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Sample records for active dna replication

  1. Molecular Mechanisms of DNA Replication Checkpoint Activation

    PubMed Central

    Recolin, Bénédicte; van der Laan, Siem; Tsanov, Nikolay; Maiorano, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    The major challenge of the cell cycle is to deliver an intact, and fully duplicated, genetic material to the daughter cells. To this end, progression of DNA synthesis is monitored by a feedback mechanism known as replication checkpoint that is untimely linked to DNA replication. This signaling pathway ensures coordination of DNA synthesis with cell cycle progression. Failure to activate this checkpoint in response to perturbation of DNA synthesis (replication stress) results in forced cell division leading to chromosome fragmentation, aneuploidy, and genomic instability. In this review, we will describe current knowledge of the molecular determinants of the DNA replication checkpoint in eukaryotic cells and discuss a model of activation of this signaling pathway crucial for maintenance of genomic stability. PMID:24705291

  2. Active DNA unwinding dynamics during processive DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Morin, José A.; Cao, Francisco J.; Lázaro, José M.; Arias-Gonzalez, J. Ricardo; Valpuesta, José M.; Carrascosa, José L.; Salas, Margarita; Ibarra, Borja

    2012-01-01

    Duplication of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) requires a fine-tuned coordination between the DNA replication and unwinding reactions. Using optical tweezers, we probed the coupling dynamics between these two activities when they are simultaneously carried out by individual Phi29 DNA polymerase molecules replicating a dsDNA hairpin. We used the wild-type and an unwinding deficient polymerase variant and found that mechanical tension applied on the DNA and the DNA sequence modulate in different ways the replication, unwinding rates, and pause kinetics of each polymerase. However, incorporation of pause kinetics in a model to quantify the unwinding reaction reveals that both polymerases destabilize the fork with the same active mechanism and offers insights into the topological strategies that could be used by the Phi29 DNA polymerase and other DNA replication systems to couple unwinding and replication reactions. PMID:22573817

  3. Active DNA unwinding dynamics during processive DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Morin, José A; Cao, Francisco J; Lázaro, José M; Arias-Gonzalez, J Ricardo; Valpuesta, José M; Carrascosa, José L; Salas, Margarita; Ibarra, Borja

    2012-05-22

    Duplication of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) requires a fine-tuned coordination between the DNA replication and unwinding reactions. Using optical tweezers, we probed the coupling dynamics between these two activities when they are simultaneously carried out by individual Phi29 DNA polymerase molecules replicating a dsDNA hairpin. We used the wild-type and an unwinding deficient polymerase variant and found that mechanical tension applied on the DNA and the DNA sequence modulate in different ways the replication, unwinding rates, and pause kinetics of each polymerase. However, incorporation of pause kinetics in a model to quantify the unwinding reaction reveals that both polymerases destabilize the fork with the same active mechanism and offers insights into the topological strategies that could be used by the Phi29 DNA polymerase and other DNA replication systems to couple unwinding and replication reactions.

  4. DNA replication origin activation in space and time.

    PubMed

    Fragkos, Michalis; Ganier, Olivier; Coulombe, Philippe; Méchali, Marcel

    2015-06-01

    DNA replication begins with the assembly of pre-replication complexes (pre-RCs) at thousands of DNA replication origins during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. At the G1-S-phase transition, pre-RCs are converted into pre-initiation complexes, in which the replicative helicase is activated, leading to DNA unwinding and initiation of DNA synthesis. However, only a subset of origins are activated during any S phase. Recent insights into the mechanisms underlying this choice reveal how flexibility in origin usage and temporal activation are linked to chromosome structure and organization, cell growth and differentiation, and replication stress.

  5. Acetylation of Werner syndrome protein (WRN): relationships with DNA damage, DNA replication and DNA metabolic activities.

    PubMed

    Lozada, Enerlyn; Yi, Jingjie; Luo, Jianyuan; Orren, David K

    2014-08-01

    Loss of Werner syndrome protein function causes Werner syndrome, characterized by increased genomic instability, elevated cancer susceptibility and premature aging. Although WRN is subject to acetylation, phosphorylation and sumoylation, the impact of these modifications on WRN's DNA metabolic function remains unclear. Here, we examined in further depth the relationship between WRN acetylation and its role in DNA metabolism, particularly in response to induced DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that endogenous WRN is acetylated somewhat under unperturbed conditions. However, levels of acetylated WRN significantly increase after treatment with certain DNA damaging agents or the replication inhibitor HU. Use of DNA repair-deficient cells or repair pathway inhibitors further increase levels of acetylated WRN, indicating that induced DNA lesions and their persistence are at least partly responsible for increased acetylation. Notably, acetylation of WRN correlates with inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that replication blockage might underlie this effect. Moreover, WRN acetylation modulates its affinity for and activity on certain DNA structures, in a manner that may enhance its relative specificity for physiological substrates. Our results also show that acetylation and deacetylation of endogenous WRN is a dynamic process, with sirtuins and other histone deacetylases contributing to WRN deacetylation. These findings advance our understanding of the dynamics of WRN acetylation under unperturbed conditions and following DNA damage induction, linking this modification not only to DNA damage persistence but also potentially to replication stalling caused by specific DNA lesions. Our results are consistent with proposed metabolic roles for WRN and genomic instability phenotypes associated with WRN deficiency.

  6. Acetylation of Werner syndrome protein (WRN): relationships with DNA damage, DNA replication and DNA metabolic activities

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Enerlyn; Yi, Jingjie; Luo, Jianyuan; Orren, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of WRN function causes Werner Syndrome, characterized by increased genomic instability, elevated cancer susceptibility and premature aging. Although WRN is subject to acetylation, phosphorylation and sumoylation, the impact of these modifications on WRN’s DNA metabolic function remains unclear. Here, we examined in further depth the relationship between WRN acetylation and its role in DNA metabolism, particularly in response to induced DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that endogenous WRN is acetylated somewhat under unperturbed conditions. However, levels of acetylated WRN significantly increase after treatment with certain DNA damaging agents or the replication inhibitor hydroxyurea. Use of DNA repair-deficient cells or repair pathway inhibitors further increase levels of acetylated WRN, indicating that induced DNA lesions and their persistence are at least partly responsible for increased acetylation. Notably, acetylation of WRN correlates with inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that replication blockage might underlie this effect. Moreover, WRN acetylation modulates its affinity for and activity on certain DNA structures, in a manner that may enhance its relative specificity for physiological substrates. Our results also show that acetylation and deacetylation of endogenous WRN is a dynamic process, with sirtuins and other histone deacetylases contributing to WRN deacetylation. These findings advance our understanding of the dynamics of WRN acetylation under unperturbed conditions and following DNA damage induction, linking this modification not only to DNA damage persistence but also potentially to replication stalling caused by specific DNA lesions. Our results are consistent with proposed metabolic roles for WRN and genomic instability phenotypes associated with WRN deficiency. PMID:24965941

  7. Activation of polyomavirus DNA replication by yeast GAL4 is dependent on its transcriptional activation domains.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett-Cook, E R; Hassell, J A

    1991-01-01

    The polyomavirus replication origin contains transcriptional regulatory sequences. To determine how these elements function in DNA replication, and to learn whether a common mechanism underlies the activation of transcription and DNA replication, we tested whether a well-characterized transcriptional activator, yeast GAL4, was capable of stimulating DNA replication and transcription in the same mammalian cell line. We observed that GAL4 activated polyomavirus DNA replication in mouse cells when its binding site was juxtaposed to the late border of the polyomavirus origin core. Synergistic activation of DNA replication was achieved by multimerization of the GAL4 binding site. Analysis of GAL4 mutant proteins, GAL4 hybrid proteins and mutants of the latter revealed that the activation domains of these transcriptional activators were required to stimulate DNA replication. In agreement with previously published data, the activation domains of GAL4 were also required to enhance transcription in the same mouse cell line. These observations implicate transcriptional activators in Py DNA replication and suggest that similar mechanisms govern the activation of transcription and DNA replication. Images PMID:1849079

  8. Checkpoint Activation of an Unconventional DNA Replication Program in Tetrahymena

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Pamela Y.; Lee, Po-Hsuen; Meng, Xiangzhou; Kapler, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    The intra-S phase checkpoint kinase of metazoa and yeast, ATR/MEC1, protects chromosomes from DNA damage and replication stress by phosphorylating subunits of the replicative helicase, MCM2-7. Here we describe an unprecedented ATR-dependent pathway in Tetrahymena thermophila in which the essential pre-replicative complex proteins, Orc1p, Orc2p and Mcm6p are degraded in hydroxyurea-treated S phase cells. Chromosomes undergo global changes during HU-arrest, including phosphorylation of histone H2A.X, deacetylation of histone H3, and an apparent diminution in DNA content that can be blocked by the deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate. Most remarkably, the cell cycle rapidly resumes upon hydroxyurea removal, and the entire genome is replicated prior to replenishment of ORC and MCMs. While stalled replication forks are elongated under these conditions, DNA fiber imaging revealed that most replicating molecules are produced by new initiation events. Furthermore, the sole origin in the ribosomal DNA minichromosome is inactive and replication appears to initiate near the rRNA promoter. The collective data raise the possibility that replication initiation occurs by an ORC-independent mechanism during the recovery from HU-induced replication stress. PMID:26218270

  9. Activation of DNA replication in yeast by recruitment of the RNA polymerase II transcription complex.

    PubMed

    Stagljar, I; Hübscher, U; Barberis, A

    1999-05-01

    Activators of transcription are known to also play an important and direct role in activating DNA replication. However, the mechanism whereby they stimulate replication has remained elusive. One model suggests that, in the context of replication origins, transcriptional activators work by interacting with replication factors. We show that a defined, single interaction between a DNA-bound derivative of the activator Gal4 and Gal11P, a mutant form of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme component Gal11, suffices for stimulating DNA replication as it does for transcription. Moreover, recruitment of TBP, which can activate transcription from a gene promoter, also stimulates DNA replication from an origin site. These results strongly argue that transcriptional activators may not necessarily need to contact DNA replication factors directly, but can stimulate replication by recruiting the RNA polymerase II transcription complex to DNA.

  10. The exonuclease activity of DNA polymerase γ is required for ligation during mitochondrial DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Macao, Bertil; Uhler, Jay P.; Siibak, Triinu; Zhu, Xuefeng; Shi, Yonghong; Sheng, Wenwen; Olsson, Monica; Stewart, James B.; Gustafsson, Claes M.; Falkenberg, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase γ (POLγ) harbours a 3′–5′ exonuclease proofreading activity. Here we demonstrate that this activity is required for the creation of ligatable ends during mtDNA replication. Exonuclease-deficient POLγ fails to pause on reaching a downstream 5′-end. Instead, the enzyme continues to polymerize into double-stranded DNA, creating an unligatable 5′-flap. Disease-associated mutations can both increase and decrease exonuclease activity and consequently impair DNA ligation. In mice, inactivation of the exonuclease activity causes an increase in mtDNA mutations and premature ageing phenotypes. These mutator mice also contain high levels of truncated, linear fragments of mtDNA. We demonstrate that the formation of these fragments is due to impaired ligation, causing nicks near the origin of heavy-strand DNA replication. In the subsequent round of replication, the nicks lead to double-strand breaks and linear fragment formation. PMID:26095671

  11. Escherichia coli DnaE Polymerase Couples Pyrophosphatase Activity to DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Lapenta, Fabio; Montón Silva, Alejandro; Brandimarti, Renato; Lanzi, Massimiliano; Gratani, Fabio Lino; Vellosillo Gonzalez, Perceval; Perticarari, Sofia; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    DNA Polymerases generate pyrophosphate every time they catalyze a step of DNA elongation. This elongation reaction is generally believed as thermodynamically favoured by the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate, catalyzed by inorganic pyrophosphatases. However, the specific action of inorganic pyrophosphatases coupled to DNA replication in vivo was never demonstrated. Here we show that the Polymerase-Histidinol-Phosphatase (PHP) domain of Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase III α subunit features pyrophosphatase activity. We also show that this activity is inhibited by fluoride, as commonly observed for inorganic pyrophosphatases, and we identified 3 amino acids of the PHP active site. Remarkably, E. coli cells expressing variants of these catalytic residues of α subunit feature aberrant phenotypes, poor viability, and are subject to high mutation frequencies. Our findings indicate that DNA Polymerases can couple DNA elongation and pyrophosphate hydrolysis, providing a mechanism for the control of DNA extension rate, and suggest a promising target for novel antibiotics. PMID:27050298

  12. Archaeal DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Kelman, Lori M; Kelman, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication is essential for all life forms. Although the process is fundamentally conserved in the three domains of life, bioinformatic, biochemical, structural, and genetic studies have demonstrated that the process and the proteins involved in archaeal DNA replication are more similar to those in eukaryal DNA replication than in bacterial DNA replication, but have some archaeal-specific features. The archaeal replication system, however, is not monolithic, and there are some differences in the replication process between different species. In this review, the current knowledge of the mechanisms governing DNA replication in Archaea is summarized. The general features of the replication process as well as some of the differences are discussed.

  13. Variety of DNA Replication Activity Among Cyanobacteria Correlates with Distinct Respiration Activity in the Dark.

    PubMed

    Ohbayashi, Ryudo; Yamamoto, Jun-Ya; Watanabe, Satoru; Kanesaki, Yu; Chibazakura, Taku; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria exhibit light-dependent cell growth since most of their cellular energy is obtained by photosynthesis. In Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, one of the model cyanobacteria, DNA replication depends on photosynthetic electron transport. However, the critical signal for the regulatory mechanism of DNA replication has not been identified. In addition, conservation of this regulatory mechanism has not been investigated among cyanobacteria. To understand this regulatory signal and its dependence on light, we examined the regulation of DNA replication under both light and dark conditions among three model cyanobacteria, S. elongatus PCC 7942, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Interestingly, DNA replication activity in Synechocystis and Anabaena was retained when cells were transferred to the dark, although it was drastically decreased in S. elongatus. Glycogen metabolism and respiration were higher in Synechocystis and Anabaena than in S. elongatus in the dark. Moreover, DNA replication activity in Synechocystis and Anabaena was reduced to the same level as that in S. elongatus by inhibition of respiratory electron transport after transfer to the dark. These results demonstrate that there is disparity in DNA replication occurring in the dark among cyanobacteria, which is caused by the difference in activity of respiratory electron transport. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Loss of Smu1 function de-represses DNA replication and over-activates ATR-dependent replication checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Ren, Laifeng; Liu, Yao; Guo, Liandi; Wang, Haibin; Ma, Lei; Zeng, Ming; Shao, Xin; Yang, Chunlei; Tang, Yaxiong; Wang, Lei; Liu, Cong; Li, Mingyuan

    2013-06-28

    Smu1 is an evolutionarily conserved gene that encodes a member of the WD40-repeat protein family. Disruption of Smu1 function leads to multiple cellular defects including chromosomal instability, aberrant DNA replication and alternative RNA splicing events. In this paper, we show that Smu1 is a chromatin-bound protein that functions as a negative regulator of DNA replication. Knockdown of Smu1 gene expression promotes excessive incorporation of dNTP analogue, implicating the acceleration of DNA synthesis. Smu1-silenced cells show an excessive activation of replication checkpoint in response to ultraviolate (UV) or hydroxyurea treatment, indicating that abnormal stimulation of DNA replication leads to instability of genomic structure. Hence, we propose that Smu1 participates in the protection of genomic integrity by negatively regulating the process of DNA synthesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Viral DNA Replication-Dependent DNA Damage Response Activation during BK Polyomavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Verhalen, Brandy; Justice, Joshua L.; Imperiale, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) reactivation is associated with severe human disease in kidney and bone marrow transplant patients. The interplay between viral and host factors that regulates the productive infection process remains poorly understood. We have previously reported that the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) is activated upon lytic BKPyV infection and that its activation is required for optimal viral replication in primary kidney epithelial cells. In this report, we set out to determine what viral components are responsible for activating the two major phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like kinases (PI3KKs) involved in the DDR: ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase. Using a combination of UV treatment, lentivirus transduction, and mutant virus infection experiments, our results demonstrate that neither the input virus nor the expression of large T antigen (TAg) alone is sufficient to trigger the activation of ATM or ATR in our primary culture model. Instead, our data suggest that the activation of both the ATM- and ATR-mediated DDR pathways is linked to viral DNA replication. Intriguingly, a TAg mutant virus that is unable to activate the DDR causes substantial host DNA damage. Our study provides insight into how DDRs are activated by polyomaviruses in primary cells with intact cell cycle checkpoints and how the activation might be linked to the maintenance of host genome stability. IMPORTANCE Polyomaviruses are opportunistic pathogens that are associated with several human diseases under immunosuppressed conditions. BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) affects mostly kidney and bone marrow transplant patients. The detailed replication mechanism of these viruses remains to be determined. We have previously reported that BKPyV activates the host DNA damage response (DDR), a response normally used by the host cell to combat genotoxic stress, to aid its own replication. In this study, we identified that the trigger for DDR

  16. DNA-dependent protease activity of human Spartan facilitates replication of DNA-protein crosslink-containing DNA.

    PubMed

    Mórocz, Mónika; Zsigmond, Eszter; Tóth, Róbert; Enyedi, Márton Zs; Pintér, Lajos; Haracska, Lajos

    2017-04-07

    Mutations in SPARTAN are associated with early onset hepatocellular carcinoma and progeroid features. A regulatory function of Spartan has been implicated in DNA damage tolerance pathways such as translesion synthesis, but the exact function of the protein remained unclear. Here, we reveal the role of human Spartan in facilitating replication of DNA-protein crosslink-containing DNA. We found that purified Spartan has a DNA-dependent protease activity degrading certain proteins bound to DNA. In concert, Spartan is required for direct DPC removal in vivo; we also show that the protease Spartan facilitates repair of formaldehyde-induced DNA-protein crosslinks in later phases of replication using the bromodeoxyuridin (BrdU) comet assay. Moreover, DNA fibre assay indicates that formaldehyde-induced replication stress dramatically decreases the speed of replication fork movement in Spartan-deficient cells, which accumulate in the G2/M cell cycle phase. Finally, epistasis analysis mapped these Spartan functions to the RAD6-RAD18 DNA damage tolerance pathway. Our results reveal that Spartan facilitates replication of DNA-protein crosslink-containing DNA enzymatically, as a protease, which may explain its role in preventing carcinogenesis and aging. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Replication intermediates that escape Dna2 activity are processed by Holliday junction resolvase Yen1

    PubMed Central

    Ölmezer, Gizem; Levikova, Maryna; Klein, Dominique; Falquet, Benoît; Fontana, Gabriele Alessandro; Cejka, Petr; Rass, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Cells have evolved mechanisms to protect, restart and repair perturbed replication forks, allowing full genome duplication, even under replication stress. Interrogating the interplay between nuclease-helicase Dna2 and Holliday junction (HJ) resolvase Yen1, we find the Dna2 helicase activity acts parallel to homologous recombination (HR) in promoting DNA replication and chromosome detachment at mitosis after replication fork stalling. Yen1, but not the HJ resolvases Slx1-Slx4 and Mus81-Mms4, safeguards chromosome segregation by removing replication intermediates that escape Dna2. Post-replicative DNA damage checkpoint activation in Dna2 helicase-defective cells causes terminal G2/M arrest by precluding Yen1-dependent repair, whose activation requires progression into anaphase. These findings explain the exquisite replication stress sensitivity of Dna2 helicase-defective cells, and identify a non-canonical role for Yen1 in the processing of replication intermediates that is distinct from HJ resolution. The involvement of Dna2 helicase activity in completing replication may have implications for DNA2-associated pathologies, including cancer and Seckel syndrome. PMID:27779184

  18. Control of DNA replication in a transformed lymphoid cell line: coexistence of activator and inhibitor activities.

    PubMed

    Coffman, F D; Fresa, K L; Oglesby, I; Cohen, S

    1991-12-01

    Proliferating lymphocytes contain an intracellular factor, ADR (activator of DNA replication), which can initiate DNA synthesis in isolated quiescent nuclei. Resting lymphocytes lack ADR activity and contain an intracellular inhibitory factor that suppresses DNA synthesis in normal but not transformed nuclei. In this study we describe a MOLT-4 subline that produces both the activator and inhibitory activities which can be separated by ammonium sulfate fractionation. The inhibitor is heat stable and inhibits ADR-mediated DNA replication in a dose-dependent manner. It does not inhibit DNA polymerase alpha activity. The inhibitor must be present at the initiation of DNA replication to be effective, as it loses most of its effectiveness if it is added after replication has begun. The presence of inhibitory activity in proliferating MOLT-4 cells, taken with the previous observation that inhibitor derived from normal resting cells does not affect DNA synthesis by MOLT-4 nuclei, suggests that failure of a down-regulating signal may play an important role in proliferative disorder.

  19. Differential Activation of Cellular DNA Damage Responses by Replication-Defective and Replication-Competent Adenovirus Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Anand; Jayaram, Sumithra

    2012-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) mutants that lack early region 4 (E4) activate the phosphorylation of cellular DNA damage response proteins. In wild-type Ad type 5 (Ad5) infections, E1b and E4 proteins target the cellular DNA repair protein Mre11 for redistribution and degradation, thereby interfering with its ability to activate phosphorylation cascades important during DNA repair. The characteristics of Ad infection that activate cellular DNA repair processes are not yet well understood. We investigated the activation of DNA damage responses by a replication-defective Ad vector (AdRSVβgal) that lacks E1 and fails to produce the immediate-early E1a protein. E1a is important for activating early gene expression from the other viral early transcription units, including E4. AdRSVβgal can deliver its genome to the cell, but it is subsequently deficient for viral early gene expression and DNA replication. We studied the ability of AdRSVβgal-infected cells to induce cellular DNA damage responses. AdRSVβgal infection does activate formation of foci containing the Mdc1 protein. However, AdRSVβgal fails to activate phosphorylation of the damage response proteins Nbs1 and Chk1. We found that viral DNA replication is important for Nbs1 phosphorylation, suggesting that this step in the viral life cycle may provide an important trigger for activating at least some DNA repair proteins. PMID:23015708

  20. ATPase activity measurement of DNA replicative helicase from Bacillus stearothermophilus by malachite green method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu; Wang, Ganggang

    2016-09-15

    The DnaB helicase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (DnaBBst) was a model protein for studying the bacterial DNA replication. In this work, a non-radioactive method for measuring ATPase activity of DnaBBst helicase was described. The working parameters and conditions were optimized. Furthermore, this method was applied to investigate effects of DnaG primase, ssDNA and helicase loader protein (DnaI) on ATPase activity of DnaBBst. Our results showed this method was sensitive and efficient. Moreover, it is suitable for the investigation of functional interaction between DnaB and related factors.

  1. Unscheduled DNA replication origin activation at inserted HPV 18 sequences in a HPV-18/MYC amplicon.

    PubMed

    Conti, Chiara; Herrick, John; Bensimon, Aaron

    2007-08-01

    Oncogene amplification is a critical step leading to tumorigenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Despite data suggesting that DNA replication is a major source of genomic instability, little is known about replication origin usage and replication fork progression in rearranged regions. Using a single DNA molecule approach, we provide here the first study of replication kinetics on a previously characterized MYC/papillomavirus (HPV18) amplicon in a cervical cancer. Using this amplicon as a model, we investigated the role DNA replication control plays in generating amplifications in human cancers. The data reveal severely perturbed DNA replication kinetics in the amplified region when compared with other regions of the same genome. It was found that DNA replication is initiated from both genomic and viral sequences, resulting in a higher median frequency of origin firings. In addition, it was found that the higher initiation frequency was associated with an equivalent increase in the number of stalled replication forks. These observations raise the intriguing possibility that unscheduled replication origin activation at inserted HPV-18 viral DNA sequences triggers DNA amplification in this cancer cell line and the subsequent overexpression of the MYC oncogene.

  2. Poxvirus DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Poxviruses are large, enveloped viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm and encode proteins for DNA replication and gene expression. Hairpin ends link the two strands of the linear, double-stranded DNA genome. Viral proteins involved in DNA synthesis include a 117-kDa polymerase, a helicase–primase, a uracil DNA glycosylase, a processivity factor, a single-stranded DNA-binding protein, a protein kinase, and a DNA ligase. A viral FEN1 family protein participates in double-strand break repair. The DNA is replicated as long concatemers that are resolved by a viral Holliday junction endonuclease. PMID:23838441

  3. Role of Single-Stranded DNA Binding Activity of T Antigen in Simian Virus 40 DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunxiao; Roy, Rupa; Simmons, Daniel T.

    2001-01-01

    We have previously mapped the single-stranded DNA binding domain of large T antigen to amino acid residues 259 to 627. By using internal deletion mutants, we show that this domain most likely begins after residue 301 and that the region between residues 501 and 550 is not required. To study the function of this binding activity, a series of single-point substitutions were introduced in this domain, and the mutants were tested for their ability to support simian virus 40 (SV40) replication and to bind to single-stranded DNA. Two replication-defective mutants (429DA and 460EA) were grossly impaired in single-stranded DNA binding. These two mutants were further tested for other biochemical activities needed for viral DNA replication. They bound to origin DNA and formed double hexamers in the presence of ATP. Their ability to unwind origin DNA and a helicase substrate was severely reduced, although they still had ATPase activity. These results suggest that the single-stranded DNA binding activity is involved in DNA unwinding. The two mutants were also very defective in structural distortion of origin DNA, making it likely that single-stranded DNA binding is also required for this process. These data show that single-stranded DNA binding is needed for at least two steps during SV40 DNA replication. PMID:11222709

  4. Modeling DNA Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Recommends the use of a model of DNA made out of Velcro to help students visualize the steps of DNA replication. Includes a materials list, construction directions, and details of the demonstration using the model parts. (DDR)

  5. Modeling DNA Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Recommends the use of a model of DNA made out of Velcro to help students visualize the steps of DNA replication. Includes a materials list, construction directions, and details of the demonstration using the model parts. (DDR)

  6. Cdc6 ATPase activity disengages Cdc6 from the pre-replicative complex to promote DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Chang, FuJung; Riera, Alberto; Evrin, Cecile; Sun, Jingchuan; Li, Huilin; Speck, Christian; Weinreich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To initiate DNA replication, cells first load an MCM helicase double hexamer at origins in a reaction requiring ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1, also called pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) assembly. The essential mechanistic role of Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis in this reaction is still incompletely understood. Here, we show that although Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis is essential to initiate DNA replication, it is not essential for MCM loading. Using purified proteins, an ATPase-defective Cdc6 mutant ‘Cdc6-E224Q’ promoted MCM loading on DNA. Cdc6-E224Q also promoted MCM binding at origins in vivo but cells remained blocked in G1-phase. If after loading MCM, Cdc6-E224Q was degraded, cells entered an apparently normal S-phase and replicated DNA, a phenotype seen with two additional Cdc6 ATPase-defective mutants. Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis is therefore required for Cdc6 disengagement from the pre-RC after helicase loading to advance subsequent steps in helicase activation in vivo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05795.001 PMID:26305410

  7. Differentially active origins of DNA replication in tumor versus normal cells.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Domenic; Price, Gerald B; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, Maria

    2006-05-15

    Previously, a degenerate 36 bp human consensus sequence was identified as a determinant of autonomous replication in eukaryotic cells. Random mutagenesis analyses further identified an internal 20 bp of the 36 bp consensus sequence as sufficient for acting as a core origin element. Here, we have located six versions of the 20 bp consensus sequence (20mer) on human chromosome 19q13 over a region spanning approximately 211 kb and tested them for ectopic and in situ replication activity by transient episomal replication assays and nascent DNA strand abundance analyses, respectively. The six versions of the 20mer alone were capable of supporting autonomous replication of their respective plasmids, unlike random genomic sequence of the same length. Furthermore, comparative analyses of the endogenous replication activity of these 20mers at their respective chromosomal sites, in five tumor/transformed and two normal cell lines, done by in situ chromosomal DNA replication assays, involving preparation of nascent DNA by the lambda exonuclease method and quantification by real-time PCR, showed that these sites coincided with chromosomal origins of DNA replication in all cell lines. Moreover, a 2- to 3-fold higher origin activity in the tumor/transformed cells by comparison to the normal cells was observed, suggesting a higher activation of these origins in tumor/transformed cell lines.

  8. Same origins of DNA replication function on the active and inactive human X chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Stephanie M; Brylawski, Bruna P; Cordeiro-Stone, Marila; Kaufman, David G

    2003-04-01

    We previously characterized a functional origin of DNA replication at the transcriptional promoter of the human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene (Cohen et al. [2002] J. Cell. Biochem. 85:346-356). This origin was mapped using a quantitative PCR assay to evaluate the relative abundance of HPRT markers in short nascent DNA strands isolated from asynchronous cultures of male fibroblasts. The HPRT gene on the X chromosome is transcriptionally active in male human fibroblasts. It is known that on the heterochromatic X chromosome in female cells the HPRT gene is transcriptionally silenced and its replication timing changes from early to late in S phase. This change in replication timing could indicate that replication of the HPRT gene is under the control of different origins of DNA replication in the active (euchromatic, early replicating) and the inactive (heterochromatic, late replicating) X chromosomes. In the present study, we identified the location of the origin of replication of a second X chromosome gene, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which we mapped to its transcriptional promoter, in normal male human fibroblasts. Then, we determined the activity of the previously identified HPRT and the G6PD human origins in hybrid hamster cells carrying either the active or the inactive human X chromosome. The results of these studies clearly demonstrated that the human HPRT and G6PD origins of replication were utilized to the same extent in the active and the inactive X chromosomes. Therefore, transcription activity at the HPRT and G6PD genes is not necessary for initiation of DNA replication at the origins mapped to these chromosomal loci.

  9. Mechanisms of DNA replication termination.

    PubMed

    Dewar, James M; Walter, Johannes C

    2017-08-01

    Genome duplication is carried out by pairs of replication forks that assemble at origins of replication and then move in opposite directions. DNA replication ends when converging replication forks meet. During this process, which is known as replication termination, DNA synthesis is completed, the replication machinery is disassembled and daughter molecules are resolved. In this Review, we outline the steps that are likely to be common to replication termination in most organisms, namely, fork convergence, synthesis completion, replisome disassembly and decatenation. We briefly review the mechanism of termination in the bacterium Escherichia coli and in simian virus 40 (SV40) and also focus on recent advances in eukaryotic replication termination. In particular, we discuss the recently discovered E3 ubiquitin ligases that control replisome disassembly in yeast and higher eukaryotes, and how their activity is regulated to avoid genome instability.

  10. Modeling inhomogeneous DNA replication kinetics.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Michel G; Norio, Paolo; Bechhoefer, John

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, DNA replication is initiated at a series of chromosomal locations called origins, where replication forks are assembled proceeding bidirectionally to replicate the genome. The distribution and firing rate of these origins, in conjunction with the velocity at which forks progress, dictate the program of the replication process. Previous attempts at modeling DNA replication in eukaryotes have focused on cases where the firing rate and the velocity of replication forks are homogeneous, or uniform, across the genome. However, it is now known that there are large variations in origin activity along the genome and variations in fork velocities can also take place. Here, we generalize previous approaches to modeling replication, to allow for arbitrary spatial variation of initiation rates and fork velocities. We derive rate equations for left- and right-moving forks and for replication probability over time that can be solved numerically to obtain the mean-field replication program. This method accurately reproduces the results of DNA replication simulation. We also successfully adapted our approach to the inverse problem of fitting measurements of DNA replication performed on single DNA molecules. Since such measurements are performed on specified portion of the genome, the examined DNA molecules may be replicated by forks that originate either within the studied molecule or outside of it. This problem was solved by using an effective flux of incoming replication forks at the model boundaries to represent the origin activity outside the studied region. Using this approach, we show that reliable inferences can be made about the replication of specific portions of the genome even if the amount of data that can be obtained from single-molecule experiments is generally limited.

  11. Eukaryotic DNA Replication Fork.

    PubMed

    Burgers, Peter M J; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2017-06-20

    This review focuses on the biogenesis and composition of the eukaryotic DNA replication fork, with an emphasis on the enzymes that synthesize DNA and repair discontinuities on the lagging strand of the replication fork. Physical and genetic methodologies aimed at understanding these processes are discussed. The preponderance of evidence supports a model in which DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) carries out the bulk of leading strand DNA synthesis at an undisturbed replication fork. DNA polymerases α and δ carry out the initiation of Okazaki fragment synthesis and its elongation and maturation, respectively. This review also discusses alternative proposals, including cellular processes during which alternative forks may be utilized, and new biochemical studies with purified proteins that are aimed at reconstituting leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis separately and as an integrated replication fork.

  12. Functional genomic mapping of an early-activated centromeric mammalian origin of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, R; Price, G B; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, M

    1999-09-15

    Ors12, a mammalian autonomously replicating sequence (812 bp), was previously isolated by extrusion of African green monkey (CV-1 cells) nascent DNA from active replication bubbles. It contains a region of alpha-satellite extending 168-bp from the 5'-end, and a nonrepetitive portion extending from nucleotide position 169 to nucleotide 812 that is present in less than nine copies per haploid genome. Ors12 is capable of transient autonomous DNA replication in vivo and in vitro, associates with the nuclear matrix in a cell cycle-dependent manner, and hybridizes at the centromeric region of six CV-1 cell chromosomes as well as a marker chromosome. To demonstrate that DNA replication initiates at ors12 at a native chromosomal locus, a 14.2 kb African green monkey genomic clone was isolated and sequence information was obtained that allowed us to generate eight sets of PCR primers spanning a region of 8 kb containing ors12. One set of primers occurred inside ors12. These primers were used to amplify nascent DNA strands from asynchronously growing CV-1 and African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells, using noncompetitive and competitive PCR-based mapping methodologies. Both assays showed that DNA replication in vivo initiates preferentially in a 2.3 kb region containing ors12, as well as at a second site located 1.7 kb upstream of ors12. This study provides the first demonstration of genomic function for a centromeric mammalian origin of DNA replication, originally isolated by nascent strand extrusion.

  13. Modeling DNA Replication Intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Broyde, S.; Roy, D.; Shapiro, R.

    1997-06-01

    While there is now available a great deal of information on double stranded DNA from X-ray crystallography, high resolution NMR and computer modeling, very little is known about structures that are representative of the DNA core of replication intermediates. DNA replication occurs at a single strand/double strand junction and bulged out intermediates near the junction can lead to frameshift mutations. The single stranded domains are particularly challenging. Our interest is focused on strategies for modeling the DNA of these types of replication intermediates. Modeling such structures presents special problems in addressing the multiple minimum problem and in treating the electrostatic component of the force field. We are testing a number of search strategies for locating low energy structures of these types and we are also investigating two different distance dependent dielectric functions in the coulombic term of the force field. We are studying both unmodified DNA and DNA damaged by aromatic amines, carcinogens present in the environment in tobacco smoke, barbecued meats and automobile exhaust. The nature of the structure adopted by the carcinogen modified DNA at the replication fork plays a key role in determining whether the carcinogen will cause a mutation during replication that can initiate the carcinogenic process. In the present work results are presented for unmodified DNA.

  14. Chromium reduces the in vitro activity and fidelity of DNA replication mediated by the human cell DNA synthesome

    SciTech Connect

    Dai Heqiao; Liu Jianying; Malkas, Linda H.; Catalano, Jennifer; Alagharu, Srilakshmi

    2009-04-15

    Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is known to be a carcinogenic metal ion, with a complicated mechanism of action. It can be found within our environment in soil and water contaminated by manufacturing processes. Cr(VI) ion is readily taken up by cells, and is recognized to be both genotoxic and cytotoxic; following its reduction to the stable trivalent form of the ion, chromium(Cr(III)), within cells. This form of the ion is known to impede the activity of cellular DNA polymerase and polymerase-mediated DNA replication. Here, we report the effects of chromium on the activity and fidelity of the DNA replication process mediated by the human cell DNA synthesome. The DNA synthesome is a functional multiprotein complex that is fully competent to carry-out each phase of the DNA replication process. The IC{sub 50} of Cr(III) toward the activity of DNA synthesome-associated DNA polymerases {alpha}, {delta} and {epsilon} is 15, 45 and 125 {mu}M, respectively. Cr(III) inhibits synthesome-mediated DNA synthesis (IC{sub 50} = 88 {mu}M), and significantly reduces the fidelity of synthesome-mediated DNA replication. The mutation frequency induced by the different concentrations of Cr(III) ion used in our assays ranges from 2-13 fold higher than that which occurs spontaneously, and the types of mutations include single nucleotide substitutions, insertions, and deletions. Single nucleotide substitutions are the predominant type of mutation, and they occur primarily at GC base-pairs. Cr(III) ion produces a lower number of transition and a higher number of transversion mutations than occur spontaneously. Unlike Cr(III), Cr(VI) ion has little effect on the in vitro DNA synthetic activity and fidelity of the DNA synthesome, but does significantly inhibit DNA synthesis in intact cells. Cell growth and proliferation is also arrested by increasing concentrations of Cr(VI) ion. Our studies provide evidence indicating that the chromium ion induced decrease in the fidelity and activity of

  15. Chromium reduces the in vitro activity and fidelity of DNA replication mediated by the human cell DNA synthesome.

    PubMed

    Dai, Heqiao; Liu, Jianying; Malkas, Linda H; Catalano, Jennifer; Alagharu, Srilakshmi; Hickey, Robert J

    2009-04-15

    Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is known to be a carcinogenic metal ion, with a complicated mechanism of action. It can be found within our environment in soil and water contaminated by manufacturing processes. Cr(VI) ion is readily taken up by cells, and is recognized to be both genotoxic and cytotoxic; following its reduction to the stable trivalent form of the ion, chromium(Cr(III)), within cells. This form of the ion is known to impede the activity of cellular DNA polymerase and polymerase-mediated DNA replication. Here, we report the effects of chromium on the activity and fidelity of the DNA replication process mediated by the human cell DNA synthesome. The DNA synthesome is a functional multiprotein complex that is fully competent to carry-out each phase of the DNA replication process. The IC(50) of Cr(III) toward the activity of DNA synthesome-associated DNA polymerases alpha, delta and epsilon is 15, 45 and 125 muM, respectively. Cr(III) inhibits synthesome-mediated DNA synthesis (IC(50)=88 muM), and significantly reduces the fidelity of synthesome-mediated DNA replication. The mutation frequency induced by the different concentrations of Cr(III) ion used in our assays ranges from 2-13 fold higher than that which occurs spontaneously, and the types of mutations include single nucleotide substitutions, insertions, and deletions. Single nucleotide substitutions are the predominant type of mutation, and they occur primarily at GC base-pairs. Cr(III) ion produces a lower number of transition and a higher number of transversion mutations than occur spontaneously. Unlike Cr(III), Cr(VI) ion has little effect on the in vitro DNA synthetic activity and fidelity of the DNA synthesome, but does significantly inhibit DNA synthesis in intact cells. Cell growth and proliferation is also arrested by increasing concentrations of Cr(VI) ion. Our studies provide evidence indicating that the chromium ion induced decrease in the fidelity and activity of synthesome mediated DNA

  16. Human Mitochondrial DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Ian J.; Reyes, Aurelio

    2012-01-01

    Elucidation of the process of DNA replication in mitochondria is in its infancy. For many years, maintenance of the mitochondrial genome was regarded as greatly simplified compared to the nucleus. Mammalian mitochondria were reported to lack all DNA repair systems, to eschew DNA recombination, and to possess but a single DNA polymerase, polymerase γ. Polγ was said to replicate mitochondrial DNA exclusively via one mechanism, involving only two priming events and a handful of proteins. In this “strand-displacement model,” leading strand DNA synthesis begins at a specific site and advances approximately two-thirds of the way around the molecule before DNA synthesis is initiated on the “lagging” strand. Although the displaced strand was long-held to be coated with protein, RNA has more recently been proposed in its place. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA molecules with all the features of products of conventional bidirectional replication have been documented, suggesting that the process and regulation of replication in mitochondria is complex, as befits a genome that is a core factor in human health and longevity. PMID:23143808

  17. Use of Chemicals to Inhibit DNA Replication, Transcription, and Protein Synthesis to Study Zygotic Genome Activation.

    PubMed

    Uh, Kyungjun; Lee, Kiho

    2017-01-01

    Maternal-to-zygotic transition is an event that developmental control of early embryos is switched from oocyte-derived factors to the zygotic genome. Ability to inhibit DNA replication, transcription, and translation is an important tool in studying events, such as zygotic genome activation, during embyogenesis. Here, we describe approaches to block DNA replication, transcription, and translation using chemical inhibitors. Then we also demonstrate how the transcript level of a maternally inherited gene, ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 3, responses to the chemical treatments.

  18. Human RIF1 and protein phosphatase 1 stimulate DNA replication origin licensing but suppress origin activation.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, Shin-Ichiro; Ly, Tony; Garzón, Javier; Hořejší, Zuzana; Ohkubo, Yoshi-Nobu; Endo, Akinori; Obuse, Chikashi; Boulton, Simon J; Lamond, Angus I; Donaldson, Anne D

    2017-03-01

    The human RIF1 protein controls DNA replication, but the molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that human RIF1 negatively regulates DNA replication by forming a complex with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) that limits phosphorylation-mediated activation of the MCM replicative helicase. We identify specific residues on four MCM helicase subunits that show hyperphosphorylation upon RIF1 depletion, with the regulatory N-terminal domain of MCM4 being particularly strongly affected. In addition to this role in limiting origin activation, we discover an unexpected new role for human RIF1-PP1 in mediating efficient origin licensing. Specifically, during the G1 phase of the cell cycle, RIF1-PP1 protects the origin-binding ORC1 protein from untimely phosphorylation and consequent degradation by the proteasome. Depletion of RIF1 or inhibition of PP1 destabilizes ORC1, thereby reducing origin licensing. Consistent with reduced origin licensing, RIF1-depleted cells exhibit increased spacing between active origins. Human RIF1 therefore acts as a PP1-targeting subunit that regulates DNA replication positively by stimulating the origin licensing step, and then negatively by counteracting replication origin activation. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  19. DNA replication origins in archaea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenfang; Liu, Jingfang; Yang, Haibo; Xiang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication initiation, which starts at specific chromosomal site (known as replication origins), is the key regulatory stage of chromosome replication. Archaea, the third domain of life, use a single or multiple origin(s) to initiate replication of their circular chromosomes. The basic structure of replication origins is conserved among archaea, typically including an AT-rich unwinding region flanked by several conserved repeats (origin recognition box, ORB) that are located adjacent to a replication initiator gene. Both the ORB sequence and the adjacent initiator gene are considerably diverse among different replication origins, while in silico and genetic analyses have indicated the specificity between the initiator genes and their cognate origins. These replicator-initiator pairings are reminiscent of the oriC-dnaA system in bacteria, and a model for the negative regulation of origin activity by a downstream cluster of ORB elements has been recently proposed in haloarchaea. Moreover, comparative genomic analyses have revealed that the mosaics of replicator-initiator pairings in archaeal chromosomes originated from the integration of extrachromosomal elements. This review summarizes the research progress in understanding of archaeal replication origins with particular focus on the utilization, control and evolution of multiple replication origins in haloarchaea.

  20. DNA Replication Origins

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Alan C.; Méchali, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    The onset of genomic DNA synthesis requires precise interactions of specialized initiator proteins with DNA at sites where the replication machinery can be loaded. These sites, defined as replication origins, are found at a few unique locations in all of the prokaryotic chromosomes examined so far. However, replication origins are dispersed among tens of thousands of loci in metazoan chromosomes, thereby raising questions regarding the role of specific nucleotide sequences and chromatin environment in origin selection and the mechanisms used by initiators to recognize replication origins. Close examination of bacterial and archaeal replication origins reveals an array of DNA sequence motifs that position individual initiator protein molecules and promote initiator oligomerization on origin DNA. Conversely, the need for specific recognition sequences in eukaryotic replication origins is relaxed. In fact, the primary rule for origin selection appears to be flexibility, a feature that is modulated either by structural elements or by epigenetic mechanisms at least partly linked to the organization of the genome for gene expression. PMID:23838439

  1. A cytosolic activator of DNA replication is tyrosine phosphorylated in its active form.

    PubMed

    Fresa, K L; Autieri, M V; Coffman, F D; Georgoff, I; Cohen, S

    1993-04-01

    Cytosolic extracts from actively dividing lymphoid cells have been shown to induce DNA synthesis in isolated, quiescent nuclei. An initiating factor in such extracts (activator of DNA replication; ADR) is a > 90-kDa aprotinin-binding protein whose activity is inhibitable not only by aprotinin, but also by several other protease inhibitors as well. Although cytosol from non-proliferating lymphocytes is devoid of ADR activity, we have shown that these preparations can be induced to express ADR activity by brief exposure to a membrane-enriched fraction of spontaneously proliferating MOLT-4 cells via a kinase-dependent mechanism. In the present study, we examine the role of tyrosine kinases in this process. Three inhibitors of tyrosine kinases (genistein, kaempferol, and quercetin) can inhibit the in vitro generation of ADR activity. In vitro generation of ADR activity is associated with the de novo phosphorylation of several proteins, many of which are detectable using anti-phosphotyrosine monoclonal antibodies. ADR itself may be tyrosine phosphorylated in active form as immunoprecipitation using such monoclonal antibodies leads to the depletion of its activity. Moreover, immunoprecipitation results in the removal of several de novo tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, including species at approximately 122, 105, 93, 86, 79, and 65 kDa. A subset of de novo-phosphorylated proteins, migrating at approximately 105, 93, and 70 kDa, also bound to aprotinin, suggesting that at least one of these proteins may represent ADR itself.

  2. DNA replication in thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Majerník, A I; Jenkinson, E R; Chong, J P J

    2004-04-01

    DNA replication enzymes in the thermophilic Archaea have previously attracted attention due to their obvious use in methods such as PCR. The proofreading ability of the Pyrococcus furiosus DNA polymerase has resulted in a commercially successful product (Pfu polymerase). One of the many notable features of the Archaea is the fact that their DNA processing enzymes appear on the whole to be more like those found in eukaryotes than bacteria. These proteins also appear to be simpler versions of those found in eukaryotes. For these reasons, archaeal organisms make potentially interesting model systems to explore the molecular mechanisms of processes such as DNA replication, repair and recombination. Why archaeal DNA-manipulation systems were adopted over bacterial systems by eukaryotic cells remains a most interesting question that we suggest may be linked to thermophily.

  3. Macrophage activation induced by Brucella DNA suppresses bacterial intracellular replication via enhancing NO production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Wang, Lin; Sun, Changjiang; Yang, Li; Tang, Bin; Sun, Wanchun; Peng, Qisheng

    2015-12-01

    Brucella DNA can be sensed by TLR9 on endosomal membrane and by cytosolic AIM2-inflammasome to induce proinflammatory cytokine production that contributes to partially activate innate immunity. Additionally, Brucella DNA has been identified to be able to act as a major bacterial component to induce type I IFN. However, the role of Brucella DNA in Brucella intracellular growth remains unknown. Here, we showed that stimulation with Brucella DNA promote macrophage activation in TLR9-dependent manner. Activated macrophages can suppresses wild type Brucella intracellular replication at early stage of infection via enhancing NO production. We also reported that activated macrophage promotes bactericidal function of macrophages infected with VirB-deficient Brucella at the early or late stage of infection. This study uncovers a novel function of Brucella DNA, which can help us further elucidate the mechanism of Brucella intracellular survival.

  4. DNA replication origins in archaea

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhenfang; Liu, Jingfang; Yang, Haibo; Xiang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication initiation, which starts at specific chromosomal site (known as replication origins), is the key regulatory stage of chromosome replication. Archaea, the third domain of life, use a single or multiple origin(s) to initiate replication of their circular chromosomes. The basic structure of replication origins is conserved among archaea, typically including an AT-rich unwinding region flanked by several conserved repeats (origin recognition box, ORB) that are located adjacent to a replication initiator gene. Both the ORB sequence and the adjacent initiator gene are considerably diverse among different replication origins, while in silico and genetic analyses have indicated the specificity between the initiator genes and their cognate origins. These replicator–initiator pairings are reminiscent of the oriC-dnaA system in bacteria, and a model for the negative regulation of origin activity by a downstream cluster of ORB elements has been recently proposed in haloarchaea. Moreover, comparative genomic analyses have revealed that the mosaics of replicator-initiator pairings in archaeal chromosomes originated from the integration of extrachromosomal elements. This review summarizes the research progress in understanding of archaeal replication origins with particular focus on the utilization, control and evolution of multiple replication origins in haloarchaea. PMID:24808892

  5. Structural mechanism of RPA loading on DNA during activation of a simple pre-replication complex.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaohua; Klimovich, Vitaly; Arunkumar, Alphonse I; Hysinger, Erik B; Wang, Yingda; Ott, Robert D; Guler, Gulfem D; Weiner, Brian; Chazin, Walter J; Fanning, Ellen

    2006-11-29

    We report that during activation of the simian virus 40 (SV40) pre-replication complex, SV40 T antigen (Tag) helicase actively loads replication protein A (RPA) on emerging single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). This novel loading process requires physical interaction of Tag origin DNA-binding domain (OBD) with the RPA high-affinity ssDNA-binding domains (RPA70AB). Heteronuclear NMR chemical shift mapping revealed that Tag-OBD binds to RPA70AB at a site distal from the ssDNA-binding sites and that RPA70AB, Tag-OBD, and an 8-nucleotide ssDNA form a stable ternary complex. Intact RPA and Tag also interact stably in the presence of an 8-mer, but Tag dissociates from the complex when RPA binds to longer oligonucleotides. Together, our results imply that an allosteric change in RPA quaternary structure completes the loading reaction. A mechanistic model is proposed in which the ternary complex is a key intermediate that directly couples origin DNA unwinding to RPA loading on emerging ssDNA.

  6. Regulating DNA Replication in Eukarya

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Khalid; On, Kin Fan; Diffley, John F.X.

    2013-01-01

    DNA replication is tightly controlled in eukaryotic cells to ensure that an exact copy of the genetic material is inherited by both daughter cells. Oscillating waves of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) activities provide a binary switch that permits the replication of each chromosome exactly once per cell cycle. Work from several organisms has revealed a conserved strategy whereby inactive replication complexes are assembled onto DNA during periods of low CDK and high APC activity but are competent to execute genome duplication only when these activities are reversed. Periods of high CDK and low APC/C serve an essential function by blocking reassembly of replication complexes, thereby preventing rereplication. Higher eukaryotes have evolved additional CDK-independent mechanisms for preventing rereplication. PMID:23838438

  7. Phosphorylation of Minichromosome Maintenance 3 (MCM3) by Checkpoint Kinase 1 (Chk1) Negatively Regulates DNA Replication and Checkpoint Activation.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiangzi; Mayca Pozo, Franklin; Wisotsky, Jacob N; Wang, Benlian; Jacobberger, James W; Zhang, Youwei

    2015-05-08

    Mechanisms controlling DNA replication and replication checkpoint are critical for the maintenance of genome stability and the prevention or treatment of human cancers. Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is a key effector protein kinase that regulates the DNA damage response and replication checkpoint. The heterohexameric minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex is the core component of mammalian DNA helicase and has been implicated in replication checkpoint activation. Here we report that Chk1 phosphorylates the MCM3 subunit of the MCM complex at Ser-205 under normal growth conditions. Mutating the Ser-205 of MCM3 to Ala increased the length of DNA replication track and shortened the S phase duration, indicating that Ser-205 phosphorylation negatively controls normal DNA replication. Upon replicative stress treatment, the inhibitory phosphorylation of MCM3 at Ser-205 was reduced, and this reduction was accompanied with the generation of single strand DNA, the key platform for ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) activation. As a result, the replication checkpoint is activated. Together, these data provide significant insights into the regulation of both normal DNA replication and replication checkpoint activation through the novel phosphorylation of MCM3 by Chk1.

  8. Archaeology of Eukaryotic DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Kira S.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the characterization of the archaeal DNA replication system together with comparative genomic analysis have led to the identification of several previously uncharacterized archaeal proteins involved in replication and currently reveal a nearly complete correspondence between the components of the archaeal and eukaryotic replication machineries. It can be inferred that the archaeal ancestor of eukaryotes and even the last common ancestor of all extant archaea possessed replication machineries that were comparable in complexity to the eukaryotic replication system. The eukaryotic replication system encompasses multiple paralogs of ancestral components such that heteromeric complexes in eukaryotes replace archaeal homomeric complexes, apparently along with subfunctionalization of the eukaryotic complex subunits. In the archaea, parallel, lineage-specific duplications of many genes encoding replication machinery components are detectable as well; most of these archaeal paralogs remain to be functionally characterized. The archaeal replication system shows remarkable plasticity whereby even some essential components such as DNA polymerase and single-stranded DNA-binding protein are displaced by unrelated proteins with analogous activities in some lineages. PMID:23881942

  9. A unique epigenetic signature is associated with active DNA replication loci in human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Su, Trent; Ferrari, Roberto; Li, Jing-Yu; Kurdistani, Siavash K

    2014-02-01

    The cellular epigenetic landscape changes as pluripotent stem cells differentiate to somatic cells or when differentiated cells transform to a cancerous state. These epigenetic changes are commonly correlated with differences in gene expression. Whether active DNA replication is also associated with distinct chromatin environments in these developmentally and phenotypically diverse cell types has not been known. Here, we used BrdU-seq to map active DNA replication loci in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), normal primary fibroblasts and a cancer cell line, and correlated these maps to the epigenome. In all cell lines, the majority of BrdU peaks were enriched in euchromatin and at DNA repetitive elements, especially at microsatellite repeats, and coincided with previously determined replication origins. The most prominent BrdU peaks were shared between all cells but a sizable fraction of the peaks were specific to each cell type and associated with cell type-specific genes. Surprisingly, the BrdU peaks that were common to all cell lines were associated with H3K18ac, H3K56ac, and H4K20me1 histone marks only in hESCs but not in normal fibroblasts or cancer cells. Depletion of the histone acetyltransferases for H3K18 and H3K56 dramatically decreased the number and intensity of BrdU peaks in hESCs. Our data reveal a unique epigenetic signature that distinguishes active replication loci in hESCs from normal somatic or malignant cells.

  10. Nucleotide Metabolism and DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Warner, Digby F; Evans, Joanna C; Mizrahi, Valerie

    2014-10-01

    The development and application of a highly versatile suite of tools for mycobacterial genetics, coupled with widespread use of "omics" approaches to elucidate the structure, function, and regulation of mycobacterial proteins, has led to spectacular advances in our understanding of the metabolism and physiology of mycobacteria. In this article, we provide an update on nucleotide metabolism and DNA replication in mycobacteria, highlighting key findings from the past 10 to 15 years. In the first section, we focus on nucleotide metabolism, ranging from the biosynthesis, salvage, and interconversion of purine and pyrimidine ribonucleotides to the formation of deoxyribonucleotides. The second part of the article is devoted to DNA replication, with a focus on replication initiation and elongation, as well as DNA unwinding. We provide an overview of replication fidelity and mutation rates in mycobacteria and summarize evidence suggesting that DNA replication occurs during states of low metabolic activity, and conclude by suggesting directions for future research to address key outstanding questions. Although this article focuses primarily on observations from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it is interspersed, where appropriate, with insights from, and comparisons with, other mycobacterial species as well as better characterized bacterial models such as Escherichia coli. Finally, a common theme underlying almost all studies of mycobacterial metabolism is the potential to identify and validate functions or pathways that can be exploited for tuberculosis drug discovery. In this context, we have specifically highlighted those processes in mycobacterial DNA replication that might satisfy this critical requirement.

  11. DNA Virus Replication Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Melanie; Speiseder, Thomas; Dobner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Viruses employ a variety of strategies to usurp and control cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific cytoplasmic or nuclear compartments. Formation of such specialized virus-induced cellular microenvironments, which have been termed viroplasms, virus factories, or virus replication centers, complexes, or compartments, depends on molecular interactions between viral and cellular factors that participate in viral genome expression and replication and are in some cases associated with sites of virion assembly. These virus-induced compartments function not only to recruit and concentrate factors required for essential steps of the viral replication cycle but also to control the cellular mechanisms of antiviral defense. In this review, we summarize characteristic features of viral replication compartments from different virus families and discuss similarities in the viral and cellular activities that are associated with their assembly and the functions they facilitate for viral replication. PMID:24257611

  12. SV40 utilizes ATM kinase activity to prevent non-homologous end joining of broken viral DNA replication products.

    PubMed

    Sowd, Gregory A; Mody, Dviti; Eggold, Joshua; Cortez, David; Friedman, Katherine L; Fanning, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PK(cs) kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB) repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR) and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PK(cs) and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5' to 3' end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication.

