermore, cathelicidin LL-37 interfered with DNA-sensing inflammasomes, which thereby suggests an anti-inflammatory function for this peptide. Thus, our data reveal a link between the AIM2 inflammasome, cathelicidin LL-37, and autoinflammation in psoriasis, providing new potential targets for the treatment of this chronic skin disease.

  18. Methadone N-demethylation by the common CYP2B6 allelic variant CYP2B6.6.

    PubMed

    Gadel, Sarah; Crafford, Amanda; Regina, Karen; Kharasch, Evan D

    2013-04-01

    The long-acting opioid methadone displays considerable unexplained interindividual pharmacokinetic variability. Methadone metabolism clinically occurs primarily by N-demethylation to 2-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), catalyzed predominantly by CYP2B6. Retrospective studies suggest that the common allele variant CYP2B6*6 may influence methadone plasma concentrations. The catalytic activity of CYP2B6.6, encoded by CYP2B6*6, is highly substrate-dependent. This investigation compared methadone N-demethylation by CYP2B6.6 with that by wild-type CYP2B6.1. Methadone enantiomer and racemate N-demethylation by recombinant-expressed CYP2B6.6 and CYP2B6.1 was determined. At substrate concentrations (0.25-2 µM) approximating plasma concentrations occurring clinically, rates of methadone enantiomer N-demethylation by CYP2B6.6, incubated individually or as the racemate, were one-third to one-fourth those by CYP2B6.1. For methadone individual enantiomers and metabolism by CYP2B6.6 compared with CYP2B6.1, Vmax was diminished, Ks was greater and the in vitro intrinsic clearance was diminished 5- to 6-fold. The intrinsic clearance for R- and S-EDDP formation from racemic methadone was diminished approximately 6-fold and 3-fold for R- and S-methadone, respectively. Both CYP2B6.6 and CYP2B6.1 showed similar stereoselectivity (S>R-methadone). Human liver microsomes with diminished CYP2B6 content due to a CYP2B6*6 allele had lower rates of methadone N-demethylation. Results show that methadone N-demethylation catalyzed by CYP2B6.6, the CYP2B6 variant encoded by the CYP2B6*6 polymorphism, is catalytically deficient compared with wild-type CYP2B6.1. Diminished methadone N-demethylation by CYP2B6.6 may provide a mechanistic explanation for clinical observations of altered methadone disposition in individuals carrying the CYP2B6*6 polymorphism.

  19. DNA methylation and differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Michalowsky, L A; Jones, P A

    1989-01-01

    The methylation of specific cytosine residues in DNA has been implicated in regulating gene expression and facilitating functional specialization of cellular phenotypes. Generally, the demethylation of certain CpG sites correlates with transcriptional activation of genes. 5-Azacytidine is an inhibitor of DNA methylation and has been widely used as a potent activator of suppressed genetic information. Treatment of cells with 5-azacytidine results in profound phenotypic alterations. The drug-induced hypomethylation of DNA apparently perturbs DNA-protein interactions that may consequently alter transcriptional activity and cell determination. The inhibitory effect of cytosine methylation may be exerted via altered DNA-protein interactions specifically or may be transduced by a change in the conformation of chromatin. Recent studies have demonstrated that cytosine methylation also plays a central role in parental imprinting, which in turn determines the differential expression of maternal and paternal genomes during embryogenesis. In other words, methylation is the mechanism whereby the embryo retains memory of the gametic origin of each component of genetic information. A memory of this type would probably persist during DNA replication and cell division as methylation patterns are stable and heritable. PMID:2466640

  20. Hepatic microsomal N-oxidation and N-demethylation of N,N-dimethylaniline in red-winged blackbird compared with rat and other birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pan, H.P.; Fouts, J.R.; Devereux, T.R.

    1975-01-01

    Hepatic microsomes prepared from red-winged blackbirds and albino rats were incubated with N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA)_in complete incubation mixtures at pH 7.9 and 37?C for 10 min. Formaldehyde and N,N-dimethylaniline--oxide produced from DMA were measured. Redwings were found to have significantly lower N-demethylation activities than rats, and redwings had only marginal or no N-oxidation activities. Hepatic microsomes from redwings did not further metabolize the N-oxide. The N-oxidation and N-demethylation activities of brown-headed cowbirds, common grackles, and starlings were similar to those of redwings.

  1. Persistence of cytosine methylation of DNA following fertilisation in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; O'Neill, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Normal development of the mammalian embryo requires epigenetic reprogramming of the genome. The level of cytosine methylation of CpG-rich (5meC) regions of the genome is a major epigenetic regulator and active global demethylation of 5meC throughout the genome is reported to occur within the first cell-cycle following fertilization. An enzyme or mechanism capable of catalysing such rapid global demethylation has not been identified. The mouse is a widely used model for studying developmental epigenetics. We have reassessed the evidence for this phenomenon of genome-wide demethylation following fertilisation in the mouse. We found when using conventional methods of immunolocalization that 5meC showed a progressive acid-resistant antigenic masking during zygotic maturation which gave the appearance of demethylation. Changing the unmasking strategy by also performing tryptic digestion revealed a persistence of a methylated state. Analysis of methyl binding domain 1 protein (MBD1) binding confirmed that the genome remained methylated following fertilisation. The maintenance of this methylated state over the first several cell-cycles required the actions of DNA methyltransferase activity. The study shows that any 5meC remodelling that occurs during early development is not explained by a global active loss of 5meC staining during the cleavage stage of development and global loss of methylation following fertilization is not a major component of epigenetic reprogramming in the mouse zygote.

  2. DNA hybridization activity of single-stranded DNA-conjugated gold nanoparticles used as probes for DNA detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kira, Atsushi; Matsuo, Kosuke; Nakajima, Shin-ichiro

    2016-02-01

    Colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) have potential applications in bio-sensing technologies as labels or signal enhancers. In order to meet demands for a development of biomolecular assays by a quantitative understanding of single-molecule, it is necessary to regulate accuracy of the NPs probes modified with biomolecules to optimize the characteristics of NPs. However, to our knowledge, there is little information about the structural effect of conjugated biomolecules to the NPs. In this study, we investigated the contribution of a density of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) conjugating gold NP to hybridization activity. Hybridization activity decreased in accordance with increases in the density of attached ssDNAs, likely due to electrostatic repulsion generated by negatively charged phosphate groups in the ssDNA backbone. These results highlight the importance of controlling the density of ssDNAs attached to the surface of NPs used as DNA detection probes.

  3. Pyrrolamide DNA gyrase inhibitors: optimization of antibacterial activity and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Sherer, Brian A; Hull, Kenneth; Green, Oluyinka; Basarab, Gregory; Hauck, Sheila; Hill, Pamela; Loch, James T; Mullen, George; Bist, Shanta; Bryant, Joanna; Boriack-Sjodin, Ann; Read, Jon; DeGrace, Nancy; Uria-Nickelsen, Maria; Illingworth, Ruth N; Eakin, Ann E

    2011-12-15

    The pyrrolamides are a new class of antibacterial agents targeting DNA gyrase, an essential enzyme across bacterial species and inhibition results in the disruption of DNA synthesis and subsequently, cell death. The optimization of biochemical activity and other drug-like properties through substitutions to the pyrrole, piperidine, and heterocycle portions of the molecule resulted in pyrrolamides with improved cellular activity and in vivo efficacy.

  4. Schistosome satellite DNA encodes active hammerhead ribozymes.

    PubMed

    Ferbeyre, G; Smith, J M; Cedergren, R

    1998-07-01

    Using a computer program designed to search for RNA structural motifs in sequence databases, we have found a hammerhead ribozyme domain encoded in the Smalpha repetitive DNA of Schistosoma mansoni. Transcripts of these repeats are expressed as long multimeric precursor RNAs that cleave in vitro and in vivo into unit-length fragments. This RNA domain is able to engage in both cis and trans cleavage typical of the hammerhead ribozyme. Further computer analysis of S. mansoni DNA identified a potential trans cleavage site in the gene coding for a synaptobrevin-like protein, and RNA transcribed from this gene was efficiently cleaved by the Smalpha ribozyme in vitro. Similar families of repeats containing the hammerhead domain were found in the closely related Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosomatium douthitti species but were not present in Schistosoma japonicum or Heterobilharzia americana, suggesting that the hammerhead domain was not acquired from a common schistosome ancestor.

  5. Protein–DNA charge transport: Redox activation of a DNA repair protein by guanine radical

    PubMed Central

    Yavin, Eylon; Boal, Amie K.; Stemp, Eric D. A.; Boon, Elizabeth M.; Livingston, Alison L.; O'Shea, Valerie L.; David, Sheila S.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2005-01-01

    DNA charge transport (CT) chemistry provides a route to carry out oxidative DNA damage from a distance in a reaction that is sensitive to DNA mismatches and lesions. Here, DNA-mediated CT also leads to oxidation of a DNA-bound base excision repair enzyme, MutY. DNA-bound Ru(III), generated through a flash/quench technique, is found to promote oxidation of the [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster of MutY to [4Fe-4S]3+ and its decomposition product [3Fe-4S]1+. Flash/quench experiments monitored by EPR spectroscopy reveal spectra with g = 2.08, 2.06, and 2.02, characteristic of the oxidized clusters. Transient absorption spectra of poly(dGC) and [Ru(phen)2dppz]3+ (dppz = dipyridophenazine), generated in situ, show an absorption characteristic of the guanine radical that is depleted in the presence of MutY with formation instead of a long-lived species with an absorption at 405 nm; we attribute this absorption also to formation of the oxidized [4Fe-4S]3+ and [3Fe-4S]1+ clusters. In ruthenium-tethered DNA assemblies, oxidative damage to the 5′-G of a 5′-GG-3′ doublet is generated from a distance but this irreversible damage is inhibited by MutY and instead EPR experiments reveal cluster oxidation. With ruthenium-tethered assemblies containing duplex versus single-stranded regions, MutY oxidation is found to be mediated by the DNA duplex, with guanine radical as an intermediate oxidant; guanine radical formation facilitates MutY oxidation. A model is proposed for the redox activation of DNA repair proteins through DNA CT, with guanine radicals, the first product under oxidative stress, in oxidizing the DNA-bound repair proteins, providing the signal to stimulate DNA repair. PMID:15738421

  6. Activation of cellular signaling by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1-initiated DNA base excision repair.

    PubMed

    German, Peter; Szaniszlo, Peter; Hajas, Gyorgy; Radak, Zsolt; Bacsi, Attila; Hazra, Tapas K; Hegde, Muralidhar L; Ba, Xueqing; Boldogh, Istvan

    2013-10-01

    Accumulation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) in the DNA results in genetic instability and mutagenesis, and is believed to contribute to carcinogenesis, aging processes and various aging-related diseases. 8-OxoG is removed from the DNA via DNA base excision repair (BER), initiated by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 (OGG1). Our recent studies have shown that OGG1 binds its repair product 8-oxoG base with high affinity at a site independent from its DNA lesion-recognizing catalytic site and the OGG1•8-oxoG complex physically interacts with canonical Ras family members. Furthermore, exogenously added 8-oxoG base enters the cells and activates Ras GTPases; however, a link has not yet been established between cell signaling and DNA BER, which is the endogenous source of the 8-oxoG base. In this study, we utilized KG-1 cells expressing a temperature-sensitive mutant OGG1, siRNA ablation of gene expression, and a variety of molecular biological assays to define a link between OGG1-BER and cellular signaling. The results show that due to activation of OGG1-BER, 8-oxoG base is released from the genome in sufficient quantities for activation of Ras GTPase and resulting in phosphorylation of the downstream Ras targets Raf1, MEK1,2 and ERK1,2. These results demonstrate a previously unrecognized mechanism for cellular responses to OGG1-initiated DNA BER.

  7. HMG Proteins and DNA Flexibility in Transcription Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Eric D.; Hardwidge, Philip R.; Maher, L. James

    2001-01-01

    The relative stiffness of naked DNA is evident from measured values of longitudinal persistence length (∼150 bp) and torsional persistence length (∼180 bp). These parameters predict that certain arrangements of eukaryotic transcription activator proteins in gene promoters should be much more effective than others in fostering protein-protein interactions with the basal RNA polymerase II transcription apparatus. Thus, if such interactions require some kind of DNA looping, DNA loop energies should depend sensitively on helical phasing of protein binding sites, loop size, and intrinsic DNA curvature within the loop. Using families of artificial transcription templates where these parameters were varied, we were surprised to find that the degree of transcription activation by arrays of Gal4-VP1 transcription activators in HeLa cell nuclear extract was sensitive only to the linear distance separating a basal promoter from an array of bound activators on DNA templates. We now examine the hypothesis that this unexpected result is due to factors in the extract that act to enhance apparent DNA flexibility. We demonstrate that HeLa cell nuclear extract is rich in a heat-resistant activity that dramatically enhances apparent DNA longitudinal and torsional flexibility. Recombinant mammalian high-mobility group 2 (HMG-2) protein can substitute for this activity. We propose that the abundance of HMG proteins in eukaryotic nuclei provides an environment in which DNA is made sufficiently flexible to remove many constraints on protein binding site arrangements that would otherwise limit efficient transcription activation to certain promoter geometries. PMID:11533247

  8. Aven-dependent activation of ATM following DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jessie Yanxiang; Yamada, Ayumi; Kajino, Taisuke; Wu, Judy Qiju; Tang, Wanli; Freel, Christopher D.; Feng, Junjie; Chau, B. Nelson; Wang, Michael Zhuo; Margolis, Seth; Yoo, Hae Yong; Wang, Xiao-Fan; Dunphy, William G.; Irusta, Pablo M.; Hardwick, J. Marie; Kornbluth, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background In response to DNA damage, cells either undergo cell cycle arrest or apoptosis, depending on the extent of damage and the cell’s capacity for DNA repair. Cell cycle arrest induced by double-stranded DNA breaks depends on activation of the ataxia-telangiectasia (ATM) protein kinase, which phosphorylates cell cycle effectors such as Chk2 and p53 to inhibit cell cycle progression. ATM is recruited to double stranded DNA breaks by a complex of sensor proteins including Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1, resulting in autophosphorylation, monomerization, and activation of ATM kinase. Results In characterizing Aven protein, a previously reported apoptotic inhibitor, we have found that Aven can function as an ATM activator to inhibit G2/M progression. Aven bound to ATM and Aven overexpression in cycling Xenopus egg extracts prevented mitotic entry and induced phosphorylation of ATM and its substrates. Immunodepletion of endogenous Aven allowed mitotic entry even in the presence of damaged DNA, and RNAi-mediated knock-down of Aven in human cells prevented autophosphorylation of ATM at an activating site (S1981) in response to DNA damage. Interestingly, Aven is also a substrate of the ATM kinase. Mutation of ATM-mediated phosphorylation sites on Aven reduced its ability to activate ATM, suggesting that Aven activation of ATM following DNA damage is enhanced by ATM-mediated Aven phosphorylation. Conclusions These results identify Aven as a new ATM activator and describe a positive feedback loop operating between Aven and ATM. In aggregate, these findings place Aven, a known apoptotic inhibitor, as a critical transducer of the DNA damage signal. PMID:18571408

  9. Playing TETris with DNA modifications

    PubMed Central

    Delatte, Benjamin; Deplus, Rachel; Fuks, François

    2014-01-01

    Methylation of the fifth carbon of cytosine was the first epigenetic modification to be discovered in DNA. Recently, three new DNA modifications have come to light: hydroxymethylcytosine, formylcytosine, and carboxylcytosine, all generated by oxidation of methylcytosine by Ten Eleven Translocation (TET) enzymes. These modifications can initiate full DNA demethylation, but they are also likely to participate, like methylcytosine, in epigenetic signalling per se. A scenario is emerging in which coordinated regulation at multiple levels governs the participation of TETs in a wide range of physiological functions, sometimes via a mechanism unrelated to their enzymatic activity. Although still under construction, a sophisticated picture is rapidly forming where, according to the function to be performed, TETs ensure epigenetic marking to create specific landscapes, and whose improper build-up can lead to diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24825349

  10. Viruses and the DNA Damage Response: Activation and Antagonism.

    PubMed

    Luftig, Micah A

    2014-11-01

    Viruses must interact with their hosts in order to replicate; these interactions often provoke the evolutionarily conserved response to DNA damage, known as the DNA damage response (DDR). The DDR can be activated by incoming viral DNA, during the integration of retroviruses, or in response to the aberrant DNA structures generated upon replication of DNA viruses. Furthermore, DNA and RNA viral proteins can induce the DDR by promoting inappropriate S phase entry, by modifying cellular DDR factors directly, or by unintentionally targeting host DNA. The DDR may be antiviral, although viruses often require proximal DDR activation of repair and recombination factors to facilitate replication as well as downstream DDR signaling suppression to ensure cell survival. An unintended consequence of DDR attenuation during infection is the long-term survival and proliferation of precancerous cells. Therefore, the molecular basis for DDR activation and attenuation by viruses remains an important area of study that will likely provide key insights into how viruses have evolved with their hosts.

  11. Hyperosmotic stress memory in Arabidopsis is mediated by distinct epigenetically labile sites in the genome and is restricted in the male germline by DNA glycosylase activity

    PubMed Central

    Wibowo, Anjar; Becker, Claude; Marconi, Gianpiero; Durr, Julius; Price, Jonathan; Hagmann, Jorg; Papareddy, Ranjith; Putra, Hadi; Kageyama, Jorge; Becker, Jorg; Weigel, Detlef; Gutierrez-Marcos, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Inducible epigenetic changes in eukaryotes are believed to enable rapid adaptation to environmental fluctuations. We have found distinct regions of the Arabidopsis genome that are susceptible to DNA (de)methylation in response to hyperosmotic stress. The stress-induced epigenetic changes are associated with conditionally heritable adaptive phenotypic stress responses. However, these stress responses are primarily transmitted to the next generation through the female lineage due to widespread DNA glycosylase activity in the male germline, and extensively reset in the absence of stress. Using the CNI1/ATL31 locus as an example, we demonstrate that epigenetically targeted sequences function as distantly-acting control elements of antisense long non-coding RNAs, which in turn regulate targeted gene expression in response to stress. Collectively, our findings reveal that plants use a highly dynamic maternal ‘short-term stress memory’ with which to respond to adverse external conditions. This transient memory relies on the DNA methylation machinery and associated transcriptional changes to extend the phenotypic plasticity accessible to the immediate offspring. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13546.001 PMID:27242129

  12. Demethylation of Polymethoxyflavones by Human Gut Bacterium, Blautia sp. MRG-PMF1.

    PubMed

    Burapan, Supawadee; Kim, Mihyang; Han, Jaehong

    2017-03-01

    Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) were biotransformed to various demethylated metabolites in the human intestine by the PMF-metabolizing bacterium, Blautia sp. MRG-PMF1. Because the newly formed metabolites can have different biological activities, the pathways and regioselectivity of PMF bioconversion were investigated. Using an anaerobic in vitro study, 12 PMFs, 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (5,7-DMF), 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (5-OH-7-MF), 3,5,7-trimethoxyflavone (3,5,7-TMF), 5-hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone (5-OH-3,7-DMF), 5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (5,7,4'-TMF), 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (5-OH-7,4'-DMF), 3,5,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (3,5,7,4'-TMF), 5-hydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (5-OH-3,7,4'-TMF), 5,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (5,7,3',4'-TMF), 3,5,7,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone (3,5,7,3',4'-PMF), 5-hydroxy-3,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (5-OH-3,7,3',4'-TMF), and 5,3'-dihydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (5,3'-diOH-3,7,4'-TMF), were converted to chrysin, apigenin, galangin, kaempferol, luteolin, and quercetin after complete demethylation. The time-course monitoring of PMF biotransformations elucidated bioconversion pathways, including the identification of metabolic intermediates. As a robust flavonoid demethylase, regioselectivity of PMF demethylation generally followed the order C-7 > C-4' ≈ C-3' > C-5 > C-3. PMF demethylase in the MRG-PMF1 strain was suggested as a Co-corrinoid methyltransferase system, and this was supported by the experiments utilizing other methyl aryl ether substrates and inhibitors.

  13. Dynamic DNA methylation patterns across the mouse and human IL10 genes during CD4+ T cell activation; influence of IL-27.

    PubMed

    Hedrich, Christian M; Ramakrishnan, Amritha; Dabitao, Djeneba; Wang, Fengying; Ranatunga, Dilini; Bream, Jay H

    2010-01-01

    IL-10 plays a critical role in controlling inflammation and the anti-inflammatory functions of IL-10 are regulated based on its coordinated expression from various cellular sources, most notably T cells. Although nearly all CD4+ subpopulations can express IL-10, surprisingly little is known about the molecular mechanisms which control IL-10 induction, particularly in humans. To examine the regulation of human IL-10 expression, we created the hIL10BAC transgenic mouse. As previously reported, we observed conservation of myeloid-derived IL-10 expression but found that human IL-10 was only weakly expressed in splenic CD4+ T cells from hIL10BAC mice. Since DNA methylation is an important determinant of gene expression profiles, we assessed the patterns of DNA methylation in the human and mouse IL10 genes in naïve and activated CD4+ T cells. Across mouse and human IL10 there were no obvious patterns of CpG methylation in naïve CD4+ T cells following polyclonal activation. Overall however, the human IL10 gene had significantly higher levels of DNA methylation. Interestingly, coculture with the IL-10-inducing cytokine IL-27 lead to a site-specific reduction in methylation of the mouse but not human IL10 gene. Demethylation was specifically localized to an intronic site adjacent to a known regulatory region. Our findings indicate that while the mouse and human IL10 genes undergo variable changes in DNA methylation during CD4+ T cell activation, IL-27 appears to influence DNA methylation in a particular intronic region thus associating with IL-10 expression.

  14. Cell-Free DNA and Active Rejection in Kidney Allografts.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Roy D; Bromberg, Jonathan S; Poggio, Emilio D; Bunnapradist, Suphamai; Langone, Anthony J; Sood, Puneet; Matas, Arthur J; Mehta, Shikha; Mannon, Roslyn B; Sharfuddin, Asif; Fischbach, Bernard; Narayanan, Mohanram; Jordan, Stanley C; Cohen, David; Weir, Matthew R; Hiller, David; Prasad, Preethi; Woodward, Robert N; Grskovic, Marica; Sninsky, John J; Yee, James P; Brennan, Daniel C

    2017-03-09

    Histologic analysis of the allograft biopsy specimen is the standard method used to differentiate rejection from other injury in kidney transplants. Donor-derived cell-free DNA (dd-cfDNA) is a noninvasive test of allograft injury that may enable more frequent, quantitative, and safer assessment of allograft rejection and injury status. To investigate this possibility, we prospectively collected blood specimens at scheduled intervals and at the time of clinically indicated biopsies. In 102 kidney recipients, we measured plasma levels of dd-cfDNA and correlated the levels with allograft rejection status ascertained by histology in 107 biopsy specimens. The dd-cfDNA level discriminated between biopsy specimens showing any rejection (T cell-mediated rejection or antibody-mediated rejection [ABMR]) and controls (no rejection histologically), P<0.001 (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve [AUC], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.61 to 0.86). Positive and negative predictive values for active rejection at a cutoff of 1.0% dd-cfDNA were 61% and 84%, respectively. The AUC for discriminating ABMR from samples without ABMR was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.97). Positive and negative predictive values for ABMR at a cutoff of 1.0% dd-cfDNA were 44% and 96%, respectively. Median dd-cfDNA was 2.9% (ABMR), 1.2% (T cell-mediated types ≥IB), 0.2% (T cell-mediated type IA), and 0.3% in controls (P=0.05 for T cell-mediated rejection types ≥IB versus controls). Thus, dd-cfDNA may be used to assess allograft rejection and injury; dd-cfDNA levels <1% reflect the absence of active rejection (T cell-mediated type ≥IB or ABMR) and levels >1% indicate a probability of active rejection.

  15. Dietary compound isoliquiritigenin prevents mammary carcinogenesis by inhibiting breast cancer stem cells through WIF1 demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Xie, Xiaoming; Shen, Jiangang; Peng, Cheng; You, Jieshu; Peng, Fu; Tang, Hailin; Guan, Xinyuan; Chen, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered as the root of mammary tumorigenesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that ISL efficiently limited the activities of breast CSCs. However, the cancer prevention activities of ISL and its precise molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we report a novel function of ISL as a natural demethylation agent targeting WIF1 to prevent breast cancer. ISL administration suppressed in vivo breast cancer initiation and progression, accompanied by reduced CSC-like populations. A global gene expression profile assay further identified WIF1 as the main response gene of ISL treatment, accompanied by the simultaneous downregulation of β-catenin signaling and G0/G1 phase arrest in breast CSCs. In addition, WIF1 inhibition significantly relieved the CSC-limiting effects of ISL and methylation analysis further revealed that ISL enhanced WIF1 gene expression via promoting the demethylation of its promoter, which was closely correlated with the inhibition of DNMT1 methyltransferase. Molecular docking analysis finally revealed that ISL could stably dock into the catalytic domain of DNMT1. Taken together, our findings not only provide preclinical evidence to demonstrate the use of ISL as a dietary supplement to inhibit mammary carcinogenesis but also shed novel light on WIF1 as an epigenetic target for breast cancer prevention. PMID:25918249

  16. Activation of the DNA Damage Response by RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Ellis L.; Hollingworth, Robert; Grand, Roger J.

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses are a genetically diverse group of pathogens that are responsible for some of the most prevalent and lethal human diseases. Numerous viruses introduce DNA damage and genetic instability in host cells during their lifecycles and some species also manipulate components of the DNA damage response (DDR), a complex and sophisticated series of cellular pathways that have evolved to detect and repair DNA lesions. Activation and manipulation of the DDR by DNA viruses has been extensively studied. It is apparent, however, that many RNA viruses can also induce significant DNA damage, even in cases where viral replication takes place exclusively in the cytoplasm. DNA damage can contribute to the pathogenesis of RNA viruses through the triggering of apoptosis, stimulation of inflammatory immune responses and the introduction of deleterious mutations that can increase the risk of tumorigenesis. In addition, activation of DDR pathways can contribute positively to replication of viral RNA genomes. Elucidation of the interactions between RNA viruses and the DDR has provided important insights into modulation of host cell functions by these pathogens. This review summarises the current literature regarding activation and manipulation of the DDR by several medically important RNA viruses. PMID:26751489

  17. Quercetin-Iron Complex: Synthesis, Characterization, Antioxidant, DNA Binding, DNA Cleavage, and Antibacterial Activity Studies.

    PubMed

    Raza, Aun; Xu, Xiuquan; Xia, Li; Xia, Changkun; Tang, Jian; Ouyang, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Quercetin-iron (II) complex was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron micrography and molar conductivity. The low molar conductivity value investigates the non-electrolyte nature of the complex. The elemental analysis and other physical and spectroscopic methods reveal the 1:2 stoichiometric ratio (metal:ligand) of the complex. Antioxidant study of the quercetin and its metal complex against 2, 2-di-phenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical showed that the complex has much more radical scavenging activity than free quercetin. The interaction of quercetin-iron (II) complex with DNA was determined using ultraviolet visible spectra, fluorescence spectra and agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that quercetin-iron (II) complex can intercalate moderately with DNA, quench a strong intercalator ethidium bromide and compete for the intercalative binding sites. The complex showed significant cleavage of pBR 322 DNA from supercoiled form to nicked circular form and these cleavage effects were dose-dependent. Moreover, the mechanism of DNA cleavage indicated that it was an oxidative cleavage pathway. These results revealed the potential nuclease activity of complex to cleave DNA. In addition, antibacterial activity of complex on E.coli and S. aureus was also investigated. The results showed that complex has higher antibacterial activity than ligand.

  18. Aniline mustard analogues of the DNA-intercalating agent amsacrine: DNA interaction and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Fan, J Y; Valu, K K; Woodgate, P D; Baguley, B C; Denny, W A

    1997-04-01

    Two series of analogues of the clinical antileukemic drug and DNA-intercalating ligand amsacrine have been prepared, containing aniline mustard sidechains of varying reactivity, linked either at the 4-position of the intercalating acridine chromophore (type A) or at the 1'-position of the 9-anilino group (type B). DNase I footprinting assays showed that compounds of type B had stronger reversible binding to DNA than did compounds of type A. Compounds of each type showed similar patterns of alkylation-induced cleavage of DNA, and alkylate at the N7 of guanines in runs of guanines (similar to the pattern for untargeted mustards) as well as some adenines. Both classes of compounds crosslinked DNA, although those bearing relatively inactive mustards did so only at high drug/base pair ratios. However, while the patterns of DNA alkylation were broadly similar, the compounds were considerably more cytotoxic than analogous untargeted mustards. Comparison of their cytotoxicities in wild-type and DNA repair-deficient lines indicated this toxicity was due to DNA crosslinks (except for the least reactive SO2-linked mustards). The 4-linked analogues showed slightly higher in vivo antileukemic activity than the corresponding 1'-linked analogues.

  19. PCNA Mono-ubiquitination and Activation of Translesion DNA Polymerases by DNA Polymerase α

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Motoshi; Niimi, Atsuko; Limsirichaikul, Siripan; Tomida, Shuta; Miao, Huang Qin; Izuta, Shunji; Usukura, Jiro; Itoh, Yasutomo; Hishida, Takashi; Akashi, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Pavlov, Youri; Murate, Takashi; Takahashi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) involves PCNA mono-ubiquitination and TLS DNA polymerases (pols). Recent evidence has shown that the mono-ubiquitination is induced not only by DNA damage but also by other factors that induce stalling of the DNA replication fork. We studied the effect of spontaneous DNA replication errors on PCNA mono-ubiquitination and TLS induction. In the pol1L868F strain, which expressed an error-prone pol α, PCNA was spontaneously mono-ubiquitinated. Pol α L868F had a rate-limiting step at the extension from mismatched primer termini. Electron microscopic observation showed the accumulation of a single-stranded region at the DNA replication fork in yeast cells. For pol α errors, pol ζ participated in a generation of +1 frameshifts. Furthermore, in the pol1L868F strain, UV-induced mutations were lower than in the wild-type and a pol δ mutant strain (pol3-5DV), and deletion of the RAD30 gene (pol η) suppressed this defect. These data suggest that nucleotide misincorporation by pol α induces exposure of single-stranded DNA, PCNA mono-ubiquitination, and activates TLS pols. PMID:19279190

  20. DNA polymerase-α regulates type I interferon activation through cytosolic RNA:DNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Starokadomskyy, Petro; Gemelli, Terry; Rios, Jonathan J.; Xing, Chao; Wang, Richard C.; Li, Haiying; Pokatayev, Vladislav; Dozmorov, Igor; Khan, Shaheen; Miyata, Naoteru; Fraile, Guadalupe; Raj, Prithvi; Xu, Zhe; Xu, Zigang; Ma, Lin; Lin, Zhimiao; Wang, Huijun; Yang, Yong; Ben-Amitai, Dan; Orenstein, Naama; Mussaffi, Huda; Baselga, Eulalia; Tadini, Gianluca; Grunebaum, Eyal; Sarajlija, Adrijan; Krzewski, Konrad; Wakeland, Edward K.; Yan, Nan; de la Morena, Maria Teresa; Zinn, Andrew R.; Burstein, Ezra

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant nucleic acids generated during viral replication are the main trigger for antiviral immunity, and mutations disrupting nucleic acid metabolism can lead to autoinflammatory disorders. Here we investigated the etiology of X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder (XLPDR), a primary immunodeficiency with autoinflammatory features. We discovered that XLPDR is caused by an intronic mutation that disrupts expression of POLA1, the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase-α. Unexpectedly, POLA1 deficiency results in increased type I interferon production. This enzyme is necessary for RNA:DNA primer synthesis during DNA replication and strikingly, POLA1 is also required for the synthesis of cytosolic RNA:DNA, which directly modulates interferon activation. Altogether, this work identified POLA1 as a critical regulator of the type I interferon response. PMID:27019227

  1. Recognition of Histone H3K4 Trimethylation by the Plant Homeodomain of PHF2 Modulates Histone Demethylation

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Hong; Li, Jingzhi; Song, Tanjing; Lu, Ming; Kan, Pu-Yeh; Lee, Min Gyu; Sha, Bingdong; Shi, Xiaobing

    2010-10-28

    Distinct lysine methylation marks on histones create dynamic signatures deciphered by the 'effector' modules, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We identified the plant homeodomain- and Jumonji C domain-containing protein PHF2 as a novel histone H3K9 demethylase. We show in biochemical and crystallographic analyses that PHF2 recognizes histone H3K4 trimethylation through its plant homeodomain finger and that this interaction is essential for PHF2 occupancy and H3K9 demethylation at rDNA promoters. Our study provides molecular insights into the mechanism by which distinct effector domains within a protein cooperatively modulate the 'cross-talk' of histone modifications.

  2. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β regulates leucine-309 demethylation of protein phosphatase-2A via PPMT1 and PME-1.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiu-Qing; Li, Xia-Chun; Zhang, Xiao-Xue; Yin, Yang-Yang; Liu, Bin; Luo, Dan-Ju; Wang, Qun; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Gong-Ping

    2012-07-30

    Protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) activity is significantly suppressed in Alzheimer's disease. We have reported that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibits PP2A via upregulating the phosphorylation of PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2A(C)). Here we studied the effects of GSK-3β on the inhibitory demethylation of PP2A at leucine-309 (dmL309-PP2A(C)). We found that GSK-3β regulates dmL309-PP2A(C) level by regulating PME-1 and PPMT1. Knockdown of PME-1 or PPMT1 eliminated the effects of GSK-3β on PP2A(C). GSK-3 could negatively regulate PP2A regulatory subunit protein level. We conclude that GSK-3β can inhibit PP2A by increasing the inhibitory L309-demethylation involving upregulation of PME-1 and inhibition of PPMT1.

  3. Activation of polyomavirus DNA replication by yeast GAL4 is dependent on its transcriptional activation domains.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett-Cook, E R; Hassell, J A

    1991-01-01

    The polyomavirus replication origin contains transcriptional regulatory sequences. To determine how these elements function in DNA replication, and to learn whether a common mechanism underlies the activation of transcription and DNA replication, we tested whether a well-characterized transcriptional activator, yeast GAL4, was capable of stimulating DNA replication and transcription in the same mammalian cell line. We observed that GAL4 activated polyomavirus DNA replication in mouse cells when its binding site was juxtaposed to the late border of the polyomavirus origin core. Synergistic activation of DNA replication was achieved by multimerization of the GAL4 binding site. Analysis of GAL4 mutant proteins, GAL4 hybrid proteins and mutants of the latter revealed that the activation domains of these transcriptional activators were required to stimulate DNA replication. In agreement with previously published data, the activation domains of GAL4 were also required to enhance transcription in the same mouse cell line. These observations implicate transcriptional activators in Py DNA replication and suggest that similar mechanisms govern the activation of transcription and DNA replication. Images PMID:1849079

  4. Plasma-activated air mediates plasmid DNA delivery in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Edelblute, Chelsea M; Heller, Loree C; Malik, Muhammad A; Bulysheva, Anna; Heller, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-activated air (PAA) provides a noncontact DNA transfer platform. In the current study, PAA was used for the delivery of plasmid DNA in a 3D human skin model, as well as in vivo. Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding luciferase to recellularized dermal constructs was enhanced, resulting in a fourfold increase in luciferase expression over 120 hours compared to injection only (P < 0.05). Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was confirmed in the epidermal layers of the construct. In vivo experiments were performed in BALB/c mice, with skin as the delivery target. PAA exposure significantly enhanced luciferase expression levels 460-fold in exposed sites compared to levels obtained from the injection of plasmid DNA alone (P < 0.001). Expression levels were enhanced when the plasma reactor was positioned more distant from the injection site. Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding GFP to mouse skin was confirmed by immunostaining, where a 3-minute exposure at a 10 mm distance displayed delivery distribution deep within the dermal layers compared to an exposure at 3 mm where GFP expression was localized within the epidermis. Our findings suggest PAA-mediated delivery warrants further exploration as an alternative approach for DNA transfer for skin targets. PMID:27110584

  5. Activation of DNA damage response signaling by condensed chromatin.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Rebecca C; Burman, Bharat; Kruhlak, Michael J; Misteli, Tom

    2014-12-11

    The DNA damage response (DDR) occurs in the context of chromatin, and architectural features of chromatin have been implicated in DNA damage signaling and repair. Whereas a role of chromatin decondensation in the DDR is well established, we show here that chromatin condensation is integral to DDR signaling. We find that, in response to DNA damage chromatin regions transiently expand before undergoing extensive compaction. Using a protein-chromatin-tethering system to create defined chromatin domains, we show that interference with chromatin condensation results in failure to fully activate DDR. Conversely, forced induction of local chromatin condensation promotes ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)- and ATR-dependent activation of upstream DDR signaling in a break-independent manner. Whereas persistent chromatin compaction enhanced upstream DDR signaling from irradiation-induced breaks, it reduced recovery and survival after damage. Our results demonstrate that chromatin condensation is sufficient for activation of DDR signaling and is an integral part of physiological DDR signaling.

  6. Brain feminization requires active repression of masculinization via DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Bridget M.; Wright, Christopher L.; Shetty, Amol C.; Hodes, Georgia E.; Lenz, Kathryn M.; Mahurkar, Anup; Russo, Scott J.; Devine, Scott E.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    The developing mammalian brain is destined for a female phenotype unless exposed to gonadal hormones during a perinatal sensitive period. It has been assumed that the undifferentiated brain is masculinized by direct induction of transcription by ligand-activated nuclear steroid receptors. We found that a primary effect of gonadal steroids in the highly sexually-dimorphic preoptic area (POA) is to reduce activity of DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) enzymes, thereby decreasing DNA methylation and releasing masculinizing genes from epigenetic repression. Pharmacological inhibition of Dnmts mimicked gonadal steroids, resulting in masculinized neuronal markers and male sexual behavior in females. Conditional knockout of the de novo Dnmt isoform, Dnmt3a, also masculinized sexual behavior in female mice. RNA sequencing revealed gene and isoform variants modulated by methylation that may underlie the divergent reproductive behaviors of males versus females. Our data show that brain feminization is maintained by the active suppression of masculinization via DNA methylation. PMID:25821913

  7. Dynamic and selective HERV RNA expression in neuroblastoma cells subjected to variation in oxygen tension and demethylation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lijuan; Uzhameckis, Dmitrijs; Hedborg, Fredrik; Blomberg, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    We studied HERV expression in cell lines after hypoxia, mitogenic stimulation, and demethylation, to better understand if hypoxia may play a role in ERV activation also within the nervous system, as represented by neuroblastoma cell lines. The level of RNA of four human ERV groups (HERVs) (HERVE, I/T, H, and W), and three housekeeping genes, of different cell lines including A549, COS-1, Namalwa, RD-L and Vero-E6, as well as human neuroblastoma cell lines SH-SY5Y, SK-N-DZ, and SK-N-AS were studied using reverse transcription and real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR). During the course of recovery from hypoxia a pronounced and selective activation of RNA expression of HERVW-like sequences, but not of HERVE, I/T, H, and three housekeeping genes, was found in the neuroblastoma cell lines, most pronounced in SK-N-DZ. In the SK-N-DZ cell line, we also tested the expression of HERVs after chemical treatments. HERVW-like sequences were selectively upregulated by 5-azacytidine, a demethylating agent. Some HERVW loci seem especially responsive to hypoxia and demethylation. HERV expression in neuroblastoma cells is selectively and profoundly influenced by some physiological and chemical stimuli.

  8. Mercury demethylation in waterbird livers: Dose-response thresholds and differences among species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eagles-Smith, C. A.; Ackerman, J.T.; Julie, Y.E.E.; Adelsbach, T.L.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed methylmercury (MeHg) demethylation in the livers of adults and chicks of four waterbird species that commonly breed in San Francisco Bay: American avocets, black-necked stilts, Caspian terns, and Forster's terns. In adults (all species combined), we found strong evidence for a threshold, model where MeHg demethylation occurred above a hepatic total mercury concentration threshold of 8.51 ?? 0.93 ??g/g dry weight, and there was a strong decline in %MeHg values as total mercury (THg) concentrations increased above 8.51 ??g/g dry weight. Conversely, there was no evidence for a demethylation threshold in chicks, and we found that %MeHg values declined linearly with increasing THg concentrations. For adults, we also found taxonomie differences in the demethylation responses, with avocets and stilts showing a higher demethylation rate than that of terns when concentrations exceeded the threshold, whereas terns had a lower demethylation threshold (7.48 ?? 1.48 ??g/g dry wt) than that of avocets and stilts (9.91 ?? 1.29 ??g/g dry wt). Finally, we assessed the role of selenium (Se) in the demethylation process. Selenium concentrations were positively correlated with inorganic Hg in livers of birds above the demethylation threshold but not below. This suggests that Se may act as a binding site for demethylated Hg and may reduce the potential for secondary toxicity. Our findings indicate that waterbirds demethylate mercury in their livers if exposure exceeds a threshold value and suggest that taxonomie differences in demethylation ability may be an important factor in evaluating species-specific risk to MeHg exposure. Further, we provide strong evidence for a threshold of approximately 8.5 ??g/g dry weight of THg in the liver where demethylation is initiated. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  9. Redistribution of demethylated RNA helicase A during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection: Role of Jumonji C-domain containing protein 6 in RHA demethylation

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Paul; Conderino, Joseph S.; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2014-03-15

    Previously, RNA helicase A (RHA) re-localization from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infected cells was shown to coincide with loss of RHA methylated arginine residues at its C-terminus. The potential interaction between RHA and Jumonji C-domain (JmjC) protein 6 (JMJD6) arginine demethylase in infected cells was investigated. Treatment with N-oxalylglycine (NOG) inhibitor of JmjC demethylases prevented FMDV-induced RHA demethylation and re-localization, and also decreased viral protein synthesis and virus titers. Physical interaction between JMJD6 and RHA was demonstrated via reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation, where RHA preferentially bound JMJD6 monomers. Nuclear efflux of demethylated RHA (DM-RHA) coincided with nuclear influx of JMJD6, which was not observed using another picornavirus. A modified biochemical assay demonstrated JMJD6 induced dose-dependent demethylation of RHA and two RHA-derived isoforms, which could be inhibited by NOG. We propose a role for JMJD6 in RHA demethylation stimulated by FMDV, that appears to facilitate virus replication. - Highlights: • We examined the role of JMJD6 in FMDV-induced RHA demethylation process. • Using an arginine demethylation assay showed that JMJD6 is involved in RHA demethylation. • A demethylases inhibitor reduced cytoplasmic accumulation of RHA and FMDV titers.

  10. Altered chromatin condensation of heat-stressed spermatozoa perturbs the dynamics of DNA methylation reprogramming in the paternal genome after in vitro fertilisation in cattle.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Bozlur; Kamal, Md Mostofa; Rijsselaere, Tom; Vandaele, Leen; Shamsuddin, Mohammed; Van Soom, Ann

    2014-10-01

    Shortly after penetration of the oocyte, sperm DNA is actively demethylated, which is required for totipotent zygotic development. Aberrant DNA methylation is thought to be associated with altered chromatin condensation of spermatozoa. The objectives of this study were to investigate the dynamics of DNA methylation reprogramming in the paternal pronucleus and subsequent fertilisation potential of heat-stressed bull spermatozoa having altered chromatin condensation. Hence, bovine zygotes (n=1239) were collected at three different time points (12, 18 and 24h post insemination, hpi), and stained with an antibody against 5-methylcytosine. Fluorescence intensities of paternal and maternal pronuclei were measured by ImageJ. DNA methylation patterns in paternal pronuclei derived from heat-stressed spermatozoa did not differ between time points (P>0.05), whereas control zygotes clearly showed demethylation and de novo methylation at 18 and 24hpi, respectively. Moreover, heat-stressed spermatozoa showed a highly reduced (P<0.01) fertilisation rate compared with non-heat-stressed or normal control spermatozoa (53.7% vs 70.2% or 81.5%, respectively). Our data show that the normal pattern of active DNA demethylation followed by de novo methylation in the paternal pronucleus is perturbed when oocytes are fertilised with heat-stressed spermatozoa, which may be responsible for decreased fertilisation potential.

  11. Rutin-Nickel Complex: Synthesis, Characterization, Antioxidant, DNA Binding, and DNA Cleavage Activities.

    PubMed

    Raza, Aun; Bano, Shumaila; Xu, Xiuquan; Zhang, Rong Xian; Khalid, Haider; Iqbal, Furqan Muhammad; Xia, Changkun; Tang, Jian; Ouyang, Zhen

    2016-12-17

    The rutin-nickel (II) complex (RN) was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV-visible spectroscopy, IR, mass spectrometry, (1)H NMR, TG-DSC, SEM, and molar conductivity. The low molar conductivity value investigates the non-electrolyte nature of the complex. The elemental analysis and other physical and spectroscopic methods reveal the 1:2 stoichiometric ratio (metal/ligand) of the complex. An antioxidant study of rutin and its metal complex against DPPH radical showed that the complex has more radical scavenging activity than free rutin. The interaction of complex RN with DNA was determined using fluorescence spectra and agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that RN can intercalate moderately with DNA, quench a strong intercalator ethidium bromide (EB), and compete for the intercalative binding sites. The complex showed significant cleavage of pBR 322 DNA from supercoiled form (SC) to nicked circular form (NC), and these cleavage effects were dose-dependent. Moreover, the mechanism of DNA cleavage indicated that it was a hydrolytic cleavage pathway. These results revealed the potential nuclease activity of the complex to cleave DNA.

  12. DNA-damaging activity of patulin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K S; Röschenthaler, R J

    1986-01-01

    At a concentration of 10 micrograms/ml, patulin caused single-strand DNA breaks in living cells of Escherichia coli. At 50 micrograms/ml, double-strand breaks were observed also. Single-strand breaks were repaired in the presence of 10 micrograms of patulin per ml within 90 min when the cells were incubated at 37 degrees C in M9-salts solution without a carbon source. The same concentration also induced temperature-sensitive lambda prophage and a prophage of Bacillus megaterium. When an in vitro system with permeabilized Escherichia coli cells was used, patulin at 10 micrograms/ml induced DNA repair synthesis and inhibited DNA replication. The in vivo occurrence of DNA strand breaks and DNA repair correlated with the in vitro induction of repair synthesis. In vitro the RNA synthesis was less affected, and overall protein synthesis was not inhibited at 10 micrograms/ml. Only at higher concentrations (250 to 500 micrograms/ml) was inhibition of in vitro protein synthesis observed. Thus, patulin must be regarded as a mycotoxin with selective DNA-damaging activity. PMID:2431653

  13. Simulation of human plasma concentration-time profiles of the partial glucokinase activator PF-04937319 and its disproportionate N-demethylated metabolite using humanized chimeric mice and semi-physiological pharmacokinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Hidetaka; Ito, Satoshi; Chijiwa, Hiroyuki; Okuzono, Takeshi; Ishiguro, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Nishinoaki, Sho; Ninomiya, Shin-Ichi; Mitsui, Marina; Kalgutkar, Amit S; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Suemizu, Hiroshi

    2016-07-07

    1. The partial glucokinase activator N,N-dimethyl-5-((2-methyl-6-((5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)carbamoyl)benzofuran-4-yl)oxy)pyrimidine-2-carboxamide (PF-04937319) is biotransformed in humans to N-methyl-5-((2-methyl-6-((5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)carbamoyl)benzofuran-4-yl)oxy)pyrimidine-2-carboxamide (M1), accounting for ∼65% of total exposure at steady state. 2. As the disproportionately abundant nature of M1 could not be reliably predicted from in vitro metabolism studies, we evaluated a chimeric mouse model with humanized liver on TK-NOG background for its ability to retrospectively predict human disposition of PF-04937319. Since livers of chimeric mice were enlarged by hyperplasia and contained remnant mouse hepatocytes, hepatic intrinsic clearances normalized for liver weight, metabolite formation and liver to plasma concentration ratios were plotted against the replacement index by human hepatocytes and extrapolated to those in the virtual chimeric mouse with 100% humanized liver. 3. Semi-physiological pharmacokinetic analyses using the above parameters revealed that simulated concentration curves of PF-04937319 and M1 were approximately superimposed with the observed clinical data in humans. 4. Finally, qualitative profiling of circulating metabolites in humanized chimeric mice dosed with PF-04937319 or M1 also revealed the presence of a carbinolamide metabolite, identified in the clinical study as a human-specific metabolite. The case study demonstrates that humanized chimeric mice may be potentially useful in preclinical discovery towards studying disproportionate or human-specific metabolism of drug candidates.

  14. Viral DNA Replication-Dependent DNA Damage Response Activation during BK Polyomavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Verhalen, Brandy; Justice, Joshua L.; Imperiale, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) reactivation is associated with severe human disease in kidney and bone marrow transplant patients. The interplay between viral and host factors that regulates the productive infection process remains poorly understood. We have previously reported that the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) is activated upon lytic BKPyV infection and that its activation is required for optimal viral replication in primary kidney epithelial cells. In this report, we set out to determine what viral components are responsible for activating the two major phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like kinases (PI3KKs) involved in the DDR: ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase. Using a combination of UV treatment, lentivirus transduction, and mutant virus infection experiments, our results demonstrate that neither the input virus nor the expression of large T antigen (TAg) alone is sufficient to trigger the activation of ATM or ATR in our primary culture model. Instead, our data suggest that the activation of both the ATM- and ATR-mediated DDR pathways is linked to viral DNA replication. Intriguingly, a TAg mutant virus that is unable to activate the DDR causes substantial host DNA damage. Our study provides insight into how DDRs are activated by polyomaviruses in primary cells with intact cell cycle checkpoints and how the activation might be linked to the maintenance of host genome stability. IMPORTANCE Polyomaviruses are opportunistic pathogens that are associated with several human diseases under immunosuppressed conditions. BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) affects mostly kidney and bone marrow transplant patients. The detailed replication mechanism of these viruses remains to be determined. We have previously reported that BKPyV activates the host DNA damage response (DDR), a response normally used by the host cell to combat genotoxic stress, to aid its own replication. In this study, we identified that the trigger for DDR

  15. Photo-activated DNA binding and antimicrobial activities of furoquinoline and pyranoquinolone alkaloids from rutaceae.

    PubMed

    Hanawa, Fujinori; Fokialakis, Nikolas; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2004-06-01

    To find novel photo-active compounds of potential use in photochemotherapy from higher plants, photo-activated antimicrobial and DNA binding activities of the furoquinolines, skimmianine, kokusaginine, and haplopine, and a pyranoquinolone, flindersine, from two species of Rutaceae plants were investigated. TLC overlay assays against a methichillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were employed to test antimicrobial properties. All of the tested compounds showed photo-activated antimicrobial activity against S. aureus in the order of kokusaginine > haplopine, flindersine > skimmianine. Weaker activity was found for C. albicans. Photo-activated DNA binding activity of these compounds was investigated by a method using restriction enzymes and a specially designed 1.5 kb DNA fragment. Kokusaginine showed inhibition against all of the 16 restriction enzymes. Haplopine showed a similar inhibition pattern but the binding activity against Asc I and Sma I with restriction sequences consisting only of G and C was very weak. Skimmianine showed binding activity against Xba I, BciV I, Sal I, Pst I, Sph I and Hind III, but very weak or no activity was found for the other restriction enzymes. A pyranoquinolone, flindersine, showed no activity against any of the restriction enzymes. Photo-activated DNA binding activity of furoquinolines was therefore in the order of kokusaginine > haplopine > skimmianine, which was the same order as their photo-activated antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. Therefore, it was concluded that DNA is one of the cellular targets for the furoquinolines to exert their biological activities, similar to psoralens. However, because flindersine showed photo-activated antimicrobial activity against S. aureus but did not show photo-activated DNA binding activity, it is clear that there are other cellular target components for this compound to exert photo-toxic activity.

  16. ATPase activity measurement of DNA replicative helicase from Bacillus stearothermophilus by malachite green method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu; Wang, Ganggang

    2016-09-15

    The DnaB helicase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (DnaBBst) was a model protein for studying the bacterial DNA replication. In this work, a non-radioactive method for measuring ATPase activity of DnaBBst helicase was described. The working parameters and conditions were optimized. Furthermore, this method was applied to investigate effects of DnaG primase, ssDNA and helicase loader protein (DnaI) on ATPase activity of DnaBBst. Our results showed this method was sensitive and efficient. Moreover, it is suitable for the investigation of functional interaction between DnaB and related factors.

  17. 76 FR 3150 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines...: The NIH Guidelines currently require that recombinant DNA experiments designed to create...

  18. 75 FR 42114 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Action Under the NIH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Action Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH... transgenic rodents by recombinant DNA technology must be registered with the Institutional...

  19. Cytochrome P4502D6 catalyzes the O-demethylation of the psychoactive alkaloid ibogaine to 12-hydroxyibogamine.

    PubMed

    Obach, R S; Pablo, J; Mash, D C

    1998-08-01

    Ibogaine is a psychoactive alkaloid that possesses potential as an agent to treat opiate and cocaine addiction. The primary metabolite arises via O-demethylation at the 12-position to yield 12-hydroxyibogamine. In this report, evidence is presented that the O-demethylation of ibogaine observed in human hepatic microsomes is catalyzed primarily by the polymorphically expressed cytochrome P-4502D6 (CYP2D6). An enzyme kinetic examination of ibogaine O-demethylase activity in pooled human liver microsomes suggested that two (or more) enzymes are involved in this reaction: one with a low KMapp (1.1 microM) and the other with a high KMapp (>200 microM). The low KMapp activity comprised >95% of total intrinsic clearance. Human liver microsomes from three individual donors demonstrated similar enzyme kinetic parameters (mean KMapp = 0.55 +/- 0.09 microM and 310 +/- 10 microM for low and high KM activities, respectively). However, a fourth human microsome sample that appeared to be a phenotypic CYP2D6 poor metabolizer possessed only the high KMapp activity. In hepatic microsomes from a panel of human donors, the low KMapp ibogaine O-demethylase activity correlated with CYP2D6-catalyzed bufuralol 1'-hydroxylase activity but not with other P450 isoform-specific activities. Quinidine, a CYP2D6-specific inhibitor, inhibited ibogaine O-demethylase (IC50 = 0.2 microM), whereas other P450 isoform-specific inhibitors did not inhibit this activity. Also, of a battery of recombinant heterologously expressed human P450 isoforms, only rCYP2D6 possessed significant ibogaine O-demethylase activity. Thus, it is concluded that ibogaine O-demethylase is catalyzed by CYP2D6 and that this isoform is the predominant enzyme of ibogaine O-demethylation in humans. The potential pharmacological implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Role of Single-Stranded DNA Binding Activity of T Antigen in Simian Virus 40 DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunxiao; Roy, Rupa; Simmons, Daniel T.

    2001-01-01

    We have previously mapped the single-stranded DNA binding domain of large T antigen to amino acid residues 259 to 627. By using internal deletion mutants, we show that this domain most likely begins after residue 301 and that the region between residues 501 and 550 is not required. To study the function of this binding activity, a series of single-point substitutions were introduced in this domain, and the mutants were tested for their ability to support simian virus 40 (SV40) replication and to bind to single-stranded DNA. Two replication-defective mutants (429DA and 460EA) were grossly impaired in single-stranded DNA binding. These two mutants were further tested for other biochemical activities needed for viral DNA replication. They bound to origin DNA and formed double hexamers in the presence of ATP. Their ability to unwind origin DNA and a helicase substrate was severely reduced, although they still had ATPase activity. These results suggest that the single-stranded DNA binding activity is involved in DNA unwinding. The two mutants were also very defective in structural distortion of origin DNA, making it likely that single-stranded DNA binding is also required for this process. These data show that single-stranded DNA binding is needed for at least two steps during SV40 DNA replication. PMID:11222709

  1. Principles Governing DNA Methylation during Neuronal Lineage and Subtype Specification

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ali; Klein, Shifra S.; Barboza, Luendreo; Lohdi, Niraj

    2016-01-01

    Although comprehensively described during early neuronal development, the role of DNA methylation/demethylation in neuronal lineage and subtype specification is not well understood. By studying two distinct neuronal progenitors as they differentiate to principal neurons in mouse hippocampus and striatum, we uncovered several principles governing neuronal DNA methylation during brain development. (1) The program consists of three stages: an initial genome-wide methylation during progenitor proliferation is followed by loss of methylation during the transition of regional progenitors to “young” hippocampal/striatal neurons, which is then reversed by gain in methylation during maturation to subtype-specific neurons. (2) At the first two stages, gain and loss of methylation are limited to CpGs, whereas during the third maturation stage, methylation also occurs at non-CpG sites in both lineages. (3) Methylation/demethylation, similar to transcription, are initially highly similar in the two lineages, whereas diversification in methylation and transcription during maturation creates subtype-specific methylation differences. (4) Initially, methylation targets all genomic locations, whereas later, during early and late differentiation, the preferred targets are intronic/intergenic sequences with enhancer-like activity. (5) Differentially methylated genes are enriched in sequential neurodevelopmental functions (such as progenitor proliferation, migration, neuritogenesis, and synaptic transmission); upregulated genes represent current and consecutive stage-specific functions, and downregulated genes represent preceding functions that are no longer required. The main conclusion of our work is that the neuronal methylation/demethylation program is predominantly developmental with minimal lineage specificity, except in the final stage of development when neuron subtype-specific differences also emerge. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our work is the first to describe a set of

  2. Metal activation of synthetic and degradative activities of phi 29 DNA polymerase, a model enzyme for protein-primed DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Esteban, J A; Bernad, A; Salas, M; Blanco, L

    1992-01-21

    Analysis of metal activation on the synthetic and degradative activities of phi 29 DNA polymerase was carried out in comparison with T4 DNA polymerase and Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment). In the three DNA polymerases studied, both the polymerization and the 3'----5' exonuclease activity had clear differences in their metal ion requirements. The results obtained support the existence of independent metal binding sites for the synthetic and degradative activities of phi 29 DNA polymerase, according with the distant location of catalytic domains (N-terminal for the 3'----5' exonuclease and C-terminal for DNA polymerization) proposed for both Klenow fragment and phi 29 DNA polymerase. Furthermore, DNA competition experiments using phi 29 DNA polymerase suggested that the main differences observed in the metal usage to activate polymerization may be the consequence of metal-induced changes in the enzyme-DNA interactions, whose strength distinguishes processive and nonprocessive DNA polymerases. Interestingly, the initiation of DNA polymerization using a protein as a primer, a special synthetic activity carried out by phi 29 DNA polymerase, exhibited a strong preference for Mn2+ as metal activator. The molecular basis for this preference is mainly the result of a large increase in the affinity for dATP.

  3. DNA methylation dynamics in muscle development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Carrió, Elvira; Suelves, Mònica

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification for mammalian development and is crucial for the establishment and maintenance of cellular identity. Traditionally, DNA methylation has been considered as a permanent repressive epigenetic mark. However, the application of genome-wide approaches has allowed the analysis of DNA methylation in different genomic contexts revealing a more dynamic regulation than originally thought, since active DNA methylation and demethylation occur during cellular differentiation and tissue specification. Satellite cells are the primary stem cells in adult skeletal muscle and are responsible for postnatal muscle growth, hypertrophy, and muscle regeneration. This review outlines the published data regarding DNA methylation changes along the skeletal muscle program, in both physiological and pathological conditions, to better understand the epigenetic mechanisms that control myogenesis. PMID:25798107

  4. Profiling DNA Methylation and Hydroxymethylation at Retrotransposable Elements.

    PubMed

    de la Rica, Lorenzo; Stanley, Jatinder S; Branco, Miguel R

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification controlling the transcriptional activity of mammalian retrotransposable elements. Its oxidation to DNA hydroxymethylation has been linked to DNA demethylation and reactivation of retrotransposons. Here we describe in detail protocols for three methods to measure DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation at specific genomic targets: glucMS-qPCR, and two sequencing approaches (pyrosequencing and high-throughput sequencing) for analyzing bisulfite- and oxidative bisulfite-modified DNA. All three techniques provide absolute measurements of methylation and hydroxymethylation levels at single-base resolution. Differences between the methods are discussed, mainly with respect to throughput and target coverage. These constitute the core techniques that are used in our laboratory for accurately surveying the epigenetics of retrotransposable elements.

  5. Measurement of Postreplicative DNA Metabolism and Damage in the Rodent Brain.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jay P; Sowers, Mark L; Herring, Jason L; Theruvathu, Jacob A; Emmett, Mark R; Hawkins, Bridget E; Zhang, Kangling; DeWitt, Douglas S; Prough, Donald S; Sowers, Lawrence C

    2015-12-21

    The DNA of all organisms is metabolically active due to persistent endogenous DNA damage, repair, and enzyme-mediated base modification pathways important for epigenetic reprogramming and antibody diversity. The free bases released from DNA either spontaneously or by base excision repair pathways constitute DNA metabolites in living tissues. In this study, we have synthesized and characterized the stable-isotope standards for a series of pyrimidines derived from the normal DNA bases by oxidation and deamination. We have used these standards to measure free bases in small molecule extracts from rat brain. Free bases are observed in extracts, consistent with both endogenous DNA damage and 5-methylcytosine demethylation pathways. The most abundant free base observed is uracil, and the potential sources of uracil are discussed. The free bases measured in tissue extracts constitute the end product of DNA metabolism and could be used to reveal metabolic disturbances in human disease.

  6. Hypomethylation of host cell DNA synthesized after infection or transformation of cells by herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Macnab, J.C.M.; Adams, R.L.P.; Rinaldi, A.; Orr, A.; Clark, L.

    1988-04-01

    Infection of rat embryo cells with herpes simplex virus type 2 caused undermethylation of host cell DNA synthesized during infection. DNA made prior to infection was not demethylated, but some of its degradation products, including methyl dCMP, were incorporated into viral DNA. The use of mutant virus showed that some viral DNA synthesis appears to be required for the inhibition of methylation. Inhibition of methylation cannot be explained by an absence of DNA methyltransferase as the activity of this enzyme did not change during the early period of infection. Inhibition of host cell DNA methylation may be an important step in the transformation of cells by herpesviruses, and various transformed cell lines tested showed reduced levels of DNA methylation.

  7. Human transcriptional coactivator PC4 stimulates DNA end joining and activates DSB repair activity.

    PubMed

    Batta, Kiran; Yokokawa, Masatoshi; Takeyasu, Kunio; Kundu, Tapas K

    2009-01-23

    Human transcriptional coactivator PC4 is a highly abundant nuclear protein that is involved in diverse cellular processes ranging from transcription to chromatin organization. Earlier, we have shown that PC4, a positive activator of p53, overexpresses upon genotoxic insult in a p53-dependent manner. In the present study, we show that PC4 stimulates ligase-mediated DNA end joining irrespective of the source of DNA ligase. Pull-down assays reveal that PC4 helps in the association of DNA ends through its C-terminal domain. In vitro nonhomologous end-joining assays with cell-free extracts show that PC4 enhances the joining of noncomplementary DNA ends. Interestingly, we found that PC4 activates double-strand break (DSB) repair activity through stimulation of DSB rejoining in vivo. Together, these findings demonstrate PC4 as an activator of nonhomologous end joining and DSB repair activity.

  8. Hemi-methylated DNA regulates DNA methylation inheritance through allosteric activation of H3 ubiquitylation by UHRF1

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Joseph S; Cornett, Evan M; Goldfarb, Dennis; DaRosa, Paul A; Li, Zimeng M; Yan, Feng; Dickson, Bradley M; Guo, Angela H; Cantu, Daniel V; Kaustov, Lilia; Brown, Peter J; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Erie, Dorothy A; Major, Michael B; Klevit, Rachel E; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Kuhlman, Brian; Strahl, Brian D; Rothbart, Scott B

    2016-01-01

    The epigenetic inheritance of DNA methylation requires UHRF1, a histone- and DNA-binding RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that recruits DNMT1 to sites of newly replicated DNA through ubiquitylation of histone H3. UHRF1 binds DNA with selectivity towards hemi-methylated CpGs (HeDNA); however, the contribution of HeDNA sensing to UHRF1 function remains elusive. Here, we reveal that the interaction of UHRF1 with HeDNA is required for DNA methylation but is dispensable for chromatin interaction, which is governed by reciprocal positive cooperativity between the UHRF1 histone- and DNA-binding domains. HeDNA recognition activates UHRF1 ubiquitylation towards multiple lysines on the H3 tail adjacent to the UHRF1 histone-binding site. Collectively, our studies are the first demonstrations of a DNA-protein interaction and an epigenetic modification directly regulating E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. They also define an orchestrated epigenetic control mechanism involving modifications both to histones and DNA that facilitate UHRF1 chromatin targeting, H3 ubiquitylation, and DNA methylation inheritance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17101.001 PMID:27595565

  9. Human DNA2 possesses a cryptic DNA unwinding activity that functionally integrates with BLM or WRN helicases.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Cosimo; Kasaciunaite, Kristina; Seidel, Ralf; Cejka, Petr

    2016-09-09

    Human DNA2 (hDNA2) contains both a helicase and a nuclease domain within the same polypeptide. The nuclease of hDNA2 is involved in a variety of DNA metabolic processes. Little is known about the role of the hDNA2 helicase. Using bulk and single-molecule approaches, we show that hDNA2 is a processive helicase capable of unwinding kilobases of dsDNA in length. The nuclease activity prevents the engagement of the helicase by competing for the same substrate, hence prominent DNA unwinding by hDNA2 alone can only be observed using the nuclease-deficient variant. We show that the helicase of hDNA2 functionally integrates with BLM or WRN helicases to promote dsDNA degradation by forming a heterodimeric molecular machine. This collectively suggests that the hDNA2 motor promotes the enzyme's capacity to degrade dsDNA in conjunction with BLM or WRN and thus promote the repair of broken DNA.

  10. Human DNA2 possesses a cryptic DNA unwinding activity that functionally integrates with BLM or WRN helicases

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Cosimo; Kasaciunaite, Kristina; Seidel, Ralf; Cejka, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Human DNA2 (hDNA2) contains both a helicase and a nuclease domain within the same polypeptide. The nuclease of hDNA2 is involved in a variety of DNA metabolic processes. Little is known about the role of the hDNA2 helicase. Using bulk and single-molecule approaches, we show that hDNA2 is a processive helicase capable of unwinding kilobases of dsDNA in length. The nuclease activity prevents the engagement of the helicase by competing for the same substrate, hence prominent DNA unwinding by hDNA2 alone can only be observed using the nuclease-deficient variant. We show that the helicase of hDNA2 functionally integrates with BLM or WRN helicases to promote dsDNA degradation by forming a heterodimeric molecular machine. This collectively suggests that the hDNA2 motor promotes the enzyme's capacity to degrade dsDNA in conjunction with BLM or WRN and thus promote the repair of broken DNA. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18574.001 PMID:27612385

  11. Cell and molecular biology of DNA methyltransferase 1.

    PubMed

    Mohan, K Naga; Chaillet, J Richard

    2013-01-01

    The DNA cytosine methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is a ubiquitous nuclear enzyme that catalyzes the well-established reaction of placing methyl groups on the unmethylated cytosines in methyl-CpG:CpG base pairs in the hemimethylated DNA formed by methylated parent and unmethylated daughter strands. This activity regenerates fully methylated methyl-CpG:methyl-CpG pairs. Despite the straightforward nature of its catalytic activity, detailed biochemical, genetic, and developmental studies revealed intricate details of the central regulatory role of DNMT1 in governing the epigenetic makeup of the nuclear genome. DNMT1 mediates demethylation and also participates in seemingly wide cellular functions unrelated to maintenance DNA methylation. This review brings together mechanistic details of maintenance methylation by DNMT1, its regulation at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels, and the seemingly unexpected functions of DNMT1 in the context of DNA methylation which is central to epigenetic changes that occur during development and the process of cell differentiation.

  12. Crystal Structure of Dicamba Monooxygenase: A Rieske Nonheme Oxygenase that Catalyzes Oxidative Demethylation

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitru, Razvan; Jiang, Wen Zhi; Weeks, Donald P.; Wilson, Mark A.

    2009-08-28

    Dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) is a widely used herbicide that is efficiently degraded by soil microbes. These microbes use a novel Rieske nonheme oxygenase, dicamba monooxygenase (DMO), to catalyze the oxidative demethylation of dicamba to 3,6-dichlorosalicylic acid (DCSA) and formaldehyde. We have determined the crystal structures of DMO in the free state, bound to its substrate dicamba, and bound to the product DCSA at 2.10-1.75 {angstrom} resolution. The structures show that the DMO active site uses a combination of extensive hydrogen bonding and steric interactions to correctly orient chlorinated, ortho-substituted benzoic-acid-like substrates for catalysis. Unlike other Rieske aromatic oxygenases, DMO oxygenates the exocyclic methyl group, rather than the aromatic ring, of its substrate. This first crystal structure of a Rieske demethylase shows that the Rieske oxygenase structural scaffold can be co-opted to perform varied types of reactions on xenobiotic substrates.

  13. The structure and duplex context of DNA interstrand crosslinks affects the activity of DNA polymerase η

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Upasana; Mukherjee, Shivam; Sharma, Anjali; Frank, Ekaterina G.; Schärer, Orlando D.

    2016-01-01

    Several important anti-tumor agents form DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs), but their clinical efficiency is counteracted by multiple complex DNA repair pathways. All of these pathways require unhooking of the ICL from one strand of a DNA duplex by nucleases, followed by bypass of the unhooked ICL by translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerases. The structures of the unhooked ICLs remain unknown, yet the position of incisions and processing of the unhooked ICLs significantly influence the efficiency and fidelity of bypass by TLS polymerases. We have synthesized a panel of model unhooked nitrogen mustard ICLs to systematically investigate how the state of an unhooked ICL affects pol η activity. We find that duplex distortion induced by a crosslink plays a crucial role in translesion synthesis, and length of the duplex surrounding an unhooked ICL critically affects polymerase efficiency. We report the synthesis of a putative ICL repair intermediate that mimics the complete processing of an unhooked ICL to a single crosslinked nucleotide, and find that it provides only a minimal obstacle for DNA polymerases. Our results raise the possibility that, depending on the structure and extent of processing of an ICL, its bypass may not absolutely require TLS polymerases. PMID:27257072

  14. Transcriptional regulation of 15-lipoxygenase expression by histone h3 lysine 4 methylation/demethylation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng; Xu, Dawei; Han, Hongya; Fan, Yidong; Schain, Frida; Xu, Zhonghua; Claesson, Hans-Erik; Björkholm, Magnus; Sjöberg, Jan

    2012-01-01

    15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) oxidizes polyunsaturated fatty acids to a rich spectrum of biologically active metabolites and is implicated in physiological membrane remodelling, inflammation and apoptosis. Its deregulation is involved in the pathogenesis of diverse cancer and immune diseases. Recent experimental evidence reveals that dynamic histone methylation/demethylation mediated by histone methyltransferases and demethylases plays a critical role in regulation of chromatin remodelling and gene expression. In the present study, we compared the histone 3 lysine 4 (H3-K4) methylation status of the 15-LOX-1 promoter region of the two Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cell lines L1236 and L428 with abundant and undetectable 15-LOX-1 expression, respectively. We identified a potential role of H3-K4 methylation in positive regulation of 15-LOX-1 transcription. Furthermore, we found that histone methyltransferase SMYD3 inhibition reduced 15-LOX-1 expression by decreasing promoter activity in L1236 cells. SMYD3 knock down in these cells abolished di-/trimethylation of H3-K4, attenuated the occupancy by the transactivator STAT6, and led to diminished histone H3 acetylation at the 15-LOX-1 promoter. In contrast, inhibition of SMCX, a JmjC-domain-containing H3-K4 tri-demethylase, upregulated 15-LOX-1 expression through induction of H3-K4 trimethylation, histone acetylation and STAT6 recruitment at the 15-LOX-1 promoter in L428 cells. In addition, we observed strong SMYD3 expression in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP and its inhibition led to decreased 15-LOX-1 expression. Taken together, our data suggest that regulation of histone methylation/demethylation at the 15-LOX-1 promoter is important in 15-LOX-1 expression.