  13. SV40 Utilizes ATM Kinase Activity to Prevent Non-homologous End Joining of Broken Viral DNA Replication Products

    PubMed Central

    Sowd, Gregory A.; Mody, Dviti; Eggold, Joshua; Cortez, David; Friedman, Katherine L.; Fanning, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PKcs kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB) repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR) and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PKcs and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5′ to 3′ end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication. PMID:25474690

  14. Chromatin and DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    MacAlpine, David M.; Almouzni, Geneviève

    2013-01-01

    The size of a eukaryotic genome presents a unique challenge to the cell: package and organize the DNA to fit within the confines of the nucleus while at the same time ensuring sufficient dynamics to allow access to specific sequences and features such as genes and regulatory elements. This is achieved via the dynamic nucleoprotein organization of eukaryotic DNA into chromatin. The basic unit of chromatin, the nucleosome, comprises a core particle with 147 bp of DNA wrapped 1.7 times around an octamer of histones. The nucleosome is a highly versatile and modular structure, both in its composition, with the existence of various histone variants, and through the addition of a series of posttranslational modifications on the histones. This versatility allows for both short-term regulatory responses to external signaling, as well as the long-term and multigenerational definition of large functional chromosomal domains within the nucleus, such as the centromere. Chromatin organization and its dynamics participate in essentially all DNA-templated processes, including transcription, replication, recombination, and repair. Here we will focus mainly on nucleosomal organization and describe the pathways and mechanisms that contribute to assembly of this organization and the role of chromatin in regulating the DNA replication program. PMID:23751185

  15. Chromatin and DNA replication.

    PubMed

    MacAlpine, David M; Almouzni, Geneviève

    2013-08-01

    The size of a eukaryotic genome presents a unique challenge to the cell: package and organize the DNA to fit within the confines of the nucleus while at the same time ensuring sufficient dynamics to allow access to specific sequences and features such as genes and regulatory elements. This is achieved via the dynamic nucleoprotein organization of eukaryotic DNA into chromatin. The basic unit of chromatin, the nucleosome, comprises a core particle with 147 bp of DNA wrapped 1.7 times around an octamer of histones. The nucleosome is a highly versatile and modular structure, both in its composition, with the existence of various histone variants, and through the addition of a series of posttranslational modifications on the histones. This versatility allows for both short-term regulatory responses to external signaling, as well as the long-term and multigenerational definition of large functional chromosomal domains within the nucleus, such as the centromere. Chromatin organization and its dynamics participate in essentially all DNA-templated processes, including transcription, replication, recombination, and repair. Here we will focus mainly on nucleosomal organization and describe the pathways and mechanisms that contribute to assembly of this organization and the role of chromatin in regulating the DNA replication program.

  16. RUNX1 induces DNA replication independent of active DNA demethylation at SPI1 regulatory regions.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Shubham; Suzuki, Takahiro; Li, Jing-Ru; Maeda, Shiori; Kishima, Mami; Nishimura, Hajime; Shimizu, Yuri; Suzuki, Harukazu

    2017-04-04

    SPI1 is an essential transcription factor (TF) for the hematopoietic lineage, in which its expression is tightly controlled through a -17-kb upstream regulatory region and a promoter region. Both regulatory regions are demethylated during hematopoietic development, although how the change of DNA methylation status is performed is still unknown. We found that the ectopic overexpression of RUNX1 (another key TF in hematopoiesis) in HEK-293T cells induces almost complete DNA demethylation at the -17-kb upstream regulatory region and partial but significant DNA demethylation at the proximal promoter region. This DNA demethylation occurred in mitomycin-C-treated nonproliferating cells at both regulatory regions, suggesting active DNA demethylation. Furthermore, ectopic RUNX1 expression induced significant endogenous SPI1 expression, although its expression level was much lower than that of natively SPI1-expressing monocyte cells. These results suggest the novel role of RUNX1 as an inducer of DNA demethylation at the SPI1 regulatory regions, although the mechanism of RUNX1-induced DNA demethylation remains to be explored.

  17. Programming DNA replication origins and chromosome organization.

    PubMed

    Cayrou, Christelle; Coulombe, Philippe; Méchali, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    During each cell cycle, thousands of DNA replication origins are activated in each cell of a metazoan organism. Although they appear site-specific, their usage and organization are rather plastic. Moreover, no strict sequence specificity has been observed in contrast to bacterial or Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA replication origins. Epigenetic regulation linked to chromatin structure, chromosome organization, and transcription has been suggested to explain how DNA replication origins are selected and recognized by replication initiation factors. In this paper, we review these epigenetic features and discuss how, during the previous mitosis, chromosomal architecture might prepare DNA replication origins for a new cell cycle.

  18. Protein domains and conformational changes in the activation of RepA, a DNA replication initiator.

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo, R; Andreu, J M; Díaz-Orejas, R

    1998-01-01

    RepA is the DNA replication initiator protein of the Pseudomonas plasmid pPS10. RepA has a dual function: as a dimer, it binds to an inversely-repeated sequence acting as a repressor of its own synthesis; as a monomer, RepA binds to four directly-repeated sequences to constitute a specialized nucleoprotein complex responsible for the initiation of DNA replication. We have previously shown that a Leucine Zipper-like motif (LZ) at the N-terminus of RepA is responsible for protein dimerization. In this paper we characterize the existence in RepA of two protein globular domains C-terminal to the LZ. We propose that dissociation of RepA dimers into monomers results in a conformational change from a compact arrangement of both domains, competent for binding to the operator, to an extended species that is suited for iteron binding. This model establishes the structural basis for the activation of DNA replication initiators in plasmids from Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:9687517

  19. A Natural Polymorphism in rDNA Replication Origins Links Origin Activation with Calorie Restriction and Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Elizabeth X.; Foss, Eric J.; Tsuchiyama, Scott; Alvino, Gina M.; Kruglyak, Leonid; Kaeberlein, Matt; Raghuraman, M. K.; Brewer, Bonita J.; Kennedy, Brian K.; Bedalov, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Aging and longevity are complex traits influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control replicative lifespan, we employed an outbred Saccharomyces cerevisiae model, generated by crossing a vineyard and a laboratory strain. The predominant QTL mapped to the rDNA, with the vineyard rDNA conferring a lifespan increase of 41%. The lifespan extension was independent of Sir2 and Fob1, but depended on a polymorphism in the rDNA origin of replication from the vineyard strain that reduced origin activation relative to the laboratory origin. Strains carrying vineyard rDNA origins have increased capacity for replication initiation at weak plasmid and genomic origins, suggesting that inability to complete genome replication presents a major impediment to replicative lifespan. Calorie restriction, a conserved mediator of lifespan extension that is also independent of Sir2 and Fob1, reduces rDNA origin firing in both laboratory and vineyard rDNA. Our results are consistent with the possibility that calorie restriction, similarly to the vineyard rDNA polymorphism, modulates replicative lifespan through control of rDNA origin activation, which in turn affects genome replication dynamics. PMID:23505383

  20. Genome-wide localization of Rrm3 and Pif1 DNA helicases at stalled active and inactive DNA replication forks of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Silvia Emma; Carotenuto, Walter; Giannattasio, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The genome of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is sequenced and the location and dynamic of activation of DNA replication origins are known. G1 synchronized yeast cells can be released into S-phase in the presence of hydroxyurea (HU) (1), which slows down DNA replication and retains replication forks in proximity of DNA replication origins. In this condition, the Chromatin Immuno-Precipitation on chip (ChIP on chip) (2–4) of replisome components allows the precise localization of all active DNA replication forks. This analysis can be coupled with the ssDNA-BromodeoxyUridine (ssDNA-BrdU) Immuno-Precipitation on chip (ssDNA-BrdU IP on chip) technique (5–7), which detects the location of newly synthesized DNA. Comparison of binding and BrdU incorporation profiles allows to locate a factor of interest at DNA replication forks genome wide. We present datasets deposited in the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE68214, which show how the DNA helicases Rrm3 and Pif1 (8) associate to active and inactive DNA replication forks. PMID:26981397

  1. Identification of Proteins at Active, Stalled, and Collapsed Replication Forks Using Isolation of Proteins on Nascent DNA (iPOND) Coupled with Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Sirbu, Bianca M.; McDonald, W. Hayes; Dungrawala, Huzefa; Badu-Nkansah, Akosua; Kavanaugh, Gina M.; Chen, Yaoyi; Tabb, David L.; Cortez, David

    2013-01-01

    Both DNA and chromatin need to be duplicated during each cell division cycle. Replication happens in the context of defects in the DNA template and other forms of replication stress that present challenges to both genetic and epigenetic inheritance. The replication machinery is highly regulated by replication stress responses to accomplish this goal. To identify important replication and stress response proteins, we combined isolation of proteins on nascent DNA (iPOND) with quantitative mass spectrometry. We identified 290 proteins enriched on newly replicated DNA at active, stalled, and collapsed replication forks. Approximately 16% of these proteins are known replication or DNA damage response proteins. Genetic analysis indicates that several of the newly identified proteins are needed to facilitate DNA replication, especially under stressed conditions. Our data provide a useful resource for investigators studying DNA replication and the replication stress response and validate the use of iPOND combined with mass spectrometry as a discovery tool. PMID:24047897

  2. DNA Replication Timing

    PubMed Central

    Rhind, Nicholas; Gilbert, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of replication within eukaryotic genomes correlate with gene expression, chromatin structure, and genome evolution. Recent advances in genome-scale mapping of replication kinetics have allowed these correlations to be explored in many species, cell types, and growth conditions, and these large data sets have allowed quantitative and computational analyses. One striking new correlation to emerge from these analyses is between replication timing and the three-dimensional structure of chromosomes. This correlation, which is significantly stronger than with any single histone modification or chromosome-binding protein, suggests that replication timing is controlled at the level of chromosomal domains. This conclusion dovetails with parallel work on the heterogeneity of origin firing and the competition between origins for limiting activators to suggest a model in which the stochastic probability of individual origin firing is modulated by chromosomal domain structure to produce patterns of replication. Whether these patterns have inherent biological functions or simply reflect higher-order genome structure is an open question. PMID:23838440

  3. Constitutive stable DNA replication in Escherichia coli cells lacking type 1A topoisomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Martel, Makisha; Balleydier, Aurélien; Sauriol, Alexandre; Drolet, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Type 1A topoisomerases (topos) are ubiquitous enzymes involved in supercoiling regulation and in the maintenance of genome stability. Escherichia coli possesses two type 1A enzymes, topo I (topA) and topo III (topB). Cells lacking both enzymes form very long filaments and have severe chromosome segregation and growth defects. We previously found that RNase HI overproduction or a dnaT::aph mutation could significantly correct these phenotypes. This leads us to hypothesize that they were related to unregulated replication originating from R-loops, i.e. constitutive stable DNA replication (cSDR). cSDR, first observed in rnhA (RNase HI) mutants, is characterized by its persistence for several hours following protein synthesis inhibition and by its requirement for primosome components, including DnaT. Here, to visualize and measure cSDR, the incorporation of the nucleotide analog ethynyl deoxyuridine (EdU) during replication in E. coli cells pre-treated with protein synthesis inhibitors, was revealed by "click" labeling with Alexa Fluor(®) 488 in fixed cells, and flow cytometry analysis. cSDR was detected in rnhA mutants, but not in wild-type strains, and the number of cells undergoing cSDR was significantly reduced by the introduction of the dnaT::aph mutation. cSDR was also found in topA, double topA topB but not in topB null cells. This result is consistent with the established function of topo I in the inhibition of R-loop formation. Moreover, our finding that topB rnhA mutants are perfectly viable demonstrates that topo III is not uniquely required during cSDR. Thus, either topo I or III can provide the type 1A topo activity that is specifically required during cSDR to allow chromosome segregation.

  4. DNA replication stress: causes, resolution and disease.

    PubMed

    Mazouzi, Abdelghani; Velimezi, Georgia; Loizou, Joanna I

    2014-11-15

    DNA replication is a fundamental process of the cell that ensures accurate duplication of the genetic information and subsequent transfer to daughter cells. Various pertubations, originating from endogenous or exogenous sources, can interfere with proper progression and completion of the replication process, thus threatening genome integrity. Coordinated regulation of replication and the DNA damage response is therefore fundamental to counteract these challenges and ensure accurate synthesis of the genetic material under conditions of replication stress. In this review, we summarize the main sources of replication stress and the DNA damage signaling pathways that are activated in order to preserve genome integrity during DNA replication. We also discuss the association of replication stress and DNA damage in human disease and future perspectives in the field.

  5. Isolation and sequencing of active origins of DNA replication by nascent strand capture and release (NSCR)

    PubMed Central

    Kunnev, Dimiter; Freeland, Amy; Qin, Maochun; Wang, Jianmin; Pruitt, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Nascent strand capture and release (NSCR) is a method for isolation of short nascent strands to identify origins of DNA replication. The protocol provided involves isolation of total DNA, denaturation, size fractionation on a sucrose gradient, 5′-biotinylation of the appropriate size nucleic acids, binding to a streptavidin coated magnetic beads, intensive washing, and specific release of only the RNA-containing chimeric nascent strand DNA using ribonuclease I (RNase I). The method has been applied to mammalian cells derived from proliferative tissues and cell culture but could be used for any system where DNA replication is primed by a small RNA resulting in chimeric RNA-DNA molecules. PMID:26949711

  6. Regulatory parameters of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Zannis-Hadjopoulos, M; Price, G B

    1998-01-01

    One of the fundamental characteristics that help define life is the ability to propagate. At the basest level in the act of propagation is replication of the genetic information as the databank and architectural plans for each particular life form. Thus propagation of life requires the replication of the genome--for the purposes of our review, eukaryotic DNA replication. In this critical review, we have chosen to present the issues and supporting experimental evidence in question-and-answer format. Over the past 3 to 4 years, the research domain of eukaryotic DNA replication has developed a new dynamism. This new force in discovery of the fundamental elements and mechanisms for DNA replication in higher eukaryotes has been propelled by accepted methodologies for mapping (identification) of origins of DNA replication, applicable to mammalian DNA replication, and by the discovery of the origin recognition complex (ORC) in yeast, which has served as a model in the search for the mammalian equivalent.

  7. Replication Protein A (RPA) deficiency activates the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seok-Won; Jung, Jin Ki; Kim, Jung Min

    2016-09-01

    The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway regulates DNA inter-strand crosslink (ICL) repair. Despite our greater understanding of the role of FA in ICL repair, its function in the preventing spontaneous genome instability is not well understood. Here, we show that depletion of replication protein A (RPA) activates the FA pathway. RPA1 deficiency increases chromatin recruitment of FA core complex, leading to FANCD2 monoubiquitination (FANCD2-Ub) and foci formation in the absence of DNA damaging agents. Importantly, ATR depletion, but not ATM, abolished RPA1 depletion-induced FANCD2-Ub, suggesting that ATR activation mediated FANCD2-Ub. Interestingly, we found that depletion of hSSB1/2-INTS3, a single-stranded DNA-binding protein complex, induces FANCD2-Ub, like RPA1 depletion. More interestingly, depletion of either RPA1 or INTS3 caused increased accumulation of DNA damage in FA pathway deficient cell lines. Taken together, these results indicate that RPA deficiency induces activation of the FA pathway in an ATR-dependent manner, which may play a role in the genome maintenance.

  8. Regulation of DNA replication licensing.

    PubMed

    Niida, Hiroyuki; Kitagawa, Masatoshi

    2012-12-01

    In eukaryotic cells, DNA replication is tightly regulated to occur only once per cell cycle. DNA licensing is a mechanism to guarantee this aim; that is, licensing of replication initiation is permitted during late M phase to G1 phase. The license is canceled by the start of DNA replication. Once DNA replication begins, the license is never given until the next late M phase. The licensing corresponds to the process of assembling components of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) on the replication origin DNA. This pre-RC is the target of several different regulation systems to prevent rereplication of DNA during a single cell cycle. In this review, the regulation mechanisms mainly in mammals to control assembling components of the pre-RC will be discussed.

  9. Normal human oral keratinocytes demonstrate abnormal DNA end joining activity during replicative senescence.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mo K; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Yip, Felix K; Park, No-Hee

    2005-04-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is critical for the maintenance of cellular genetic integrity. DSBs are repaired by cellular end joining activity, which could proceed with varying degrees of accuracy. Abnormal end joining may lead to an accumulation of mutations and contribute to genetic instability and cellular aging. In the present study, we compared the efficiency and accuracy of end joining activities in exponentially replicating and senescing normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK). We developed an in vitro end joining assay utilizing a plasmid linearized with a unique EcoR I or EcoR V restriction site. The efficiency of end joining was determined by PCR with primers that could amplify the fragment containing the end joining site. The accuracy of end joining was assessed by determining whether the original EcoR I site was restored after end joining. Both replicating and senescing cultures of NHOK yielded a similar level of end joining efficiency, which was noted by the similar intensity of PCR amplification. However, the frequency of end joining errors was significantly elevated in NHOK during replicative senescence. Senescing NHOK could thus accumulate abnormal end joining products, which might contribute to cellular aging and cancer.

  10. Synchronization of DNA array replication kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manturov, Alexey O.; Grigoryev, Anton V.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work we discuss the features of the DNA replication kinetics at the case of multiplicity of simultaneously elongated DNA fragments. The interaction between replicated DNA fragments is carried out by free protons that appears at the every nucleotide attachment at the free end of elongated DNA fragment. So there is feedback between free protons concentration and DNA-polymerase activity that appears as elongation rate dependence. We develop the numerical model based on a cellular automaton, which can simulate the elongation stage (growth of DNA strands) for DNA elongation process with conditions pointed above and we study the possibility of the DNA polymerases movement synchronization. The results obtained numerically can be useful for DNA polymerase movement detection and visualization of the elongation process in the case of massive DNA replication, eg, under PCR condition or for DNA "sequencing by synthesis" sequencing devices evaluation.

  11. DnaA and ORC: more than DNA replication initiators.

    PubMed

    Scholefield, Graham; Veening, Jan-Willem; Murray, Heath

    2011-03-01

    Mutations in DNA replication initiator genes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes lead to a pleiotropic array of phenotypes, including defects in chromosome segregation, cytokinesis, cell cycle regulation and gene expression. For years, it was not clear whether these diverse effects were indirect consequences of perturbed DNA replication, or whether they indicated that DNA replication initiator proteins had roles beyond their activity in initiating DNA synthesis. Recent work from a range of organisms has demonstrated that DNA replication initiator proteins play direct roles in many cellular processes, often functioning to coordinate the initiation of DNA replication with essential cell-cycle activities. The aim of this review is to highlight these new findings, focusing on the pathways and mechanisms utilized by DNA replication initiator proteins to carry out a diverse array of cellular functions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Susceptibility to bystander DNA damage is influenced by replication and transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Jennifer S; Baird, Brandon J; Redon, Christophe E; Avdoshina, Valeriya; Palchik, Guillermo; Wu, Junfang; Kondratyev, Alexei; Bonner, William M; Martin, Olga A

    2012-11-01

    Direct cellular DNA damage may lead to genome destabilization in unexposed, bystander, cells sharing the same milieu with directly damaged cells by means of the bystander effect. One proposed mechanism involves double strand break (DSB) formation in S phase cells at sites of single strand lesions in the DNA of replication complexes, which has a more open structure compared with neighboring DNA. The DNA in transcription complexes also has a more open structure, and hence may be susceptible to bystander DSB formation from single strand lesions. To examine whether transcription predisposes non-replicating cells to bystander effect-induced DNA DSBs, we examined two types of primary cells that exhibit high levels of transcription in the absence of replication, rat neurons and human lymphocytes. We found that non-replicating bystander cells with high transcription rates exhibited substantial levels of DNA DSBs, as monitored by γ-H2AX foci formation. Additionally, as reported in proliferating cells, TGF-β and NO were found to mimic bystander effects in cell populations lacking DNA synthesis. These results indicate that cell vulnerability to bystander DSB damage may result from transcription as well as replication. The findings offer insights into which tissues may be vulnerable to bystander genomic destabilization in vivo.

  13. Susceptibility to bystander DNA damage is influenced by replication and transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Jennifer S.; Baird, Brandon J.; Redon, Christophe E.; Avdoshina, Valeriya; Palchik, Guillermo; Wu, Junfang; Kondratyev, Alexei; Bonner, William M.; Martin, Olga A.

    2012-01-01

    Direct cellular DNA damage may lead to genome destabilization in unexposed, bystander, cells sharing the same milieu with directly damaged cells by means of the bystander effect. One proposed mechanism involves double strand break (DSB) formation in S phase cells at sites of single strand lesions in the DNA of replication complexes, which has a more open structure compared with neighboring DNA. The DNA in transcription complexes also has a more open structure, and hence may be susceptible to bystander DSB formation from single strand lesions. To examine whether transcription predisposes non-replicating cells to bystander effect-induced DNA DSBs, we examined two types of primary cells that exhibit high levels of transcription in the absence of replication, rat neurons and human lymphocytes. We found that non-replicating bystander cells with high transcription rates exhibited substantial levels of DNA DSBs, as monitored by γ-H2AX foci formation. Additionally, as reported in proliferating cells, TGF-β and NO were found to mimic bystander effects in cell populations lacking DNA synthesis. These results indicate that cell vulnerability to bystander DSB damage may result from transcription as well as replication. The findings offer insights into which tissues may be vulnerable to bystander genomic destabilization in vivo. PMID:22941641

  14. Chromatin dynamics during DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Ziv, Raz; Voichek, Yoav; Barkai, Naama

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin is composed of DNA and histones, which provide a unified platform for regulating DNA-related processes, mostly through their post-translational modification. During DNA replication, histone arrangement is perturbed, first to allow progression of DNA polymerase and then during repackaging of the replicated DNA. To study how DNA replication influences the pattern of histone modification, we followed the cell-cycle dynamics of 10 histone marks in budding yeast. We find that histones deposited on newly replicated DNA are modified at different rates: While some marks appear immediately upon replication (e.g., H4K16ac, H3K4me1), others increase with transcription-dependent delays (e.g., H3K4me3, H3K36me3). Notably, H3K9ac was deposited as a wave preceding the replication fork by ∼5–6 kb. This replication-guided H3K9ac was fully dependent on the acetyltransferase Rtt109, while expression-guided H3K9ac was deposited by Gcn5. Further, topoisomerase depletion intensified H3K9ac in front of the replication fork and in sites where RNA polymerase II was trapped, suggesting supercoiling stresses trigger H3K9 acetylation. Our results assign complementary roles for DNA replication and gene expression in defining the pattern of histone modification. PMID:27225843

  15. Transcription-Replication Conflict Orientation Modulates R-Loop Levels and Activates Distinct DNA Damage Responses.

    PubMed

    Hamperl, Stephan; Bocek, Michael J; Saldivar, Joshua C; Swigut, Tomek; Cimprich, Karlene A

    2017-08-10

    Conflicts between transcription and replication are a potent source of DNA damage. Co-transcriptional R-loops could aggravate such conflicts by creating an additional barrier to replication fork progression. Here, we use a defined episomal system to investigate how conflict orientation and R-loop formation influence genome stability in human cells. R-loops, but not normal transcription complexes, induce DNA breaks and orientation-specific DNA damage responses during conflicts with replication forks. Unexpectedly, the replisome acts as an orientation-dependent regulator of R-loop levels, reducing R-loops in the co-directional (CD) orientation but promoting their formation in the head-on (HO) orientation. Replication stress and deregulated origin firing increase the number of HO collisions leading to genome-destabilizing R-loops. Our findings connect DNA replication to R-loop homeostasis and suggest a mechanistic basis for genome instability resulting from deregulated DNA replication, observed in cancer and other disease states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An initiation site of DNA replication with transcriptional enhancer activity present upstream of the c-myc gene.

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi-Ariga, S M; Okazaki, T; Itani, T; Ogata, M; Sato, Y; Ariga, H

    1988-01-01

    We have previously reported that c-myc protein may promote cellular DNA replication by binding to initiation sites of replication. Here we report that a putative origin of human cellular DNA replication (ori) is present at approximately 2 kb upstream of the coding region of the c-myc gene itself. The c-myc protein, or protein(s) complexed with c-myc protein, bind to the upstream region (approximately 200 bp in length) which has transcriptional enhancer activity as well as autonomously replicating activity in human cells, suggesting that the c-myc protein may be an enhancer binding protein as well as a DNA replication protein. Results with deletion mutants suggest that the sequence essential to the origin of DNA replication may be adjacent to, but cannot be clearly separated from, the sequence responsible for enhancer activity. Furthermore, when cloned DNA containing putative c-myc protein binding sequences was transfected as competitor into HL-60 cells, expression of c-myc was inhibited, suggesting that c-myc protein itself may be necessary for c-myc expression. Images PMID:3053161

  17. Optimal Placement of Origins for DNA Replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karschau, Jens; Blow, J. Julian; de Moura, Alessandro P. S.

    2012-02-01

    DNA replication is an essential process in biology and its timing must be robust so that cells can divide properly. Random fluctuations in the formation of replication starting points, called origins, and the subsequent activation of proteins lead to variations in the replication time. We analyze these stochastic properties of DNA and derive the positions of origins corresponding to the minimum replication time. We show that under some conditions the minimization of replication time leads to the grouping of origins, and relate this to experimental data in a number of species showing origin grouping.

  18. Optimal placement of origins for DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Karschau, Jens; Blow, J Julian; de Moura, Alessandro P S

    2012-02-03

    DNA replication is an essential process in biology and its timing must be robust so that cells can divide properly. Random fluctuations in the formation of replication starting points, called origins, and the subsequent activation of proteins lead to variations in the replication time. We analyze these stochastic properties of DNA and derive the positions of origins corresponding to the minimum replication time. We show that under some conditions the minimization of replication time leads to the grouping of origins, and relate this to experimental data in a number of species showing origin grouping.

  19. Effects of mutations in the Exo III motif of the herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase gene on enzyme activities, viral replication, and replication fidelity.

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Y T; Liu, B Y; Coen, D M; Hwang, C B

    1997-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase catalytic subunit, which has intrinsic polymerase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities, contains sequence motifs that are homologous to those important for 3'-5' exonuclease activity in other polymerases. The role of one such motif, Exo III, was examined in this study. Mutated polymerases containing either a single tyrosine-to-histidine change at residue 577 or this change plus an aspartic acid-to-alanine at residue 581 in the Exo III motif exhibited defective or undetectable exonuclease activity, respectively, yet retained substantial polymerase activity. Despite the defects in exonuclease activity, the mutant polymerases were able to support viral replication in transient complementation assays, albeit inefficiently. Viruses replicated via the action of these mutant polymerases exhibited substantially increased frequencies of mutants resistant to ganciclovir. Furthermore, when the Exo III mutations were incorporated into the viral genome, the resulting mutant viruses displayed only modestly defect in replication in Vero cells and exhibited substantially increased mutation frequencies. The results suggest that herpes simplex virus can replicate despite severely impaired exonuclease activity and that the 3'-5' exonuclease contributes substantially to the fidelity of viral DNA replication. PMID:9311864

  20. Mathematical Modelling of DNA Replication Reveals a Trade-off between Coherence of Origin Activation and Robustness against Rereplication

    PubMed Central

    Brümmer, Anneke; Salazar, Carlos; Zinzalla, Vittoria; Alberghina, Lilia; Höfer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are duplicated from multiple replication origins exactly once per cell cycle. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a complex molecular network has been identified that governs the assembly of the replication machinery. Here we develop a mathematical model that links the dynamics of this network to its performance in terms of rate and coherence of origin activation events, number of activated origins, the resulting distribution of replicon sizes and robustness against DNA rereplication. To parameterize the model, we use measured protein expression data and systematically generate kinetic parameter sets by optimizing the coherence of origin firing. While randomly parameterized networks yield unrealistically slow kinetics of replication initiation, networks with optimized parameters account for the experimentally observed distribution of origin firing times. Efficient inhibition of DNA rereplication emerges as a constraint that limits the rate at which replication can be initiated. In addition to the separation between origin licensing and firing, a time delay between the activation of S phase cyclin-dependent kinase (S-Cdk) and the initiation of DNA replication is required for preventing rereplication. Our analysis suggests that distributive multisite phosphorylation of the S-Cdk targets Sld2 and Sld3 can generate both a robust time delay and contribute to switch-like, coherent activation of replication origins. The proposed catalytic function of the complex formed by Dpb11, Sld3 and Sld2 strongly enhances coherence and robustness of origin firing. The model rationalizes how experimentally observed inefficient replication from fewer origins is caused by premature activation of S-Cdk, while premature activity of the S-Cdk targets Sld2 and Sld3 results in DNA rereplication. Thus the model demonstrates how kinetic deregulation of the molecular network governing DNA replication may result in genomic instability. PMID:20485558

  1. Regulation of mouse satellite DNA replication time.

    PubMed

    Selig, S; Ariel, M; Goitein, R; Marcus, M; Cedar, H

    1988-02-01

    The satellite DNA sequences located near the centromeric regions of mouse chromosomes replicate very late in S in both fibroblast and lymphocyte cells and are heavily methylated at CpG residues. F9 teratocarcinoma cells, on the other hand, contain satellite sequences which are undermethylated and replicate much earlier in S. DNA methylation probably plays some role in the control of satellite replication time since 5-azacytidine treatment of RAG fibroblasts causes a dramatic temporal shift of replication to mid S. In contrast to similar changes accompanying the inactivation of the X-chromosome, early replication of satellite DNA is not associated with an increase in local chromosomal DNase I sensitivity. Fusion of F9 with mouse lymphocytes caused a dramatic early shift in the timing of the normally late replicating lymphocyte satellite heterochromatin, suggesting that trans-activating factors may be responsible for the regulation of replication timing.

  2. Regulation of Unperturbed DNA Replication by Ubiquitylation.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Sara Priego; Gambus, Agnieszka

    2015-06-25

    Posttranslational modification of proteins by means of attachment of a small globular protein ubiquitin (i.e., ubiquitylation) represents one of the most abundant and versatile mechanisms of protein regulation employed by eukaryotic cells. Ubiquitylation influences almost every cellular process and its key role in coordination of the DNA damage response is well established. In this review we focus, however, on the ways ubiquitylation controls the process of unperturbed DNA replication. We summarise the accumulated knowledge showing the leading role of ubiquitin driven protein degradation in setting up conditions favourable for replication origin licensing and S-phase entry. Importantly, we also present the emerging major role of ubiquitylation in coordination of the active DNA replication process: preventing re-replication, regulating the progression of DNA replication forks, chromatin re-establishment and disassembly of the replisome at the termination of replication forks.

  3. Replication Fork Slowing and Reversal upon DNA Damage Require PCNA Polyubiquitination and ZRANB3 DNA Translocase Activity.

    PubMed

    Vujanovic, Marko; Krietsch, Jana; Raso, Maria Chiara; Terraneo, Nastassja; Zellweger, Ralph; Schmid, Jonas A; Taglialatela, Angelo; Huang, Jen-Wei; Holland, Cory L; Zwicky, Katharina; Herrador, Raquel; Jacobs, Heinz; Cortez, David; Ciccia, Alberto; Penengo, Lorenza; Lopes, Massimo

    2017-09-07

    DNA damage tolerance during eukaryotic replication is orchestrated by PCNA ubiquitination. While monoubiquitination activates mutagenic translesion synthesis, polyubiquitination activates an error-free pathway, elusive in mammals, enabling damage bypass by template switching. Fork reversal is driven in vitro by multiple enzymes, including the DNA translocase ZRANB3, shown to bind polyubiquitinated PCNA. However, whether this interaction promotes fork remodeling and template switching in vivo was unknown. Here we show that damage-induced fork reversal in mammalian cells requires PCNA ubiquitination, UBC13, and K63-linked polyubiquitin chains, previously involved in error-free damage tolerance. Fork reversal in vivo also requires ZRANB3 translocase activity and its interaction with polyubiquitinated PCNA, pinpointing ZRANB3 as a key effector of error-free DNA damage tolerance. Mutations affecting fork reversal also induced unrestrained fork progression and chromosomal breakage, suggesting fork remodeling as a global fork slowing and protection mechanism. Targeting these fork protection systems represents a promising strategy to potentiate cancer chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Regulating DNA Replication in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Maria de la Paz; Costas, Celina; Sequeira-Mendes, Joana; Gutierrez, Crisanto

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal DNA replication in plants has requirements and constraints similar to those in other eukaryotes. However, some aspects are plant-specific. Studies of DNA replication control in plants, which have unique developmental strategies, can offer unparalleled opportunities of comparing regulatory processes with yeast and, particularly, metazoa to identify common trends and basic rules. In addition to the comparative molecular and biochemical studies, genomic studies in plants that started with Arabidopsis thaliana in the year 2000 have now expanded to several dozens of species. This, together with the applicability of genomic approaches and the availability of a large collection of mutants, underscores the enormous potential to study DNA replication control in a whole developing organism. Recent advances in this field with particular focus on the DNA replication proteins, the nature of replication origins and their epigenetic landscape, and the control of endoreplication will be reviewed. PMID:23209151

  5. Concerted activities of Mcm4, Sld3, and Dbf4 in control of origin activation and DNA replication fork progression

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Yi-Jun; Kinney, Justin B.; Stillman, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic chromosomes initiate DNA synthesis from multiple replication origins in a temporally specific manner during S phase. The replicative helicase Mcm2-7 functions in both initiation and fork progression and thus is an important target of regulation. Mcm4, a helicase subunit, possesses an unstructured regulatory domain that mediates control from multiple kinase signaling pathways, including the Dbf4-dependent Cdc7 kinase (DDK). Following replication stress in S phase, Dbf4 and Sld3, an initiation factor and essential target of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase (CDK), are targets of the checkpoint kinase Rad53 for inhibition of initiation from origins that have yet to be activated, so-called late origins. Here, whole-genome DNA replication profile analysis is used to access under various conditions the effect of mutations that alter the Mcm4 regulatory domain and the Rad53 targets, Sld3 and Dbf4. Late origin firing occurs under genotoxic stress when the controls on Mcm4, Sld3, and Dbf4 are simultaneously eliminated. The regulatory domain of Mcm4 plays an important role in the timing of late origin firing, both in an unperturbed S phase and in dNTP limitation. Furthermore, checkpoint control of Sld3 impacts fork progression under replication stress. This effect is parallel to the role of the Mcm4 regulatory domain in monitoring fork progression. Hypomorph mutations in sld3 are suppressed by a mcm4 regulatory domain mutation. Thus, in response to cellular conditions, the functions executed by Sld3, Dbf4, and the regulatory domain of Mcm4 intersect to control origin firing and replication fork progression, thereby ensuring genome stability. PMID:26733669

  6. A Novel Mechanism for Activator-Controlled Initiation of DNA Replication that Resolves the Auto-regulation Sequestration Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, K.; Ehrenberg, M.

    For bacterial genes to be inherited to the next bacterial generation, the gene containing DNA sequences must be duplicated before cell division so that each daughter cell contains a complete set of genes. The duplication process is called DNA replication and it starts at one defined site on the DNA molecule called the origin of replication (oriC) [1]. In addition to chromosomal DNA, bacteria often also contain plasmid DNA. Plasmids are extra-chromosomal DNA molecules carrying genes that increase the fitness of their host in certain environments, with genes encoding antibiotic resistance as a notorious example [2]. The chromosome is found at a low per cell copy number and initiation of replication takes place synchronously once every cell generation [3,4], while many plasmids exist at a high copy number and replication initiates asynchronously, throughout the cell generation [5]. In this chapter we present a novel mechanism for the control of initiation of replication, where one type of molecule may activate a round of replication by binding to the origin of replication and also regulate its own synthesis accurately. This mechanism of regulating the initiation of replication also offers a novel solution to the so-called auto-regulation sequestration paradox, i.e. how a molecule sequestered by binding to DNA may at the same time accurately regulate its own synthesis [6]. The novel regulatory mechanism is inspired by the molecular set-up of the replication control of the chromosome in the bacterium Escherichia coli and is here transferred into a plasmid model. This allows us to illustrate principles of replication control in a simple way and to put the novel mechanism into the context of a previous analysis of plasmids regulated by inhibitor-dilution copy number control [7]. We analyze factors important for a sensitive response of the replication initiation rate to changes in plasmid concentration in an asynchronous model and discover a novel mechanism for creating a

  7. DNA replication origins, ORC/DNA interaction, and assembly of pre-replication complex in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingya; Kong, Daochun

    2010-07-01

    Chromosomal DNA replication in eukaryotic cells is highly complicated and sophisticatedly regulated. Owing to its large size, a typical eukaryotic genome contains hundreds to tens of thousands of initiation sites called DNA replication origins where DNA synthesis takes place. Multiple initiation sites remove the constraint of a genome size because only a certain amount of DNA can be replicated from a single origin in a limited time. The activation of these multiple origins must be coordinated so that each segment of chromosomal DNA is precisely duplicated only once per cell cycle. Although DNA replication is a vital process for cell growth and its mechanism is highly conserved, recent studies also reveal significant diversity in origin structure, assembly of pre-replication complex (pre-RC) and regulation of replication initiation along evolutionary lines. The DNA replication origins in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe are found to contain a second essential element that is bound by Sap1 protein besides the essential origin recognition complex-binding site. Sap1 is recently demonstrated to be a novel replication initiation protein that plays an essential role in loading the initiation protein Cdc18 to origins and thus directly participates in pre-RC formation. In this review, we summarize the recent advance in understanding how DNA replication origins are organized, how pre-RC is assembled and how DNA replication is initiated and regulated in yeast and metazoans.

  8. Oncogene v-jun modulates DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Wasylyk, C; Schneikert, J; Wasylyk, B

    1990-07-01

    Cell transformation leads to alterations in both transcription and DNA replication. Activation of transcription by the expression of a number of transforming oncogenes is mediated by the transcription factor AP1 (Herrlich & Ponta, 1989; Imler & Wasylyk, 1989). AP1 is a composite transcription factor, consisting of members of the jun and fos gene-families. c-jun and c-fos are progenitors of oncogenes, suggestion that an important transcriptional event in cell transformation is altered activity of AP1, which may arise either indirectly by oncogene expression or directly by structural modification of AP1. We report here that the v-jun oncogene and its progenitor c-jun, as fusion proteins with the lex-A-repressor DNA binding domain, can activate DNA replication from the Polyoma virus (Py) origin of replication, linked to the lex-A operator. The transcription-activation region of v-jun is required for activation of replication. When excess v-jun is expressed in the cell, replication is inhibited or 'squelched'. These results suggest that one consequence of deregulated jun activity could be altered DNA replication and that there are similarities in the way v-jun activates replication and transcription.

  9. Targeting DNA Replication Stress for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Dai, Qun; Park, Dongkyoo; Deng, Xingming

    2016-01-01

    The human cellular genome is under constant stress from extrinsic and intrinsic factors, which can lead to DNA damage and defective replication. In normal cells, DNA damage response (DDR) mediated by various checkpoints will either activate the DNA repair system or induce cellular apoptosis/senescence, therefore maintaining overall genomic integrity. Cancer cells, however, due to constitutive growth signaling and defective DDR, may exhibit “replication stress” —a phenomenon unique to cancer cells that is described as the perturbation of error-free DNA replication and slow-down of DNA synthesis. Although replication stress has been proven to induce genomic instability and tumorigenesis, recent studies have counterintuitively shown that enhancing replicative stress through further loosening of the remaining checkpoints in cancer cells to induce their catastrophic failure of proliferation may provide an alternative therapeutic approach. In this review, we discuss the rationale to enhance replicative stress in cancer cells, past approaches using traditional radiation and chemotherapy, and emerging approaches targeting the signaling cascades induced by DNA damage. We also summarize current clinical trials exploring these strategies and propose future research directions including the use of combination therapies, and the identification of potential new targets and biomarkers to track and predict treatment responses to targeting DNA replication stress. PMID:27548226

  10. The stress-activated protein kinases p38α/β and JNK1/2 cooperate with Chk1 to inhibit mitotic entry upon DNA replication arrest.

    PubMed

    Llopis, Alba; Salvador, Noelia; Ercilla, Amaia; Guaita-Esteruelas, Sandra; Barrantes, Ivan del Barco; Gupta, Jalaj; Gaestel, Matthias; Davis, Roger J; Nebreda, Angel R; Agell, Neus

    2012-10-01

    Accurate DNA replication is crucial for the maintenance of genome integrity. To this aim, cells have evolved complex surveillance mechanisms to prevent mitotic entry in the presence of partially replicated DNA. ATR and Chk1 are key elements in the signal transduction pathways of DNA replication checkpoint; however, other kinases also make significant contributions. We show here that the stress kinases p38 and JNK are activated when DNA replication is blocked, and that their activity allows S/M, but not G 2/M, checkpoint maintenance when Chk1 is inhibited. Activation of both kinases by DNA replication inhibition is not mediated by the caffeine-sensitive kinases ATR or ATM. Phosphorylation of MKK3/6 and MKK4, p38 and JNK upstream kinases was also observed upon DNA replication inhibition. Using a genetic approach, we dissected the p38 pathway and showed that both p38α and p38β isoforms collaborate to inhibit mitotic entry. We further defined MKK3/6 and MK2/3 as the key upstream and downstream elements in the p38 signaling cascade after replication arrest. Accordingly, we found that the stress signaling pathways collaborate with Chk1 to keep cyclin B1/Cdk1 complexes inactive when DNA replication is inhibited, thereby preventing cell cycle progression when DNA replication is stalled. Our results show a complex response to replication stress, where multiple pathways are activated and fulfill overlapping roles to prevent mitotic entry with unreplicated DNA.

  11. Activation of new replication foci under conditions of replication stress

    PubMed Central

    Rybak, P; Waligórska, A; Bujnowicz, Ł; Hoang, A; Dobrucki, JW

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage, binding of drugs to DNA or a shortage of nucleotides can decrease the rate or completely halt the progress of replication forks. Although the global rate of replication decreases, mammalian cells can respond to replication stress by activating new replication origins. We demonstrate that a moderate level of stress induced by inhibitors of topoisomerase I, commencing in early, mid or late S-phase, induces activation of new sites of replication located within or in the immediate vicinity of the original replication factories; only in early S some of these new sites are also activated at a distance greater than 300 nm. Under high stress levels very few new replication sites are activated; such sites are located within the original replication regions. There is a large variation in cellular response to stress – while in some cells the number of replication sites increases even threefold, it decreases almost twofold in other cells. Replication stress results in a loss of PCNA from replication factories and a twofold increase in nuclear volume. These observations suggest that activation of new replication origins from the pool of dormant origins within replication cluster under conditions of mild stress is generally restricted to the original replication clusters (factories) active at a time of stress initiation, while activation of distant origins and new replication factories is suppressed. PMID:26212617

  12. Break-Induced DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Ranjith P.; Lovett, Susan T.; Haber, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Recombination-dependent DNA replication, often called break-induced replication (BIR), was initially invoked to explain recombination events in bacteriophage but it has recently been recognized as a fundamentally important mechanism to repair double-strand chromosome breaks in eukaryotes. This mechanism appears to be critically important in the restarting of stalled and broken replication forks and in maintaining the integrity of eroded telomeres. Although BIR helps preserve genome integrity during replication, it also promotes genome instability by the production of loss of heterozygosity and the formation of nonreciprocal translocations, as well as in the generation of complex chromosomal rearrangements. PMID:23881940

  13. Membrane attachment activates dnaA protein, the initiation protein of chromosome replication in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, B.Y.; Kornberg, A.

    1988-10-01

    ADP and ATP are tightly bound to dnaA protein and are crucial to its function in DNA replication; the exchange of these nucleotides is effected specifically by the acidic phospholipids (cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol) present in Escherichia coli membranes. We now find that phospholipids derived from membranes lacking an unsaturated fatty acid (e.g., oleic acid) are unable to promote the exchange. This observation correlates strikingly with the long-known effect of 3-decynoyl-N-acetylcysteamine, a ''suicide analog'' that prevents initiation of a cycle of replication in E. coli by inhibiting the synthesis of oleic acid, an inhibition that can be overcome by providing the cells with oleic acid. Profound influences on the specific binding of dnaA protein to phospholipids by temperature, the content of unsaturated fatty acids, and the inclusion of cholesterol can be explained by the need for the phospholipids to be in fluid-phase vesicles. These findings suggest that membrane attachment of dnaA protein is vital for its function in the initiation of chromosome replication in E. coli.

  14. Cdc6 ATPase activity regulates ORC x Cdc6 stability and the selection of specific DNA sequences as origins of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Speck, Christian; Stillman, Bruce

    2007-04-20

    DNA replication, as with all macromolecular synthesis steps, is controlled in part at the level of initiation. Although the origin recognition complex (ORC) binds to origins of DNA replication, it does not solely determine their location. To initiate DNA replication ORC requires Cdc6 to target initiation to specific DNA sequences in chromosomes and with Cdt1 loads the ring-shaped mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) 2-7 DNA helicase component onto DNA. ORC and Cdc6 combine to form a ring-shaped complex that contains six AAA+ subunits. ORC and Cdc6 ATPase mutants are defective in MCM loading, and ORC ATPase mutants have reduced activity in ORC x Cdc6 x DNA complex formation. Here we analyzed the role of the Cdc6 ATPase on ORC x Cdc6 complex stability in the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences. Cdc6 ATPase is activated by ORC, regulates ORC x Cdc6 complex stability, and is suppressed by origin DNA. Mutations in the conserved origin A element, and to a lesser extent mutations in the B1 and B2 elements, induce Cdc6 ATPase activity and prevent stable ORC x Cdc6 formation. By analyzing ORC x Cdc6 complex stability on various DNAs, we demonstrated that specific DNA sequences control the rate of Cdc6 ATPase, which in turn controls the rate of Cdc6 dissociation from the ORC x Cdc6 x DNA complex. We propose a mechanism explaining how Cdc6 ATPase activity promotes origin DNA sequence specificity; on DNA that lacks origin activity, Cdc6 ATPase promotes dissociation of Cdc6, whereas origin DNA down-regulates Cdc6 ATPase resulting in a stable ORC x Cdc6 x DNA complex, which can then promote MCM loading. This model has relevance for origin specificity in higher eukaryotes.

  15. Distinct modes of ATR activation after replication stress and DNA double-strand breaks in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Muse, Tatiana; Boulton, Simon J

    2005-01-01

    ATM and ATR are key components of the DNA damage checkpoint. ATR primarily responds to UV damage and replication stress, yet may also function with ATM in the checkpoint response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), although this is less clear. Here, we show that atl-1 (Caenorhabditis elegans ATR) and rad-5/clk-2 prevent mitotic catastrophe, function in the S-phase checkpoint and also cooperate with atm-1 in the checkpoint response to DSBs after ionizing radiation (IR) to induce cell cycle arrest or apoptosis via the cep-1(p53)/egl-1 pathway. ATL-1 is recruited to stalled replication forks by RPA-1 and functions upstream of rad-5/clk-2 in the S-phase checkpoint. In contrast, mre-11 and atm-1 are dispensable for ATL-1 recruitment to stalled replication forks. However, mre-11 is required for RPA-1 association and ATL-1 recruitment to DSBs. Thus, DNA processing controlled by mre-11 is important for ATL-1 activation at DSBs but not following replication fork stalling. We propose that atl-1 and rad-5/clk-2 respond to single-stranded DNA generated by replication stress and function with atm-1 following DSB resection. PMID:16319925

  16. Recovery from the DNA Replication Checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Indrajit; Koepp, Deanna M

    2016-10-28

    Checkpoint recovery is integral to a successful checkpoint response. Checkpoint pathways monitor progress during cell division so that in the event of an error, the checkpoint is activated to block the cell cycle and activate repair pathways. Intrinsic to this process is that once repair has been achieved, the checkpoint signaling pathway is inactivated and cell cycle progression resumes. We use the term "checkpoint recovery" to describe the pathways responsible for the inactivation of checkpoint signaling and cell cycle re-entry after the initial stress has been alleviated. The DNA replication or S-phase checkpoint monitors the integrity of DNA synthesis. When replication stress is encountered, replication forks are stalled, and the checkpoint signaling pathway is activated. Central to recovery from the S-phase checkpoint is the restart of stalled replication forks. If checkpoint recovery fails, stalled forks may become unstable and lead to DNA breaks or unusual DNA structures that are difficult to resolve, causing genomic instability. Alternatively, if cell cycle resumption mechanisms become uncoupled from checkpoint inactivation, cells with under-replicated DNA might proceed through the cell cycle, also diminishing genomic stability. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that contribute to inactivation of the S-phase checkpoint signaling pathway and the restart of replication forks during recovery from replication stress.

  17. Recovery from the DNA Replication Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Indrajit; Koepp, Deanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Checkpoint recovery is integral to a successful checkpoint response. Checkpoint pathways monitor progress during cell division so that in the event of an error, the checkpoint is activated to block the cell cycle and activate repair pathways. Intrinsic to this process is that once repair has been achieved, the checkpoint signaling pathway is inactivated and cell cycle progression resumes. We use the term “checkpoint recovery” to describe the pathways responsible for the inactivation of checkpoint signaling and cell cycle re-entry after the initial stress has been alleviated. The DNA replication or S-phase checkpoint monitors the integrity of DNA synthesis. When replication stress is encountered, replication forks are stalled, and the checkpoint signaling pathway is activated. Central to recovery from the S-phase checkpoint is the restart of stalled replication forks. If checkpoint recovery fails, stalled forks may become unstable and lead to DNA breaks or unusual DNA structures that are difficult to resolve, causing genomic instability. Alternatively, if cell cycle resumption mechanisms become uncoupled from checkpoint inactivation, cells with under-replicated DNA might proceed through the cell cycle, also diminishing genomic stability. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that contribute to inactivation of the S-phase checkpoint signaling pathway and the restart of replication forks during recovery from replication stress. PMID:27801838

  18. DNA ligase I, the replicative DNA ligase.

    PubMed

    Howes, Timothy R L; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2012-01-01

    Multiple DNA ligation events are required to join the Okazaki fragments generated during lagging strand DNA synthesis. In eukaryotes, this is primarily carried out by members of the DNA ligase I family. The C-terminal catalytic region of these enzymes is composed of three domains: a DNA binding domain, an adenylation domain and an OB-fold domain. In the absence of DNA, these domains adopt an extended structure but transition into a compact ring structure when they engage a DNA nick, with each of the domains contacting the DNA. The non-catalytic N-terminal region of eukaryotic DNA ligase I is responsible for the specific participation of these enzymes in DNA replication. This proline-rich unstructured region contains the nuclear localization signal and a PCNA interaction motif that is critical for localization to replication foci and efficient joining of Okazaki fragments. DNA ligase I initially engages the PCNA trimer via this interaction motif which is located at the extreme N-terminus of this flexible region. It is likely that this facilitates an additional interaction between the DNA binding domain and the PCNA ring. The similar size and shape of the rings formed by the PCNA trimer and the DNA ligase I catalytic region when it engages a DNA nick suggest that these proteins interact to form a double-ring structure during the joining of Okazaki fragments. DNA ligase I also interacts with replication factor C, the factor that loads the PCNA trimeric ring onto DNA. This interaction, which is regulated by phosphorylation of the non-catalytic N-terminus of DNA ligase I, also appears to be critical for DNA replication.

  19. DNA Copy Number Control Through Inhibition of Replication Fork Progression

    PubMed Central

    Nordman, Jared T.; Kozhevnikova, Elena N.; Verrijzer, C. Peter; Pindyurin, Alexey V.; Andreyeva, Evgeniya N.; Shloma, Victor V.; Zhimulev, Igor F.; Orr-Weaver, Terry L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Proper control of DNA replication is essential to ensure faithful transmission of genetic material and to prevent chromosomal aberrations that can drive cancer progression and developmental disorders. DNA replication is regulated primarily at the level of initiation and is under strict cell cycle regulation. Importantly, DNA replication is highly influenced by developmental cues. In Drosophila, specific regions of the genome are repressed for DNA replication during differentiation by the SNF2 domain-containing protein SUUR through an unknown mechanism. We demonstrate that SUUR is recruited to active replication forks and mediates repression of DNA replication by directly inhibiting replication fork progression instead of functioning as a replication fork barrier. Mass-spec identification of SUUR associated proteins identified the replicative helicase member CDC45 as a SUUR-associated protein, supporting a role for SUUR directly at replication forks. Our results reveal that control of eukaryotic DNA copy number can occur through inhibition of replication fork progression. PMID:25437540

  20. Stable DNA replication: interplay between DNA replication, homologous recombination, and transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Kogoma, T

    1997-01-01

    Chromosome replication in Escherichia coli is normally initiated at oriC, the origin of chromosome replication. E. coli cells possess at least three additional initiation systems for chromosome replication that are normally repressed but can be activated under certain specific conditions. These are termed the stable DNA replication systems. Inducible stable DNA replication (iSDR), which is activated by SOS induction, is proposed to be initiated from a D-loop, an early intermediate in homologous recombination. Thus, iSDR is a form of recombination-dependent DNA replication (RDR). Analysis of iSDR and RDR has led to the proposal that homologous recombination and double-strand break repair involve extensive semiconservative DNA replication. RDR is proposed to play crucial roles in homologous recombination, double-strand break repair, restoration of collapsed replication forks, and adaptive mutation. Constitutive stable DNA replication (cSDR) is activated in mhA mutants deficient in RNase HI or in recG mutants deficient in RecG helicase. cSDR is proposed to be initiated from an R-loop that can be formed by the invasion of duplex DNA by an RNA transcript, which most probably is catalyzed by RecA protein. The third form of SDR is nSDR, which can be transiently activated in wild-type cells when rapidly growing cells enter the stationary phase. This article describes the characteristics of these alternative DNA replication forms and reviews evidence that has led to the formulation of the proposed models for SDR initiation mechanisms. The possible interplay between DNA replication, homologous recombination, DNA repair, and transcription is explored. PMID:9184011

  1. DNA recombination: the replication connection.

    PubMed

    Haber, J E

    1999-07-01

    Chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs) arise after exposure to ionizing radiation or enzymatic cleavage, but especially during the process of DNA replication itself. Homologous recombination plays a critical role in repair of such DSBs. There has been significant progress in our understanding of two processes that occur in DSB repair: gene conversion and recombination-dependent DNA replication. Recent evidence suggests that gene conversion and break-induced replication are related processes that both begin with the establishment of a replication fork in which both leading- and lagging-strand synthesis occur. There has also been much progress in characterization of the biochemical roles of recombination proteins that are highly conserved from yeast to humans.

  2. From structure to mechanism—understanding initiation of DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Riera, Alberto; Barbon, Marta; Noguchi, Yasunori; Reuter, L. Maximilian; Schneider, Sarah; Speck, Christian

    2017-01-01

    DNA replication results in the doubling of the genome prior to cell division. This process requires the assembly of 50 or more protein factors into a replication fork. Here, we review recent structural and biochemical insights that start to explain how specific proteins recognize DNA replication origins, load the replicative helicase on DNA, unwind DNA, synthesize new DNA strands, and reassemble chromatin. We focus on the minichromosome maintenance (MCM2–7) proteins, which form the core of the eukaryotic replication fork, as this complex undergoes major structural rearrangements in order to engage with DNA, regulate its DNA-unwinding activity, and maintain genome stability. PMID:28717046

  3. DNA replication in yeast is stochastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng-Hsin Yang, Scott; Rhind, Nicholas; Bechhoefer, John

    2010-03-01

    Largely on the basis of a simple --- perhaps too simple --- analysis of microarray-chip experiments, people have concluded that DNA replication in budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) is a nearly deterministic process, in which the position and activation time of each origin of replication is pre-determined. In this talk, we introduce a more quantitative approach to the analysis of microarray data. Applying our new methods to budding yeast, we show that the microarray data imply a picture of replication where the timing of origin activation is highly stochastic. We then propose a physical model (the ``multiple-initiator model") to account for the observed probability distributions of origin- activation timing.

  4. Conformational Dynamics in DNA Replication Selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brieba, Luis G.

    2007-11-01

    Replicative DNA polymerases are remarkable molecular machines that carry out DNA synthesis accordingly to the Watson and Crick rules (Guanine pairs with Cytosine and Adenine with Thymidine) with high specificity or fidelity. The biochemical mechanism that dictates polymerase fidelity has its fundaments in the tight active site of replicative polymerases and the shape and size of the Watson-Crick base pairs. Pre-steady state kinetic analysis have shown that during polymerase nucleotide addition, the chemical reaction is not the rate limiting step and it was postulated that DNA polymerases suffer a conformational change from an "open" to a "closed" conformation before chemistry which is also the step responsible for their high fidelity. Crystal structures of replicative DNA polymerases demonstrated that the fingers subdomain suffers a large conformational change during catalysis and that this conformational transition aligns the polymerase active site in a proper conformation for catalysis. Recent studies using single molecule techniques and Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer analysis also shown that at least in the case of T7 DNA polymerase, the closure of the fingers subdomain is in part the rate limiting step associated with the high fidelity of DNA polymerases, although the overall fidelity of the reaction maybe involves an assemble of chemical steps and several conformational changes. Our current knowledge indicates that the mechanisms of enzyme specificity in DNA replication involve several energy landscapes that maybe correlated with conformational changes and active site assemblies.