  15. Effects of exposure of DNA to methyl mercury on its activity as a template-primer for DNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, G D; Wilson, H; Ducote, J

    1986-06-01

    A previous publication [Frenkel, Cain, and Chao, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 127, 849-856 (1985)] described the observation that double-stranded DNA which was briefly exposed to methyl mercury (MeHg) and purified to remove free methyl mercury was transcribed at a higher rate by RNA polymerase II from wheat germ. The specificity of this phenomenon has now been investigated by examining the activity of this MeHg-exposed DNA as a template-primer for DNA polymerases. DNA synthesis by the bacteriophage T4-induced DNA polymerase was higher with the MeHg-exposed DNA as a template-primer than with control DNA. In contrast, the rate of DNA synthesis by E. coli DNA polymerase I was lower with the MeHg-exposed DNA as template-primer. With both enzymes (as well as with RNA polymerase II), after denaturation of the MeHg-exposed and control DNAs the differences in template activity were either eliminated or markedly reduced. The enzymes are thus able to detect a MeHg-induced alteration in DNA. In contrast, circular dichroism, a physical method that is sensitive to conformational changes in DNA, did not detect any difference between the MeHg-exposed and control DNAs.

  16. A DNA enzyme with Mg(2+)-Dependent RNA Phosphoesterase Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaker, Ronald R.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    1995-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated that DNA can act as an enzyme in the Pb(2+)-dependent cleavage of an RNA phosphoester. This is a facile reaction, with an uncatalyzed rate for a typical RNA phosphoester of approx. 10(exp -4)/ min in the presence of 1 mM Pb(OAc)2 at pH 7.0 and 23 C. The Mg(2+) - dependent reaction is more difficult, with an uncatalyzed rate of approx. 10(exp -7)/ min under comparable conditions. Mg(2+) - dependent cleavage has special relevance to biology because it is compatible with intracellular conditions. Using in vitro selection, we sought to develop a family of phosphoester-cleaving DNA enzymes that operate in the presence of various divalent metals, focusing particularly on the Mg(2+) - dependent reaction. Results: We generated a population of greater than 10(exp 13) DNAs containing 40 random nucleotides and carried out repeated rounds of selective amplification, enriching for molecules that cleave a target RNA phosphoester in the presence of 1 mM Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+) or Pb(2+). Examination of individual clones from the Mg(2+) lineage after the sixth round revealed a catalytic motif comprised of a three-stem junction.This motif was partially randomized and subjected to seven additional rounds of selective amplification, yielding catalysts with a rate of 0.01/ min. The optimized DNA catalyst was divided into separate substrate and enzyme domains and shown to have a similar level of activity under multiple turnover conditions. Conclusions: We have generated a Mg(2+) - dependent DNA enzyme that cleaves a target RNA phosphoester with a catalytic rate approx. 10(exp 5) - fold greater than that of the uncatalyzed reaction. This activity is compatible with intracellular conditions, raising the possibility that DNA enzymes might be made to operate in vivo.

  17. In Vitro Selection of pH-Activated DNA Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Fong, Faye Yi; Oh, Seung Soo; Hawker, Craig J; Soh, H Tom

    2016-12-05

    We report the first in vitro selection of DNA nanostructures that switch their conformation when triggered by change in pH. Previously, most pH-active nanostructures were designed using known pH-active motifs, such as the i-motif or the triplex structure. In contrast, we performed de novo selections starting from a random library and generated nanostructures that can sequester and release Mipomersen, a clinically approved antisense DNA drug, in response to pH change. We demonstrate extraordinary pH-selectivity, releasing up to 714-fold more Mipomersen at pH 5.2 compared to pH 7.5. Interestingly, none of our nanostructures showed significant sequence similarity to known pH-sensitive motifs, suggesting that they may operate via novel structure-switching mechanisms. We believe our selection scheme is general and could be adopted for generating DNA nanostructures for many applications including drug delivery, sensors and pH-active surfaces.

  18. New spiro-acridines: DNA interaction, antiproliferative activity and inhibition of human DNA topoisomerases.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino de; Lafayette, Elizabeth Almeida; Silva, Willams Leal; Lima Serafim, Vanessa de; Menezes, Thais Meira; Neves, Jorge Luiz; Ruiz, Ana Lucia Tasca Gois; Carvalho, João Ernesto de; Moura, Ricardo Olímpio de; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; Carvalho Júnior, Luiz Bezerra de; Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves de

    2016-11-01

    Two new spiro-acridines were synthesized by introducing cyano-N-acylhydrazone between the acridine and phenyl rings followed by spontaneous cyclization. The final compounds (E)-1'-(benzylideneamino)-5'-oxo-1',5'-dihydro-10H-spiro[acridine-9,2'-pyrrole]-4'-carbonitrile (AMTAC-01) and (E)-1'-((4-methoxybenzylidene)amino)-5'-oxo-1',5'-dihydro-10H-spiro[acridine-9,2'-pyrrole]-4'-carbonitrile (AMTAC-02) were evaluated for their interactions with calf thymus DNA, antiproliferative and human topoisomerase I and IIα inhibitory activities. Both compounds presented ability to bind DNA. The binding constant determined by UV-vis spectroscopy was found to be 10(4)M(-1). Antiproliferative assay demonstrated that AMTAC-01 and AMTAC-02 were most active against prostate and melanoma tumor cell lines, respectively. The compound did not present Topo I inhibitory activity. However, both derivatives displayed topoisomerase IIα inhibitory activity comparable to amsacrine, and AMTAC-02 was more potent than AMTAC-01 with methoxy substituent group on phenyl ring. This study demonstrates that the new derivatives are promising molecules with topoisomerase IIα inhibitory and antiproliferative activities.

  19. Participation of CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 in the N-demethylation of imatinib in human hepatic microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Nebot, Noelia; Crettol, Severine; d'Esposito, Fabrizio; Tattam, Bruce; Hibbs, David E; Murray, Michael

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Imatinib is a clinically important inhibitor of tyrosine kinases that are dysregulated in chronic myelogenous leukaemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Inter-individual variation in imatinib pharmacokinetics is extensive, and influences drug safety and efficacy. Hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 has been implicated in imatinib N-demethylation, but the clearance of imatinib decreases during prolonged therapy. CYP3A phenotype correlates with imatinib clearance at the commencement of therapy, but not at steady state. The present study evaluated the possibility that multiple CYPs may contribute to imatinib oxidation in liver. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Imatinib biotransformation in human liver microsomes (n = 20) and by cDNA-expressed CYPs was determined by LC–MS. Relationships between imatinib N-demethylation and other drug metabolizing CYPs were assessed. KEY RESULTS N-desmethylimatinib formation was correlated with microsomal oxidation of the CYP3A4 substrates testosterone (ρ= 0.60; P < 0.01) and midazolam (ρ= 0.46; P < 0.05), and the CYP2C8 substrate paclitaxel (ρ= 0.58; P < 0.01). cDNA-derived CYPs 2C8, 3A4, 3A5 and 3A7 supported imatinib N-demethylation, but 10 other CYPs were inactive; in kinetic studies, CYP2C8 was a high-affinity enzyme with a catalytic efficiency ∼15-fold greater than those of CYPs 3A4 and 3A5. The CYP3A inhibitors ketoconazole and troleandomycin, and the CYP2C8 inhibitors quercetin and paclitaxel decreased imatinib oxidation. From molecular modelling, the imatinib structure could be superimposed on a pharmacophore for CYP2C8 substrates. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS CYP2C8 and CYPs 3A contribute to imatinib N-demethylation in human liver. The involvement of CYP2C8 may account in part for the wide inter-patient variation in imatinib pharmacokinetics observed in clinical practice. PMID:20977456

  20. Suppression of Wnt signaling by the miR-29 family is mediated by demethylation of WIF-1 in non-small-cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Min; Wu, Junjie; Cai, Yong

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Dnmt3A and Dnmt3B are involved in the down-regulation of WIF-1 expression in non-small-cell lung cancer. •MiR-29 family members could restore WIF-1 expression through demethylation. •MiR-29s suppress Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and inhibit tumor growth. •The expression of miR-29a and miR-29b could be regulated partially in a positive feedback loop. -- Abstract: Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1) silencing induced by promoter hypermethylation is a common mechanism of aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the activity of regulators associated with the methylation of the WIF-1 gene remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of three DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B) in the expression of WIF-1. The three DNMTs were up-regulated in NSCLC tumor tissues and suppression of DNMT3A and DNMT3B restored the expression of WIF-1 in NSCLC cells. The miR-29 family (miR-29a, -29b, and -29c), which negatively regulates DNMT3A and DNMT3B, was examined in association with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. A positive correlation between the expression of WIF-1 and that of MiR-29s was observed in NSCLC tissues. Methylation-specific PCR and Western blotting indicated that miR-29s positively regulate WIF-1 expression by inhibiting the methylation of its promoter. Furthermore, miR-29 overexpression downregulated β-catenin expression, inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. The expression of miR-29a and miR-29b was partially regulated by DNMT3A and DNMT3B in a positive feedback loop. Taken together, our findings show that miR-29s suppress the Wnt signaling pathway through demethylation of WIF-1 in NSCLC.

  1. O2 -independent demethylation of trimethylamine N-oxide by Tdm of Methylocella silvestris.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yijun; Ksibe, Amira Z; Schäfer, Hendrik; Blindauer, Claudia A; Bugg, Timothy D H; Chen, Yin

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) demethylase, Tdm, carries out an unusual oxygen-independent demethylation reaction, resulting in the formation of dimethylamine and formaldehyde. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis, homology modelling and metal analyses by inorganic mass spectrometry have been applied to gain insight into metal stoichiometry and underlying catalytic mechanism of Tdm of Methylocella silvestris BL2. Herein, we demonstrate that active Tdm has 1 molar equivalent of Zn(2+) and 1 molar equivalent of non-haem Fe(2+) . We further investigated Zn(2+) - and Fe(2+) -binding sites through homology modelling and site-directed mutagenesis and found that Zn(2+) is coordinated by a 3-sulfur-1-O motif. An aspartate residue (D198) likely bridges Fe(2+) and Zn(2+) centres, either directly or indirectly via H-bonding through a neighbouring H2 O molecule. H276 contributes to Fe(2+) binding, mutation of which results in an inactive enzyme, and the loss of iron, but not zinc. Site-directed mutagenesis of Tdm also led to the identification of three hydrophobic aromatic residues likely involved in substrate coordination (F259, Y305, W321), potentially through a cation-π interaction. Furthermore, a crossover experiment using a substrate analogue gave direct evidence that a trimethylamine-alike intermediate was produced during the Tdm catalytic cycle, suggesting TMAO has a dual role of being both a substrate and an oxygen donor for formaldehyde formation. Together, our results provide novel insight into the role of Zn(2+) and Fe(2+) in the catalysis of TMAO demethylation by this unique oxygen-independent enzyme.

  2. Induced Pib Expression and Resistance to Magnaporthe grisea are Compromised by Cytosine Demethylation at Critical Promoter Regions in Rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Xia, Qiong; Kou, Hongping; Wang, Dan; Lin, Xiuyun; Wu, Ying; Xu, Chunming; Xing, Shaochen; Liu, Bao

    2011-10-01

    Pib is a well-characterized rice blast-resistance gene belonging to the nucleotide binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) superfamily. Expression of Pib was low under non-challenged conditions, but strongly induced by the blast-causing fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea, thereby conferring resistance to the pathogen. It is generally established that cytosine methylation of the promoter-region often plays a repressive role in modulating expression of the gene in question. We report here that two critical regions of the Pib promoter were heavily CG cytosine-methylated in both cultivars studied. Surprisingly, induced expression of Pib by M. grisea infection did not entail its promoter demethylation, and partial demethylation by 5-azacytidine-treatment actually reduced Pib expression relative to wild-type plants. Accordingly, the blast disease-resistance was compromised in the 5'-azaC-treated plants relative to wild-type. In contrast, the disease susceptibility was not affected by the 5'-azaC treatment in another two rice cultivars that did not contain the Pib gene, ruling out effects of other R genes and non-specific genotoxic effects by the drug-treatment as a cause for the compromised Pib-conditioned blast-resistance. Taken together, our results suggest that promoter DNA methylation plays a novel enhancing role in conditioning high-level of induced expression of the Pib gene in times of M. grisea infection, and its conferred resistance to the pathogen.

  3. Phylogenomics of caspase-activated DNA fragmentation factor

    SciTech Connect

    Eckhart, Leopold . E-mail: leopold.eckhart@meduniwien.ac.at; Fischer, Heinz; Tschachler, Erwin

    2007-04-27

    The degradation of nuclear DNA by DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) is a key step in apoptosis of mammalian cells. Using comparative genomics, we have here determined the evolutionary history of the genes encoding the two DFF subunits, DFFA (also known as ICAD) and DFFB (CAD). Orthologs of DFFA and DFFB were identified in Nematostella vectensis, a representative of the primitive metazoan clade cnidarians, and in various vertebrates and insects, but not in representatives of urochordates, echinoderms, and nematodes. The domains mediating the interaction of DFFA and DFFB, a caspase cleavage site in DFFA, and the amino acid residues critical for endonuclease activity of DFFB were conserved in Nematostella. These findings suggest that DFF has been a part of the primordial apoptosis system of the eumetazoan common ancestor and that the ancient cell death machinery has degenerated in several evolutionary lineages, including the one leading to the prototypical apoptosis model, Caenorhabditis elegans.

  4. Hairpin DNA probe based surface plasmon resonance biosensor used for the activity assay of E. coli DNA ligase.

    PubMed

    Luan, Qingfen; Xue, Ying; Yao, Xin; Lu, Wu

    2010-02-01

    Using hairpin DNA probe self-structure change during DNA ligation process, a sensitive, label-free and simple method of E. coli DNA ligase assay via a home-built high-resolution surface plasmon resonance (SPR) instrument was developed. The DNA ligation process was monitored in real-time and the effects of single-base mutation on the DNA ligation process were investigated. Then an assay of E. coli DNA ligase was completed with a lower detection limit (0.6 nM), wider concentration range and better reproducibility. Moreover, the influence of Quinacrine on the activity of E. coli DNA ligase was also studied, which demonstrated that our method was useful for drug screening.

  5. Genistein downregulates onco-miR-1260b and upregulates sFRP1 and Smad4 via demethylation and histone modification in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, H; Hinoda, Y; Shahryari, V; Deng, G; Tanaka, Y; Tabatabai, Z L; Dahiya, R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recently several microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to be regulated by genistein in cancer cells. In this study, we focused on the gene regulatory effect of genistein on microRNA and its target genes in prostate cancer (PC). Methods: Initially, we investigated the effect of genistein on prostate cancer cells and identified that the expression of miRNA-1260b was decreased by genistein. We performed functional analyses and investigated the relationship between miRNA-1260b expression and prostate cancer patient outcomes. Two target genes (sFRP1 and Smad4) of miR-1260b were identified based on computer algorithm and 3′UTR luciferase assay was carried out to determine direct miRNA regulation of the genes. Results: Genistein promoted apoptosis while inhibiting prostate cancer cell proliferation, invasion and TCF reporter activity in PC cells. MiR-1260b was highly expressed in prostate cancer tissues and significantly downregulated by genistein in PC cells. After knocking down miR-1260b, cell proliferation, invasion, migration and TCF reporter activity were decreased in PC cells. Western analysis and 3′UTR luciferase assay showed that the two target genes (sFRP1 and Smad4) were directly regulated by miR-1260b. The expression of sFRP1 and Smad4 was significantly decreased in prostate cancer tissues. Genistein also increased expression of these two genes via DNA demethylation and histone modifications. Conclusions: Our data suggest that genistein exerts its anti-tumour effect via downregulation of miR-1260b that targeted sRRP1 and Smad4 genes in prostate cancer cells. The expression of sFRP1 and Smad4 was also modulated by genistein via DNA methylation or histone modifications in PC cell lines. PMID:24504368

  6. Mitochondrial DNA is released by shock and activates neutrophils via p38 map kinase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Itagaki, Kiyoshi; Hauser, Carl J

    2010-07-01

    Bacterial DNA (bDNA) can activate an innate-immune stimulatory "danger" response via toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is unique among endogenous molecules in that mitochondria evolved from prokaryotic ancestors. Thus, mtDNA retains molecular motifs similar to bDNA. It is unknown, however, whether mtDNA is released by shock or is capable of eliciting immune responses like bDNA. We hypothesized shock-injured tissues might release mtDNA and that mtDNA might act as a danger-associated molecular pattern (or "alarmin") that can activate neutrophils (PMNs) and contribute to systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Standardized trauma/hemorrhagic shock caused circulation of mtDNA as well as nuclear DNA. Human PMNs were incubated in vitro with purified mtDNA or nuclear DNA, with or without pretreatment by chloroquine (an inhibitor of endosomal receptors like TLR9). Neutrophil activation was assessed as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 8 and MMP-9 release as well as p38 and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Mitochondrial DNA induced PMN MMP-8/MMP-9 release and p38 phosphorylation but did not activate p44/42. Responses were inhibited by chloroquine. Nuclear DNA did not induce PMN activation. Intravenous injection of disrupted mitochondria (mitochondrial debris) into rats induced p38 MAPK activation and IL-6 and TNF-alpha accumulation in the liver. In summary, mtDNA is released into the circulation by shock. Mitochondrial DNA activates PMN p38 MAPK, probably via TLR9, inducing an inflammatory phenotype. Mitochondrial DNA may act as a danger-associated molecular pattern or alarmin after shock, contributing to the initiation of systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

  7. Two-step iron(0)-mediated N-demethylation of N-methyl alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Kok, Gaik B; Pye, Cory C; Singer, Robert D; Scammells, Peter J

    2010-07-16

    A mild and simple two-step Fe(0)-mediated N-demethylation of a number of tertiary N-methyl alkaloids is described. The tertiary N-methylamine is first oxidized to the corresponding N-oxide, which is isolated as the hydrochloride salt. Subsequent treatment of the N-oxide hydrochloride with iron powder readily provides the N-demethylated amine. Representative substrates include a number of opiate and tropane alkaloids. Key intermediates in the synthesis of semisynthetic 14-hydroxy pharmaceutical opiates such as oxycodone and oxymorphone are also readily N-demethylated using this method.

  8. Chromium reduces the in vitro activity and fidelity of DNA replication mediated by the human cell DNA synthesome

    SciTech Connect

    Dai Heqiao; Liu Jianying; Malkas, Linda H.; Catalano, Jennifer; Alagharu, Srilakshmi

    2009-04-15

    Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is known to be a carcinogenic metal ion, with a complicated mechanism of action. It can be found within our environment in soil and water contaminated by manufacturing processes. Cr(VI) ion is readily taken up by cells, and is recognized to be both genotoxic and cytotoxic; following its reduction to the stable trivalent form of the ion, chromium(Cr(III)), within cells. This form of the ion is known to impede the activity of cellular DNA polymerase and polymerase-mediated DNA replication. Here, we report the effects of chromium on the activity and fidelity of the DNA replication process mediated by the human cell DNA synthesome. The DNA synthesome is a functional multiprotein complex that is fully competent to carry-out each phase of the DNA replication process. The IC{sub 50} of Cr(III) toward the activity of DNA synthesome-associated DNA polymerases {alpha}, {delta} and {epsilon} is 15, 45 and 125 {mu}M, respectively. Cr(III) inhibits synthesome-mediated DNA synthesis (IC{sub 50} = 88 {mu}M), and significantly reduces the fidelity of synthesome-mediated DNA replication. The mutation frequency induced by the different concentrations of Cr(III) ion used in our assays ranges from 2-13 fold higher than that which occurs spontaneously, and the types of mutations include single nucleotide substitutions, insertions, and deletions. Single nucleotide substitutions are the predominant type of mutation, and they occur primarily at GC base-pairs. Cr(III) ion produces a lower number of transition and a higher number of transversion mutations than occur spontaneously. Unlike Cr(III), Cr(VI) ion has little effect on the in vitro DNA synthetic activity and fidelity of the DNA synthesome, but does significantly inhibit DNA synthesis in intact cells. Cell growth and proliferation is also arrested by increasing concentrations of Cr(VI) ion. Our studies provide evidence indicating that the chromium ion induced decrease in the fidelity and activity of

  9. Variety of DNA Replication Activity Among Cyanobacteria Correlates with Distinct Respiration Activity in the Dark.

    PubMed

    Ohbayashi, Ryudo; Yamamoto, Jun-Ya; Watanabe, Satoru; Kanesaki, Yu; Chibazakura, Taku; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi

    2016-11-10

    Cyanobacteria exhibit light-dependent cell growth since most of their cellular energy is obtained by photosynthesis. In Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, one of the model cyanobacteria, DNA replication depends on photosynthetic electron transport. However, the critical signal for the regulatory mechanism of DNA replication has not been identified. In addition, conservation of this regulatory mechanism has not been investigated among cyanobacteria. To understand this regulatory signal and its dependence on light, we examined the regulation of DNA replication under both light and dark conditions among three model cyanobacteria, S. elongatus PCC 7942, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Interestingly, DNA replication activity in Synechocystis and Anabaena was retained when cells were transferred to the dark, although it was drastically decreased in S. elongatus. Glycogen metabolism and respiration were higher in Synechocystis and Anabaena than in S. elongatus in the dark. Moreover, DNA replication activity in Synechocystis and Anabaena was reduced to the same level as that in S. elongatus by inhibition of respiratory electron transport after transfer to the dark. These results demonstrate that there is disparity in DNA replication occurring in the dark among cyanobacteria, which is caused by the difference in activity of respiratory electron transport.

  10. Main contribution of the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 1A2 (CYP1A2) to N-demethylation and 5-sulfoxidation of the phenothiazine neuroleptic chlorpromazine in human liver--A comparison with other phenothiazines.

    PubMed

    Wójcikowski, Jacek; Boksa, Jan; Daniel, Władysława A

    2010-10-15

    The aim of the present study was to identify cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes involved in the 5-sulfoxidation, mono-N-demethylation and di-N-demethylation of the aliphatic-type phenothiazine neuroleptic chlorpromazine in human liver. Experiments were performed in vitro using cDNA-expressed human CYP isoforms (Supersomes 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4), liver microsomes from different donors and CYP-selective inhibitors. The obtained results indicate that CYP1A2 is the only CYP isoform that catalyzes the mono-N-demethylation and di-N-demethylation of chlorpromazine (100%) and is the main isoform responsible for chlorpromazine 5-sulfoxidation (64%) at a therapeutic concentration of the drug (10 microM). CYP3A4 contributes to a lesser degree to chlorpromazine 5-sulfoxidation (34%). The role of CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in catalyzing of the latter reaction is negligible (0.1-2%). Similar results were obtained at a higher, non-therapeutic concentration of the drug (100 microM); however, the contribution of CYP1A2 to chlorpromazine mono-N-demethylation was noticeably lower (75%), mostly in favour of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 (about 12% each). The obtained results indicate that the catalysis of chlorpromazine N-demethylation and 5-sulfoxidation in humans exhibits a stricter CYP1A2 preference compared to the previously tested phenothiazines (promazine, perazine, and thioridazine). Hence pharmacokinetic interactions involving chlorpromazine and CYP1A2 substrates and inhibitors are likely to occur. Considering strong dopaminergic D(2), noradrenergic alpha(1) and cholinergic M(1) receptor blocking properties of chlorpromazine and some of its metabolites, as well as their serious side effects, the obtained results may be of pharmacological and clinical importance.

  11. Nanoplasmonic molecular ruler for nuclease activity and DNA footprinting

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Fanqing Frank; Liu, Gang L; Lee, Luke P

    2013-10-29

    This invention provides a nanoplasmonic molecular ruler, which can perform label-free and real-time monitoring of nucleic acid (e.g., DNA) length changes and perform nucleic acid footprinting. In various embodiments the ruler comprises a nucleic acid attached to a nanoparticle, such that changes in the nucleic acid length are detectable using surface plasmon resonance. The nanoplasmonic ruler provides a fast and convenient platform for mapping nucleic acid-protein interactions, for nuclease activity monitoring, and for other footprinting related methods.

  12. Damage-inducible intragenic demethylation of the human TP53 tumor suppressor gene is associated with transcription from an alternative intronic promoter.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, James; Roden, Daniel L; Ng, Robert; Wu, Jianmin; Bosman, Alexis; Epstein, Richard J

    2016-12-01

    Wild-type TP53 exons 5-8 contain CpG dinucleotides that are prone to methylation-dependent mutation during carcinogenesis, but the regulatory effects of methylation affecting these CpG sites are unclear. To clarify this, we first assessed site-specific TP53 CpG methylation in normal and transformed cells. Both DNA damage and cell ageing were associated with site-specific CpG demethylation in exon 5 accompanied by induction of a truncated TP53 isoform regulated by an adjacent intronic promoter (P2). We then synthesized novel synonymous TP53 alleles with divergent CpG content but stable encodement of the wild-type polypeptide. Expression of CpG-enriched TP53 constructs selectively reduced production of the full-length transcript (P1), consistent with a causal relationship between intragenic demethylation and transcription. 450K methylation comparison of normal (TP53-wildtype) and cancerous (TP53-mutant) human cells and tissues revealed focal cancer-associated declines in CpG methylation near the P1 transcription start site, accompanied by rises near the alternate exon 5 start site. These data confirm that site-specific changes of intragenic TP53 CpG methylation are extrinsically inducible, and suggest that human cancer progression is mediated in part by dysregulation of damage-inducible intragenic CpG demethylation that alters TP53 P1/P2 isoform expression. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Genome-Wide Screening of Genes Regulated by DNA Methylation in Colon Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Galamb, Orsolya; Wichmann, Barna; Sipos, Ferenc; Péterfia, Bálint; Csabai, István; Kovalszky, Ilona; Semsey, Szabolcs; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnár, Béla

    2012-01-01

    Tumorigenesis is accompanied by changes in the DNA methylation pattern. Our aim was to test a novel approach for identification of transcripts at whole transcript level which are regulated by DNA methylation. Our approach is based on comparison of data obtained from transcriptome profiling of primary human samples and in vitro cell culture models. Epithelial cells were collected by LCM from normal, adenoma, and tumorous colonic samples. Using gene expression analysis, we identified downregulated genes in the tumors compared to normal tissues. In parallel 3000 upregulated genes were determined in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cell culture model after DNA demethylation treatment. Of the 2533 transcripts showing reduced expression in the tumorous samples, 154 had increased expression as a result of DNA demethylation treatment. Approximately 2/3 of these genes had decreased expression already in the adenoma samples. Expression of five genes (GCG, NMES-1, LRMP, FAM161B and PTGDR), was validated using RT-PCR. PTGDR showed ambiguous results, therefore it was further studied to verify the extent of DNA methylation and its effect on the protein level. Results confirmed that our approach is suitable for genome-wide screening of genes which are regulated or inactivated by DNA methylation. Activity of these genes possibly interferes with tumor progression, therefore genes identified can be key factors in the formation and in the progression of the disease. PMID:23049694

  14. DNA double-strand breaks and ATM activation by transcription-blocking DNA lesions.

    PubMed

    Sordet, Olivier; Nakamura, Asako J; Redon, Christophe E; Pommier, Yves

    2010-01-15

    A taxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), the deficiency of which causes a severe neurodegenerative disease, is a crucial mediator for the DNA double-strand break (DSB) response. We recently showed that transcription-blocking topoisomerase I cleavage complexes (TOP1cc) produce DSBs related to R-loop formation and activate ATM in post-mitotic neurons and lymphocytes. Here we discuss how TOP1cc can produce transcription arrest with R-loop formation and generate DSBs that activate ATM, as well as data suggesting that those transcription-dependent DSBs tend to form at the IgH locus and at specific genomic sites. We also address the potential roles of ATM in response to transcription-blocking TOP1cc.

  15. Structural Mechanism of Demethylation and Inactivation of Protein Phosphatase 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Xing,Y.; Li, Z.; Chen, Y.; Stock, J.; Jeffrey, P.; Shi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is an important serine/threonine phosphatase that plays a role in many biological processes. Reversible carboxyl methylation of the PP2A catalytic subunit is an essential regulatory mechanism for its function. Demethylation and negative regulation of PP2A is mediated by a PP2A-specific methylesterase PME-1, which is conserved from yeast to humans. However, the underlying mechanism of PME-1 function remains enigmatic. Here we report the crystal structures of PME-1 by itself and in complex with a PP2A heterodimeric core enzyme. The structures reveal that PME-1 directly binds to the active site of PP2A and that this interaction results in the activation of PME-1 by rearranging the catalytic triad into an active conformation. Strikingly, these interactions also lead to inactivation of PP2A by evicting the manganese ions that are required for the phosphatase activity of PP2A. These observations identify a dual role of PME-1 that regulates PP2A activation, methylation, and holoenzyme assembly in cells.

  16. The CYP2B6*6 allele significantly alters the N-demethylation of ketamine enantiomers in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Yibai; Coller, Janet K; Hutchinson, Mark R; Klein, Kathrin; Zanger, Ulrich M; Stanley, Nathan J; Abell, Andrew D; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2013-06-01

    Ketamine is primarily metabolized to norketamine by hepatic CYP2B6 and CYP3A4-mediated N-demethylation. However, the relative contribution from each enzyme remains controversial. The CYP2B6*6 allele is associated with reduced enzyme expression and activity that may lead to interindividual variability in ketamine metabolism. We examined the N-demethylation of individual ketamine enantiomers using human liver microsomes (HLMs) genotyped for the CYP2B6*6 allele, insect cell-expressed recombinant CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 enzymes, and COS-1 cell-expressed recombinant CYP2B6.1 and CYP2B6.6 protein variant. Effects of CYP-selective inhibitors on norketamine formation were also determined in HLMs. The two-enzyme Michaelis-Menten model best fitted the HLM kinetic data. The Michaelis-Menten constants (K(m)) for the high-affinity enzyme and the low-affinity enzyme were similar to those for the expressed CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, respectively. The intrinsic clearance for both ketamine enantiomers by the high-affinity enzyme in HLMs with CYP2B6*1/*1 genotype were at least 2-fold and 6-fold higher, respectively, than those for CYP2B6*1/*6 genotype and CYP2B6*6/*6 genotype. The V(max) and K(m) values for CYP2B6.1 were approximately 160 and 70% of those for CYP2B6.6, respectively. N,N'N'-triethylenethiophosphoramide (thioTEPA) (CYP2B6 inhibitor, 25 μM) and the monoclonal antibody against CYP2B6 but not troleandomycin (CYP3A4 inhibitor, 25 μM) or the monoclonal antibody against CYP3A4 inhibited ketamine N-demethylation at clinically relevant concentrations. The degree of inhibition was significantly reduced in HLMs with the CYP2B6*6 allele (gene-dose P < 0.05). These results indicate a major role of CYP2B6 in ketamine N-demethylation in vitro and a significant impact of the CYP2B6*6 allele on enzyme-ketamine binding and catalytic activity.

  17. Co-expression of Cyanobacterial Genes for Arsenic Methylation and Demethylation in Escherichia coli Offers Insights into Arsenic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yu; Xue, Xi-Mei; Guo, Yu-Qing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ye, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Arsenite [As(III)] and methylarsenite [MAs(III)] are the most toxic inorganic and methylated arsenicals, respectively. As(III) and MAs(III) can be interconverted in the unicellular cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 (Nostoc), which has both the arsM gene (NsarsM), which is responsible for arsenic methylation, and the arsI gene (NsarsI), which is responsible for MAs(III) demethylation. It is not clear how the cells prevent a futile cycle of methylation and demethylation. To investigate the relationship between arsenic methylation and demethylation, we constructed strains of Escherichia coli AW3110 (ΔarsRBC) expressing NsarsM or/and NsarsI. Expression of NsarsI conferred MAs(III) resistance through MAs(III) demethylation. Compared to NsArsI, NsArsM conferred higher resistance to As(III) and lower resistance to MAs(III) by methylating both As(III) and MAs(III). The major species found in solution was dimethylarsenate [DMAs(V)]. Co-expression of NsarsM and NsarsI conferred As(III) resistance at levels similar to that with NsarsM alone, although the main species found in solution after As(III) biotransformation was methylarsenate [MAs(V)] rather than DMAs(V). Co-expression of NsarsM and NsarsI conferred a higher level of resistance to MAs(III) than found with expression of NsarsM alone but lower than expression of only NsarsI. Cells co-expressing both genes converted MAs(III) to a mixture of As(III) and DMAs(V). In Nostoc NsarsM is constitutively expressed, while NsarsI is inducible by either As(III) or MAs(III). Thus, our results suggest that at low concentrations of arsenic, NsArsM activity predominates, while NsArsI activity predominates at high concentrations. We propose that coexistence of arsM and arsI genes in Nostoc could be advantageous for several reasons. First, it confers a broader spectrum of resistance to both As(III) and MAs(III). Second, at low concentrations of arsenic, the MAs(III) produced by NsArsM will possibly have antibiotic-like properties and

  18. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin

    DOEpatents

    Schroeder, Herbert A.

    1991-01-01

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is preferably dried and stored until it is used (along with an alkali, an aldehyde and an adhesive filler) in compounding an adhesive of the type generally used in the manufacture of plywood.

  19. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin

    DOEpatents

    Schroeder, Herbert A.

    1991-01-01

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

  20. Characterization of DNA binding and pairing activities associated with the native SFPQ·NONO DNA repair protein complex.

    PubMed

    Udayakumar, Durga; Dynan, William S

    2015-08-07

    Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is a major pathway for repair of DNA double-strand breaks. We have previously shown that a complex of SFPQ (PSF) and NONO (p54(nrb)) cooperates with Ku protein at an early step of NHEJ, forming a committed preligation complex and stimulating end-joining activity by 10-fold or more. SFPQ and NONO show no resemblance to other repair factors, and their mechanism of action is uncertain. Here, we use an optimized microwell-based assay to characterize the in vitro DNA binding behavior of the native SFPQ·NONO complex purified from human (HeLa) cells. SFPQ·NONO and Ku protein bind independently to DNA, with little evidence of cooperativity and only slight mutual interference at high concentration. Whereas Ku protein requires free DNA ends for binding, SFPQ·NONO does not. Both Ku and SFPQ·NONO have pairing activity, as measured by the ability of DNA-bound protein to capture a second DNA fragment in a microwell-based assay. Additionally, SFPQ·NONO stimulates DNA-dependent protein kinase autophosphorylation, consistent with the ability to promote formation of a synaptic complex formation without occluding the DNA termini proper. These findings suggest that SFPQ·NONO promotes end joining by binding to internal DNA sequences and cooperating with other repair proteins to stabilize a synaptic pre-ligation complex.

  1. Cumene hydroperoxide-supported demethylation reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 2B4 lacking the NH2-terminal sequence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Pernecky, S J

    1999-04-29

    Catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 2B4 lacking NH2-terminal amino acids 2-27 (wt Delta2B4) and that of truncated 2B4 containing a Pro to Ser mutation at position 221 were examined in a system supported by cumene hydroperoxide. Demethylation activities of either truncated 2B4 with N-methylaniline, N,N-dimethylaniline, and d-benzphetamine were lower than those of liver microsomal 2B4, whereas the rate of 1-phenylethanol oxidation to acetophenone catalyzed by liver microsomal and truncated 2B4 enzymes was nearly the same. The Km and Vmax values for cumene hydroperoxide in the demethylation of N-methylaniline by wt Delta2B4 were 20% and 28%, respectively, of those obtained for 2B4. The reaction with wt Delta2B4 displayed a lesser dependence on phospholipid than did that with 2B4, and a complex relationship between activity and substrate concentration. The results suggest that the NH2-terminal region contributes to interaction of oxidant, substrate, and phospholipid in cumene hydroperoxide-supported reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 2B4.

  2. DNA Fingerprinting Using PCR: A Practical Forensic Science Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hyun-Jung; Ahn, Jung Hoon; Ko, Minsu

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a forensic science simulation programme applicable for use in colleges. Students were asked to find a putative suspect by DNA fingerprinting using a simple protocol developed in this study. DNA samples were obtained from a hair root and a drop of blood, common sources of DNA in forensic science. The DNA fingerprinting protocol…

  3. Efficient N-demethylation of opiate alkaloids using a modified nonclassical Polonovski reaction.

    PubMed

    McCamley, Kristy; Ripper, Justin A; Singer, Robert D; Scammells, Peter J

    2003-12-12

    A modified Polonovski reaction has been employed to N-demethylate several opiate alkaloids in moderate to high yield. This method provides an alternative to traditional N-demethylation procedures which utilize toxic reagents such as cyanogen bromide or expensive reagents such as vinyl chloroformate. The current synthesis involves N-oxide formation, isolation of the corresponding N-oxide hydrochloride, and an FeSO(4).7H(2)O mediated Polonovski reaction to afford the desired secondary amine.

  4. Functional characterization of CYP2B6 allelic variants in demethylation of antimalarial artemether.

    PubMed

    Honda, Masashi; Muroi, Yuka; Tamaki, Yuichiro; Saigusa, Daisuke; Suzuki, Naoto; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Matsubara, Yoichi; Oda, Akifumi; Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Hiratsuka, Masahiro

    2011-10-01

    Artemether (AM) is one of the most effective antimalarial drugs. The elimination half-life of AM is very short, and it shows large interindividual variability in pharmacokinetic parameters. The aim of this study was to identify cytochrome P450 (P450) isozymes responsible for the demethylation of AM and to evaluate functional differences between 26 CYP2B6 allelic variants in vitro. Of 14 recombinant P450s examined in this study, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 were primarily responsible for production of the desmethyl metabolite dihydroartemisinin. The intrinsic clearance (V(max)/K(m)) of CYP2B6 was 6-fold higher than that of CYP3A4. AM demethylation activity was correlated with CYP2B6 protein levels (P = 0.004); however, it was not correlated with CYP3A4 protein levels (P = 0.27) in human liver microsomes. Wild-type CYP2B6.1 and 25 CYP2B6 allelic variants (CYP2B6.2-CYP2B6.21 and CYP2B6.23-CYP2B6.27) were heterologously expressed in COS-7 cells. In vitro analysis revealed no enzymatic activity in 5 variants (CYP2B6.8, CYP2B6.12, CYP2B6.18, CYP2B6.21, and CYP2B6.24), lower activity in 7 variants (CYP2B6.10, CYP2B6.11, CYP2B6.14, CYP2B6.15, CYP2B6.16, CYP2B6.20, and CYP2B6.27), and higher activity in 4 variants (CYP2B6.2, CYP2B6.4, CYP2B6.6, and CYP2B6.19), compared with that of wild-type CYP2B6.1. In kinetic analysis, 3 variants (CYP2B6.2, CYP2B6.4, and CYP2B6.6) exhibited significantly higher V(max), and 3 variants (CYP2B6.14, CYP2B6.20 and CYP2B6.27) exhibited significantly lower V(max) compared with that of CYP2B6.1. This functional analysis of CYP2B6 variants could provide useful information for individualization of antimalarial drug therapy.

  5. AMPK regulates lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle cells through FTO-dependent demethylation of N(6)-methyladenosine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weiche; Feng, Jie; Jiang, Denghu; Zhou, Xihong; Jiang, Qin; Cai, Min; Wang, Xinxia; Shan, Tizhong; Wang, Yizhen

    2017-02-08

    Skeletal muscle plays important roles in whole-body energy homeostasis. Excessive skeletal muscle lipid accumulation is associated with some metabolic diseases such as obesity and Type 2 Diabetes. The energy sensor AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is a key regulator of skeletal muscle lipid metabolism, but the precise regulatory mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we provide a novel mechanism by which AMPK regulates skeletal muscle lipid accumulation through fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO)-dependent demethylation of N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A). We confirmed an inverse correlation between AMPK and skeletal muscle lipid content. Moreover, inhibition of AMPK enhanced lipid accumulation, while activation of AMPK reduced lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle cells. Notably, we found that mRNA m(6)A methylation levels were inversely correlated with lipid content in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, AMPK positively regulated the m(6)A methylation levels of mRNA, which could negatively regulate lipid accumulation in C2C12. At the molecular level, we demonstrated that AMPK regulated lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle cells by regulating FTO expression and FTO-dependent demethylation of m(6)A. Together, these results provide a novel regulatory mechanism of AMPK on lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle cells and suggest the possibility of controlling skeletal muscle lipid deposition by targeting AMPK or using m(6)A related drugs.

  6. AMPK regulates lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle cells through FTO-dependent demethylation of N6-methyladenosine

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weiche; Feng, Jie; Jiang, Denghu; Zhou, Xihong; Jiang, Qin; Cai, Min; Wang, Xinxia; Shan, Tizhong; Wang, Yizhen

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle plays important roles in whole-body energy homeostasis. Excessive skeletal muscle lipid accumulation is associated with some metabolic diseases such as obesity and Type 2 Diabetes. The energy sensor AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is a key regulator of skeletal muscle lipid metabolism, but the precise regulatory mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we provide a novel mechanism by which AMPK regulates skeletal muscle lipid accumulation through fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO)-dependent demethylation of N6-methyladenosine (m6A). We confirmed an inverse correlation between AMPK and skeletal muscle lipid content. Moreover, inhibition of AMPK enhanced lipid accumulation, while activation of AMPK reduced lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle cells. Notably, we found that mRNA m6A methylation levels were inversely correlated with lipid content in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, AMPK positively regulated the m6A methylation levels of mRNA, which could negatively regulate lipid accumulation in C2C12. At the molecular level, we demonstrated that AMPK regulated lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle cells by regulating FTO expression and FTO-dependent demethylation of m6A. Together, these results provide a novel regulatory mechanism of AMPK on lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle cells and suggest the possibility of controlling skeletal muscle lipid deposition by targeting AMPK or using m6A related drugs. PMID:28176824

  7. Arginine demethylation is catalysed by a subset of JmjC histone lysine demethylases

    PubMed Central

    Walport, Louise J.; Hopkinson, Richard J.; Chowdhury, Rasheduzzaman; Schiller, Rachel; Ge, Wei; Kawamura, Akane; Schofield, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    While the oxygen-dependent reversal of lysine Nɛ-methylation is well established, the existence of bona fide Nω-methylarginine demethylases (RDMs) is controversial. Lysine demethylation, as catalysed by two families of lysine demethylases (the flavin-dependent KDM1 enzymes and the 2-oxoglutarate- and oxygen-dependent JmjC KDMs, respectively), proceeds via oxidation of the N-methyl group, resulting in the release of formaldehyde. Here we report detailed biochemical studies clearly demonstrating that, in purified form, a subset of JmjC KDMs can also act as RDMs, both on histone and non-histone fragments, resulting in formaldehyde release. RDM catalysis is studied using peptides of wild-type sequences known to be arginine-methylated and sequences in which the KDM's methylated target lysine is substituted for a methylated arginine. Notably, the preferred sequence requirements for KDM and RDM activity vary even with the same JmjC enzymes. The demonstration of RDM activity by isolated JmjC enzymes will stimulate efforts to detect biologically relevant RDM activity. PMID:27337104

  8. Detecting the movement and spawning activity of bigheaded carps with environmental DNA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, Richard A.; Rees, Christopher B.; Coulter, Alison A.; Merkes, Christopher; McCalla, Sunnie; Touzinsky, Katherine F; Walleser, Liza R.; Goforth, Reuben R.; Amberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Bigheaded carps are invasive fishes threatening to invade the Great Lakes basin and establish spawning populations, and have been monitored using environmental DNA (eDNA). Not only does eDNA hold potential for detecting the presence of species, but may also allow for quantitative comparisons like relative abundance of species across time or space. We examined the relationships among bigheaded carp movement, hydrography, spawning and eDNA on the Wabash River, IN, USA. We found positive relationships between eDNA and movement and eDNA and hydrography. We did not find a relationship between eDNA and spawning activity in the form of drifting eggs. Our first finding demonstrates how eDNA may be used to monitor species abundance, whereas our second finding illustrates the need for additional research into eDNA methodologies. Current applications of eDNA are widespread, but the relatively new technology requires further refinement.

  9. Detecting the movement and spawning activity of bigheaded carps with environmental DNA.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Richard A; Rees, Christopher B; Coulter, Alison A; Merkes, Christopher M; McCalla, Sunnie G; Touzinsky, Katherine F; Walleser, Liza; Goforth, Reuben R; Amberg, Jon J

    2016-07-01

    Bigheaded carps are invasive fishes threatening to invade the Great Lakes basin and establish spawning populations, and have been monitored using environmental DNA (eDNA). Not only does eDNA hold potential for detecting the presence of species, but may also allow for quantitative comparisons like relative abundance of species across time or space. We examined the relationships among bigheaded carp movement, hydrography, spawning and eDNA on the Wabash River, IN, USA. We found positive relationships between eDNA and movement and eDNA and hydrography. We did not find a relationship between eDNA and spawning activity in the form of drifting eggs. Our first finding demonstrates how eDNA may be used to monitor species abundance, whereas our second finding illustrates the need for additional research into eDNA methodologies. Current applications of eDNA are widespread, but the relatively new technology requires further refinement.

  10. Mitochondrial Single-stranded DNA-binding Proteins Stimulate the Activity of DNA Polymerase γ by Organization of the Template DNA*

    PubMed Central

    Ciesielski, Grzegorz L.; Bermek, Oya; Rosado-Ruiz, Fernando A.; Hovde, Stacy L.; Neitzke, Orrin J.; Griffith, Jack D.; Kaguni, Laurie S.

    2015-01-01

    The activity of the mitochondrial replicase, DNA polymerase γ (Pol γ) is stimulated by another key component of the mitochondrial replisome, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein (mtSSB). We have performed a comparative analysis of the human and Drosophila Pols γ with their cognate mtSSBs, evaluating their functional relationships using a combined approach of biochemical assays and electron microscopy. We found that increasing concentrations of both mtSSBs led to the elimination of template secondary structure and gradual opening of the template DNA, through a series of visually similar template species. The stimulatory effect of mtSSB on Pol γ on these ssDNA templates is not species-specific. We observed that human mtSSB can be substituted by its Drosophila homologue, and vice versa, finding that a lower concentration of insect mtSSB promotes efficient stimulation of either Pol. Notably, distinct phases of the stimulation by both mtSSBs are distinguishable, and they are characterized by a similar organization of the template DNA for both Pols γ. We conclude that organization of the template DNA is the major factor contributing to the stimulation of Pol γ activity. Additionally, we observed that human Pol γ preferentially utilizes compacted templates, whereas the insect enzyme achieves its maximal activity on open templates, emphasizing the relative importance of template DNA organization in modulating Pol γ activity and the variation among systems. PMID:26446790

  11. Single-Molecule Electronic Monitoring of DNA Polymerase Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marushchak, Denys O.; Pugliese, Kaitlin M.; Turvey, Mackenzie W.; Choi, Yongki; Gul, O. Tolga; Olsen, Tivoli J.; Rajapakse, Arith J.; Weiss, Gregory A.; Collins, Philip G.

    Single-molecule techniques can reveal new spatial and kinetic details of the conformational changes occurring during enzymatic catalysis. Here, we investigate the activity of DNA polymerases using an electronic single-molecule technique based on carbon nanotube transistors. Single molecules of the Klenow fragment (KF) of polymerase I were conjugated to the transistors and then monitored via fluctuations in electrical conductance. Continuous, long-term monitoring recorded single KF molecules incorporating up to 10,000 new bases into single-stranded DNA templates. The duration of individual incorporation events was invariant across all analog and native nucleotides, indicating that the precise structure of different base pairs has no impact on the timing of incorporation. Despite similar timings, however, the signal magnitudes generated by certain analogs reveal alternate conformational states that do not occur with native nucleotides. The differences induced by these analogs suggest that the electronic technique is sensing KF's O-helix as it tests the stability of nascent base pairs.

  12. Investigation of DNA binding, DNA photocleavage, topoisomerase I inhibition and antioxidant activities of water soluble titanium(IV) phthalocyanine compounds.

    PubMed

    Özel, Arzu; Barut, Burak; Demirbaş, Ümit; Biyiklioglu, Zekeriya

    2016-04-01

    The binding mode of water soluble peripherally tetra-substituted titanium(IV) phthalocyanine (Pc) compounds Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 with calf thymus (CT) DNA was investigated by using UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermal denaturation studies in this work. The results of DNA binding constants (Kb) and the changes in the thermal denaturation profile of DNA with the addition of Pc compounds indicated that Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 are able to bind to CT-DNA with different binding affinities. DNA photocleavage studies of Pc compounds were performed in the absence and presence of oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ascorbic acid (AA) and 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) using the agarose gel electrophoresis method at irradiation 650 nm. According to the results of electrophoresis studies, Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 cleaved of supercoiled pBR322 DNA via photocleavage pathway. The Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 compounds were examined for topoisomerase I inhibition by measuring the relaxation of supercoiled pBR322 DNA. The all of Pc compounds inhibited topoisomerase I at 20 μM concentration. A series of antioxidant assays, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, superoxide radical scavenging (SOD) assay and metal chelating effect assay were performed for Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 compounds. The results of antioxidant assays indicated that Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 compounds have remarkable superoxide radical scavenging activities, moderate 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl activities and metal chelating effect activities. All the experimental studies showed that Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 compounds bind to CT-DNA via minor groove binding, cleave of supercoiled pBR322 DNA via photocleavage pathway, inhibit topoisomerase I and have remarkable superoxide radical scavenging activities. Thanks to these properties the Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 compounds are suitable agents for photo dynamic therapy.

  13. Redistribution of demethylated RNA helicase A during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection: role of Jumonji C-domain containing protein 6 in RHA demethylation.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Paul; Conderino, Joseph S; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Previously, RNA helicase A (RHA) re-localization from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infected cells was shown to coincide with loss of RHA methylated arginine residues at its C-terminus. The potential interaction between RHA and Jumonji C-domain (JmjC) protein 6 (JMJD6) arginine demethylase in infected cells was investigated. Treatment with N-oxalylglycine (NOG) inhibitor of JmjC demethylases prevented FMDV-induced RHA demethylation and re-localization, and also decreased viral protein synthesis and virus titers. Physical interaction between JMJD6 and RHA was demonstrated via reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation, where RHA preferentially bound JMJD6 monomers. Nuclear efflux of demethylated RHA (DM-RHA) coincided with nuclear influx of JMJD6, which was not observed using another picornavirus. A modified biochemical assay demonstrated JMJD6 induced dose-dependent demethylation of RHA and two RHA-derived isoforms, which could be inhibited by NOG. We propose a role for JMJD6 in RHA demethylation stimulated by FMDV, that appears to facilitate virus replication.

  14. Redistribution of demethylated RNA helicase A during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection: role of jumonji C-domain containing protein 6 in RHA demethylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported that RNA Helicase A (RHA) re-localized from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infected cells, coincident with a reduction in methylation of arginine residues in the RHA C-terminus. To further define the mechanism of RHA demethylation in FMDV-...

  15. The DNA methylation landscape of human early embryos.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongshan; Zhu, Ping; Yan, Liying; Li, Rong; Hu, Boqiang; Lian, Ying; Yan, Jie; Ren, Xiulian; Lin, Shengli; Li, Junsheng; Jin, Xiaohu; Shi, Xiaodan; Liu, Ping; Wang, Xiaoye; Wang, Wei; Wei, Yuan; Li, Xianlong; Guo, Fan; Wu, Xinglong; Fan, Xiaoying; Yong, Jun; Wen, Lu; Xie, Sunney X; Tang, Fuchou; Qiao, Jie

    2014-07-31

    DNA methylation is a crucial element in the epigenetic regulation of mammalian embryonic development. However, its dynamic patterns have not been analysed at the genome scale in human pre-implantation embryos due to technical difficulties and the scarcity of required materials. Here we systematically profile the methylome of human early embryos from the zygotic stage through to post-implantation by reduced representation bisulphite sequencing and whole-genome bisulphite sequencing. We show that the major wave of genome-wide demethylation is complete at the 2-cell stage, contrary to previous observations in mice. Moreover, the demethylation of the paternal genome is much faster than that of the maternal genome, and by the end of the zygotic stage the genome-wide methylation level in male pronuclei is already lower than that in female pronuclei. The inverse correlation between promoter methylation and gene expression gradually strengthens during early embryonic development, reaching its peak at the post-implantation stage. Furthermore, we show that active genes, with the trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me3) mark at the promoter regions in pluripotent human embryonic stem cells, are essentially devoid of DNA methylation in both mature gametes and throughout pre-implantation development. Finally, we also show that long interspersed nuclear elements or short interspersed nuclear elements that are evolutionarily young are demethylated to a milder extent compared to older elements in the same family and have higher abundance of transcripts, indicating that early embryos tend to retain higher residual methylation at the evolutionarily younger and more active transposable elements. Our work provides insights into the critical features of the methylome of human early embryos, as well as its functional relation to the regulation of gene expression and the repression of transposable elements.

  16. De novo DNA methylation of the paternal genome in 2-cell mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Ma, X S; Wang, X G; Qin, L; Song, C L; Lin, F; Song, J M; Zhu, C C; Liu, H L

    2014-10-27

    The developmental dynamics of DNA methylation events have been well studied. Active demethylation of the paternal genome occurs in the zygote, passive demethylation occurs during cleavage stages, and de novo methylation occurs by the blastocyst stage. It is believed that the paternal genome has lower levels of methylation during early development than the maternal genome. However, in this study, we provide direct and indirect evidence of genome-wide de novo DNA methylation of the paternal genome after the first cell cycle in mouse embryos. Although very little methylation was detected within the male pronucleus in zygotes, an intense methylation signal was clearly visible within the androgenetic 2-cell embryos. Moreover, the DNA methylation level of the paternal genome in the post-zygotic metaphase embryos was similar to that of the maternal genome. Using indirect immunofluorescence with an antibody to methylated lysine 9 in histone H3, we provided new evidence to support the concept of spatial compartmentalization of parental genomes in 2-cell mouse embryos. Nevertheless, the transient segregation of parental genomes was not observed by determining the DNA methylation distribution in the 2-cell embryos even though DNA methylation asymmetry between the maternal and paternal pronucleus existed in the 1-cell stage. The disappearance of separate immunofluorescence signals of 5-methyl cytosine in the 2-cell embryos might be attributed to the de novo methylation of the paternal genome during the first mitotic cycle.

  17. Gene-Specific Demethylation as Targeted Therapy in MDS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    methylation remain elusive. This proposal builds on our recent discovery of a novel class of RNAs , the DiRs or DNMT1-interacting RNAs , involved in...cell type-specific DNA methylation patterns. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that DNA methylation changes can be corrected by RNAs . We aim to...aberrant DNA methylation remain elusive. This proposal builds on our recent discovery of a novel class of RNAs , the DiRs or DNMT1-interacting RNAs

  18. Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase is Involved in the Repair of DNA Damage Due to Sulfur Mustard by a Mechanism Other Than DNA Ligase I Activation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-16

    agents including sulfur mustard (SM). We observed concurrent activation of PARP and DNA ligase in SM-exposed human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK...Previous reports from other laboratories suggested that DNA ligase activation could be due to its modification by PARP. In humans, there are three distinct...DNA ligases, I, II and IV of which DNA ligase I participates in DNA replication and repair. By metabolically labeling HEK using 3H-adenosine

  19. DNA-ligase IV and DNA-protein kinase play a critical role in deficient caspases activation in apoptosis-resistant cancer cells by using doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Claudia; Uhl, Miriam; Pannicke, Ulrich; Schwarz, Klaus; Miltner, Erich; Debatin, Klaus-Michael

    2008-08-01

    Resistance toward cytotoxic drugs is one of the primary causes for therapeutic failure in cancer therapy. DNA repair mechanisms as well as deficient caspases activation play a critical role in apoptosis resistance of tumor cells toward anticancer drug treatment. Here, we discovered that deficient caspases activation in apoptosis-resistant cancer cells depends on DNA-ligase IV and DNA-protein kinase (DNA-PK), playing crucial roles in the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway, which is the predominant pathway for DNA double-strand break repair (DNA-DSB-repair) in mammalian cells. DNA-PK(+/+) as well as DNA-ligase IV (+/+) cancer cells were apoptosis resistant and deficient in activation of caspase-3, caspase-9, and caspase-8 and in cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase after doxorubicin treatment. Inhibition of NHEJ by knocking out DNA-PK or DNA-ligase IV restored caspases activation and apoptosis sensitivity after doxorubicin treatment. In addition, inhibition of caspases activation prevented doxorubicin-induced apoptosis but could not prevent doxorubicin-induced DNA damage, indicating that induction of DNA damage is independent of caspases activation. However, caspases activation depends on induction of DNA damage left unrepaired by NHEJ-DNA-DSB-repair. We conclude that DNA damage left unrepaired by DNA-ligase IV or DNA-PK might be the initiator for caspases activation by doxorubicin in cancer cells. Failure in caspases activation using doxorubicin depends on loss of DNA damage and is due to higher rates of NHEJ-DNA-DBS-repair.

  20. Crystal Structure of a Bacterial Type IB DNA Topoisomerase Reveals a Preassembled Active Site in the Absence of DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Asmita; Shuman, Stewart; Mondragon, Alfonso

    2010-03-08

    Type IB DNA topoisomerases are found in all eukarya, two families of eukaryotic viruses (poxviruses and mimivirus), and many genera of bacteria. They alter DNA topology by cleaving and resealing one strand of duplex DNA via a covalent DNA-(3-phosphotyrosyl)-enzyme intermediate. Bacterial type IB enzymes were discovered recently and are described as poxvirus-like with respect to their small size, primary structures, and bipartite domain organization. Here we report the 1.75-{angstrom} crystal structure of Deinococcus radiodurans topoisomerase IB (DraTopIB), a prototype of the bacterial clade. DraTopIB consists of an amino-terminal (N) {beta}-sheet domain (amino acids 1-90) and a predominantly {alpha}-helical carboxyl-terminal (C) domain (amino acids 91-346) that closely resemble the corresponding domains of vaccinia virus topoisomerase IB. The five amino acids of DraTopIB that comprise the catalytic pentad (Arg-137, Lys-174, Arg-239, Asn-280, and Tyr-289) are preassembled into the active site in the absence of DNA in a manner nearly identical to the pentad configuration in human topoisomerase I bound to DNA. This contrasts with the apoenzyme of vaccinia topoisomerase, in which three of the active site constituents are either displaced or disordered. The N and C domains of DraTopIB are splayed apart in an 'open' conformation, in which the surface of the catalytic domain containing the active site is exposed for DNA binding. A comparison with the human topoisomerase I-DNA cocrystal structure suggests how viral and bacterial topoisomerase IB enzymes might bind DNA circumferentially via movement of the N domain into the major groove and clamping of a disordered loop of the C domain around the helix.

  1. PARP-2 domain requirements for DNA damage-dependent activation and localization to sites of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Riccio, Amanda A; Cingolani, Gino; Pascal, John M

    2016-02-29

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2) is one of three human PARP enzymes that are potently activated during the cellular DNA damage response (DDR). DDR-PARPs detect DNA strand breaks, leading to a dramatic increase in their catalytic production of the posttranslational modification poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) to facilitate repair. There are limited biochemical and structural insights into the functional domains of PARP-2, which has restricted our understanding of how PARP-2 is specialized toward specific repair pathways. PARP-2 has a modular architecture composed of a C-terminal catalytic domain (CAT), a central Trp-Gly-Arg (WGR) domain and an N-terminal region (NTR). Although the NTR is generally considered the key DNA-binding domain of PARP-2, we report here that all three domains of PARP-2 collectively contribute to interaction with DNA damage. Biophysical, structural and biochemical analyses indicate that the NTR is natively disordered, and is only required for activation on specific types of DNA damage. Interestingly, the NTR is not essential for PARP-2 localization to sites of DNA damage. Rather, the WGR and CAT domains function together to recruit PARP-2 to sites of DNA breaks. Our study differentiates the functions of PARP-2 domains from those of PARP-1, the other major DDR-PARP, and highlights the specialization of the multi-domain architectures of DDR-PARPs.

  2. PARP-2 domain requirements for DNA damage-dependent activation and localization to sites of DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Riccio, Amanda A.; Cingolani, Gino; Pascal, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2) is one of three human PARP enzymes that are potently activated during the cellular DNA damage response (DDR). DDR-PARPs detect DNA strand breaks, leading to a dramatic increase in their catalytic production of the posttranslational modification poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) to facilitate repair. There are limited biochemical and structural insights into the functional domains of PARP-2, which has restricted our understanding of how PARP-2 is specialized toward specific repair pathways. PARP-2 has a modular architecture composed of a C-terminal catalytic domain (CAT), a central Trp-Gly-Arg (WGR) domain and an N-terminal region (NTR). Although the NTR is generally considered the key DNA-binding domain of PARP-2, we report here that all three domains of PARP-2 collectively contribute to interaction with DNA damage. Biophysical, structural and biochemical analyses indicate that the NTR is natively disordered, and is only required for activation on specific types of DNA damage. Interestingly, the NTR is not essential for PARP-2 localization to sites of DNA damage. Rather, the WGR and CAT domains function together to recruit PARP-2 to sites of DNA breaks. Our study differentiates the functions of PARP-2 domains from those of PARP-1, the other major DDR-PARP, and highlights the specialization of the multi-domain architectures of DDR-PARPs. PMID:26704974

  3. 76 FR 62816 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines... recombinant DNA research. OBA is also specifying the risk group for several viruses not previously listed...

  4. 75 FR 31795 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA... ] under Section III-A-1 of the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH... the NIH Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee has been deferred at the request of the...

  5. 76 FR 44339 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines... attenuated strains of bacteria and viruses that are frequently used in recombinant DNA research. OBA is...

  6. 75 FR 69687 - Office of Biotechnology Activities Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Actions Under the NIH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... of Biotechnology Activities Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Actions Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines) ACTION: Notice of consideration of proposed...- vector system may be certified only after review by the NIH Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC)...

  7. 76 FR 27653 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines... Kluyveromyces lactis as a host-vector 1 system has been reviewed by the NIH ] Recombinant DNA Advisory...

  8. Single-molecule imaging of DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment) activity by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, J.; Zhang, P.; Wang, Q.; Wu, N.; Zhang, F.; Hu, J.; Fan, C. H.; Li, B.

    2016-03-01

    We report a DNA origami-facilitated single-molecule platform that exploits atomic force microscopy to study DNA replication. We imaged several functional activities of the Klenow fragment of E. coli DNA polymerase I (KF) including binding, moving, and dissociation from the template DNA. Upon completion of these actions, a double-stranded DNA molecule was formed. Furthermore, the direction of KF activities was captured and then confirmed by shifting the KF binding sites on the template DNA.We report a DNA origami-facilitated single-molecule platform that exploits atomic force microscopy to study DNA replication. We imaged several functional activities of the Klenow fragment of E. coli DNA polymerase I (KF) including binding, moving, and dissociation from the template DNA. Upon completion of these actions, a double-stranded DNA molecule was formed. Furthermore, the direction of KF activities was captured and then confirmed by shifting the KF binding sites on the template DNA. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06544e

  9. A DNA machine-based fluorescence amplification strategy for sensitive detection of uracil-DNA glycosylase activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yushu; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Jing; Jiang, Wei

    2015-06-15

    Sensitive detection of uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) activity is critical for function study of UDG and clinical diagnosis. Here, we developed a novel fluorescent strategy for sensitive detection of UDG activity based on the signal amplification by a label-free and enzyme-free DNA machine. A double-strand DNA (dsDNA) probe P1-P2 with uracil bases and trigger sequence was designed for UDG recognition and signal transduction. Two hairpin probes H1 and H2 which were partially complementary were employed to construct the label-free and enzyme-free DNA machine. Under the action of UDG, uracil bases were removed from the P1-P2 dsDNA probe, and then a strand P2' with abasic sites was released. Subsequently, the liberated P2' activated the DNA machine and generated numerous H1-H2 complexes containing G-quadruplex (G4) structures in the end. Finally, the G4 structures could bind with N-methylmesoporphyrin IX (NMM) to form G4-NMM complexes with the enhanced fluorescence responses. This strategy could detect UDG activity as low as 0.00044 U/mL. In addition, the strategy was also applied for the analysis of UDG activity in HeLa cells lysate with low effect of cellular components. Moreover, this strategy was successfully applied for assaying the inhibition of UDG using uracil glycosylase inhibitor (UGI). This strategy provided a potential tool for sensitive quantification of UDG activity in UDG functional study and clinical diagnosis.

  10. Spatial ordering and abnormal optical activity of DNA liquid-crystalline dispersion particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, S. V.; Yevdokimov, Yu. M.

    2016-12-01

    In our work, we investigate physicochemical and optical properties of double-strand DNA dispersions. The study of these properties is of biological interest, because it allows one to describe the characteristics of certain classes of chromosomes and DNA containing viruses. The package pattern of DNA molecules in the dispersions particles (DP) is examined. The consideration of the DNA liquid-crystalline DP optical activity based on the theory of electromagnetic wave absorption by large molecular aggregates has been performed. The investigation is also focused on various effects induced by the interaction between biological active compounds and DNA in the content of liquid-crystalline DP.

  11. RCC1-dependent activation of Ran accelerates cell cycle and DNA repair, inhibiting DNA damage–induced cell senescence

    PubMed Central

    Cekan, Pavol; Hasegawa, Keisuke; Pan, Yu; Tubman, Emily; Odde, David; Chen, Jin-Qiu; Herrmann, Michelle A.; Kumar, Sheetal; Kalab, Petr

    2016-01-01

    The coordination of cell cycle progression with the repair of DNA damage supports the genomic integrity of dividing cells. The function of many factors involved in DNA damage response (DDR) and the cell cycle depends on their Ran GTPase–regulated nuclear–cytoplasmic transport (NCT). The loading of Ran with GTP, which is mediated by RCC1, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ran, is critical for NCT activity. However, the role of RCC1 or Ran⋅GTP in promoting cell proliferation or DDR is not clear. We show that RCC1 overexpression in normal cells increased cellular Ran⋅GTP levels and accelerated the cell cycle and DNA damage repair. As a result, normal cells overexpressing RCC1 evaded DNA damage–induced cell cycle arrest and senescence, mimicking colorectal carcinoma cells with high endogenous RCC1 levels. The RCC1-induced inhibition of senescence required Ran and exportin 1 and involved the activation of importin β–dependent nuclear import of 53BP1, a large NCT cargo. Our results indicate that changes in the activity of the Ran⋅GTP–regulated NCT modulate the rate of the cell cycle and the efficiency of DNA repair. Through the essential role of RCC1 in regulation of cellular Ran⋅GTP levels and NCT, RCC1 expression enables the proliferation of cells that sustain DNA damage. PMID:26864624

  12. RNA-directed DNA methylation induces transcriptional activation in plants

    PubMed Central

    Shibuya, Kenichi; Fukushima, Setsuko; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    A class-C floral homeotic gene of Petunia, pMADS3, is specifically expressed in the stamen and carpels of developing flowers. We had previously reported the ect-pMADS3 phenomenon in which introduction of a part of the pMADS3 genomic sequence, including intron 2, induces ectopic expression of endogenous pMADS3. Unlike transcriptional or posttranscriptional gene silencing triggered by the introduction of homologous sequences, this observation is unique in that the gene expression is up-regulated. In this study, we demonstrated that the ect-pMADS3 phenomenon is due to transcriptional activation based on RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) occurring in a particular CG in a putative cis-element in pMADS3 intron 2. The CG methylation was maintained over generations, along with pMADS3 ectopic expression, even in the absence of RNA triggers. These results demonstrate a previously undescribed transcriptional regulatory mechanism that could lead to the generation of a transcriptionally active epiallele, thereby contributing to plant evolution. Our results also reveal a putative negative cis-element for organ-specific transcriptional regulation of class-C floral homeotic genes, which could be difficult to identify by other approaches. PMID:19164525

  13. Anaerobic Mercury Methylation and Demethylation by Geobacter bemidjiensis Bem

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xia; Liu, Yurong; Johs, Alexander; Zhao, Linduo; Wang, Tieshan; Yang, Ziming; Lin, Hui; Elias, Dwayne A.; Pierce, Eric M.; Liang, Liyuan; Barkay, Tamar; Gu, Baohua

    2016-03-28

    Two competing processes controlling the net production and bioaccumulation of neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) in natural ecosystems are microbial methylation and demethylation. Though mercury (Hg) methylation by anaerobic microorganisms and demethylation by aerobic Hg-resistant bacteria have both been extensively studied, little attention has been given to MeHg degradation by anaerobic bacteria, particularly the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter bemidjensis Bem. Here we report, for the first time, that the strain G. bemidjensis Bem can methylate inorganic Hg and degrade MeHg concurrently under anoxic conditions. Our results suggest that G. bemidjensis cells utilize a reductive demethylation pathway to degrade MeHg, with elemental Hg(0) as the major reaction product, possibly due to the presence of homologs encoding both organo-mercurial lyase (MerB) and mercuric reductase (MerA) in this organism. In addition, the cells can mediate multiple reactions including Hg/MeHg sorption, Hg reduction and oxidation, resulting in both time and concentration dependent Hg species transformations. Moderate concentrations (10 500 M) of Hg-binding ligands such as cysteine enhance Hg(II) methylation but inhibit MeHg degradation. These findings indicate a cycle of methylation and demethylation among anaerobic bacteria and suggest that mer-mediated demethylation may play a role in the net balance of MeHg production in anoxic water and sediments.

  14. Mitochondrial control through nutritionally regulated global histone H3 lysine-4 demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Soloveychik, Maria; Xu, Mengshu; Zaslaver, Olga; Lee, Kwanyin; Narula, Ashrut; Jiang, River; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Caudy, Amy A.; Meneghini, Marc D.