  5. Characterization of sequence elements from Malvastrum yellow vein betasatellite regulating promoter activity and DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many monopartite begomoviruses are associated with betasatellites, but only several promoters from which were isolated and studied. In this study, the βC1 promoter from Malvastrum yellow vein betasatellite (MYVB) was characterized and important sequence elements were identified to modulate promoter activity and replication of MYVB. Results A 991 nucleotide (nt) fragment upstream of the translation start site of the βC1 open reading frame of MYVB and a series of deletions within this fragment were constructed and fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes, respectively. Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression assays showed that the 991 nt fragment was functional and that a 28 nt region (between −390 nt and −418 nt), which includes a 5′UTR Py-rich stretch motif, was important for promoter activity. Replication assays using Nicotiana benthamiana leaf discs and whole plants showed that deletion of the 5′UTR Py-rich stretch impaired viral satellite replication in the presence of the helper virus. Transgenic assays demonstrated that the 991 nt fragment conferred a constitutive expression pattern in transgenic tobacco plants and that a 214 nt fragment at the 3'-end of this sequence was sufficient to drive this expression pattern. Conclusion Our results showed that the βC1 promoter of MYVB displayed a constitutive expression pattern and a 5′UTR Py-rich stretch motif regulated both βC1 promoter activity and MYVB replication. PMID:23057573

  6. Subcellular Proteomics Reveals a Role for Nucleo-cytoplasmic Trafficking at the DNA Replication Origin Activation Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Mulvey, Claire M.; Tudzarova, Slavica; Crawford, Mark; Williams, Gareth H.; Stoeber, Kai; Godovac-Zimmermann, Jasminka

    2014-01-01

    Depletion of DNA replication initiation factors such as CDC7 kinase triggers the origin activation checkpoint in healthy cells and leads to a protective cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase of the mitotic cell division cycle. This protective mechanism is thought to be defective in cancer cells. To investigate how this checkpoint is activated and maintained in healthy cells, we conducted a quantitative SILAC analysis of the nuclear- and cytoplasmic-enriched compartments of CDC7-depleted fibroblasts and compared them to a total cell lysate preparation. Substantial changes in total abundance and/or subcellular location were detected for 124 proteins, including many essential proteins associated with DNA replication/cell cycle. Similar changes in protein abundance and subcellular distribution were observed for various metabolic processes, including oxidative stress, iron metabolism, protein translation and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. This is accompanied by reduced abundance of two karyopherin proteins, suggestive of reduced nuclear import. We propose that altered nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking plays a key role in the regulation of cell cycle arrest. The results increase understanding of the mechanisms underlying maintenance of the DNA replication origin activation checkpoint and are consistent with our proposal that cell cycle arrest is an actively maintained process that appears to be distributed over various subcellular locations. PMID:23320540

  7. Long Terminal Repeat Circular DNA as Markers of Active Viral Replication of Human T Lymphotropic Virus-1 in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fox, James M; Hilburn, Silva; Demontis, Maria-Antonietta; Brighty, David W; Rios Grassi, Maria Fernanda; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Taylor, Graham P; Martin, Fabiola

    2016-01-01

    Clonal expansion of human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infected cells in vivo is well documented. Unlike human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HTLV-1 plasma RNA is sparse. The contribution of the “mitotic” spread of HTLV-1 compared with infectious spread of the virus to HTLV-1 viral burden in established infection is uncertain. Since extrachromosomal long terminal repeat (LTR) DNA circles are indicators of viral replication in HIV-1 carriers with undetectable plasma HIV RNA, we hypothesised that HTLV-1 LTR circles could indicate reverse transcriptase (RT) usage and infectious activity. 1LTR and 2LTR DNA circles were measured in HTLV-1 cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of asymptomatic carriers (ACs) and patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) or adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL). 1LTR DNA circles were detected in 14/20 patients at a mean of 1.38/100 PBMC but did not differentiate disease status nor correlate with HTLV-1 DNA copies. 2LTR DNA circles were detected in 30/31 patients and at higher concentrations in patients with HTLV-1-associated diseases, independent of HTLV-1 DNA load. In an incident case the 2LTR DNA circle concentration increased 2.1 fold at the onset of HAM/TSP compared to baseline. Detectable and fluctuating levels of HTLV-1 DNA circles in patients indicate viral RT usage and virus replication. Our results indicate HTLV-1 viral replication capacity is maintained in chronic infection and may be associated with disease onset. PMID:26985903

  8. A cytoplasmic activator of DNA replication is involved in signal transduction in antigen-specific T cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wong, R L; Clark, R B; Gutowski, J K; Katz, M E; Fresa, K L; Cohen, S

    1990-05-01

    Cytoplasmic extracts prepared from T cell lines undergoing antigen-specific, interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent proliferation were tested for their ability to induce DNA synthesis in isolated, quiescent nuclei. A tetanus toxoid (TET)-specific T cell line, established from peripheral blood of a normal human volunteer, was stimulated in the presence of relevant antigen and 1 unit/ml IL-2. Cytoplasmic extracts prepared from these cells were capable of inducing DNA synthesis in isolated, quiescent nuclei. The ability of cytoplasmic extracts to induce DNA synthesis in isolated, quiescent nuclei. The ability of cytoplasmic extracts to induce DNA synthesis in isolated nuclei correlated positively with the degree of proliferation induced in these cells. In contrast, incubation of this T cell line in the absence of antigen failed to induce proliferation and cytoplasmic extracts prepared from these cells induced little to no DNA synthesis in isolated, quiescent nuclei. The factor present in the cytoplasm of T cells stimulated with relevant antigen in the presence of IL-2 is similar, if not identical, to a factor which we have previously demonstrated in cytoplasmic extracts prepared from transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines and from mitogenically stimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This factor, which we have called activator of DNA replication (ADR) is a heat-labile protein, and is inactivated by treatment with protease inhibitors, including aprotinin. The ability of cytoplasmic extracts from T cells undergoing antigen-specific, IL-2-dependent proliferation to induce DNA synthesis in isolated, quiescent nuclei was markedly inhibited in the presence of aprotinin, providing strong evidence that a cytoplasmic activator of DNA replication, ADR, is involved in the signal transduction process for antigen-specific, IL-2-dependent T cell proliferation. ADR may represent a common intracellular mediator of DNA synthesis in activated and transformed lymphocytes.

  9. Direct Binding to Replication Protein A (RPA)-coated Single-stranded DNA Allows Recruitment of the ATR Activator TopBP1 to Sites of DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Julyana; Yan, Shan; Michael, W Matthew

    2016-06-17

    A critical event for the ability of cells to tolerate DNA damage and replication stress is activation of the ATR kinase. ATR activation is dependent on the BRCT (BRCA1 C terminus) repeat-containing protein TopBP1. Previous work has shown that recruitment of TopBP1 to sites of DNA damage and stalled replication forks is necessary for downstream events in ATR activation; however, the mechanism for this recruitment was not known. Here, we use protein binding assays and functional studies in Xenopus egg extracts to show that TopBP1 makes a direct interaction, via its BRCT2 domain, with RPA-coated single-stranded DNA. We identify a point mutant that abrogates this interaction and show that this mutant fails to accumulate at sites of DNA damage and that the mutant cannot activate ATR. These data thus supply a mechanism for how the critical ATR activator, TopBP1, senses DNA damage and stalled replication forks to initiate assembly of checkpoint signaling complexes. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Assembly of Slx4 signaling complexes behind DNA replication forks.

    PubMed

    Balint, Attila; Kim, TaeHyung; Gallo, David; Cussiol, Jose Renato; Bastos de Oliveira, Francisco M; Yimit, Askar; Ou, Jiongwen; Nakato, Ryuichiro; Gurevich, Alexey; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Smolka, Marcus B; Zhang, Zhaolei; Brown, Grant W

    2015-08-13

    Obstructions to replication fork progression, referred to collectively as DNA replication stress, challenge genome stability. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells lacking RTT107 or SLX4 show genome instability and sensitivity to DNA replication stress and are defective in the completion of DNA replication during recovery from replication stress. We demonstrate that Slx4 is recruited to chromatin behind stressed replication forks, in a region that is spatially distinct from that occupied by the replication machinery. Slx4 complex formation is nucleated by Mec1 phosphorylation of histone H2A, which is recognized by the constitutive Slx4 binding partner Rtt107. Slx4 is essential for recruiting the Mec1 activator Dpb11 behind stressed replication forks, and Slx4 complexes are important for full activity of Mec1. We propose that Slx4 complexes promote robust checkpoint signaling by Mec1 by stably recruiting Dpb11 within a discrete domain behind the replication fork, during DNA replication stress.

  11. Assembly of Slx4 signaling complexes behind DNA replication forks

    PubMed Central

    Balint, Attila; Kim, TaeHyung; Gallo, David; Cussiol, Jose Renato; Bastos de Oliveira, Francisco M; Yimit, Askar; Ou, Jiongwen; Nakato, Ryuichiro; Gurevich, Alexey; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Smolka, Marcus B; Zhang, Zhaolei; Brown, Grant W

    2015-01-01

    Obstructions to replication fork progression, referred to collectively as DNA replication stress, challenge genome stability. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells lacking RTT107 or SLX4 show genome instability and sensitivity to DNA replication stress and are defective in the completion of DNA replication during recovery from replication stress. We demonstrate that Slx4 is recruited to chromatin behind stressed replication forks, in a region that is spatially distinct from that occupied by the replication machinery. Slx4 complex formation is nucleated by Mec1 phosphorylation of histone H2A, which is recognized by the constitutive Slx4 binding partner Rtt107. Slx4 is essential for recruiting the Mec1 activator Dpb11 behind stressed replication forks, and Slx4 complexes are important for full activity of Mec1. We propose that Slx4 complexes promote robust checkpoint signaling by Mec1 by stably recruiting Dpb11 within a discrete domain behind the replication fork, during DNA replication stress. PMID:26113155

  12. Reconstitution of recombinant human replication factor C (RFC) and identification of an RFC subcomplex possessing DNA-dependent ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Ellison, V; Stillman, B

    1998-03-06

    Replication factor C (RFC) is a five-subunit protein complex required for coordinate leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis during S phase and DNA repair in eukaryotic cells. It functions to load the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a processivity factor for polymerases delta and epsilon, onto primed DNA templates. This process, which is ATP-dependent, is carried out by 1) recognition of the primer terminus by RFC () binding to and disruption of the PCNA trimer, and then 3) topologically linking the PCNA to the DNA. In this report, we describe the purification and properties of recombinant human RFC expressed in Sf9 cells from baculovirus expression vectors. Like native RFC derived from 293 cells, recombinant RFC was found to support SV40 DNA synthesis and polymerase delta DNA synthesis in vitro and to possess an ATPase activity that was highly stimulated by DNA and further augmented by PCNA. Assembly of RFC was observed to involve distinct subunit interactions in which both the 36- and 38-kDa subunits interacted with the 37-kDa subunit, and the 40-kDa subunit interacted with the 36-kDa subunit-37-kDa subunit subcomplex. The 140-kDa subunit was found to require interactions primarily with the 38- and 40-kDa subunits for incorporation into the complex. In addition, a stable subcomplex lacking the 140-kDa subunit, although defective for DNA replication, was found to possess DNA-dependent ATPase activity that was not responsive to the addition of PCNA.

  13. Naphthalimides Selectively Inhibit the Activity of Bacterial, Replicative DNA Ligases and Display Bactericidal Effects against Tubercle Bacilli.

    PubMed

    Korycka-Machala, Malgorzata; Nowosielski, Marcin; Kuron, Aneta; Rykowski, Sebastian; Olejniczak, Agnieszka; Hoffmann, Marcin; Dziadek, Jaroslaw

    2017-01-17

    The DNA ligases, enzymes that seal breaks in the backbones of DNA, are essential for all organisms, however bacterial ligases essential for DNA replication use β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as their co-factor, whereas those that are essential in eukaryotes and viruses use adenosine-5'-triphosphate. This fact leads to the conclusion that NAD⁺-dependent DNA ligases in bacteria could be targeted by their co-factor specific inhibitors. The development of novel alternative medical strategies, including new drugs, are a top priority focus areas for tuberculosis research due to an increase in the number of multi-drug resistant as well as totally drug resistant tubercle bacilli strains. Here, through the use of a virtual high-throughput screen and manual inspection of the top 200 records, 23 compounds were selected for in vitro studies. The selected compounds were evaluated in respect to their Mycobacterium tuberculosis NAD⁺ DNA ligase inhibitory effect by a newly developed assay based on Genetic Analyzer 3500 Sequencer. The most effective agents (e.g., pinafide, mitonafide) inhibited the activity of M. tuberculosis NAD⁺-dependent DNA ligase A at concentrations of 50 µM. At the same time, the ATP-dependent (phage) DNA LigT₄ was unaffected by the agents at concentrations up to 2 mM. The selected compounds appeared to also be active against actively growing tubercle bacilli in concentrations as low as 15 µM.

  14. Mechanisms for Initiating Cellular DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Alessandro; Hood, Iris V.; Berger, James M.

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of DNA replication represents a committing step to cell proliferation. Appropriate replication onset depends on multiprotein complexes that help properly distinguish origin regions, generate nascent replication bubbles, and promote replisome formation. This review describes initiation systems employed by bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, with a focus on comparing and contrasting molecular mechanisms among organisms. Although commonalities can be found in the functional domains and strategies used to carry out and regulate initiation, many key participants have markedly different activities and appear to have evolved convergently. Despite significant advances in the field, major questions still persist in understanding how initiation programs are executed at the molecular level. PMID:23746253

  15. Novel insights into RAD51 activity and regulation during homologous recombination and DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Godin, Stephen K.; Sullivan, Meghan R.; Bernstein, Kara A.

    2016-01-01

    In this review we focus on new insights that challenge our understanding of homologous recombination (HR) and Rad51 regulation. Recent advances using high resolution microscopy and single molecule techniques have broadened our knowledge of Rad51 filament formation and strand invasion at double-strand break (DSB) sites and at replication forks, which are one of most physiologically relevant forms of HR from yeast to humans. Rad51 filament formation and strand invasion is regulated by many mediator proteins such as the Rad51 paralogues and the Shu complex, consisting of a Shu2/SWS1 family member and additional Rad51 paralogues. Importantly, a novel RAD-51 paralogue was discovered in C. elegans and its in vitro characterization has demonstrated a new function for the worm RAD-51 paralogues during HR. Conservation of the human RAD51 paralogues function during HR and repair of replicative damage demonstrate how the RAD51 mediators play a critical role in human health and genomic integrity. Together, these new findings provide a framework for understanding RAD51 and its mediators in DNA repair during multiple cellular contexts. PMID:27224545

  16. VP-16 and alkylating agents activate a common metabolic pathway for suppression of DNA replication

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.K.; Berger, N.A.

    1986-05-01

    The cytotoxic effects of etoposide (VP-16) are mediated by topoisomerase II production of protein crosslinked DNA strand breaks. Previous studies have shown that alkylating agent induced DNA damage results in expansion of dTTP pools and reduction of dCTP pools and DNA replication. Studies were conducted with V79 cells to determine whether the metabolic consequences of VP-16 treatment were similar to those induced by alkylating agents. Treatment with 0.5..mu..M VP-16 prolonged the doubling time of V79 cells from 12 to 18 hrs and caused cell volume to increase from 1.1 to 1.6 x 10/sup -12/l. 2mM caffeine completely blocked the volume increase and substantially prevented the prolongation of doubling time. 5..mu..M VP-16 reduced the rate of (/sup 3/H)TdR incorporation by 70%, whereas in the presence of 2mM caffeine, VP-16 caused only a 10% decrease in the rate of (/sup 3/H)TdR incorporation. 4 hr treatment with 5.0..mu..M VP-16 increased dTTP levels from 65 +/- 10 pmol/10/sup 6/ cells to 80 +/- 13 pmol/10/sup 6/ cells and caused dCTP level to decline from 113 +/- 23 pmol/10/sup 6/ cells to 92 +/- 17 pmol/10/sup 6/ cells. These results indicate that the metabolic consequences of VP-16 treatment are similar to alkylating agent treatment and that an increase in dTTP pools with a subsequent effect on ribonucleotide reductase may be a final common pathway by which many cytotoxic agents suppress DNA synthesis.

  17. Replication of nanoscale DNA patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maass, Corinna; Wang, Tong; Sha, Ruojie; Leunissen, Mirjam; Dreyfus, Remi; Seeman, Nadrian; Chaikin, Paul

    2011-03-01

    We present an artificial supramolecular system mimicking self- replication and information transmission strategies in nature, but without the aid of enzymes or equivalent biological mechanisms. Using DNA nanotechnology techniques, we can make DNA tiles with selective interactions based on complementary single-strand connections. A linear tile pattern distinguished by their connector sequences is transmitted to a subsequent generation of copies by connector hybridisation. Longitudinal pattern formation and transverse copy attachment are well separated by different melting temperatures. We have achieved a faithful transmission of the pattern information to the second replication generation. We use AFM imaging to test for pattern fidelity and gel electrophoresis for quantitative yield analysis. supported by a DAAD postdoc grant.

  18. Signal replication in a DNA nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Oscar; Houmadi, Said; Aimé, Jean-Pierre; Elezgaray, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Logic circuits based on DNA strand displacement reaction are the basic building blocks of future nanorobotic systems. The circuits tethered to DNA origami platforms present several advantages over solution-phase versions where couplings are always diffusion-limited. Here we consider a possible implementation of one of the basic operations needed in the design of these circuits, namely, signal replication. We show that with an appropriate preparation of the initial state, signal replication performs in a reproducible way. We also show the existence of side effects concomitant to the high effective concentrations in tethered circuits, such as slow leaky reactions and cross-activation.

  19. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 replication by adeno-associated virus rep proteins depends on their combined DNA-binding and ATPase/helicase activities.

    PubMed

    Glauser, Daniel L; Seyffert, Michael; Strasser, Regina; Franchini, Marco; Laimbacher, Andrea S; Dresch, Christiane; de Oliveira, Anna Paula; Vogel, Rebecca; Büning, Hildegard; Salvetti, Anna; Ackermann, Mathias; Fraefel, Cornel

    2010-04-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has previously been shown to inhibit the replication of its helper virus herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), and the inhibitory activity has been attributed to the expression of the AAV Rep proteins. In the present study, we assessed the Rep activities required for inhibition of HSV-1 replication using a panel of wild-type and mutant Rep proteins lacking defined domains and activities. We found that the inhibition of HSV-1 replication required Rep DNA-binding and ATPase/helicase activities but not endonuclease activity. The Rep activities required for inhibition of HSV-1 replication precisely coincided with the activities that were responsible for induction of cellular DNA damage and apoptosis, suggesting that these three processes are closely linked. Notably, the presence of Rep induced the hyperphosphorylation of a DNA damage marker, replication protein A (RPA), which has been reported not to be normally hyperphosphorylated during HSV-1 infection and to be sequestered away from HSV-1 replication compartments during infection. Finally, we demonstrate that the execution of apoptosis is not required for inhibition of HSV-1 replication and that the hyperphosphorylation of RPA per se is not inhibitory for HSV-1 replication, suggesting that these two processes are not directly responsible for the inhibition of HSV-1 replication by Rep.

  20. The DNA replication protein Cdc6 inhibits the microtubule-organizing activity of the centrosome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Inyoung; Kim, Gwang Su; Bae, Jun Sung; Kim, Jaeyoun; Rhee, Kunsoo; Hwang, Deog Su

    2017-09-29

    The centrosome serves as a major microtubule-organizing center (MTOC). The Cdc6 protein is a component of the pre-replicative complex and a licensing factor for the initiation of chromosome replication and localizes to centrosomes during the S and G2 phases of the cfell cycle of human cells. This cell cycle-dependent localization of Cdc6 to the centrosome motivated us to investigate whether Cdc6 negatively regulates MTOC activity and to determine the integral proteins that comprise the pericentriolar material (PCM). Time-lapse live-cell imaging of microtubule regrowth revealed that Cdc6 depletion increased microtubule nucleation at the centrosomes and that expression of Cdc6 in Cdc6-depleted cells reversed this effect. This increase and decrease in microtubule nucleation correlated with the centrosomal intensities of PCM proteins such as γ-tubulin, pericentrin, CDK5 regulatory subunit-associated protein 2 (CDK5RAP2), and centrosomal protein 192 (Cep192). The regulation of microtubule nucleation and the recruitment of PCM proteins to the centrosome required Cdc6 ATPase activity, as well as a centrosomal localization of Cdc6. These results suggest a novel function for Cdc6 in coordinating centrosome assembly and function. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Replication of kinetoplast minicircle DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Sheline, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    These studies describe the isolation and characterization of early minicircle replication intermediates from Crithidia fasciculata, and Leishmania tarentolae, the mitochondrial localization of a type II topoisomerase (TIImt) in C. fasciculata, and the implication of the aforementioned TIImt in minicircle replication in L. tarentolae. Early minicircle replication intermediates from C. fasciculata were identified and characterized using isolated kinetoplasts to incorporate radiolabeled nucleotides into its DNA. The pulse-label in an apparent theta-type intermediate chase into two daughter molecules. A uniquely gapped, ribonucleotide primed, knotted molecule represents the leading strand in the model proposed, and a highly gapped molecule represents the lagging strand. This theta intermediate is repaired in vitro to a doubly nicked catenated dimer which was shown to result from the replication of a single parental molecule. Very similar intermediates were found in the heterogeneous population of minicircles of L. tarentolae. The sites of the Leishmania specific discontinuities were mapped and shown to lie within the universally conserved sequence blocks in identical positions as compared to C. fasciculata and Trypanosoma equiperdum.

  2. Loss of maintenance DNA methylation results in abnormal DNA origin firing during DNA replication

    SciTech Connect

    Haruta, Mayumi; Shimada, Midori; Nishiyama, Atsuya; Johmura, Yoshikazu; Le Tallec, Benoît; Debatisse, Michelle; Nakanishi, Makoto

    2016-01-22

    The mammalian maintenance methyltransferase DNMT1 [DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1] mediates the inheritance of the DNA methylation pattern during replication. Previous studies have shown that depletion of DNMT1 causes a severe growth defect and apoptosis in differentiated cells. However, the detailed mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that conditional ablation of Dnmt1 in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in an aberrant DNA replication program showing an accumulation of late-S phase replication and causing severely defective growth. Furthermore, we found that the catalytic activity and replication focus targeting sequence of DNMT1 are required for a proper DNA replication program. Taken together, our findings suggest that the maintenance of DNA methylation by DNMT1 plays a critical role in proper regulation of DNA replication in mammalian cells. - Highlights: • DNMT1 depletion results in an abnormal DNA replication program. • Aberrant DNA replication is independent of the DNA damage checkpoint in DNMT1cKO. • DNMT1 catalytic activity and RFT domain are required for proper DNA replication. • DNMT1 catalytic activity and RFT domain are required for cell proliferation.

  3. DNA Replication in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    DITSE, ZANELE; LAMERS, MEINDERT H.; WARNER, DIGBY F.

    2017-01-01

    Faithful replication and maintenance of the genome are essential to the ability of any organism to survive and propagate. For an obligate pathogen such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis that has to complete successive cycles of transmission, infection, and disease in order to retain a foothold in the human population, this requires that genome replication and maintenance must be accomplished under the metabolic, immune, and antibiotic stresses encountered during passage through variable host environments. Comparative genomic analyses have established that chromosomal mutations enable M. tuberculosis to adapt to these stresses: the emergence of drug-resistant isolates provides direct evidence of this capacity, so too the well-documented genetic diversity among M. tuberculosis lineages across geographic loci, as well as the microvariation within individual patients that is increasingly observed as whole-genome sequencing methodologies are applied to clinical samples and tuberculosis (TB) disease models. However, the precise mutagenic mechanisms responsible for M. tuberculosis evolution and adaptation are poorly understood. Here, we summarize current knowledge of the machinery responsible for DNA replication in M. tuberculosis, and discuss the potential contribution of the expanded complement of mycobacterial DNA polymerases to mutagenesis. We also consider briefly the possible role of DNA replication—in particular, its regulation and coordination with cell division—in the ability of M. tuberculosis to withstand antibacterial stresses, including host immune effectors and antibiotics, through the generation at the population level of a tolerant state, or through the formation of a subpopulation of persister bacilli—both of which might be relevant to the emergence and fixation of genetic drug resistance. PMID:28361736

  4. Loss of maintenance DNA methylation results in abnormal DNA origin firing during DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Mayumi; Shimada, Midori; Nishiyama, Atsuya; Johmura, Yoshikazu; Le Tallec, Benoît; Debatisse, Michelle; Nakanishi, Makoto

    2016-01-22

    The mammalian maintenance methyltransferase DNMT1 [DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1] mediates the inheritance of the DNA methylation pattern during replication. Previous studies have shown that depletion of DNMT1 causes a severe growth defect and apoptosis in differentiated cells. However, the detailed mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that conditional ablation of Dnmt1 in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in an aberrant DNA replication program showing an accumulation of late-S phase replication and causing severely defective growth. Furthermore, we found that the catalytic activity and replication focus targeting sequence of DNMT1 are required for a proper DNA replication program. Taken together, our findings suggest that the maintenance of DNA methylation by DNMT1 plays a critical role in proper regulation of DNA replication in mammalian cells.

  5. Mechanism of chromosomal DNA replication initiation and replication fork stabilization in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Wu, LiHong; Liu, Yang; Kong, DaoChun

    2014-05-01

    Chromosomal DNA replication is one of the central biological events occurring inside cells. Due to its large size, the replication of genomic DNA in eukaryotes initiates at hundreds to tens of thousands of sites called DNA origins so that the replication could be completed in a limited time. Further, eukaryotic DNA replication is sophisticatedly regulated, and this regulation guarantees that each origin fires once per S phase and each segment of DNA gets duplication also once per cell cycle. The first step of replication initiation is the assembly of pre-replication complex (pre-RC). Since 1973, four proteins, Cdc6/Cdc18, MCM, ORC and Cdt1, have been extensively studied and proved to be pre-RC components. Recently, a novel pre-RC component called Sap1/Girdin was identified. Sap1/Girdin is required for loading Cdc18/Cdc6 to origins for pre-RC assembly in the fission yeast and human cells, respectively. At the transition of G1 to S phase, pre-RC is activated by the two kinases, cyclindependent kinase (CDK) and Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK), and subsequently, RPA, primase-polα, PCNA, topoisomerase, Cdc45, polδ, and polɛ are recruited to DNA origins for creating two bi-directional replication forks and initiating DNA replication. As replication forks move along chromatin DNA, they frequently stall due to the presence of a great number of replication barriers on chromatin DNA, such as secondary DNA structures, protein/DNA complexes, DNA lesions, gene transcription. Stalled forks must require checkpoint regulation for their stabilization. Otherwise, stalled forks will collapse, which results in incomplete DNA replication and genomic instability. This short review gives a concise introduction regarding the current understanding of replication initiation and replication fork stabilization.

  6. Spontaneous frameshift mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: accumulation during DNA replication and removal by proofreading and mismatch repair activities.

    PubMed Central

    Greene, C N; Jinks-Robertson, S

    2001-01-01

    The accumulation of frameshift mutations during DNA synthesis is determined by the rate at which frameshift intermediates are generated during DNA polymerization and the efficiency with which frameshift intermediates are removed by DNA polymerase-associated exonucleolytic proofreading activity and/or the postreplicative mismatch repair machinery. To examine the relative contributions of these factors to replication fidelity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we determined the reversion rates and spectra of the lys2 Delta Bgl +1 frameshift allele. Wild-type and homozygous mutant diploid strains with all possible combinations of defects in the exonuclease activities of DNA polymerases delta and epsilon (conferred by the pol3-01 and pol2-4 alleles, respectively) and in mismatch repair (deletion of MSH2) were analyzed. Although there was no direct correlation between homopolymer run length and frameshift accumulation in the wild-type strain, such a correlation was evident in the triple mutant strain lacking all repair capacity. Furthermore, examination of strains defective in one or two repair activities revealed distinct biases in the removal of the corresponding frameshift intermediates by exonucleolytic proofreading and/or mismatch repair. Finally, these analyses suggest that the mismatch repair machinery may be important for generating some classes of frameshift mutations in yeast. PMID:11560887

  7. Eukaryotic DNA replication control: lock and load, then fire.

    PubMed

    Remus, Dirk; Diffley, John F X

    2009-12-01

    The initiation of chromosomal DNA replication involves initiator proteins that recruit and load hexameric DNA helicases at replication origins. This helicase loading step is tightly regulated in bacteria and eukaryotes. In contrast to the situation in bacteria, the eukaryotic helicase is loaded in an inactive form. This extra 'lock and load' mechanism in eukaryotes allows regulation of a second step, helicase activation. The temporal separation of helicase loading and activation is crucial for the coordination of DNA replication with cell growth and extracellular signals, the prevention of re-replication and the control of origin activity in response to replication stress. Initiator proteins in bacteria and eukaryotes are structurally homologous; yet the replicative helicases they load are unrelated. Understanding how these helicases are loaded and how they act during unwinding may have important implications for understanding how DNA replication is regulated in different domains of life.

  8. Characterization of the DNA-unwinding activity of human RECQ1, a helicase specifically stimulated by human replication protein A.

    PubMed

    Cui, Sheng; Klima, Raffaella; Ochem, Alex; Arosio, Daniele; Falaschi, Arturo; Vindigni, Alessandro

    2003-01-17

    The RecQ helicases are involved in several aspects of DNA metabolism. Five members of the RecQ family have been found in humans, but only two of them have been carefully characterized, BLM and WRN. In this work, we describe the enzymatic characterization of RECQ1. The helicase has 3' to 5' polarity, cannot start the unwinding from a blunt-ended terminus, and needs a 3'-single-stranded DNA tail longer than 10 nucleotides to open the substrate. However, it was also able to unwind a blunt-ended duplex DNA with a "bubble" of 25 nucleotides in the middle, as previously observed for WRN and BLM. We show that only short DNA duplexes (<30 bp) can be unwound by RECQ1 alone, but the addition of human replication protein A (hRPA) increases the processivity of the enzyme (>100 bp). Our studies done with Escherichia coli single-strand binding protein (SSB) indicate that the helicase activity of RECQ1 is specifically stimulated by hRPA. This finding suggests that RECQ1 and hRPA may interact also in vivo and function together in DNA metabolism. Comparison of the present results with previous studies on WRN and BLM provides novel insight into the role of the N- and C-terminal domains of these helicases in determining their substrate specificity and in their interaction with hRPA.

  9. The DNA repair endonuclease Mus81 facilitates fast DNA replication in the absence of exogenous damage

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Haiqing; Martin, Melvenia M.; Regairaz, Marie; Huang, Liang; You, Yang; Lin, Chi-Mei; Ryan, Michael; Kim, RyangGuk; Shimura, Tsutomu; Pommier, Yves; Aladjem, Mirit I.

    2015-01-01

    The Mus81 endonuclease resolves recombination intermediates and mediates cellular responses to exogenous replicative stress. Here, we show that Mus81 also regulates the rate of DNA replication during normal growth by promoting replication fork progression while reducing the frequency of replication initiation events. In the absence of Mus81 endonuclease activity, DNA synthesis is slowed and replication initiation events are more frequent. In addition, Mus81 deficient cells fail to recover from exposure to low doses of replication inhibitors and cell viability is dependent on the XPF endonuclease. Despite an increase in replication initiation frequency, cells lacking Mus81 use the same pool of replication origins as Mus81-expressing cells. Therefore, decelerated DNA replication in Mus81 deficient cells does not initiate from cryptic or latent origins not used during normal growth. These results indicate that Mus81 plays a key role in determining the rate of DNA replication without activating a novel group of replication origins. PMID:25879486

  10. Eukaryotic genome instability in light of asymmetric DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Lujan, Scott A; Williams, Jessica S; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    The eukaryotic nuclear genome is replicated asymmetrically, with the leading strand replicated continuously and the lagging strand replicated as discontinuous Okazaki fragments that are subsequently joined. Both strands are replicated with high fidelity, but the processes used to achieve high fidelity are likely to differ. Here we review recent studies of similarities and differences in the fidelity with which the three major eukaryotic replicases, DNA polymerases α, δ, and ɛ, replicate the leading and lagging strands with high nucleotide selectivity and efficient proofreading. We then relate the asymmetric fidelity at the replication fork to the efficiency of DNA mismatch repair, ribonucleotide excision repair and topoisomerase 1 activity.

  11. Stabilization of quadruplex DNA perturbs telomere replication leading to the activation of an ATR-dependent ATM signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Angela; Salvati, Erica; Porru, Manuela; D'Angelo, Carmen; Stevens, Malcolm F; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Leonetti, Carlo; Gilson, Eric; Zupi, Gabriella; Biroccio, Annamaria

    2009-09-01

    Functional telomeres are required to maintain the replicative ability of cancer cells and represent putative targets for G-quadruplex (G4) ligands. Here, we show that the pentacyclic acridinium salt RHPS4, one of the most effective and selective G4 ligands, triggers damages in cells traversing S phase by interfering with telomere replication. Indeed, we found that RHPS4 markedly reduced BrdU incorporation at telomeres and altered the dynamic association of the telomeric proteins TRF1, TRF2 and POT1, leading to chromosome aberrations such as telomere fusions and telomere doublets. Analysis of the molecular damage pathway revealed that RHPS4 induced an ATR-dependent ATM signaling that plays a functional role in the cellular response to RHPS4 treatment. We propose that RHPS4, by stabilizing G4 DNA at telomeres, impairs fork progression and/or telomere processing resulting in telomere dysfunction and activation of a replication stress response pathway. The detailed understanding of the molecular mode of action of this class of compounds makes them attractive tools to understand telomere biology and provides the basis for a rational use of G4 ligands for the therapy of cancer.

  12. Origin plasticity during budding yeast DNA replication in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gros, Julien; Devbhandari, Sujan; Remus, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The separation of DNA replication origin licensing and activation in the cell cycle is essential for genome stability across generations in eukaryotic cells. Pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs) license origins by loading Mcm2-7 complexes in inactive form around DNA. During origin firing in S phase, replisomes assemble around the activated Mcm2-7 DNA helicase. Budding yeast pre-RCs have previously been reconstituted in vitro with purified proteins. Here, we show that reconstituted pre-RCs support replication of plasmid DNA in yeast cell extracts in a reaction that exhibits hallmarks of cellular replication initiation. Plasmid replication in vitro results in the generation of covalently closed circular daughter molecules, indicating that the system recapitulates the initiation, elongation, and termination stages of DNA replication. Unexpectedly, yeast origin DNA is not strictly required for DNA replication in vitro, as heterologous DNA sequences could support replication of plasmid molecules. Our findings support the notion that epigenetic mechanisms are important for determining replication origin sites in budding yeast, highlighting mechanistic principles of replication origin specification that are common among eukaryotes. PMID:24566988

  13. DNA replication-dependent induction of gene proximity by androgen.

    PubMed

    Coll-Bastus, Nuria; Mao, Xueying; Young, Bryan D; Sheer, Denise; Lu, Yong-Jie

    2015-02-15

    The male hormone androgen, working through the androgen receptor (AR), plays a major role in physiological process and disease development. Previous studies of AR mainly focus on its transcriptional activity. Here, we found that androgen-induced TMPRSS2 and ERG gene proximity is mediated by AR control of DNA replication rather than gene transcription. We demonstrate that, in both AR transactivation-positive and -negative prostate cells, androgen regulates DNA replication and androgen-induced gene proximity relies on both DNA replication-licensing and actual DNA replication activity. Androgen stimulation advances DNA replication timing of certain genomic regions, which may potentially increase gene proximity through sharing the same replication factory at a similar time. Therefore, we have revealed novel mechanisms of AR biological function, which will stimulate new research directions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. From structure to mechanism-understanding initiation of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Riera, Alberto; Barbon, Marta; Noguchi, Yasunori; Reuter, L Maximilian; Schneider, Sarah; Speck, Christian

    2017-06-01

    DNA replication results in the doubling of the genome prior to cell division. This process requires the assembly of 50 or more protein factors into a replication fork. Here, we review recent structural and biochemical insights that start to explain how specific proteins recognize DNA replication origins, load the replicative helicase on DNA, unwind DNA, synthesize new DNA strands, and reassemble chromatin. We focus on the minichromosome maintenance (MCM2-7) proteins, which form the core of the eukaryotic replication fork, as this complex undergoes major structural rearrangements in order to engage with DNA, regulate its DNA-unwinding activity, and maintain genome stability. © 2017 Riera et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Primer removal during mammalian mitochondrial DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Uhler, Jay P; Falkenberg, Maria

    2015-10-01

    The small circular mitochondrial genome in mammalian cells is replicated by a dedicated replisome, defects in which can cause mitochondrial disease in humans. A fundamental step in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and maintenance is the removal of the RNA primers needed for replication initiation. The nucleases RNase H1, FEN1, DNA2, and MGME1 have been implicated in this process. Here we review the role of these nucleases in the light of primer removal pathways in mitochondria, highlight associations with disease, as well as consider the implications for mtDNA replication initiation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Herpes simplex virus induces the replication of foreign DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Danovich, R.M.; Frenkel, N.

    1988-08-01

    Plasmids containing the simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication origin and the large T gene are replicated in Vero monkey cells but not in rabbit skin cells. Efficient replication of the plasmids was observed in rabbit cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. The HSV-induced replication required the large T antigen and the SV40 replication origin. However, it produced concatemeric molecules resembling replicative intermediates of HSV DNA and was sensitive to phosphonoacetate at concentrations known to inhibit the HSV DNA polymerase. Therefore, it involved the HSV DNA polymerase itself or a viral gene product(s) which was expressed following the replication of HSV DNA. Analyses of test plasmids lacking SV40 or HSV DNA sequences showed that, under some conditions. HSV also induced low-level replication of test plasmids containing no known eucaryotic replication origins. Together, these results show that HSV induces a DNA replicative activity which amplifies foreign DNA. The relevance of these findings to the putative transforming potential of HSV is discussed.

  17. Phage P4 DNA replication in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Díaz Orejas, R; Ziegelin, G; Lurz, R; Lanka, E

    1994-01-01

    Phage P4 DNA is replicated in cell-free extracts of Escherichia coli in the presence of partially purified P4 alpha protein [Krevolin and Calendar (1985), J. Mol. Biol. 182, 507-517]. Using a modified in vitro replication assay, we have further characterized this process. Analysis by agarose gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of in vitro replicated molecules demonstrates that the system yields supercoiled monomeric DNA as the main product. Electron microscopic analysis of in vitro generated intermediates indicates that DNA synthesis initiates in vitro mainly at ori, the origin of replication used in vivo. Replication proceeds from this origin bidirectionally, resulting in theta-type molecules. In contrast to the in vivo situation, no extensive single-stranded regions were found in these intermediates. The initiation proteins of the host, DnaB and DnaG, and the chaperones DnaJ and DnaK are not required for P4 replication, because polyclonal antibodies against those polypeptides do not inhibit the process. The reaction is inhibited by antibodies against the SSB protein, and by ara-CTP, a specific inhibitor of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme. Consistent with previous reports, P4 in vitro replication is independent of transcription by host RNA polymerase. Novobiocin, a DNA gyrase inhibitor, strongly inhibits P4 DNA synthesis, indicating that form I DNA is the required substrate. Images PMID:8029013

  18. Why Human Papillomaviruses Activate the DNA Damage Response (DDR) and How Cellular and Viral Replication Persists in the Presence of DDR Signaling.

    PubMed

    Bristol, Molly L; Das, Dipon; Morgan, Iain M

    2017-09-21

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) require the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) in order to undergo a successful life cycle. This activation presents a challenge for the virus and the infected cell: how does viral and host replication proceed in the presence of a DDR that ordinarily arrests replication; and how do HPV16 infected cells retain the ability to proliferate in the presence of a DDR that ordinarily arrests the cell cycle? This raises a further question: why do HPV activate the DDR? The answers to these questions are only partially understood; a full understanding could identify novel therapeutic strategies to target HPV cancers. Here, we propose that the rapid replication of an 8 kb double stranded circular genome during infection creates aberrant DNA structures that attract and activate DDR proteins. Therefore, HPV replication in the presence of an active DDR is a necessity for a successful viral life cycle in order to resolve these DNA structures on viral genomes; without an active DDR, successful replication of the viral genome would not proceed. We discuss the essential role of TopBP1 in this process and also how viral and cellular replication proceeds in HPV infected cells in the presence of DDR signals.

  19. Metal activation of synthetic and degradative activities of phi 29 DNA polymerase, a model enzyme for protein-primed DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Esteban, J A; Bernad, A; Salas, M; Blanco, L

    1992-01-21

    Analysis of metal activation on the synthetic and degradative activities of phi 29 DNA polymerase was carried out in comparison with T4 DNA polymerase and Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment). In the three DNA polymerases studied, both the polymerization and the 3'----5' exonuclease activity had clear differences in their metal ion requirements. The results obtained support the existence of independent metal binding sites for the synthetic and degradative activities of phi 29 DNA polymerase, according with the distant location of catalytic domains (N-terminal for the 3'----5' exonuclease and C-terminal for DNA polymerization) proposed for both Klenow fragment and phi 29 DNA polymerase. Furthermore, DNA competition experiments using phi 29 DNA polymerase suggested that the main differences observed in the metal usage to activate polymerization may be the consequence of metal-induced changes in the enzyme-DNA interactions, whose strength distinguishes processive and nonprocessive DNA polymerases. Interestingly, the initiation of DNA polymerization using a protein as a primer, a special synthetic activity carried out by phi 29 DNA polymerase, exhibited a strong preference for Mn2+ as metal activator. The molecular basis for this preference is mainly the result of a large increase in the affinity for dATP.

  20. Analysis of inhibition of DNA replication in irradiated cells using the SV40 based in vitro assay of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Iliakis, George; Mladenov, Emil; Wang, Ya; Wang, Hong Yan

    2012-01-01

    The deleterious effects of DNA damage on DNA replication have been demonstrated in many model systems and the mechanisms of the resulting inhibition have been a research focus for at least 40 years. Moreover, recent studies have identified several major components of the S-phase checkpoint, providing a mechanistic background for understanding the basis of inhibition of the initiation and elongation steps of DNA replication after DNA damage. Yet several aspects of the underlying biochemical mechanisms remain unresolved including the characterization of the enzymatic activities involved in checkpoint activation and the coordination of this process with DNA repair. Helpful for the delineation of the mechanism of the S-phase checkpoint is the observation that factors inhibiting DNA replication in vivo can be found in active form in extracts prepared from irradiated cells, when these are tested using the simian virus 40 (SV40) assay for in vitro DNA replication. In this assay, replication of plasmid DNA carrying the minimal origin of SV40 DNA replication is achieved in vitro using cytoplasmic cell extracts and SV40 large tumor antigen (TAg) as the only noncellular protein. Here, we describe protocols developed to measure in vitro DNA replication with the purpose of analyzing its regulation after exposure to DNA damage. The procedures include the preparation of components of the in vitro DNA replication reaction including cytoplasmic extracts from cells that have sustained DNA damage. The assay provides a powerful tool for investigating the effect of distinct agents acting either by inducing lesions in the DNA, or by inhibiting the functions of checkpoint proteins. Nevertheless, the fact that several steps of DNA replication initiation are carried out in this in vitro assay by TAg and not the corresponding cellular factors, might be considered as a limitation of the approach.

  1. Metal-Dependent Conformational Activation Explains Highly Promutagenic Replication across O6-Methylguanine by Human DNA Polymerase β

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Human DNA polymerase β (polβ) inserts, albeit slowly, T opposite the carcinogenic lesion O6-methylguanine (O6MeG) ∼30-fold more frequently than C. To gain insight into this promutagenic process, we solved four ternary structures of polβ with an incoming dCTP or dTTP analogue base-paired with O6MeG in the presence of active-site Mg2+ or Mn2+. The Mg2+-bound structures show that both the O6MeG·dCTP/dTTP–Mg2+ complexes adopt an open protein conformation, staggered base pair, and one active-site metal ion. The Mn2+-bound structures reveal that, whereas the O6Me·dCTP–Mn2+ complex assumes the similar altered conformation, the O6MeG·dTTP–Mn2+ complex adopts a catalytically competent state with a closed protein conformation and pseudo-Watson–Crick base pair. On the basis of these observations, we conclude that polβ slows nucleotide incorporation opposite O6MeG by inducing an altered conformation suboptimal for catalysis and promotes mutagenic replication by allowing Watson–Crick-mode for O6MeG·T but not for O6MeG·C in the enzyme active site. The O6MeG·dTTP–Mn2+ ternary structure, which represents the first structure of mismatched polβ ternary complex with a closed protein conformation and coplanar base pair, the first structure of pseudo-Watson–Crick O6MeG·T formed in the active site of a DNA polymerase, and a rare, if not the first, example of metal-dependent conformational activation of a DNA polymerase, indicate that catalytic metal-ion coordination is utilized as a kinetic checkpoint by polβ and is crucial for the conformational activation of polβ. Overall, our structural studies not only explain the promutagenic polβ catalysis across O6MeG but also provide new insights into the replication fidelity of polβ. PMID:24694247

  2. Sox10 regulates skin melanocyte proliferation by activating the DNA replication licensing factor MCM5.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhongyuan; Zheng, Xiaozi; Zhang, Xiaobo; Wang, Yipin; Zhu, Shanpu; Lu, Fan; Qu, Jia; Hou, Ling

    2017-03-01

    The control of cell proliferation is a fundamental aspect of tissue formation in development and regeneration. A cell type that illustrates this point particularly well is the neural crest-derived melanocyte, the pigment cell of vertebrates, as melanocytes can be followed easily during development and their pigment is directly visible in the integument of the adult. In mammals, melanocytes undergo physiological cycles of loss and proliferative regeneration during the hair cycle, and their proliferation is also critical during wound healing, repigmentation of depigmented lesions, and in melanoma formation and progression. Hence, a thorough analysis of the molecular parameters controlling melanocyte proliferation is crucial for our understanding of the physiology of this cell type both in health and disease. SOX10 is a critical regulator in melanocytes and melanoma cells, but its specific role in their proliferation is far from clear. In this study we analyze the role of SOX10 in regulating mammalian melanocyte proliferation in a mouse model. The role of SOX10 in melanoblast proliferation was analyzed in Sox10/+ mice by co-staining for melanocyte-specific markers and cell proliferation. In vitro, the role of SOX10 was studied by manipulating its levels using RNAi and analyzing the effects on DNA synthesis and cell growth and on gene expression at the RNA and protein levels. Reduction of Sox10 gene dose led to a reduction in the number of melanoblasts. Knockdown of Sox10 in melanocytes led to inhibition of cell proliferation and a decrease in the expression of the minichromosome maintenance complex component 5 (MCM5). In fact, SOX10 directly activated MCM5 transcription by binding to conserved SOX10 consensus DNA sequences in the MCM5 promoter. Furthermore, the defect in cell proliferation could be rescued partially by overexpression of MCM5 in Sox10 knockdown melanocytes. The results suggest that the SOX10-MCM5 axis plays an important role in controlling melanocyte

  3. Coumarin-based Inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis and Staphylococcus aureus Replicative DNA Helicase: Chemical Optimization, Biological Evaluation, and Antibacterial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Pai, Ramdas; Di, Ming; Aiello, Daniel; Barnes, Marjorie H.; Butler, Michelle M.; Tashjian, Tommy F.; Peet, Norton P.; Bowlin, Terry L.; Moir, Donald T.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant bacterial infections demands the development of new antibacterials that are not subject to existing mechanisms of resistance. Previously, we described coumarin-based inhibitors of an underexploited bacterial target, namely, the replicative helicase. Here we report the synthesis and evaluation of optimized coumarin-based inhibitors with 9–18-fold increased potency against S. aureus (Sa) and B. anthracis (Ba) helicases. Compounds 20 and 22 provided the best potency, with IC50 values of 3 and 1 µM, respectively, against the DNA duplex strand-unwinding activities of both B. anthracis and S. aureus helicases without affecting the single strand DNA-stimulated ATPase activity. Selectivity index (SI = CC50/MIC) values against S. aureus and B. anthracis for compound 20 were 33 and 66 and for compound 22 were 20 and 40, respectively. In addition, compounds 20 and 22 demonstrated potent antibacterial activity against multiple ciprofloxacin-resistant MRSA strains with MIC values ranging between 0.5–4.2 µg/mL. PMID:23231076

  4. Single molecule analysis of Trypanosoma brucei DNA replication dynamics.

    PubMed

    Calderano, Simone Guedes; Drosopoulos, William C; Quaresma, Marina Mônaco; Marques, Catarina A; Kosiyatrakul, Settapong; McCulloch, Richard; Schildkraut, Carl L; Elias, Maria Carolina

    2015-03-11

    Eukaryotic genome duplication relies on origins of replication, distributed over multiple chromosomes, to initiate DNA replication. A recent genome-wide analysis of Trypanosoma brucei, the etiological agent of sleeping sickness, localized its replication origins to the boundaries of multigenic transcription units. To better understand genomic replication in this organism, we examined replication by single molecule analysis of replicated DNA. We determined the average speed of replication forks of procyclic and bloodstream form cells and we found that T. brucei DNA replication rate is similar to rates seen in other eukaryotes. We also analyzed the replication dynamics of a central region of chromosome 1 in procyclic forms. We present evidence for replication terminating within the central part of the chromosome and thus emanating from both sides, suggesting a previously unmapped origin toward the 5' extremity of chromosome 1. Also, termination is not at a fixed location in chromosome 1, but is rather variable. Importantly, we found a replication origin located near an ORC1/CDC6 binding site that is detected after replicative stress induced by hydroxyurea treatment, suggesting it may be a dormant origin activated in response to replicative stress. Collectively, our findings support the existence of more replication origins in T. brucei than previously appreciated. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Single molecule analysis of Trypanosoma brucei DNA replication dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Calderano, Simone Guedes; Drosopoulos, William C.; Quaresma, Marina Mônaco; Marques, Catarina A.; Kosiyatrakul, Settapong; McCulloch, Richard; Schildkraut, Carl L.; Elias, Maria Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic genome duplication relies on origins of replication, distributed over multiple chromosomes, to initiate DNA replication. A recent genome-wide analysis of Trypanosoma brucei, the etiological agent of sleeping sickness, localized its replication origins to the boundaries of multigenic transcription units. To better understand genomic replication in this organism, we examined replication by single molecule analysis of replicated DNA. We determined the average speed of replication forks of procyclic and bloodstream form cells and we found that T. brucei DNA replication rate is similar to rates seen in other eukaryotes. We also analyzed the replication dynamics of a central region of chromosome 1 in procyclic forms. We present evidence for replication terminating within the central part of the chromosome and thus emanating from both sides, suggesting a previously unmapped origin toward the 5′ extremity of chromosome 1. Also, termination is not at a fixed location in chromosome 1, but is rather variable. Importantly, we found a replication origin located near an ORC1/CDC6 binding site that is detected after replicative stress induced by hydroxyurea treatment, suggesting it may be a dormant origin activated in response to replicative stress. Collectively, our findings support the existence of more replication origins in T. brucei than previously appreciated. PMID:25690894

  6. Mechanisms of Post-Replication DNA Repair.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanzhe; Mutter-Rottmayer, Elizabeth; Zlatanou, Anastasia; Vaziri, Cyrus; Yang, Yang

    2017-02-08

    Accurate DNA replication is crucial for cell survival and the maintenance of genome stability. Cells have developed mechanisms to cope with the frequent genotoxic injuries that arise from both endogenous and environmental sources. Lesions encountered during DNA replication are often tolerated by post-replication repair mechanisms that prevent replication fork collapse and avert the formation of DNA double strand breaks. There are two predominant post-replication repair pathways, trans-lesion synthesis (TLS) and template switching (TS). TLS is a DNA damage-tolerant and low-fidelity mode of DNA synthesis that utilizes specialized 'Y-family' DNA polymerases to replicate damaged templates. TS, however, is an error-free 'DNA damage avoidance' mode of DNA synthesis that uses a newly synthesized sister chromatid as a template in lieu of the damaged parent strand. Both TLS and TS pathways are tightly controlled signaling cascades that integrate DNA synthesis with the overall DNA damage response and are thus crucial for genome stability. This review will cover the current knowledge of the primary mediators of post-replication repair and how they are regulated in the cell.

  7. Mechanisms of Post-Replication DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanzhe; Mutter-Rottmayer, Elizabeth; Zlatanou, Anastasia; Vaziri, Cyrus; Yang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Accurate DNA replication is crucial for cell survival and the maintenance of genome stability. Cells have developed mechanisms to cope with the frequent genotoxic injuries that arise from both endogenous and environmental sources. Lesions encountered during DNA replication are often tolerated by post-replication repair mechanisms that prevent replication fork collapse and avert the formation of DNA double strand breaks. There are two predominant post-replication repair pathways, trans-lesion synthesis (TLS) and template switching (TS). TLS is a DNA damage-tolerant and low-fidelity mode of DNA synthesis that utilizes specialized ‘Y-family’ DNA polymerases to replicate damaged templates. TS, however, is an error-free ‘DNA damage avoidance’ mode of DNA synthesis that uses a newly synthesized sister chromatid as a template in lieu of the damaged parent strand. Both TLS and TS pathways are tightly controlled signaling cascades that integrate DNA synthesis with the overall DNA damage response and are thus crucial for genome stability. This review will cover the current knowledge of the primary mediators of post-replication repair and how they are regulated in the cell. PMID:28208741

  8. Recombination-dependent concatemeric viral DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Lo Piano, Ambra; Martínez-Jiménez, María I; Zecchi, Lisa; Ayora, Silvia

    2011-09-01

    The initiation of viral double stranded (ds) DNA replication involves proteins that recruit and load the replisome at the replication origin (ori). Any block in replication fork progression or a programmed barrier may act as a factor for ori-independent remodelling and assembly of a new replisome at the stalled fork. Then replication initiation becomes dependent on recombination proteins, a process called recombination-dependent replication (RDR). RDR, which is recognized as being important for replication restart and stability in all living organisms, plays an essential role in the replication cycle of many dsDNA viruses. The SPP1 virus, which infects Bacillus subtilis cells, serves as a paradigm to understand the links between replication and recombination in circular dsDNA viruses. SPP1-encoded initiator and replisome assembly proteins control the onset of viral replication and direct the recruitment of host-encoded replisomal components at viral oriL. SPP1 uses replication fork reactivation to switch from ori-dependent θ-type (circle-to-circle) replication to σ-type RDR. Replication fork arrest leads to a double strand break that is processed by viral-encoded factors to generate a D-loop into which a new replisome is assembled, leading to σ-type viral replication. SPP1 RDR proteins are compared with similar proteins encoded by other viruses and their possible in vivo roles are discussed.

  9. Bcl2 induces DNA replication stress by inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Xie, Maohua; Yen, Yun; Owonikoko, Taofeek K; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Khuri, Fadlo R; Curran, Walter J; Doetsch, Paul W; Deng, Xingming

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication stress is an inefficient DNA synthesis process that leads replication forks to progress slowly or stall. Two main factors that cause replication stress are alterations in pools of deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) precursors required for DNA synthesis and changes in the activity of proteins required for synthesis of dNTPs. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), containing regulatory hRRM1 and catalytic hRRM2 subunits, is the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleoside diphosphates (NDP) to deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates (dNDP) and thereby provides dNTP precursors needed for the synthesis of DNA. Here, we demonstrate that either endogenous or exogenous expression of Bcl2 results in decreases in RNR activity and intracellular dNTP, retardation of DNA replication fork progression, and increased rate of fork asymmetry leading to DNA replication stress. Bcl2 colocalizes with hRRM1 and hRRM2 in the cytoplasm and directly interacts via its BH4 domain with hRRM2 but not hRRM1. Removal of the BH4 domain of Bcl2 abrogates its inhibitory effects on RNR activity, dNTP pool level, and DNA replication. Intriguingly, Bcl2 directly inhibits RNR activity by disrupting the functional hRRM1/hRRM2 complex via its BH4 domain. Our findings argue that Bcl2 reduces intracellular dNTPs by inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase activity, thereby providing insight into how Bcl2 triggers DNA replication stress.

  10. DNA-PK is Involved in Repairing a Transient Surge of DNA BreaksInduced by Deceleration of DNA Replication.

    SciTech Connect

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Martin, Melvenia M.; Torres, Michael J.; Gu,Cory; Pluth, Janice M.; DiBernardi, Maria A.; McDonald, Jeffrey S.; Aladjem, Mirit I.

    2006-09-25

    ells that suffer substantial inhibition of DNA replication halt their cell cycle via a checkpoint response mediated by the PI3 kinases ATM and ATR. It is unclear how cells cope with milder replication insults, which are under the threshold for ATM and ATR activation. A third PI3 kinase, DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), is also activated following replication inhibition, but the role DNA-PK might play in response to perturbed replication is unclear, since this kinase does not activate the signaling cascades involved in the S-phase checkpoint. Here we report that mild, transient drug-induced perturbation of DNA replication rapidly induced DNA breaks that promptly disappeared in cells that contained a functional DNA-PK whereas such breaks persisted in cells that were deficient in DNA-PK activity. After the initial transient burst of DNA breaks, cells with a functional DNA-PK did not halt replication and continued to synthesize DNA at a slow pace in the presence of replication inhibitors. In contrast, DNA-PK deficient cells subject to low levels of replication inhibition halted cell cycle progression via an ATR-mediated S-phase checkpoint. The ATM kinase was dispensable for the induction of the initial DNA breaks. These observations suggest that DNA-PK is involved in setting a high threshold for the ATR-Chkl-mediated S-phase checkpoint by promptly repairing DNA breaks that appear immediately following inhibition of DNA replication.