    2016-01-01

    Histone demethylation by Jumonji-family proteins is coupled with the decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate (αKG) to yield succinate, prompting hypotheses that their activities are responsive to levels of these metabolites in the cell. Consistent with this paradigm we show here that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Jumonji demethylase Jhd2 opposes the accumulation of H3K4me3 in fermenting cells only when they are nutritionally manipulated to contain an elevated αKG/succinate ratio. We also find that Jhd2 opposes H3K4me3 in respiratory cells that do not exhibit such an elevated αKG/succinate ratio. While jhd2∆ caused only limited gene expression defects in fermenting cells, transcript profiling and physiological measurements show that JHD2 restricts mitochondrial respiratory capacity in cells grown in non-fermentable carbon in an H3K4me-dependent manner. In association with these phenotypes, we find that JHD2 limits yeast proliferative capacity under physiologically challenging conditions as measured by both replicative lifespan and colony growth on non-fermentable carbon. JHD2’s impact on nutrient response may reflect an ancestral role of its gene family in mediating mitochondrial regulation. PMID:27897198

  15. Increased expression of prion protein gene is accompanied by demethylation of CpG sites in a mouse embryonal carcinoma cell line, P19C6

    PubMed Central

    DALAI, Wuyun; MATSUO, Eiko; TAKEYAMA, Natsumi; KAWANO, Junichi; SAEKI, Keiichi

    2017-01-01

    Elucidation of the processes regulating the prion protein gene (Prnp) is an important key to understanding the development of prion disorders. In this study, we explored the involvement of DNA methylation in Prnp transcriptional regulation during neuronal differentiation of embryonic carcinoma P19C6 cells. When P19C6 cells were differentiated into neuronal cells, the expression of Prnp was markedly increased, while CpG methylation was significantly demethylated at the nucleotide region between −599 and −238 from the transcription start site. In addition, when P19C6 cells were applied in a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, RG108, Prnp transcripts were also significantly increased in relation to the decreased methylation statuses. These findings helped to elucidate the DNA methylation-mediated regulation of Prnp expression during neuronal differentiation. PMID:28132962

  16. DNA methylation dynamics in mouse preimplantation embryos revealed by mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Naoko; Suzuki, Toru; Shimozawa, Nobuhiro; Asami, Maki; Matsuda, Tomonari; Kojima, Nakao; Perry, Anthony C. F.; Takada, Tatsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Following fertilization in mammals, paternal genomic 5-methyl-2′-deoxycytidine (5 mC) content is thought to decrease via oxidation to 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine (5 hmC). This reciprocal model of demethylation and hydroxymethylation is inferred from indirect, non-quantitative methods. We here report direct quantification of genomic 5 mC and 5 hmC in mouse embryos by small scale liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (SMM). Profiles of absolute 5 mC levels in embryos produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were almost identical. By 10 h after fertilization, 5 mC levels had declined by ~40%, consistent with active genomic DNA demethylation. Levels of 5 mC in androgenotes (containing only a paternal genome) and parthenogenotes (containing only a maternal genome) underwent active 5 mC loss in the first 6 h, showing that both parental genomes can undergo demethylation independently. We found no evidence for net loss of 5 mC 10–48 h after fertilization, implying that any passive ‘demethylation’ following DNA replication was balanced by active 5 mC maintenance methylation. However, levels of 5 mC declined during development after 48 h, to 1% (measured as a fraction of G-residues) in blastocysts (~96 h). 5 hmC levels were consistently low (<0.2% of G-residues) throughout development in normal diploid embryos. This work directly quantifies the dynamics of global genomic DNA modification in mouse preimplantation embryos, suggesting that SMM will be applicable to other biomedical situations with limiting sample sizes. PMID:26750605

  17. Copper(II) facilitates bleomycin-mediated unwinding of plasmid DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, M.J.; Hecht, S.M.

    1988-04-19

    The unwinding of plasmid DNA by bleomycin A/sub 2/ (BLM A/sub 2/) was investigated by use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. It was found that Cu/sup 2 +/ ions greatly facilitated the unwinding of topoisomers of plasmid DNA by BLM A/sub 2/ at concentrations where cupric ions along had no effect on DNA supercoiling. The concentration of BLM A/sub 2/ required for observable unwinding was reduced at least 100-fold in the presence of equimolar Cu/sup 2 +/. A plot of (Cu/sup 2 +/) vs extent of DNA unwinding in the presence of 10/sup -4/ M BLM A/sub 2/ gave a curve consistent with the action of cupric ions on BLM in an allosteric fashion, possibly rearranging the drug into a conformation that facilitates DNA unwinding. The participation of the metal center in enhancing DNA unwinding via direct ionic interaction with one or more negatively charged groups on the DNA duplex also seems possible. Further analysis of the structural factors required for BLM-mediated DNA unwinding was carried out with Cu/sup 2 +/ + BLM demethyl A/sub 2/, the latter of which differs from BLM A/sub 2/ only in that it lacks a methyl group, and associated positive charge, at the C-terminus. Cu(II) x BLM demethyl A/sub 2/ was found to be much less effective than Cu(II) x BLM A/sub 2/ as a DNA unwinding agent, emphasizing the strong dependence of this process on the presence of positively charged groups within the BLM molecule. These findings constitute the first direct evidence that the metal center of BLM can participate in DNA interaction, as well as in the previously recognized role of oxygen binding and activation.

  18. JMJD3 promotes SAHF formation in senescent WI38 cells by triggering an interplay between demethylation and phosphorylation of RB protein.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L; Zhang, Y; Gao, Y; Geng, P; Lu, Y; Liu, X; Yao, R; Hou, P; Liu, D; Lu, J; Huang, B

    2015-10-01

    Primary human fibroblasts undergoing oncogene-induced or replicative senescence are known to form senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF), which can stabilize the state of senescence. The retinoblastoma (RB) protein has an important role in SAHF; cells that lack active RB pathway fail to form SAHF. It has been known that the posttranslational modifications of RB, for example, phosphorylation, regulate its function. To date, whether methylation of RB impacts on the SAHF formation is unknown. Here we report that JMJD3, a histone demethylase catalyzing the tri-methylation of H3K27 (H3K27me3), can demethylate the non-histone protein RB at the lysine810 residue (K810), which is a target of the methyltransferase Set7/9. We detected a significant upregulation of JMJD3 during cellular senescence and SAHF formation in WI38 cells induced by H-RasV(12), and we found that ectopic expression of JMJD3 promoted cellular senescence and SAHF formation in WI38 cells. Furthermore, during the process of SAHF assembly, JMJD3 was transported to the cytoplasm and interacted with RB through its demethylase domain JmjC. Significantly, our data demonstrated that the JMJD3-mediated demethylation of RB at K810 impeded the interaction of RB with the protein kinase CDK4 and resulted in reduced level of phosphorylation of RB at Serine807/811 (S807/811), implicating an important role of the interplay between the demethylation and phosphorylation of RB in SAHF assembly. This study highlights the role of JMJD3 as a novel inducer of SAHF formation through demethylating RB and provides new insights into the mechanisms of cellular senescence and SAHF assembly.

  19. A superstructure-based electrochemical assay for signal-amplified detection of DNA methyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Yang, Yin; Dong, Huilei; Cai, Chenxin

    2016-12-15

    DNA methyltransferase (MTase) activity is highly correlated with the occurrence and development of cancer. This work reports a superstructure-based electrochemical assay for signal-amplified detection of DNA MTase activity using M.SssI as an example. First, low-density coverage of DNA duplexes on the surface of the gold electrode was achieved by immobilized mercaptohexanol, followed by immobilization of DNA duplexes. The duplex can be cleaved by BstUI endonuclease in the absence of DNA superstructures. However, the cleavage is blocked after the DNA is methylated by M.SssI. The DNA superstructures are formed with the addition of helper DNA. By using an electroactive complex, RuHex, which can bind to DNA double strands, the activity of M.SssI can be quantitatively detected by differential pulse voltammetry. Due to the high site-specific cleavage by BstUI and signal amplification by the DNA superstructure, the biosensor can achieve ultrasensitive detection of DNA MTase activity down to 0.025U/mL. The method can be used for evaluation and screening of the inhibitors of MTase, and thus has potential in the discovery of methylation-related anticancer drugs.

  20. Black Raspberry-Derived Anthocyanins Demethylate Tumor Suppressor Genes Through the Inhibition of DNMT1 and DNMT3B in Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Shu; Kuo, Chieh-Ti; Cho, Seung-Ju; Seguin, Claire; Siddiqui, Jibran; Stoner, Kristen; Weng, Yu-I; Huang, Tim H.-M.; Tichelaar, Jay; Yearsley, Martha; Stoner, Gary D.; Huang, Yi-Wen

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that oral administration of black raspberry powder decreased promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes in tumors from patients with colorectal cancer. The anthocyanins (ACs) in black raspberries are responsible, at least in part, for their cancer-inhibitory effects. In the present study, we asked if ACs are responsible for the demethylation effects observed in colorectal cancers. Three days of treatment of ACs at 0.5, 5, and 25 μg/ml suppressed activity and protein expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3B in HCT116, Caco2 and SW480 cells. Promoters of CDKN2A, and SFRP2, SFRP5, and WIF1, upstream of Wnt pathway, were demethylated by ACs. mRNA expression of some of these genes was increased. mRNA expression of β-catenin and c-Myc, downstream of Wnt pathway, and cell proliferation were decreased; apoptosis was increased. ACs were taken up into HCT116 cells and were differentially localized with DNMT1 and DNMT3B in the same cells visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Although it was reported that DNMT3B is regulated by c-Myc in mouse lymphoma, DNMT3B did not bind with c-Myc in HCT116 cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that ACs are responsible, at least in part, for the demethylation effects of whole black raspberries in colorectal cancers. PMID:23368921

  1. PARP activation regulates the RNA-binding protein NONO in the DNA damage response to DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Krietsch, Jana; Caron, Marie-Christine; Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Ethier, Chantal; Vignard, Julien; Vincent, Michel; Rouleau, Michèle; Hendzel, Michael J; Poirier, Guy G; Masson, Jean-Yves

    2012-11-01

    After the generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is one of the first proteins to be recruited and activated through its binding to the free DNA ends. Upon activation, PARP-1 uses NAD+ to generate large amounts of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), which facilitates the recruitment of DNA repair factors. Here, we identify the RNA-binding protein NONO, a partner protein of SFPQ, as a novel PAR-binding protein. The protein motif being primarily responsible for PAR-binding is the RNA recognition motif 1 (RRM1), which is also crucial for RNA-binding, highlighting a competition between RNA and PAR as they share the same binding site. Strikingly, the in vivo recruitment of NONO to DNA damage sites completely depends on PAR, generated by activated PARP-1. Furthermore, we show that upon PAR-dependent recruitment, NONO stimulates nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and represses homologous recombination (HR) in vivo. Our results therefore place NONO after PARP activation in the context of DNA DSB repair pathway decision. Understanding the mechanism of action of proteins that act in the same pathway as PARP-1 is crucial to shed more light onto the effect of interference on PAR-mediated pathways with PARP inhibitors, which have already reached phase III clinical trials but are until date poorly understood.

  2. The single-strand DNA binding activity of human PC4 preventsmutagenesis and killing by oxidative DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jen-Yeu; Sarker, Altaf Hossain; Cooper, Priscilla K.; Volkert, Michael R.

    2004-02-01

    Human positive cofactor 4 (PC4) is a transcriptional coactivator with a highly conserved single-strand DNA (ssDNA) binding domain of unknown function. We identified PC4 as a suppressor of the oxidative mutator phenotype of the Escherichia coli fpg mutY mutant and demonstrate that this suppression requires its ssDNA binding activity. Yeast mutants lacking their PC4 ortholog Sub1 are sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and exhibit spontaneous and peroxide induced hypermutability. PC4 expression suppresses the peroxide sensitivity of the yeast sub l{Delta} mutant, suggesting that the human protein has a similar function. A role for yeast and human proteins in DNA repair is suggested by the demonstration that Sub1 acts in a peroxide-resistance pathway involving Rad2 and by the physical interaction of PC4 with the human Rad2 homolog XPG. We show XPG recruits PC4 to a bubble-containing DNA substrate with resulting displacement of XPG and formation of a PC4-DNA complex. We discuss the possible requirement for PC4 in either global or transcription-coupled repair of oxidative DNA damage to mediate the release of XPG bound to its substrate.

  3. The human DNA-activated protein kinase, DNA-PK: Substrate specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.W.; Connelly, M.A.; Zhang, H.; Sipley, J.A.; Lees-Miller, S.P.; Lintott, L.G.; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu; Appella, E.

    1994-11-05

    Although much has been learned about the structure and function of p53 and the probable sequence of subsequent events that lead to cell cycle arrest, little is known about how DNA damage is detected and the nature of the signal that is generated by DNA damage. Circumstantial evidence suggests that protein kinases may be involved. In vitro, human DNA-PK phosphorylates a variety of nuclear DNA-binding, regulatory proteins including the tumor suppressor protein p53, the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA, the heat shock protein hsp90, the large tumor antigen (TAg) of simian virus 40, a variety of transcription factors including Fos, Jun, serum response factor (SRF), Myc, Sp1, Oct-1, TFIID, E2F, the estrogen receptor, and the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (reviewed in Anderson, 1993; Jackson et al., 1993). However, for most of these proteins, the sites that are phosphorylated by DNA-PK are not known. To determine if the sites that were phosphorylated in vitro also were phosphorylated in vivo and if DNA-PK recognized a preferred protein sequence, the authors identified the sites phosphorylated by DNA-PK in several substrates by direct protein sequence analysis. Each phosphorylated serine or threonine is followed immediately by glutamine in the polypeptide chain; at no other positions are the amino acid residues obviously constrained.

  4. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is essential for sulfur mustard-induced DNA damage repair, but has no role in DNA ligase activation.

    PubMed

    Bhat, K Ramachandra; Benton, Betty J; Ray, Radharaman

    2006-01-01

    Concurrent activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and DNA ligase was observed in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) exposed to the DNA alkylating compound sulfur mustard (SM), suggesting that DNA ligase activation could be due to its modification by PARP. Using HEK, intracellular 3H-labeled NAD+ (3H-adenine) was metabolically generated and then these cells were exposed to SM (1 mM). DNA ligase I isolated from these cells was not 3H-labeled, indicating that DNA ligase I is not a substrate for (ADP-ribosyl)ation by PARP. In HEK, when PARP was inhibited by 3-amino benzamide (3-AB, 2 mM), SM-activated DNA ligase had a half-life that was four-fold higher than that observed in the absence of 3-AB. These results suggest that DNA repair requires PARP, and that DNA ligase remains activated until DNA damage repair is complete. The results show that in SM-exposed HEK, DNA ligase I is activated by phosphorylation catalysed by DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). Therefore, the role of PARP in DNA repair is other than that of DNA ligase I activation. By using the DNA ligase I phosphorylation assay and decreasing PARP chemically as well as by PARP anti-sense mRNA expression in the cells, it was confirmed that PARP does not modify DNA ligase I. In conclusion, it is proposed that PARP is essential for efficient DNA repair; however, PARP participates in DNA repair by altering the chromosomal structure to make the DNA damage site(s) accessible to the repair enzymes.

  5. The Architectural Chromatin Factor High Mobility Group A1 Enhances DNA Ligase IV Activity Influencing DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Silvia; Pegoraro, Silvia; Ros, Gloria; Penzo, Carlotta; Triolo, Gianluca; Demarchi, Francesca; Sgarra, Riccardo; Vindigni, Alessandro; Manfioletti, Guidalberto

    2016-01-01

    The HMGA1 architectural transcription factor is an oncogene overexpressed in the vast majority of human cancers. HMGA1 is a highly connected node in the nuclear molecular network and the key aspect of HMGA1 involvement in cancer development is that HMGA1 simultaneously confers cells multiple oncogenic hits, ranging from global chromatin structural and gene expression modifications up to the direct functional alterations of key cellular proteins. Interestingly, HMGA1 also modulates DNA damage repair pathways. In this work, we provide evidences linking HMGA1 with Non-Homologous End Joining DNA repair. We show that HMGA1 is in complex with and is a substrate for DNA-PK. HMGA1 enhances Ligase IV activity and it counteracts the repressive histone H1 activity towards DNA ends ligation. Moreover, breast cancer cells overexpressing HMGA1 show a faster recovery upon induction of DNA double-strand breaks, which is associated with a higher survival. These data suggest that resistance to DNA-damaging agents in cancer cells could be partially attributed to HMGA1 overexpression thus highlighting the relevance of considering HMGA1 expression levels in the selection of valuable and effective pharmacological regimens. PMID:27723831

  6. The Architectural Chromatin Factor High Mobility Group A1 Enhances DNA Ligase IV Activity Influencing DNA Repair.

    PubMed

    Pellarin, Ilenia; Arnoldo, Laura; Costantini, Silvia; Pegoraro, Silvia; Ros, Gloria; Penzo, Carlotta; Triolo, Gianluca; Demarchi, Francesca; Sgarra, Riccardo; Vindigni, Alessandro; Manfioletti, Guidalberto

    2016-01-01

    The HMGA1 architectural transcription factor is an oncogene overexpressed in the vast majority of human cancers. HMGA1 is a highly connected node in the nuclear molecular network and the key aspect of HMGA1 involvement in cancer development is that HMGA1 simultaneously confers cells multiple oncogenic hits, ranging from global chromatin structural and gene expression modifications up to the direct functional alterations of key cellular proteins. Interestingly, HMGA1 also modulates DNA damage repair pathways. In this work, we provide evidences linking HMGA1 with Non-Homologous End Joining DNA repair. We show that HMGA1 is in complex with and is a substrate for DNA-PK. HMGA1 enhances Ligase IV activity and it counteracts the repressive histone H1 activity towards DNA ends ligation. Moreover, breast cancer cells overexpressing HMGA1 show a faster recovery upon induction of DNA double-strand breaks, which is associated with a higher survival. These data suggest that resistance to DNA-damaging agents in cancer cells could be partially attributed to HMGA1 overexpression thus highlighting the relevance of considering HMGA1 expression levels in the selection of valuable and effective pharmacological regimens.

  7. Inhibition of unwinding and ATPase activities of pea MCM6 DNA helicase by actinomycin and nogalamycin.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Quang; Pham, Xuan Hoi; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2011-03-01

    Pea mini-chromosome maintenance 6 (MCM6) single subunit (93 kDa) forms homohexamer (560 kDa) and contains an ATP-dependent and replication fork stimulated 3' to 5' DNA unwinding activity along with intrinsic DNA-dependent ATPase and ATP-binding activities [Plant Mol. Biol. 2010; DOI: 10.1007/s11103-010-9675-7]. Here, we have determined the effect of various DNA-binding agents, such as actinomycin, nogalamycin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, distamycin, camptothecin, cyclophosphamide, ellipticine, VP-16, novobiocin, netropsin, cisplatin, mitoxantrone and genistein on the DNA unwinding and ATPase activities of the pea MCM6 DNA helicase. The results show that actinomycin and nogalamycin inhibited the DNA helicase (apparent Ki values of 10 and 1 μM, respectively) and ATPase (apparent Ki values of 100 and 17 μM, respectively) activities. Although, daunorubicin and doxorubicin also inhibited the DNA helicase activity of pea MCM6, but with less efficiency; however, these could not inhibit the ATPase activity. These results suggest that the intercalation of the inhibitors into duplex DNA generates a complex that impedes translocation of MCM6, resulting in the inhibitions of the activities. This study could be useful in our better understanding of the mechanism of plant nuclear DNA helicase unwinding.

  8. Inhibition of DNA helicase, ATPase and DNA-binding activities of E. coli RecQ helicase by chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Ai-hua; Chen, Lei; Xi, Xu Guang

    2008-06-01

    RecQ helicases play an essential role in maintaining genetic integrity in all organisms from Escherichia coli to humans. Defects to these enzymes are responsible for three distinct human diseases: Werner syndrome, Bloom syndrome and Rothmund-Thomson syndrome. All three diseases are characterized by a predisposition to cancer due to increased genomic instability. Previous studies on the effects of non-covalent DNA modifications on the catalytic activity of purified Werner and Bloom DNA helicases have shown that both enzymes have similar sensitivity profiles to these DNA-binding agents and are most strongly inhibited by the minor groove binder distamycin A. In this study, we show that the sensitivity profiles of E. coli RecQ to a number of DNA-binding ligands are different to those observed for WRN and Bloom helicases. These observations may give insights into the differences in molecular mechanisms underlying efficient motor function of RecQ helicases.

  9. Fingerprinting DNA oxidation processes: IR characterization of the 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine radical cation.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Dominik B; Pilles, Bert M; Pfaffeneder, Toni; Carell, Thomas; Zinth, Wolfgang

    2014-02-24

    Methylated cytidine plays an important role as an epigenetic signal in gene regulation. Its oxidation products are assumed to be involved in active demethylation processes but also in damaging DNA. Here, we report the photochemical production of the 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine radical cation via a two-photon ionization process. The radical cation is detected by time-resolved IR spectroscopy and identified by band assignment using density functional theory calculations. Two final oxidation products are characterized with liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

  10. DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenfeld, Gary

    1985-01-01

    Structural form, bonding scheme, and chromatin structure of and gene-modification experiments with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are described. Indicates that DNA's double helix is variable and also flexible as it interacts with regulatory and other molecules to transfer hereditary messages. (DH)

  11. nifH promoter activity is regulated by DNA supercoiling in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Jie; Hu, Biao; Zhu, Jia-Bi; Shen, Shan-Jiong; Yu, Guan-Qiao

    2005-04-01

    In prokaryotes, DNA supercoiling regulates the expression of many genes; for example, the expression of Klebsiella pneumoniae nifLA operon depends on DNA negative supercoiling in anaerobically grown cells, which indicates that DNA supercoiling might play a role in gene regulation of the anaerobic response. Since the expression of the nifH promoter in Sinorhizobium meliloti is not repressed by oxygen, it is proposed that the status of DNA supercoiling may not affect the expression of the nifH promoter. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing nifH promoter activity in wild-type and gyr- Escherichia coli in the presence and absence of DNA gyrase inhibitors. Our results show that gene expression driven by the S. meliloti nifH promoter requires the presence of active DNA gyrase. Because DNA gyrase increases the number of negative superhelical turns in DNA in the presence of ATP, our data indicate that negative supercoiling is also important for nifH promoter activity. Our study also shows that the DNA supercoiling-dependent S. meliloti nifH promoter activity is related to the trans-acting factors NtrC and NifA that activate it. DNA supercoiling appeared to have a stronger effect on NtrC-activated nifH promoter activity than on NifA-activated promoter activity. Collectively, these results from the S. meliloti nifH promoter model system seem to indicate that, in addition to regulating gene expression during anaerobic signaling, DNA supercoiling may also provide a favorable topology for trans-acting factor binding and promoter activation regardless of oxygen status.

  12. Transcription is Associated with Z-DNA Formation in Metabolically Active Permeabilized Mammalian Cell Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittig, Burghardt; Dorbic, Tomislav; Rich, Alexander

    1991-03-01

    Mammalian cells have been encapsulated in agarose microbeads, and from these cells metabolically active permeabilized nuclei were prepared. Previously, we showed that biotin-labeled monoclonal antibodies against Z-DNA can be diffused into the nuclei and, over a specific concentration range, they will bind to Z-DNA within the nucleus in a concentration-independent manner. By using radiolabeled streptavidin, we showed that the amount of Z-DNA antibody bound is related to the torsional strain of the DNA in the nucleus. Relaxation of the DNA results in a decrease of Z-DNA formation, whereas increasing torsional strain through inhibiting topoisomerase I results in increased Z-DNA formation. Here we measure the influence of RNA transcription and DNA replication. Transcription is associated with a substantial increase in the binding of anti-Z-DNA antibodies, paralleling the increased level of RNA synthesized as the level of ribonucleoside triphosphate in the medium is increased. DNA replication yields smaller increases in the binding of Z-DNA antibodies. Stopping RNA transcription with inhibitors results in a large loss of Z-DNA antibody binding, whereas only a small decrease is associated with inhibition of DNA replication.

  13. ERK kinases modulate the activation of PI3 kinase related kinases (PIKKs) in DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaozeng; Yan, Judy; Tang, Damu

    2013-12-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) is the critical surveillance mechanism in maintaining genome integrity. The mechanism activates checkpoints to prevent cell cycle progression in the presence of DNA lesions, and mediates lesion repair. DDR is coordinated by three apical PI3 kinase related kinases (PIKKs), including ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), and DNA-PKcs (the catalytic subunit of the DNA dependent protein kinase). These kinases are activated in response to specific DNA damage or lesions, resulting in checkpoint activation and DNA lesion repair. While it is clear that the pathways of ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK are the core components of DDR, there is accumulating evidence revealing the involvement of other cellular pathways in regulating DDR; this is in line with the concept that in addition to being a nuclear event DDR is also a cellular process. One of these pathways is the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. ERK is a converging point of multiple signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Adding to this list of pathways is the recent development of ERK in DDR. The ERK kinases (ERK1 and ERK2) contribute to the proper execution of DDR in terms of checkpoint activation and the repair of DNA lesions. This review summarizes the contributions of ERK to DDR with emphasis on the relationship of ERK kinases with the activation of ATM, ATR, and DNA-PKcs.

  14. Human Pif1 helicase is a G-quadruplex DNA-binding protein with G-quadruplex DNA-unwinding activity.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Cyril M

    2010-08-15

    Pif1 proteins are helicases that in yeast are implicated in the maintenance of genome stability. One activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pif1 is to stabilize DNA sequences that could otherwise form deleterious G4 (G-quadruplex) structures by acting as a G4 resolvase. The present study shows that human Pif1 (hPif1, nuclear form) is a G4 DNA-binding and resolvase protein and that these activities are properties of the conserved helicase domain (amino acids 206-620 of 641, hPifHD). hPif1 preferentially bound synthetic G4 DNA relative to ssDNA (single-stranded DNA), dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) and a partially single-stranded duplex DNA helicase substrate. G4 DNA unwinding, but not binding, required an extended (>10 nucleotide) 5' ssDNA tail, and in competition assays, G4 DNA was an ineffective suppressor of helicase activity compared with ssDNA. These results suggest a distinction between the determinants of G4 DNA binding and the ssDNA interactions required for helicase action and that hPif1 may act on G4 substrates by binding alone or as a resolvase. Human Pif1 could therefore have a role in processing G4 structures that arise in the single-stranded nucleic acid intermediates formed during DNA replication and gene expression.

  15. The Histone Demethylase UTX Promotes Brown Adipocyte Thermogenic Program Via Coordinated Regulation of H3K27 Demethylation and Acetylation*

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Lin; Li, Fenfen; Wu, Rui; Artinian, Liana; Rehder, Vincent; Yu, Liqing; Liang, Houjie; Xue, Bingzhong; Shi, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipocytes function to dissipate energy as heat through adaptive thermogenesis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the brown fat thermogenic program may provide insights for the development of therapeutic approaches in the treatment of obesity. Most studies investigating the mechanisms underlying brown fat development focus on genetic mechanisms; little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms in this process. We have discovered that ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat on chromosome X (UTX), a histone demethylase for di- or tri-methylated histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me2/3), plays a potential role in regulating brown adipocyte thermogenic program. We found that UTX is up-regulated during brown adipocyte differentiation and by cold exposure in both brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) of mice, suggesting a potential role in thermogenesis. Inactivation of UTX down-regulates brown fat specific gene expression, while overexpression of UTX does the opposite. Notably, activation of β adrenergic signaling recruits UTX to the UCP1 and PGC1α promoters, leading to decreased H3K27me3, a histone transcriptional repressive mark. UTX demethylates H3K27me3 and subsequently interacts with the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) protein CBP, resulting in increased H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac), a histone transcriptional active mark. UTX positively regulate brown adipocyte thermogenic program through coordinated control of demethylating H3K27me3 and acetylating H3K27, switching the transcriptional repressive state to the transcriptional active state at the promoters of UCP1 and PGC1α. We conclude that UTX may play a potential role in regulation of brown adipocyte gene expression and may mediate β adrenergic activation of brown fat function. PMID:26306033

  16. Further investigations into the N-demethylation of oripavine using iron and stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Kok, Gaik B; Scammells, Peter J

    2011-02-21

    Further investigations into the direct synthesis of N-nororipavine from oripavine using iron powder under non-classical Polonovski conditions have been conducted. The stoichiometry, solvents and iron oxidation rates were found to have a dramatic effect on the rate of N-demethylation as well as product yield. Herein, we also present high-yield access to the N-demethylated product simply by employing stainless steel rather than iron powder as redox catalyst. To our knowledge, this is the first time stainless steel has been used to moderate the redox chemistry of iron in organic synthesis.

  17. Effects of DNA on immunoglobulin production stimulating activity of alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, T; Furutani, H; Sasaki, T; Sugahara, T

    1999-09-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase-I (ADH-I) derived from horse liver stimulated IgM production by human-human hybridoma, HB4C5 cells and lymphocytes. The IPSF activity of ADH-I was suppressed by coexistence of short DNA whose chain length is less than 200 base pairs (bp) and fibrous DNA in a dose-dependent manner. These DNA preparations completely inhibited the IPSF activity at the concentration of 250 mug/ml and 1.0 mg/ml, respectively. DNA sample termed long DNA whose average chain length is 400-7000 bp slightly stimulated IPSF activity at 0.06 mug/ml. However, long DNA suppressed IPSF activity by half at 1.0 mg/ml. The laser confocal microscopic analysis had revealed that ADH-I was incorporated by HB4C5 cells. The uptake of ADH-I was strongly inhibited by short DNA and fibrous DNA. However, long DNA did not suppress the internalization of ADH-I into HB4C5 cells. These findings indicate that short DNA and fibrous DNA depress IPSF activity of ADH-I by inhibiting the internalization of this enzyme. According to the gel-filtration analysis using HPLC, ADH-I did not directly interact with short DNA. It is expected from these findings that short DNA influences HB4C5 cells to suppress the internalization of ADH-I. Moreover, these facts also strongly suggest that ADH-I acts as IPSF after internalization into the cell.

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaP1 DNA polymerase is an A-family DNA polymerase demonstrating ssDNA and dsDNA 3'-5' exonuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Binyan; Gu, Shiling; Liang, Nengsong; Xiong, Mei; Xue, Qizhen; Lu, Shuguang; Hu, Fuquan; Zhang, Huidong

    2016-08-01

    Most phages contain DNA polymerases, which are essential for DNA replication and propagation in infected host bacteria. However, our knowledge on phage-encoded DNA polymerases remains limited. This study investigated the function of a novel DNA polymerase of PaP1, which is the lytic phage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PaP1 encodes its sole DNA polymerase called Gp90 that was predicted as an A-family DNA polymerase with polymerase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities. The sequence of Gp90 is homologous but not identical to that of other A-family DNA polymerases, such as T7 DNA polymerases (Pol) and DNA Pol I. The purified Gp90 demonstrated a polymerase activity. The processivity of Gp90 in DNA replication and its efficiency in single-dNTP incorporation are similar to those of T7 Pol with processive thioredoxin (T7 Pol/trx). Gp90 can degrade ssDNA and dsDNA in 3'-5' direction at a similar rate, which is considerably lower than that of T7 Pol/trx. The optimized conditions for polymerization were a temperature of 37 °C and a buffer consisting of 40 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 30 mM MgCl2, and 200 mM NaCl. These studies on DNA polymerase encoded by PaP1 help advance our knowledge on phage-encoded DNA polymerases and elucidate PaP1 propagation in infected P. aeruginosa.

  19. Antioxidant activity and protective effect on DNA strand scission of Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis).

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Jang, Hae-Dong

    2004-01-01

    Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) was extracted by refluxing with water and 75% ethanol as a solvent. Antioxidant activity and protective effect on DNA strand scission were investigated by using different antioxidant assay systems and DNA strand nicking assay, respectively. 75% Ethanol extract has higher content of total soluble phenolics and flavonoid than water extract. Antioxidant activities such as hydrogen donating capacity and scavenging activity of hydrogen peroxide were higher in 75% ethanol extract than in water extract except the rate constant with hydroxyl radical. Peroxyl radical induced DNA strand scission was prevented by both 75% ethanol and water extract and hydroxyl radical induced DNA strand scission was not. This result indicates that total soluble phenolics, specially flavonoid, of Rooibos tea are responsible for several kinds of antioxidant activities and preventive activity on peroxyl radical induced DNA strand scission.

  20. Activation of DNA damage repair pathways in response to nitrogen mustard-induced DNA damage and toxicity in skin keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Inturi, Swetha; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Agarwal, Chapla; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen mustard (NM), a structural analog of chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM), forms adducts and crosslinks with DNA, RNA and proteins. Here we studied the mechanism of NM-induced skin toxicity in response to double strand breaks (DSBs) resulting in cell cycle arrest to facilitate DNA repair, as a model for developing countermeasures against vesicant-induced skin injuries. NM exposure of mouse epidermal JB6 cells decreased cell growth and caused S-phase arrest. Consistent with these biological outcomes, NM exposure also increased comet tail extent moment and the levels of DNA DSB repair molecules phospho H2A.X Ser139 and p53 Ser15 indicating NM-induced DNA DSBs. Since DNA DSB repair occurs via non homologous end joining pathway (NHEJ) or homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathways, next we studied these two pathways and noted their activation as defined by an increase in phospho- and total DNA-PK levels, and the formation of Rad51 foci, respectively. To further analyze the role of these pathways in the cellular response to NM-induced cytotoxicity, NHEJ and HRR were inhibited by DNA-PK inhibitor NU7026 and Rad51 inhibitor BO2, respectively. Inhibition of NHEJ did not sensitize cells to NM-induced decrease in cell growth and cell cycle arrest. However, inhibition of the HRR pathway caused a significant increase in cell death, and prolonged G2M arrest following NM exposure. Together, our findings, indicating that HRR is the key pathway involved in the repair of NM-induced DNA DSBs, could be useful in developing new therapeutic strategies against vesicant-induced skin injury.

  1. Evidence that the DNA endonuclease ARTEMIS also has intrinsic 5'-exonuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Sicong; Chang, Howard H; Niewolik, Doris; Hedrick, Michael P; Pinkerton, Anthony B; Hassig, Christian A; Schwarz, Klaus; Lieber, Michael R

    2014-03-14

    ARTEMIS is a member of the metallo-β-lactamase protein family. ARTEMIS has endonuclease activity at DNA hairpins and at 5'- and 3'-DNA overhangs of duplex DNA, and this endonucleolytic activity is dependent upon DNA-PKcs. There has been uncertainty about whether ARTEMIS also has 5'-exonuclease activity on single-stranded DNA and 5'-overhangs, because this 5'-exonuclease is not dependent upon DNA-PKcs. Here, we show that the 5'-exonuclease and the endonuclease activities co-purify. Second, we show that a point mutant of ARTEMIS at a putative active site residue (H115A) markedly reduces both the endonuclease activity and the 5'-exonuclease activity. Third, divalent cation effects on the 5'-exonuclease and the endonuclease parallel one another. Fourth, both the endonuclease activity and 5'-exonuclease activity of ARTEMIS can be blocked in parallel by small molecule inhibitors, which do not block unrelated nucleases. We conclude that the 5'-exonuclease is intrinsic to ARTEMIS, making it relevant to the role of ARTEMIS in nonhomologous DNA end joining.

  2. DNA Methylation Dynamics of Germinal Center B Cells Are Mediated by AID.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Pilar M; Teater, Matt; Chambwe, Nyasha; Kormaksson, Matthias; Redmond, David; Ishii, Jennifer; Vuong, Bao; Chaudhuri, Jayanta; Melnick, Ari; Vasanthakumar, Aparna; Godley, Lucy A; Papavasiliou, F Nina; Elemento, Olivier; Shaknovich, Rita

    2015-09-29

    Changes in DNA methylation are required for the formation of germinal centers (GCs), but the mechanisms of such changes are poorly understood. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) has been recently implicated in DNA demethylation through its deaminase activity coupled with DNA repair. We investigated the epigenetic function of AID in vivo in germinal center B cells (GCBs) isolated from wild-type (WT) and AID-deficient (Aicda(-/-)) mice. We determined that the transit of B cells through the GC is associated with marked locus-specific loss of methylation and increased methylation diversity, both of which are lost in Aicda(-/-) animals. Differentially methylated cytosines (DMCs) between GCBs and naive B cells (NBs) are enriched in genes that are targeted for somatic hypermutation (SHM) by AID, and these genes form networks required for B cell development and proliferation. Finally, we observed significant conservation of AID-dependent epigenetic reprogramming between mouse and human B cells.

  3. Regulation of Xenopus laevis DNA topoisomerase I activity by phosphorylation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiserman, H.B.; Ingebritsen, T.S.; Benbow, R.M.