  11. Transcription and replication of mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Clayton, D A

    2000-07-01

    The physical isolation of mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) over 30 years ago marked the beginning of studies of its structure, replication and the expression of its genetic content. Such analyses have revealed a number of surprises: novel DNA structural features of the circular genome such as the displacement loop (D-loop); multiple sized and deleted forms of the circular genome; a minimal set of mitochondrially encoded rRNAs and tRNAs needed for translation; a bacteriophage-like, nuclear-encoded mitochondrial RNA polymerase for transcription; and a direct linkage between transcription and the commitment to replication of the leading mtDNA strand that centres on the nuclear encoded mitochondrial transcription factor A. One of the more recent revelations is the existence, near the D-loop, of an atypical, stable RNA-DNA hybrid (or R-loop) at the origin of mammalian leading-strand DNA replication, composed of the parent DNA strands and an RNA transcript. In mammalian mitochondrial systems, all of the proteins known to be involved in DNA replication are encoded in the nucleus. Thus alterations and deficiencies in mtDNA replication must arise from mutations in mtDNA regulatory sequences and nuclear gene defects. Further studies of the relationships between nuclear-encoded proteins and their mtDNA target sequences could result in strategies to manipulate genotypes within cellular mtDNA populations.

  12. Bleomycin-induced alterations in DNA replication: relationship to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Dziegielewski, J; Melendy, T; Beerman, T A

    2001-01-23

    Bleomycin (BLM), a well-known DNA scission agent, is assumed to inhibit intracellular DNA replication by damaging the DNA template (cis-acting mechanism), although other DNA damaging compounds can alter DNA replication through modulation of crucial replication factor(s) (trans-acting mechanism). The present study examines the relationship between DNA damage and inhibition of replication caused by BLM in the well-defined simian virus 40 (SV40) intracellular and cell-free in vitro systems. Treatment of SV40-infected BSC-1 cells for 2 h with BLM at 50 microg/mL, induced 0.3 break/viral genome. Under the same treatment conditions, analysis of replication intermediates on two-dimensional gels showed a decrease in both mass of SV40 replication intermediates and replication activity. The mass of SV40 intermediates was decreased to about 30%, whereas replication activity was reduced to less than 5%. These results suggest that BLM inhibits both initiation and elongation phases of SV40 replication. In a cell-free DNA replication system, extracts from BLM-treated cells (50 micro/mL) were able to support SV40 DNA replication by only 50%. In this study, non-drug-treated DNA template was used, implying that BLM can induce a trans-acting effect. Finally, the drug-induced effects on SV40 DNA replication in cell-free and intracellular viral systems were compared to the effects on genomic DNA replication in BSC-1 cells. Overall, the results support the concept that BLM-induced inhibition of DNA replication occurs by both trans- (inhibition of replication of nondamaged template) and cis-acting mechanisms (template damage).

  13. Replication of Structured DNA and its implication in epigenetic stability

    PubMed Central

    Cea, Valentina; Cipolla, Lina; Sabbioneda, Simone

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication is an extremely risky process that cells have to endure in order to correctly duplicate and segregate their genome. This task is particularly sensitive to DNA damage and multiple mechanisms have evolved to protect DNA replication as a block to the replication fork could lead to genomic instability and possibly cell death. The DNA in the genome folds, for the most part, into the canonical B-form but in some instances can form complex secondary structures such as G-quadruplexes (G4). These G rich regions are thermodynamically stable and can constitute an obstacle to DNA and RNA metabolism. The human genome contains more than 350,000 sequences potentially capable to form G-quadruplexes and these structures are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as initiation of DNA replication, telomere maintenance and control of gene expression. Only recently, we started to understand how G4 DNA poses a problem to DNA replication and how its successful bypass requires the coordinated activity of ssDNA binding proteins, helicases and specialized DNA polymerases. Their role in the resolution and replication of structured DNA crucially prevents both genetic and epigenetic instability across the genome. PMID:26136769

  14. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Devika; Bradford, William D.; Freeland, Amy; Cady, Gillian; Wang, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100–200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how “normal” copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a “normal” rDNA copy number. PMID:28915237

  15. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number.

    PubMed

    Salim, Devika; Bradford, William D; Freeland, Amy; Cady, Gillian; Wang, Jianmin; Pruitt, Steven C; Gerton, Jennifer L

    2017-09-15

    Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100-200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how "normal" copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen the yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a "normal" rDNA copy number.

  16. DNA replication: polymerase epsilon as a non-catalytic converter of the helicase.

    PubMed

    Zegerman, Philip

    2013-04-08

    In eukaryotes DNA polymerase epsilon (ε) synthesises the leading DNA strand during replication. A new study provides insight into how this polymerase also functions independently of its enzyme activity to assemble and activate the replicative helicase.

  17. Mcm10 regulates DNA replication elongation by stimulating the CMG replicative helicase

    PubMed Central

    Lõoke, Marko; Maloney, Michael F.; Bell, Stephen P.

    2017-01-01

    Activation of the Mcm2–7 replicative DNA helicase is the committed step in eukaryotic DNA replication initiation. Although Mcm2–7 activation requires binding of the helicase-activating proteins Cdc45 and GINS (forming the CMG complex), an additional protein, Mcm10, drives initial origin DNA unwinding by an unknown mechanism. We show that Mcm10 binds a conserved motif located between the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide fold (OB-fold) and A subdomain of Mcm2. Although buried in the interface between these domains in Mcm2–7 structures, mutations predicted to separate the domains and expose this motif restore growth to conditional-lethal MCM10 mutant cells. We found that, in addition to stimulating initial DNA unwinding, Mcm10 stabilizes Cdc45 and GINS association with Mcm2–7 and stimulates replication elongation in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, we identified a lethal allele of MCM10 that stimulates initial DNA unwinding but is defective in replication elongation and CMG binding. Our findings expand the roles of Mcm10 during DNA replication and suggest a new model for Mcm10 function as an activator of the CMG complex throughout DNA replication. PMID:28270517

  18. Uracil DNA Glycosylase BKRF3 Contributes to Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Replication through Physical Interactions with Proteins in Viral DNA Replication Complex

    PubMed Central

    Su, Mei-Tzu; Liu, I-Hua; Wu, Chia-Wei; Chang, Shu-Ming; Tsai, Ching-Hwa; Yang, Pei-Wen; Chuang, Yu-Chia; Lee, Chung-Pei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BKRF3 shares sequence homology with members of the uracil-N-glycosylase (UNG) protein family and has DNA glycosylase activity. Here, we explored how BKRF3 participates in the DNA replication complex and contributes to viral DNA replication. Exogenously expressed Flag-BKRF3 was distributed mostly in the cytoplasm, whereas BKRF3 was translocated into the nucleus and colocalized with the EBV DNA polymerase BALF5 in the replication compartment during EBV lytic replication. The expression level of BKRF3 increased gradually during viral replication, coupled with a decrease of cellular UNG2, suggesting BKRF3 enzyme activity compensates for UNG2 and ensures the fidelity of viral DNA replication. In immunoprecipitation-Western blotting, BKRF3 was coimmunoprecipitated with BALF5, the polymerase processivity factor BMRF1, and the immediate-early transactivator Rta. Coexpression of BMRF1 appeared to facilitate the nuclear targeting of BKRF3 in immunofluorescence staining. Residues 164 to 255 of BKRF3 were required for interaction with Rta and BALF5, whereas residues 81 to 166 of BKRF3 were critical for BMRF1 interaction in glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown experiments. Viral DNA replication was defective in cells harboring BKRF3 knockout EBV bacmids. In complementation assays, the catalytic mutant BKRF3(Q90L,D91N) restored viral DNA replication, whereas the leucine loop mutant BKRF3(H213L) only partially rescued viral DNA replication, coupled with a reduced ability to interact with the viral DNA polymerase and Rta. Our data suggest that BKRF3 plays a critical role in viral DNA synthesis predominantly through its interactions with viral proteins in the DNA replication compartment, while its enzymatic activity may be supplementary for uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) function during virus replication. IMPORTANCE Catalytic activities of both cellular UDG UNG2 and viral UDGs contribute to herpesviral DNA replication. To ensure that the enzyme

  19. Replicative DNA polymerase mutations in cancer☆

    PubMed Central

    Heitzer, Ellen; Tomlinson, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Three DNA polymerases — Pol α, Pol δ and Pol ɛ — are essential for DNA replication. After initiation of DNA synthesis by Pol α, Pol δ or Pol ɛ take over on the lagging and leading strand respectively. Pol δ and Pol ɛ perform the bulk of replication with very high fidelity, which is ensured by Watson–Crick base pairing and 3′exonuclease (proofreading) activity. Yeast models have shown that mutations in the exonuclease domain of Pol δ and Pol ɛ homologues can cause a mutator phenotype. Recently, we identified germline exonuclease domain mutations (EDMs) in human POLD1 and POLE that predispose to ‘polymerase proofreading associated polyposis’ (PPAP), a disease characterised by multiple colorectal adenomas and carcinoma, with high penetrance and dominant inheritance. Moreover, somatic EDMs in POLE have also been found in sporadic colorectal and endometrial cancers. Tumors with EDMs are microsatellite stable and show an ‘ultramutator’ phenotype, with a dramatic increase in base substitutions. PMID:24583393

  20. Mapping origins of DNA replication in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Gerbi, Susan A

    2005-01-01

    Methods are described here to map an origin of replication in eukaryotes. Replicating DNA is enriched by BND cellulose column chromatography and by lambda-exonuclease digestion; this approach has largely superceded enrichment by BrdU incorporation. The general area in which replication begins can be deciphered by neutral/neutral 2D gel electrophoresis: a restriction fragment containing the replication bubble will form a bubble arc on these gels. A more sensitive method employs PCR analysis of nascent strands that are size-fractionated. Once the general area containing the origin of bidirectional replication has been mapped, a finer level of resolution can be obtained by replication initiation point (RIP) mapping, in which start sites of DNA synthesis are identified at the nucleotide level.

  1. Agrobacterium tumefaciens supports DNA replication of diverse geminivirus types.

    PubMed

    Selth, Luke A; Randles, John W; Rezaian, M Ali

    2002-04-10

    We have previously shown that the soil-borne plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens supports the replication of tomato leaf curl geminivirus (Australian isolate) (TLCV) DNA. However, the reproducibility of this observation with other geminiviruses has been questioned. Here, we show that replicative DNA forms of three other geminiviruses also accumulate at varying levels in Agrobacterium. Geminiviral DNA constructs that lacked the ability to replicate in Agrobacterium were rendered replication-competent by changing their configuration so that two copies of the viral ori were present. Furthermore, we report that low-level replication of TLCV DNA can occur in Escherichia coli containing a dimeric TLCV construct in a high copy number plasmid. These findings were reinforced by expression studies using beta-glucuronidase which revealed that all six TLCV promoters are active in Agrobacterium, and two are functional in E. coli.

  2. Gap-filling and bypass at the replication fork are both active mechanisms for tolerance of low-dose ultraviolet-induced DNA damage in the human genome.

    PubMed

    Quinet, Annabel; Vessoni, Alexandre T; Rocha, Clarissa R R; Gottifredi, Vanesa; Biard, Denis; Sarasin, Alain; Menck, Carlos F M; Stary, Anne

    2014-02-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage are removed by nucleotide excision repair (NER) or can be tolerated by specialized translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerases, such as Polη. TLS may act at stalled replication forks or through an S-phase independent gap-filling mechanism. After UVC irradiation, Polη-deficient (XP-V) human cells were arrested in early S-phase and exhibited both single-strand DNA (ssDNA) and prolonged replication fork stalling, as detected by DNA fiber assay. In contrast, NER deficiency in XP-C cells caused no apparent defect in S-phase progression despite the accumulation of ssDNA and a G2-phase arrest. These data indicate that while Polη is essential for DNA synthesis at ongoing damaged replication forks, NER deficiency might unmask the involvement of tolerance pathway through a gap-filling mechanism. ATR knock down by siRNA or caffeine addition provoked increased cell death in both XP-V and XP-C cells exposed to low-dose of UVC, underscoring the involvement of ATR/Chk1 pathway in both DNA damage tolerance mechanisms. We generated a unique human cell line deficient in XPC and Polη proteins, which exhibited both S- and G2-phase arrest after UVC irradiation, consistent with both single deficiencies. In these XP-C/Polη(KD) cells, UVC-induced replicative intermediates may collapse into double-strand breaks, leading to cell death. In conclusion, both TLS at stalled replication forks and gap-filling are active mechanisms for the tolerance of UVC-induced DNA damage in human cells and the preference for one or another pathway depends on the cellular genotype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. How frog embryos replicate their DNA reliably

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechhoefer, John; Marshall, Brandon

    2007-03-01

    Frog embryos contain three billion base pairs of DNA. In early embryos (cycles 2-12), DNA replication is extremely rapid, about 20 min., and the entire cell cycle lasts only 25 min., meaning that mitosis (cell division) takes place in about 5 min. In this stripped-down cell cycle, there are no efficient checkpoints to prevent the cell from dividing before its DNA has finished replication - a disastrous scenario. Even worse, the many origins of replication are laid down stochastically and are also initiated stochastically throughout the replication process. Despite the very tight time constraints and despite the randomness introduced by origin stochasticity, replication is extremely reliable, with cell division failing no more than once in 10,000 tries. We discuss a recent model of DNA replication that is drawn from condensed-matter theories of 1d nucleation and growth. Using our model, we discuss different strategies of replication: should one initiate all origins as early as possible, or is it better to hold back and initiate some later on? Using concepts from extreme-value statistics, we derive the distribution of replication times given a particular scenario for the initiation of origins. We show that the experimentally observed initiation strategy for frog embryos meets the reliability constraint and is close to the one that requires the fewest resources of a cell.

  4. Education: DNA replication using microscale natural convection.

    PubMed

    Priye, Aashish; Hassan, Yassin A; Ugaz, Victor M

    2012-12-07

    There is a need for innovative educational experiences that unify and reinforce fundamental principles at the interface between the physical, chemical, and life sciences. These experiences empower and excite students by helping them recognize how interdisciplinary knowledge can be applied to develop new products and technologies that benefit society. Microfluidics offers an incredibly versatile tool to address this need. Here we describe our efforts to create innovative hands-on activities that introduce chemical engineering students to molecular biology by challenging them to harness microscale natural convection phenomena to perform DNA replication via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Experimentally, we have constructed convective PCR stations incorporating a simple design for loading and mounting cylindrical microfluidic reactors between independently controlled thermal plates. A portable motion analysis microscope enables flow patterns inside the convective reactors to be directly visualized using fluorescent bead tracers. We have also developed a hands-on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) exercise based on modeling microscale thermal convection to identify optimal geometries for DNA replication. A cognitive assessment reveals that these activities strongly impact student learning in a positive way.

  5. Self-replication of DNA rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junghoon; Lee, Junwye; Hamada, Shogo; Murata, Satoshi; Ha Park, Sung

    2015-06-01

    Biology provides numerous examples of self-replicating machines, but artificially engineering such complex systems remains a formidable challenge. In particular, although simple artificial self-replicating systems including wooden blocks, magnetic systems, modular robots and synthetic molecular systems have been devised, such kinematic self-replicators are rare compared with examples of theoretical cellular self-replication. One of the principal reasons for this is the amount of complexity that arises when you try to incorporate self-replication into a physical medium. In this regard, DNA is a prime candidate material for constructing self-replicating systems due to its ability to self-assemble through molecular recognition. Here, we show that DNA T-motifs, which self-assemble into ring structures, can be designed to self-replicate through toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions. The inherent design of these rings allows the population dynamics of the systems to be controlled. We also analyse the replication scheme within a universal framework of self-replication and derive a quantitative metric of the self-replicability of the rings.

  6. Mechanisms and regulation of DNA replication initiation in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew W; Botchan, Michael R; Berger, James M

    2017-04-01

    Cellular DNA replication is initiated through the action of multiprotein complexes that recognize replication start sites in the chromosome (termed origins) and facilitate duplex DNA melting within these regions. In a typical cell cycle, initiation occurs only once per origin and each round of replication is tightly coupled to cell division. To avoid aberrant origin firing and re-replication, eukaryotes tightly regulate two events in the initiation process: loading of the replicative helicase, MCM2-7, onto chromatin by the origin recognition complex (ORC), and subsequent activation of the helicase by its incorporation into a complex known as the CMG. Recent work has begun to reveal the details of an orchestrated and sequential exchange of initiation factors on DNA that give rise to a replication-competent complex, the replisome. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms that underpin eukaryotic DNA replication initiation - from selecting replication start sites to replicative helicase loading and activation - and describe how these events are often distinctly regulated across different eukaryotic model organisms.

  7. The Inherent Asymmetry of DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Snedeker, Jonathan; Wooten, Matthew; Chen, Xin

    2017-08-11

    Semiconservative DNA replication has provided an elegant solution to the fundamental problem of how life is able to proliferate in a way that allows cells, organisms, and populations to survive and replicate many times over. Somewhat lost, however, in our admiration for this elegant mechanism is an appreciation for the asymmetries that occur in the process of DNA replication. As we discuss in this review, these asymmetries arise as a consequence of the structure of the DNA molecule and the enzymatic mechanism of DNA synthesis. Increasing evidence suggests that asymmetries inDNAreplication are able to play a central role in the processes of adaptation and evolution by shaping the mutagenic landscape of cells. Additionally, in eukaryotes, recent work has demonstrated that the inherent asymmetries in DNA replication may play an important role in the process of chromatin replication. As chromatin plays an essential role in defining cell identity, asymmetries generated during the process of DNA replication may play critical roles in cell fate dicisions related to patterning and development. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology Volume 33 is October 6, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  8. Synthesis of parvovirus H-1 replicative form from viral DNA by DNA polymerase gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Kollek, R; Goulian, M

    1981-01-01

    The initial event in the replication cycle of parvovirus H-1 is conversion of the single-stranded linear viral DNA to the double-stranded linear replicative form. We describe here detection of an activity in uninfected cell extracts that carries out this reaction. The activity was purified and identified as DNA polymerase gamma. Images PMID:6947222

  9. MYC and the Control of DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez-Sola, David; Gautier, Jean

    2014-01-01

    The MYC oncogene is a multifunctional protein that is aberrantly expressed in a significant fraction of tumors from diverse tissue origins. Because of its multifunctional nature, it has been difficult to delineate the exact contributions of MYC’s diverse roles to tumorigenesis. Here, we review the normal role of MYC in regulating DNA replication as well as its ability to generate DNA replication stress when overexpressed. Finally, we discuss the possible mechanisms by which replication stress induced by aberrant MYC expression could contribute to genomic instability and cancer. PMID:24890833

  10. DNA replication: failures and inverted fusions.

    PubMed

    Carr, Antony M; Paek, Andrew L; Weinert, Ted

    2011-10-01

    DNA replication normally follows the rules passed down from Watson and Crick: the chromosome duplicates as dictated by its antiparallel strands, base-pairing and leading and lagging strand differences. Real-life replication is more complicated, fraught with perils posed by chromosome damage for one, and by transcription of genes and by other perils that disrupt progress of the DNA replication machinery. Understanding the replication fork, including DNA structures, associated replisome and its regulators, is key to understanding how cells overcome perils and minimize error. Replication fork error leads to genome rearrangements and, potentially, cell death. Interest in the replication fork and its errors has recently gained added interest by the results of deep sequencing studies of human genomes. Several pathologies are associated with sometimes-bizarre genome rearrangements suggestive of elaborate replication fork failures. To try and understand the links between the replication fork, its failure and genome rearrangements, we discuss here phases of fork behavior (stall, collapse, restart and fork failures leading to rearrangements) and analyze two examples of instability from our own studies; one in fission yeast and the other in budding yeast.

  11. Microarray analysis of DNA replication timing.

    PubMed

    Karnani, Neerja; Taylor, Christopher M; Dutta, Anindya

    2009-01-01

    Although all of the DNA in an eukaryotic cell replicates during the S-phase of cell cycle, there is a significant difference in the actual time in S-phase when a given chromosomal segment replicates. Methods are described here for generation of high-resolution temporal maps of DNA replication in synchronized human cells. This method does not require amplification of DNA before microarray hybridization and so avoids errors introduced during PCR. A major advantage of using this procedure is that it facilitates finer dissection of replication time in S-phase. Also, it helps delineate chromosomal regions that undergo biallelic or asynchronous replication, which otherwise are difficult to detect at a genome-wide scale by existing methods. The continuous TR50 (time of completion of 50% replication) maps of replication across chromosomal segments identify regions that undergo acute transitions in replication timing. These transition zones can play a significant role in identifying insulators that separate chromosomal domains with different chromatin modifications.

  12. Diversity of DNA Replication in the Archaea.

    PubMed

    Ausiannikava, Darya; Allers, Thorsten

    2017-01-31

    DNA replication is arguably the most fundamental biological process. On account of their shared evolutionary ancestry, the replication machinery found in archaea is similar to that found in eukaryotes. DNA replication is initiated at origins and is highly conserved in eukaryotes, but our limited understanding of archaea has uncovered a wide diversity of replication initiation mechanisms. Archaeal origins are sequence-based, as in bacteria, but are bound by initiator proteins that share homology with the eukaryotic origin recognition complex subunit Orc1 and helicase loader Cdc6). Unlike bacteria, archaea may have multiple origins per chromosome and multiple Orc1/Cdc6 initiator proteins. There is no consensus on how these archaeal origins are recognised- some are bound by a single Orc1/Cdc6 protein while others require a multi- Orc1/Cdc6 complex. Many archaeal genomes consist of multiple parts-the main chromosome plus several megaplasmids-and in polyploid species these parts are present in multiple copies. This poses a challenge to the regulation of DNA replication. However, one archaeal species (Haloferax volcanii) can survive without replication origins; instead, it uses homologous recombination as an alternative mechanism of initiation. This diversity in DNA replication initiation is all the more remarkable for having been discovered in only three groups of archaea where in vivo studies are possible.

  13. Diversity of DNA Replication in the Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Ausiannikava, Darya; Allers, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    DNA replication is arguably the most fundamental biological process. On account of their shared evolutionary ancestry, the replication machinery found in archaea is similar to that found in eukaryotes. DNA replication is initiated at origins and is highly conserved in eukaryotes, but our limited understanding of archaea has uncovered a wide diversity of replication initiation mechanisms. Archaeal origins are sequence-based, as in bacteria, but are bound by initiator proteins that share homology with the eukaryotic origin recognition complex subunit Orc1 and helicase loader Cdc6). Unlike bacteria, archaea may have multiple origins per chromosome and multiple Orc1/Cdc6 initiator proteins. There is no consensus on how these archaeal origins are recognised—some are bound by a single Orc1/Cdc6 protein while others require a multi- Orc1/Cdc6 complex. Many archaeal genomes consist of multiple parts—the main chromosome plus several megaplasmids—and in polyploid species these parts are present in multiple copies. This poses a challenge to the regulation of DNA replication. However, one archaeal species (Haloferax volcanii) can survive without replication origins; instead, it uses homologous recombination as an alternative mechanism of initiation. This diversity in DNA replication initiation is all the more remarkable for having been discovered in only three groups of archaea where in vivo studies are possible. PMID:28146124

  14. Top1- and Top2-mediated topological transitions at replication forks ensure fork progression and stability and prevent DNA damage checkpoint activation.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Rodrigo; Doksani, Ylli; Capra, Thelma; Katou, Yuki-Mori; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Foiani, Marco

    2007-08-01

    DNA topoisomerases solve topological problems during chromosome metabolism. We investigated where and when Top1 and Top2 are recruited on replicating chromosomes and how their inactivation affects fork integrity and DNA damage checkpoint activation. We show that, in the context of replicating chromatin, Top1 and Top2 act within a 600-base-pair (bp) region spanning the moving forks. Top2 exhibits additional S-phase clusters at specific intergenic loci, mostly containing promoters. TOP1 ablation does not affect fork progression and stability and does not cause activation of the Rad53 checkpoint kinase. top2 mutants accumulate sister chromatid junctions in S phase without affecting fork progression and activate Rad53 at the M-G1 transition. top1 top2 double mutants exhibit fork block and processing and phosphorylation of Rad53 and gamma H2A in S phase. The exonuclease Exo1 influences fork processing and DNA damage checkpoint activation in top1 top2 mutants. Our data are consistent with a coordinated action of Top1 and Top2 in counteracting the accumulation of torsional stress and sister chromatid entanglement at replication forks, thus preventing the diffusion of topological changes along large chromosomal regions. A failure in resolving fork-related topological constrains during S phase may therefore result in abnormal chromosome transitions, DNA damage checkpoint activation, and chromosome breakage during segregation.

  15. The Causes and Consequences of Topological Stress during DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Keszthelyi, Andrea; Minchell, Nicola E.; Baxter, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The faithful replication of sister chromatids is essential for genomic integrity in every cell division. The replication machinery must overcome numerous difficulties in every round of replication, including DNA topological stress. Topological stress arises due to the double-stranded helical nature of DNA. When the strands are pulled apart for replication to occur, the intertwining of the double helix must also be resolved or topological stress will arise. This intrinsic problem is exacerbated by specific chromosomal contexts encountered during DNA replication. The convergence of two replicons during termination, the presence of stable protein-DNA complexes and active transcription can all lead to topological stresses being imposed upon DNA replication. Here we describe how replication forks respond to topological stress by replication fork rotation and fork reversal. We also discuss the genomic contexts where topological stress is likely to occur in eukaryotes, focusing on the contribution of transcription. Finally, we describe how topological stress, and the ways forks respond to it, may contribute to genomic instability in cells. PMID:28009828

  16. Fidelity of a human cell DNA replication complex.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J D; Kunkel, T A

    1988-01-01

    We have measured the fidelity of bidirectional, semiconservative DNA synthesis by a human DNA replication complex in vitro. Replication was performed by extracts of HeLa cells in the presence of simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen by using a double-stranded phage M13mp2 DNA template containing the SV40 origin of replication and either of two different target sequences for scoring mutations in the lacZ alpha-complementation gene, which encodes the alpha region (specifying the amino-terminal portion) of beta-galactosidase. Replicative synthesis was substantially more accurate than synthesis by the human DNA polymerase alpha-DNA primase complex purified from HeLa cell extracts by immunoaffinity chromatography, suggesting that additional factors or activities in the extract may increase fidelity during bidirectional replication. However, by using a sensitive opal codon reversion assay, single-base substitution errors were readily detected in the replication products at frequencies significantly higher than estimated spontaneous mutation rates in vivo. These data suggest that additional fidelity factors may be present during chromosomal replication in vivo and/or that the fidelity of replication alone does not account for the low spontaneous mutation rates in eukaryotes. Images PMID:3174620

  17. The Causes and Consequences of Topological Stress during DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Keszthelyi, Andrea; Minchell, Nicola E; Baxter, Jonathan

    2016-12-21

    The faithful replication of sister chromatids is essential for genomic integrity in every cell division. The replication machinery must overcome numerous difficulties in every round of replication, including DNA topological stress. Topological stress arises due to the double-stranded helical nature of DNA. When the strands are pulled apart for replication to occur, the intertwining of the double helix must also be resolved or topological stress will arise. This intrinsic problem is exacerbated by specific chromosomal contexts encountered during DNA replication. The convergence of two replicons during termination, the presence of stable protein-DNA complexes and active transcription can all lead to topological stresses being imposed upon DNA replication. Here we describe how replication forks respond to topological stress by replication fork rotation and fork reversal. We also discuss the genomic contexts where topological stress is likely to occur in eukaryotes, focusing on the contribution of transcription. Finally, we describe how topological stress, and the ways forks respond to it, may contribute to genomic instability in cells.

  18. The ATP requirements of adenovirus type 5 DNA replication and cellular DNA replication.

    PubMed

    De Jong, P J; Kwant, M M; van Driel, W; Jansz, H S; van der Vliet, P C

    1983-01-15

    Several in vitro DNA replication systems were employed to characterize the ATP dependency of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) DNA replication. Ad5 DNA synthesis in isolated nuclei, representing the elongation of nascent DNA chains, was slightly ATP dependent. Reduction of the ATP concentration from the optimum (8 mM) to the endogenous value (0.16 microM) reduced Ad5 DNA replication only to 70%. No change in the pattern of replication was observed as indicated by the analysis of replicative intermediates using agarose gel electrophoresis. ATP could be replaced by dATP, but not by GTP or other nucleoside triphosphates. By contrast, cellular DNA replication in isolated nuclei from HeLa cells was reduced to 12% by the omission of ATP. These differences could not be explained by different ATP pools or by effects of ATP on dNTP pools. Cellular DNA replication in contrast to viral DNA replication was sensitive to low concentrations of adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate). Inhibition by this ATP analog was competitive with ATP (Ki = 0.4 mM). Adenovirus DNA replication by DNA-free nuclear extracts, representing initiation plus elongation (Challberg and Kelly, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 655-659, 1979), exhibited a nearly absolute requirement for ATP. ATP could be substituted not only by dATP, but also by GTP and dGTP and to a lesser extent by pyrimidine triphosphates. Similar results were found when the formation of a covalent complex between dCTP and the precursor terminal protein was studied. This reaction is essential for the initiation of Ad5 DNA replication. The results indicate that different ATP-requiring functions are employed during the initiation and elongation stages of adenovirus DNA replication.

  19. The Cell Cycle Timing of Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Reinson, Tormi; Henno, Liisi; Toots, Mart; Ustav, Mart; Ustav, Mart

    2015-01-01

    Viruses manipulate the cell cycle of the host cell to optimize conditions for more efficient viral genome replication. One strategy utilized by DNA viruses is to replicate their genomes non-concurrently with the host genome; in this case, the viral genome is amplified outside S phase. This phenomenon has also been described for human papillomavirus (HPV) vegetative genome replication, which occurs in G2-arrested cells; however, the precise timing of viral DNA replication during initial and stable replication phases has not been studied. We developed a new method to quantitate newly synthesized DNA levels and used this method in combination with cell cycle synchronization to show that viral DNA replication is initiated during S phase and is extended to G2 during initial amplification but follows the replication pattern of cellular DNA during S phase in the stable maintenance phase. E1 and E2 protein overexpression changes the replication time from S only to both the S and G2 phases in cells that stably maintain viral episomes. These data demonstrate that the active synthesis and replication of the HPV genome are extended into the G2 phase to amplify its copy number and the duration of HPV genome replication is controlled by the level of the viral replication proteins E1 and E2. Using the G2 phase for genome amplification may be an important adaptation that allows exploitation of changing cellular conditions during cell cycle progression. We also describe a new method to quantify newly synthesized viral DNA levels and discuss its benefits for HPV research.

  20. On the processivity of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Fairfield, F R; Newport, J W; Dolejsi, M K; von Hippel, P H

    1983-12-01

    In this paper we describe the nature and importance of processive enzymatic reactions in biological processes. A model is set up to describe the processive synthetic process in DNA replication, and experiments are presented to define and test the model, using the components of the T4 phage-coded five-protein (in vitro) DNA replication system of Alberts. Nossal and coworkers. These experiments are performed either with a homogeneous oligo dT-poly dA primer-template system, or with a natural primer-template system using phage M13 DNA. The results are used to define some molecular aspects of the microscopic "processivity cycle".

  1. Spatiotemporal visualization of DNA replication dynamics.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Marius; Casas-Delucchi, Corella S; Cardoso, M Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The ability of cells to copy their DNA allows them to transmit their genetic information to their progeny. In such, this central biological process preserves the instructions that direct the entire development of a cell. Earlier biochemical analysis in vitro and genetic analysis in yeast laid the basis of our understanding of the highly conserved mechanism of DNA replication. Recent advances on labeling and live-cell microscopy permit now the dissection of this fundamental process in vivo within the context of intact cells. In this chapter, we describe in detail how to perform multiple DNA replication labeling and detection allowing high spatial resolution imaging, as well as how to follow DNA replication in living cells allowing high temporal resolution imaging.

  2. RMI1 Promotes DNA Replication Fork Progression and Recovery from Replication Fork Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jay; O'Donnell, Lara; Durocher, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    RMI1 is a member of an evolutionarily conserved complex composed of BLM and topoisomerase IIIα (TopoIIIα). This complex exhibits strand passage activity in vitro, which is likely important for DNA repair and DNA replication in vivo. The inactivation of RMI1 causes genome instability, including elevated levels of sister chromatid exchange and accelerated tumorigenesis. Using molecular combing to analyze DNA replication at the single-molecule level, we show that RMI1 is required to promote normal replication fork progression. The fork progression defect in RMI1-depleted cells is alleviated in cells lacking BLM, indicating that RMI1 functions downstream of BLM in promoting replication elongation. RMI1 localizes to subnuclear foci with BLM and TopoIIIα in response to replication stress. The proper localization of the complex requires a BLM-TopoIIIα-RMI1 interaction and is essential for RMI1 to promote recovery from replication stress. These findings reveal direct roles of RMI1 in DNA replication and the replication stress response, which could explain the molecular basis for its involvement in suppressing sister chromatid exchange and tumorigenesis. PMID:22645306

  3. Replicating damaged DNA in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nimrat; Siede, Wolfram

    2013-12-01

    DNA damage is one of many possible perturbations that challenge the mechanisms that preserve genetic stability during the copying of the eukaryotic genome in S phase. This short review provides, in the first part, a general introduction to the topic and an overview of checkpoint responses. In the second part, the mechanisms of error-free tolerance in response to fork-arresting DNA damage will be discussed in some detail.

  4. Cohesin organizes chromatin loops at DNA replication factories

    PubMed Central

    Guillou, Emmanuelle; Ibarra, Arkaitz; Coulon, Vincent; Casado-Vela, Juan; Rico, Daniel; Casal, Ignacio; Schwob, Etienne; Losada, Ana; Méndez, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Genomic DNA is packed in chromatin fibers organized in higher-order structures within the interphase nucleus. One level of organization involves the formation of chromatin loops that may provide a favorable environment to processes such as DNA replication, transcription, and repair. However, little is known about the mechanistic basis of this structuration. Here we demonstrate that cohesin participates in the spatial organization of DNA replication factories in human cells. Cohesin is enriched at replication origins and interacts with prereplication complex proteins. Down-regulation of cohesin slows down S-phase progression by limiting the number of active origins and increasing the length of chromatin loops that correspond with replicon units. These results give a new dimension to the role of cohesin in the architectural organization of interphase chromatin, by showing its participation in DNA replication. PMID:21159821

  5. Chromatin Controls DNA Replication Origin Selection, Lagging-Strand Synthesis, and Replication Fork Rates.

    PubMed

    Kurat, Christoph F; Yeeles, Joseph T P; Patel, Harshil; Early, Anne; Diffley, John F X

    2017-01-05

    The integrity of eukaryotic genomes requires rapid and regulated chromatin replication. How this is accomplished is still poorly understood. Using purified yeast replication proteins and fully chromatinized templates, we have reconstituted this process in vitro. We show that chromatin enforces DNA replication origin specificity by preventing non-specific MCM helicase loading. Helicase activation occurs efficiently in the context of chromatin, but subsequent replisome progression requires the histone chaperone FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription). The FACT-associated Nhp6 protein, the nucleosome remodelers INO80 or ISW1A, and the lysine acetyltransferases Gcn5 and Esa1 each contribute separately to maximum DNA synthesis rates. Chromatin promotes the regular priming of lagging-strand DNA synthesis by facilitating DNA polymerase α function at replication forks. Finally, nucleosomes disrupted during replication are efficiently re-assembled into regular arrays on nascent DNA. Our work defines the minimum requirements for chromatin replication in vitro and shows how multiple chromatin factors might modulate replication fork rates in vivo. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Measuring DNA Replication in Hypoxic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Foskolou, Iosifina P; Biasoli, Deborah; Olcina, Monica M; Hammond, Ester M

    2016-01-01

    It is imperative that dividing cells maintain replication fork integrity in order to prevent DNA damage and cell death. The investigation of DNA replication is of high importance as alterations in this process can lead to genomic instability, a known causative factor of tumor development. A simple, sensitive, and informative technique which enables the study of DNA replication, is the DNA fiber assay, an adaptation of which is described in this chapter. The DNA fiber method is a powerful tool, which allows the quantitative and qualitative analysis of DNA replication at the single molecule level. The sequential pulse labeling of live cells with two thymidine analogues and the subsequent detection with specific antibodies and fluorescence imaging allows direct examination of sites of DNA synthesis. In this chapter, we describe how this assay can be performed in conditions of low oxygen levels (hypoxia)-a physiologically relevant stress that occurs in most solid tumors. Moreover, we suggest ways on how to overcome the technical problems that arise while using the hypoxic chambers.

  7. Replication initiation and genome instability: a crossroads for DNA and RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Jacqueline H; Nussenzweig, André

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear DNA replication requires the concerted action of hundreds of proteins to efficiently unwind and duplicate the entire genome while also retaining epigenetic regulatory information. Initiation of DNA replication is tightly regulated, rapidly firing thousands of origins once the conditions to promote rapid and faithful replication are in place, and defects in replication initiation lead to proliferation defects, genome instability, and a range of developmental abnormalities. Interestingly, DNA replication in metazoans initiates in actively transcribed DNA, meaning that replication initiation occurs in DNA that is co-occupied with tens of thousands of poised and active RNA polymerase complexes. Active transcription can induce genome instability, particularly during DNA replication, as RNA polymerases can induce torsional stress, formation of secondary structures, and act as a physical barrier to other enzymes involved in DNA metabolism. Here we discuss the challenges facing mammalian DNA replication, their impact on genome instability, and the development of cancer.

  8. Cytomegalovirus Replication in Semen Is Associated with Higher Levels of Proviral HIV DNA and CD4+ T Cell Activation during Antiretroviral Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Massanella, Marta; Richman, Douglas D.; Little, Susan J.; Spina, Celsa A.; Vargas, Milenka V.; Lada, Steven M.; Daar, Eric S.; Dube, Michael P.; Haubrich, Richard H.; Morris, Sheldon R.; Smith, Davey M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Asymptomatic cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication occurs frequently in the genital tract in untreated HIV-infected men and is associated with increased immune activation and HIV disease progression. To determine the connections between CMV-associated immune activation and the size of the viral reservoir, we evaluated the interactions between (i) asymptomatic seminal CMV replication, (ii) levels of T cell activation and proliferation in blood, and (iii) the size and transcriptional activity of the HIV DNA reservoir in blood from 53 HIV-infected men on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) with suppressed HIV RNA in blood plasma. We found that asymptomatic CMV shedding in semen was associated with significantly higher levels of proliferating and activated CD4+ T cells in blood (P < 0.01). Subjects with detectable CMV in semen had approximately five times higher average levels of HIV DNA in blood CD4+ T cells than subjects with no CMV. There was also a trend for CMV shedders to have increased cellular (multiply spliced) HIV RNA transcription (P = 0.068) compared to participants without CMV, but it is unclear if this transcription pattern is associated with residual HIV replication. In multivariate analysis, the presence of seminal plasma CMV (P = 0.04), detectable 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR), and lower nadir CD4+ (P < 0.01) were independent predictors of higher levels of proviral HIV DNA in blood. Interventions aimed at reducing seminal CMV and associated immune activation may be important for HIV curative strategies. Future studies of anti-CMV therapeutics will help to establish causality and determine the mechanisms underlying these described associations. IMPORTANCE Almost all individuals infected with HIV are also infected with cytomegalovirus (CMV), and the replication dynamics of the two viruses likely influence each other. This study investigated interactions between asymptomatic CMV replication within the male genital tract, levels of inflammation in

  9. Cytomegalovirus replication in semen is associated with higher levels of proviral HIV DNA and CD4+ T cell activation during antiretroviral treatment.

    PubMed

    Gianella, Sara; Massanella, Marta; Richman, Douglas D; Little, Susan J; Spina, Celsa A; Vargas, Milenka V; Lada, Steven M; Daar, Eric S; Dube, Michael P; Haubrich, Richard H; Morris, Sheldon R; Smith, Davey M

    2014-07-01

    Asymptomatic cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication occurs frequently in the genital tract in untreated HIV-infected men and is associated with increased immune activation and HIV disease progression. To determine the connections between CMV-associated immune activation and the size of the viral reservoir, we evaluated the interactions between (i) asymptomatic seminal CMV replication, (ii) levels of T cell activation and proliferation in blood, and (iii) the size and transcriptional activity of the HIV DNA reservoir in blood from 53 HIV-infected men on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) with suppressed HIV RNA in blood plasma. We found that asymptomatic CMV shedding in semen was associated with significantly higher levels of proliferating and activated CD4(+) T cells in blood (P < 0.01). Subjects with detectable CMV in semen had approximately five times higher average levels of HIV DNA in blood CD4(+) T cells than subjects with no CMV. There was also a trend for CMV shedders to have increased cellular (multiply spliced) HIV RNA transcription (P = 0.068) compared to participants without CMV, but it is unclear if this transcription pattern is associated with residual HIV replication. In multivariate analysis, the presence of seminal plasma CMV (P = 0.04), detectable 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR), and lower nadir CD4(+) (P < 0.01) were independent predictors of higher levels of proviral HIV DNA in blood. Interventions aimed at reducing seminal CMV and associated immune activation may be important for HIV curative strategies. Future studies of anti-CMV therapeutics will help to establish causality and determine the mechanisms underlying these described associations. Importance: Almost all individuals infected with HIV are also infected with cytomegalovirus (CMV), and the replication dynamics of the two viruses likely influence each other. This study investigated interactions between asymptomatic CMV replication within the male genital tract, levels of inflammation in

  10. p53 inhibits DNA replication in vitro in a DNA-binding-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.D.; Farmer, G.; Prives, C.

    1995-12-01

    This report discusses new findings that the tumor supressor gene product p53 may play a role as a DNA-binding-dependent regulator of DNA replication. The results were obtained using polyomavirus in replication assays. Details regarding effects on cell growth arrest and transcriptional activation are discussed. 61 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Centromeric DNA replication reconstitution reveals DNA loops and ATR checkpoint suppression.

    PubMed

    Aze, Antoine; Sannino, Vincenzo; Soffientini, Paolo; Bachi, Angela; Costanzo, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    Half of the human genome is made up of repetitive DNA. However, mechanisms underlying replication of chromosome regions containing repetitive DNA are poorly understood. We reconstituted replication of defined human chromosome segments using bacterial artificial chromosomes in Xenopus laevis egg extract. Using this approach we characterized the chromatin assembly and replication dynamics of centromeric alpha-satellite DNA. Proteomic analysis of centromeric chromatin revealed replication-dependent enrichment of a network of DNA repair factors including the MSH2-6 complex, which was required for efficient centromeric DNA replication. However, contrary to expectations, the ATR-dependent checkpoint monitoring DNA replication fork arrest could not be activated on highly repetitive DNA due to the inability of the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA to accumulate on chromatin. Electron microscopy of centromeric DNA and supercoil mapping revealed the presence of topoisomerase I-dependent DNA loops embedded in a protein matrix enriched for SMC2-4 proteins. This arrangement suppressed ATR signalling by preventing RPA hyper-loading, facilitating replication of centromeric DNA. These findings have important implications for our understanding of repetitive DNA metabolism and centromere organization under normal and stressful conditions.

  12. APOBEC3A damages the cellular genome during DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Green, Abby M; Landry, Sébastien; Budagyan, Konstantin; Avgousti, Daphne C; Shalhout, Sophia; Bhagwat, Ashok S; Weitzman, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    The human APOBEC3 family of DNA-cytosine deaminases comprises 7 members (A3A-A3H) that act on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The APOBEC3 proteins function within the innate immune system by mutating DNA of viral genomes and retroelements to restrict infection and retrotransposition. Recent evidence suggests that APOBEC3 enzymes can also cause damage to the cellular genome. Mutational patterns consistent with APOBEC3 activity have been identified by bioinformatic analysis of tumor genome sequences. These mutational signatures include clusters of base substitutions that are proposed to occur due to APOBEC3 deamination. It has been suggested that transiently exposed ssDNA segments provide substrate for APOBEC3 deamination leading to mutation signatures within the genome. However, the mechanisms that produce single-stranded substrates for APOBEC3 deamination in mammalian cells have not been demonstrated. We investigated ssDNA at replication forks as a substrate for APOBEC3 deamination. We found that APOBEC3A (A3A) expression leads to DNA damage in replicating cells but this is reduced in quiescent cells. Upon A3A expression, cycling cells activate the DNA replication checkpoint and undergo cell cycle arrest. Additionally, we find that replication stress leaves cells vulnerable to A3A-induced DNA damage. We propose a model to explain A3A-induced damage to the cellular genome in which cytosine deamination at replication forks and other ssDNA substrates results in mutations and DNA breaks. This model highlights the risk of mutagenesis by A3A expression in replicating progenitor cells, and supports the emerging hypothesis that APOBEC3 enzymes contribute to genome instability in human tumors.

  13. APOBEC3A damages the cellular genome during DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Green, Abby M.; Landry, Sébastien; Budagyan, Konstantin; Avgousti, Daphne C.; Shalhout, Sophia; Bhagwat, Ashok S.; Weitzman, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human APOBEC3 family of DNA-cytosine deaminases comprises 7 members (A3A-A3H) that act on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The APOBEC3 proteins function within the innate immune system by mutating DNA of viral genomes and retroelements to restrict infection and retrotransposition. Recent evidence suggests that APOBEC3 enzymes can also cause damage to the cellular genome. Mutational patterns consistent with APOBEC3 activity have been identified by bioinformatic analysis of tumor genome sequences. These mutational signatures include clusters of base substitutions that are proposed to occur due to APOBEC3 deamination. It has been suggested that transiently exposed ssDNA segments provide substrate for APOBEC3 deamination leading to mutation signatures within the genome. However, the mechanisms that produce single-stranded substrates for APOBEC3 deamination in mammalian cells have not been demonstrated. We investigated ssDNA at replication forks as a substrate for APOBEC3 deamination. We found that APOBEC3A (A3A) expression leads to DNA damage in replicating cells but this is reduced in quiescent cells. Upon A3A expression, cycling cells activate the DNA replication checkpoint and undergo cell cycle arrest. Additionally, we find that replication stress leaves cells vulnerable to A3A-induced DNA damage. We propose a model to explain A3A-induced damage to the cellular genome in which cytosine deamination at replication forks and other ssDNA substrates results in mutations and DNA breaks. This model highlights the risk of mutagenesis by A3A expression in replicating progenitor cells, and supports the emerging hypothesis that APOBEC3 enzymes contribute to genome instability in human tumors. PMID:26918916

  14. DNA replication stress in CHK1-depleted tumour cells triggers premature (S-phase) mitosis through inappropriate activation of Aurora kinase B.

    PubMed

    Zuazua-Villar, P; Rodriguez, R; Gagou, M E; Eyers, P A; Meuth, M

    2014-05-22

    The disruption of DNA replication in cells triggers checkpoint responses that slow-down S-phase progression and protect replication fork integrity. These checkpoints are also determinants of cell fate and can help maintain cell viability or trigger cell death pathways. CHK1 has a pivotal role in such S-phase responses. It helps maintain fork integrity during replication stress and protects cells from several catastrophic fates including premature mitosis, premature chromosome condensation and apoptosis. Here we investigated the role of CHK1 in protecting cancer cells from premature mitosis and apoptosis. We show that premature mitosis (characterized by the induction of histone H3 phosphorylation, aberrant chromatin condensation, and persistent RPA foci in arrested S-phase cells) is induced in p53-deficient tumour cells depleted of CHK1 when DNA synthesis is disrupted. These events are accompanied by an activation of Aurora kinase B in S-phase cells that is essential for histone H3 Ser10 phosphorylation. Histone H3 phosphorylation precedes the induction of apoptosis in p53-/- tumour cell lines but does not appear to be required for this fate as an Aurora kinase inhibitor suppresses phosphorylation of both Aurora B and histone H3 but has little effect on cell death. In contrast, only a small fraction of p53+/+ tumour cells shows this premature mitotic response, although they undergo a more rapid and robust apoptotic response. Taken together, our results suggest a novel role for CHK1 in the control of Aurora B activation during DNA replication stress and support the idea that premature mitosis is a distinct cell fate triggered by the disruption of DNA replication when CHK1 function is suppressed.

  15. DNA replication stress in CHK1-depleted tumour cells triggers premature (S-phase) mitosis through inappropriate activation of Aurora kinase B

    PubMed Central

    Zuazua-Villar, P; Rodriguez, R; Gagou, M E; Eyers, P A; Meuth, M

    2014-01-01

    The disruption of DNA replication in cells triggers checkpoint responses that slow-down S-phase progression and protect replication fork integrity. These checkpoints are also determinants of cell fate and can help maintain cell viability or trigger cell death pathways. CHK1 has a pivotal role in such S-phase responses. It helps maintain fork integrity during replication stress and protects cells from several catastrophic fates including premature mitosis, premature chromosome condensation and apoptosis. Here we investigated the role of CHK1 in protecting cancer cells from premature mitosis and apoptosis. We show that premature mitosis (characterized by the induction of histone H3 phosphorylation, aberrant chromatin condensation, and persistent RPA foci in arrested S-phase cells) is induced in p53-deficient tumour cells depleted of CHK1 when DNA synthesis is disrupted. These events are accompanied by an activation of Aurora kinase B in S-phase cells that is essential for histone H3 Ser10 phosphorylation. Histone H3 phosphorylation precedes the induction of apoptosis in p53−/− tumour cell lines but does not appear to be required for this fate as an Aurora kinase inhibitor suppresses phosphorylation of both Aurora B and histone H3 but has little effect on cell death. In contrast, only a small fraction of p53+/+ tumour cells shows this premature mitotic response, although they undergo a more rapid and robust apoptotic response. Taken together, our results suggest a novel role for CHK1 in the control of Aurora B activation during DNA replication stress and support the idea that premature mitosis is a distinct cell fate triggered by the disruption of DNA replication when CHK1 function is suppressed. PMID:24853431

  16. Eukaryotic Replicative Helicase Subunit Interaction with DNA and Its Role in DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Matthew P.; Wacker, Amanda L.; Bruck, Irina; Kaplan, Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    The replicative helicase unwinds parental double-stranded DNA at a replication fork to provide single-stranded DNA templates for the replicative polymerases. In eukaryotes, the replicative helicase is composed of the Cdc45 protein, the heterohexameric ring-shaped Mcm2-7 complex, and the tetrameric GINS complex (CMG). The CMG proteins bind directly to DNA, as demonstrated by experiments with purified proteins. The mechanism and function of these DNA-protein interactions are presently being investigated, and a number of important discoveries relating to how the helicase proteins interact with DNA have been reported recently. While some of the protein-DNA interactions directly relate to the unwinding function of the enzyme complex, other protein-DNA interactions may be important for minichromosome maintenance (MCM) loading, origin melting or replication stress. This review describes our current understanding of how the eukaryotic replicative helicase subunits interact with DNA structures in vitro, and proposed models for the in vivo functions of replicative helicase-DNA interactions are also described. PMID:28383499

  17. Eukaryotic Replicative Helicase Subunit Interaction with DNA and Its Role in DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Matthew P; Wacker, Amanda L; Bruck, Irina; Kaplan, Daniel L

    2017-04-06

    The replicative helicase unwinds parental double-stranded DNA at a replication fork to provide single-stranded DNA templates for the replicative polymerases. In eukaryotes, the replicative helicase is composed of the Cdc45 protein, the heterohexameric ring-shaped Mcm2-7 complex, and the tetrameric GINS complex (CMG). The CMG proteins bind directly to DNA, as demonstrated by experiments with purified proteins. The mechanism and function of these DNA-protein interactions are presently being investigated, and a number of important discoveries relating to how the helicase proteins interact with DNA have been reported recently. While some of the protein-DNA interactions directly relate to the unwinding function of the enzyme complex, other protein-DNA interactions may be important for minichromosome maintenance (MCM) loading, origin melting or replication stress. This review describes our current understanding of how the eukaryotic replicative helicase subunits interact with DNA structures in vitro, and proposed models for the in vivo functions of replicative helicase-DNA interactions are also described.

  18. Processing ribonucleotides incorporated during eukaryotic DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jessica S.; Lujan, Scott A.; Kunkel, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    Preface The information encoded in DNA is influenced by the presence of non-canonical nucleotides, the most frequent of which are ribonucleotides. In this review we discuss recent discoveries about ribonucleotide incorporation into DNA during replication by the three major eukaryotic replicases, DNA polymerases α, δ and ε. The presence of ribonucleotides in DNA causes short deletion mutations and may result in the generation of DNA single- and double-strand breaks, leading to genomic instability. We describe how these ribonucleotides are removed from DNA by ribonucleotide excision repair and by topoisomerase 1. We discuss the biological consequences and the physiological roles of ribonucleotides in DNA, and consider how deficiencies in their removal from DNA may be important in the etiology of disease. PMID:27093943

  19. Role of Chromatin Loops In DNA Replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechhoefer, John; Jun, Suckjoon; Herrick, John; Bensimon, Aaron

    2003-03-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, DNA is packed together with proteins (histones) into a structure known as the 30-nm chromatin fiber, whose behavior can be modeled as a wormlike polymer chain. We have investigated the relationship between the distributions of chromatin loop sizes and DNA replication in Xenopus laevis egg extracts. We find that the loop-size distribution predicted from the worm-like chain model of chromatin agrees well with the reported spatial distribution of replication origins in this system and that loops can explain quantitatively the observed tendency for nearby origins to start synchronously. Thus, in Xenopus egg extracts, the persistence length of chromatin fiber determines the separation between and synchrony of DNA replication origins.

  20. Inhomogeneous DNA replication kinetics is associated with immune system response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechhoefer, John; Gauthier, Michel G.; Norio, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, DNA replication is initiated at ``origins,'' launching ``forks'' that spread bidirectionally to replicate the genome. The distribution and firing rate of these origins and the fork progression velocity form the ``replication program.'' Previous models of DNA replication in eukaryotes have assumed firing rates and replication fork velocities to be homogeneous across the genome. But large variations in origin activity and fork velocity do occur. Here, we generalize our replication model to allow for arbitrary spatial variation of initiation rates and fork velocities in a given region of the genome. We derive and solve rate equations for the forks and replication probability, to obtain the mean-field replication program. After testing the model on simulations, we analyze the changes in replication program that occur during B cell development in the mouse. B cells play a major role in the adaptive immune system by producing the antibodies. We show that the process of cell differentiation is associated with a change in replication program, where the zones of high origin initiation rates located in the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus shift their position as the locus prepares to undergo the recombination events responsible for generating antibody specificity. This work was funded by HSFP and NSERC-Canada (MGG and JB) and by NIH-NIGMS grant R01GM080606 (PN).

  1. Assembling semiconductor nanocomposites using DNA replication technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Heimer, Brandon W.; Crown, Kevin K.; Bachand, George David

    2005-11-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules represent Nature's genetic database, encoding the information necessary for all cellular processes. From a materials engineering perspective, DNA represents a nanoscale scaffold with highly refined structure, stability across a wide range of environmental conditions, and the ability to interact with a range of biomolecules. The ability to mass-manufacture functionalized DNA strands with Angstrom-level resolution through DNA replication technology, however, has not been explored. The long-term goal of the work presented in this report is focused on exploiting DNA and in vitro DNA replication processes to mass-manufacture nanocomposite materials. The specific objectives of this project were to: (1) develop methods for replicating DNA strands that incorporate nucleotides with ''chemical handles'', and (2) demonstrate attachment of nanocrystal quantum dots (nQDs) to functionalized DNA strands. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and primer extension methodologies were used to successfully synthesize amine-, thiol-, and biotin-functionalized DNA molecules. Significant variability in the efficiency of modified nucleotide incorporation was observed, and attributed to the intrinsic properties of the modified nucleotides. Noncovalent attachment of streptavidin-coated nQDs to biotin-modified DNA synthesized using the primer extension method was observed by epifluorescence microscopy. Data regarding covalent attachment of nQDs to amine- and thiol-functionalized DNA was generally inconclusive; alternative characterization tools are necessary to fully evaluate these attachment methods. Full realization of this technology may facilitate new approaches to manufacturing materials at the nanoscale. In addition, composite nQD-DNA materials may serve as novel recognition elements in sensor devices, or be used as diagnostic tools for forensic analyses. This report summarizes the results obtained over the course of this 1-year project.

  2. Insights into the Initiation of Eukaryotic DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Bruck, Irina; Perez-Arnaiz, Patricia; Colbert, Max K; Kaplan, Daniel L

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of DNA replication is a highly regulated event in eukaryotic cells to ensure that the entire genome is copied once and only once during S phase. The primary target of cellular regulation of eukaryotic DNA replication initiation is the assembly and activation of the replication fork helicase, the 11-subunit assembly that unwinds DNA at a replication fork. The replication fork helicase, called CMG for Cdc45-Mcm2-7, and GINS, assembles in S phase from the constituent Cdc45, Mcm2-7, and GINS proteins. The assembly and activation of the CMG replication fork helicase during S phase is governed by 2 S-phase specific kinases, CDK and DDK. CDK stimulates the interaction between Sld2, Sld3, and Dpb11, 3 initiation factors that are each required for the initiation of DNA replication. DDK, on the other hand, phosphorylates the Mcm2, Mcm4, and Mcm6 subunits of the Mcm2-7 complex. Sld3 recruits Cdc45 to Mcm2-7 in a manner that depends on DDK, and recent work suggests that Sld3 binds directly to Mcm2-7 and also to single-stranded DNA. Furthermore, recent work demonstrates that Sld3 and its human homolog Treslin substantially stimulate DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2. These data suggest that the initiation factor Sld3/Treslin coordinates the assembly and activation of the eukaryotic replication fork helicase by recruiting Cdc45 to Mcm2-7, stimulating DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2, and binding directly to single-stranded DNA as the origin is melted.