    1988-05-03

    DNA topoisomerase I has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from ovaries of the frog Xenopus laevis. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the most purified fraction revealed a single major band at 110 kDa and less abundant minor bands centered at 62 kDa. Incubation of the most purified fraction with immobilized calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase abolished all DNA topoisomerase enzymatic activity in a time-dependent reaction. Treatment of the dephosphorylated X. laevis DNA topoisomerase I with a X. laevis casein kinase type II activity and ATP restored DNA topoisomerase activity to a level higher than that observed in the most purified fraction. In vitro labeling experiments which employed the most purified DNA topoisomerase I fraction, (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP, and the casein kinase type II enzyme showed that both the 110- and 62-kDa bands became phosphorylated in approximately molar proportions. Phosphoamino acid analysis showed that only serine residues became phosphorylated. Phosphorylation was accompanied by an increase in DNA topoisomerase activity in vitro. Dephosphorylation of DNA topoisomerase I appears to block formation of the initial enzyme-substrate complex on the basis of the failure of the dephosphorylated enzyme to nick DNA in the presence of camptothecin. The authors conclude that X. laevis DNA topoisomerase I is partially phosphorylated as isolated and that this phosphorylation is essential for expression of enzymatic activity in vitro. On the basis of the ability of the casein kinase type II activity to reactivate dephosphorylated DNA topoisomerase I, they speculate that this kinase may contribute to the physiological regulation of DNA topoisomerase I activity.

  4. Topoisomerase inhibition, nucleolytic and electrolytic contribution on DNA binding activity exerted by biological active analogue of coordination compounds.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mohan N; Bhatt, Bhupesh S; Dosi, Promise A

    2012-04-01

    The neutral mononuclear copper complexes with the quinolone antibacterial drug ciprofloxacin and bipyridine derivatives have been synthesized and characterized. Complexes were screened for their antibacterial activity against three Gram((-)) and two Gram((+)) bacteria, and study suggests inhibition of gyrase activity by metal complexes as the possible mechanism. The nucleolytic activity of adducts was carried out on double stranded pUC19 DNA using gel electrophoresis in the presence of radical scavenging agents that suggest hydrolytic cleavage mechanism for plasmid DNA.

  5. Macrophage activation induced by Brucella DNA suppresses bacterial intracellular replication via enhancing NO production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Wang, Lin; Sun, Changjiang; Yang, Li; Tang, Bin; Sun, Wanchun; Peng, Qisheng

    2015-12-01

    Brucella DNA can be sensed by TLR9 on endosomal membrane and by cytosolic AIM2-inflammasome to induce proinflammatory cytokine production that contributes to partially activate innate immunity. Additionally, Brucella DNA has been identified to be able to act as a major bacterial component to induce type I IFN. However, the role of Brucella DNA in Brucella intracellular growth remains unknown. Here, we showed that stimulation with Brucella DNA promote macrophage activation in TLR9-dependent manner. Activated macrophages can suppresses wild type Brucella intracellular replication at early stage of infection via enhancing NO production. We also reported that activated macrophage promotes bactericidal function of macrophages infected with VirB-deficient Brucella at the early or late stage of infection. This study uncovers a novel function of Brucella DNA, which can help us further elucidate the mechanism of Brucella intracellular survival.

  6. Replication intermediates that escape Dna2 activity are processed by Holliday junction resolvase Yen1

    PubMed Central

    Ölmezer, Gizem; Levikova, Maryna; Klein, Dominique; Falquet, Benoît; Fontana, Gabriele Alessandro; Cejka, Petr; Rass, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Cells have evolved mechanisms to protect, restart and repair perturbed replication forks, allowing full genome duplication, even under replication stress. Interrogating the interplay between nuclease-helicase Dna2 and Holliday junction (HJ) resolvase Yen1, we find the Dna2 helicase activity acts parallel to homologous recombination (HR) in promoting DNA replication and chromosome detachment at mitosis after replication fork stalling. Yen1, but not the HJ resolvases Slx1-Slx4 and Mus81-Mms4, safeguards chromosome segregation by removing replication intermediates that escape Dna2. Post-replicative DNA damage checkpoint activation in Dna2 helicase-defective cells causes terminal G2/M arrest by precluding Yen1-dependent repair, whose activation requires progression into anaphase. These findings explain the exquisite replication stress sensitivity of Dna2 helicase-defective cells, and identify a non-canonical role for Yen1 in the processing of replication intermediates that is distinct from HJ resolution. The involvement of Dna2 helicase activity in completing replication may have implications for DNA2-associated pathologies, including cancer and Seckel syndrome. PMID:27779184

  7. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Acridine-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino; Lafayette, Elizabeth Almeida; Gomes da Silva, Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra; Amorim, Cézar Augusto da Cruz; de Oliveira, Tiago Bento; Gois Ruiz, Ana Lucia Tasca; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; de Moura, Ricardo Olímpio; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the acridine nucleus was used as a lead-compound for structural modification by adding different substituted thiosemicarbazide moieties. Eight new (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives (3a–h) were synthesized, their antiproliferative activities were evaluated, and DNA binding properties were performed with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Both hyperchromic and hypochromic effects, as well as red or blue shifts were demonstrated by addition of ctDNA to the derivatives. The calculated binding constants ranged from 1.74 × 104 to 1.0 × 106 M−1 and quenching constants from −0.2 × 104 to 2.18 × 104 M−1 indicating high affinity to ctDNA base pairs. The most efficient compound in binding to ctDNA in vitro was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-(4-chlorophenyl) hydrazinecarbothioamide (3f), while the most active compound in antiproliferative assay was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (3a). There was no correlation between DNA-binding and in vitro antiproliferative activity, but the results suggest that DNA binding can be involved in the biological activity mechanism. This study may guide the choice of the size and shape of the intercalating part of the ligand and the strategic selection of substituents that increase DNA-binding or antiproliferative properties. PMID:26068233

  8. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Acridine-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino; Lafayette, Elizabeth Almeida; da Silva, Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra Gomes; Amorim, Cézar Augusto da Cruz; de Oliveira, Tiago Bento; Ruiz, Ana Lucia Tasca Gois; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; de Moura, Ricardo Olímpio; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz Bezerra

    2015-06-09

    In this work, the acridine nucleus was used as a lead-compound for structural modification by adding different substituted thiosemicarbazide moieties. Eight new (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives (3a-h) were synthesized, their antiproliferative activities were evaluated, and DNA binding properties were performed with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Both hyperchromic and hypochromic effects, as well as red or blue shifts were demonstrated by addition of ctDNA to the derivatives. The calculated binding constants ranged from 1.74 × 10(4) to 1.0 × 10(6) M(-1) and quenching constants from -0.2 × 10(4) to 2.18 × 10(4) M(-1) indicating high affinity to ctDNA base pairs. The most efficient compound in binding to ctDNA in vitro was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N- (4-chlorophenyl) hydrazinecarbothioamide (3f), while the most active compound in antiproliferative assay was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (3a). There was no correlation between DNA-binding and in vitro antiproliferative activity, but the results suggest that DNA binding can be involved in the biological activity mechanism. This study may guide the choice of the size and shape of the intercalating part of the ligand and the strategic selection of substituents that increase DNA-binding or antiproliferative properties.

  9. Damage‐inducible intragenic demethylation of the human TP53 tumor suppressor gene is associated with transcription from an alternative intronic promoter

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, James; Roden, Daniel L.; Ng, Robert; Wu, Jianmin; Bosman, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Wild‐type TP53 exons 5–8 contain CpG dinucleotides that are prone to methylation‐dependent mutation during carcinogenesis, but the regulatory effects of methylation affecting these CpG sites are unclear. To clarify this, we first assessed site‐specific TP53 CpG methylation in normal and transformed cells. Both DNA damage and cell ageing were associated with site‐specific CpG demethylation in exon 5 accompanied by induction of a truncated TP53 isoform regulated by an adjacent intronic promoter (P2). We then synthesized novel synonymous TP53 alleles with divergent CpG content but stable encodement of the wild‐type polypeptide. Expression of CpG‐enriched TP53 constructs selectively reduced production of the full‐length transcript (P1), consistent with a causal relationship between intragenic demethylation and transcription. 450K methylation comparison of normal (TP53‐wildtype) and cancerous (TP53‐mutant) human cells and tissues revealed focal cancer‐associated declines in CpG methylation near the P1 transcription start site, accompanied by rises near the alternate exon 5 start site. These data confirm that site‐specific changes of intragenic TP53 CpG methylation are extrinsically inducible, and suggest that human cancer progression is mediated in part by dysregulation of damage‐inducible intragenic CpG demethylation that alters TP53 P1/P2 isoform expression. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26676339

  10. A Tetrahydrofolate-Dependent Methyltransferase Catalyzing the Demethylation of Dicamba in Sphingomonas sp. Strain Ndbn-20

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Li; Yu, Lin-Lu; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Xie, Xiang-Ting; Tao, Qing; Yan, Xin; Hong, Qing; Qiu, Ji-Guo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sphingomonas sp. strain Ndbn-20 degrades and utilizes the herbicide dicamba as its sole carbon and energy source. In the present study, a tetrahydrofolate (THF)-dependent dicamba methyltransferase gene, dmt, was cloned from the strain, and three other genes, metF, dhc, and purU, which are involved in THF metabolism, were found to be located downstream of dmt. A transcriptional study revealed that the four genes constituted one transcriptional unit that was constitutively transcribed. Lysates of cells grown with glucose or dicamba exhibited almost the same activities, which further suggested that the dmt gene is constitutively expressed in the strain. Dmt shared 46% and 45% identities with the methyltransferases DesA and LigM from Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6, respectively. The purified Dmt catalyzed the transfer of methyl from dicamba to THF to form the herbicidally inactive metabolite 3,6-dichlorosalicylic acid (DCSA) and 5-methyl-THF. The activity of Dmt was inhibited by 5-methyl-THF but not by DCSA. The introduction of a codon-optimized dmt gene into Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced resistance against dicamba. In conclusion, this study identified a THF-dependent dicamba methyltransferase, Dmt, with potential applications for the genetic engineering of dicamba-resistant crops. IMPORTANCE Dicamba is a very important herbicide that is widely used to control more than 200 types of broadleaf weeds and is a suitable target herbicide for the engineering of herbicide-resistant transgenic crops. A study of the mechanism of dicamba metabolism by soil microorganisms will benefit studies of its dissipation, transformation, and migration in the environment. This study identified a THF-dependent methyltransferase, Dmt, capable of catalyzing dicamba demethylation in Sphingomonas sp. Ndbn-20, and a preliminary study of its enzymatic characteristics was performed. Introduction of a codon-optimized dmt gene into Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced resistance against dicamba

  11. Unraveling the Fanconi anaemia-DNA repair connection through DNA helicase and translocase activities

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L H

    2005-08-16

    How the Fanconi anaemia (FA) chromosome stability pathway functions to cope with interstrand crosslinks and other DNA lesions has been elusive, even after FANCD1 proved to be BRCA2, a partner of Rad51 in homologous recombination. The identification and characterization of two new Fanconi proteins having helicase motifs, FANCM and FANCJ/BRIP1/BACH1, implicates the FANC nuclear core complex as a participant in recognizing or processing damaged DNA, and the BRIP1 helicase as acting independently of this complex.

  12. Demethylation of Methylated Arsenic Species during Generation of Arsanes with Tetrahydridoborate(1-) in Acidic Media.

    PubMed

    Marschner, Karel; Musil, Stanislav; Dědina, Jiří

    2016-06-21

    Demethylation during generation of volatile hydrides (HG), i.e. formation of noncorresponding arsanes from monomethylarsonic acid (MAs(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMAs(V)), and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAs(V)O) by the reaction of sodium tetrahydridoborate(1-) (THB) with different acids under analytical conditions, was investigated and characterized. Pronounced demethylation of MAs(V), DMAs(V), and TMAs(V)O was found during the reaction of THB with HCl, H2SO4, and HClO4, while HG from CH3COOH or TRIS buffer after prereduction with l-cysteine resulted in the formation of only the corresponding hydrides. In the case of HNO3 formation of corresponding hydrides was preserved for MAs(V) and DMAs(V) but not for TMAs(V)O. The extent of demethylation strongly depends on concentration of the acid and THB. It can be strongly suppressed in HCl medium by partial hydrolysis of THB with optimal concentration of acid before it reacts with MAs(V), DMAs(V), or TMAs(V)O. It appears that the demethylation is due to the action of specific hydrolytic products of THB (most probably by the first and second one).

  13. Rad18 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity mediates Fanconi anemia pathway activation and cell survival following DNA Topoisomerase 1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Palle, Komaraiah; Vaziri, Cyrus

    2011-05-15

    Camptothecin (CPT) and related chemotherapeutic drugs induce formation of DNA Topoisomerase I (Top1) covalent or cleavage complexes (Top1ccs) that block leading-strand DNA synthesis and elicit DNA Double Stranded Breaks (DSB) during S phase. The Fanconi Anemia (FA) pathway is implicated in tolerance of CPT-induced DNA damage yet the mechanism of FA pathway activation by Top1 poisons has not been studied. We show here that the FA core complex protein FANCA and monoubiquitinated FANCD2 (an effector of the FA pathway) are rapidly mobilized to chromatin in response to CPT treatment in several human cancer cell lines and untransformed primary human dermal fibroblasts. FANCD2 depletion using siRNA leads to impaired recovery from CPT-induced inhibition or DNA synthesis, persistence of γH2AX (a DSB marker) and reduced cell survival following CPT treatment. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Rad18 is necessary for CPT-induced recruitment of FANCA and FANCD2 to chromatin. Moreover, Rad18-depletion recapitulates the DNA synthesis and survival defects of FANCD2-deficiency in CPT-treated cells. It is well-established that Rad18 promotes FA pathway activation and DNA damage tolerance in response to bulky DNA lesions via a mechanism involving PCNA monoubiquitination. In contrast, PCNA monoubiquitination is not involved in Rad18-mediated FA pathway activation or cell survival following acquisition of CPT-induced DSB. Moreover, while Rad18 is implicated in recombinational repair of DSB via an E3 ligase-independent mechanism, we demonstrate that Rad18 E3 ligase activity is essential for appropriate FA pathway activation and DNA damage tolerance after CPT treatment. Taken together, our results define a novel pathway of Rad18-dependent DSB repair that is dissociable from known Rad18-mediated DNA repair mechanisms based on its independence from PCNA ubiquitination and requirement for E3 ligase activity.

  14. Similar DNA methylation and histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation patterns in tripronuclear and corrected bipronuclear human zygotes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinjie; Fan, Yong; Long, Xiaolin; Sun, Xiaofang

    2010-06-01

    After fertilization, male and female gametes undergo extensive reprogramming to restore totipotency. Both DNA methylation and histone modification are important epigenetic reprogramming events. Previous studies have reported that the paternal pronucleus of the human zygote is actively demethylated to some extent, while the maternal pronucleus remains methylated. However, to our knowledge, the relationship between DNA methylation and H3K9 dimethylation patterns in human embryos has not been reported. In this study, we examined the dynamic DNA methylation and H3K9 dimethylation patterns in triploid and bipronucleated zygotes and early developing embryos. We sought to gain further insight into the relationship between DNA methylation and H3K9 dimethylation and to investigate whether removing a pronucleus from triploid zygotes affects DNA methylation and H3K9 dimethylation patterns. We found that active DNA demethylation of the two male pronuclei occurred in tripronuclear human zygotes while the female pronucleus remained methylated at 20 h post-insemination. In tripronuclear human zygotes, H3K9 was hypomethylated in the two paternal pronuclei relative to the maternal pronucleus. Our data show that there are no differences in the DNA methylation and H3K9 dimethylation patterns between tripronuclear and corrected bipronuclear human zygotes. However, correction of 3PN human zygotes dispermic in origin could not improve subsequent embryo development. In conclusion, DNA methylation and H3K9 dimethylation patterns are well correlated in tripronuclear zygotes and embryos; early embryo development is not affected by removal of a male pronucleus. Our results imply that limited developmental potential of either 3PN or corrected 2PN embryos may not be caused by the abnormalities in DNA methylation or H3K9 dimethylation modification.

  15. The Polymerase Activity of Mammalian DNA Pol ζ Is Specifically Required for Cell and Embryonic Viability

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Sabine S.; Tomida, Junya; Boulware, Karen S.; Bhetawal, Sarita; Wood, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    DNA polymerase ζ (pol ζ) is exceptionally important for maintaining genome stability. Inactivation of the Rev3l gene encoding the polymerase catalytic subunit causes a high frequency of chromosomal breaks, followed by lethality in mouse embryos and in primary cells. Yet it is not known whether the DNA polymerase activity of pol ζ is specifically essential, as the large REV3L protein also serves as a multiprotein scaffold for translesion DNA synthesis via multiple conserved structural domains. We report that Rev3l cDNA rescues the genomic instability and DNA damage sensitivity of Rev3l-null immortalized mouse fibroblast cell lines. A cDNA harboring mutations of conserved catalytic aspartate residues in the polymerase domain of REV3L could not rescue these phenotypes. To investigate the role of REV3L DNA polymerase activity in vivo, a Rev3l knock-in mouse was constructed with this polymerase-inactivating alteration. No homozygous mutant mice were produced, with lethality occurring during embryogenesis. Primary fibroblasts from mutant embryos showed growth defects, elevated DNA double-strand breaks and cisplatin sensitivity similar to Rev3l-null fibroblasts. We tested whether the severe Rev3l-/- phenotypes could be rescued by deletion of DNA polymerase η, as has been reported with chicken DT40 cells. However, Rev3l-/- Polh-/- mice were inviable, and derived primary fibroblasts were as sensitive to DNA damage as Rev3l-/- Polh+/+ fibroblasts. Therefore, the functions of REV3L in maintaining cell viability, embryonic viability and genomic stability are directly dependent on its polymerase activity, and cannot be ameliorated by an additional deletion of pol η. These results validate and encourage the approach of targeting the DNA polymerase activity of pol ζ to sensitize tumors to DNA damaging agents. PMID:26727495

  16. Activation of DNA-PK by Ionizing Radiation Is Mediated by Protein Phosphatase 6

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Jun; Dziegielewski, Jaroslaw; Bolesta, Elzbieta; Brautigan, David L.; Larner, James M.

    2009-01-01

    DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) plays a critical role in DNA damage repair, especially in non-homologous end-joining repair of double-strand breaks such as those formed by ionizing radiation (IR) in the course of radiation therapy. Regulation of DNA-PK involves multisite phosphorylation but this is incompletely understood and little is known about protein phosphatases relative to DNA-PK. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that DNA-PK interacts with the protein phosphatase-6 (PP6) SAPS subunit PP6R1. PP6 is a heterotrimeric enzyme that consists of a catalytic subunit, plus one of three PP6 SAPS regulatory subunits and one of three ankyrin repeat subunits. Endogenous PP6R1 co-immunoprecipitated DNA-PK, and IR enhanced the amount of complex and promoted its import into the nucleus. In addition, siRNA knockdown of either PP6R1 or PP6 significantly decreased IR activation of DNA-PK, suggesting that PP6 activates DNA-PK by association and dephosphorylation. Knockdown of other phosphatases PP5 or PP1γ1 and subunits PP6R3 or ARS-A did not reduce IR activation of DNA-PK, demonstrating specificity for PP6R1. Finally, siRNA knockdown of PP6R1 or PP6 but not other phosphatases increased the sensitivity of glioblastoma cells to radiation-induced cell death to a level similar to DNA-PK deficient cells. Our data demonstrate that PP6 associates with and activates DNA-PK in response to ionizing radiation. Therefore, the PP6/PP6R1 phosphatase is a potential molecular target for radiation sensitization by chemical inhibition. PMID:19198648

  17. Intrinsic ssDNA annealing activity in the C-terminal region of WRN.

    PubMed

    Muftuoglu, Meltem; Kulikowicz, Tomasz; Beck, Gad; Lee, Jae Wan; Piotrowski, Jason; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2008-09-30

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder in humans characterized by premature aging and genetic instability. WS is caused by mutations in the WRN gene, which encodes a member of the RecQ family of DNA helicases. Cellular and biochemical studies suggest that WRN plays roles in DNA replication, DNA repair, telomere maintenance, and homologous recombination and that WRN has multiple enzymatic activities including 3' to 5' exonuclease, 3' to 5' helicase, and ssDNA annealing. The goal of this study was to map and further characterize the ssDNA annealing activity of WRN. Enzymatic studies using truncated forms of WRN identified a C-terminal 79 amino acid region between the RQC and the HRDC domains (aa1072-1150) that is required for ssDNA annealing activity. Deletion of the region reduced or eliminated ssDNA annealing activity of the WRN protein. Furthermore, the activity appears to correlate with DNA binding and oligomerization status of the protein.

  18. Dda helicase tightly couples translocation on single-stranded DNA to unwinding of duplex DNA: Dda is an optimally active helicase.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Alicia K; Matlock, Dennis L; Bagchi, Debjani; Aarattuthodiyil, Suja; Harrison, David; Croquette, Vincent; Raney, Kevin D

    2012-07-13

    Helicases utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to unwind double-stranded DNA while translocating on the DNA. Mechanisms for melting the duplex have been characterized as active or passive, depending on whether the enzyme actively separates the base pairs or simply sequesters single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that forms due to thermal fraying. Here, we show that Dda translocates unidirectionally on ssDNA at the same rate at which it unwinds double-stranded DNA in both ensemble and single-molecule experiments. Further, the unwinding rate is largely insensitive to the duplex stability and to the applied force. Thus, Dda transduces all of its translocase activity into DNA unwinding activity so that the rate of unwinding is limited by the rate of translocation and that the enzyme actively separates the duplex. Active and passive helicases have been characterized by dividing the velocity of DNA unwinding in base pairs per second (V(un)) by the velocity of translocation on ssDNA in nucleotides per second (V(trans)). If the resulting fraction is 0.25, then a helicase is considered to be at the lower end of the "active" range. In the case of Dda, the average DNA unwinding velocity was 257±42 bp/s, and the average translocation velocity was 267±15 nt/s. The V(un)/V(trans) value of 0.96 places Dda in a unique category of being an essentially "perfectly" active helicase.

  19. Further insights into the mechanism of the reaction of activated bleomycin with DNA

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Marina S.; Liu, Lei V.; Solomon, Edward I.

    2008-01-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) is a glycopeptide anticancer drug that effectively carries out single- and double-stranded DNA cleavage. Activated BLM (ABLM), a low-spin ferric-hydroperoxide, BLM–FeIII–OOH, is the last intermediate detected before DNA cleavage. We have previously shown through experiments and DFT calculations that both ABLM decay and reaction with H atom donors proceed via direct H atom abstraction. However, the rate of ABLM decay had been previously found, based on indirect methods, to be independent of the presence of DNA. In this study, we use a circular dichroism (CD) feature unique to ABLM to directly monitor the kinetics of ABLM reaction with a DNA oligonucleotide. Our results show that the ABLM + DNA reaction is appreciably faster, has a different kinetic isotope effect, and has a lower Arrhenius activation energy than does ABLM decay. In the ABLM reaction with DNA, the small normal kH/kD ratio is attributed to a secondary solvent effect through DFT vibrational analysis of reactant and transition state (TS) frequencies, and the lower Ea is attributed to the weaker bond involved in the abstraction reaction (C–H for DNA and N–H for the decay in the absence of DNA). The DNA dependence of the ABLM reaction indicates that DNA is involved in the TS for ABLM decay and thus reacts directly with BLM–FeIII–OOH instead of its decay product. PMID:18757754

  20. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids induce plasminogen activator activity and DNA damage in rabbit spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Kokoli, A N; Lavrentiadou, S N; Zervos, I A; Tsantarliotou, M P; Georgiadis, M P; Nikolaidis, E A; Botsoglou, N; Boscos, C M; Taitzoglou, I A

    2017-02-20

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect(s) of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) on rabbit semen. Adult rabbit bucks were assigned to two groups that were given two diets, a standard diet (control) and a diet supplemented with ω-3 PUFA. Sperm samples were collected from all bucks with the use of an artificial vagina in 20-day intervals, for a total period of 120 days. The enrichment of membranes in ω-3 PUFA was manifested by the elevation of the 22:5 ω-3 (docosapentaenoic acid [DPA]) levels within 40 days. This increase in DPA content did not affect semen characteristics (i.e., concentration, motility and viability). However, it was associated with the induction of lipid peroxidation in spermatozoa, as determined on the basis of the malondialdehyde content. Lipid peroxidation was associated with DNA fragmentation in ω-3 PUFA-enriched spermatozoa and a concomitant increase in plasminogen activator (PA) activity. The effects of ω-3 PUFA on sperm cells were evident within 40 days of ω-3 PUFA dietary intake and exhibited peack values on day 120. Our findings suggest that an ω-3 PUFA-rich diet may not affect semen characteristics; however, it may have a negative impact on the oxidative status and DNA integrity of the spermatozoa, which was associated with an induction of PAs activity.

  1. Activation of RNA polymerase II by topologically linked DNA-tracking proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ouhammouch, Mohamed; Sayre, Michael H.; Kadonaga, James T.; Geiduschek, E. Peter

    1997-01-01

    Almost all proteins mediating transcriptional activation from promoter-distal sites attach themselves, directly or indirectly, to specific DNA sequence elements. Nevertheless, a single instance of activation by a prokaryotic topologically linked DNA-tracking protein has also been demonstrated. The scope of the latter class of transcriptional activators is broadened in this work. Heterologous fusion proteins linking the transcriptional activation domain of herpes simplex virus VP16 protein to the sliding clamp protein β of the Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III holoenzyme are shown to function as topologically DNA-linked activators of yeast and Drosophila RNA polymerase II. The β:VP16 fusion proteins must be loaded onto DNA by the clamp-loading E. coli γ complex to be transcriptionally active, but they do not occupy fixed sites on the DNA. The DNA-loading sites of these activators have all the properties of enhancers: they can be inverted and their locations relative to the transcriptional start site are freely adjustable. PMID:9192631

  2. A methylation-stimulated DNA machine: an autonomous isothermal route to methyltransferase activity and inhibition analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Changfeng; Wen, Yanqin; Peng, Hongzhen; Long, Yitao; He, Yao; Huang, Qing; Li, Di; Fan, Chunhai

    2011-04-01

    The operation of DNA nanomachines is generally triggered by either conformational changes of DNA nanostructure or external environmental stimuli. In the present study, we demonstrate an alternative driving force, DNA methylation, to stimulate DNA machine operation. DNA methylation changes neither DNA sequence and conformation nor external environment, however, blocks its cleavage by corresponding methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease. We thus designed a strand displacement amplification DNA machine, which could be stimulated upon DNA methylation and then autonomously generates accumulated amounts of peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme signaling machine products in an isothermal manner. The machine product DNAzyme could catalyze the H(2)O(2)-mediated oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(2-)) to a colored product ABTS(·-). This methylation-stimulated DNA machine was further used as a colorimetric assay for analysis of methyltransferases activities and screening of methylation inhibitors. As compared with classical methylation assay, this facile isothermal DNA machine avoids the introduction of methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and radioactive labels, which might be employed as an effective tool for DNA methylation analysis.

  3. Dynamic changes in DNA modification states during late gestation male germ line development in the rat

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epigenetic reprogramming of fetal germ cells involves the genome-wide erasure and subsequent re-establishment of DNA methylation. Mouse studies indicate that DNA demethylation may be initiated at embryonic day (e) 8 and completed between e11.5 and e12.5. In the male germline, DNA remethylation begins around e15 and continues for the remainder of gestation whilst this process occurs postnatally in female germ cells. Although 5-methylcytosine (5mC) dynamics have been extensively characterised, a role for the more recently described DNA modifications (5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC)) remains unclear. Moreover, the extent to which the developmental dynamics of 5mC reprogramming is conserved across species remains largely undetermined. Here, we sought to describe this process during late gestation in the male rat. Results Using immunofluorescence, we demonstrate that 5mC is re-established between e18.5 and e21.5 in the rat, subsequent to loss of 5hmC, 5fC and 5caC, which are present in germ cells between e14.5 and e16.5. All of the evaluated DNA methyl forms were expressed in testicular somatic cells throughout late gestation. 5fC and 5caC can potentially be excised through Thymine DNA Glycosylase (TDG) and repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway, implicating 5mC oxidation in active DNA demethylation. In support of this potential mechanism, we show that TDG expression is coincident with the presence of 5hmC, 5fC and 5caC in male germ cell development. Conclusion The developmental dependent changes in germ cell DNA methylation patterns suggest that they are linked with key stages of male rat germline progression. PMID:25225576

  4. Global demethylation in loss of imprinting subtype of Wilms tumor.

    PubMed

    Ludgate, Jackie L; Le Mée, Gwenn; Fukuzawa, Ryuji; Rodger, Euan J; Weeks, Robert J; Reeve, Anthony E; Morison, Ian M

    2013-02-01

    Epigenetic abnormalities at the IGF2/H19 locus play a key role in the onset of Wilms tumor. These tumors can be classified into three molecular subtypes depending on the events occurring at this locus: loss of imprinting (LOI), loss of heterozygosity (LOH), or retention of imprinting (ROI). As IGF2 LOI is a consequence of aberrant methylation, we hypothesized that this subtype of Wilms tumors might display global abnormalities of methylation. We therefore analyzed the methylation status of satellite DNA, as a surrogate for global methylation in 50 Wilms tumor patients. Satellite methylation was quantified by a methylation-sensitive quantitative PCR. We confirmed hypomethylation of both satellite α (Sat α) and satellite 2 (Sat 2) DNA in Wilms tumor samples compared with normal kidney. In addition, we found that LOI tumors, unlike ROI or LOH ones, showed concordant hypomethylation of both Sat α and Sat 2 DNA. This would suggest that the LOI subtype of Wilms tumor, which unlike other subtypes results from an epimutation, has a global deregulation of methylation mechanisms.

  5. The Borrelia burgdorferi telomere resolvase, ResT, possesses ATP-dependent DNA unwinding activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu Hui; Cozart, McKayla R; Hart, Madison A; Kobryn, Kerri

    2016-12-09

    Spirochetes of the genus Borrelia possess unusual genomes harboring multiple linear and circular replicons. The linear replicons are terminated by covalently closed hairpin (hp) telomeres. Hairpin telomeres are formed from replicated intermediates by the telomere resolvase, ResT, in a phosphoryl transfer reaction with mechanistic similarities to those promoted by type 1B topoisomerases and tyrosine recombinases. There is growing evidence that ResT is multifunctional. Upon ResT depletion DNA replication unexpectedly ceases. Additionally, ResT possesses RecO-like biochemical activities being able to promote single-strand annealing on both free ssDNA and ssDNA complexed with cognate single-stranded DNA binding protein. We report here that ResT possesses DNA-dependent ATPase activity that promotes DNA unwinding with a 3'-5' polarity. ResT can unwind a variety of substrates including synthetic replication forks and D-loops. We demonstrate that ResT's twin activities of DNA unwinding and annealing can drive regression of a model replication fork. These properties are similar to those of the RecQ helicase of the RecF pathway involved in DNA gap repair. We propose that ResT's combination of activities implicates it in replication and recombination processes operating on the linear chromosome and plasmids of Borrelia burgdorferi.

  6. DNA methylation dynamics in neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqin; Tang, Beisha; He, Yuquan; Jin, Peng

    2016-03-01

    Neurogenesis is not limited to the embryonic stage, but continually proceeds in the adult brain throughout life. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modification and noncoding RNA, play important roles in neurogenesis. For decades, DNA methylation was thought to be a stable modification, except for demethylation in the early embryo. In recent years, DNA methylation has proved to be dynamic during development. In this review, we summarize the latest understanding about DNA methylation dynamics in neurogenesis, including the roles of different methylation forms (5-methylcytosine, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine), as well as their 'writers', 'readers' and interactions with histone modifications.

  7. DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stent, Gunther S.

    1970-01-01

    This history for molecular genetics and its explanation of DNA begins with an analysis of the Golden Jubilee essay papers, 1955. The paper ends stating that the higher nervous system is the one major frontier of biological inquiry which still offers some romance of research. (Author/VW)

  8. An epigenomic roadmap to induced pluripotency reveals DNA methylation as a reprogramming modulator

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Sung; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Tonge, Peter D.; Puri, Mira C.; Lee, Seungbok; Park, Hansoo; Lee, Won-Chul; Hussein, Samer M. I.; Bleazard, Thomas; Yun, Ji-Young; Kim, Jihye; Li, Mira; Cloonan, Nicole; Wood, David; Clancy, Jennifer L.; Mosbergen, Rowland; Yi, Jae-Hyuk; Yang, Kap-Seok; Kim, Hyungtae; Rhee, Hwanseok; Wells, Christine A.; Preiss, Thomas; Grimmond, Sean M.; Rogers, Ian M.; Nagy, Andras; Seo, Jeong-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells involves a dynamic rearrangement of the epigenetic landscape. To characterize this epigenomic roadmap, we have performed MethylC-seq, ChIP-seq (H3K4/K27/K36me3) and RNA-Seq on samples taken at several time points during murine secondary reprogramming as part of Project Grandiose. We find that DNA methylation gain during reprogramming occurs gradually, while loss is achieved only at the ESC-like state. Binding sites of activated factors exhibit focal demethylation during reprogramming, while ESC-like pluripotent cells are distinguished by extension of demethylation to the wider neighbourhood. We observed that genes with CpG-rich promoters demonstrate stable low methylation and strong engagement of histone marks, whereas genes with CpG-poor promoters are safeguarded by methylation. Such DNA methylation-driven control is the key to the regulation of ESC-pluripotency genes, including Dppa4, Dppa5a and Esrrb. These results reveal the crucial role that DNA methylation plays as an epigenetic switch driving somatic cells to pluripotency. PMID:25493341

  9. Differential 14-3-3 sigma DNA methylation and expression in c-myc- and activated H-ras-transformed cells under r- and K-selection.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yukari; Motokura, Toru

    2006-05-08

    We cloned rat 14-3-3 sigma, a mediator of p53 tumor suppressor, as a target of K-selection. 14-3-3 sigma expression is suppressed with DNA methylation in breast cancers while its overexpression with hypomethylation is frequent in pancreatic cancers. These opposite findings were recapitulated through r- and K-selection of transformed rat embryo fibroblasts. 14-3-3 sigma expression was suppressed with DNA methylation after r-selection and the gene was overexpressed and demethylated in K-selected cells. 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine recovered 14-3-3 sigma expression in r-selected cells. The presence of heterogeneous methylation patterns and expression levels before selection suggests that different 14-3-3 sigma expression levels play a role as a prerequisite for selection and clonal evolution.

  10. Low concentration of arsenite exacerbates UVR-induced DNA strand breaks by inhibiting PARP-1 activity

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Xujun; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu Wenlan; Timmins, Graham S.; Liu Kejian

    2008-10-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated arsenic exposure with many types of human cancers. Arsenic has also been shown to act as a co-carcinogen even at low concentrations. However, the precise mechanism of its co-carcinogenic action is unknown. Recent studies indicate that arsenic can interfere with DNA-repair processes. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 is a zinc-finger DNA-repair protein, which can promptly sense DNA strand breaks and initiate DNA-repair pathways. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that low concentrations of arsenic could inhibit PAPR-1 activity and so exacerbate levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced DNA strand breaks. HaCat cells were treated with arsenite and/or UVR, and then DNA strand breaks were assessed by comet assay. Low concentrations of arsenite ({<=} 2 {mu}M) alone did not induce significant DNA strand breaks, but greatly enhanced the DNA strand breaks induced by UVR. Further studies showed that 2 {mu}M arsenite effectively inhibited PARP-1 activity. Zinc supplementation of arsenite-treated cells restored PARP-1 activity and significantly diminished the exacerbating effect of arsenite on UVR-induced DNA strand breaks. Importantly, neither arsenite treatment, nor zinc supplementation changed UVR-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, suggesting that their effects upon UVR-induced DNA strand breaks are not through a direct free radical mechanism. Combination treatments of arsenite with PARP-1 inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide or PARP-1 siRNA demonstrate that PARP-1 is the target of arsenite. Together, these findings show that arsenite at low concentration exacerbates UVR-induced DNA strand breaks by inhibiting PARP-1 activity, which may represent an important mechanism underlying the co-carcinogenicity of arsenic.