  3. Insights into the Initiation of Eukaryotic DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Irina; Perez-Arnaiz, Patricia; Colbert, Max K; Kaplan, Daniel L

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of DNA replication is a highly regulated event in eukaryotic cells to ensure that the entire genome is copied once and only once during S phase. The primary target of cellular regulation of eukaryotic DNA replication initiation is the assembly and activation of the replication fork helicase, the 11-subunit assembly that unwinds DNA at a replication fork. The replication fork helicase, called CMG for Cdc45-Mcm2–7, and GINS, assembles in S phase from the constituent Cdc45, Mcm2–7, and GINS proteins. The assembly and activation of the CMG replication fork helicase during S phase is governed by 2 S-phase specific kinases, CDK and DDK. CDK stimulates the interaction between Sld2, Sld3, and Dpb11, 3 initiation factors that are each required for the initiation of DNA replication. DDK, on the other hand, phosphorylates the Mcm2, Mcm4, and Mcm6 subunits of the Mcm2–7 complex. Sld3 recruits Cdc45 to Mcm2–7 in a manner that depends on DDK, and recent work suggests that Sld3 binds directly to Mcm2–7 and also to single-stranded DNA. Furthermore, recent work demonstrates that Sld3 and its human homolog Treslin substantially stimulate DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2. These data suggest that the initiation factor Sld3/Treslin coordinates the assembly and activation of the eukaryotic replication fork helicase by recruiting Cdc45 to Mcm2–7, stimulating DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2, and binding directly to single-stranded DNA as the origin is melted. PMID:26710261

  4. Completion of DNA replication in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Brian M; Courcelle, Charmain T; Courcelle, Justin

    2014-11-18

    The mechanism by which cells recognize and complete replicated regions at their precise doubling point must be remarkably efficient, occurring thousands of times per cell division along the chromosomes of humans. However, this process remains poorly understood. Here we show that, in Escherichia coli, the completion of replication involves an enzymatic system that effectively counts pairs and limits cellular replication to its doubling point by allowing converging replication forks to transiently continue through the doubling point before the excess, over-replicated regions are incised, resected, and joined. Completion requires RecBCD and involves several proteins associated with repairing double-strand breaks including, ExoI, SbcDC, and RecG. However, unlike double-strand break repair, completion occurs independently of homologous recombination and RecA. In some bacterial viruses, the completion mechanism is specifically targeted for inactivation to allow over-replication to occur during lytic replication. The results suggest that a primary cause of genomic instabilities in many double-strand-break-repair mutants arises from an impaired ability to complete replication, independent from DNA damage.

  5. Single-stranded DNA transposition is coupled to host replication

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Bao Ton; Pasternak, Cécile; Siguier, Patricia; Guynet, Catherine; Hickman, Alison Burgess; Dyda, Fred; Sommer, Suzanne; Chandler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    DNA transposition has contributed significantly to evolution of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Insertion sequences (IS) are the simplest prokaryotic transposons and are divided into families based on their organization and transposition mechanism. Here, we describe a link between transposition of IS608 and ISDra2, both members of the IS200/IS605 family which uses obligatory single-stranded (ss) DNA intermediates, and the host replication fork. Replication direction through the IS plays a crucial role in excision: activity is maximal when the “top” IS strand is located on the lagging-strand template. Excision is stimulated upon transient inactivation of replicative helicase function or inhibition of Okazaki fragment synthesis. IS608 insertions also exhibit an orientation preference for the lagging-strand template and insertion can be specifically directed to stalled replication forks. An in silico genomic approach provides evidence that dissemination of other IS200/IS605 family members is also linked to host replication. PMID:20691900

  6. Mutations reducing replication from R-loops suppress the defects of growth, chromosome segregation and DNA supercoiling in cells lacking topoisomerase I and RNase HI activity.

    PubMed

    Usongo, Valentine; Martel, Makisha; Balleydier, Aurélien; Drolet, Marc

    2016-04-01

    R-loop formation occurs when the nascent RNA hybridizes with the template DNA strand behind the RNA polymerase. R-loops affect a wide range of cellular processes and their use as origins of replication was the first function attributed to them. In Escherichia coli, R-loop formation is promoted by the ATP-dependent negative supercoiling activity of gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and is inhibited by topoisomerase (topo) I (topA) relaxing transcription-induced negative supercoiling. RNase HI (rnhA) degrades the RNA moiety of R-loops. The depletion of RNase HI activity in topA null mutants was previously shown to lead to extensive DNA relaxation, due to DNA gyrase inhibition, and to severe growth and chromosome segregation defects that were partially corrected by overproducing topo III (topB). Here, DNA gyrase assays in crude cell extracts showed that the ATP-dependent activity (supercoiling) of gyrase but not its ATP-independent activity (relaxation) was inhibited in topA null cells lacking RNase HI. To characterize the cellular event(s) triggered by the absence of RNase HI, we performed a genetic screen for suppressors of the growth defect of topA rnhA null cells. Suppressors affecting genes in replication (holC2::aph and dnaT18::aph) nucleotide metabolism (dcd49::aph), RNA degradation (rne59::aph) and fimbriae synthesis (fimD22::aph) were found to reduce replication from R-loops and to restore supercoiling, thus pointing to a correlation between R-loop-dependent replication in topA rnhA mutants and the inhibition of gyrase activity and growth. Interestingly, the position of fimD on the E. coli chromosome corresponds to the site of one of the five main putative origins of replication from R-loops in rnhA null cells recently identified by next-generation sequencing, thus suggesting that the fimD22::aph mutation inactivated one of these origins. Furthermore, we show that topo III overproduction is unable to complement the growth defect of topA rnhA null mutants at low

  7. Specific DNA replication mutations affect telomere length in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, A K; Holm, C

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the DNA replication apparatus and the control of telomere length, we examined the effects of several DNA replication mutations on telomere length in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report that a mutation in the structural gene for the large subunit of DNA replication factor C (cdc44/rfc1) causes striking increases in telomere length. A similar effect is seen with mutations in only one other DNA replication gene: the structural gene for DNA polymerase alpha (cdc17/pol1) (M.J. Carson and L. Hartwell, Cell 42:249-257, 1985). For both genes, the telomere elongation phenotype is allele specific and appears to correlate with the penetrance of the mutations. Furthermore, fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis reveals that those alleles that cause elongation also exhibit a slowing of DNA replication. To determine whether elongation is mediated by telomerase or by slippage of the DNA polymerase, we created cdc17-1 mutants carrying deletions of the gene encoding the RNA component of telomerase (TLC1). cdc17-1 strains that would normally undergo telomere elongation failed to do so in the absence of telomerase activity. This result implies that telomere elongation in cdc17-1 mutants is mediated by the action of telomerase. Since DNA replication involves transfer of the nascent strand from polymerase alpha to replication factor C (T. Tsurimoto and B. Stillman, J. Biol. Chem. 266:1950-1960, 1991; T. Tsurimoto and B. Stillman, J. Biol. Chem. 266:1961-1968, 1991; S. Waga and B. Stillman, Nature [London] 369:207-212, 1994), one possibility is that this step affects the regulation of telomere length. PMID:8756617

  8. Structural basis for DNA binding by replication initiator Mcm10

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Eric M.; Vaithiyalingam, Sivaraja; Haworth, Justin; Greer, Briana; Bielinsky, Anja-Katrin; Chazin, Walter J.; Eichman, Brandt F.

    2009-06-30

    Mcm10 is an essential eukaryotic DNA replication protein required for assembly and progression of the replication fork. The highly conserved internal domain (Mcm10-ID) has been shown to physically interact with single-stranded (ss) DNA, DNA polymerase alpha, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The crystal structure of Xenopus laevis Mcm10-ID presented here reveals a DNA binding architecture composed of an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-fold followed in tandem by a variant and highly basic zinc finger. NMR chemical shift perturbation and mutational studies of DNA binding activity in vitro reveal how Mcm10 uses this unique surface to engage ssDNA. Corresponding mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae result in increased sensitivity to replication stress, demonstrating the functional importance of DNA binding by this region of Mcm10 to replication. In addition, mapping Mcm10 mutations known to disrupt PCNA, polymerase alpha, and DNA interactions onto the crystal structure provides insight into how Mcm10 might coordinate protein and DNA binding within the replisome.

  9. SMARCAL1 maintains telomere integrity during DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Poole, Lisa A; Zhao, Runxiang; Glick, Gloria G; Lovejoy, Courtney A; Eischen, Christine M; Cortez, David

    2015-12-01

    The SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent, regulator of chromatin, subfamily A-like 1) DNA translocase is one of several related enzymes, including ZRANB3 (zinc finger, RAN-binding domain containing 3) and HLTF (helicase-like transcription factor), that are recruited to stalled replication forks to promote repair and restart replication. These enzymes can perform similar biochemical reactions such as fork reversal; however, genetic studies indicate they must have unique cellular activities. Here, we present data showing that SMARCAL1 has an important function at telomeres, which present an endogenous source of replication stress. SMARCAL1-deficient cells accumulate telomere-associated DNA damage and have greatly elevated levels of extrachromosomal telomere DNA (C-circles). Although these telomere phenotypes are often found in tumor cells using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway for telomere elongation, SMARCAL1 deficiency does not yield other ALT phenotypes such as elevated telomere recombination. The activity of SMARCAL1 at telomeres can be separated from its genome-maintenance activity in bulk chromosomal replication because it does not require interaction with replication protein A. Finally, this telomere-maintenance function is not shared by ZRANB3 or HLTF. Our results provide the first identification, to our knowledge, of an endogenous source of replication stress that requires SMARCAL1 for resolution and define differences between members of this class of replication fork-repair enzymes.

  10. A dual promoter system regulating λ DNA replication initiation

    PubMed Central

    Olszewski, Paweł; Szambowska, Anna; Barańska, Sylwia; Narajczyk, Magdalena; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Glinkowska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Transcription and DNA replication are tightly regulated to ensure coordination of gene expression with growth conditions and faithful transmission of genetic material to progeny. A large body of evidence has accumulated, indicating that encounters between protein machineries carrying out DNA and RNA synthesis occur in vivo and may have important regulatory consequences. This feature may be exacerbated in the case of compact genomes, like the one of bacteriophage λ, used in our study. Transcription that starts at the rightward pR promoter and proceeds through the λ origin of replication and downstream of it was proven to stimulate the initiation of λ DNA replication. Here, we demonstrate that the activity of a convergently oriented pO promoter decreases the efficiency of transcription starting from pR. Our results show, however, that a lack of the functional pO promoter negatively influences λ phage and λ-derived plasmid replication. We present data, suggesting that this effect is evoked by the enhanced level of the pR-driven transcription, occurring in the presence of the defective pO, which may result in the impeded formation of the replication initiation complex. Our data suggest that the cross talk between the two promoters regulates λ DNA replication and coordinates transcription and replication processes. PMID:24500197

  11. Staphylococcus aureus gyrase-quinolone-DNA ternary complexes fail to arrest replication fork progression in vitro. Effects of salt on the DNA binding mode and the catalytic activity of S. aureus gyrase.

    PubMed

    Hiasa, Hiroshi; Shea, Molly E; Richardson, Christine M; Gwynn, Michael N

    2003-03-07

    Type II topoisomerases bind to DNA at the catalytic domain across the DNA gate. DNA gyrases also bind to DNA at the non-homologous C-terminal domain of the GyrA subunit, which causes the wrapping of DNA about itself. This unique mode of DNA binding allows gyrases to introduce the negative supercoils into DNA molecules. We have investigated the biochemical characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) gyrase. S. aureus gyrase is known to require high concentrations of potassium glutamate (K-Glu) for its supercoiling activity. However, high concentrations of K-Glu are not required for its relaxation and decatenation activities. This is due to the requirement of high concentrations of K-Glu for S. aureus gyrase-mediated wrapping of DNA. These results suggest that S. aureus gyrase can bind to DNA at the catalytic domain independent of K-Glu concentration, but high concentrations of K-Glu are required for the binding of the C-terminal domain of GyrA to DNA and the wrapping of DNA. Thus, salt modulates the DNA binding mode and the catalytic activity of S. aureus gyrase. Quinolone drugs can stimulate the formation of covalent S. aureus gyrase-DNA complexes, but high concentrations of K-Glu inhibit the formation of S. aureus gyrase-quinolone-DNA ternary complexes. In the absence of K-Glu, ternary complexes formed with S. aureus gyrase cannot arrest replication fork progression in vitro, demonstrating that the formation of a wrapped ternary complex is required for replication fork arrest by a S. aureus gyrase-quinolone-DNA ternary complex.

  12. The programme of DNA replication: beyond genome duplication.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Escoda, Blanca; Wu, Pei-Yun Jenny

    2013-12-01

    The accurate duplication and transmission of genetic information is critical for cell growth and proliferation, and this is ensured in part by the multi-layered regulation of DNA synthesis. One of the key steps in this process is the selection and activation of the sites of replication initiation, or origins, across the genome. Interestingly, origin usage changes during development and in different pathologies, suggesting an integral interplay between the establishment of replication initiation along the chromosomes and cellular function. The present review discusses how the spatiotemporal organization of replication origin activation may play crucial roles in the control of biological events.

  13. Guanine- 5-carboxylcytosine base pairs mimic mismatches during DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Shibutani, Toshihiro; Ito, Shinsuke; Toda, Mariko; Kanao, Rie; Collins, Leonard B; Shibata, Marika; Urabe, Miho; Koseki, Haruhiko; Masuda, Yuji; Swenberg, James A; Masutani, Chikahide; Hanaoka, Fumio; Iwai, Shigenori; Kuraoka, Isao

    2014-06-09

    The genetic information encoded in genomes must be faithfully replicated and transmitted to daughter cells. The recent discovery of consecutive DNA conversions by TET family proteins of 5-methylcytosine into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine, and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) suggests these modified cytosines act as DNA lesions, which could threaten genome integrity. Here, we have shown that although 5caC pairs with guanine during DNA replication in vitro, G·5caC pairs stimulated DNA polymerase exonuclease activity and were recognized by the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins. Knockdown of thymine DNA glycosylase increased 5caC in genome, affected cell proliferation via MMR, indicating MMR is a novel reader for 5caC. These results suggest the epigenetic modification products of 5caC behave as DNA lesions.

  14. Multiple pathways cooperate to facilitate DNA replication fork progression through alkylated DNA.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, María Victoria; Rojas, Vanesa; Tercero, José Antonio

    2008-10-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are especially vulnerable to DNA damage during the S phase of the cell cycle, when chromosomes must be duplicated. The stability of DNA replication forks is critical to achieve faithful chromosome replication and is severely compromised when forks encounter DNA lesions. To maintain genome integrity, replication forks need to be protected by the S-phase checkpoint and DNA insults must be repaired. Different pathways help to repair or tolerate the lesions in the DNA, but their contribution to the progression of replication forks through damaged DNA is not well known. Here we show in budding yeast that, when the DNA template is damaged with the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), base excision repair, homologous recombination and DNA damage tolerance pathways, together with a functional S-phase checkpoint, are essential for the efficient progression of DNA replication forks and the maintenance of cell survival. In the absence of base excision repair, replication forks stall reversibly in cells exposed to MMS. This repair reaction is necessary to eliminate the lesions that impede fork progression and has to be coordinated with recombination and damage tolerance activities to avoid fork collapse and allow forks to resume and complete chromosome replication.

  15. PTEN Controls the DNA Replication Process through MCM2 in Response to Replicative Stress.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jiawen; Liang, Jing; Li, Jiaju; Li, Yunqiao; Liang, Hui; Zhao, Xuyang; McNutt, Michael A; Yin, Yuxin

    2015-11-17

    PTEN is a tumor suppressor frequently mutated in human cancers. PTEN inhibits the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT cascade, and nuclear PTEN guards the genome by multiple mechanisms. Here, we report that PTEN physically associates with the minichromosome maintenance complex component 2 (MCM2), which is essential for DNA replication. Specifically, PTEN dephosphorylates MCM2 at serine 41 (S41) and restricts replication fork progression under replicative stress. PTEN disruption results in unrestrained fork progression upon replication stalling, which is similar to the phenotype of cells expressing the phosphomimic MCM2 mutant S41D. Moreover, PTEN is necessary for prevention of chromosomal aberrations under replication stress. This study demonstrates that PTEN regulates DNA replication through MCM2 and loss of PTEN function leads to replication defects and genomic instability. We propose that PTEN plays a critical role in maintaining genetic stability through a replication-specific mechanism, and this is a crucial facet of PTEN tumor suppressor activity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Plant MCM proteins: role in DNA replication and beyond.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Narendra; Tran, Ngoc Quang; Dang, Hung Quang; Tuteja, Renu

    2011-12-01

    Mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins form heterohexameric complex (MCM2-7) to serve as licensing factor for DNA replication to make sure that genomic DNA is replicated completely and accurately once during S phase in a single cell cycle. MCMs were initially identified in yeast for their role in plasmid replication or cell cycle progression. Each of six MCM contains highly conserved sequence called "MCM box", which contains two ATPase consensus Walker A and Walker B motifs. Studies on MCM proteins showed that (a) the replication origins are licensed by stable binding of MCM2-7 to form pre-RC (pre-replicative complex) during G1 phase of the cell cycle, (b) the activation of MCM proteins by CDKs (cyclin-dependent kinases) and DDKs (Dbf4-dependent kinases) and their helicase activity are important for pre-RC to initiate the DNA replication, and (c) the release of MCMs from chromatin renders the origins "unlicensed". DNA replication licensing in plant is, in general, less characterized. The MCMs have been reported from Arabidopsis, maize, tobacco, pea and rice, where they are found to be highly expressed in dividing tissues such as shoot apex and root tips, localized in nucleus and cytosol and play important role in DNA replication, megagametophyte and embryo development. The identification of six MCM coding genes from pea and Arabidopsis suggest six distinct classes of MCM protein in higher plant, and the conserved function right across the eukaryotes. This overview of MCMs contains an emphasis on MCMs from plants and the novel role of MCM6 in abiotic stress tolerance.

  17. Accelerated growth in the absence of DNA replication origins.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Michelle; Malla, Sunir; Blythe, Martin J; Nieduszynski, Conrad A; Allers, Thorsten

    2013-11-28

    DNA replication initiates at defined sites called origins, which serve as binding sites for initiator proteins that recruit the replicative machinery. Origins differ in number and structure across the three domains of life and their properties determine the dynamics of chromosome replication. Bacteria and some archaea replicate from single origins, whereas most archaea and all eukaryotes replicate using multiple origins. Initiation mechanisms that rely on homologous recombination operate in some viruses. Here we show that such mechanisms also operate in archaea. We use deep sequencing to study replication in Haloferax volcanii and identify four chromosomal origins of differing activity. Deletion of individual origins results in perturbed replication dynamics and reduced growth. However, a strain lacking all origins has no apparent defects and grows significantly faster than wild type. Origin-less cells initiate replication at dispersed sites rather than at discrete origins and have an absolute requirement for the recombinase RadA, unlike strains lacking individual origins. Our results demonstrate that homologous recombination alone can efficiently initiate the replication of an entire cellular genome. This raises the question of what purpose replication origins serve and why they have evolved.

  18. Entropy Involved in Fidelity of DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Gonzalez, J. Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Information has an entropic character which can be analyzed within the framework of the Statistical Theory in molecular systems. R. Landauer and C.H. Bennett showed that a logical copy can be carried out in the limit of no dissipation if the computation is performed sufficiently slowly. Structural and recent single-molecule assays have provided dynamic details of polymerase machinery with insight into information processing. Here, we introduce a rigorous characterization of Shannon Information in biomolecular systems and apply it to DNA replication in the limit of no dissipation. Specifically, we devise an equilibrium pathway in DNA replication to determine the entropy generated in copying the information from a DNA template in the absence of friction. Both the initial state, the free nucleotides randomly distributed in certain concentrations, and the final state, a polymerized strand, are mesoscopic equilibrium states for the nucleotide distribution. We use empirical stacking free energies to calculate the probabilities of incorporation of the nucleotides. The copied strand is, to first order of approximation, a state of independent and non-indentically distributed random variables for which the nucleotide that is incorporated by the polymerase at each step is dictated by the template strand, and to second order of approximation, a state of non-uniformly distributed random variables with nearest-neighbor interactions for which the recognition of secondary structure by the polymerase in the resultant double-stranded polymer determines the entropy of the replicated strand. Two incorporation mechanisms arise naturally and their biological meanings are explained. It is known that replication occurs far from equilibrium and therefore the Shannon entropy here derived represents an upper bound for replication to take place. Likewise, this entropy sets a universal lower bound for the copying fidelity in replication. PMID:22912695

  19. The Role of the Transcriptional Response to DNA Replication Stress.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, Anna E; de Bruin, Robertus A M

    2017-03-02

    During DNA replication many factors can result in DNA replication stress. The DNA replication stress checkpoint prevents the accumulation of replication stress-induced DNA damage and the potential ensuing genome instability. A critical role for post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, in the replication stress checkpoint response has been well established. However, recent work has revealed an important role for transcription in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. In this review, we will provide an overview of current knowledge of the cellular response to DNA replication stress with a specific focus on the DNA replication stress checkpoint transcriptional response and its role in the prevention of replication stress-induced DNA damage.

  20. The Role of the Transcriptional Response to DNA Replication Stress

    PubMed Central

    Herlihy, Anna E.; de Bruin, Robertus A.M.

    2017-01-01

    During DNA replication many factors can result in DNA replication stress. The DNA replication stress checkpoint prevents the accumulation of replication stress-induced DNA damage and the potential ensuing genome instability. A critical role for post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, in the replication stress checkpoint response has been well established. However, recent work has revealed an important role for transcription in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. In this review, we will provide an overview of current knowledge of the cellular response to DNA replication stress with a specific focus on the DNA replication stress checkpoint transcriptional response and its role in the prevention of replication stress-induced DNA damage. PMID:28257104

  1. DNA replication origins—where do we begin?

    PubMed Central

    Prioleau, Marie-Noëlle; MacAlpine, David M.

    2016-01-01

    For more than three decades, investigators have sought to identify the precise locations where DNA replication initiates in mammalian genomes. The development of molecular and biochemical approaches to identify start sites of DNA replication (origins) based on the presence of defining and characteristic replication intermediates at specific loci led to the identification of only a handful of mammalian replication origins. The limited number of identified origins prevented a comprehensive and exhaustive search for conserved genomic features that were capable of specifying origins of DNA replication. More recently, the adaptation of origin-mapping assays to genome-wide approaches has led to the identification of tens of thousands of replication origins throughout mammalian genomes, providing an unprecedented opportunity to identify both genetic and epigenetic features that define and regulate their distribution and utilization. Here we summarize recent advances in our understanding of how primary sequence, chromatin environment, and nuclear architecture contribute to the dynamic selection and activation of replication origins across diverse cell types and developmental stages. PMID:27542827

  2. Cdk5 promotes DNA replication stress checkpoint activation through RPA-32 phosphorylation, and impacts on metastasis free survival in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Chiker, Sara; Pennaneach, Vincent; Loew, Damarys; Dingli, Florent; Biard, Denis; Cordelières, Fabrice P; Gemble, Simon; Vacher, Sophie; Bieche, Ivan; Hall, Janet; Fernet, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a determinant of PARP inhibitor and ionizing radiation (IR) sensitivity. Here we show that Cdk5-depleted (Cdk5-shRNA) HeLa cells show higher sensitivity to S-phase irradiation, chronic hydroxyurea exposure, and 5-fluorouracil and 6-thioguanine treatment, with hydroxyurea and IR sensitivity also seen in Cdk5-depleted U2OS cells. As Cdk5 is not directly implicated in DNA strand break repair we investigated in detail its proposed role in the intra-S checkpoint activation. While Cdk5-shRNA HeLa cells showed altered basal S-phase dynamics with slower replication velocity and fewer active origins per DNA megabase, checkpoint activation was impaired after a hydroxyurea block. Cdk5 depletion was associated with reduced priming phosphorylations of RPA32 serines 29 and 33 and SMC1-Serine 966 phosphorylation, lower levels of RPA serine 4 and 8 phosphorylation and DNA damage measured using the alkaline Comet assay, gamma-H2AX signal intensity, RPA and Rad51 foci, and sister chromatid exchanges resulting in impaired intra-S checkpoint activation and subsequently higher numbers of chromatin bridges. In vitro kinase assays coupled with mass spectrometry demonstrated that Cdk5 can carry out the RPA32 priming phosphorylations on serines 23, 29, and 33 necessary for this checkpoint activation. In addition we found an association between lower Cdk5 levels and longer metastasis free survival in breast cancer patients and survival in Cdk5-depleted breast tumor cells after treatment with IR and a PARP inhibitor. Taken together, these results show that Cdk5 is necessary for basal replication and replication stress checkpoint activation and highlight clinical opportunities to enhance tumor cell killing. PMID:26237679

  3. The LMO2 oncogene regulates DNA replication in hematopoietic cells

    PubMed Central

    Sincennes, Marie-Claude; Humbert, Magali; Grondin, Benoît; Lisi, Véronique; Veiga, Diogo F. T.; Haman, André; Cazaux, Christophe; Mashtalir, Nazar; Affar, EL Bachir; Verreault, Alain; Hoang, Trang

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic transcription factors are commonly activated in acute leukemias and subvert normal gene expression networks to reprogram hematopoietic progenitors into preleukemic stem cells, as exemplified by LIM-only 2 (LMO2) in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Whether or not these oncoproteins interfere with other DNA-dependent processes is largely unexplored. Here, we show that LMO2 is recruited to DNA replication origins by interaction with three essential replication enzymes: DNA polymerase delta (POLD1), DNA primase (PRIM1), and minichromosome 6 (MCM6). Furthermore, tethering LMO2 to synthetic DNA sequences is sufficient to transform these sequences into origins of replication. We next addressed the importance of LMO2 in erythroid and thymocyte development, two lineages in which cell cycle and differentiation are tightly coordinated. Lowering LMO2 levels in erythroid progenitors delays G1-S progression and arrests erythropoietin-dependent cell growth while favoring terminal differentiation. Conversely, ectopic expression in thymocytes induces DNA replication and drives these cells into cell cycle, causing differentiation blockade. Our results define a novel role for LMO2 in directly promoting DNA synthesis and G1-S progression. PMID:26764384

  4. The LMO2 oncogene regulates DNA replication in hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Sincennes, Marie-Claude; Humbert, Magali; Grondin, Benoît; Lisi, Véronique; Veiga, Diogo F T; Haman, André; Cazaux, Christophe; Mashtalir, Nazar; Affar, El Bachir; Verreault, Alain; Hoang, Trang

    2016-02-02

    Oncogenic transcription factors are commonly activated in acute leukemias and subvert normal gene expression networks to reprogram hematopoietic progenitors into preleukemic stem cells, as exemplified by LIM-only 2 (LMO2) in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Whether or not these oncoproteins interfere with other DNA-dependent processes is largely unexplored. Here, we show that LMO2 is recruited to DNA replication origins by interaction with three essential replication enzymes: DNA polymerase delta (POLD1), DNA primase (PRIM1), and minichromosome 6 (MCM6). Furthermore, tethering LMO2 to synthetic DNA sequences is sufficient to transform these sequences into origins of replication. We next addressed the importance of LMO2 in erythroid and thymocyte development, two lineages in which cell cycle and differentiation are tightly coordinated. Lowering LMO2 levels in erythroid progenitors delays G1-S progression and arrests erythropoietin-dependent cell growth while favoring terminal differentiation. Conversely, ectopic expression in thymocytes induces DNA replication and drives these cells into cell cycle, causing differentiation blockade. Our results define a novel role for LMO2 in directly promoting DNA synthesis and G1-S progression.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA replication during differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Facucho-Oliveira, Joao M; Alderson, Jon; Spikings, Emma C; Egginton, Stuart; St John, Justin C

    2007-11-15

    Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), the intracellular process that generates the majority of the ATP of a cell through the electron-transfer chain, is highly dependent on proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). MtDNA replication is regulated by the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and the mitochondrial-specific DNA polymerase gamma, which consists of a catalytic (POLG) and an accessory (POLG2) subunit. Differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into specific cell types requires expansion of discrete populations of mitochondria and mtDNA replication to meet the specific metabolic requirements of the cell. We determined by real-time PCR that expression of pluripotent markers is reduced before the upregulation of Polg, Polg2 and Tfam in spontaneously differentiating R1 murine (m)ESCs, along with transient increases in mtDNA copy number. In D3 mESCs, the initial transient increase did not take place. However, precursors of neuronal and cardiomyocyte differentiation were positive for both POLG and TFAM. Similar-stage ESCs also showed active mtDNA replication, identified by 5-bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine labelling, as mtDNA copy number increased. Retinoic-acid-induced differentiation resulted in more consistent patterns of replication and upregulation of Polg, Polg2 and Tfam, whereas siRNA knockdown demonstrated that steady-state expression of POLG is essential for maintaining pluripotency.

  6. Replication of linear duplex DNA in vitro with bacteriophage T5 DNA polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimura, R. K.; Das, S. K.; Allison, D. P.; Roop, B. C.

    1980-01-01

    Two sets of experiments are presented that attempt to contribute to understanding the mechanisms of DNA replication. The specific areas discussed are fidelity of DNA replication and initiation of replication of duplex DNA. (ACR)

  7. Anti-Tumor Effects of Novel 5-O-Acyl Plumbagins Based on the Inhibition of Mammalian DNA Replicative Polymerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Moe; Kuriyama, Isoko; Maruo, Sayako; Kuramochi, Kouji; Tsubaki, Kazunori; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    We previously found that vitamin K3 (menadione, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) inhibits the activity of human mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (pol γ). In this study, we focused on plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), and chemically synthesized novel plumbagins conjugated with C2:0 to C22:6 fatty acids (5-O-acyl plumbagins). These chemically modified plumbagins enhanced mammalian pol inhibition and their cytotoxic activity. Plumbagin conjugated with chains consisting of more than C18-unsaturated fatty acids strongly inhibited the activities of calf pol α and human pol γ. Plumbagin conjugated with oleic acid (C18:1-acyl plumbagin) showed the strongest suppression of human colon carcinoma (HCT116) cell proliferation among the ten synthesized 5-O-acyl plumbagins. The inhibitory activity on pol α, a DNA replicative pol, by these compounds showed high correlation with their cancer cell proliferation suppressive activity. C18:1-Acyl plumbagin selectively inhibited the activities of mammalian pol species, but did not influence the activities of other pols and DNA metabolic enzymes tested. This compound inhibited the proliferation of various human cancer cell lines, and was the cytotoxic inhibitor showing strongest inhibition towards HT-29 colon cancer cells (LD50 = 2.9 µM) among the nine cell lines tested. In an in vivo anti-tumor assay conducted on nude mice bearing solid tumors of HT-29 cells, C18:1-acyl plumbagin was shown to be a promising tumor suppressor. These data indicate that novel 5-O-acyl plumbagins act as anti-cancer agents based on mammalian DNA replicative pol α inhibition. Moreover, the results suggest that acylation of plumbagin is an effective chemical modification to improve the anti-cancer activity of vitamin K3 derivatives, such as plumbagin. PMID:24520419

  8. High-resolution analysis of Mammalian DNA replication units.

    PubMed

    Chagin, Vadim O; Reinhart, Marius; Cardoso, M Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Genomic DNA of a eukaryotic cell is replicated once during the S-phase of the cell cycle to precisely maintain the complete genetic information. In the course of S-phase, semiconservative DNA synthesis is sequentially initiated and performed at thousands of discrete patches of the DNA helix termed replicons. At any given moment of S-phase, multiple replicons are active in parallel in different parts of the genome. In the last decades, tools and methods to visualize DNA synthesis inside cells have been developed. Pulse labeling with nucleotides as well as detecting components of the replication machinery yielded an overall picture of multiple discrete sites of active DNA synthesis termed replication foci (RFi) and forming spatiotemporal patterns within the cell nucleus. Recent advances in fluorescence microscopy and digital imaging in combination with computational image analysis allow a comprehensive quantitative analysis of RFi and provide valuable insights into the organization of the genomic DNA replication process and also of the genome itself. In this chapter, we describe in detail protocols for the visualization and quantification of RFi at different levels of optical and physical resolution.

  9. Replication protein A binds to regulatory elements in yeast DNA repair and DNA metabolism genes.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, K K; Samson, L

    1995-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to DNA damage by arresting cell cycle progression (thereby preventing the replication and segregation of damaged chromosomes) and by inducing the expression of numerous genes, some of which are involved in DNA repair, DNA replication, and DNA metabolism. Induction of the S. cerevisiae 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase repair gene (MAG) by DNA-damaging agents requires one upstream activating sequence (UAS) and two upstream repressing sequences (URS1 and URS2) in the MAG promoter. Sequences similar to the MAG URS elements are present in at least 11 other S. cerevisiae DNA repair and metabolism genes. Replication protein A (Rpa) is known as a single-stranded-DNA-binding protein that is involved in the initiation and elongation steps of DNA replication, nucleotide excision repair, and homologous recombination. We now show that the MAG URS1 and URS2 elements form similar double-stranded, sequence-specific, DNA-protein complexes and that both complexes contain Rpa. Moreover, Rpa appears to bind the MAG URS1-like elements found upstream of 11 other DNA repair and DNA metabolism genes. These results lead us to hypothesize that Rpa may be involved in the regulation of a number of DNA repair and DNA metabolism genes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7761422

  10. The structure and function of replication protein A in DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Aishwarya; Borgstahl, Gloria E O

    2012-01-01

    In all organisms from bacteria and archaea to eukarya, single-stranded DNA binding proteins play an essential role in most, if not all, nuclear metabolism involving single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Replication protein A (RPA), the major eukaryotic ssDNA binding protein, has two important roles in DNA metabolism: (1) in binding ssDNA to protect it and to keep it unfolded, and (2) in coordinating the assembly and disassembly of numerous proteins and protein complexes during processes such as DNA replication. Since its discovery as a vital player in the process of replication, RPAs roles in recombination and DNA repair quickly became evident. This chapter summarizes the current understanding of RPA's roles in replication by reviewing the available structural data, DNA-binding properties, interactions with various replication proteins, and interactions with DNA repair proteins when DNA replication is stalled.

  11. Temporal regulation of DNA replication in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells follow a temporal program to duplicate their genomes. Chromosomes are divided into domains with a specific DNA replication timing (RT), not dictated by DNA sequence alone, which is conserved from one cell cycle to the next. Timing of replication correlates with gene density, transcriptional activity, chromatin structure and nuclear position, making it an intriguing epigenetic mark. The differentiation from embryonic stem cells to specialized cell types is accompanied by global changes in the RT program. This review covers our current understanding of the mechanisms that determine RT in mammalian cells, its possible biological significance and how unscheduled alterations of the RT program may predispose to human disease.

  12. Human Cytomegalovirus Induces JC Virus DNA Replication in Human Fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbronn, Regine; Albrecht, Ingrid; Stephan, Sonja; Burkle, Alexander; Zur Hausen, Harald

    1993-12-01

    JC virus, a human papovavirus, is the causative agent of the demyelinating brain disease progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML). PML is a rare but fatal disease which develops as a complication of severe immunosuppression. Latent JC virus is harbored by many asymptomatic carriers and is transiently reactivated from the latent state upon immunosuppression. JC virus has a very restricted host range, with human glial cells being the only tissue in which it can replicate at reasonable efficiency. Evidence that latent human cytomegalovirus is harbored in the kidney similar to latent JC virus led to the speculation that during episodes of impaired immunocompetence, cytomegalovirus might serve as helper virus for JC virus replication in otherwise nonpermissive cells. We show here that cytomegalovirus infection indeed leads to considerable JC virus DNA replication in cultured human fibroblasts that are nonpermissive for the replication of JC virus alone. Cytomegalovirus-mediated JC virus replication is dependent on the JC virus origin of replication and T antigen. Ganciclovir-induced inhibition of cytomegalovirus replication is associated with a concomitant inhibition of JC virus replication. These results suggest that reactivation of cytomegalovirus during episodes of immunosuppression might lead to activation of latent JC virus, which would enhance the probability of subsequent PML development. Ganciclovir-induced repression of both cytomegalovirus and JC virus replication may form the rational basis for the development of an approach toward treatment or prevention of PML.

  13. Exponential DNA Replication by Laminar Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Dieter; Goddard, Noel L.; Libchaber, Albert

    2003-10-01

    It is shown that laminar thermal convection can drive a chain reaction of DNA replication. The convection is triggered by a constant horizontal temperature gradient, moving molecules along stationary paths between hot and cold regions. This implements the temperature cycling for the classical polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplification is shown to be exponential and reaches 100 000-fold gains within 25min. Besides direct applications, the mechanism might have implications for the molecular evolution of life.

  14. Analysis of DNA Replication by Optical Mapping in Nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Joris; Pélofy, Sandrine; Blatché, Charline; Pillaire, Marie-Jeanne; Huet, Sébastien; Chapuis, Catherine; Hoffmann, Jean-Sébastien; Bancaud, Aurélien

    2016-11-01

    DNA replication is essential to maintain genome integrity in S phase of the cell division cycle. Accumulation of stalled replication forks is a major source of genetic instability, and likely constitutes a key driver of tumorigenesis. The mechanisms of regulation of replication fork progression have therefore been extensively investigated, in particular with DNA combing, an optical mapping technique that allows the stretching of single molecules and the mapping of active region for DNA synthesis by fluorescence microscopy. DNA linearization in nanochannels has been successfully used to probe genomic information patterns along single chromosomes, and has been proposed to be a competitive alternative to DNA combing. Yet this conjecture remains to be confirmed experimentally. Here, two complementary techniques are established to detect the genomic distribution of tracks of newly synthesized DNA in human cells by optical mapping in nanochannels. Their respective advantages and limitations are compared, and applied them to detect deregulations of the replication program induced by the antitumor drug hydroxyurea. The developments here thus broaden the field of applications accessible to nanofluidic technologies, and can be used in the future as part for molecular diagnostics in the context of high throughput cancer drug screening.

  15. Host DNA Damage Response Factors Localize to Merkel Cell Polyomavirus DNA Replication Sites To Support Efficient Viral DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Sabrina H.; Wang, Xin; Li, Jing; Buck, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Accumulating evidence indicates a role for Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in the development of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), making MCPyV the first polyomavirus to be clearly associated with human cancer. With the high prevalence of MCPyV infection and the increasing amount of MCC diagnosis, there is a need to better understand the virus and its oncogenic potential. In this study, we examined the relationship between the host DNA damage response (DDR) and MCPyV replication. We found that components of the ATM- and ATR-mediated DDR pathways accumulate in MCPyV large T antigen (LT)-positive nuclear foci in cells infected with native MCPyV virions. To further study MCPyV replication, we employed our previously established system, in which recombinant MCPyV episomal DNA is autonomously replicated in cultured cells. Similar to native MCPyV infection, where both MCPyV origin and LT are present, the host DDR machinery colocalized with LT in distinct nuclear foci. Immunofluorescence in situ hybridization and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation analysis showed that these DDR proteins and MCPyV LT in fact colocalized at the actively replicating MCPyV replication complexes, which were absent when a replication-defective LT mutant or an MCPyV-origin mutant was introduced in place of wild-type LT or wild-type viral origin. Inhibition of DDR kinases using chemical inhibitors and ATR/ATM small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown reduced MCPyV DNA replication without significantly affecting LT expression or the host cell cycle. This study demonstrates that these host DDR factors are important for MCPyV DNA replication, providing new insight into the host machinery involved in the MCPyV life cycle. IMPORTANCE MCPyV is the first polyomavirus to be clearly associated with human cancer. However, the MCPyV life cycle and its oncogenic mechanism remain poorly understood. In this report, we show that, in cells infected with native MCPyV virions, components of the ATM- and ATR

  16. SMC1-Mediated Intra-S-Phase Arrest Facilitates Bocavirus DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yong; Deng, Xuefeng; Cheng, Fang; Li, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Activation of a host DNA damage response (DDR) is essential for DNA replication of minute virus of canines (MVC), a member of the genus Bocavirus of the Parvoviridae family; however, the mechanism by which DDR contributes to viral DNA replication is unknown. In the current study, we demonstrate that MVC infection triggers the intra-S-phase arrest to slow down host cellular DNA replication and to recruit cellular DNA replication factors for viral DNA replication. The intra-S-phase arrest is regulated by ATM (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated kinase) signaling in a p53-independent manner. Moreover, we demonstrate that SMC1 (structural maintenance of chromosomes 1) is the key regulator of the intra-S-phase arrest induced during infection. Either knockdown of SMC1 or complementation with a dominant negative SMC1 mutant blocks both the intra-S-phase arrest and viral DNA replication. Finally, we show that the intra-S-phase arrest induced during MVC infection was caused neither by damaged host cellular DNA nor by viral proteins but by replicating viral genomes physically associated with the DNA damage sensor, the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex. In conclusion, the feedback loop between MVC DNA replication and the intra-S-phase arrest is mediated by ATM-SMC1 signaling and plays a critical role in MVC DNA replication. Thus, our findings unravel the mechanism underlying DDR signaling-facilitated MVC DNA replication and demonstrate a novel strategy of DNA virus-host interaction. PMID:23365434

  17. AP1 enhances polyomavirus DNA replication by promoting T-antigen-mediated unwinding of DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, W; Tang, W J; Bu, X; Bermudez, V; Martin, M; Folk, W R

    1996-01-01

    An early step in the initiation of polyomavirus DNA replication is viral large-T-antigen-mediated unwinding of the origin. We report that components of the AP1 transcription factor, Fos and Jun, interact with T antigen in vitro to enhance unwinding of the viral origin. This provides a biochemical basis for the capacity of AP1 to activate viral DNA replication in vivo. PMID:8763994

  18. Amino Acids in the Basic Domain of Epstein-Barr Virus ZEBRA Protein Play Distinct Roles in DNA Binding, Activation of Early Lytic Gene Expression, and Promotion of Viral DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Heston, Lee; El-Guindy, Ayman; Countryman, Jill; Dela Cruz, Charles; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Miller, George

    2006-01-01

    The ZEBRA protein of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) drives the viral lytic cycle cascade. The capacity of ZEBRA to recognize specific DNA sequences resides in amino acids 178 to 194, a region in which 9 of 17 residues are either lysine or arginine. To define the basic domain residues essential for activity, a series of 46 single-amino-acid-substitution mutants were examined for their ability to bind ZIIIB DNA, a high-affinity ZEBRA binding site, and for their capacity to activate early and late EBV lytic cycle gene expression. DNA binding was obligatory for the protein to activate the lytic cascade. Nineteen mutants that failed to bind DNA were unable to disrupt latency. A single acidic replacement of a basic amino acid destroyed DNA binding and the biologic activity of the protein. Four mutants that bound weakly to DNA were defective at stimulating the expression of Rta, the essential first target of ZEBRA in lytic cycle activation. Four amino acids, R183, A185, C189, and R190, are likely to contact ZIIIB DNA specifically, since alanine or valine substitutions at these positions drastically weakened or eliminated DNA binding. Twenty-three mutants were proficient in binding to ZIIIB DNA. Some DNA binding-proficient mutants were refractory to supershift by BZ-1 monoclonal antibody (epitope amino acids 214 to 230), likely as the result of the increased solubility of the mutants. Mutants competent to bind DNA could be separated into four functional groups: the wild-type group (eight mutants), a group defective at activating Rta (five mutants, all with mutations at the S186 site), a group defective at activating EA-D (three mutants with the R179A, S186T, and K192A mutations), and a group specifically defective at activating late gene expression (seven mutants). Three late mutants, with a Y180A, Y180E, or K188A mutation, were defective at stimulating EBV DNA replication. This catalogue of point mutants reveals that basic domain amino acids play distinct functions in binding

  19. Small Molecule Inhibition of Epstein - Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen-1 DNA Binding Activity Interferes with Replication and Persistence of the Viral Genome

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ka-Won; Joo, Eun Hye; Zhao, Bo; Kieff, Elliott; Kang, Myung-Soo

    2014-01-01

    The replication and persistence of extra chromosomal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) episome in latently infected cells are primarily dependent on the binding of EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) to the cognate EBV oriP element. In continuation of the previous study, herein we characterized EBNA1 small molecule inhibitors (H20, H31) and their underlying inhibitory mechanisms. In silico docking analyses predicted that H20 fits into a pocket in the EBNA1 DNA binding domain (DBD). However, H20 did not significantly affect EBNA1 binding to its cognate sequence. A limited structure-relationship study of H20 identified a hydrophobic compound H31, as an EBNA1 inhibitor. An in vitro EBNA1 EMSA and in vivo EGFP-EBNA1 confocal microscopy analysis showed that H31 inhibited EBNA1-dependent oriP sequence-specific DNA binding activity, but not sequence-nonspecific chromosomal association. Consistent with this, H31 repressed the EBNA1-dependent transcription, replication, and persistence of an EBV oriP plasmid. Furthermore, H31 induced progressive loss of EBV episome. In addition, H31 selectively retarded the growth of EBV-infected LCL or Burkitt’s lymphoma cells. These data indicate that H31 inhibition of EBNA1-dependent DNA binding decreases transcription from and persistence of EBV episome in EBV-infected cells. These new compounds might be useful probes for dissecting EBNA1 functions in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24486954

  20. DDX59 promotes DNA replication in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    You, Jin; Wang, Xingshun; Wang, Jiuling; Yuan, Baolei; Zhang, Yandong

    2017-01-01

    DEAD box proteins are multifunctional proteins involved in every aspect in RNA metabolism and have essential roles in many cellular activities. Despite their importance, many DEAD box proteins remain uncharacterized. In this report, we found DDX59 overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma. DDX59 knockdown reduced cell proliferation, anchorage-independent cell growth, and caused reduction of tumor formation in immunocompromised mice. In multiple lung cancer cells, we found that DDX59 knockdown inhibits DNA synthesis; wild-type DDX59 but not helicase-defective mutant of DDX59 enhances DNA synthesis. DDX59 knockdown caused reduction of MCM protein levels, decreased the loading of MCM ring protein onto chromatin, and therefore inhibited DNA replication. Our study reveals for the first time that DDX59 has an important role in lung cancer development through promoting DNA replication. PMID:28090355

  1. Proteasome-dependent degradation of replisome components regulates faithful DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Roseaulin, Laura C; Noguchi, Chiaki; Noguchi, Eishi

    2013-08-15

    The replication machinery, or the replisome, collides with a variety of obstacles during the normal process of DNA replication. In addition to damaged template DNA, numerous chromosome regions are considered to be difficult to replicate owing to the presence of DNA secondary structures and DNA-binding proteins. Under these conditions, the replication fork stalls, generating replication stress. Stalled forks are prone to collapse, posing serious threats to genomic integrity. It is generally thought that the replication checkpoint functions to stabilize the replisome and replication fork structure upon replication stress. This is important in order to allow DNA replication to resume once the problem is solved. However, our recent studies demonstrated that some replisome components undergo proteasome-dependent degradation during DNA replication in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Our investigation has revealed the involvement of the SCF(Pof3) (Skp1-Cullin/Cdc53-F-box) ubiquitin ligase in replisome regulation. We also demonstrated that forced accumulation of the replisome components leads to abnormal DNA replication upon replication stress. Here we review these findings and present additional data indicating the importance of replisome degradation for DNA replication. Our studies suggest that cells activate an alternative pathway to degrade replisome components in order to preserve genomic integrity.

  2. Choreography of bacteriophage T7 DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Joo; Richardson, Charles C

    2011-10-01

    The replication system of phage T7 provides a model for DNA replication. Biochemical, structural, and single-molecule analyses together provide insight into replisome mechanics. A complex of polymerase, a processivity factor, and helicase mediates leading strand synthesis. Establishment of the complex requires an interaction of the C-terminal tail of the helicase with the polymerase. During synthesis the complex is stabilized by other interactions to provide for a processivity of 5 kilobase (kb). The C-terminal tail also interacts with a distinct region of the polymerase to captures dissociating polymerase to increase the processivity to >17kb. The lagging strand is synthesized discontinuously within a loop that forms and resolves during each cycle of Okazaki fragment synthesis. The synthesis of a primer as well as the termination of a fragment signal loop resolution.

  3. On the scattering of DNA replication completion times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meilikhov, E. Z.; Farzetdinova, R. M.

    2015-07-01

    Stochasticity of Eukaryotes' DNA replication should not lead to large fluctuations of replication times, which could result in mitotic catastrophes. Fundamental problem that cells face is how to be ensured that entire genome is replicated on time. We develop analytic approach of calculating DNA replication times, that being simplified and approximate, leads, nevertheless, to results practically coincident with those that were obtained by some sophisticated methods. In the framework of that model we consider replication times' scattering and discuss the influence of repair stopping on kinetics of DNA replication. Our main explicit formulae for DNA replication time t r ∝ ( N is the total number of DNA base pairs) is of general character and explains basic features of DNA replication kinetics.

  4. Trapping DNA replication origins from the human genome.

    PubMed

    Eki, Toshihiko; Murakami, Yasufumi; Hanaoka, Fumio

    2013-04-17

    Synthesis of chromosomal DNA is initiated from multiple origins of replication in higher eukaryotes; however, little is known about these origins' structures. We isolated the origin-derived nascent DNAs from a human repair-deficient cell line by blocking the replication forks near the origins using two different origin-trapping methods (i.e., UV- or chemical crosslinker-treatment and cell synchronization in early S phase using DNA replication inhibitors). Single-stranded DNAs (of 0.5-3 kb) that accumulated after such treatments were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). BrdU-labeled DNA was immunopurified after fractionation by alkaline sucrose density gradient centrifugation and cloned by complementary-strand synthesis and PCR amplification. Competitive PCR revealed an increased abundance of DNA derived from known replication origins (c-myc and lamin B2 genes) in the nascent DNA fractions from the UV-treated or crosslinked cells. Nucleotide sequences of 85 and 208 kb were obtained from the two libraries (I and II) prepared from the UV-treated log-phase cells and early S phase arrested cells, respectively. The libraries differed from each other in their G+C composition and replication-related motif contents, suggesting that differences existed between the origin fragments isolated by the two different origin-trapping methods. The replication activities for seven out of 12 putative origin loci from the early-S phase cells were shown by competitive PCR. We mapped 117 (library I) and 172 (library II) putative origin loci to the human genome; approximately 60% and 50% of these loci were assigned to the G-band and intragenic regions, respectively. Analyses of the flanking sequences of the mapped loci suggested that the putative origin loci tended to associate with genes (including conserved sites) and DNase I hypersensitive sites; however, poor correlations were found between such loci and the CpG islands, transcription start sites, and K27-acetylated histone H3 peaks.

  5. A computational platform for robotized fluorescence microscopy (II): DNA damage, replication, checkpoint activation, and cell cycle progression by high-content high-resolution multiparameter image-cytometry.

    PubMed

    Furia, Laura; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Faretta, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Dissection of complex molecular-networks in rare cell populations is limited by current technologies that do not allow simultaneous quantification, high-resolution localization, and statistically robust analysis of multiple parameters. We have developed a novel computational platform (Automated Microscopy for Image CytOmetry, A.M.I.CO) for quantitative image-analysis of data from confocal or widefield robotized microscopes. We have applied this image-cytometry technology to the study of checkpoint activation in response to spontaneous DNA damage in nontransformed mammary cells. Cell-cycle profile and active DNA-replication were correlated to (i) Ki67, to monitor proliferation; (ii) phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) and 53BP1, as markers of DNA-damage response (DDR); and (iii) p53 and p21, as checkpoint-activation markers. Our data suggest the existence of cell-cycle modulated mechanisms involving different functions of γH2AX and 53BP1 in DDR, and of p53 and p21 in checkpoint activation and quiescence regulation during the cell-cycle. Quantitative analysis, event selection, and physical relocalization have been then employed to correlate protein expression at the population level with interactions between molecules, measured with Proximity Ligation Analysis, with unprecedented statistical relevance.

  6. DNA-Binding Proteins Essential for Protein-Primed Bacteriophage Φ29 DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Salas, Margarita; Holguera, Isabel; Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; de Vega, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis phage Φ29 has a linear, double-stranded DNA 19 kb long with an inverted terminal repeat of 6 nucleotides and a protein covalently linked to the 5' ends of the DNA. This protein, called terminal protein (TP), is the primer for the initiation of replication, a reaction catalyzed by the viral DNA polymerase at the two DNA ends. The DNA polymerase further elongates the nascent DNA chain in a processive manner, coupling strand displacement with elongation. The viral protein p5 is a single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) that binds to the single strands generated by strand displacement during the elongation process. Viral protein p6 is a double-stranded DNA binding protein (DBP) that preferentially binds to the origins of replication at the Φ29 DNA ends and is required for the initiation of replication. Both SSB and DBP are essential for Φ29 DNA amplification. This review focuses on the role of these phage DNA-binding proteins in Φ29 DNA replication both in vitro and in vivo, as well as on the implication of several B. subtilis DNA-binding proteins in different processes of the viral cycle. We will revise the enzymatic activities of the Φ29 DNA polymerase: TP-deoxynucleotidylation, processive DNA polymerization coupled to strand displacement, 3'-5' exonucleolysis and pyrophosphorolysis. The resolution of the Φ29 DNA polymerase structure has shed light on the translocation mechanism and the determinants responsible for processivity and strand displacement. These two properties have made Φ29 DNA polymerase one of the main enzymes used in the current DNA amplification technologies. The determination of the structure of Φ29 TP revealed the existence of three domains: the priming domain, where the primer residue Ser232, as well as Phe230, involved in the determination of the initiating nucleotide, are located, the intermediate domain, involved in DNA polymerase binding, and the N-terminal domain, responsible for DNA binding and localization of the

  7. DNA-Binding Proteins Essential for Protein-Primed Bacteriophage Φ29 DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Margarita; Holguera, Isabel; Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; de Vega, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis phage Φ29 has a linear, double-stranded DNA 19 kb long with an inverted terminal repeat of 6 nucleotides and a protein covalently linked to the 5′ ends of the DNA. This protein, called terminal protein (TP), is the primer for the initiation of replication, a reaction catalyzed by the viral DNA polymerase at the two DNA ends. The DNA polymerase further elongates the nascent DNA chain in a processive manner, coupling strand displacement with elongation. The viral protein p5 is a single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) that binds to the single strands generated by strand displacement during the elongation process. Viral protein p6 is a double-stranded DNA binding protein (DBP) that preferentially binds to the origins of replication at the Φ29 DNA ends and is required for the initiation of replication. Both SSB and DBP are essential for Φ29 DNA amplification. This review focuses on the role of these phage DNA-binding proteins in Φ29 DNA replication both in vitro and in vivo, as well as on the implication of several B. subtilis DNA-binding proteins in different processes of the viral cycle. We will revise the enzymatic activities of the Φ29 DNA polymerase: TP-deoxynucleotidylation, processive DNA polymerization coupled to strand displacement, 3′–5′ exonucleolysis and pyrophosphorolysis. The resolution of the Φ29 DNA polymerase structure has shed light on the translocation mechanism and the determinants responsible for processivity and strand displacement. These two properties have made Φ29 DNA polymerase one of the main enzymes used in the current DNA amplification technologies. The determination of the structure of Φ29 TP revealed the existence of three domains: the priming domain, where the primer residue Ser232, as well as Phe230, involved in the determination of the initiating nucleotide, are located, the intermediate domain, involved in DNA polymerase binding, and the N-terminal domain, responsible for DNA binding and

  8. Activation of BPV-1 replication in vitro by the transcription factor E2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liu; Li, Rong; Mohr, Ian J.; Clark, Robin; Botchan, Michael R.

    1991-10-01

    Soluble extracts from uninfected murine cells supplemented with purified viral E1 and E2 proteins support the replication of exogenously added papilloma virus DNA. The E2 transactivator stimulates the binding of the E1 replication protein to the minimal origin of replication and activates DNA replication. These results support the concept that transcription factors have a direct role in the initiation of DNA replication in eukaryotes by participating in the assembly of a complex at the origin of replication.

  9. DNA ligase I and Nbs1 proteins associate in a complex and colocalize at replication factories.

    PubMed

    Vago, Riccardo; Leva, Valentina; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Montecucco, Alessandra

    2009-08-15

    DNA ligase I is the main DNA ligase activity involved in eukaryotic DNA replication acting in the joining of Okazaki fragments. This enzyme is also implicated in nucleotide excision repair and in the long-patch base excision repair while its role in the recombinational repair pathways is poorly understood. DNA ligase I is phosphorylated during cell cycle at several serine and threonine residues that regulate its participation in different DNA transactions by modulating the interaction with different protein partners. Here we use an antibody-based array method to identify novel DNA ligase-interacting partners. We show that DNA ligase I participates in several multiprotein complexes with proteins involved in DNA replication and repair, cell cycle control, and protein modification. In particular we demonstrate that DNA ligase I complexes with Nbs1, a core component of the MRN complex critical for detection, processing and repair of double-stranded DNA breaks. The analysis of epitope tagged DNA ligase I mutants demonstrates that the association is mediated by the catalytic fragment of the enzyme. DNA ligase I and Nbs1 colocalize at replication factories during unperturbed replication and after treatment with DNA damaging agents. Since MRN complex is involved in the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks by homologous recombination at stalled replication forks our data support the notion that DNA ligase I participates in homology dependent pathways that deal with replication-associated lesions generated when replication fork encounters DNA damage.

  10. The cellular Mre11 protein interferes with adenovirus E4 mutant DNA replication

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Shomita S.; Bridge, Eileen

    2007-09-01

    Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) relocalizes and degrades the host DNA repair protein Mre11, and efficiently initiates viral DNA replication. Mre11 associates with Ad E4 mutant DNA replication centers and is important for concatenating viral genomes. We have investigated the role of Mre11 in the E4 mutant DNA replication defect. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Mre11 dramatically rescues E4 mutant DNA replication in cells that do or do not concatenate viral genomes, suggesting that Mre11 inhibits DNA replication independent of genome concatenation. The mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (Mdc1) protein is involved in recruiting and sustaining Mre11 at sites of DNA damage following ionizing radiation. We observe foci formation by Mdc1 in response to viral infection, indicating that this damage response protein is activated. However, knockdown of Mdc1 does not prevent Mre11 from localizing at viral DNA replication foci or rescue E4 mutant DNA replication. Our results are consistent with a model in which Mre11 interferes with DNA replication when it is localized at viral DNA replication foci.

  11. Analyzing the dynamics of DNA replication in Mammalian cells using DNA combing.

    PubMed

    Bialic, Marta; Coulon, Vincent; Drac, Marjorie; Gostan, Thierry; Schwob, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    How cells duplicate their chromosomes is a key determinant of cell identity and genome stability. DNA replication can initiate from more than 100,000 sites distributed along mammalian chromosomes, yet a given cell uses only a subset of these origins due to inefficient origin activation and regulation by developmental or environmental cues. An impractical consequence of cell-to-cell variations in origin firing is that population-based techniques do not accurately describe how chromosomes are replicated in single cells. DNA combing is a biophysical DNA fiber stretching method which permits visualization of ongoing DNA synthesis along Mb-sized single-DNA molecules purified from cells that were previously pulse-labeled with thymidine analogues. This allows quantitative measurements of several salient features of chromosome replication dynamics, such as fork velocity, fork asymmetry, inter-origin distances, and global instant fork density. In this chapter we describe how to obtain this information from asynchronous cultures of mammalian cells.

  12. Termination of DNA replication forks: "Breaking up is hard to do".

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rachael; Priego Moreno, Sara; Gambus, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    To ensure duplication of the entire genome, eukaryotic DNA replication initiates from thousands of replication origins. The replication forks move through the chromatin until they encounter forks from neighboring origins. During replication fork termination forks converge, the replisomes disassemble and topoisomerase II resolves the daughter DNA molecules. If not resolved efficiently, terminating forks result in genomic instability through the formation of pathogenic structures. Our recent findings shed light onto the mechanism of replisome disassembly upon replication fork termination. We have shown that termination-specific polyubiquitylation of the replicative helicase component - Mcm7, leads to dissolution of the active helicase in a process dependent on the p97/VCP/Cdc48 segregase. The inhibition of terminating helicase disassembly resulted in a replication termination defect. In this extended view we present hypothetical models of replication fork termination and discuss remaining and emerging questions in the DNA replication termination field.

  13. Mutations in the phosphorylation sites of simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigen alter its origin DNA-binding specificity for sites I or II and affect SV40 DNA replication activity.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, J; Fanning, E

    1988-01-01

    A series of mutants of simian virus 40 was constructed by oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis to study the role of phosphorylation in the functions of large T antigen. Each of the previously mapped phosphorylated serine and threonine residues in large T antigen was replaced by an alanine or cysteine residue or, in one case, by glutamic acid. Mutant DNAs were assayed for plaque-forming activity, viral DNA replication, expression of T antigen, and morphological transformation of rat cells. Viable mutants were isolated, suggesting that modification of some residues is not essential for the biological functions of T antigen. Two of these mutants replicated more efficiently than did the wild type. Seven mutants were partially or completely deficient in viral DNA replication but retained cell transformation activity comparable with that of the wild-type protein. Biochemical analysis of the mutant T antigens demonstrated novel origin DNA-binding properties of several mutant proteins. The results are consistent with the idea that differential phosphorylation defines several functional subclasses of T-antigen molecules. Images PMID:3357207

  14. A transcription and translation-coupled DNA replication system using rolling-circle replication.

    PubMed

    Sakatani, Yoshihiro; Ichihashi, Norikazu; Kazuta, Yasuaki; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2015-05-27

    All living organisms have a genome replication system in which genomic DNA is replicated by a DNA polymerase translated from mRNA transcribed from the genome. The artificial reconstitution of this genome replication system is a great challenge in in vitro synthetic biology. In this study, we attempted to construct a transcription- and translation-coupled DNA replication (TTcDR) system using circular genomic DNA encoding phi29 DNA polymerase and a reconstituted transcription and translation system. In this system, phi29 DNA polymerase was translated from the genome and replicated the genome in a rolling-circle manner. When using a traditional translation system composition, almost no DNA replication was observed, because the tRNA and nucleoside triphosphates included in the translation system significantly inhibited DNA replication. To minimize these inhibitory effects, we optimized the composition of the TTcDR system and improved replication by approximately 100-fold. Using our system, genomic DNA was replicated up to 10 times in 12 hours at 30 °C. This system provides a step toward the in vitro construction of an artificial genome replication system, which is a prerequisite for the construction of an artificial cell.

  15. POLD3 is haploinsufficient for DNA replication in mice

    PubMed Central

    Murga, Matilde; Lecona, Emilio; Kamileri, Irene; Díaz, Marcos; Lugli, Natalia; Sotiriou, Sotirios K.; Anton, Marta E.; Méndez, Juan; Halazonetis, Thanos D.; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Pold3 gene encodes a subunit of the Polδ DNA polymerase complex. Pold3 orthologues are not essential in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or chicken DT40 cells, but the Schizzosaccharomyces pombe orthologue is essential. POLD3 also has a specialized role in the repair of broken replication forks, suggesting that POLD3 activity could be particularly relevant for cancer cells enduring high levels of DNA replication stress. We report here that POLD3 is essential for mouse development and is also required for viability in adult animals. Strikingly, even Pold3+/- mice were born at sub-Mendelian ratios and, of those born, some presented hydrocephaly and had a reduced lifespan. In cells, POLD3 deficiency led to replication stress and cell death, which were aggravated by expression of activated oncogenes. Finally, we show that Pold3 deletion destabilizes all members of the Polδ complex, explaining its major role in DNA replication and the severe impact of its deficiency. PMID:27524497

  16. Control of the replication initiator DnaA by an anti-cooperativity factor.

    PubMed

    Merrikh, Houra; Grossman, Alan D

    2011-10-01

    Proper coordination of DNA replication with cell growth and division is critical for production of viable progeny. In bacteria, coordination of DNA replication with cell growth is generally achieved by controlling activity of the replication initiator DnaA and its access to the chromosomal origin of replication, oriC. Here we describe a previously unknown mechanism for regulation of DnaA. YabA, a negative regulator of replication initiation in Bacillus subtilis, interacts with DnaA and DnaN, the sliding (processivity) clamp of DNA polymerase. We found that in vivo, YabA associated with the oriC region in a DnaA-dependent manner and limited the amount of DnaA at oriC. In vitro, purified YabA altered binding of DnaA to DNA by inhibiting cooperativity. Although previously undescribed, proteins that directly inhibit cooperativity may be a common mechanism for regulating replication initiation. Conditions that cause release of DnaN from the replisome, or overproduction of DnaN, caused decreased association of YabA and increased association of DnaA with oriC. This effect of DnaN, either directly or indirectly, is likely responsible, in part, for enabling initiation of a new round of replication following completion of a previous round. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Control of the replication initiator DnaA by an anti-cooperativity factor

    PubMed Central

    Merrikh, Houra; Grossman, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Proper coordination of DNA replication with cell growth and division is critical for production of viable progeny. In bacteria, coordination of DNA replication with cell growth is generally achieved by controlling activity of the replication initiator DnaA and its access to the chromosomal origin of replication, oriC. Here we describe a previously unknown mechanism for regulation of DnaA. YabA, a negative regulator of replication initiation in Bacillus subtilis, interacts with DnaA and DnaN, the sliding (processivity) clamp of DNA polymerase. We found that in vivo, YabA associated with the oriC region in a DnaA-dependent manner and limited the amount of DnaA at oriC. In vitro, purified YabA altered binding of DnaA to DNA by inhibiting cooperativity. Though previously undescribed, proteins that directly inhibit cooperativity may be a common mechanism for regulating replication initiation. Conditions that cause release of DnaN from the replisome, or overproduction of DnaN, caused decreased association of YabA and increased association of DnaA with oriC. This effect of DnaN, either directly or indirectly, is likely responsible, in part, for enabling initiation of a new round of replication following completion of a previous round. PMID:21895792

  18. Molecular cloning of MSSP-2, a c-myc gene single-strand binding protein: characterization of binding specificity and DNA replication activity.

    PubMed Central

    Takai, T; Nishita, Y; Iguchi-Ariga, S M; Ariga, H

    1994-01-01

    We have previously reported the human cDNA encoding MSSP-1, a sequence-specific double- and single-stranded DNA binding protein [Negishi, Nishita, Saëgusa, Kakizaki, Galli, Kihara, Tamai, Miyajima, Iguchi-Ariga and Ariga (1994) Oncogene, 9, 1133-1143]. MSSP-1 binds to a DNA replication origin/transcriptional enhancer of the human c-myc gene and has turned out to be identical with Scr2, a human protein which complements the defect of cdc2 kinase in S.pombe [Kataoka and Nojima (1994) Nucleic Acid Res., 22, 2687-2693]. We have cloned the cDNA for MSSP-2, another member of the MSSP family of proteins. The MSSP-2 cDNA shares highly homologous sequences with MSSP-1 cDNA, except for the insertion of 48 bp coding 16 amino acids near the C-terminus. Like MSSP-1, MSSP-2 has RNP-1 consensus sequences. The results of the experiments using bacterially expressed MSSP-2, and its deletion mutants, as histidine fusion proteins suggested that the binding specificity of MSSP-2 to double- and single-stranded DNA is the same as that of MSSP-1, and that the RNP consensus sequences are required for the DNA binding of the protein. MSSP-2 stimulated the DNA replication of an SV40-derived plasmid containing the binding sequence for MSSP-1 or -2. MSSP-2 is hence suggested to play an important role in regulation of DNA replication. Images PMID:7838710

  19. Cell synchronization by inhibitors of DNA replication induces replication stress and DNA damage response: analysis by flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Halicka, H. Dorota; Zhao, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Cell synchronization is often achieved by inhibition of DNA replication. The cells cultured in the presence of such inhibitors as hydroxyurea, aphidicolin or thymidine become arrested at the entrance to S-phase and upon release from the block they synchronously progress through S, G2 and M. We recently reported that exposure of cells to these inhibitors at concentrations commonly used to synchronize cell populations led to phosphorylation of histone H2AX on Ser139 (induction of γH2AX) through activation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related protein kinase (ATR). These findings imply that the induction of DNA replication stress by these inhibitors activates the DNA damage response cell signaling pathways and caution about interpreting data obtained with the use of cells synchronized such way as representing unperturbed cells. The protocol presented in this chapter describes the methodology of assessment of phosphorylation of histone H2AX-Ser139, ATM/ATR substrate on Ser/Thr at SQ/TQ cluster domains as well as ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase in cells treated with inhibitors of DNA replication. Phosphorylation of these proteins is detected in individual cell immunocytochemically with phospho-specific Ab and measured by flow cytometry. Concurrent measurement of cellular DNA content and phosphorylated proteins followed by multiparameter cytometric analysis allows one to correlate extent of their phosphorylation with cell cycle phase. PMID:21755443

  20. YabA of Bacillus subtilis controls DnaA-mediated replication initiation but not the transcriptional response to replication stress.

    PubMed

    Goranov, Alexi I; Breier, Adam M; Merrikh, Houra; Grossman, Alan D

    2009-10-01

    yabA encodes a negative regulator of replication initiation in Bacillus subtilis and homologues are found in many other gram-positive species. YabA interacts with the beta-processivity clamp (DnaN) of DNA polymerase and with the replication initiator and transcription factor DnaA. Because of these interactions, YabA has been proposed to modulate the activity of DnaA. We investigated the role of YabA in regulating replication initiation and the activity of DnaA as a transcription factor. We found that YabA function is mainly limited to replication initiation at oriC. Loss of YabA did not significantly alter expression of genes controlled by DnaA during exponential growth or after replication stress, indicating that YabA is not required for modulating DnaA transcriptional activity. We also found that DnaN activates replication initiation apparently through effects on YabA. Furthermore, association of GFP-YabA with the replisome correlated with the presence of DnaN at replication forks, but was independent of DnaA. Our results are consistent with models in which YabA inhibits replication initiation at oriC, and perhaps DnaA function at oriC, but not with models in which YabA generally modulates the activity of DnaA in response to replication stress.

  1. YabA of Bacillus subtilis controls DnaA-mediated replication initiation but not the transcriptional response to replication stress

    PubMed Central

    Goranov, Alexi I.; Breier, Adam M.; Merrikh, Houra; Grossman, Alan D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary yabA encodes a negative regulator of replication initiation in Bacillus subtilis and homologues are found in many other Gram-positive species. YabA interacts with the β-processivity clamp (DnaN) of DNA polymerase and with the replication initiator and transcription factor DnaA. Because of these interactions, YabA has been proposed to modulate the activity of DnaA. We investigated the role of YabA in regulating replication initiation and the activity of DnaA as a transcription factor. We found that YabA function is mainly limited to replication initiation at oriC. Loss of YabA did not significantly alter expression of genes controlled by DnaA during exponential growth or after replication stress, indicating that YabA is not required for modulating DnaA transcriptional activity. We also found that DnaN activates replication initiation apparently through effects on YabA. Furthermore, association of GFP-YabA with the replisome correlated with the presence of DnaN at replication forks, but was independent of DnaA. Our results are consistent with models in which YabA inhibits replication initiation at oriC, and perhaps DnaA function at oriC, but not with models in which YabA generally modulates the activity of DnaA in response to replication stress. PMID:19737352

  2. Replication fork dynamics and the DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rebecca M; Petermann, Eva

    2012-04-01

    Prevention and repair of DNA damage is essential for maintenance of genomic stability and cell survival. DNA replication during S-phase can be a source of DNA damage if endogenous or exogenous stresses impair the progression of replication forks. It has become increasingly clear that DNA-damage-response pathways do not only respond to the presence of damaged DNA, but also modulate DNA replication dynamics to prevent DNA damage formation during S-phase. Such observations may help explain the developmental defects or cancer predisposition caused by mutations in DNA-damage-response genes. The present review focuses on molecular mechanisms by which DNA-damage-response pathways control and promote replication dynamics in vertebrate cells. In particular, DNA damage pathways contribute to proper replication by regulating replication initiation, stabilizing transiently stalled forks, promoting replication restart and facilitating fork movement on difficult-to-replicate templates. If replication fork progression fails to be rescued, this may lead to DNA damage and genomic instability via nuclease processing of aberrant fork structures or incomplete sister chromatid separation during mitosis.

  3. Effects of benzo[a]pyrene adduct stereochemistry on downstream DNA replication in vitro: evidence for different adduct conformations within the active site of DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment).

    PubMed

    Alekseyev, Yuriy O; Romano, Louis J

    2002-04-02

    The presence of bulky adducts in DNA is known to interfere with DNA replication not only at the site of the lesion but also at positions up to 5 nucleotides past the adduct location. Kinetic studies of primer extension by exonuclease-deficient E. coli DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment) (KF) when (+)-trans- or (+)-cis-B[a]P-N(2)-dG adducts were positioned in the double-stranded region of the primer-templates showed that both stereoisomers significantly block downstream replication. However the (+)-cis adduct, which causes a stronger inhibition of the nucleotides insertion across from and immediately past the lesion, affected the downstream replication to a much smaller extent than did the (+)-trans adduct, especially when the B[a]P-modified dG was properly paired with a dC. The effects of mismatches across from the adduct and the sequence context surrounding the adduct were also dependent on the stereochemistry of the B[a]P adduct. Thus, the identity of the nucleotide across from the adduct that provided the best downstream replication was different for the (+)-cis and (+)-trans adducts, a factor that might differentially contribute to the mutagenic bypass of these lesions. These findings provide strong direct evidence that the conformations of the (+)-cis and (+)-trans adducts within the active site of KF are significantly different and probably differentially affect the interactions of the polymerase with the minor groove, thereby leading to different replication trends. The stereochemistry of the adduct was also found to differentially affect the sequence-mediated primer-template misalignments, resulting in different consequences during the bypass of the lesion.

  4. Direct Visualization of DNA Replication Dynamics in Zebrafish Cells.

    PubMed

    Kuriya, Kenji; Higashiyama, Eriko; Avşar-Ban, Eriko; Tamaru, Yutaka; Ogata, Shin; Takebayashi, Shin-ichiro; Ogata, Masato; Okumura, Katsuzumi

    2015-12-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of DNA replication in the S-phase nucleus has been extensively studied in mammalian cells because it is tightly coupled with the regulation of other nuclear processes such as transcription. However, little is known about the replication dynamics in nonmammalian cells. Here, we analyzed the DNA replication processes of zebrafish (Danio rerio) cells through the direct visualization of replicating DNA in the nucleus and on DNA fiber molecules isolated from the nucleus. We found that zebrafish chromosomal DNA at the nuclear interior was replicated first, followed by replication of DNA at the nuclear periphery, which is reminiscent of the spatiotemporal regulation of mammalian DNA replication. However, the relative duration of interior DNA replication in zebrafish cells was longer compared to mammalian cells, possibly reflecting zebrafish-specific genomic organization. The rate of replication fork progression and ori-to-ori distance measured by the DNA combing technique were ∼ 1.4 kb/min and 100 kb, respectively, which are comparable to those in mammalian cells. To our knowledge, this is a first report that measures replication dynamics in zebrafish cells.

  5. Nonenzymatic Role for WRN in Preserving Nascent DNA Strands after Replication Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Fengtao; Mukherjee, Shibani; Yang, Yanyong; Mori, Eiichiro; Bhattacharya, Souparno; Kobayashi, Junya; Yannone, Steven  M.; Chen, David  J.; Asaithamby, Aroumougame

    2014-11-20

    WRN, the protein defective in Werner syndrome (WS), is a multifunctional nuclease involved in DNA damage repair, replication, and genome stability maintenance. It was assumed that the nuclease activities of WRN were critical for these functions. Here, we report a nonenzymatic role for WRN in preserving nascent DNA strands following replication stress. We found that lack of WRN led to shortening of nascent DNA strands after replication stress. Furthermore, we discovered that the exonuclease activity of MRE11 was responsible for the shortening of newly replicated DNA in the absence of WRN. Mechanistically, the N-terminal FHA domain of NBS1 recruits WRN to replication-associated DNA double-stranded breaks to stabilize Rad51 and to limit the nuclease activity of its C-terminal binding partner MRE11. Thus, this previously unrecognized nonenzymatic function of WRN in the stabilization of nascent DNA strands sheds light on the molecular reason for the origin of genome instability in WS individuals.

  6. Partial Purification of a Megadalton DNA Replication Complex by Free Flow Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, Caroline M; Miao, Yunan; Lingeman, Robert G; Hickey, Robert J; Malkas, Linda H

    2016-01-01

    We describe a gentle and rapid method to purify the intact multiprotein DNA replication complex using free flow electrophoresis (FFE). In particular, we applied FFE to purify the human cell DNA synthesome, which is a multiprotein complex that is fully competent to carry-out all phases of the DNA replication process in vitro using a plasmid containing the simian virus 40 (SV40) origin of DNA replication and the viral large tumor antigen (T-antigen) protein. The isolated native DNA synthesome can be of use in studying the mechanism by which mammalian DNA replication is carried-out and how anti-cancer drugs disrupt the DNA replication or repair process. Partially purified extracts from HeLa cells were fractionated in a native, liquid based separation by FFE. Dot blot analysis showed co-elution of many proteins identified as part of the DNA synthesome, including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), DNA topoisomerase I (topo I), DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ), DNA polymerase ɛ (Pol ɛ), replication protein A (RPA) and replication factor C (RFC). Previously identified DNA synthesome proteins co-eluted with T-antigen dependent and SV40 origin-specific DNA polymerase activity at the same FFE fractions. Native gels show a multiprotein PCNA containing complex migrating with an apparent relative mobility in the megadalton range. When PCNA containing bands were excised from the native gel, mass spectrometric sequencing analysis identified 23 known DNA synthesome associated proteins or protein subunits.

  7. Partial Purification of a Megadalton DNA Replication Complex by Free Flow Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Caroline M.; Miao, Yunan; Lingeman, Robert G.; Hickey, Robert J.; Malkas, Linda H.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a gentle and rapid method to purify the intact multiprotein DNA replication complex using free flow electrophoresis (FFE). In particular, we applied FFE to purify the human cell DNA synthesome, which is a multiprotein complex that is fully competent to carry-out all phases of the DNA replication process in vitro using a plasmid containing the simian virus 40 (SV40) origin of DNA replication and the viral large tumor antigen (T-antigen) protein. The isolated native DNA synthesome can be of use in studying the mechanism by which mammalian DNA replication is carried-out and how anti-cancer drugs disrupt the DNA replication or repair process. Partially purified extracts from HeLa cells were fractionated in a native, liquid based separation by FFE. Dot blot analysis showed co-elution of many proteins identified as part of the DNA synthesome, including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), DNA topoisomerase I (topo I), DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ), DNA polymerase ɛ (Pol ɛ), replication protein A (RPA) and replication factor C (RFC). Previously identified DNA synthesome proteins co-eluted with T-antigen dependent and SV40 origin-specific DNA polymerase activity at the same FFE fractions. Native gels show a multiprotein PCNA containing complex migrating with an apparent relative mobility in the megadalton range. When PCNA containing bands were excised from the native gel, mass spectrometric sequencing analysis identified 23 known DNA synthesome associated proteins or protein subunits. PMID:28036377

  8. Rapid turnover of DnaA at replication origin regions contributes to initiation control of DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Eisemann, Marc; Dahlke, Stephan; Kleine-Borgmann, Luise; Murray, Seán M.; Graumann, Peter L.

    2017-01-01

    DnaA is a conserved key regulator of replication initiation in bacteria, and is homologous to ORC proteins in archaea and in eukaryotic cells. The ATPase binds to several high affinity binding sites at the origin region and upon an unknown molecular trigger, spreads to several adjacent sites, inducing the formation of a helical super structure leading to initiation of replication. Using FRAP analysis of a functional YFP-DnaA allele in Bacillus subtilis, we show that DnaA is bound to oriC with a half-time of 2.5 seconds. DnaA shows similarly high turnover at the replication machinery, where DnaA is bound to DNA polymerase via YabA. The absence of YabA increases the half time binding of DnaA at oriC, showing that YabA plays a dual role in the regulation of DnaA, as a tether at the replication forks, and as a chaser at origin regions. Likewise, a deletion of soj (encoding a ParA protein) leads to an increase in residence time and to overinitiation, while a mutation in DnaA that leads to lowered initiation frequency, due to a reduced ATPase activity, shows a decreased residence time on binding sites. Finally, our single molecule tracking experiments show that DnaA rapidly moves between chromosomal binding sites, and does not arrest for more than few hundreds of milliseconds. In Escherichia coli, DnaA also shows low residence times in the range of 200 ms and oscillates between spatially opposite chromosome regions in a time frame of one to two seconds, independently of ongoing transcription. Thus, DnaA shows extremely rapid binding turnover on the chromosome including oriC regions in two bacterial species, which is influenced by Soj and YabA proteins in B. subtilis, and is crucial for balanced initiation control, likely preventing fatal premature multimerization and strand opening of DnaA at oriC. PMID:28166228

  9. Rapid turnover of DnaA at replication origin regions contributes to initiation control of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Katrin; Hervás, Ana B; Rösch, Thomas C; Eisemann, Marc; Schmitt, Bernhard A; Dahlke, Stephan; Kleine-Borgmann, Luise; Murray, Seán M; Graumann, Peter L

    2017-02-01

    DnaA is a conserved key regulator of replication initiation in bacteria, and is homologous to ORC proteins in archaea and in eukaryotic cells. The ATPase binds to several high affinity binding sites at the origin region and upon an unknown molecular trigger, spreads to several adjacent sites, inducing the formation of a helical super structure leading to initiation of replication. Using FRAP analysis of a functional YFP-DnaA allele in Bacillus subtilis, we show that DnaA is bound to oriC with a half-time of 2.5 seconds. DnaA shows similarly high turnover at the replication machinery, where DnaA is bound to DNA polymerase via YabA. The absence of YabA increases the half time binding of DnaA at oriC, showing that YabA plays a dual role in the regulation of DnaA, as a tether at the replication forks, and as a chaser at origin regions. Likewise, a deletion of soj (encoding a ParA protein) leads to an increase in residence time and to overinitiation, while a mutation in DnaA that leads to lowered initiation frequency, due to a reduced ATPase activity, shows a decreased residence time on binding sites. Finally, our single molecule tracking experiments show that DnaA rapidly moves between chromosomal binding sites, and does not arrest for more than few hundreds of milliseconds. In Escherichia coli, DnaA also shows low residence times in the range of 200 ms and oscillates between spatially opposite chromosome regions in a time frame of one to two seconds, independently of ongoing transcription. Thus, DnaA shows extremely rapid binding turnover on the chromosome including oriC regions in two bacterial species, which is influenced by Soj and YabA proteins in B. subtilis, and is crucial for balanced initiation control, likely preventing fatal premature multimerization and strand opening of DnaA at oriC.

  10. Function of the Plant DNA Polymerase Epsilon in Replicative Stress Sensing, a Genetic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pedroza-García, José-Antonio; Mazubert, Christelle; Del Olmo, Ivan; Bourge, Mickael; Domenichini, Séverine; Bounon, Rémi; Tariq, Zakia; Delannoy, Etienne; Piñeiro, Manuel; Jarillo, José A; Bergounioux, Catherine; Benhamed, Moussa; Raynaud, Cécile

    2017-03-01

    Faithful transmission of the genetic information is essential in all living organisms. DNA replication is therefore a critical step of cell proliferation, because of the potential occurrence of replication errors or DNA damage when progression of a replication fork is hampered causing replicative stress. Like other types of DNA damage, replicative stress activates the DNA damage response, a signaling cascade allowing cell cycle arrest and repair of lesions. The replicative DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) was shown to activate the S-phase checkpoint in yeast in response to replicative stress, but whether this mechanism functions in multicellular eukaryotes remains unclear. Here, we explored the genetic interaction between Pol ε and the main elements of the DNA damage response in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We found that mutations affecting the polymerase domain of Pol ε trigger ATR-dependent signaling leading to SOG1 activation, WEE1-dependent cell cycle inhibition, and tolerance to replicative stress induced by hydroxyurea, but result in enhanced sensitivity to a wide range of DNA damaging agents. Using knock-down lines, we also provide evidence for the direct role of Pol ε in replicative stress sensing. Together, our results demonstrate that the role of Pol ε in replicative stress sensing is conserved in plants, and provide, to our knowledge, the first genetic dissection of the downstream signaling events in a multicellular eukaryote. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Mouse Zygotes Respond to Severe Sperm DNA Damage by Delaying Paternal DNA Replication and Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Gawecka, Joanna E.; Marh, Joel; Ortega, Michael; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Ward, Monika A.; Ward, W. Steven

    2013-01-01

    Mouse zygotes do not activate apoptosis in response to DNA damage. We previously reported a unique form of inducible sperm DNA damage termed sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF). SCF mirrors some aspects of somatic cell apoptosis in that the DNA degradation is mediated by reversible double strand breaks caused by topoisomerase 2B (TOP2B) followed by irreversible DNA degradation by a nuclease(s). Here, we created zygotes using spermatozoa induced to undergo SCF (SCF zygotes) and tested how they responded to moderate and severe paternal DNA damage during the first cell cycle. We found that the TUNEL assay was not sensitive enough to identify the breaks caused by SCF in zygotes in either case. However, paternal pronuclei in both groups stained positively for γH2AX, a marker for DNA damage, at 5 hrs after fertilization, just before DNA synthesis, while the maternal pronuclei were negative. We also found that both pronuclei in SCF zygotes with moderate DNA damage replicated normally, but paternal pronuclei in the SCF zygotes with severe DNA damage delayed the initiation of DNA replication by up to 12 hrs even though the maternal pronuclei had no discernable delay. Chromosomal analysis of both groups confirmed that the paternal DNA was degraded after S-phase while the maternal pronuclei formed normal chromosomes. The DNA replication delay caused a marked retardation in progression to the 2-cell stage, and a large portion of the embryos arrested at the G2/M border, suggesting that this is an important checkpoint in zygotic development. Those embryos that progressed through the G2/M border died at later stages and none developed to the blastocyst stage. Our data demonstrate that the zygote responds to sperm DNA damage through a non-apoptotic mechanism that acts by slowing paternal DNA replication and ultimately leads to arrest in embryonic development. PMID:23431372

  12. Methods to study the coupling between replicative helicase and leading-strand DNA polymerase at the replication fork.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, Divya; Patel, Smita S

    2016-10-01

    Replicative helicases work closely with the replicative DNA polymerases to ensure that the genomic DNA is copied in a timely and error free manner. In the replisomes of prokaryotes, mitochondria, and eukaryotes, the helicase and DNA polymerase enzymes are functionally and physically coupled at the leading strand replication fork and rely on each other for optimal DNA strand separation and synthesis activities. In this review, we describe pre-steady state kinetic methods to quantify the base pair unwinding-synthesis rate constant, a fundamental parameter to understand how the helicase and polymerase help each other during leading strand replication. We describe a robust method to measure the chemical step size of the helicase-polymerase complex that determines how the two motors are energetically coupled while tracking along the DNA. The 2-aminopurine fluorescence-based method provide structural information on the leading strand helicase-polymerase complex, such as the distance between the two enzymes, their relative positions at the replication fork, and their roles in fork junction melting. The combined information garnered from these methods informs on the mutual dependencies between the helicase and DNA polymerase enzymes, their stepping mechanism, and their individual functions at the replication fork during leading strand replication. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Nuclear gadgets in mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription.

    PubMed

    Clayton, D A

    1991-03-01

    In mammalian mitochondrial DNA, activation of the light-strand promoter mediates both priming of leading-strand replication and initiation of light-strand transcription. Accurate and efficient transcription requires at least two proteins: mitochondrial RNA polymerase and a separable transcription factor that can function across species boundaries. Subsequently, primer RNAs are cleaved by a site-specific ribonucleoprotein endoribonuclease that recognizes short, highly conserved sequence elements in the RNA substrate.

  14. Plasmid-like replicative intermediates of the Epstein-Barr virus lytic origin of DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Pfüller, R; Hammerschmidt, W

    1996-01-01

    During the lytic phase of herpesviruses, intermediates of viral DNA replication are found as large concatemeric molecules in the infected cells. It is not known, however, what the early events in viral DNA replication that yield these concatemers are. In an attempt to identify these early steps of DNA replication, replicative intermediates derived from the lytic origin of Epstein-Barr virus, oriLyt, were analyzed. As shown by density shift experiments with bromodeoxyuridine, oriLyt replicated semiconservatively soon after induction of the lytic cycle and oriLyt-containing DNA is amplified to yield monomeric plasmid progeny DNA (besides multimeric forms and high-molecular-weight DNA). A new class of plasmid progeny DNA which have far fewer negative supercoils than do plasmids extracted from uninduced cells is present only in cells undergoing the lytic cycle of Epstein-Barr virus. This finding is consistent with plasmid DNAs having fewer nucleosomes before extraction. The newly replicated plasmid DNAs are dependent on a functional oriLyt in cis and support an efficient marker transfer into Escherichia coli as monomeric plasmids. Multimeric forms of presumably circular progeny DNA of oriLyt, as well as detected recombination events, indicate that oriLyt-mediated DNA replication is biphasic: an early theta-like mode is followed by a complex pattern which could result from rolling-circle DNA replication. PMID:8648674

  15. Top2 and Sgs1-Top3 Act Redundantly to Ensure rDNA Replication Termination

    PubMed Central

    Fredsøe, Jacob; Nielsen, Ida; Pedersen, Jakob Madsen; Bentsen, Iben Bach; Lisby, Michael; Bjergbaek, Lotte; Andersen, Anni H

    2015-01-01

    Faithful DNA replication with correct termination is essential for genome stability and transmission of genetic information. Here we have investigated the potential roles of Topoisomerase II (Top2) and the RecQ helicase Sgs1 during late stages of replication. We find that cells lacking Top2 and Sgs1 (or Top3) display two different characteristics during late S/G2 phase, checkpoint activation and accumulation of asymmetric X-structures, which are both independent of homologous recombination. Our data demonstrate that checkpoint activation is caused by a DNA structure formed at the strongest rDNA replication fork barrier (RFB) during replication termination, and consistently, checkpoint activation is dependent on the RFB binding protein, Fob1. In contrast, asymmetric X-structures are formed independent of Fob1 at less strong rDNA replication fork barriers. However, both checkpoint activation and formation of asymmetric X-structures are sensitive to conditions, which facilitate fork merging and progression of replication forks through replication fork barriers. Our data are consistent with a redundant role of Top2 and Sgs1 together with Top3 (Sgs1-Top3) in replication fork merging at rDNA barriers. At RFB either Top2 or Sgs1-Top3 is essential to prevent formation of a checkpoint activating DNA structure during termination, but at less strong rDNA barriers absence of the enzymes merely delays replication fork merging, causing an accumulation of asymmetric termination structures, which are solved over time. PMID:26630413

  16. DNA Replication Origins and Fork Progression at Mammalian Telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Mitsunori; Fujita, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Kazumasa

    2017-01-01

    Telomeres are essential chromosomal regions that prevent critical shortening of linear chromosomes and genomic instability in eukaryotic cells. The bulk of telomeric DNA is replicated by semi-conservative DNA replication in the same way as the rest of the genome. However, recent findings revealed that replication of telomeric repeats is a potential cause of chromosomal instability, because DNA replication through telomeres is challenged by the repetitive telomeric sequences and specific structures that hamper the replication fork. In this review, we summarize current understanding of the mechanisms by which telomeres are faithfully and safely replicated in mammalian cells. Various telomere-associated proteins ensure efficient telomere replication at different steps, such as licensing of replication origins, passage of replication forks, proper fork restart after replication stress, and dissolution of post-replicative structures. In particular, shelterin proteins have central roles in the control of telomere replication. Through physical interactions, accessory proteins are recruited to maintain telomere integrity during DNA replication. Dormant replication origins and/or homology-directed repair may rescue inappropriate fork stalling or collapse that can cause defects in telomere structure and functions. PMID:28350373

  17. Replication stalling by catalytically impaired Twinkle induces mitochondrial DNA rearrangements in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L O; Goffart, Steffi; Spelbrink, Johannes N

    2011-07-01

    Pathological mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) rearrangements have been proposed to result from repair of double-strand breaks caused by blockage of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication. As mtDNA deletions are seen only in post-mitotic tissues, it has been suggested that they are selected out in actively dividing cells. By electron microscopy we observed rearranged mtDNA molecules in cultured human cells expressing a catalytically impaired helicase. As these molecules were undetectable by PCR, we propose that deleted mtDNA molecules in cultured cells are fragile and sensitive to heating. Further consequences of mtDNA replication stalling are discussed.

  18. DNA instability in replicating Huntington's disease lymphoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Cannella, Milena; Maglione, Vittorio; Martino, Tiziana; Ragona, Giuseppe; Frati, Luigi; Li, Guo-Min; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2009-01-01

    Background The expanded CAG repeat in the Huntington's disease (HD) gene may display tissue-specific variability (e.g. triplet mosaicism) in repeat length, the longest mutations involving mitotic (germ and glial cells) and postmitotic (neurons) cells. What contributes to the triplet mutability underlying the development of HD nevertheless remains unknown. We investigated whether, besides the increased DNA instability documented in postmitotic neurons, possible environmental and genetic mechanisms, related to cell replication, may concur to determine CAG repeat mutability. To test this hypothesis we used, as a model, cultured HD patients' lymphoblasts with various CAG repeat lengths. Results Although most lymphoblastoid cell lines (88%) showed little or no repeat instability even after six or more months culture, in lymphoblasts with large expansion repeats beyond 60 CAG repeats the mutation size and triplet mosaicism always increased during replication, implying that the repeat mutability for highly expanded mutations may quantitatively depend on the triplet expansion size. None of the investigated genetic factors, potentially acting in cis to the mutation, significantly influence the repeat changes. Finally, in our experiments certain drugs controlled triplet expansion in two prone-to-expand HD cell lines carrying large CAG mutations. Conclusion Our data support quantitative evidence that the inherited CAG length of expanded alleles has a major influence on somatic repeat variation. The longest triplet expansions show wide somatic variations and may offer a mechanistic model to study triplet drug-controlled instability and genetic factors influencing it. PMID:19210789

  19. Effect of Radiofrequency Radiation on DNA Duplex Stability and Replication.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS-1963-A Report USAFSAM-TR. 83-20 *--EFFECT OF RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION ON DNA K’*DUPLEX STABILITY AND REPLICATION ...photons affect the stability and/or replication of mammalian DNA . Two of the approaches involved experiments with female CD-l mice, including...analyses of RF effects on sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in bone marrow as one index of DNA stability and RF effects on replication of the animals’ marrow

  20. Papillomavirus DNA replication - From initiation to genomic instability

    SciTech Connect

    Kadaja, Meelis; Silla, Toomas; Ustav, Ene; Ustav, Mart

    2009-02-20

    Papillomaviruses establish their productive life cycle in stratified epithelium or mucosa, where the undifferentiated proliferating keratinocytes are the initial targets for the productive viral infection. Papillomaviruses have evolved mechanisms to adapt to the normal cellular growth control pathways and to adjust their DNA replication and maintenance cycle to contend with the cellular differentiation. We provide overview of the papillomavirus DNA replication in the differentiating epithelium and describe the molecular interactions important for viral DNA replication on all steps of the viral life cycle.

  1. Laser-Induced Heating for DNA Replication in a Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Min-Sheng; Chen, Chin-Pin

    In this study, we integrated microfluidics and a laser to develop a microfluidic system that performs target DNA replication. To achieve replication of targeted position of DNA, DNA fibers are stretched and both ends immobilized onto an electrode through dielectrophoresis. During the process, 2 designed primers, as well as DNA polymerase and its substrates, are fed into the microfluidics, and a focused infrared laser is used to irradiate the center of the DNA strand. An on-off switching mechanism is used to create thermal cycling. A polymerase chain reaction is then used to confirm the successfully replicated DNA.

  2. Fork rotation and DNA precatenation are restricted during DNA replication to prevent chromosomal instability.

    PubMed

    Schalbetter, Stephanie A; Mansoubi, Sahar; Chambers, Anna L; Downs, Jessica A; Baxter, Jonathan

    2015-08-18

    Faithful genome duplication and inheritance require the complete resolution of all intertwines within the parental DNA duplex. This is achieved by topoisomerase action ahead of the replication fork or by fork rotation and subsequent resolution of the DNA precatenation formed. Although fork rotation predominates at replication termination, in vitro studies have suggested that it also occurs frequently during elongation. However, the factors that influence fork rotation and how rotation and precatenation may influence other replication-associated processes are unknown. Here we analyze the causes and consequences of fork rotation in budding yeast. We find that fork rotation and precatenation preferentially occur in contexts that inhibit topoisomerase action ahead of the fork, including stable protein-DNA fragile sites and termination. However, generally, fork rotation and precatenation are actively inhibited by Timeless/Tof1 and Tipin/Csm3. In the absence of Tof1/Timeless, excessive fork rotation and precatenation cause extensive DNA damage following DNA replication. With Tof1, damage related to precatenation is focused on the fragile protein-DNA sites where fork rotation is induced. We conclude that although fork rotation and precatenation facilitate unwinding in hard-to-replicate contexts, they intrinsically disrupt normal chromosome duplication and are therefore restricted by Timeless/Tipin.

  3. Fork rotation and DNA precatenation are restricted during DNA replication to prevent chromosomal instability

    PubMed Central

    Schalbetter, Stephanie A.; Mansoubi, Sahar; Chambers, Anna L.; Downs, Jessica A.; Baxter, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Faithful genome duplication and inheritance require the complete resolution of all intertwines within the parental DNA duplex. This is achieved by topoisomerase action ahead of the replication fork or by fork rotation and subsequent resolution of the DNA precatenation formed. Although fork rotation predominates at replication termination, in vitro studies have suggested that it also occurs frequently during elongation. However, the factors that influence fork rotation and how rotation and precatenation may influence other replication-associated processes are unknown. Here we analyze the causes and consequences of fork rotation in budding yeast. We find that fork rotation and precatenation preferentially occur in contexts that inhibit topoisomerase action ahead of the fork, including stable protein–DNA fragile sites and termination. However, generally, fork rotation and precatenation are actively inhibited by Timeless/Tof1 and Tipin/Csm3. In the absence of Tof1/Timeless, excessive fork rotation and precatenation cause extensive DNA damage following DNA replication. With Tof1, damage related to precatenation is focused on the fragile protein–DNA sites where fork rotation is induced. We conclude that although fork rotation and precatenation facilitate unwinding in hard-to-replicate contexts, they intrinsically disrupt normal chromosome duplication and are therefore restricted by Timeless/Tipin. PMID:26240319

  4. DNA double-strand breaks caused by replication arrest.

    PubMed Central

    Michel, B; Ehrlich, S D; Uzest, M

    1997-01-01

    We report here that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) form in Escherichia coli upon arrest of replication forks due to a defect in, or the inhibition of, replicative DNA helicases. The formation of DSBs was assessed by the appearance of linear DNA detected by pulse-field gel electrophoresis. Processing of DSBs by recombination repair or linear DNA degradation was abolished by mutations in recBCD genes. Two E. coli replicative helicases were tested, Rep, which is essential in recBC mutants, and DnaB. The proportion of linear DNA increased up to 50% upon shift of rep recBTS recCTS cells to restrictive temperature. No increase in linear DNA was observed in the absence of replicating chromosomes, indicating that the formation of DSBs in rep strains requires replication. Inhibition of the DnaB helicase either by a strong replication terminator or by a dnaBTS mutation led to the formation of linear DNA, showing that blocked replication forks are prone to DSB formation. In wild-type E. coli, linear DNA was detected in the absence of RecBC or of both RecA and RecD. This reveals the existence of a significant amount of spontaneous DSBs. We propose that some of them may also result from the impairment of replication fork progression. PMID:9029161

  5. Studies on the replication of Escherichia coli phage lambda DNA. I. The kinetics of DNA replication and requirements for the generation of rolling circles.

    PubMed

    Better, M; Freifelder, D

    1983-04-15

    Escherichia coli phage lambda DNA has been isolated from infected bacteria using a new technique by which virtually all phage DNA is recovered. Isolated DNA is examined by electron microscopy. Addition of phi X174 RF1 molecules as a counting standard enables us to determine the average number of lambda DNA molecules present in an infected cell. In this study, we have followed the kinetics of lambda DNA replication and examined rolling circle replication. The most important findings are the following: (1) Rolling circle replication is initiated at roughly the same time as is theta replication, indicating that the rolling circle is not solely a late-replicating form. (2) theta replication stops at about 16 min after infection. (3) Early in infection the number of DNA molecules per cell doubles every 2-3 min until theta replication stops, at which point most DNA synthesis consists of growth of the tails of about three rolling circles per cell. (4) Neither the timing of rolling circle replication nor the number of molecules is affected by the activity of the lambda red genes. (5). The red genes are responsible for the production of oligomeric circles late in infection.

  6. DNA damage tolerance pathway involving DNA polymerase ι and the tumor suppressor p53 regulates DNA replication fork progression

    PubMed Central

    Hampp, Stephanie; Kiessling, Tina; Buechle, Kerstin; Mansilla, Sabrina F.; Thomale, Jürgen; Rall, Melanie; Ahn, Jinwoo; Pospiech, Helmut; Gottifredi, Vanesa; Wiesmüller, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage tolerance facilitates the progression of replication forks that have encountered obstacles on the template strands. It involves either translesion DNA synthesis initiated by proliferating cell nuclear antigen monoubiquitination or less well-characterized fork reversal and template switch mechanisms. Herein, we characterize a novel tolerance pathway requiring the tumor suppressor p53, the translesion polymerase ι (POLι), the ubiquitin ligase Rad5-related helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF), and the SWI/SNF catalytic subunit (SNF2) translocase zinc finger ran-binding domain containing 3 (ZRANB3). This novel p53 activity is lost in the exonuclease-deficient but transcriptionally active p53(H115N) mutant. Wild-type p53, but not p53(H115N), associates with POLι in vivo. Strikingly, the concerted action of p53 and POLι decelerates nascent DNA elongation and promotes HLTF/ZRANB3-dependent recombination during unperturbed DNA replication. Particularly after cross-linker–induced replication stress, p53 and POLι also act together to promote meiotic recombination enzyme 11 (MRE11)-dependent accumulation of (phospho-)replication protein A (RPA)-coated ssDNA. These results implicate a direct role of p53 in the processing of replication forks encountering obstacles on the template strand. Our findings define an unprecedented function of p53 and POLι in the DNA damage response to endogenous or exogenous replication stress. PMID:27407148

  7. Regulation of the switch from early to late bacteriophage lambda DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Baranska, S; Gabig, M; Wegrzyn, A; Konopa, G; Herman-Antosiewicz, A; Hernandez, P; Schvartzman, J B; Helinski, D R; Wegrzyn, G

    2001-03-01

    There are two modes of bacteriophage lambda DNA replication following infection of its host, Escherichia coli. Early after infection, replication occurs according to the theta (theta or circle-to-circle) mode, and is later switched to the sigma (sigma or rolling-circle) mode. It is not known how this switch, occurring at a specific time in the infection cycle, is regulated. Here it is demonstrated that in wild-type cells the replication starting from orilambda proceeds both bidirectionally and unidirectionally, whereas in bacteria devoid of a functional DnaA protein, replication from orilambda is predominantly unidirectional. The regulation of directionality of replication from orilambda is mediated by positive control of lambda p(R) promoter activity by DnaA, since the mode of replication of an artificial lambda replicon bearing the p(tet) promoter instead of p(R) was found to be independent of DnaA function. These findings and results of density-shift experiments suggest that in dnaA mutants infected with lambda, phage DNA replication proceeds predominantly according to the unidirectional theta mechanism and is switched early after infection to the sigma mode. It is proposed that in wild-type E. coli cells infected with lambda, phage DNA replication proceeds according to a bidirectional theta mechanism early after infection due to efficient transcriptional activation of orilambda, stimulated by the host DnaA protein. After a few rounds of this type of replication, the resulting increased copy number of lambda genomic DNA may cause a depletion of free DnaA protein because of its interaction with the multiple DnaA-binding sites in lambda DNA. It is proposed that this may lead to inefficient transcriptional activation of orilambda resulting in unidirectional theta replication followed by sigma type replication.

  8. Replication and preferential inheritance of hypersuppressive petite mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    MacAlpine, David M.; Kolesar, Jill; Okamoto, Koji; Butow, Ronald A.; Perlman, Philip S.

    2001-01-01

    Wild-type yeast mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is inherited biparentally, whereas mtDNA of hypersuppressive petite mutants is inherited uniparentally in crosses to strains with wild-type mtDNA. Genomes of hypersuppressive petites contain a conserved ori sequence that includes a promoter, but it is unclear whether the ori confers a segregation or replication advantage. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis of wild-type and petite mtDNAs in crosses reveals no preferential segregation of hypersuppressive petite mtDNA to first zygotic buds. We identify single-stranded DNA circles and RNA-primed DNA replication intermediates in hypersuppressive petite mtDNA that are absent from non-hypersuppressive petites. Mutating the promoter blocks hypersuppressiveness in crosses to wild-type strains and eliminates the distinctive replication intermediates. We propose that promoter-dependent RNA-primed replication accounts for the uniparental inheritance of hypersuppressive petite mtDNA. PMID:11285243

  9. Replication factory activation can be decoupled from the replication timing program by modulating Cdk levels

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Alexander M.; Gillespie, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    In the metazoan replication timing program, clusters of replication origins located in different subchromosomal domains fire at different times during S phase. We have used Xenopus laevis egg extracts to drive an accelerated replication timing program in mammalian nuclei. Although replicative stress caused checkpoint-induced slowing of the timing program, inhibition of checkpoint kinases in an unperturbed S phase did not accelerate it. Lowering cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activity slowed both replication rate and progression through the timing program, whereas raising Cdk activity increased them. Surprisingly, modest alteration of Cdk activity changed the amount of DNA synthesized during different stages of the timing program. This was associated with a change in the number of active replication factories, whereas the distribution of origins within active factories remained relatively normal. The ability of Cdks to differentially effect replication initiation, factory activation, and progression through the timing program provides new insights into the way that chromosomal DNA replication is organized during S phase. PMID:20083602

  10. Forks on the Run: Can the Stalling of DNA Replication Promote Epigenetic Changes?

    PubMed

    Rowlands, Hollie; Dhavarasa, Piriththiv; Cheng, Ashley; Yankulov, Krassimir

    2017-01-01

    Built of DNA polymerases and multiple associated factors, the replication fork steadily progresses along the DNA template and faithfully replicates DNA. This model can be found in practically every textbook of genetics, with the more complex situation of chromatinized DNA in eukaryotes often viewed as a variation. However, the replication-coupled disassembly/reassembly of chromatin adds significant complexity to the whole replication process. During the course of eukaryotic DNA replication the forks encounter various conditions and numerous impediments. These include nucleosomes with a variety of post-translational modifications, euchromatin and heterochromatin, differentially methylated DNA, tightly bound proteins, active gene promoters and DNA loops. At such positions the forks slow down or even stall. Dedicated factors stabilize the fork and prevent its rotation or collapse, while other factors resolve the replication block and facilitate the resumption of elongation. The fate of histones during replication stalling and resumption is not well understood. In this review we briefly describe recent advances in our understanding of histone turnover during DNA replication and focus on the possible mechanisms of nucleosome disassembly/reassembly at paused replication forks. We propose that replication pausing provides opportunities for an epigenetic change of the associated locus.

  11. Forks on the Run: Can the Stalling of DNA Replication Promote Epigenetic Changes?

    PubMed Central

    Rowlands, Hollie; Dhavarasa, Piriththiv; Cheng, Ashley; Yankulov, Krassimir

    2017-01-01

    Built of DNA polymerases and multiple associated factors, the replication fork steadily progresses along the DNA template and faithfully replicates DNA. This model can be found in practically every textbook of genetics, with the more complex situation of chromatinized DNA in eukaryotes often viewed as a variation. However, the replication-coupled disassembly/reassembly of chromatin adds significant complexity to the whole replication process. During the course of eukaryotic DNA replication the forks encounter various conditions and numerous impediments. These include nucleosomes with a variety of post-translational modifications, euchromatin and heterochromatin, differentially methylated DNA, tightly bound proteins, active gene promoters and DNA loops. At such positions the forks slow down or even stall. Dedicated factors stabilize the fork and prevent its rotation or collapse, while other factors resolve the replication block and facilitate the resumption of elongation. The fate of histones during replication stalling and resumption is not well understood. In this review we briefly describe recent advances in our understanding of histone turnover during DNA replication and focus on the possible mechanisms of nucleosome disassembly/reassembly at paused replication forks. We propose that replication pausing provides opportunities for an epigenetic change of the associated locus. PMID:28690636

  12. Alternative lengthening of human telomeres is a conservative DNA replication process with features of break-induced replication.

    PubMed

    Roumelioti, Fani-Marlen; Sotiriou, Sotirios K; Katsini, Vasiliki; Chiourea, Maria; Halazonetis, Thanos D; Gagos, Sarantis

    2016-12-01

    Human malignancies overcome replicative senescence either by activating the reverse-transcriptase telomerase or by utilizing a homologous recombination-based mechanism, referred to as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). In budding yeast, ALT exhibits features of break-induced replication (BIR), a repair pathway for one-ended DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that requires the non-essential subunit Pol32 of DNA polymerase delta and leads to conservative DNA replication. Here, we examined whether ALT in human cancers also exhibits features of BIR A telomeric fluorescence in situ hybridization protocol involving three consecutive staining steps revealed the presence of conservatively replicated telomeric DNA in telomerase-negative cancer cells. Furthermore, depletion of PolD3 or PolD4, two subunits of human DNA polymerase delta that are essential for BIR, reduced the frequency of conservatively replicated telomeric DNA ends and led to shorter telomeres and chromosome end-to-end fusions. Taken together, these results suggest that BIR is associated with conservative DNA replication in human cells and mediates ALT in cancer. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  13. Control of DNA replication by anomalous reaction-diffusion kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechhoefer, John; Gauthier, Michel

    2010-03-01

    DNA replication requires two distinct processes: the initiation of pre-licensed replication origins and the propagation of replication forks away from the fired origins. Experiments indicate that these origins are triggered over the whole genome at a rate I(t) (the number of initiations per unreplicated length per time) that increases throughout most of the synthesis (S) phase, before rapidly decreasing to zero at the end of the replication process. We propose a simple model for the control of DNA replication in which the rate of initiation of replication origins is controlled by protein-DNA interactions. Analyzing recent data from Xenopus frog embryos, we find that the initiation rate is reaction limited until nearly the end of replication, when it becomes diffusion limited. Initiation of origins is suppressed when the diffusion-limited search time dominates. To fit the experimental data, we find that the interaction between DNA and the rate-limiting protein must be subdiffusive.

  14. Universal Temporal Profile of Replication Origin Activation in Eukaryotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldar, Arach

    2011-03-01

    The complete and faithful transmission of eukaryotic genome to daughter cells involves the timely duplication of mother cell's DNA. DNA replication starts at multiple chromosomal positions called replication origin. From each activated replication origin two replication forks progress in opposite direction and duplicate the mother cell's DNA. While it is widely accepted that in eukaryotic organisms replication origins are activated in a stochastic manner, little is known on the sources of the observed stochasticity. It is often associated to the population variability to enter S phase. We extract from a growing Saccharomyces cerevisiae population the average rate of origin activation in a single cell by combining single molecule measurements and a numerical deconvolution technique. We show that the temporal profile of the rate of origin activation in a single cell is similar to the one extracted from a replicating cell population. Taking into account this observation we exclude the population variability as the origin of observed stochasticity in origin activation. We confirm that the rate of origin activation increases in the early stage of S phase and decreases at the latter stage. The population average activation rate extracted from single molecule analysis is in prefect accordance with the activation rate extracted from published micro-array data, confirming therefore the homogeneity and genome scale invariance of dynamic of replication process. All these observations point toward a possible role of replication fork to control the rate of origin activation.

  15. A quantitative and high-throughput assay of human papillomavirus DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, David; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Archambault, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Replication of the human papillomavirus (HPV) double-stranded DNA genome is accomplished by the two viral proteins E1 and E2 in concert with host DNA replication factors. HPV DNA replication is an established model of eukaryotic DNA replication and a potential target for antiviral therapy. Assays to measure the transient replication of HPV DNA in transfected cells have been developed, which rely on a plasmid carrying the viral origin of DNA replication (ori) together with expression vectors for E1 and E2. Replication of the ori-plasmid is typically measured by Southern blotting or PCR analysis of newly replicated DNA (i.e., DpnI digested DNA) several days post-transfection. Although extremely valuable, these assays have been difficult to perform in a high-throughput and quantitative manner. Here, we describe a modified version of the transient DNA replication assay that circumvents these limitations by incorporating a firefly luciferase expression cassette in cis of the ori. Replication of this ori-plasmid by E1 and E2 results in increased levels of firefly luciferase activity that can be accurately quantified and normalized to those of Renilla luciferase expressed from a control plasmid, thus obviating the need for DNA extraction, digestion, and analysis. We provide a detailed protocol for performing the HPV type 31 DNA replication assay in a 96-well plate format suitable for small-molecule screening and EC50 determinations. The quantitative and high-throughput nature of the assay should greatly facilitate the study of HPV DNA replication and the identification of inhibitors thereof.