  11. Biases during DNA extraction of activated sludge samples revealed by high throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Zhang, Tong

    2013-05-01

    Standardization of DNA extraction is a fundamental issue of fidelity and comparability in investigations of environmental microbial communities. Commercial kits for soil or feces are often adopted for studies of activated sludge because of a lack of specific kits, but they have never been evaluated regarding their effectiveness and potential biases based on high throughput sequencing. In this study, seven common DNA extraction kits were evaluated, based on not only yield/purity but also sequencing results, using two activated sludge samples (two sub-samples each, i.e. ethanol-fixed and fresh, as-is). The results indicate that the bead-beating step is necessary for DNA extraction from activated sludge. The two kits without the bead-beating step yielded very low amounts of DNA, and the least abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and significantly underestimated the Gram-positive Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae, Chloroflexi, and Alphaproteobacteria and overestimated Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and the rare phyla whose cell walls might have been readily broken. Among the other five kits, FastDNA(@) SPIN Kit for Soil extracted the most and the purest DNA. Although the number of total OTUs obtained using this kit was not the highest, the abundant OTUs and abundance of Actinobacteria demonstrated its efficiency. The three MoBio kits and one ZR kit produced fair results, but had a relatively low DNA yield and/or less Actinobacteria-related sequences. Moreover, the 50 % ethanol fixation increased the DNA yield, but did not change the sequenced microbial community in a significant way. Based on the present study, the FastDNA SPIN kit for Soil is recommended for DNA extraction of activated sludge samples. More importantly, the selection of the DNA extraction kit must be done carefully if the samples contain dominant lysing-resistant groups, such as Actinobacteria and Nitrospirae.

  12. The role of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 on the cellular transport of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitors 5-azacytidine and CP-4200 in human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Hummel-Eisenbeiss, Johanna; Hascher, Antje; Hals, Petter-Arnt; Sandvold, Marit Liland; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Lyko, Frank; Rius, Maria

    2013-09-01

    The nucleoside analog 5-azacytidine is an archetypical drug for epigenetic cancer therapy, and its clinical effectiveness has been demonstrated in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). However, therapy resistance in patients with MDS/AML remains a challenging issue. Membrane proteins that are involved in drug uptake are potential mediators of drug resistance. The responsible proteins for the transport of 5-azacytidine into MDS/AML cells are unknown. We have now systematically analyzed the expression and activity of various nucleoside transporters. We identified the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) as the most abundant nucleoside transporter in leukemia cell lines and in AML patient samples. Transport assays using [¹⁴C]5-azacytidine demonstrated Na⁺-independent uptake of the drug into the cells, which was inhibited by S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBTI), a hENT1 inhibitor. The cellular toxicity of 5-azacytidine and its DNA demethylating activity were strongly reduced after hENT1 inhibition. In contrast, the cellular activity of the 5-azacytidine derivative 5-azacytidine-5'-elaidate (CP-4200), a nucleoside transporter-independent drug, persisted after hENT1 inhibition. A strong dependence of 5-azacytidine-induced DNA demethylation on hENT1 activity was also confirmed by array-based DNA methylation profiling, which uncovered hundreds of loci that became demethylated only when hENT1-mediated transport was active. Our data establish hENT1 as a key transporter for the cellular uptake of 5-azacytidine in leukemia cells and raise the possibility that hENT1 expression might be a useful biomarker to predict the efficiency of 5-azacytidine treatments. Furthermore, our data suggest that CP-4200 may represent a valuable compound for the modulation of transporter-related 5-azacytidine resistances.

  13. Toxicity and DNA methylation changes induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guanghui; Wang, Luyan; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Yuanyuan; Wei, Lie; Li, Yang; Shao, Mihua; Xiong, Deqi

    2015-06-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an ubiquitous persistent organic pollutant, which can be bioaccumulated and cause adverse effects on organisms. However, there is very limited information about the toxic effects of PFOS to marine organisms and its mechanisms. Therefore, in the present study, adult sea urchins Glyptocidaris crenularis were exposed to PFOS for 21 d, followed by a 7-d depuration period, in order to investigate the toxicity of PFOS to sea urchin and its potential epigenetic mechanisms. Sea urchins dropped spines, and lowered down the motor ability and feeding ability after the PFOS exposure. Superoxide dismutase activities in supernatant of coelomic fluid of sea urchin increased firstly and then dropped down, while the change of the catalase activity took an opposite trend during the exposure period. They both approached to the corresponding activity of the control after the depuration period. The DNA methylation polymorphism, methylation rate and demethylation rate in sea urchin gonad all increased following the prolonged exposure time, and then decreased after the depuration period. The demethylation rates were lower than the corresponding methylation rates, therefore methylation events were dominant during the whole experimental period. This might suggest that sea urchin have strong self-protection mechanisms and can survive from the PFOS exposure presented in this study. Further efforts are needed to more precisely investigate the DNA methylation effects of PFOS and the self-protection mechanism of sea urchin.

  14. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase 1 Expression Associated with Gene Demethylation Confers Anoikis Resistance in Early Phases of Melanocyte Malignant Transformation1

    PubMed Central

    Ricca, Tatiana I; Liang, Gangning; Suenaga, Ana Paula M; Han, Sang W; Jones, Peter A; Jasiulionis, Miriam G

    2009-01-01

    Although anoikis resistance has been considered a hallmark of malignant phenotype, the causal relation between neoplastic transformation and anchorage-independent growth remains undefined. We developed an experimental model of murine melanocyte malignant transformation, where a melanocyte lineage (melan-a) was submitted to sequential cycles of anchorage blockade, resulting in progressive morphologic alterations, and malignant transformation. Throughout this process, cells corresponding to premalignant melanocytes and melanoma cell lines were established and show progressive anoikis resistance and increased expression of Timp1. In melan-a melanocytes, Timp1 expression is suppressed by DNA methylation as indicated by its reexpression after 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment. Methylation-sensitive single-nucleotide primer extension analysis showed increased demethylation in Timp1 in parallel with its expression along malignant transformation. Interestingly, TIMP1 expression has already been related with negative prognosis in some human cancers. Although described as a MMP inhibitor, this protein has been associated with apoptosis resistance in different cell types. Melan-a cells overexpressing Timp1 showed increased survival in suspension but were unable to form tumors in vivo, whereas Timp1-overexpressing melanoma cells showed reduced latency time for tumor appearance and increased metastatic potential. Here, we demonstrated for the first time an increment in Timp1 expression since the early phases of melanocyte malignant transformation, associated to a progressive gene demethylation, which confers anoikis resistance. In this way, Timp1 might be considered as a valued marker for melanocyte malignant transformation. PMID:19956395

  15. Biochemical analysis of the DNA unwinding and strand annealing activities catalyzed by human RECQ1.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sudha; Sommers, Joshua A; Choudhary, Saba; Faulkner, Jinnifer Korin; Cui, Sheng; Andreoli, Lucia; Muzzolini, Laura; Vindigni, Alessandro; Brosh, Robert M

    2005-07-29

    RecQ helicases play an important role in preserving genomic integrity, and their cellular roles in DNA repair, recombination, and replication have been of considerable interest. Of the five human RecQ helicases identified, three are associated with genetic disorders characterized by an elevated incidence of cancer or premature aging: Werner syndrome, Bloom syndrome, and Rothmund-Thomson syndrome. Although the biochemical properties and protein interactions of the WRN and BLM helicases defective in Werner syndrome and Bloom syndrome, respectively, have been extensively investigated, less information is available concerning the functions of the other human RecQ helicases. We have focused our attention on human RECQ1, a DNA helicase whose cellular functions remain largely uncharacterized. In this work, we have characterized the DNA substrate specificity and optimal cofactor requirements for efficient RECQ1-catalyzed DNA unwinding and determined that RECQ1 has certain properties that are distinct from those of other RecQ helicases. RECQ1 stably bound to a variety of DNA structures, enabling it to unwind a diverse set of DNA substrates. In addition to its DNA binding and helicase activities, RECQ1 catalyzed efficient strand annealing between complementary single-stranded DNA molecules. The ability of RECQ1 to promote strand annealing was modulated by ATP binding, which induced a conformational change in the protein. The enzymatic properties of the RECQ1 helicase and strand annealing activities are discussed in the context of proposed cellular DNA metabolic pathways that are important in the maintenance of genomic stability.

  16. DNA methylation regulates phenotype-dependent transcriptional activity in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Prashant K.; Baum, Mary; Carbon, John

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation is a common epigenetic signaling mechanism associated with silencing of repeated DNA and transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes. Here we report that DNA methylation in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans is primarily localized within structural genes and modulates transcriptional activity. Major repeat sequences and multigene families are largely free of DNA methylation. Among the genes subject to DNA methylation are those associated with dimorphic transition between yeast and hyphal forms, switching between white and opaque cells, and iron metabolism. Transcriptionally repressed methylated loci showed increased frequency of C-to-T transitions during asexual growth, an evolutionarily stable pattern of repression associated mutation that could bring about genetic alterations under changing environmental or host conditions. Dynamic differential DNA methylation of structural genes may be one factor contributing to morphological plasticity that is cued by nutrition and host interaction. PMID:21730141

  17. Immune cell activation from multivalent interactions with liquid-crystalline polycation-DNA complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Nathan; Jin, Fan; Lande, Roberto; Curk, Tine; Xian, Wujing; Frasca, Loredana; Dobnikar, Jure; Frenkel, Daan; Gilliet, Michel; Wong, Gerard

    2014-03-01

    Microbial DNA can trigger type I interferon (IFN) production in plasmacytoid cells (pDCs) by binding to endosomal toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). TLR9 in pDCs do not normally respond to self-DNA, but in certain autoimmune diseases self-DNA can complex with the polycationic antimicrobial peptide LL37 into condensed structures which allow DNA to access endosomal compartments and stimulate TLR9 in pDCs. We use x-ray studies and cell measurements of IFN secretion by pDCs to show that a broad range of polycation-DNA complexes stimulate pDCs and elucidate the criterion for high IFN production. Furthermore, we show via experiments and computer simulations that the distinguishing factor for why certain complexes activate pDCs while others do not is the self-assembled structure of the liquid-crystalline polycation-DNA complex.

  18. Evaluation of DNA extraction methods for the analysis of microbial community in biological activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lu; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to isolate DNA from biological activated carbon (BAC) samples used in water treatment plants, owing to the scarcity of microorganisms in BAC samples. The aim of this study was to identify DNA extraction methods suitable for a long-term, comprehensive ecological analysis of BAC microbial communities. To identify a procedure that can produce high molecular weight DNA, maximizes detectable diversity and is relatively free from contaminants, the microwave extraction method, the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) extraction method, a commercial DNA extraction kit, and the ultrasonic extraction method were used for the extraction of DNA from BAC samples. Spectrophotometry, agarose gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) analysis were conducted to compare the yield and quality of DNA obtained using these methods. The results showed that the CTAB method produce the highest yield and genetic diversity of DNA from BAC samples, but DNA purity was slightly less than that obtained with the DNA extraction-kit method. This study provides a theoretical basis for establishing and selecting DNA extraction methods for BAC samples.

  19. CUPRAC colorimetric and electroanalytical methods determining antioxidant activity based on prevention of oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Uzunboy, Seda; Çekiç, Sema Demirci; Eksin, Ece; Erdem, Arzum; Apak, Reşat

    2017-02-01

    An unbalanced excess of oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) can give oxidative hazard to DNA and other biomacromolecules under oxidative stress conditions. While the 'comet' assay for measuring DNA damage is neither specific nor practical, monitoring oxidative changes on individual DNA bases and other oxidation products needs highly specialized equipment and operators. Thus, we developed a modified CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) colorimetric method to determine the average total damage on DNA produced by Fenton oxidation, taking advantage of the fact that the degradation products of DNA but not the original macromolecule is CUPRAC-responsive. The DNA-protective effects of water-soluble antioxidants were used to devise a novel antioxidant activity assay, considered to be physiologically more realistic than those using artificial probes. Our method, based on the measurement of DNA oxidative products with CUPRAC colorimetry proved to be 2 orders-of-magnitude more sensitive than the widely used TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) colorimetric assay used as reference. Additionally, the DNA damage was electrochemically investigated using pencil graphite electrodes (PGEs) as DNA sensor platform in combination with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The interaction of the radical species with DNA in the absence/presence of antioxidants was detected according to the changes in guanine oxidation signal.

  20. Human-human hybridoma autoantibodies with both anti-DNA and rheumatoid factor activities.

    PubMed

    Rauch, J; Tannenbaum, H; Straaton, K; Massicotte, H; Wild, J

    1986-01-01

    Human hybridomas have been produced by fusing peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with the GM 4672 human cell line. 262 hybridoma clones from the fusions of four RA and five SLE patients were screened for binding to denatured DNA (dDNA), native DNA, and the Fc fragment of human IgG (HIgG). Of the 17 hybridoma antibodies (nine RA, eight SLE) selected for strong binding to denatured DNA, Fc, or both, five reacted with dDNA only, one with Fc only, and eight with both dDNA and Fc. Hybridoma supernatants exhibiting dual reactivity were absorbed over HIgG and bovine serum albumin (BSA)-Sepharose immunoabsorbent columns. The reactivities to both DNA and HIgG were completely removed by the HIgG column but unaffected by passage over the BSA column, and both DNA binding and rheumatoid factor activities were recovered in the acid eluates from the Sepharose-IgG column. The binding of dual reactive hybridoma autoantibodies to the Fc fragment of HIgG was specifically competed by dDNA and HIgG, providing additional evidence that one antibody may be capable of reacting both as a rheumatoid factor and as an anti-DNA antibody.

  1. The Arabidopsis HOMOLOGY-DEPENDENT GENE SILENCING1 Gene Codes for an S-Adenosyl-l-Homocysteine Hydrolase Required for DNA Methylation-Dependent Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Pedro S.C.F.; Sheikh, Mazhar; Melchiorre, Rosalba; Fagard, Mathilde; Boutet, Stéphanie; Loach, Rebecca; Moffatt, Barbara; Wagner, Conrad; Vaucheret, Hervé; Furner, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Genes introduced into higher plant genomes can become silent (gene silencing) and/or cause silencing of homologous genes at unlinked sites (homology-dependent gene silencing or HDG silencing). Mutations of the HOMOLOGY-DEPENDENT GENE SILENCING1 (HOG1) locus relieve transcriptional gene silencing and methylation-dependent HDG silencing and result in genome-wide demethylation. The hog1 mutant plants also grow slowly and have low fertility and reduced seed germination. Three independent mutants of HOG1 were each found to have point mutations at the 3′ end of a gene coding for S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH) hydrolase, and hog1-1 plants show reduced SAH hydrolase activity. A transposon (hog1-4) and a T-DNA tag (hog1-5) in the HOG1 gene each behaved as zygotic embryo lethal mutants and could not be made homozygous. The results suggest that the homozygous hog1 point mutants are leaky and result in genome demethylation and poor growth and that homozygous insertion mutations result in zygotic lethality. Complementation of the hog1-1 point mutation with a T-DNA containing the gene coding for SAH hydrolase restored gene silencing, HDG silencing, DNA methylation, fast growth, and normal seed viability. The same T-DNA also complemented the zygotic embryo lethal phenotype of the hog1-4 tagged mutant. A model relating the HOG1 gene, DNA methylation, and methylation-dependent HDG silencing is presented. PMID:15659630

  2. Force and twist dependence of RepC nicking activity on torsionally-constrained DNA molecules

    PubMed Central

    Pastrana, Cesar L.; Carrasco, Carolina; Akhtar, Parvez; Leuba, Sanford H.; Khan, Saleem A.; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Many bacterial plasmids replicate by an asymmetric rolling-circle mechanism that requires sequence-specific recognition for initiation, nicking of one of the template DNA strands and unwinding of the duplex prior to subsequent leading strand DNA synthesis. Nicking is performed by a replication-initiation protein (Rep) that directly binds to the plasmid double-stranded origin and remains covalently bound to its substrate 5′-end via a phosphotyrosine linkage. It has been proposed that the inverted DNA sequences at the nick site form a cruciform structure that facilitates DNA cleavage. However, the role of Rep proteins in the formation of this cruciform and the implication for its nicking and religation functions is unclear. Here, we have used magnetic tweezers to directly measure the DNA nicking and religation activities of RepC, the replication initiator protein of plasmid pT181, in plasmid sized and torsionally-constrained linear DNA molecules. Nicking by RepC occurred only in negatively supercoiled DNA and was force- and twist-dependent. Comparison with a type IB topoisomerase in similar experiments highlighted a relatively inefficient religation activity of RepC. Based on the structural modeling of RepC and on our experimental evidence, we propose a model where RepC nicking activity is passive and dependent upon the supercoiling degree of the DNA substrate. PMID:27488190

  3. Antimalarial, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, DNA interaction and SOD like activities of tetrahedral copper(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Jugal V.; Gajera, Sanjay B.; Patel, Mohan N.

    2015-02-01

    The mononuclear copper(II) complexes with P, O-donor ligand and different fluoroquinolones have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, electronic spectra, TGA, EPR, FT-IR and LC-MS spectroscopy. An antimicrobial efficiency of the complexes has been tested against five different microorganisms in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and displays very good antimicrobial activity. The binding strength and binding mode of the complexes with Herring Sperm DNA (HS DNA) have been investigated by absorption titration and viscosity measurement studies. The studies suggest the classical intercalative mode of DNA binding. Gel electrophoresis assay determines the ability of the complexes to cleave the supercoiled form of pUC19 DNA. Synthesized complexes have been tested for their SOD mimic activity using nonenzymatic NBT/NADH/PMS system and found to have good antioxidant activity. All the complexes show good cytotoxic and in vitro antimalarial activities.

  4. Polymerase/DNA interactions and enzymatic activity: multi-parameter analysis with electro-switchable biosurfaces

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Andreas; Schräml, Michael; Strasser, Ralf; Daub, Herwin; Myers, Thomas; Heindl, Dieter; Rant, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The engineering of high-performance enzymes for future sequencing and PCR technologies as well as the development of many anticancer drugs requires a detailed analysis of DNA/RNA synthesis processes. However, due to the complex molecular interplay involved, real-time methodologies have not been available to obtain comprehensive information on both binding parameters and enzymatic activities. Here we introduce a chip-based method to investigate polymerases and their interactions with nucleic acids, which employs an electrical actuation of DNA templates on microelectrodes. Two measurement modes track both the dynamics of the induced switching process and the DNA extension simultaneously to quantitate binding kinetics, dissociation constants and thermodynamic energies. The high sensitivity of the method reveals previously unidentified tight binding states for Taq and Pol I (KF) DNA polymerases. Furthermore, the incorporation of label-free nucleotides can be followed in real-time and changes in the DNA polymerase conformation (finger closing) during enzymatic activity are observable. PMID:26174478

  5. Polymerase/DNA interactions and enzymatic activity: multi-parameter analysis with electro-switchable biosurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Andreas; Schräml, Michael; Strasser, Ralf; Daub, Herwin; Myers, Thomas; Heindl, Dieter; Rant, Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    The engineering of high-performance enzymes for future sequencing and PCR technologies as well as the development of many anticancer drugs requires a detailed analysis of DNA/RNA synthesis processes. However, due to the complex molecular interplay involved, real-time methodologies have not been available to obtain comprehensive information on both binding parameters and enzymatic activities. Here we introduce a chip-based method to investigate polymerases and their interactions with nucleic acids, which employs an electrical actuation of DNA templates on microelectrodes. Two measurement modes track both the dynamics of the induced switching process and the DNA extension simultaneously to quantitate binding kinetics, dissociation constants and thermodynamic energies. The high sensitivity of the method reveals previously unidentified tight binding states for Taq and Pol I (KF) DNA polymerases. Furthermore, the incorporation of label-free nucleotides can be followed in real-time and changes in the DNA polymerase conformation (finger closing) during enzymatic activity are observable.

  6. Hormone stimulation of androgen receptor mediates dynamic changes in DNA methylation patterns at regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Vineet K.; Attwood, Kristopher; Campbell, Moray J.; Smiraglia, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that contributes to stable gene silencing by interfering with the ability of transcriptional regulators to bind to DNA. Recent findings have revealed that hormone stimulation of certain nuclear receptors induces rapid, dynamic changes in DNA methylation patterns alongside transcriptional responses at a subset of target loci, over time. However, the ability of androgen receptor (AR) to dynamically regulate gene transcription is relatively under-studied and its role in the regulation of DNA methylation patterns remains to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate in normal prostate cells that hormone stimulated AR activity results in dynamic changes in the transcription rate and DNA methylation patterns at the AR target genes, TIPARP and SGK1. Time-resolved chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments on the SGK1 locus reveals dynamic recruitment of AR and RNA Polymerase II, as well as the recruitment of proteins involved in the DNA demethylation process, TET1 and TDG. Furthermore, the presence of DNA methylation at dynamic regions inhibits protein binding and transcriptional activity of SGK1. These findings establish AR activity as a contributing factor to the dynamic regulation of DNA methylation patterns at target genes in prostate biology and infer further complexity involved in nuclear receptor mediation of transcriptional regulation. PMID:26646795

  7. Resolution and purification of free primase activity from the DNA primase-polymerase alpha complex of HeLa cells.

    PubMed Central

    Vishwanatha, J K; Baril, E F

    1986-01-01

    DNA primase activity has been resolved from a purified DNA primase-polymerase alpha complex of HeLa cells by hydrophobic affinity chromatography on phenylSepharose followed by chromatography on hexylagarose. This procedure provides a good yield (55%) of DNA primase that is free from polymerase alpha. The free DNA primase activity was purified to near homogeneity and its properties characterized. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of the purified free DNA primase showed a major protein staining band of Mr 70,000. The native enzyme in velocity sedimentation has an S20'W of 5. DNA primase synthesizes RNA oligomers with single-stranded M-13 DNA, poly(dT) and poly(dC) templates that are elongated by the DNA polymerase alpha in a manner that has already been described for several purified eukaryotic DNA primase-polymerase alpha complexes. The purified free DNA primase activity is resistant to neutralizing anti-human DNA polymerase alpha antibodies, BuPdGTP and aphidicolin that specifically inhibit the free DNA polymerase alpha and also DNA polymerase alpha complexed with the primase. The free primase activity is more sensitive to monovalent salt concentrations and is more labile than polymerase alpha. Taken together these results indicate that the DNA primase and polymerase alpha activities of the DNA primase-polymerase alpha complex reside on separate polypeptides that associate tightly through hydrophobic interactions. Images PMID:3786132

  8. Binding Potency of Heparin Immobilized on Activated Charcoal for DNA Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Snezhkova, E A; Tridon, A; Evrard, B; Nikolaev, V G; Uvarov, V Yu; Tsimbalyuk, R S; Ivanuk, A A; Komov, V V; Sakhno, L A

    2016-02-01

    In vitro experiments showed that heparin adsorbed on activated charcoal can bind antibodies raised against native and single-stranded DNA in a diluted sera pool with a high level of these DNA. Thus, heparin used as anticoagulant during hemosorption procedure can demonstrate supplementary therapeutic activity resulting from its interaction with various agents involved in acute and chronic inflammatory reactions such as DNA- and RNA-binding substances, proinflammatory cytokines, complement components, growth factors, etc. Research and development of heparin-containing carbonic adsorbents for the therapy of numerous inflammatory and autoimmune diseases seems to be a promising avenue in hematology.

  9. DNA-recognition by a σ54 transcriptional activator from Aquifex aeolicus

    PubMed Central

    Vidangos, Natasha K.; Heideker, Johanna; Lyubimov, Artem; Lamers, Meindert; Huo, Yixin; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Ton, Jimmy; Gralla, Jay; Berger, James; Wemmer, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Transcription initiation by bacterial σ54-polymerase requires the action of a transcriptional activator protein. Activators bind sequence-specifically upstream of the transcription initiation site via a DNA-binding domain. The structurally characterized DNA-binding domains from activators all belong to the Factor for Inversion Stimulation (Fis) family of helix-turn-helix DNA-binding proteins. We report here structures of the free and DNA-bound forms of the DNA-binding domain of NtrC4 (4DBD) from Aquifex aeolicus, a member of the NtrC family of σ54 activators. Two NtrC4 binding sites were identified upstream (−145 and −85 base pairs) from the start of the lpxC gene, which is responsible for the first committed step in Lipid A biosynthesis. This is the first experimental evidence for σ54 regulation in lpxC expression. 4DBD was crystallized both without DNA and in complex with the −145 binding site. The structures, together with biochemical data, indicate that NtrC4 binds to DNA in a manner that is similar to that of its close homologue, Fis. The greater sequence specificity for the binding of 4DBD relative to Fis seems to arise from a larger number of base specific contacts contributing to affinity than for Fis. PMID:25158097

  10. DNA Recognition by a σ54 Transcriptional Activator from Aquifex aeolicus

    SciTech Connect

    Vidangos, Natasha K.; Heideker, Johanna; Lyubimov, Artem; Lamers, Meindert; Huo, Yixin; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Ton, Jimmy; Gralla, Jay; Berger, James; Wemmer, David E.

    2014-08-23

    Transcription initiation by bacterial σ54-polymerase requires the action of a transcriptional activator protein. Activators bind sequence-specifically upstream of the transcription initiation site via a DNA-binding domain. The structurally characterized DNA-binding domains from activators all belong to the Factor for Inversion Stimulation (Fis) family of helix-turn-helix DNA-binding proteins. We report here structures of the free and DNA-bound forms of the DNA-binding domain of NtrC4 (4DBD) from Aquifex aeolicus, a member of the NtrC family of σ54 activators. Two NtrC4 binding sites were identified upstream (-145 and -85 base pairs) from the start of the lpxC gene, which is responsible for the first committed step in Lipid A biosynthesis. This is the first experimental evidence for σ54 regulation in lpxC expression. 4DBD was crystallized both without DNA and in complex with the -145 binding site. The structures, together with biochemical data, indicate that NtrC4 binds to DNA in a manner that is similar to that of its close homologue, Fis. Ultimately, the greater sequence specificity for the binding of 4DBD relative to Fis seems to arise from a larger number of base specific contacts contributing to affinity than for Fis.

  11. DNA Recognition by a σ54 Transcriptional Activator from Aquifex aeolicus

    DOE PAGES

    Vidangos, Natasha K.; Heideker, Johanna; Lyubimov, Artem; ...

    2014-08-23

    Transcription initiation by bacterial σ54-polymerase requires the action of a transcriptional activator protein. Activators bind sequence-specifically upstream of the transcription initiation site via a DNA-binding domain. The structurally characterized DNA-binding domains from activators all belong to the Factor for Inversion Stimulation (Fis) family of helix-turn-helix DNA-binding proteins. We report here structures of the free and DNA-bound forms of the DNA-binding domain of NtrC4 (4DBD) from Aquifex aeolicus, a member of the NtrC family of σ54 activators. Two NtrC4 binding sites were identified upstream (-145 and -85 base pairs) from the start of the lpxC gene, which is responsible for themore » first committed step in Lipid A biosynthesis. This is the first experimental evidence for σ54 regulation in lpxC expression. 4DBD was crystallized both without DNA and in complex with the -145 binding site. The structures, together with biochemical data, indicate that NtrC4 binds to DNA in a manner that is similar to that of its close homologue, Fis. Ultimately, the greater sequence specificity for the binding of 4DBD relative to Fis seems to arise from a larger number of base specific contacts contributing to affinity than for Fis.« less

  12. DNA binding residues in the RQC domain of Werner protein are critical for its catalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro, Takashi; Kulikowicz, Tomasz; Dawut, Lale; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2012-06-01

    Werner protein (WRN), member of the RecQ helicase family, is a helicase and exonuclease, and participates in multiple DNA metabolic processes including DNA replication, recombination and DNA repair. Mutations in the WRN gene cause Werner syndrome, associated with premature aging, genome instability and cancer predisposition. The RecQ C-terminal (RQC) domain of WRN, containing α2-α3 loop and β-wing motifs, is important for DNA binding and for many protein interactions. To better understand the critical functions of this domain, we generated recombinant WRN proteins (using a novel purification scheme) with mutations in Arg-993 within the α2-α3 loop of the RQC domain and in Phe-1037 of the -wing motif. We then studied the catalytic activities and DNA binding of these mutant proteins as well as some important functional protein interactions. The mutant proteins were defective in DNA binding and helicase activity, and interestingly, they had deficient exonuclease activity and strand annealing function. The RQC domain of WRN has not previously been implicated in exonuclease or annealing activities. The mutant proteins could not stimulate NEIL1 incision activity as did the wild type. Thus, the Arg-993 and Phe-1037 in the RQC domain play essential roles in catalytic activity, and in functional interactions mediated by WRN.

  13. DNA methylation/demethylation programming during peach flower bud dormancy release, development and blooming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peach flower bud development undergoes a long, complex and temperature-dependent regulation process with cessation of growth in response to cool temperatures in late fall, a slow but gradual development during the chilling period in winter, and eventually blooming in early spring. It has been demon...

  14. Genome-wide localization of Rrm3 and Pif1 DNA helicases at stalled active and inactive DNA replication forks of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Silvia Emma; Carotenuto, Walter; Giannattasio, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The genome of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is sequenced and the location and dynamic of activation of DNA replication origins are known. G1 synchronized yeast cells can be released into S-phase in the presence of hydroxyurea (HU) (1), which slows down DNA replication and retains replication forks in proximity of DNA replication origins. In this condition, the Chromatin Immuno-Precipitation on chip (ChIP on chip) (2–4) of replisome components allows the precise localization of all active DNA replication forks. This analysis can be coupled with the ssDNA-BromodeoxyUridine (ssDNA-BrdU) Immuno-Precipitation on chip (ssDNA-BrdU IP on chip) technique (5–7), which detects the location of newly synthesized DNA. Comparison of binding and BrdU incorporation profiles allows to locate a factor of interest at DNA replication forks genome wide. We present datasets deposited in the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE68214, which show how the DNA helicases Rrm3 and Pif1 (8) associate to active and inactive DNA replication forks. PMID:26981397

  15. DNA double-strand breaks activate ATM independent of mitochondrial dysfunction in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Kalifa, Lidza; Gewandter, Jennifer S; Staversky, Rhonda J; Sia, Elaine A; Brookes, Paul S; O'Reilly, Michael A

    2014-10-01

    Excessive nuclear or mitochondrial DNA damage can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased energy production, and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although numerous cell signaling pathways are activated when cells are injured, the ataxia telangiectasia mutant (ATM) protein has emerged as a major regulator of the response to both mitochondrial dysfunction and nuclear DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Because mitochondrial dysfunction is often a response to excessive DNA damage, it has been difficult to determine whether nuclear and/or mitochondrial DNA DSBs activate ATM independent of mitochondrial dysfunction. In this study, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA DSBs were generated in the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line by infecting with retroviruses expressing the restriction endonuclease PstI fused to a mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) or nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and a hemagglutinin antigen epitope tag (HA). Expression of MTS-PstI-HA or NLS-PstI-HA activated the DNA damage response defined by phosphorylation of ATM, the tumor suppressor protein p53 (TP53), KRAB-associated protein (KAP)-1, and structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC)-1. Phosphorylated ATM and SMC1 were detected in nuclear fractions, whereas phosphorylated TP53 and KAP1 were detected in both mitochondrial and nuclear fractions. PstI also enhanced expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and inhibited cell growth. This response to DNA damage occurred in the absence of detectable mitochondrial dysfunction and excess production of ROS. These findings reveal that DNA DSBs are sufficient to activate ATM independent of mitochondrial dysfunction and suggest that the activated form of ATM and some of its substrates are restricted to the nuclear compartment, regardless of the site of DNA damage.

  16. Characterization of the DNA dependent activation of human ARTD2/PARP2

    PubMed Central

    Obaji, Ezeogo; Haikarainen, Teemu; Lehtiö, Lari

    2016-01-01

    Human ADP-ribosyltransferase 2 (ARTD2/PARP2) is an enzyme catalyzing a post-translational modification, ADP-ribosylation. It is one of the three DNA dependent ARTDs in the 17 member enzyme family. ADP-ribosylation catalyzed by ARTD2 is involved in the regulation of multiple cellular processes such as control of chromatin remodeling, transcription and DNA repair. Here we used a combination of biochemical and biophysical methods to elucidate the structure and function of ARTD2. The solution structures revealed the binding mode of the ARTD2 monomer and dimer to oligonucleotides that mimic damaged DNA. In the complex, DNA binds between the WGR domain and the catalytic fragment. The binding mode is supported by biophysical data that indicate all domains contribute to DNA binding. Also, our study showed that ARTD2 is preferentially activated by short 5′-phosphorylated DNA oligonucleotides. We demonstrate that the N-terminus functions as a high-affinity DNA-binding module, while the WGR domain contributes to DNA binding specificity and subsequent catalytic activation. Our data further suggest that ARTD2 would function in double strand break repair as a dimeric module, while in single strand break repair it would function as a monomer. PMID:27708353

  17. p53 oligomerization and DNA looping are linked with transcriptional activation.

    PubMed Central

    Stenger, J E; Tegtmeyer, P; Mayr, G A; Reed, M; Wang, Y; Wang, P; Hough, P V; Mastrangelo, I A

    1994-01-01

    We examined the role of p53 oligomerization in DNA binding and in transactivation. By conventional electron microscopy (EM) and scanning transmission EM, we find that wild-type tetramers contact 18-20 bp at single or tandem 19 bp consensus sequences and also stack in apparent register, tetramer on top of tetramer. Stacked tetramers link separated DNA binding sites with DNA loops. Interestingly, the p53(1-320) segment, which lacks the C-terminal tetramerization domain, binds DNA consensus sites as stacked oligomers. Although the truncated protein binds DNA with reduced efficiency, it nevertheless induces DNA looping by self-association. p53, therefore, has a C-terminal tetramerization domain that enhances DNA binding and a non-tetrameric oligomerization domain that stacks p53 at consensus sites and loops separated consensus sites via protein-protein interactions. Using model promoters, we demonstrate that wild-type and tetramerization-deficient p53s activate transcription well when tandem consensus sites are proximal to TATA sequences and poorly when tandem sites are distal. In the presence of proximal sites, however, stimulation by distal sites increases 25-fold. Tetramerization and stacking of tetramers, therefore, provide dual mechanisms to augment the number of p53 molecules available for activation through p53 response elements. DNA looping between separated response elements further increases the concentration of local p53 by translocating distally bound protein to the promoter. Images PMID:7813439

  18. Structural mechanism of RPA loading on DNA during activation of a simple pre-replication complex.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaohua; Klimovich, Vitaly; Arunkumar, Alphonse I; Hysinger, Erik B; Wang, Yingda; Ott, Robert D; Guler, Gulfem D; Weiner, Brian; Chazin, Walter J; Fanning, Ellen

    2006-11-29

    We report that during activation of the simian virus 40 (SV40) pre-replication complex, SV40 T antigen (Tag) helicase actively loads replication protein A (RPA) on emerging single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). This novel loading process requires physical interaction of Tag origin DNA-binding domain (OBD) with the RPA high-affinity ssDNA-binding domains (RPA70AB). Heteronuclear NMR chemical shift mapping revealed that Tag-OBD binds to RPA70AB at a site distal from the ssDNA-binding sites and that RPA70AB, Tag-OBD, and an 8-nucleotide ssDNA form a stable ternary complex. Intact RPA and Tag also interact stably in the presence of an 8-mer, but Tag dissociates from the complex when RPA binds to longer oligonucleotides. Together, our results imply that an allosteric change in RPA quaternary structure completes the loading reaction. A mechanistic model is proposed in which the ternary complex is a key intermediate that directly couples origin DNA unwinding to RPA loading on emerging ssDNA.