  16. Patterning quantum dot arrays using DNA replication principles.

    SciTech Connect

    Crown, Kevin K.; Bachand, George David

    2004-11-01

    The convergence of nanoscience and biotechnology has opened the door to the integration of a wide range of biological molecules and processes with synthetic materials and devices. A primary biomolecule of interest has been DNA based upon its role as information storage in living systems, as well as its ability to withstand a wide range of environmental conditions. DNA also offers unique chemistries and interacts with a range of biomolecules, making it an ideal component in biological sensor applications. The primary goal of this project was to develop methods that utilize in vitro DNA synthesis to provide spatial localization of nanocrystal quantum dots (nQDs). To accomplish this goal, three specific technical objectives were addressed: (1) attachment of nQDs to DNA nucleotides, (2) demonstrating the synthesis of nQD-DNA strands in bulk solution, and (3) optimizing the ratio of unlabeled to nQD-labeled nucleotides. DNA nucleotides were successfully attached to nQDs using the biotin-streptavidin linkage. Synthesis of 450-nm long, nQD-coated DNA strands was demonstrated using a DNA template and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method of DNA amplification. Modifications in the synthesis process and conditions were subsequently used to synthesize 2-{micro}m long linear nQD-DNA assemblies. In the case of the 2-{micro}m structures, both the ratio of streptavidin-coated nQDs to biotinylated dCTP, and streptavidin-coated nQD-dCTPs to unlabeled dCTPs affected the ability to synthesize the nQD-DNA assemblies. Overall, these proof-of-principles experiments demonstrated the successful synthesis of nQD-DNA using DNA templates and in vitro replication technologies. Continued development of this technology may enable rapid, spatial patterning of semiconductor nanoparticles with Angstrom-level resolution, as well as optically active probes for DNA and other biomolecular analyses.

  17. Different Modes of Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication during Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Ralf; Hirt, Bernhard; Bechtold, Viviane; Beard, Peter; Raj, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) begins its life cycle by infecting the basal cells of the epithelium. Within these proliferating cells, the viral genomes are replicated, maintained, and passed on to the daughter cells. Using HPV episome-containing cell lines that were derived from naturally infected cervical tissues, we investigated the mode by which the viral DNAs replicate in these cells. We observed that, whereas HPV16 DNA replicated in an ordered once-per-S-phase manner in W12 cells, HPV31 DNA replicated via a random-choice mechanism in CIN612 cells. However, when HPV16 and HPV31 DNAs were separately introduced into an alternate keratinocyte cell line NIKS, they both replicated randomly. This indicates that HPV DNA is inherently capable of replicating by either random-choice or once-per-S-phase mechanisms and that the mode of HPV DNA replication is dependent on the cells that harbor the viral episome. High expression of the viral replication protein E1 in W12 cells converted HPV16 DNA replication to random-choice replication and, as such, it appears that the mode of HPV DNA replication in proliferating cells is dependent on the presence or the increased level of this protein in the host cell. The implications of these observations on maintenance, latency, and persistence are discussed. PMID:16611903

  18. A new role for Holliday junction resolvase Yen1 in processing DNA replication intermediates exposes Dna2 as an accessory replicative helicase.

    PubMed

    Falquet, Benoît; Rass, Ulrich

    2017-01-02

    DNA replication is mediated by a multi-protein complex known as the replisome. With the hexameric MCM (minichromosome maintenance) replicative helicase at its core, the replisome splits the parental DNA strands, forming replication forks (RFs), where it catalyses coupled leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis. While replication is a highly effective process, intrinsic and oncogene-induced replication stress impedes the progression of replisomes along chromosomes. As a consequence, RFs stall, arrest, and collapse, jeopardizing genome stability. In these instances, accessory fork progression and repair factors, orchestrated by the replication checkpoint, promote RF recovery, ensuring the chromosomes are fully replicated and can be safely segregated at cell division. Homologous recombination (HR) proteins play key roles in negotiating replication stress, binding at stalled RFs and shielding them from inappropriate processing. In addition, HR-mediated strand exchange reactions restart stalled or collapsed RFs and mediate error-free post-replicative repair. DNA transactions at stalled RFs further involve various DNA editing factors, notably helicases and nucleases. A study by Ölmezer et al. (2016) has recently identified a role for the structure-specific nuclease Yen1 (GEN1 in human) in the resolution of dead-end DNA replication intermediates after RF arrest. This new function of Yen1 is distinct from its previously known role as a Holliday junction resolvase, mediating the removal of branched HR intermediates, and it becomes essential for viable chromosome segregation in cells with a defective Dna2 helicase. These findings have revealed greater complexity in the tasks mediated by Yen1 and expose a replicative role for the elusive helicase activity of the conserved Dna2 nuclease-helicase.

  19. A new role for Holliday junction resolvase Yen1 in processing DNA replication intermediates exposes Dna2 as an accessory replicative helicase

    PubMed Central

    Falquet, Benoît; Rass, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    DNA replication is mediated by a multi-protein complex known as the replisome. With the hexameric MCM (minichromosome maintenance) replicative helicase at its core, the replisome splits the parental DNA strands, forming replication forks (RFs), where it catalyses coupled leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis. While replication is a highly effective process, intrinsic and oncogene-induced replication stress impedes the progression of replisomes along chromosomes. As a consequence, RFs stall, arrest, and collapse, jeopardizing genome stability. In these instances, accessory fork progression and repair factors, orchestrated by the replication checkpoint, promote RF recovery, ensuring the chromosomes are fully replicated and can be safely segregated at cell division. Homologous recombination (HR) proteins play key roles in negotiating replication stress, binding at stalled RFs and shielding them from inappropriate processing. In addition, HR-mediated strand exchange reactions restart stalled or collapsed RFs and mediate error-free post-replicative repair. DNA transactions at stalled RFs further involve various DNA editing factors, notably helicases and nucleases. A study by Ölmezer et al. (2016) has recently identified a role for the structure-specific nuclease Yen1 (GEN1 in human) in the resolution of dead-end DNA replication intermediates after RF arrest. This new function of Yen1 is distinct from its previously known role as a Holliday junction resolvase, mediating the removal of branched HR intermediates, and it becomes essential for viable chromosome segregation in cells with a defective Dna2 helicase. These findings have revealed greater complexity in the tasks mediated by Yen1 and expose a replicative role for the elusive helicase activity of the conserved Dna2 nuclease-helicase. PMID:28357386

  20. Role for RNA:DNA hybrids in origin-independent replication priming in a eukaryotic system.

    PubMed

    Stuckey, Ruth; García-Rodríguez, Néstor; Aguilera, Andrés; Wellinger, Ralf Erik

    2015-05-05

    DNA replication initiates at defined replication origins along eukaryotic chromosomes, ensuring complete genome duplication within a single S-phase. A key feature of replication origins is their ability to control the onset of DNA synthesis mediated by DNA polymerase-α and its intrinsic RNA primase activity. Here, we describe a novel origin-independent replication process that is mediated by transcription. RNA polymerase I transcription constraints lead to persistent RNA:DNA hybrids (R-loops) that prime replication in the ribosomal DNA locus. Our results suggest that eukaryotic genomes have developed tools to prevent R-loop-mediated replication events that potentially contribute to copy number variation, particularly relevant to carcinogenesis.

  1. Role for RNA:DNA hybrids in origin-independent replication priming in a eukaryotic system

    PubMed Central

    Stuckey, Ruth; García-Rodríguez, Néstor; Aguilera, Andrés; Wellinger, Ralf Erik

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication initiates at defined replication origins along eukaryotic chromosomes, ensuring complete genome duplication within a single S-phase. A key feature of replication origins is their ability to control the onset of DNA synthesis mediated by DNA polymerase-α and its intrinsic RNA primase activity. Here, we describe a novel origin-independent replication process that is mediated by transcription. RNA polymerase I transcription constraints lead to persistent RNA:DNA hybrids (R-loops) that prime replication in the ribosomal DNA locus. Our results suggest that eukaryotic genomes have developed tools to prevent R-loop–mediated replication events that potentially contribute to copy number variation, particularly relevant to carcinogenesis. PMID:25902524

  2. A chromatin structure-based model accurately predicts DNA replication timing in human cells.

    PubMed

    Gindin, Yevgeniy; Valenzuela, Manuel S; Aladjem, Mirit I; Meltzer, Paul S; Bilke, Sven

    2014-03-28

    The metazoan genome is replicated in precise cell lineage-specific temporal order. However, the mechanism controlling this orchestrated process is poorly understood as no molecular mechanisms have been identified that actively regulate the firing sequence of genome replication. Here, we develop a mechanistic model of genome replication capable of predicting, with accuracy rivaling experimental repeats, observed empirical replication timing program in humans. In our model, replication is initiated in an uncoordinated (time-stochastic) manner at well-defined sites. The model contains, in addition to the choice of the genomic landmark that localizes initiation, only a single adjustable parameter of direct biological relevance: the number of replication forks. We find that DNase-hypersensitive sites are optimal and independent determinants of DNA replication initiation. We demonstrate that the DNA replication timing program in human cells is a robust emergent phenomenon that, by its very nature, does not require a regulatory mechanism determining a proper replication initiation firing sequence.

  3. Silencing suppressor activity of a begomovirus DNA β encoded protein and its effect on heterologous helper virus replication.

    PubMed

    Eini, Omid; Dogra, Satish C; Dry, Ian B; Randles, John W

    2012-07-01

    DNA β satellites are circular single-stranded molecules associated with some monopartite begomoviruses in the family Geminiviridae. They co-infect with their helper viruses to induce severe disease in economically important crops. The βC1 protein encoded by DNA β is a pathogenicity determinant and has been reported to suppress post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). The βC1 proteins from various DNA β molecules show low levels of amino acid sequence conservation. We show here that the βC1 from DNA β associated with Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMV) is a suppressor of systemic PTGS. When this DNA β satellite co-inoculated with a heterologous helper virus, Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV), reduced the level of ToLCV siRNA and this was associated with a higher level of virus accumulation in infected tobacco plants. This may be a mechanism by which βC1 protects a heterologous virus from host gene silencing.

  4. Model System for DNA Replication of a Plasmid DNA Containing the Autonomously Replicating Sequence from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimi, Yukio; Matsumoto, Ken

    1993-06-01

    A negatively supercoiled plasmid DNA containing autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) 1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was replicated with the proteins required for simian virus 40 DNA replication. The proteins included simian virus 40 large tumor antigen as a DNA helicase, DNA polymerase α^\\cdotprimase, and the multisubunit human single-stranded DNA-binding protein from HeLa cells; DNA gyrase from Escherichia coli, which relaxes positive but not negative supercoils, was included as a "swivelase." DNA replication started from the ARS region, proceeded bidirectionally with the synthesis of leading and lagging strands, and resulted in the synthesis of up to 10% of the input DNA in 1 h. The addition of HeLa DNA topoisomerase I, which relaxes both positive and negative supercoils, to this system inhibited DNA replication, suggesting that negative supercoiling of the template DNA is required for initiation. These results suggest that DNA replication starts from the ARS region where the DNA duplex is unwound by torsional stress; this unwound region can be recognized by a DNA helicase with the assistance of the multisubunit human single-stranded DNA-binding protein.

  5. Mre11 Complex and DNA Replication: Linkage to E2F and Sites of DNA Synthesis†

    PubMed Central

    Maser, Richard S.; Mirzoeva, Olga K.; Wells, Julie; Olivares, Heidi; Williams, Bret R.; Zinkel, Robert A.; Farnham, Peggy J.; Petrini, John H. J.

    2001-01-01

    We show that the Mre11 complex associates with E2F family members via the Nbs1 N terminus. This association and Nbs1 phosphorylation are correlated with S-phase checkpoint proficiency, whereas neither is sufficient individually for checkpoint activation. The Nbs1 E2F interaction occurred near the Epstein-Barr virus origin of replication as well as near a chromosomal replication origin in the c-myc promoter region and was restricted to S-phase cells. The Mre11 complex colocalized with PCNA at replication forks throughout S phase, both prior to and coincident with the appearance of nascent DNA. These data suggest that the Mre11 complex suppresses genomic instability through its influence on both the regulation and progression of DNA replication. PMID:11486038

  6. Multiple regulatory systems coordinate DNA replication with cell growth in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Murray, Heath; Koh, Alan

    2014-10-01

    In many bacteria the rate of DNA replication is linked with cellular physiology to ensure that genome duplication is coordinated with growth. Nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation has been appreciated for decades, however the mechanism(s) that connects these cell cycle activities has eluded understanding. In order to help address this fundamental question we have investigated regulation of DNA replication in the model organism Bacillus subtilis. Contrary to the prevailing view we find that changes in DnaA protein level are not sufficient to account for nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation, although this regulation does require both DnaA and the endogenous replication origin. We go on to report connections between DNA replication and several essential cellular activities required for rapid bacterial growth, including respiration, central carbon metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, phospholipid synthesis, and protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, the results indicate that multiple regulatory systems are involved in coordinating DNA replication with cell physiology, with some of the regulatory systems targeting oriC while others act in a oriC-independent manner. We propose that distinct regulatory systems are utilized to control DNA replication in response to diverse physiological and chemical changes.

  7. Multiple Regulatory Systems Coordinate DNA Replication with Cell Growth in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Heath; Koh, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In many bacteria the rate of DNA replication is linked with cellular physiology to ensure that genome duplication is coordinated with growth. Nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation has been appreciated for decades, however the mechanism(s) that connects these cell cycle activities has eluded understanding. In order to help address this fundamental question we have investigated regulation of DNA replication in the model organism Bacillus subtilis. Contrary to the prevailing view we find that changes in DnaA protein level are not sufficient to account for nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation, although this regulation does require both DnaA and the endogenous replication origin. We go on to report connections between DNA replication and several essential cellular activities required for rapid bacterial growth, including respiration, central carbon metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, phospholipid synthesis, and protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, the results indicate that multiple regulatory systems are involved in coordinating DNA replication with cell physiology, with some of the regulatory systems targeting oriC while others act in a oriC-independent manner. We propose that distinct regulatory systems are utilized to control DNA replication in response to diverse physiological and chemical changes. PMID:25340815

  8. DNA replication initiator Cdc6 also regulates ribosomal DNA transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shijiao; Xu, Xiaowei; Wang, Guopeng; Lu, Guoliang; Xie, Wenbing; Tao, Wei; Zhang, Hongyin; Jiang, Qing; Zhang, Chuanmao

    2016-04-01

    RNA-polymerase-I-dependent ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription is fundamental to rRNA processing, ribosome assembly and protein synthesis. However, how this process is initiated during the cell cycle is not fully understood. By performing a proteomic analysis of transcription factors that bind RNA polymerase I during rDNA transcription initiation, we identified that the DNA replication initiator Cdc6 interacts with RNA polymerase I and its co-factors, and promotes rDNA transcription in G1 phase in an ATPase-activity-dependent manner. We further showed that Cdc6 is targeted to the nucleolus during late mitosis and G1 phase in a manner that is dependent on B23 (also known as nucleophosmin, NPM1), and preferentially binds to the rDNA promoter through its ATP-binding domain. Overexpression of Cdc6 increases rDNA transcription, whereas knockdown of Cdc6 results in a decreased association of both RNA polymerase I and the RNA polymerase I transcription factor RRN3 with rDNA, and a reduction of rDNA transcription. Furthermore, depletion of Cdc6 impairs the interaction between RRN3 and RNA polymerase I. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Cdc6 also serves as a regulator of rDNA transcription initiation, and indicate a mechanism by which initiation of rDNA transcription and DNA replication can be coordinated in cells. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. ATPase-Dependent Quality Control of DNA Replication Origin Licensing

    PubMed Central

    Frigola, Jordi; Remus, Dirk; Mehanna, Amina; Diffley, John F. X.

    2013-01-01

    The regulated loading of the Mcm2-7 DNA helicase into pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs) at multiple replication origins ensures precise once per cell cycle replication in eukaryotic cells. Origin Recognition Complex (ORC), Cdc6 and Cdt1 load Mcm2-7 into a double hexamer bound around duplex DNA in an ATP-dependent reaction, but the molecular mechanism of this origin ‘licensing’ is still poorly understood. Here we show that both Mcm2-7 hexamers are recruited to origins by an essential, conserved C-terminal domain of Mcm3 which interacts with and stimulates the ATPase activity of ORC•Cdc6. ATP hydrolysis can promote Mcm2-7 loading, but can also promote Mcm2-7 release if components are missing or if ORC has been inactivated by cyclin-dependent kinase phosphorylation. Our work provides new insights into how origins are licensed and reveals a novel ATPase-dependent mechanism contributing to precise once per cell cycle replication. PMID:23474987

  10. Eukaryotic Mismatch Repair in Relation to DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Thomas A; Erie, Dorothy A

    2015-01-01

    Three processes act in series to accurately replicate the eukaryotic nuclear genome. The major replicative DNA polymerases strongly prevent mismatch formation, occasional mismatches that do form are proofread during replication, and rare mismatches that escape proofreading are corrected by mismatch repair (MMR). This review focuses on MMR in light of increasing knowledge about nuclear DNA replication enzymology and the rate and specificity with which mismatches are generated during leading- and lagging-strand replication. We consider differences in MMR efficiency in relation to mismatch recognition, signaling to direct MMR to the nascent strand, mismatch removal, and the timing of MMR. These studies are refining our understanding of relationships between generating and repairing replication errors to achieve accurate replication of both DNA strands of the nuclear genome.

  11. Eukaryotic DNA replication: Orchestrated action of multi-subunit protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sukhyun; Kang, Mi-Sun; Ryu, Eunjin; Myung, Kyungjae

    2017-05-01

    Genome duplication is an essential process to preserve genetic information between generations. The eukaryotic cell cycle is composed of functionally distinct phases: G1, S, G2, and M. One of the key replicative proteins that participate at every stage of DNA replication is the Mcm2-7 complex, a replicative helicase. In the G1 phase, inactive Mcm2-7 complexes are loaded on the replication origins by replication-initiator proteins, ORC and Cdc6. Two kinases, S-CDK and DDK, convert the inactive origin-loaded Mcm2-7 complex to an active helicase, the CMG complex in the S phase. The activated CMG complex begins DNA unwinding and recruits enzymes essential for DNA synthesis to assemble a replisome at the replication fork. After completion of DNA synthesis, the inactive CMG complex on the replicated DNA is removed from chromatin to terminate DNA replication. In this review, we will discuss the structure, function, and regulation of the molecular machines involved in each step of DNA replication. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Trapping DNA Replication Origins from the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    Eki, Toshihiko; Murakami, Yasufumi; Hanaoka, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of chromosomal DNA is initiated from multiple origins of replication in higher eukaryotes; however, little is known about these origins’ structures. We isolated the origin-derived nascent DNAs from a human repair-deficient cell line by blocking the replication forks near the origins using two different origin-trapping methods (i.e., UV- or chemical crosslinker-treatment and cell synchronization in early S phase using DNA replication inhibitors). Single-stranded DNAs (of 0.5–3 kb) that accumulated after such treatments were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). BrdU-labeled DNA was immunopurified after fractionation by alkaline sucrose density gradient centrifugation and cloned by complementary-strand synthesis and PCR amplification. Competitive PCR revealed an increased abundance of DNA derived from known replication origins (c-myc and lamin B2 genes) in the nascent DNA fractions from the UV-treated or crosslinked cells. Nucleotide sequences of 85 and 208 kb were obtained from the two libraries (I and II) prepared from the UV-treated log-phase cells and early S phase arrested cells, respectively. The libraries differed from each other in their G+C composition and replication-related motif contents, suggesting that differences existed between the origin fragments isolated by the two different origin-trapping methods. The replication activities for seven out of 12 putative origin loci from the early-S phase cells were shown by competitive PCR. We mapped 117 (library I) and 172 (library II) putative origin loci to the human genome; approximately 60% and 50% of these loci were assigned to the G-band and intragenic regions, respectively. Analyses of the flanking sequences of the mapped loci suggested that the putative origin loci tended to associate with genes (including conserved sites) and DNase I hypersensitive sites; however, poor correlations were found between such loci and the CpG islands, transcription start sites, and K27-acetylated histone H3

  13. Transcriptional control of DNA replication licensing by Myc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valovka, Taras; Schönfeld, Manuela; Raffeiner, Philipp; Breuker, Kathrin; Dunzendorfer-Matt, Theresia; Hartl, Markus; Bister, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    The c-myc protooncogene encodes the Myc transcription factor, a global regulator of fundamental cellular processes. Deregulation of c-myc leads to tumorigenesis, and c-myc is an important driver in human cancer. Myc and its dimerization partner Max are bHLH-Zip DNA binding proteins involved in transcriptional regulation of target genes. Non-transcriptional functions have also been attributed to the Myc protein, notably direct interaction with the pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) controlling the initiation of DNA replication. A key component of the pre-RC is the Cdt1 protein, an essential factor in origin licensing. Here we present data suggesting that the CDT1 gene is a transcriptional target of the Myc-Max complex. Expression of the CDT1 gene in v-myc-transformed cells directly correlates with myc expression. Also, human tumor cells with elevated c-myc expression display increased CDT1 expression. Occupation of the CDT1 promoter by Myc-Max is demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation, and transactivation by Myc-Max is shown in reporter assays. Ectopic expression of CDT1 leads to cell transformation. Our results provide a possible direct mechanistic link of Myc's canonical function as a transcription factor to DNA replication. Furthermore, we suggest that aberrant transcriptional activation of CDT1 by deregulated myc alleles contributes to the genomic instabilities observed in tumor cells.

  14. Mitochondrial swinger replication: DNA replication systematically exchanging nucleotides and short 16S ribosomal DNA swinger inserts.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2014-11-01

    Assuming systematic exchanges between nucleotides (swinger RNAs) resolves genomic 'parenthood' of some orphan mitochondrial transcripts. Twenty-three different systematic nucleotide exchanges (bijective transformations) exist. Similarities between transcription and replication suggest occurrence of swinger DNA. GenBank searches for swinger DNA matching the 23 swinger versions of human and mouse mitogenomes detect only vertebrate mitochondrial swinger DNA for swinger type AT+CG (from five different studies, 149 sequences) matching three human and mouse mitochondrial genes: 12S and 16S ribosomal RNAs, and cytochrome oxidase subunit I. Exchange A<->T+C<->G conserves self-hybridization properties, putatively explaining swinger biases for rDNA, against protein coding genes. Twenty percent of the regular human mitochondrial 16S rDNA consists of short swinger repeats (from 13 exchanges). Swinger repeats could originate from recombinations between regular and swinger DNA: duplicated mitochondrial genes of the parthenogenetic gecko Heteronotia binoei include fewer short A<->T+C<->G swinger repeats than non-duplicated mitochondrial genomes of that species. Presumably, rare recombinations between female and male mitochondrial genes (and in parthenogenetic situations between duplicated genes), favors reverse-mutations of swinger repeat insertions, probably because most inserts affect negatively ribosomal function. Results show that swinger DNA exists, and indicate that swinger polymerization contributes to the genesis of genetic material and polymorphism.

  15. Control of helicase loading in the coupled DNA replication and recombination systems of bacteriophage T4.

    PubMed

    Branagan, Amy M; Klein, Jenny A; Jordan, Christian S; Morrical, Scott W

    2014-01-31

    The Gp59 protein of bacteriophage T4 promotes DNA replication by loading the replicative helicase, Gp41, onto replication forks and recombination intermediates. Gp59 also blocks DNA synthesis by Gp43 polymerase until Gp41 is loaded, ensuring that synthesis is tightly coupled to unwinding. The distinct polymerase blocking and helicase loading activities of Gp59 likely involve different binding interactions with DNA and protein partners. Here, we investigate how interactions of Gp59 with DNA and Gp32, the T4 single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein, are related to these activities. A previously characterized mutant, Gp59-I87A, exhibits markedly reduced affinity for ssDNA and pseudo-fork DNA substrates. We demonstrate that on Gp32-covered ssDNA, the DNA binding defect of Gp59-I87A is not detrimental to helicase loading and translocation. In contrast, on pseudo-fork DNA the I87A mutation is detrimental to helicase loading and unwinding in the presence or absence of Gp32. Other results indicate that Gp32 binding to lagging strand ssDNA relieves the blockage of Gp43 polymerase activity by Gp59, whereas the inhibition of Gp43 exonuclease activity is maintained. Our findings suggest that Gp59-Gp32 and Gp59-DNA interactions perform separate but complementary roles in T4 DNA metabolism; Gp59-Gp32 interactions are needed to load Gp41 onto D-loops, and other nucleoprotein structures containing clusters of Gp32. Gp59-DNA interactions are needed to load Gp41 onto nascent or collapsed replication forks lacking clusters of Gp32 and to coordinate bidirectional replication from T4 origins. The dual functionalities of Gp59 allow it to promote the initiation or re-start of DNA replication from a wide variety of recombination and replication intermediates.

  16. Roles of Replication Protein-a Subunits 2 and 3 in DNA Replication Fork Movement in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Maniar, H. S.; Wilson, R.; Brill, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    Replication Protein-A, the eukaryotic SSB, consists of a large subunit (RPA1) with strong ssDNA binding activity and two smaller subunits (RPA2 and 3) that may cooperate with RPA1 to bind ssDNA in a higher-order mode. To determine the in vivo function of the two smaller subunits and the potential role of higher-order ssDNA binding, we isolated an assortment of heat-lethal mutations in the genes encoding RPA2 and RPA3. At the permissive temperature, the mutants show a range of effects on DNA replication fidelity and sensitivities to UV and MMS. At the nonpermissive temperature, four out of five RPA2 mutants show a fast-stop DNA synthesis phenotype typical of a replication fork block. In contrast, the fifth RPA2 mutant and all RPA3 mutants are able to complete at least one round of DNA replication at the nonpermissive temperature. The effect of these mutations on the stability of the RPA complex was tested using a coprecipitation assay. At the nonpermissive temperature, we find that RPA1 and RPA2 are dissociated in the fast-stop mutants, but not in the slow-stop mutants. Thus, replication fork movement in vivo requires the association of at least two subunits of RPA. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that RPA functions in vivo by binding ssDNA in a higher-order mode. PMID:9093844

  17. Dynamic look at DNA unwinding by a replicative helicase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Syed, Salman; Enemark, Eric J; Schuck, Stephen; Stenlund, Arne; Ha, Taekjip; Joshua-Tor, Leemor

    2014-03-04

    A prerequisite for DNA replication is the unwinding of duplex DNA catalyzed by a replicative hexameric helicase. Despite a growing body of research, key elements of helicase mechanism remain under substantial debate. In particular, the number of DNA strands encircled by the helicase ring during unwinding and the ring orientation at the replication fork completely contrast in contemporary mechanistic models. Here we use single-molecule and ensemble assays to address these questions for the papillomavirus E1 helicase. We find that E1 unwinds DNA with a strand-exclusion mechanism, with the N-terminal side of the helicase ring facing the replication fork. We show that E1 generates strikingly heterogeneous unwinding patterns stemming from varying degrees of repetitive movements, which is modulated by the DNA-binding domain. Together, our studies reveal previously unrecognized dynamic facets of replicative helicase unwinding mechanisms.

  18. Activation of a human chromosomal replication origin by protein tethering

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaomi; Liu, Guoqi; Leffak, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The specification of mammalian chromosomal replication origins is incompletely understood. To analyze the assembly and activation of prereplicative complexes (pre-RCs), we tested the effects of tethered binding of chromatin acetyltransferases and replication proteins on chromosomal c-myc origin deletion mutants containing a GAL4-binding cassette. GAL4DBD (DNA binding domain) fusions with Orc2, Cdt1, E2F1 or HBO1 coordinated the recruitment of the Mcm7 helicase subunit, the DNA unwinding element (DUE)-binding protein DUE-B and the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase activator Cdc45 to the replicator, and restored origin activity. In contrast, replication protein binding and origin activity were not stimulated by fusion protein binding in the absence of flanking c-myc DNA. Substitution of the GAL4-binding site for the c-myc replicator DUE allowed Orc2 and Mcm7 binding, but eliminated origin activity, indicating that the DUE is essential for pre-RC activation. Additionally, tethering of DUE-B was not sufficient to recruit Cdc45 or activate pre-RCs formed in the absence of a DUE. These results show directly in a chromosomal background that chromatin acetylation, Orc2 or Cdt1 suffice to recruit all downstream replication initiation activities to a prospective origin, and that chromosomal origin activity requires singular DNA sequences. PMID:23658226

  19. Activation of a human chromosomal replication origin by protein tethering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaomi; Liu, Guoqi; Leffak, Michael

    2013-07-01

    The specification of mammalian chromosomal replication origins is incompletely understood. To analyze the assembly and activation of prereplicative complexes (pre-RCs), we tested the effects of tethered binding of chromatin acetyltransferases and replication proteins on chromosomal c-myc origin deletion mutants containing a GAL4-binding cassette. GAL4(DBD) (DNA binding domain) fusions with Orc2, Cdt1, E2F1 or HBO1 coordinated the recruitment of the Mcm7 helicase subunit, the DNA unwinding element (DUE)-binding protein DUE-B and the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase activator Cdc45 to the replicator, and restored origin activity. In contrast, replication protein binding and origin activity were not stimulated by fusion protein binding in the absence of flanking c-myc DNA. Substitution of the GAL4-binding site for the c-myc replicator DUE allowed Orc2 and Mcm7 binding, but eliminated origin activity, indicating that the DUE is essential for pre-RC activation. Additionally, tethering of DUE-B was not sufficient to recruit Cdc45 or activate pre-RCs formed in the absence of a DUE. These results show directly in a chromosomal background that chromatin acetylation, Orc2 or Cdt1 suffice to recruit all downstream replication initiation activities to a prospective origin, and that chromosomal origin activity requires singular DNA sequences.

  20. Regulation of DNA replication and chromosomal polyploidy by the MLL-WDR5-RBBP5 methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fei; Wu, Xiaojun; Yin, Feng; Chia-Fang Lee, Christina; Yu, Min; Mihaylov, Ivailo S.; Yu, Jiekai; Sun, Hong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT DNA replication licensing occurs on chromatin, but how the chromatin template is regulated for replication remains mostly unclear. Here, we have analyzed the requirement of histone methyltransferases for a specific type of replication: the DNA re-replication induced by the downregulation of either Geminin, an inhibitor of replication licensing protein CDT1, or the CRL4CDT2 ubiquitin E3 ligase. We found that siRNA-mediated reduction of essential components of the MLL-WDR5-RBBP5 methyltransferase complexes including WDR5 or RBBP5, which transfer methyl groups to histone H3 at K4 (H3K4), suppressed DNA re-replication and chromosomal polyploidy. Reduction of WDR5/RBBP5 also prevented the activation of H2AX checkpoint caused by re-replication, but not by ultraviolet or X-ray irradiation; and the components of MLL complexes co-localized with the origin recognition complex (ORC) and MCM2-7 replicative helicase complexes at replication origins to control the levels of methylated H3K4. Downregulation of WDR5 or RBBP5 reduced the methylated H3K4 and suppressed the recruitment of MCM2-7 complexes onto replication origins. Our studies indicate that the MLL complexes and H3K4 methylation are required for DNA replication but not for DNA damage repair. PMID:27744293

  1. DNA replication timing influences gene expression level

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are replicated in a reproducible temporal order; however, the physiological significance is poorly understood. We compared replication timing in divergent yeast species and identified genomic features with conserved replication times. Histone genes were among the earliest replicating loci in all species. We specifically delayed the replication of HTA1-HTB1 and discovered that this halved the expression of these histone genes. Finally, we showed that histone and cell cycle genes in general are exempt from Rtt109-dependent dosage compensation, suggesting the existence of pathways excluding specific loci from dosage compensation mechanisms. Thus, we have uncovered one of the first physiological requirements for regulated replication time and demonstrated a direct link between replication timing and gene expression. PMID:28539386

  2. Adenovirus DNA template for late transcription is not a replicative intermediate.

    PubMed Central

    Brison, O; Kédinger, C; Chambon, P

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between adenovirus replication and late transcription has been investigated using viral replication and transcription complexes isolated from infected HeLa cell nuclei. These two types of complexes extracted from adenovirus type 2-infected cell nuclei did not sediment at the same rate on sucrose gradients. Viral replicative intermediates were quantitatively precipitated by immunoglobulins raised against purified 72,000-dalton DNA-binding protein, whereas viral transcription complexes remained in the supernatant. These results show that late transcription does not occur on active replication complexes or on 72,000-dalton DNA-binding protein-containing replicative intermediates inactive in DNA synthesis. Additional evidence is presented indicating that it is very unlikely that replicative intermediates lacking the 72,000-dalton DNA-binding protein could be the template for late transcription. PMID:232191

  3. Proficient Replication of the Yeast Genome by a Viral DNA Polymerase.

    PubMed

    Stodola, Joseph L; Stith, Carrie M; Burgers, Peter M

    2016-05-27

    DNA replication in eukaryotic cells requires minimally three B-family DNA polymerases: Pol α, Pol δ, and Pol ϵ. Pol δ replicates and matures Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand of the replication fork. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pol δ is a three-subunit enzyme (Pol3-Pol31-Pol32). A small C-terminal domain of the catalytic subunit Pol3 carries both iron-sulfur cluster and zinc-binding motifs, which mediate interactions with Pol31, and processive replication with the replication clamp proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), respectively. We show that the entire N-terminal domain of Pol3, containing polymerase and proofreading activities, could be effectively replaced by those from bacteriophage RB69, and could carry out chromosomal DNA replication in yeast with remarkable high fidelity, provided that adaptive mutations in the replication clamp PCNA were introduced. This result is consistent with the model that all essential interactions for DNA replication in yeast are mediated through the small C-terminal domain of Pol3. The chimeric polymerase carries out processive replication with PCNA in vitro; however, in yeast, it requires an increased involvement of the mutagenic translesion DNA polymerase ζ during DNA replication.

  4. Genome-wide characterization of fission yeast DNA replication origins

    PubMed Central

    Heichinger, Christian; Penkett, Christopher J; Bähler, Jürg; Nurse, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA replication is initiated from multiple origins of replication, but little is known about the global regulation of origins throughout the genome or in different types of cell cycles. Here, we identify 401 strong origins and 503 putative weaker origins spaced in total every 14 kb throughout the genome of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The same origins are used during premeiotic and mitotic S-phases. We found that few origins fire late in mitotic S-phase and that activating the Rad3 dependent S-phase checkpoint by inhibiting DNA replication had little effect on which origins were fired. A genome-wide analysis of eukaryotic origin efficiencies showed that efficiency was variable, with large chromosomal domains enriched for efficient or inefficient origins. Average efficiency is twice as high during mitosis compared with meiosis, which can account for their different S-phase lengths. We conclude that there is a continuum of origin efficiency and that there is differential origin activity in the mitotic and meiotic cell cycles. PMID:17053780

  5. Platinum nanoparticles induce damage to DNA and inhibit DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Nejdl, Lukas; Kudr, Jiri; Moulick, Amitava; Hegerova, Dagmar; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Gumulec, Jaromir; Cihalova, Kristyna; Smerkova, Kristyna; Dostalova, Simona; Krizkova, Sona; Novotna, Marie; Kopel, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Sparsely tested group of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) may have a comparable effect as complex platinum compounds. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of PtNPs in in vitro amplification of DNA fragment of phage λ, on the bacterial cultures (Staphylococcus aureus), human foreskin fibroblasts and erythrocytes. In vitro synthesized PtNPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (PtNPs size range 4.8–11.7 nm), zeta potential measurements (-15 mV at pH 7.4), X-ray fluorescence, UV/vis spectrophotometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. The PtNPs inhibited the DNA replication and affected the secondary structure of DNA at higher concentrations, which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing and DNA denaturation experiments. Further, cisplatin (CisPt), as traditional chemotherapy agent, was used in all parallel experiments. Moreover, the encapsulation of PtNPs in liposomes (LipoPtNPs) caused an approximately 2.4x higher of DNA damage in comparison with CisPt, LipoCisPt and PtNPs. The encapsulation of PtNPs in liposomes also increased their antibacterial, cytostatic and cytotoxic effect, which was determined by the method of growth curves on S. aureus and HFF cells. In addition, both the bare and encapsulated PtNPs caused lower oxidative stress (determined by GSH/GSSG ratio) in the human erythrocytes compared to the bare and encapsulated CisPt. CisPt was used in all parallel experiments as traditional chemotherapy agent. PMID:28704436

  6. Mutations that decrease DNA binding of the processivity factor of the herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase reduce viral yield, alter the kinetics of viral DNA replication, and decrease the fidelity of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Changying; Hwang, Ying T; Randell, John C W; Coen, Donald M; Hwang, Charles B C

    2007-04-01

    The processivity subunit of the herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase, UL42, is essential for viral replication and possesses both Pol- and DNA-binding activities. Previous studies demonstrated that the substitution of alanine for each of four arginine residues, which reside on the positively charged surface of UL42, resulted in decreased DNA binding affinity and a decreased ability to synthesize long-chain DNA by the polymerase. In this study, the effects of each substitution on the production of viral progeny, viral DNA replication, and DNA replication fidelity were examined. Each substitution mutant was able to complement the replication of a UL42 null mutant in transient complementation assays and to support the replication of plasmid DNA containing herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) origin sequences in transient DNA replication assays. Mutant viruses containing each substitution and a lacZ insertion in a nonessential region of the genome were constructed and characterized. In single-cycle growth assays, the mutants produced significantly less progeny virus than the control virus containing wild-type UL42. Real-time PCR assays revealed that these UL42 mutants synthesized less viral DNA during the early phase of infection. Interestingly, during the late phase of infection, the mutant viruses synthesized larger amounts of viral DNA than the control virus. The frequencies of mutations of the virus-borne lacZ gene increased significantly in the substitution mutants compared to those observed for the control virus. These results demonstrate that the reduced DNA binding of UL42 is associated with significant effects on virus yields, viral DNA replication, and replication fidelity. Thus, a processivity factor can influence replication fidelity in mammalian cells.

  7. A model for DNA replication showing how dormant origins safeguard against replication fork failure

    PubMed Central

    Blow, J Julian; Ge, Xin Quan

    2009-01-01

    Replication origins are ‘licensed' for a single initiation event before entry into S phase; however, many licensed replication origins are not used, but instead remain dormant. The use of these dormant origins helps cells to survive replication stresses that block replication fork movement. Here, we present a computer model of the replication of a typical metazoan origin cluster in which origins are assigned a certain initiation probability per unit time and are then activated stochastically during S phase. The output of this model is in good agreement with experimental data and shows how inefficient dormant origins can be activated when replication forks are inhibited. The model also shows how dormant origins can allow replication to complete even if some forks stall irreversibly. This provides a simple explanation for how replication origin firing is regulated, which simultaneously provides protection against replicative stress while minimizing the cost of using large numbers of replication forks. PMID:19218919

  8. Chromatin folding and DNA replication inhibition mediated by a highly antitumor-active tetrazolato-bridged dinuclear platinum(II) complex

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Ryosuke; Komeda, Seiji; Shimura, Mari; Tamura, Sachiko; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Nishimura, Kohei; Rogge, Ryan; Matsunaga, Akihiro; Hiratani, Ichiro; Takata, Hideaki; Uemura, Masako; Iida, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Hansen, Jeffrey C.; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Kanemaki, Masato T.; Maeshima, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin DNA must be read out for various cellular functions, and copied for the next cell division. These processes are targets of many anticancer agents. Platinum-based drugs, such as cisplatin, have been used extensively in cancer chemotherapy. The drug–DNA interaction causes DNA crosslinks and subsequent cytotoxicity. Recently, it was reported that an azolato-bridged dinuclear platinum(II) complex, 5-H-Y, exhibits a different anticancer spectrum from cisplatin. Here, using an interdisciplinary approach, we reveal that the cytotoxic mechanism of 5-H-Y is distinct from that of cisplatin. 5-H-Y inhibits DNA replication and also RNA transcription, arresting cells in the S/G2 phase, and are effective against cisplatin-resistant cancer cells. Moreover, it causes much less DNA crosslinking than cisplatin, and induces chromatin folding. 5-H-Y will expand the clinical applications for the treatment of chemotherapy-insensitive cancers. PMID:27094881

  9. Rational design of human DNA ligase inhibitors that target cellular DNA replication and repair.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Zhong, Shijun; Zhu, Xiao; Dziegielewska, Barbara; Ellenberger, Tom; Wilson, Gerald M; MacKerell, Alexander D; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2008-05-01

    Based on the crystal structure of human DNA ligase I complexed with nicked DNA, computer-aided drug design was used to identify compounds in a database of 1.5 million commercially available low molecular weight chemicals that were predicted to bind to a DNA-binding pocket within the DNA-binding domain of DNA ligase I, thereby inhibiting DNA joining. Ten of 192 candidates specifically inhibited purified human DNA ligase I. Notably, a subset of these compounds was also active against the other human DNA ligases. Three compounds that differed in their specificity for the three human DNA ligases were analyzed further. L82 inhibited DNA ligase I, L67 inhibited DNA ligases I and III, and L189 inhibited DNA ligases I, III, and IV in DNA joining assays with purified proteins and in cell extract assays of DNA replication, base excision repair, and nonhomologous end-joining. L67 and L189 are simple competitive inhibitors with respect to nicked DNA, whereas L82 is an uncompetitive inhibitor that stabilized complex formation between DNA ligase I and nicked DNA. In cell culture assays, L82 was cytostatic whereas L67 and L189 were cytotoxic. Concordant with their ability to inhibit DNA repair in vitro, subtoxic concentrations of L67 and L189 significantly increased the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents. Interestingly, the ligase inhibitors specifically sensitized cancer cells to DNA damage. Thus, these novel human DNA ligase inhibitors will not only provide insights into the cellular function of these enzymes but also serve as lead compounds for the development of anticancer agents.

  10. The hunt for origins of DNA replication in multicellular eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Urban, John M.; Foulk, Michael S.; Casella, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Origins of DNA replication (ORIs) occur at defined regions in the genome. Although DNA sequence defines the position of ORIs in budding yeast, the factors for ORI specification remain elusive in metazoa. Several methods have been used recently to map ORIs in metazoan genomes with the hope that features for ORI specification might emerge. These methods are reviewed here with analysis of their advantages and shortcomings. The various factors that may influence ORI selection for initiation of DNA replication are discussed. PMID:25926981

  11. Mechanism of DNA Replication in Drosophila Chromosomes: Structure of Replication Forks and Evidence for Bidirectionality

    PubMed Central

    Kriegstein, Henry J.; Hogness, David S.

    1974-01-01

    The replicating chromosomal DNA in Drosophila melanogaster cleavage nuclei has been visualized in the electron microscope as a serial array of closely spaced replicated regions created by pairs of diverging replication forks. The fine structure of the forks is very similar to that observed for the replication forks of bidirectionally replicating bacteriophage DNAs. However, the mean length of the single-stranded gaps in Drosophila forks is less than 200 nucleotide residues, much shorter than the gaps in phage forks. This difference in gap length corresponds to the observed difference in the size of Okazaki fragments from Drosophila and phage. Images PMID:4204203

  12. USP7 is a SUMO deubiquitinase essential for DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Lecona, Emilio; Rodriguez-Acebes, Sara; Specks, Julia; Lopez-Contreras, Andres J; Ruppen, Isabel; Murga, Matilde; Muñoz, Javier; Mendez, Juan; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2016-04-01

    Post-translational modification of proteins by ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub-like modifiers regulates DNA replication. We have previously shown that chromatin around replisomes is rich in SUMO and poor in Ub, whereas mature chromatin exhibits an opposite pattern. How this SUMO-rich, Ub-poor environment is maintained at sites of DNA replication in mammalian cells remains unexplored. Here we identify USP7 as a replisome-enriched SUMO deubiquitinase that is essential for DNA replication. By acting on SUMO and SUMOylated proteins, USP7 counteracts their ubiquitination. Inhibition or genetic deletion of USP7 leads to the accumulation of Ub on SUMOylated proteins, which are displaced away from replisomes. Our findings provide a model explaining the differential accumulation of SUMO and Ub at replication forks and identify an essential role of USP7 in DNA replication that should be considered in the development of USP7 inhibitors as anticancer agents.

  13. The sub-cellular localization of Sulfolobus DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Gristwood, Tamzin; Duggin, Iain G; Wagner, Michaela; Albers, Sonja V; Bell, Stephen D

    2012-07-01

    Analyses of the DNA replication-associated proteins of hyperthermophilic archaea have yielded considerable insight into the structure and biochemical function of these evolutionarily conserved factors. However, little is known about the regulation and progression of DNA replication in the context of archaeal cells. In the current work, we describe the generation of strains of Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius that allow the incorporation of nucleoside analogues during DNA replication. We employ this technology, in conjunction with immunolocalization analyses of replisomes, to investigate the sub-cellular localization of nascent DNA and replisomes. Our data reveal a peripheral localization of replisomes in the cell. Furthermore, while the two replication forks emerging from any one of the three replication origins in the Sulfolobus chromosome remain in close proximity, the three origin loci are separated.

  14. A novel regulatory mechanism couples deoxyribonucleotide synthesis and DNA replication in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gon, Stéphanie; Camara, Johanna E; Klungsøyr, Hege K; Crooke, Elliott; Skarstad, Kirsten; Beckwith, Jon

    2006-03-08

    We present evidence for a complex regulatory interplay between the initiation of DNA replication and deoxyribonucleotide synthesis. In Escherichia coli, the ATP-bound DnaA protein initiates chromosomal replication. Upon loading of the beta-clamp subunit (DnaN) of the replicase, DnaA is inactivated as its intrinsic ATPase activity is stimulated by the protein Hda. The beta-subunit acts as a matchmaker between Hda and DnaA. Chain elongation of DNA requires a sufficient supply of deoxyribonucleotides (dNTPs), which are produced by ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). We present evidence suggesting that the molecular switch from ATP-DnaA to ADP-DnaA is a critical step coordinating DNA replication with increased deoxyribonucleotide synthesis. Characterization of dnaA and dnaN mutations that result in a constitutively high expression of RNR reveal this mechanism. We propose that the nucleotide bound state of DnaA regulates the transcription of the genes encoding ribonucleotide reductase (nrdAB). Accordingly, the conversion of ATP-DnaA to ADP-DnaA after initiation and loading of the beta-subunit DnaN would allow increased nrdAB expression, and consequently, coordinated RNR synthesis and DNA replication during the cell cycle.

  15. A novel regulatory mechanism couples deoxyribonucleotide synthesis and DNA replication in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gon, Stéphanie; Camara, Johanna E; Klungsøyr, Hege K; Crooke, Elliott; Skarstad, Kirsten; Beckwith, Jon

    2006-01-01

    We present evidence for a complex regulatory interplay between the initiation of DNA replication and deoxyribonucleotide synthesis. In Escherichia coli, the ATP-bound DnaA protein initiates chromosomal replication. Upon loading of the β-clamp subunit (DnaN) of the replicase, DnaA is inactivated as its intrinsic ATPase activity is stimulated by the protein Hda. The β-subunit acts as a matchmaker between Hda and DnaA. Chain elongation of DNA requires a sufficient supply of deoxyribonucleotides (dNTPs), which are produced by ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). We present evidence suggesting that the molecular switch from ATP-DnaA to ADP-DnaA is a critical step coordinating DNA replication with increased deoxyribonucleotide synthesis. Characterization of dnaA and dnaN mutations that result in a constitutively high expression of RNR reveal this mechanism. We propose that the nucleotide bound state of DnaA regulates the transcription of the genes encoding ribonucleotide reductase (nrdAB). Accordingly, the conversion of ATP-DnaA to ADP-DnaA after initiation and loading of the β-subunit DnaN would allow increased nrdAB expression, and consequently, coordinated RNR synthesis and DNA replication during the cell cycle. PMID:16482221

  16. DNA topoisomerase IIα controls replication origin cluster licensing and firing time in Xenopus egg extracts

    PubMed Central

    Gaggioli, Vincent; Le Viet, Barbara; Germe, Thomas; Hyrien, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Sperm chromatin incubated in Xenopus egg extracts undergoes origin licensing and nuclear assembly before DNA replication. We found that depletion of DNA topoisomerase IIα (topo IIα), the sole topo II isozyme of eggs and its inhibition by ICRF-193, which clamps topo IIα around DNA have opposite effects on these processes. ICRF-193 slowed down replication origin cluster activation and fork progression in a checkpoint-independent manner, without altering replicon size. In contrast, topo IIα depletion accelerated origin cluster activation, and topo IIα add-back negated overinitiation. Therefore, topo IIα is not required for DNA replication, but topo IIα clamps slow replication, probably by forming roadblocks. ICRF-193 had no effect on DNA synthesis when added after nuclear assembly, confirming that topo IIα activity is dispensable for replication and revealing that topo IIα clamps formed on replicating DNA do not block replication, presumably because topo IIα acts behind and not in front of forks. Topo IIα depletion increased, and topo IIα addition reduced, chromatin loading of MCM2-7 replicative helicase, whereas ICRF-193 did not affect MCM2-7 loading. Therefore, topo IIα restrains MCM2-7 loading in an ICRF-193-resistant manner during origin licensing, suggesting a model for establishing the sequential firing of origin clusters. PMID:23757188

  17. Regulation of DNA Replication Initiation by Chromosome Structure.

    PubMed

    Magnan, David; Bates, David

    2015-11-01

    Recent advancements in fluorescence imaging have shown that the bacterial nucleoid is surprisingly dynamic in terms of both behavior (movement and organization) and structure (density and supercoiling). Links between chromosome structure and replication initiation have been made in a number of species, and it is universally accepted that favorable chromosome structure is required for initiation in all cells. However, almost nothing is known about whether cells use changes in chromosome structure as a regulatory mechanism for initiation. Such changes could occur during natural cell cycle or growth phase transitions, or they could be manufactured through genetic switches of topoisomerase and nucleoid structure genes. In this review, we explore the relationship between chromosome structure and replication initiation and highlight recent work implicating structure as a regulatory mechanism. A three-component origin activation model is proposed in which thermal and topological structural elements are balanced with trans-acting control elements (DnaA) to allow efficient initiation control under a variety of nutritional and environmental conditions. Selective imbalances in these components allow cells to block replication in response to cell cycle impasse, override once-per-cell-cycle programming during growth phase transitions, and promote reinitiation when replication forks fail to complete.

  18. Genome-wide alterations of the DNA replication program during tumor progression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arneodo, A.; Goldar, A.; Argoul, F.; Hyrien, O.; Audit, B.

    2016-08-01

    Oncogenic stress is a major driving force in the early stages of cancer development. Recent experimental findings reveal that, in precancerous lesions and cancers, activated oncogenes may induce stalling and dissociation of DNA replication forks resulting in DNA damage. Replication timing is emerging as an important epigenetic feature that recapitulates several genomic, epigenetic and functional specificities of even closely related cell types. There is increasing evidence that chromosome rearrangements, the hallmark of many cancer genomes, are intimately associated with the DNA replication program and that epigenetic replication timing changes often precede chromosomic rearrangements. The recent development of a novel methodology to map replication fork polarity using deep sequencing of Okazaki fragments has provided new and complementary genome-wide replication profiling data. We review the results of a wavelet-based multi-scale analysis of genomic and epigenetic data including replication profiles along human chromosomes. These results provide new insight into the spatio-temporal replication program and its dynamics during differentiation. Here our goal is to bring to cancer research, the experimental protocols and computational methodologies for replication program profiling, and also the modeling of the spatio-temporal replication program. To illustrate our purpose, we report very preliminary results obtained for the chronic myelogeneous leukemia, the archetype model of cancer. Finally, we discuss promising perspectives on using genome-wide DNA replication profiling as a novel efficient tool for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and personalized treatment.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA replication: a PrimPol perspective.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Laura J; Doherty, Aidan J

    2017-04-15

    PrimPol, (primase-polymerase), the most recently identified eukaryotic polymerase, has roles in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA maintenance. PrimPol is capable of acting as a DNA polymerase, with the ability to extend primers and also bypass a variety of oxidative and photolesions. In addition, PrimPol also functions as a primase, catalysing the preferential formation of DNA primers in a zinc finger-dependent manner. Although PrimPol's catalytic activities have been uncovered in vitro, we still know little about how and why it is targeted to the mitochondrion and what its key roles are in the maintenance of this multicopy DNA molecule. Unlike nuclear DNA, the mammalian mitochondrial genome is circular and the organelle has many unique proteins essential for its maintenance, presenting a differing environment within which PrimPol must function. Here, we discuss what is currently known about the mechanisms of DNA replication in the mitochondrion, the proteins that carry out these processes and how PrimPol is likely to be involved in assisting this vital cellular process. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. DNA intercalator stimulates influenza transcription and virus replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Olive T W; Poon, Leo L M

    2011-03-15

    Influenza A virus uses its host transcription machinery to facilitate viral RNA synthesis, an event that is associated with cellular RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). In this study, various RNAPII transcription inhibitors were used to investigate the effect of RNAPII phosphorylation status on viral RNA transcription. A low concentration of DNA intercalators, such as actinomycin D (ActD), was found to stimulate viral polymerase activity and virus replication. This effect was not observed in cells treated with RNAPII kinase inhibitors. In addition, the loss of RNAPII(a) in infected cells was due to the shift of nonphosphorylated RNAPII (RNAPII(a)) to hyperphosphorylated RNAPII (RNAPII(o)).

  1. Relationship of eukaryotic DNA replication to committed gene expression: general theory for gene control.

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, L P

    1991-01-01

    The historic arguments for the participation of eukaryotic DNA replication in the control of gene expression are reconsidered along with more recent evidence. An earlier view in which gene commitment was achieved with stable chromatin structures which required DNA replication to reset expression potential (D. D. Brown, Cell 37:359-365, 1984) is further considered. The participation of nonspecific stable repressor of gene activity (histones and other chromatin proteins), as previously proposed, is reexamined. The possible function of positive trans-acting factors is now further developed by considering evidence from DNA virus models. It is proposed that these positive factors act to control the initiation of replicon-specific DNA synthesis in the S phase (early or late replication timing). Stable chromatin assembles during replication into potentially active (early S) or inactive (late S) states with prevailing trans-acting factors (early) or repressing factors (late) and may asymmetrically commit daughter templates. This suggests logical schemes for programming differentiation based on replicons and trans-acting initiators. This proposal requires that DNA replication precede major changes in gene commitment. Prior evidence against a role for DNA replication during terminal differentiation is reexamined along with other results from terminal differentiation of lower eukaryotes. This leads to a proposal that DNA replication may yet underlie terminal gene commitment, but that for it to do so there must exist two distinct modes of replication control. In one mode (mitotic replication) replicon initiation is tightly linked to the cell cycle, whereas the other mode (terminal replication) initiation is not cell cycle restricted, is replicon specific, and can lead to a terminally differentiated state. Aberrant control of mitotic and terminal modes of DNA replication may underlie the transformed state. Implications of a replicon basis for chromatin structure-function and

  2. Replication fork slowing and stalling are distinct, checkpoint-independent consequences of replicating damaged DNA

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In response to DNA damage during S phase, cells slow DNA replication. This slowing is orchestrated by the intra-S checkpoint and involves inhibition of origin firing and reduction of replication fork speed. Slowing of replication allows for tolerance of DNA damage and suppresses genomic instability. Although the mechanisms of origin inhibition by the intra-S checkpoint are understood, major questions remain about how the checkpoint regulates replication forks: Does the checkpoint regulate the rate of fork progression? Does the checkpoint affect all forks, or only those encountering damage? Does the checkpoint facilitate the replication of polymerase-blocking lesions? To address these questions, we have analyzed the checkpoint in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe using a single-molecule DNA combing assay, which allows us to unambiguously separate the contribution of origin and fork regulation towards replication slowing, and allows us to investigate the behavior of individual forks. Moreover, we have interrogated the role of forks interacting with individual sites of damage by using three damaging agents—MMS, 4NQO and bleomycin—that cause similar levels of replication slowing with very different frequency of DNA lesions. We find that the checkpoint slows replication by inhibiting origin firing, but not by decreasing fork rates. However, the checkpoint appears to facilitate replication of damaged templates, allowing forks to more quickly pass lesions. Finally, using a novel analytic approach, we rigorously identify fork stalling events in our combing data and show that they play a previously unappreciated role in shaping replication kinetics in response to DNA damage. PMID:28806726

  3. Direct Evidence for the Formation of Precatenanes during DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Cebrián, Jorge; Castán, Alicia; Martínez, Víctor; Kadomatsu-Hermosa, Maridian J; Parra, Cristina; Fernández-Nestosa, María José; Schaerer, Christian; Hernández, Pablo; Krimer, Dora B; Schvartzman, Jorge B

    2015-05-29

    The dynamics of DNA topology during replication are still poorly understood. Bacterial plasmids are negatively supercoiled. This underwinding facilitates strand separation of the DNA duplex during replication. Leading the replisome, a DNA helicase separates the parental strands that are to be used as templates. This strand separation causes overwinding of the duplex ahead. If this overwinding persists, it would eventually impede fork progression. In bacteria, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV act ahead of the fork to keep DNA underwound. However, the processivity of the DNA helicase might overcome DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. It was proposed that the overwinding that builds up ahead of the fork could force it to swivel and diffuse this positive supercoiling behind the fork where topoisomerase IV would also act to maintain replicating the DNA underwound. Putative intertwining of sister duplexes in the replicated region are called precatenanes. Fork swiveling and the formation of precatenanes, however, are still questioned. Here, we used classical genetics and high resolution two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis to examine the torsional tension of replication intermediates of three bacterial plasmids with the fork stalled at different sites before termination. The results obtained indicated that precatenanes do form as replication progresses before termination.

  4. Effects of Replication and Transcription on DNA Structure-Related Genetic Instability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guliang; Vasquez, Karen M.