  19. Strong transcriptional activators isolated from viral DNA by the 'activator trap', a novel selection system in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Gstaiger, M; Schaffner, W

    1994-10-11

    Transcription factors often contain activation domains that interact with the basic transcription machinery. We have developed a functional screening strategy in mammalian cells to selectively isolate activation domains from a library of random DNA inserts. For this, sonicated DNA fragments are cloned next to the DNA binding domain of GAL4 factor in a plasmid that also contains the SV40 origin of replication. Pools of fusion protein clones are transfected into CV-1-5GT monkey cells containing an SV40 T antigen gene under the control of a promoter with GAL4 binding sites. Plasmids that express functional transactivating fusion proteins activate the T antigen gene, thus promoting selective amplification of the plasmid in the mammalian host cell line. Using this method, we were able to select strong enhancer-type activation domains from the immediate early regions of two herpesviruses, namely pseudorabies virus and bovine herpesvirus 1. In both cases, the activation domains selected were homologues of the ICP4 regulatory protein of herpes simplex virus. The activation domain from pseudorabies virus is four times stronger than the activation domain of herpes simplex virus protein VP16 (Vmw65), making it the strongest activation domain characterized so far. This activator trap method should be useful for precisely localizing activation domain(s) in known factors, or to identify mammalian transcriptional adaptors that do not bind DNA and which may escape conventional detection methods.

  20. Refractory testicular germ cell tumors are highly sensitive to the second generation DNA methylation inhibitor guadecitabine.

    PubMed

    Albany, Costantine; Hever-Jardine, Mary P; von Herrmann, Katherine M; Yim, Christina Y; Tam, Janice; Warzecha, Joshua M; Shin, Leah; Bock, Sarah E; Curran, Brian S; Chaudhry, Aneeq S; Kim, Fred; Sandusky, George E; Taverna, Pietro; Freemantle, Sarah J; Christensen, Brock C; Einhorn, Lawrence H; Spinella, Michael J

    2017-01-10

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common cancers of young males. A substantial portion of TGCT patients are refractory to cisplatin. There are no effective therapies for these patients, many of whom die from progressive disease. Embryonal carcinoma (EC) are the stem cells of TGCTs. In prior in vitro studies we found that EC cells were highly sensitive to the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza deoxycytidine (5-aza). Here, as an initial step in bringing demethylation therapy to the clinic for TGCT patients, we evaluated the effects of the clinically optimized, second generation demethylating agent guadecitabine (SGI-110) on EC cells in an animal model of cisplatin refractory testicular cancer. EC cells were exquisitely sensitive to guadecitabine and the hypersensitivity was dependent on high levels of DNA methyltransferase 3B. Guadecitabine mediated transcriptional reprogramming of EC cells included induction of p53 targets and repression of pluripotency genes. As a single agent, guadecitabine completely abolished progression and induced complete regression of cisplatin resistant EC xenografts even at doses well below those required to impact somatic solid tumors. Low dose guadecitabine also sensitized refractory EC cells to cisplatin in vivo. Genome-wide analysis indicated that in vivo antitumor activity was associated with activation of p53 and immune-related pathways and the antitumor effects of guadecitabine were dependent on p53, a gene rarely mutated in TGCTs. These preclinical findings suggest that guadecitabine alone or in combination with cisplatin is a promising strategy to treat refractory TGCT patients.

  1. Multispectral studies of DNA binding, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of a new pyranochromene derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehkordi, Mahvash Farajzadeh; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Mahdavi, Majid; Hosseinpour Feizi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-06-01

    The binding properties of a new pyranochromene derivative, 2-amino-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-5-oxo-4H, 5H-pyrano-[3, 2-c] chromene-3-carbonitrile (3-HC) with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) have been investigated by UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy and viscosity measurement. These results indicated that 3-HC can interact with DNA through non-intercalative mode and the intrinsic binding constant (Kb) for 3-HC with DNA was estimated to be 3.6 × 103 M-1. The antioxidant activity experiments show that 3-HC also exhibit good antioxidant activity in DPPH free radical scavenging and ferric reducing ability methods. Moreover, 3-HC exhibited cytotoxic activity against K562, human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells, with IC50 value of 146 μM and the cells responded to the treatment with mostly through apoptosis.

  2. Demethylation and alterations in the expression level of the cell cycle-related genes as possible mechanisms in arsenic trioxide-induced cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Moghaddaskho, Farima; Eyvani, Haniyeh; Ghadami, Mohsen; Tavakkoly-Bazzaz, Javad; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Ghaffari, Seyed H

    2017-02-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been used clinically as an anti-tumor agent. Its mechanisms are mostly considered to be the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of its anti-cancer action through cell cycle arrest are poorly known. Furthermore, As2O3 has been shown to be a potential DNA methylation inhibitor, inducing DNA hypomethylation. We hypothesize that As2O3 may affect the expression of cell cycle regulatory genes by interfering with DNA methylation patterns. To explore this, we examined promoter methylation status of 24 cell cycle genes in breast cancer cell lines and in a normal breast tissue sample by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and/or restriction enzyme-based methods. Gene expression level and cell cycle distribution were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometric analyses, respectively. Our methylation analysis indicates that only promoters of RBL1 (p107), RASSF1A, and cyclin D2 were aberrantly methylated in studied breast cancer cell lines. As2O3 induced CpG island demethylation in promoter regions of these genes and restores their expression correlated with DNA methyltransferase inhibition. As2O3 also induced alterations in messenger RNA expression of several cell cycle-related genes independent of demethylation. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the cell cycle arrest induced by As2O3 varied depending on cell lines, MCF-7 at G1 phase and both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells at G2/M phase. These changes at transcriptional level of the cell cycle genes by the molecular mechanisms dependent and independent of demethylation are likely to represent the mechanisms of cell cycle redistribution in breast cancer cells, in response to As2O3 treatment.

  3. Metformin Uniquely Prevents Thrombosis by Inhibiting Platelet Activation and mtDNA Release

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Guang; Wei, Zeliang; Ji, Chengjie; Zheng, Huajie; Gu, Jun; Ma, Limei; Huang, Wenfang; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yeh, Jwu-Lai; Zhang, Rui; Qin, Chaoyi; Wen, Li; Xing, Zhihua; Cao, Yu; Xia, Qing; Lu, Yanrong; Li, Ke; Niu, Hai; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Huang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Thrombosis and its complications are the leading cause of death in patients with diabetes. Metformin, a first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes, is the only drug demonstrated to reduce cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients. However, whether metformin can effectively prevent thrombosis and its potential mechanism of action is unknown. Here we show, metformin prevents both venous and arterial thrombosis with no significant prolonged bleeding time by inhibiting platelet activation and extracellular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) release. Specifically, metformin inhibits mitochondrial complex I and thereby protects mitochondrial function, reduces activated platelet-induced mitochondrial hyperpolarization, reactive oxygen species overload and associated membrane damage. In mitochondrial function assays designed to detect amounts of extracellular mtDNA, we found that metformin prevents mtDNA release. This study also demonstrated that mtDNA induces platelet activation through a DC-SIGN dependent pathway. Metformin exemplifies a promising new class of antiplatelet agents that are highly effective at inhibiting platelet activation by decreasing the release of free mtDNA, which induces platelet activation in a DC-SIGN-dependent manner. This study has established a novel therapeutic strategy and molecular target for thrombotic diseases, especially for thrombotic complications of diabetes mellitus. PMID:27805009

  4. Differential regulation of DNA damage response activation between somatic and germline cells in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Vermezovic, J; Stergiou, L; Hengartner, M O; d'Adda di Fagagna, F

    2012-01-01

    The germline of Caenorhabditis elegans is a well-established model for DNA damage response (DDR) studies. However, the molecular basis of the observed cell death resistance in the soma of these animals remains unknown. We established a set of techniques to study ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage generation and DDR activation in a whole intact worm. Our single-cell analyses reveal that, although germline and somatic cells show similar levels of inflicted DNA damage, somatic cells, differently from germline cells, do not activate the crucial apical DDR kinase ataxia-telengiectasia mutated (ATM). We also show that DDR signaling proteins are undetectable in all somatic cells and this is due to transcriptional repression. However, DNA repair genes are expressed and somatic cells retain the ability to efficiently repair DNA damage. Finally, we demonstrate that germline cells, when induced to transdifferentiate into somatic cells within the gonad, lose the ability to activate ATM. Overall, these observations provide a molecular mechanism for the known, but hitherto unexplained, resistance to DNA damage-induced cell death in C. elegans somatic cells. We propose that the observed lack of signaling and cell death but retention of DNA repair functions in the soma is a Caenorhabditis-specific evolutionary-selected strategy to cope with its lack of adult somatic stem cell pools and regenerative capacity. PMID:22705849

  5. Circulating Differentially Methylated Amylin DNA as a Biomarker of β-Cell Loss in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, John A.; Kenna, Lauren A.; Spelios, Michael G.; Hessner, Martin J.; Akirav, Eitan M.

    2016-01-01

    In type 1 diabetes (T1D), β-cell loss is silent during disease progression. Methylation-sensitive quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) of β-cell-derived DNA in the blood can serve as a biomarker of β-cell death in T1D. Amylin is highly expressed by β-cells in the islet. Here we examined whether demethylated circulating free amylin DNA (cfDNA) may serve as a biomarker of β-cell death in T1D. β cells showed unique methylation patterns within the amylin coding region that were not observed with other tissues. The design and use of methylation-specific primers yielded a strong signal for demethylated amylin in purified DNA from murine islets when compared with other tissues. Similarly, methylation-specific primers detected high levels of demethylated amylin DNA in human islets and enriched human β-cells. In vivo testing of the primers revealed an increase in demethylated amylin cfDNA in sera of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice during T1D progression and following the development of hyperglycemia. This increase in amylin cfDNA did not mirror the increase in insulin cfDNA, suggesting that amylin cfDNA may detect β-cell loss in serum samples where insulin cfDNA is undetected. Finally, purified cfDNA from recent onset T1D patients yielded a high signal for demethylated amylin cfDNA when compared with matched healthy controls. These findings support the use of demethylated amylin cfDNA for detection of β-cell-derived DNA. When utilized in conjunction with insulin, this latest assay provides a comprehensive multi-gene approach for the detection of β-cell loss. PMID:27111653

  6. The evolutionary history of human DNA transposons: evidence for intense activity in the primate lineage.

    PubMed

    Pace, John K; Feschotte, Cédric

    2007-04-01

    Class 2, or DNA transposons, make up approximately 3% of the human genome, yet the evolutionary history of these elements has been largely overlooked and remains poorly understood. Here we carried out the first comprehensive analysis of the activity of human DNA transposons over the course of primate evolution using three independent computational methods. First, we conducted an exhaustive search for human DNA transposons nested within L1 and Alu elements known to be primate specific. Second, we assessed the presence/absence of 794 human DNA transposons at orthologous positions in 10 mammalian species using sequence data generated by The ENCODE Project. These two approaches, which do not rely upon sequence divergence, allowed us to classify DNA transposons into three different categories: anthropoid specific (40-63 My), primate specific (64-80 My), and eutherian wide (81-150 My). Finally, we used this data to calculate the substitution rates of DNA transposons for each category and refine the age of each family based on the average percent divergence of individual copies to their consensus. Based on these combined methods, we can confidently estimate that at least 40 human DNA transposon families, representing approximately 98,000 elements ( approximately 33 Mb) in the human genome, have been active in the primate lineage. There was a cessation in the transpositional activity of DNA transposons during the later phase of the primate radiation, with no evidence of elements younger than approximately 37 My. This data points to intense activity of DNA transposons during the mammalian radiation and early primate evolution, followed, apparently, by their mass extinction in an anthropoid primate ancestor.

  7. Novel FOXC2 Mutation in Hereditary Distichiasis Impairs DNA-Binding Activity and Transcriptional Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Leilei; He, Jie; Han, Bing; Lu, Linna; Fan, Jiayan; Zhang, He; Ge, Shengfang; Zhou, Yixiong; Jia, Renbing; Fan, Xianqun

    2016-01-01

    Distichiasis presents as double rows of eyelashes arising from aberrant differentiation of the meibomian glands of the eyelids, and it may be sporadic or hereditary. FOXC2 gene mutations in hereditary distichiasis are rarely reported. Here, we examined two generations of a Chinese family with hereditary distichiasis but without lymphedema or other features of LD syndrome. The FOXC2 gene was amplified and sequenced in all family members. Subcellular localization and luciferase assays were performed to assess the activity of the mutant FOXC2 protein. Clinical examinations showed distichiasis, lower eyelid ectropion, congenital ptosis and photophobia in all affected individuals. Sequence analysis revealed a novel frameshift mutation, c.964_965insG, in the coding region of the FOXC2 gene. This mutation caused protein truncation due to the presence of a premature stop codon. A fluorescence assay showed that this mutation did not change the nuclear localization of the protein. However, it impaired DNA-binding activity and decreased transcriptional activation. This is the first report of a FOXC2 mutation in hereditary distichiasis in the Chinese population. The findings of our study expand the FOXC2 mutation spectrum and contribute to the understanding of the genotype-phenotype correlation of this disease. PMID:27570485

  8. The metabolic activator FOXO1 binds hepatitis B virus DNA and activates its transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Shlomai, Amir; Shaul, Yosef

    2009-04-17

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small DNA virus that targets the liver and infects humans worldwide. Recently we have shown that the metabolic regulator PGC-1{alpha} coactivates HBV transcription thereby rendering the virus susceptible to fluctuations in the nutritional status of the liver. PGC-1{alpha} coactivation of HBV is mediated through the liver-enriched nuclear receptor HNF4{alpha} and through another yet unknown transcription factor(s). Here we show that the forkhead transcription factor FOXO1, a known target for PGC-1{alpha} coactivation and a central mediator of glucose metabolism in the liver, binds HBV core promoter and activates its transcription. This activation is further enhanced in the presence of PGC-1{alpha}, implying that FOXO1 is a target for PGC-1{alpha} coactivation of HBV transcription. Thus, our results identify another key metabolic regulator as an activator of HBV transcription, thereby supporting the principle that HBV gene expression is regulated in a similar way to key hepatic metabolic genes.

  9. The activation of a specific DNA binding protein by neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Teale, B.; Singh, S.; Cohen, D.

    1995-08-30

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the quality of ionizing radiation is critical for activation of a radiation-specific DNA binding protein. We have previously shown that after exposing Epstein Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cells to ionizing radiation, a specific DNA binding factor appears in the nucleus apparently as a result of translocation from the cytoplasm. This protein binds to a number of different genomic sequences and a consensus motif has been identified. Because the protein was not activated by UV light, it was of interest whether high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation was capable of activation. We describe here the activation of a specific DNA binding protein by high LET neutron radiation. The protein binds a region adjacent to and overlapping with the distal repeat within a 179 base-pair fragment of the well-characterized Simian Virus (SV40) bidirectional promoter/enhancer element. The appearance of the DNA binding activity was dose dependent and reached a maximum level by 90 min postirradiation. A reduction in DNA binding activity was evident at later times after irradiation. The specific nature of this response and the rapidity of activation may indicate a pivotal role for this protein in repair or in some other aspect of the cellular response to radiation damage. 22 refs., 4 figs.

  10. PDIP46 (DNA polymerase δ interacting protein 46) is an activating factor for human DNA polymerase δ.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Sufang; Zheng, Rong; Yue, Fu; Lin, Szu Hua Sharon; Rahmeh, Amal A; Lee, Ernest Y C; Zhang, Zhongtao; Lee, Marietta Y W T

    2016-02-02

    PDIP46 (SKAR, POLDIP3) was discovered through its interaction with the p50 subunit of human DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). Its functions in DNA replication are unknown. PDIP46 associates with Pol δ in cell extracts both by immunochemical and protein separation methods, as well as by ChIP analyses. PDIP46 also interacts with PCNA via multiple copies of a novel PCNA binding motif, the APIMs (AlkB homologue-2 PCNA-Interacting Motif). Sites for both p50 and PCNA binding were mapped to the N-terminal region containing the APIMs. Functional assays for the effects of PDIP46 on Pol δ activity on singly primed ssM13 DNA templates revealed that it is a novel and potent activator of Pol δ. The effects of PDIP46 on Pol δ in primer extension, strand displacement and synthesis through simple hairpin structures reveal a mechanism where PDIP46 facilitates Pol δ4 synthesis through regions of secondary structure on complex templates. In addition, evidence was obtained that PDIP46 is also capable of exerting its effects by a direct interaction with Pol δ, independent of PCNA. Mutation of the Pol δ and PCNA binding region resulted in a loss of PDIP46 functions. These studies support the view that PDIP46 is a novel accessory protein for Pol δ that is involved in cellular DNA replication. This raises the possibility that altered expression of PDIP46 or its mutation may affect Pol δ functions in vivo, and thereby be a nexus for altered genomic stability.

  11. PDIP46 (DNA polymerase δ interacting protein 46) is an activating factor for human DNA polymerase δ

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Rong; Yue, Fu; Lin, Szu Hua Sharon; Rahmeh, Amal A.; Lee, Ernest Y. C.; Zhang, Zhongtao; Lee, Marietta Y. W. T.

    2016-01-01

    PDIP46 (SKAR, POLDIP3) was discovered through its interaction with the p50 subunit of human DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). Its functions in DNA replication are unknown. PDIP46 associates with Pol δ in cell extracts both by immunochemical and protein separation methods, as well as by ChIP analyses. PDIP46 also interacts with PCNA via multiple copies of a novel PCNA binding motif, the APIMs (AlkB homologue-2 PCNA-Interacting Motif). Sites for both p50 and PCNA binding were mapped to the N-terminal region containing the APIMs. Functional assays for the effects of PDIP46 on Pol δ activity on singly primed ssM13 DNA templates revealed that it is a novel and potent activator of Pol δ. The effects of PDIP46 on Pol δ in primer extension, strand displacement and synthesis through simple hairpin structures reveal a mechanism where PDIP46 facilitates Pol δ4 synthesis through regions of secondary structure on complex templates. In addition, evidence was obtained that PDIP46 is also capable of exerting its effects by a direct interaction with Pol δ, independent of PCNA. Mutation of the Pol δ and PCNA binding region resulted in a loss of PDIP46 functions. These studies support the view that PDIP46 is a novel accessory protein for Pol δ that is involved in cellular DNA replication. This raises the possibility that altered expression of PDIP46 or its mutation may affect Pol δ functions in vivo, and thereby be a nexus for altered genomic stability. PMID:26819372

  12. Methylation and demethylation of intermediates selenide and methylselenol in the metabolism of selenium.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yuki; Suzuki, Kazuo T

    2008-01-15

    All nutritional selenium sources are transformed into the assumed common intermediate selenide for the syntheses of selenoproteins for utilization and/or of selenosugar for excretion. Methylselenol [monomethylselenide, MMSe] is the assumed intermediate leading to other methylated metabolites, dimethylselenide (DMSe) and trimethylselenonium (TMSe) for excretion, and also to the intermediate selenide from methylselenocysteine and methylseleninic acid (MSA). Here, related methylation and demethylation reactions were studied in vitro by providing chemically reactive starting substrates (76Se-selenide, 77Se-MMSe and 82Se-DMSe) which were prepared in situ by the reduction of the corresponding labeled proximate precursors (76Se-selenite, 77Se-MSA and 82Se-dimethylselenoxide (DMSeO), respectively) with glutathione, the three substrates being incubated simultaneously in rat organ supernatants and homogenates. The resulting chemically labile reaction products were detected simultaneously by speciation analysis with HPLC-ICP-MS after converting the products and un-reacted substrates to the corresponding oxidized derivatives (selenite, MSA and DMSeO). The time-related changes in selenium isotope profiles showed that demethylation of MMSe to selenide was efficient but that of DMSe to MMSe was negligible, whereas methylation of selenide to MMSe, and MMSe to DMSe were efficient, and that of DMSe to TMSe occurred less efficiently. The present methylation and demethylation reactions on equilibrium between selenide, MMSe and DMSe without producing selenosugar and selenoproteins indicated that DMSe rather than TMSe is produced as the end product, suggesting that DMSe is to be excreted more abundantly than TMSe. Organ-dependent differences in the methylation and demethylation reactions were characterized for the liver, kidney and lung.

  13. Methylation and demethylation of intermediates selenide and methylselenol in the metabolism of selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, Yuki; Suzuki, Kazuo T.

    2008-01-15

    All nutritional selenium sources are transformed into the assumed common intermediate selenide for the syntheses of selenoproteins for utilization and/or of selenosugar for excretion. Methylselenol [monomethylselenide, MMSe] is the assumed intermediate leading to other methylated metabolites, dimethylselenide (DMSe) and trimethylselenonium (TMSe) for excretion, and also to the intermediate selenide from methylselenocysteine and methylseleninic acid (MSA). Here, related methylation and demethylation reactions were studied in vitro by providing chemically reactive starting substrates ({sup 76}Se-selenide, {sup 77}Se-MMSe and {sup 82}Se-DMSe) which were prepared in situ by the reduction of the corresponding labeled proximate precursors ({sup 76}Se-selenite, {sup 77}Se-MSA and {sup 82}Se-dimethylselenoxide (DMSeO), respectively) with glutathione, the three substrates being incubated simultaneously in rat organ supernatants and homogenates. The resulting chemically labile reaction products were detected simultaneously by speciation analysis with HPLC-ICP-MS after converting the products and un-reacted substrates to the corresponding oxidized derivatives (selenite, MSA and DMSeO). The time-related changes in selenium isotope profiles showed that demethylation of MMSe to selenide was efficient but that of DMSe to MMSe was negligible, whereas methylation of selenide to MMSe, and MMSe to DMSe were efficient, and that of DMSe to TMSe occurred less efficiently. The present methylation and demethylation reactions on equilibrium between selenide, MMSe and DMSe without producing selenosugar and selenoproteins indicated that DMSe rather than TMSe is produced as the end product, suggesting that DMSe is to be excreted more abundantly than TMSe. Organ-dependent differences in the methylation and demethylation reactions were characterized for the liver, kidney and lung.

  14. Sensory rhodopsins I and II modulate a methylation/demethylation system in Halobacterium halobium phototaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Spudich, E.N.; Takahashi, T.; Spudich, J.L. )

    1989-10-01

    This work demonstrates that phototaxis stimuli in the archaebacterium Halobacterium halobium control a methylation/demethylation system in vivo through photoactivation of sensory rhodopsin I (SR-I) in either its attractant or repellent signaling form as well as through the repellent receptor sensory rhodopsin II (SR-II, also called phoborhodopsin). The effects of positive stimuli that suppress swimming reversals (i.e., an increase in attractant or decrease in repellent light) and negative stimuli that induce swimming reversals (i.e., a decrease in attractant or increase in repellent light) through each photoreceptor were monitored by assaying release of volatile (3H)methyl groups. This assay has been used to measure (3H)methanol produced during the process of adaptation to chemotactic stimuli in eubacteria. In H. halobium positive photostimuli produce a transient increase in the rate of demethylation followed by a decrease below the unstimulated value, whereas negative photostimuli cause an increase followed by a rate similar to that of the unstimulated value. Photoactivation of the SR-I attractant and simultaneous photoactivation of the SR-II repellent receptors cancel in their effects on demethylation, demonstrating the methylation system is regulated by an integrated signal. Analysis of mutants indicates that the source for the volatile methyl groups is intrinsic membrane proteins distinct from the chromoproteins that share the membrane. A methyl-accepting protein (94 kDa) previously correlated in amount with the SR-I chromoprotein (25 kDa) is shown here to be missing in a recently isolated SR-I-SR-II+ mutant (Flx3b), thus confirming the association of this protein with SR-I. Photoactivated SR-II in mutant Flx3b controls demethylation, predicting the existence of a photomodulated methyl-accepting component distinct from the 94-kDa protein of SR-I.

  15. Engineering molecularly-active nanoplasmonic surfaces for DNA detection via colorimetry and Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydari, Esmaeil; Mabbott, Samuel; Thompson, David; Graham, Duncan; Cooper, Jonathan M.; Clark, Alasdair W.

    2016-03-01

    We report a novel nanophotonic biosensor surface capable of both colorimetric detection and Raman-scattered detection of DNA infection markers at extreme sensitivities. Combining direct-write lithography, dip-pen nanolithography based DNA patterning, and molecular self-assembly, we create molecularly-active plasmonic nanostructures onto which metallic nanoparticles are located via DNA-hybridization. Arraying these structures enables optical surfaces that change state when contacted by specific DNA sequences; shifting the surface color while simultaneously generating strong Raman-scattering signals. Patterning the DNA markers onto the plasmonic surface as micro-scale symbols results in easily identifiable color shifts, making this technique applicable to multiplexed lab-on-a-chip and point-of-care diagnostic applications.

  16. DNA interaction of europium(III) complex containing 2,2'-bipyridine and its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Jahani, Shohreh; Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of native fish salmon DNA (FS-DNA) with [Eu(bpy)3Cl2(H2O)]Cl, where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, is studied at physiological pH in Tris-HCl buffer by spectroscopic methods, viscometric techniques as well as circular dichroism (CD). These experiments reveal that Eu(III) complex has interaction with FS-DNA. Moreover, binding constant and binding site size have been determined. The value of Kb has been defined 2.46 ± .02 × 10(5) M(-1). The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by Van't Hoff equation, the results show that the interaction of the complex with FS-DNA is an entropically driven phenomenon. CD spectroscopy followed by viscosity as well as fluorescence and UV--Vis measurements indicate that the complex interacts with FS-DNA via groove binding mode. Also, the synthesized Eu(III) complex has been screened for antimicrobial activities.

  17. Phosphorylation of Daxx by ATM Contributes to DNA Damage-Induced p53 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qian; Qu, Like; Brewer, Michael D.; Chen, Jiandong; Yang, Xiaolu

    2013-01-01

    p53 plays a central role in tumor suppression. It does so by inducing anti-proliferative processes as a response to various tumor-promoting stresses. p53 is regulated by the ubiquitin ligase Mdm2. The optimal function of Mdm2 requires Daxx, which stabilizes Mdm2 through the deubiquitinase Hausp/USP7 and also directly promotes Mdm2’s ubiquitin ligase activity towards p53. The Daxx-Mdm2 interaction is disrupted upon DNA damage. However, both the mechanisms and the consequence of the Daxx-Mdm2 dissociation are not understood. Here we show that upon DNA damage Daxx is phosphorylated in a manner that is dependent on ATM, a member of the PI 3-kinase family that orchestrates the DNA damage response. The main phosphorylation site of Daxx is identified to be Ser564, which is a direct target of ATM. Phosphorylation of endogenous Daxx at Ser564 occurs rapidly during the DNA damage response and precedes p53 activation. Blockage of this phosphorylation event prevents the separation of Daxx from Mdm2, stabilizes Mdm2, and inhibits DNA damage-induced p53 activation. These results suggest that phosphorylation of Daxx by ATM upon DNA damage disrupts the Daxx-Mdm2 interaction and facilitates p53 activation. PMID:23405218

  18. Gibberellin-induced change in the structure of chromatin in wheat sprouts: decrease in the accessibility of DNA in preparations of soluble chromatin to the action of EcoRII methylase

    SciTech Connect

    Noskov, V.A.; Kintsurashvili, L.N.; Smirnova, T.A.; Manamsh'yan, T.A.; Kir'yanov, G.I.; Vanyushin, B.F.

    1986-05-20

    A method has been perfected for producing soluble chromatin from whole wheat sprouts at low ionic strength. The chromatin preparations isolated possess a native structure: they have a nucleosome organization. Under identical conditions the soluble wheat chromatin undergoes more profound degradation by DNase I and staphylococcal nuclease than the chromatin from the rat liver. The DNA contained in the isolated chromatin is capable of accepting CHnumber groups from S-(methyl-/sup 3/H)-adenosylmethionine during incubation with DNA methylase EcoRII; not all the CC A/T GG sequences in DNA are methylated in vivo. Chromatin from gibberellin A/sub 3/-treated wheat sprout DNA accepts 40% fewer CH/sub 3/ groups than that from the control sprouts, which is probably due to the greater compactness of the chromatin. In the case of longer incubation, the level of methylation of the chromatin falls, which may be associated with the presence of DNA-demethylating activity.

  19. Role of DNA methylation and the DNA methyltransferases in learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael J; Monteggia, Lisa M

    2014-09-01

    Dynamic regulation of chromatin structure in postmitotic neurons plays an important role in learning and memory. Methylation of cytosine nucleotides has historically been considered the strongest and least modifiable of epigenetic marks. Accumulating recent data suggest that rapid and dynamic methylation and demethylation of specific genes in the brain may play a fundamental role in learning, memory formation, and behavioral plasticity. The current review focuses on the emergence of data that support the role of DNA methylation and demethylation, and its molecular mediators in memory formation.

  20. Transposable DNA elements and life history traits: II. Transposition of P DNA elements in somatic cells reduces fitness, mating activity, and locomotion of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, R C; Thompson, J N; Barker, J S; Huai, H

    1999-01-01

    Some transposable DNA elements in higher organisms are active in somatic cells, as well as in germinal cells. What effect does the movement of DNA elements in somatic cells have on life history traits? It has previously been reported that somatically active P and mariner elements in Drosophila induce genetic damage and significantly reduce lifespan. In this study, we report that the movement of P elements in somatic cells also significantly reduces fitness, mating activity, and locomotion of Drosophila melanogaster. If other elements cause similar changes in life history traits, it is doubtful if transposable DNA elements remain active for long in somatic cells in natural populations.

  1. A human cellular sequence implicated in trk oncogene activation is DNA damage inducible

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Ishai, R.; Scharf, R.; Sharon, R.; Kapten, I. )

    1990-08-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum cells, which are deficient in the repair of UV light-induced DNA damage, have been used to clone DNA-damage-inducible transcripts in human cells. The cDNA clone designated pC-5 hybridizes on RNA gel blots to a 1-kilobase transcript, which is moderately abundant in nontreated cells and whose synthesis is enhanced in human cells following UV irradiation or treatment with several other DNA-damaging agents. UV-enhanced transcription of C-5 RNA is transient and occurs at lower fluences and to a greater extent in DNA-repair-deficient than in DNA-repair-proficient cells. Southern blot analysis indicates that the C-5 gene belongs to a multigene family. A cDNA clone containing the complete coding sequence of C-5 was isolated. Sequence analysis revealed that it is homologous to a human cellular sequence encoding the amino-terminal activating sequence of the trk-2h chimeric oncogene. The presence of DNA-damage-responsive sequences at the 5' end of a chimeric oncogene could result in enhanced expression of the oncogene in response to carcinogens.

  2. A nanoplasmonic molecular ruler for measuring nuclease activity and DNA footprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang L.; Yin, Yadong; Kunchakarra, Siri; Mukherjee, Bipasha; Gerion, Daniele; Jett, Stephen D.; Bear, David G.; Gray, Joe W.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Lee, Luke P.; Chen, Fanqing Frank

    2006-10-01

    Interactions between nucleic acids and proteins are essential to genetic information processing. The detection of size changes in nucleic acids is the key to mapping such interactions, and usually requires substrates with fluorescent, electrochemical or radioactive labels. Recently, methods have been developed to tether DNA to highly water-soluble Au nanoparticles, and nanoparticle pairs linked by DNA have been used to measure nanoscale distances. Here we demonstrate a molecular ruler in which double-stranded DNA is attached to a Au nanoparticle. The change in plasmon resonance wavelength of individual Au-DNA conjugates depends on the length of the DNA and can be measured with subnanometre axial resolution. An average wavelength shift of approximately 1.24 nm is observed per DNA base pair. This system allows for a label-free, quantitative, real-time measurement of nuclease activity and also serves as a new DNA footprinting platform, which can accurately detect and map the specific binding of a protein to DNA.

  3. New metal based drugs: Spectral, electrochemical, DNA-binding, surface morphology and anticancer activity properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çeşme, Mustafa; Gölcü, Aysegul; Demirtaş, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The NSAID piroxicam (PRX) drug was used for complex formation reactions with Cu(II), Zn(II) and Pt(II) metal salts have been synthesized. Then, these complexes have been characterized by spectroscopic and analytical techniques. Thermal behavior of the complexes were also investigated. The electrochemical properties of all complexes have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) using glassy carbon electrode. The biological activity of the complexes has been evaluated by examining their ability to bind to fish sperm double strand DNA (FSFSdsDNA) with UV spectroscopy. UV studies of the interaction of the PRX and its complexes with FSdsDNA have shown that these compounds can bind to FSdsDNA. The binding constants of the compounds with FSdsDNA have also been calculated. The morphology of the FSdsDNA, PRX, metal ions and metal complexes has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To get the SEM images, the interaction of compounds with FSdsDNA has been studied by means of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at FSdsDNA modified pencil graphite electrode (PGE). The decrease in intensity of the guanine oxidation signals has been used as an indicator for the interaction mechanism. The effect of proliferation PRX and complexes were examined on the HeLA and C6 cells using real-time cell analyzer with four different concentrations.

  4. Structure-function relationships governing activity and stability of a DNA alkylation damage repair thermostable protein.

    PubMed

    Perugino, Giuseppe; Miggiano, Riccardo; Serpe, Mario; Vettone, Antonella; Valenti, Anna; Lahiri, Samarpita; Rossi, Franca; Rossi, Mosè; Rizzi, Menico; Ciaramella, Maria

    2015-10-15

    Alkylated DNA-protein alkyltransferases repair alkylated DNA bases, which are among the most common DNA lesions, and are evolutionary conserved, from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes. The human ortholog, hAGT, is involved in resistance to alkylating chemotherapy drugs. We report here on the alkylated DNA-protein alkyltransferase, SsOGT, from an archaeal species living at high temperature, a condition that enhances the harmful effect of DNA alkylation. The exceptionally high stability of SsOGT gave us the unique opportunity to perform structural and biochemical analysis of a protein of this class in its post-reaction form. This analysis, along with those performed on SsOGT in its ligand-free and DNA-bound forms, provides insights in the structure-function relationships of the protein before, during and after DNA repair, suggesting a molecular basis for DNA recognition, catalytic activity and protein post-reaction fate, and giving hints on the mechanism of alkylation-induced inactivation of this class of proteins.

  5. Light-activated DNA binding in a designed allosteric protein

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, Devin; Moffat, Keith; Sosnick, Tobin R.

    2008-09-03

    An understanding of how allostery, the conformational coupling of distant functional sites, arises in highly evolvable systems is of considerable interest in areas ranging from cell biology to protein design and signaling networks. We reasoned that the rigidity and defined geometry of an {alpha}-helical domain linker would make it effective as a conduit for allosteric signals. To test this idea, we rationally designed 12 fusions between the naturally photoactive LOV2 domain from Avena sativa phototropin 1 and the Escherichia coli trp repressor. When illuminated, one of the fusions selectively binds operator DNA and protects it from nuclease digestion. The ready success of our rational design strategy suggests that the helical 'allosteric lever arm' is a general scheme for coupling the function of two proteins.

  6. Ku70 Serine 155 mediates Aurora B inhibition and activation of the DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Fell, Victoria L.; Walden, Elizabeth A.; Hoffer, Sarah M.; Rogers, Stephanie R.; Aitken, Amelia S.; Salemi, Louisa M.; Schild-Poulter, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The Ku heterodimer (Ku70/Ku80) is the central DNA binding component of the classical non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway that repairs DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs), serving as the scaffold for the formation of the NHEJ complex. Here we show that Ku70 is phosphorylated on Serine 155 in response to DNA damage. Expression of Ku70 bearing a S155 phosphomimetic substitution (Ku70 S155D) in Ku70-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) triggered cell cycle arrest at multiple checkpoints and altered expression of several cell cycle regulators in absence of DNA damage. Cells expressing Ku70 S155D exhibited a constitutive DNA damage response, including ATM activation, H2AX phosphorylation and 53BP1 foci formation. Ku70 S155D was found to interact with Aurora B and to have an inhibitory effect on Aurora B kinase activity. Lastly, we demonstrate that Ku and Aurora B interact following ionizing radiation treatment and that Aurora