    2017-01-01

    Many repetitive sequences in the human genome can adopt conformations that differ from the canonical B-DNA double helix (i.e., non-B DNA), and can impact important biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, recombination, telomere maintenance, viral integration, transposome activation, DNA damage and repair. Thus, non-B DNA-forming sequences have been implicated in genetic instability and disease development. In this article, we discuss the interactions of non-B DNA with the replication and/or transcription machinery, particularly in disease states (e.g., tumors) that can lead to an abnormal cellular environment, and how such interactions may alter DNA replication and transcription, leading to potential conflicts at non-B DNA regions, and eventually result in genetic stability and human disease. PMID:28067787

  5. Effects of Replication and Transcription on DNA Structure-Related Genetic Instability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guliang; Vasquez, Karen M

    2017-01-05

    Many repetitive sequences in the human genome can adopt conformations that differ from the canonical B-DNA double helix (i.e., non-B DNA), and can impact important biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, recombination, telomere maintenance, viral integration, transposome activation, DNA damage and repair. Thus, non-B DNA-forming sequences have been implicated in genetic instability and disease development. In this article, we discuss the interactions of non-B DNA with the replication and/or transcription machinery, particularly in disease states (e.g., tumors) that can lead to an abnormal cellular environment, and how such interactions may alter DNA replication and transcription, leading to potential conflicts at non-B DNA regions, and eventually result in genetic stability and human disease.

  6. Nbs1-dependent binding of Mre11 to adenovirus E4 mutant viral DNA is important for inhibiting DNA replication

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Shomita S.; Bridge, Eileen

    2008-04-25

    Adenovirus (Ad) infections stimulate the activation of cellular DNA damage response and repair pathways. Ad early regulatory proteins prevent activation of DNA damage responses by targeting the MRN complex, composed of the Mre11, Rad50 and Nbs1 proteins, for relocalization and degradation. In the absence of these viral proteins, Mre11 colocalizes with viral DNA replication foci. Mre11 foci formation at DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation depends on the Nbs1 component of the MRN complex and is stabilized by the mediator of DNA damage checkpoint protein 1 (Mdc1). We find that Nbs1 is required for Mre11 localization at DNA replication foci in Ad E4 mutant infections. Mre11 is important for Mdc1 foci formation in infected cells, consistent with its role as a sensor of DNA damage. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicate that both Mre11 and Mdc1 are physically bound to viral DNA, which could account for their localization in viral DNA containing foci. Efficient binding of Mre11 to E4 mutant DNA depends on the presence of Nbs1, and is correlated with a significant E4 mutant DNA replication defect. Our results are consistent with a model in which physical interaction of Mre11 with viral DNA is mediated by Nbs1, and interferes with viral DNA replication.

  7. Archaeal DNA Replication Origins and Recruitment of the MCM Replicative Helicase.

    PubMed

    Samson, R Y; Bell, S D

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication is fundamental to the propagation of all life on the planet. Remarkably, given the central importance for this process, two distinct core cellular DNA replication machineries have evolved. One is found in the bacterial domain of life and the other is present in Archaea and Eukarya. The archaeal machinery represents a simplified and presumably ancestral form of the eukaryotic DNA replication apparatus. As such, archaeal replication proteins have been studied extensively as models for their eukaryal counterparts. In addition, a number of archaea have been developed as model organisms. Accordingly, there has been a considerable increase in our knowledge of how archaeal chromosomes are replicated. It has become apparent that the majority of archaeal cells replicate their genomes from multiple origins per chromosome. Thus, at both organizational and mechanistic levels, archaeal DNA replication resembles that of eukarya. In this chapter, we will describe recent advances in our understanding of the basis of archaeal origin definition and how the archaeal initiator proteins recruit the replicative helicase to origins. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural insights into DNA replication without hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Betz, Karin; Malyshev, Denis A; Lavergne, Thomas; Welte, Wolfram; Diederichs, Kay; Romesberg, Floyd E; Marx, Andreas

    2013-12-11

    The genetic alphabet is composed of two base pairs, and the development of a third, unnatural base pair would increase the genetic and chemical potential of DNA. d5SICS-dNaM is one of the most efficiently replicated unnatural base pairs identified to date, but its pairing is mediated by only hydrophobic and packing forces, and in free duplex DNA it forms a cross-strand intercalated structure that makes its efficient replication difficult to understand. Recent studies of the KlenTaq DNA polymerase revealed that the insertion of d5SICSTP opposite dNaM proceeds via a mutually induced-fit mechanism, where the presence of the triphosphate induces the polymerase to form the catalytically competent closed structure, which in turn induces the pairing nucleotides of the developing unnatural base pair to adopt a planar Watson-Crick-like structure. To understand the remaining steps of replication, we now report the characterization of the prechemistry complexes corresponding to the insertion of dNaMTP opposite d5SICS, as well as multiple postchemistry complexes in which the already formed unnatural base pair is positioned at the postinsertion site. Unlike with the insertion of d5SICSTP opposite dNaM, addition of dNaMTP does not fully induce the formation of the catalytically competent closed state. The data also reveal that once synthesized and translocated to the postinsertion position, the unnatural nucleobases again intercalate. Two modes of intercalation are observed, depending on the nature of the flanking nucleotides, and are each stabilized by different interactions with the polymerase, and each appear to reduce the affinity with which the next correct triphosphate binds. Thus, continued primer extension is limited by deintercalation and rearrangements with the polymerase active site that are required to populate the catalytically active, triphosphate bound conformation.

  9. Next-generation sequencing and DNA replication in human cells: the future has arrived.

    PubMed

    Dellino, Gaetano Ivan; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Accurate regulation of DNA replication ensures faithful transmission of eukaryotic genomes and maintenance of genomic stability and chromatin organization. However, by itself the replication process is a threat for both DNA and chromatin integrity. This becomes particularly relevant in cancer cells, where activated oncogenes induce replication-stress, including unscheduled initiation, fork stalling and collapse and, ultimately, genomic instability. Studies addressing the relationship between (epi)genome integrity and disease have been hampered by our poor knowledge of the mechanisms regulating where and when eukaryotic replication initiates. Recently developed genome-scale methods for the analysis of DNA replication in mammals will contribute to the identification of missing links between replication, chromatin regulation and genome stability in normal and cancer cells.

  10. Functions of Ubiquitin and SUMO in DNA Replication and Replication Stress

    PubMed Central

    García-Rodríguez, Néstor; Wong, Ronald P.; Ulrich, Helle D.

    2016-01-01

    Complete and faithful duplication of its entire genetic material is one of the essential prerequisites for a proliferating cell to maintain genome stability. Yet, during replication DNA is particularly vulnerable to insults. On the one hand, lesions in replicating DNA frequently cause a stalling of the replication machinery, as most DNA polymerases cannot cope with defective templates. This situation is aggravated by the fact that strand separation in preparation for DNA synthesis prevents common repair mechanisms relying on strand complementarity, such as base and nucleotide excision repair, from working properly. On the other hand, the replication process itself subjects the DNA to a series of hazardous transformations, ranging from the exposure of single-stranded DNA to topological contortions and the generation of nicks and fragments, which all bear the risk of inducing genomic instability. Dealing with these problems requires rapid and flexible responses, for which posttranslational protein modifications that act independently of protein synthesis are particularly well suited. Hence, it is not surprising that members of the ubiquitin family, particularly ubiquitin itself and SUMO, feature prominently in controlling many of the defensive and restorative measures involved in the protection of DNA during replication. In this review we will discuss the contributions of ubiquitin and SUMO to genome maintenance specifically as they relate to DNA replication. We will consider cases where the modifiers act during regular, i.e., unperturbed stages of replication, such as initiation, fork progression, and termination, but also give an account of their functions in dealing with lesions, replication stalling and fork collapse. PMID:27242895

  11. Functions of Ubiquitin and SUMO in DNA Replication and Replication Stress.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Néstor; Wong, Ronald P; Ulrich, Helle D

    2016-01-01

    Complete and faithful duplication of its entire genetic material is one of the essential prerequisites for a proliferating cell to maintain genome stability. Yet, during replication DNA is particularly vulnerable to insults. On the one hand, lesions in replicating DNA frequently cause a stalling of the replication machinery, as most DNA polymerases cannot cope with defective templates. This situation is aggravated by the fact that strand separation in preparation for DNA synthesis prevents common repair mechanisms relying on strand complementarity, such as base and nucleotide excision repair, from working properly. On the other hand, the replication process itself subjects the DNA to a series of hazardous transformations, ranging from the exposure of single-stranded DNA to topological contortions and the generation of nicks and fragments, which all bear the risk of inducing genomic instability. Dealing with these problems requires rapid and flexible responses, for which posttranslational protein modifications that act independently of protein synthesis are particularly well suited. Hence, it is not surprising that members of the ubiquitin family, particularly ubiquitin itself and SUMO, feature prominently in controlling many of the defensive and restorative measures involved in the protection of DNA during replication. In this review we will discuss the contributions of ubiquitin and SUMO to genome maintenance specifically as they relate to DNA replication. We will consider cases where the modifiers act during regular, i.e., unperturbed stages of replication, such as initiation, fork progression, and termination, but also give an account of their functions in dealing with lesions, replication stalling and fork collapse.

  12. Ethidium bromide as a marker of mtDNA replication in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Anna Maria; Fusi, Paola; Pastori, Valentina; Amicarelli, Giulia; Pozzi, Chiara; Adlerstein, Daniel; Doglia, Silvia Maria

    2012-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in tumor cells was found to play an important role in maintaining the malignant phenotype. Using laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy (LSCFM) in a recent work, we reported a variable fluorescence intensity of ethidium bromide (EB) in mitochondria nucleoids of living carcinoma cells. Since when EB is bound to nucleic acids its fluorescence is intensified; a higher EB fluorescence intensity could reflect a higher DNA accessibility to EB, suggesting a higher mtDNA replication activity. To prove this hypothesis, in the present work we studied, by LSCFM, the EB fluorescence in mitochondria nucleoids of living neuroblastoma cells, a model system in which differentiation affects the level of mtDNA replication. A drastic decrease of fluorescence was observed after differentiation. To correlate EB fluorescence intensity to the mtDNA replication state, we evaluated the mtDNA nascent strands content by ligation-mediated real-time PCR, and we found a halved amount of replicating mtDNA molecules in differentiating cells. A similar result was obtained by BrdU incorporation. These results indicate that the low EB fluorescence of nucleoids in differentiated cells is correlated to a low content of replicating mtDNA, suggesting that EB may be used as a marker of mtDNA replication in living cells.

  13. Methods to detect replication-dependent and replication-independent DNA structure-induced genetic instability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guliang; Gaddis, Sally; Vasquez, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    DNA can adopt a variety of alternative secondary (i.e., non-B DNA) conformations that play important roles in cellular metabolism, including genetic instability, disease etiology, and evolution. While we still have much to learn, research in this field has expanded dramatically in the past decade. We have summarized in our previous Methods review (Wang et al., Methods, 2009) some commonly used techniques to determine non-B DNA structural conformations and non-B DNA-induced genetic instability in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Since that time, we and others have further characterized mechanisms involved in DNA structure-induced mutagenesis and have proposed both replication-dependent and replication-independent models. Thus, in this review, we highlight some current methodologies to identify DNA replication-related and replication-independent mutations occurring at non-B DNA regions to allow for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying DNA structure-induced genetic instability. We also describe a new web-based search engine to identify potential intramolecular triplex (H-DNA) and left-handed Z-DNA-forming motifs in entire genomes or at selected sequences of interest. PMID:23954565

  14. Diversity of the DNA Replication System in the Archaea Domain

    PubMed Central

    Long, Feng; Cann, Isaac; Whitman, William B.

    2014-01-01

    The precise and timely duplication of the genome is essential for cellular life. It is achieved by DNA replication, a complex process that is conserved among the three domains of life. Even though the cellular structure of archaea closely resembles that of bacteria, the information processing machinery of archaea is evolutionarily more closely related to the eukaryotic system, especially for the proteins involved in the DNA replication process. While the general DNA replication mechanism is conserved among the different domains of life, modifications in functionality and in some of the specialized replication proteins are observed. Indeed, Archaea possess specific features unique to this domain. Moreover, even though the general pattern of the replicative system is the same in all archaea, a great deal of variation exists between specific groups. PMID:24790526

  15. Diversity of the DNA replication system in the Archaea domain.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Felipe; Long, Feng; Cann, Isaac; Whitman, William B

    2014-01-01

    The precise and timely duplication of the genome is essential for cellular life. It is achieved by DNA replication, a complex process that is conserved among the three domains of life. Even though the cellular structure of archaea closely resembles that of bacteria, the information processing machinery of archaea is evolutionarily more closely related to the eukaryotic system, especially for the proteins involved in the DNA replication process. While the general DNA replication mechanism is conserved among the different domains of life, modifications in functionality and in some of the specialized replication proteins are observed. Indeed, Archaea possess specific features unique to this domain. Moreover, even though the general pattern of the replicative system is the same in all archaea, a great deal of variation exists between specific groups.

  16. Productive Replication of Human Papillomavirus 31 Requires DNA Repair Factor Nbs1

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, Daniel C.; Gautam, Dipendra; Gillespie, Kenric A.; Chappell, William H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Activation of the ATM (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated kinase)-dependent DNA damage response (DDR) is necessary for productive replication of human papillomavirus 31 (HPV31). We previously found that DNA repair and homologous recombination (HR) factors localize to sites of HPV replication, suggesting that ATM activity is required to recruit factors to viral genomes that can productively replicate viral DNA in a recombination-dependent manner. The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex is an essential component of the DDR that is necessary for ATM-mediated HR repair and localizes to HPV DNA foci. In this study, we demonstrate that the HPV E7 protein is sufficient to increase levels of the MRN complex and also interacts with MRN components. We have found that Nbs1 depletion blocks productive viral replication and results in decreased localization of Mre11, Rad50, and the principal HR factor Rad51 to HPV DNA foci upon differentiation. Nbs1 contributes to the DDR by acting as an upstream activator of ATM in response to double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) and as a downstream effector of ATM activity in the intra-S-phase checkpoint. We have found that phosphorylation of ATM and its downstream target Chk2, as well as SMC1 (structural maintenance of chromosome 1), is maintained upon Nbs1 knockdown in differentiating cells. Given that ATM and Chk2 are required for productive replication, our results suggest that Nbs1 contributes to viral replication outside its role as an ATM activator, potentially through ensuring localization of DNA repair factors to viral genomes that are necessary for efficient productive replication. IMPORTANCE The mechanisms that regulate human papillomavirus (HPV) replication during the viral life cycle are not well understood. Our finding that Nbs1 is necessary for productive replication even in the presence of ATM (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated kinase) and Chk2 phosphorylation offers evidence that Nbs1 contributes to viral replication downstream of

  17. Productive replication of human papillomavirus 31 requires DNA repair factor Nbs1.

    PubMed

    Anacker, Daniel C; Gautam, Dipendra; Gillespie, Kenric A; Chappell, William H; Moody, Cary A

    2014-08-01

    Activation of the ATM (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated kinase)-dependent DNA damage response (DDR) is necessary for productive replication of human papillomavirus 31 (HPV31). We previously found that DNA repair and homologous recombination (HR) factors localize to sites of HPV replication, suggesting that ATM activity is required to recruit factors to viral genomes that can productively replicate viral DNA in a recombination-dependent manner. The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex is an essential component of the DDR that is necessary for ATM-mediated HR repair and localizes to HPV DNA foci. In this study, we demonstrate that the HPV E7 protein is sufficient to increase levels of the MRN complex and also interacts with MRN components. We have found that Nbs1 depletion blocks productive viral replication and results in decreased localization of Mre11, Rad50, and the principal HR factor Rad51 to HPV DNA foci upon differentiation. Nbs1 contributes to the DDR by acting as an upstream activator of ATM in response to double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) and as a downstream effector of ATM activity in the intra-S-phase checkpoint. We have found that phosphorylation of ATM and its downstream target Chk2, as well as SMC1 (structural maintenance of chromosome 1), is maintained upon Nbs1 knockdown in differentiating cells. Given that ATM and Chk2 are required for productive replication, our results suggest that Nbs1 contributes to viral replication outside its role as an ATM activator, potentially through ensuring localization of DNA repair factors to viral genomes that are necessary for efficient productive replication. The mechanisms that regulate human papillomavirus (HPV) replication during the viral life cycle are not well understood. Our finding that Nbs1 is necessary for productive replication even in the presence of ATM (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated kinase) and Chk2 phosphorylation offers evidence that Nbs1 contributes to viral replication downstream of facilitating ATM

  18. Acute MUS81 depletion leads to replication fork slowing and a constitutive DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Meichun; Wang, Xiaohui; Palmai-Pallag, Timea; Shen, Huahao; Helleday, Thomas; Hickson, Ian D.; Ying, Songmin

    2015-01-01

    The MUS81 protein belongs to a conserved family of DNA structure-specific nucleases that play important roles in DNA replication and repair. Inactivation of the Mus81 gene in mice has no major deleterious consequences for embryonic development, although cancer susceptibility has been reported. We have investigated the role of MUS81 in human cells by acutely depleting the protein using shRNAs. We found that MUS81 depletion from human fibroblasts leads to accumulation of ssDNA and a constitutive DNA damage response that ultimately activates cellular senescence. Moreover, we show that MUS81 is required for efficient replication fork progression during an unperturbed S-phase, and for recovery of productive replication following replication stalling. These results demonstrate essential roles for the MUS81 nuclease in maintenance of replication fork integrity. PMID:26415217

  19. Regulated degradation of chromosome replication proteins DnaA and CtrA in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Gorbatyuk, Boris; Marczynski, Gregory T

    2005-02-01

    DnaA protein binds bacterial replication origins and it initiates chromosome replication. The Caulobacter crescentus DnaA also initiates chromosome replication and the C. crescentus response regulator CtrA represses chromosome replication. CtrA proteolysis by ClpXP helps restrict chromosome replication to the dividing cell type. We report that C. crescentus DnaA protein is also selectively targeted for proteolysis but DnaA proteolysis uses a different mechanism. DnaA protein is unstable during both growth and stationary phases. During growth phase, DnaA proteolysis ensures that primarily newly made DnaA protein is present at the start of each replication period. Upon entry into stationary phase, DnaA protein is completely removed while CtrA protein is retained. Cell cycle arrest by sudden carbon or nitrogen starvation is sufficient to increase DnaA proteolysis, and relieving starvation rapidly stabilizes DnaA protein. This starvation-induced proteolysis completely removes DnaA protein even while DnaA synthesis continues. Apparently, C. crescentus relies on proteolysis to adjust DnaA in response to such rapid nutritional changes. Depleting the C. crescentus ClpP protease significantly stabilizes DnaA. However, a dominant-negative clpX allele that blocks CtrA degradation, even when combined with a clpA null allele, did not decrease DnaA degradation. We suggest that either a novel chaperone presents DnaA to ClpP or that ClpX is used with exceptional efficiency so that when ClpX activity is limiting for CtrA degradation it is not limiting for DnaA degradation. This unexpected and finely tuned proteolysis system may be an important adaptation for a developmental bacterium that is often challenged by nutrient-poor environments.

  20. Requirements for species-specific papovavirus DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, E R; Naujokas, M; Hassell, J A

    1989-01-01

    Replication of papovavirus DNA requires a functional replication origin, a virus-encoded protein, large T antigen, and species-specific permissive factors. How these components interact to initiate and sustain viral DNA replication is not known. Toward that end, we have attempted to identify the viral target(s) of permissive factors. The functionally defined replication origins of polyomavirus and simian virus 40, two papovaviruses that replicate in different species (mice and monkeys, respectively), are composed of two functionally distinct domains: a core domain and an auxiliary domain. The origin cores of the two viruses are remarkably similar in primary structure and have common binding sites for large T antigen. By contrast, their auxiliary domains share few sequences and serve as binding sites for cellular proteins. It seemed plausible, therefore, that if cellular permissive factors interacted with the replication origin, their targets were likely to be in the auxiliary domain. To test this hypothesis we constructed hybrid origins for DNA replication that were composed of the auxiliary domain of one virus and the origin core of the other and assessed their capacity to replicate in a number of mouse and monkey cell lines, which express the large T antigen of one or the other virus. The results of this analysis showed that the auxiliary domains of the viral replication origins could substitute for one another in DNA replication, provided that the viral origin core and its cognate large T antigen were present in a permissive cellular milieu. Surprisingly, the large T antigens of the viruses could not substitute for one another, regardless of the species of origin of the host cell, even though the two large T antigens bind to the same sequence motif in vitro. These results suggest that species-specific permissive factors do not interact with the origin-auxiliary domains but, rather, with either the origin core or the large T antigen or with both components to

  1. Application of alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation in the analysis of DNA replication after DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Raschke, Sascha; Guan, Jun; Iliakis, George

    2009-01-01

    Sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation is a powerful technique for fractionating macromolecules like DNA, RNA, and proteins. For this purpose, a sample containing a mixture of different size macromolecules is layered on the surface of a gradient whose density increases linearly from top to bottom. During centrifugation, different size macromolecules sediment through the gradient at different rates. The rate of sedimentation depends, in addition to centrifugal force, on the size, shape, and density of the macromolecules, as well as on the density and viscosity of the gradient. In this way, macromolecules are separated by size with larger ones sedimenting towards the bottom and lighter ones remaining close to the top of the gradient. The method has been particularly successful in the size fractionation of large DNA molecules and has been extensively used to measure induction and repair of DNA breaks after exposure to clastogenic factors. Here, we describe an adaptation of this method that can be used in the analysis of newly synthesized DNA formed during DNA replication. Through size analysis of nascent DNA in alkaline sucrose gradients, variations in replication activity can be measured after exposure of cells to DNA-damaging agents. The method is particularly useful as it allows distinction between DNA damage-mediated effects on chain elongation vs. replicon initiation, which is essential for an in-depth analysis of the intra-S-phase checkpoint. This ability makes the technique unique and justifies its somewhat labour-intensive nature.

  2. Role of the mitochondrial DNA replication machinery in mitochondrial DNA mutagenesis, aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    DeBalsi, Karen L; Hoff, Kirsten E; Copeland, William C

    2017-01-01

    As regulators of bioenergetics in the cell and the primary source of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), dysfunctional mitochondria have been implicated for decades in the process of aging and age-related diseases. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is replicated and repaired by nuclear-encoded mtDNA polymerase γ (Pol γ) and several other associated proteins, which compose the mtDNA replication machinery. Here, we review evidence that errors caused by this replication machinery and failure to repair these mtDNA errors results in mtDNA mutations. Clonal expansion of mtDNA mutations results in mitochondrial dysfunction, such as decreased electron transport chain (ETC) enzyme activity and impaired cellular respiration. We address the literature that mitochondrial dysfunction, in conjunction with altered mitochondrial dynamics, is a major driving force behind aging and age-related diseases. Additionally, interventions to improve mitochondrial function and attenuate the symptoms of aging are examined. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Excision and replication of extrachromosomal DNA of pea (Pisum sativum)

    SciTech Connect

    Hof, J.V.; Bjerknes, C.A.; Delihas, N.C.

    1983-02-01

    Experiments with cultured pea roots were conducted to determine (i) whether extrachromosomal DNA was produced by cells in the late S phase or in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, (ii) whether the maturation of nascent DNA replicated by these cells achieved chromosomal size, (iii) when extrachromosomal DNA was removed from the chromosomal duplex, and (iv) the replication of nascent chains by the extrachromosomal DNA after its release from the chromosomal duplex. Autoradiography and cytophotometry of cells of carbohydrate-starved root tips revealed that extrachromosomal DNA was produced by a small fraction of cells accumulated in the late S phase after they had replicated about 80% of their DNA. Velocity sedimentation of nascent chromosomal DNA in alkaline sucrose gradients indicated that the DNA of cells in the late S phase failed to achieve chromosomal size. After reaching sizes of 70 x 10/sup 6/ to 140 x 10/sup 6/ daltons, some of the nascent chromosomal molecules were broken, presumably releasing extrachromosomal DNA several hours later. Sedimentation of selectively extracted extrachromosomal DNA either from dividing cells or from those in the late S phase showed that it replicated two nascent chains, one of 3 x 10/sup 6/ daltons and another of 7 x 10/sup 6/ daltons. Larger molecules of extrachromosomal DNA were detectable after cells were labeled for 24 h. These two observations were compatible with the idea that the extrachromosomal DNA was first replicated as an integral part of the chromosomal duplex, was cut from the duplex, and then, once free of the chromosome, replicated two smaller chains of 3 x 10/sup 6/ and 7 x 10/sup 6/ daltons. 24 references.

  4. Risks at the DNA Replication Fork: Effects upon Carcinogenesis and Tumor Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, Tony M.; Harcy, Victoria; Roberts, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of all organisms to copy their genetic information via DNA replication is a prerequisite for cell division and a biological imperative of life. In multicellular organisms, however, mutations arising from DNA replication errors in the germline and somatic cells are the basis of genetic diseases and cancer, respectively. Within human tumors, replication errors additionally contribute to mutator phenotypes and tumor heterogeneity, which are major confounding factors for cancer therapeutics. Successful DNA replication involves the coordination of many large-scale, complex cellular processes. In this review, we focus on the roles that defects in enzymes that normally act at the replication fork and dysregulation of enzymes that inappropriately damage single-stranded DNA at the fork play in causing mutations that contribute to carcinogenesis. We focus on tumor data and experimental evidence that error-prone variants of replicative polymerases promote carcinogenesis and on research indicating that the primary target mutated by APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like) cytidine deaminases is ssDNA present at the replication fork. Furthermore, we discuss evidence from model systems that indicate replication stress and other cancer-associated metabolic changes may modulate mutagenic enzymatic activities at the replication fork. PMID:28117753

  5. A chimera of EBNA1 and the estrogen receptor activates transcription but not replication.

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, T; Sugden, B

    1992-01-01

    DNA replication from the plasmid origin of replication of Epstein-Barr virus requires one viral protein, EBNA1. This protein also acts as a transcriptional activator. Mutational analyses of EBNA1 have led to the conclusion that it supports transcription and DNA replication similarly. Such analyses have not probed the DNA-binding domain of EBNA1. To test whether domains of EBNA1 specifically required for either transcription or replication lie within its DNA-binding domain, we constructed a functional transcriptional activator by placing the EBNA1 DNA-binding domain in the context of the activation domains of the estrogen receptor. This hybrid protein did not support DNA replication, which indicates that the DNA-binding domain does not contain a replication-specific domain that can function along with heterologous transcriptional activating domains. Images PMID:1738208

  6. Low-Resolution Structure of Vaccinia Virus DNA Replication Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Sèle, Céleste; Gabel, Frank; Gutsche, Irina; Ivanov, Ivan; Burmeister, Wim P.

    2013-01-01

    Smallpox caused by the poxvirus variola virus is a highly lethal disease that marked human history and was eradicated in 1979 thanks to a worldwide mass vaccination campaign. This virus remains a significant threat for public health due to its potential use as a bioterrorism agent and requires further development of antiviral drugs. The viral genome replication machinery appears to be an ideal target, although very little is known about its structure. Vaccinia virus is the prototypic virus of the Orthopoxvirus genus and shares more than 97% amino acid sequence identity with variola virus. Here we studied four essential viral proteins of the replication machinery: the DNA polymerase E9, the processivity factor A20, the uracil-DNA glycosylase D4, and the helicase-primase D5. We present the recombinant expression and biochemical and biophysical characterizations of these proteins and the complexes they form. We show that the A20D4 polymerase cofactor binds to E9 with high affinity, leading to the formation of the A20D4E9 holoenzyme. Small-angle X-ray scattering yielded envelopes for E9, A20D4, and A20D4E9. They showed the elongated shape of the A20D4 cofactor, leading to a 150-Å separation between the polymerase active site of E9 and the DNA-binding site of D4. Electron microscopy showed a 6-fold rotational symmetry of the helicase-primase D5, as observed for other SF3 helicases. These results favor a rolling-circle mechanism of vaccinia virus genome replication similar to the one suggested for tailed bacteriophages. PMID:23175373

  7. Beginning at the end: DNA replication within the telomere

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Using single molecule analysis of replicated DNA (SMARD), Drosopoulos et al. (2015; J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201410061) report that DNA replication initiates at measurable frequency within the telomere of mouse chromosome arm 14q. They demonstrate that resolution of G4 structures on the G-rich template strand of the telomere requires some overlapping functions of BLM and WRN helicase for leading strand synthesis. PMID:26195663

  8. Nanoscale topographical replication of graphene architecture by manufactured DNA nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Youngkwon; Shin, Jihoon; Seo, Soonbeom; Park, Sung Ha; Ahn, Joung Real

    2015-03-01

    Despite many studies on how geometry can be used to control the electronic properties of graphene, certain limitations to fabrication of designed graphene nanostructures exist. Here, we demonstrate controlled topographical replication of graphene by artificial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nanostructures. Owing to the high degree of geometrical freedom of DNA nanostructures, we controlled the nanoscale topography of graphene. The topography of graphene replicated from DNA nanostructures showed enhanced thermal stability and revealed an interesting negative temperature coefficient of sheet resistivity when underlying DNA nanostructures were denatured at high temperatures.

  9. Nanoscale topographical replication of graphene architecture by artificial DNA nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Y.; Seo, S.; Park, J.; Park, T.; Ahn, J. R.; Shin, J.; Dugasani, S. R.; Woo, S. H.; Park, S. H.

    2014-06-09

    Despite many studies on how geometry can be used to control the electronic properties of graphene, certain limitations to fabrication of designed graphene nanostructures exist. Here, we demonstrate controlled topographical replication of graphene by artificial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nanostructures. Owing to the high degree of geometrical freedom of DNA nanostructures, we controlled the nanoscale topography of graphene. The topography of graphene replicated from DNA nanostructures showed enhanced thermal stability and revealed an interesting negative temperature coefficient of sheet resistivity when underlying DNA nanostructures were denatured at high temperatures.

  10. Regulatory interactions between phospholipid synthesis and DNA replication in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed Central

    Loewy, B; Marczynski, G T; Dingwall, A; Shapiro, L

    1990-01-01

    Several Caulobacter crescentus mutants with lesions in phospholipid biosynthesis have DNA replication phenotypes. A C. crescentus mutant deficient in glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity (gpsA) blocks phospholipid synthesis, ceases DNA replication, and loses viability in the absence of a glycerol phosphate supplement. To investigate the interaction between membrane synthesis and DNA replication during a single cell cycle, we moved the gpsA mutation into a synchronizable, but otherwise wild-type, strain. The first effect of withholding supplement was the cessation of synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol, a major component of the C. crescentus membrane. In the absence of glycerol 3-phosphate, DNA replication was initiated in the stalked cell at the correct time in the cell cycle and at the correct site on the chromosome. However, after replication proceeded bidirectionally for a short time, DNA synthesis dropped to a low level. The cell cycle blocked at a distinct middivision stalked cell, and this was followed by cell death. The "glycerol-less" death of the gpsA mutant could be prevented if the cells were treated with novobiocin to prevent the initiation of DNA replication. Our observations suggest that the processivity of C. crescentus replication requires concomitant phospholipid synthesis and that cell death results from incomplete replication of the chromosome. Images PMID:2211495

  11. Essential role of Rta in lytic DNA replication of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    El-Guindy, Ayman; Ghiassi-Nejad, Maryam; Golden, Sean; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Miller, George

    2013-01-01

    Two transcription factors, ZEBRA and Rta, switch Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) from the latent to the lytic state. While ZEBRA also plays an obligatory role as an activator of replication, it is not known whether Rta is directly required for replication. Rta is dispensable for amplification of an oriLyt-containing plasmid in a transient-replication assay. Here, we assessed the requirement for Rta in activation of viral DNA synthesis from the endogenous viral genome, a function that has not been established. Initially, we searched for a ZEBRA mutant that supports viral replication but not transcription. We found that Z(S186A), a mutant of ZEBRA unable to activate transcription of Rta or viral genes encoding replication proteins, is competent to bind to oriLyt and to function as an origin recognition protein. Ectopic expression of the six components of the EBV lytic replication machinery failed to rescue replication by Z(S186A). However, addition of Rta to Z(S186A) and the mixture of replication factors activated viral replication and late gene expression. Deletion mutagenesis of Rta indicated that the C-terminal 10 amino acids (aa) were essential for the function of Rta in replication. In vivo DNA binding studies revealed that Rta interacted with the enhancer region of oriLyt. In addition, expression of Rta and Z(S186A) together, but not individually, activated synthesis of the BHLF1 transcript, a lytic transcript required for the process of viral DNA replication. Our findings demonstrate that Rta plays an indispensable role in the process of lytic DNA replication.

  12. Diffusion of human Replication Protein A along single stranded DNA

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Binh; Sokoloski, Joshua; Galletto, Roberto; Elson, Elliot L.; Wold, Marc S.; Lohman, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Replication Protein A (RPA) is a eukaryotic single stranded (ss) DNA binding protein that plays critical roles in most aspects of genome maintenance, including replication, recombination and repair. RPA binds ssDNA with high affinity, destabilizes DNA secondary structure and facilitates binding of other proteins to ssDNA. However, RPA must be removed from or redistributed along ssDNA during these processes. To probe the dynamics of RPA-DNA interactions, we combined ensemble and single molecule fluorescence approaches to examine human RPA diffusion along ssDNA and find that an hRPA hetero-trimer can diffuse rapidly along ssDNA. Diffusion of hRPA is functional in that it provides the mechanism by which hRPA can transiently disrupt DNA hairpins by diffusing in from ssDNA regions adjacent to the DNA hairpin. hRPA diffusion was also monitored by the fluctuations in fluorescence intensity of a Cy3 fluorophore attached to the end of ssDNA. Using a novel method to calibrate the Cy3 fluorescence intensity as a function of hRPA position on the ssDNA, we estimate a one-dimensional diffusion coefficient of hRPA on ssDNA of D1 ~5000 nucleotide2s−1 at 37°C. Diffusion of hRPA while bound to ssDNA enables it to be readily repositioned to allow other proteins access to ssDNA. PMID:25058683

  13. Functional amyloids as inhibitors of plasmid DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Molina-García, Laura; Gasset-Rosa, Fátima; Moreno-del Álamo, María; Fernández-Tresguerres, M. Elena; Moreno-Díaz de la Espina, Susana; Lurz, Rudi; Giraldo, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication is tightly regulated to constrain the genetic material within strict spatiotemporal boundaries and copy numbers. Bacterial plasmids are autonomously replicating DNA molecules of much clinical, environmental and biotechnological interest. A mechanism used by plasmids to prevent over-replication is ‘handcuffing’, i.e. inactivating the replication origins in two DNA molecules by holding them together through a bridge built by a plasmid-encoded initiator protein (Rep). Besides being involved in handcuffing, the WH1 domain in the RepA protein assembles as amyloid fibres upon binding to DNA in vitro. The amyloid state in proteins is linked to specific human diseases, but determines selectable and epigenetically transmissible phenotypes in microorganisms. Here we have explored the connection between handcuffing and amyloidogenesis of full-length RepA. Using a monoclonal antibody specific for an amyloidogenic conformation of RepA-WH1, we have found that the handcuffed RepA assemblies, either reconstructed in vitro or in plasmids clustering at the bacterial nucleoid, are amyloidogenic. The replication-inhibitory RepA handcuff assembly is, to our knowledge, the first protein amyloid directly dealing with DNA. Built on an amyloid scaffold, bacterial plasmid handcuffs can bring a novel molecular solution to the universal problem of keeping control on DNA replication initiation. PMID:27147472

  14. Structural basis for inhibition of DNA replication by aphidicolin

    DOE PAGES

    Baranovskiy, A. G.; Babayeva, N. D.; Suwa, Y.; ...

    2014-11-27

    Natural tetracyclic diterpenoid aphidicolin is a potent and specific inhibitor of B-family DNA polymerases, haltering replication and possessing a strong antimitotic activity in human cancer cell lines. Clinical trials revealed limitations of aphidicolin as an antitumor drug because of its low solubility and fast clearance from human plasma. The absence of structural information hampered the improvement of aphidicolin-like inhibitors: more than 50 modifications have been generated so far, but all have lost the inhibitory and antitumor properties. Here we report the crystal structure of the catalytic core of human DNA polymerase α (Pol α) in the ternary complex with anmore » RNA-primed DNA template and aphidicolin. The inhibitor blocks binding of dCTP by docking at the Pol α active site and by rotating the template guanine. The structure provides a plausible mechanism for the selectivity of aphidicolin incorporation opposite template guanine and explains why previous modifications of aphidicolin failed to improve its affinity for Pol α. With new structural information, aphidicolin becomes an attractive lead compound for the design of novel derivatives with enhanced inhibitory properties for B-family DNA polymerases.« less

  15. Structural basis for inhibition of DNA replication by aphidicolin

    SciTech Connect

    Baranovskiy, A. G.; Babayeva, N. D.; Suwa, Y.; Gu, J.; Pavlov, Y. I.; Tahirov, T. H.

    2014-11-27

    Natural tetracyclic diterpenoid aphidicolin is a potent and specific inhibitor of B-family DNA polymerases, haltering replication and possessing a strong antimitotic activity in human cancer cell lines. Clinical trials revealed limitations of aphidicolin as an antitumor drug because of its low solubility and fast clearance from human plasma. The absence of structural information hampered the improvement of aphidicolin-like inhibitors: more than 50 modifications have been generated so far, but all have lost the inhibitory and antitumor properties. Here we report the crystal structure of the catalytic core of human DNA polymerase α (Pol α) in the ternary complex with an RNA-primed DNA template and aphidicolin. The inhibitor blocks binding of dCTP by docking at the Pol α active site and by rotating the template guanine. The structure provides a plausible mechanism for the selectivity of aphidicolin incorporation opposite template guanine and explains why previous modifications of aphidicolin failed to improve its affinity for Pol α. With new structural information, aphidicolin becomes an attractive lead compound for the design of novel derivatives with enhanced inhibitory properties for B-family DNA polymerases.

  16. Two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Villwock, Sandra K; Aparicio, Oscar M

    2014-01-01

    The initiation, elongation, and termination of DNA replication are each associated with distinct, nonlinear DNA structures that can be resolved and identified by two-dimensional (2D) agarose gel electrophoresis. This method involves: isolation of genomic DNA while preserving fragile replication structures, digestion of the DNA with a restriction enzyme, separation of DNA by size and shape through two distinct stages of agarose gel electrophoresis, and Southern blotting to probe for the specific sequence(s) of interest. The method has been most commonly used to determine the activity level of putative replication origin-containing sequences, and has also been used to analyze replication timing, fork progression, fork pausing, fork stalling and collapse, termination, and recombinational repair.

  17. Artemis-dependent DNA double-strand break formation at stalled replication forks.

    PubMed

    Unno, Junya; Takagi, Masatoshi; Piao, Jinhua; Sugimoto, Masataka; Honda, Fumiko; Maeda, Daisuke; Masutani, Mitsuko; Kiyono, Tohru; Watanabe, Fumiaki; Morio, Tomohiro; Teraoka, Hirobumi; Mizutani, Shuki

    2013-06-01

    Stalled replication forks undergo DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) under certain conditions. However, the precise mechanism underlying DSB induction and the cellular response to persistent replication fork stalling are not fully understood. Here we show that, in response to hydroxyurea exposure, DSBs are generated in an Artemis nuclease-dependent manner following prolonged stalling with subsequent activation of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) signaling pathway. The kinase activity of the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase, a prerequisite for stimulation of the endonuclease activity of Artemis, is also required for DSB generation and subsequent ATM activation. Our findings indicate a novel function of Artemis as a molecular switch that converts stalled replication forks harboring single-stranded gap DNA lesions into DSBs, thereby activating the ATM signaling pathway following prolonged replication fork stalling. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  18. Diversification of DnaA dependency for DNA replication in cyanobacterial evolution.

    PubMed

    Ohbayashi, Ryudo; Watanabe, Satoru; Ehira, Shigeki; Kanesaki, Yu; Chibazakura, Taku; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi

    2016-05-01

    Regulating DNA replication is essential for all living cells. The DNA replication initiation factor DnaA is highly conserved in prokaryotes and is required for accurate initiation of chromosomal replication at oriC. DnaA-independent free-living bacteria have not been identified. The dnaA gene is absent in plastids and some symbiotic bacteria, although it is not known when or how DnaA-independent mechanisms were acquired. Here, we show that the degree of dependency of DNA replication on DnaA varies among cyanobacterial species. Deletion of the dnaA gene in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 shifted DNA replication from oriC to a different site as a result of the integration of an episomal plasmid. Moreover, viability during the stationary phase was higher in dnaA disruptants than in wild-type cells. Deletion of dnaA did not affect DNA replication or cell growth in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 or Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, indicating that functional dependency on DnaA was already lost in some nonsymbiotic cyanobacterial lineages during diversification. Therefore, we proposed that cyanobacteria acquired DnaA-independent replication mechanisms before symbiosis and such an ancestral cyanobacterium was the sole primary endosymbiont to form a plastid precursor.

  19. Universal Temporal Profile of Replication Origin Activation in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Goldar, Arach; Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Hyrien, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Although replication proteins are conserved among eukaryotes, the sequence requirements for replication initiation differ between species. In all species, however, replication origins fire asynchronously throughout S phase. The temporal program of origin firing is reproducible in cell populations but largely probabilistic at the single-cell level. The mechanisms and the significance of this program are unclear. Replication timing has been correlated with gene activity in metazoans but not in yeast. One potential role for a temporal regulation of origin firing is to minimize fluctuations in replication end time and avoid persistence of unreplicated DNA in mitosis. Here, we have extracted the population-averaged temporal profiles of replication initiation rates for S. cerevisiae, S. pombe, D. melanogaster, X. laevis and H. sapiens from genome-wide replication timing and DNA combing data. All the profiles have a strikingly similar shape, increasing during the first half of S phase then decreasing before its end. A previously proposed minimal model of stochastic initiation modulated by accumulation of a recyclable, limiting replication-fork factor and fork-promoted initiation of new origins, quantitatively described the observed profiles without requiring new implementations. The selective pressure for timely completion of genome replication and optimal usage of replication proteins that must be imported into the cell nucleus can explain the generic shape of the profiles. We have identified a universal behavior of eukaryotic replication initiation that transcends the mechanisms of origin specification. The population-averaged efficiency of replication origin usage changes during S phase in a strikingly similar manner in a highly diverse set of eukaryotes. The quantitative model previously proposed for origin activation in X. laevis can be generalized to explain this evolutionary conservation. PMID:19521533

  20. DNA replication fidelity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mediated by an ancestral prokaryotic proofreader.

    PubMed

    Rock, Jeremy M; Lang, Ulla F; Chase, Michael R; Ford, Christopher B; Gerrick, Elias R; Gawande, Richa; Coscolla, Mireia; Gagneux, Sebastien; Fortune, Sarah M; Lamers, Meindert H

    2015-06-01

    The DNA replication machinery is an important target for antibiotic development in increasingly drug-resistant bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although blocking DNA replication leads to cell death, disrupting the processes used to ensure replication fidelity can accelerate mutation and the evolution of drug resistance. In Escherichia coli, the proofreading subunit of the replisome, the ɛ exonuclease, is essential for high-fidelity DNA replication; however, we find that the corresponding subunit is completely dispensable in M. tuberculosis. Rather, the mycobacterial replicative polymerase DnaE1 itself encodes an editing function that proofreads DNA replication, mediated by an intrinsic 3'-5' exonuclease activity within its PHP domain. Inactivation of the DnaE1 PHP domain increases the mutation rate by more than 3,000-fold. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of DNA replication proofreading in the bacterial kingdom suggests that E. coli is a phylogenetic outlier and that PHP domain-mediated proofreading is widely conserved and indeed may be the ancestral prokaryotic proofreader.

  1. DNA replication fidelity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mediated by an ancestral prokaryotic proofreader

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Jeremy M.; Lang, Ulla F.; Chase, Michael R.; Ford, Christopher B.; Gerrick, Elias R.; Gawande, Richa; Coscolla, Mireia; Gagneux, Sebastien; Fortune, Sarah M.; Lamers, Meindert H.

    2015-01-01

    The DNA replication machinery is an important target for antibiotic development for increasingly drug resistant bacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis1. While blocking DNA replication leads to cell death, disrupting the processes used to ensure replication fidelity can accelerate mutation and the evolution of drug resistance. In E. coli, the proofreading subunit of the replisome, the ε-exonuclease, is essential for high fidelity DNA replication2; however, we find that it is completely dispensable in M. tuberculosis. Rather, the mycobacterial replicative polymerase, DnaE1, encodes a novel editing function that proofreads DNA replication, mediated by an intrinsic 3′-5′ exonuclease activity within its PHP domain. Inactivation of the DnaE1 PHP domain increases the mutation rate by greater than 3,000 fold. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of DNA replication proofreading in the bacterial kingdom suggests that E. coli is a phylogenetic outlier and that PHP-domain mediated proofreading is widely conserved and indeed may be the ancestral prokaryotic proofreader. PMID:25894501

  2. Aphidicolin inhibition of the production of replicative-form DNA during bovine parvovirus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, A T; Stout, E R; Bates, R C

    1984-01-01

    Since parvoviruses apparently do not possess a DNA polymerase activity, one or more of the host cell DNA polymerases must be responsible for replicating the single-stranded DNA genome. We have focused on determining which polymerase, alpha, beta, or gamma (pol alpha, pol beta, or pol gamma, respectively), is responsible for the first step in bovine parvoviral DNA replication: conversion of the single-stranded DNA genome to a parental replicative form (RF). In this study, we used aphidicolin, a specific inhibitor of DNA pol alpha, to assay for the requirement of pol alpha activity in parental RF formation in vivo. Synchronized cell cultures were infected with bovine parvovirus with or without aphidicolin, and the products of viral replication were separated on agarose gels and identified by Southern blot analysis. We found that complete inhibition of viral DNA synthesis resulted when 20 microM aphidicolin was present throughout the infection. In addition, viral DNA synthesis was inhibited by as little as 1 microM aphidicolin, whereas lower concentrations (0.1 and 0.01 microM) resulted in partial inhibition of the replication process. Using 32P-labeled bovine parvovirus as the input virus we differentiated parental RF from daughter RF and progeny DNA synthesis. We conclude that DNA pol alpha is required for the production of RF during bovine parvovirus replication in vivo and that this requirement is most likely for the conversion of bovine parvovirus input single-stranded DNA to parental RF. These results do not rule out a possible role for DNA pol gamma in the first step, nor do they rule out a role for pol alpha or pol gamma in later stages of the replication cycle. Images PMID:6422050

  3. Replication, checkpoint suppression and structure of centromeric DNA.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Francesco; Falbo, Lucia; Costanzo, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    Human centromeres contain large amounts of repetitive DNA sequences known as α satellite DNA, which can be difficult to replicate and whose functional role is unclear. Recently, we have characterized protein composition, structural organization and checkpoint response to stalled replication forks of centromeric chromatin reconstituted in Xenopus laevis egg extract. We showed that centromeric DNA has high affinity for SMC2-4 subunits of condensins and for CENP-A, it is enriched for DNA repair factors and suppresses the ATR checkpoint to ensure its efficient replication. We also showed that centromeric chromatin forms condensins enriched and topologically constrained DNA loops, which likely contribute to the overall structure of the centromere. These findings have important implications on how chromosomes are organized and genome stability is maintained in mammalian cells.

  4. Structural Insights into DNA Replication Without Hydrogen-Bonds

    PubMed Central

    Betz, Karin; Malyshev, Denis A.; Lavergne, Thomas; Welte, Wolfram; Diederichs, Kay; Romesberg, Floyd E.; Marx, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The genetic alphabet is comprised of two base pairs, and the development of a third, unnatural base pair would increase the genetic and chemical potential of DNA. d5SICS-dNaM is one of the most efficiently replicated unnatural base pairs identified to date, but its pairing is mediated by only hydrophobic and packing forces, and in free duplex DNA it forms a cross-strand intercalated structure that makes its efficient replication difficult to understand. Recent studies of the KlenTaq polymerase revealed that the insertion of d5SICSTP opposite dNaM proceeds via a mutually induced-fit mechanism, where the presence of the triphosphate induces the polymerase to form the catalytically competent closed structure, which in turn induces the pairing nucleotides of the developing unnatural base pair to adopt a planar Watson-Crick-like structure. To understand the remaining steps of replication, we now report the characterization of the pre-chemistry complexes corresponding to the insertion of dNaMTP opposite d5SICS, as well as multiple post-chemistry complexes in which the already formed unnatural base pair is positioned at the post-insertion site. Unlike with the insertion of d5SICSTP opposite dNaM, addition of dNaMTP does not fully induce the formation of the catalytically competent closed state. The data also reveal that once synthesized and translocated to the post-insertion position, the unnatural nucleobases again intercalate. Two modes of intercalation are observed, depending on the nature of the flanking nucleotides, and are each stabilized by different interactions with the polymerase, and each appear to reduce the affinity with which the next correct triphosphate binds. Thus, continued primer extension is limited by de-intercalation and rearrangements with the polymerase active site that are required to populate the catalytically active, triphosphate bound conformation. PMID:24283923

  5. Novel DNA damage checkpoint in mitosis: Mitotic DNA damage induces re-replication without cell division in various cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Sun-Yi; Rosen, Eliot M; Jang, Young-Joo

    2012-07-06

    DNA damage induces multiple checkpoint pathways to arrest cell cycle progression until damage is repaired. In our previous reports, when DNA damage occurred in prometaphase, cells were accumulated in 4 N-DNA G1 phase, and mitosis-specific kinases were inactivated in dependent on ATM/Chk1 after a short incubation for repair. We investigated whether or not mitotic DNA damage causes cells to skip-over late mitotic periods under prolonged incubation in a time-lapse study. 4 N-DNA-damaged cells re-replicated without cell division and accumulated in 8 N-DNA content, and the activities of apoptotic factors were increased. The inhibition of DNA replication reduced the 8 N-DNA cell population dramatically. Induction of replication without cell division was not observed upon depletion of Chk1 or ATM. Finally, mitotic DNA damage induces mitotic slippage and that cells enter G1 phase with 4 N-DNA content and then DNA replication is occurred to 8 N-DNA content before completion of mitosis in the ATM/Chk1-dependent manner, followed by caspase-dependent apoptosis during long-term repair.

  6. Mechanisms of mutagenesis: DNA replication in the presence of DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Binyan; Xue, Qizhen; Tang, Yong; Cao, Jia; Guengerich, F. Peter; Zhang, Huidong

    2017-01-01

    Environmental mutagens cause DNA damage that disturbs replication and produces mutations, leading to cancer and other diseases. We discuss mechanisms of mutagenesis resulting from DNA damage, from the level of DNA replication by a single polymerase to the complex DNA replisome of some typical model organisms (including bacteriophage T7, T4, Sulfolobus solfataricus, E. coli, yeast and human). For a single DNA polymerase, DNA damage can affect replication in three major ways: reducing replication fidelity, causing frameshift mutations, and blocking replication. For the DNA replisome, protein interactions and the functions of accessory proteins can yield rather different results even with a single DNA polymerase. The mechanism of mutation during replication performed by the DNA replisome is a long-standing question. Using new methods and techniques, the replisomes of certain organisms and human cell extracts can now be investigated with regard to the bypass of DNA damage. In this review, we consider the molecular mechanism of mutagenesis resulting from DNA damage in replication at the levels of single DNA polymerases and complex DNA replisomes, including translesion DNA synthesis. PMID:27234563

  7. Mechanisms of mutagenesis: DNA replication in the presence of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Binyan; Xue, Qizhen; Tang, Yong; Cao, Jia; Guengerich, F Peter; Zhang, Huidong

    2016-01-01

    Environmental mutagens cause DNA damage that disturbs replication and produces mutations, leading to cancer and other diseases. We discuss mechanisms of mutagenesis resulting from DNA damage, from the level of DNA replication by a single polymerase to the complex DNA replisome of some typical model organisms (including bacteriophage T7, T4, Sulfolobus solfataricus, Escherichia coli, yeast and human). For a single DNA polymerase, DNA damage can affect replication in three major ways: reducing replication fidelity, causing frameshift mutations, and blocking replication. For the DNA replisome, protein interactions and the functions of accessory proteins can yield rather different results even with a single DNA polymerase. The mechanism of mutation during replication performed by the DNA replisome is a long-standing question. Using new methods and techniques, the replisomes of certain organisms and human cell extracts can now be investigated with regard to the bypass of DNA damage. In this review, we consider the molecular mechanism of mutagenesis resulting from DNA damage in replication at the levels of single DNA polymerases and complex DNA replisomes, including translesion DNA synthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Impaired DNA replication within progenitor cell pools promotes leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bilousova, Ganna; Marusyk, Andriy; Porter, Christopher C; Cardiff, Robert D; DeGregori, James

    2005-12-01

    Impaired cell cycle progression can be paradoxically associated with increased rates of malignancies. Using retroviral transduction of bone marrow progenitors followed by transplantation into mice, we demonstrate that inhibition of hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation impairs competition, promoting the expansion of progenitors that acquire oncogenic mutations which restore cell cycle progression. Conditions that impair DNA replication dramatically enhance the proliferative advantage provided by the expression of Bcr-Abl or mutant p53, which provide no apparent competitive advantage under conditions of healthy replication. Furthermore, for the Bcr-Abl oncogene the competitive advantage in contexts of impaired DNA replication dramatically increases leukemogenesis. Impaired replication within hematopoietic progenitor cell pools can select for oncogenic events and thereby promote leukemia, demonstrating the importance of replicative competence in the prevention of tumorigenesis. The demonstration that replication-impaired, poorly competitive progenitor cell pools can promote tumorigenesis provides a new rationale for links between tumorigenesis and common human conditions of impaired DNA replication such as dietary folate deficiency, chemotherapeutics targeting dNTP synthesis, and polymorphisms in genes important for DNA metabolism.

  9. Transposition-mediated DNA re-replication in maize

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianbo; Zuo, Tao; Wang, Dafang; Peterson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Every DNA segment in a eukaryotic genome normally replicates once and only once per cell cycle to maintain genome stability. We show here that this restriction can be bypassed through alternative transposition, a transposition reaction that utilizes the termini of two separate, nearby transposable elements (TEs). Our results suggest that alternative transposition during S phase can induce re-replication of the TEs and their flanking sequences. The DNA re-replication can spontaneously abort to generate double-strand breaks, which can be repaired to generate Composite Insertions composed of transposon termini flanking segmental duplications of various lengths. These results show how alternative transposition coupled with DNA replication and repair can significantly alter genome structure and may have contributed to rapid genome evolution in maize and possibly other eukaryotes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03724.001 PMID:25406063

  10. Monitoring the spatiotemporal dynamics of proteins at replication forks and in assembled chromatin using isolation of proteins on nascent DNA.

    PubMed

    Sirbu, Bianca M; Couch, Frank B; Cortez, David

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the processes of DNA replication, chromatin assembly and maturation, and the replication stress response requires the ability to monitor protein dynamics at active and damaged replication forks. Detecting protein accumulation at replication forks or damaged sites has primarily relied on immunofluorescence imaging, which is limited in resolution and antibody sensitivity. Here we describe a procedure to isolate proteins on nascent DNA (iPOND) that permits a high-resolution spatiotemporal analysis of proteins at replication forks or on chromatin following DNA replication in cultured cells. iPOND relies on labeling of nascent DNA with the nucleoside analog 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). Biotin conjugation to EdU-labeled DNA using click chemistry facilitates a single-step streptavidin purification of proteins bound to the nascent DNA. iPOND permits an interrogation of any cellular process linked to DNA synthesis using a 3- to 4-d protocol.

  11. DNA replication, development and cancer: a homeotic connection?

    PubMed

    Falaschi, Arturo; Abdurashidova, Gulnara; Biamonti, Giuseppe

    2010-02-01

    The homeotic proteins are transcription factors, highly conserved in metazoan organisms, exerting a pivotal role in development and differentiation. They individually display a loose specificity for the DNA sequence they can bind, but operate mainly in multi-molecular associations that assure their target and function specificity. Homeotic proteins are known to play a role in the positive or negative regulation of cell proliferation. Furthermore, many homeotic proteins are actually proto-oncogenes, since different translocations involving their genes cause tumors, particularly in the hematopoietic system. A one-hybrid screen to detect proteins with affinity for the lamin B2 replication origin identified three homeotic proteins, namely HoxA13, HoxC10 and HoxC13. Recent data demonstrate that the HoxC13 oncoprotein specifically associates with replication foci and binds in vitro and in vivo to several human DNA replication origins. Moreover, Hox proteins interact with geminin, a regulator of cell cycle progression, and control the interaction of this protein with the DNA replication licensing factor Ctd1. Thus, the homeotic proteins, by participating directly in the function of DNA replication origins, may provide a direct link between the accurate regulation of DNA replication required by the morphogenetic program and the deregulation of this process typical of cancer.

  12. Mycobacterial DNA Replication as a Target for Antituberculosis Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Płocinska, Renata; Korycka-Machala, Malgorzata; Plocinski, Przemyslaw; Dziadek, Jaroslaw

    2017-06-16

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), the causative agent of tuberculosis, is a leading infectious disease organism, causing millions of deaths each year. This serious pathogen has been greatly spread worldwide and recent years have observed an increase in the number of multi-drug resistant and totally drug resistant M. tuberculosis strains (WHO report, 2014). The danger of tuberculosis becoming an incurable disease has emphasized the need for the discovery of a new generation of antimicrobial agents. The development of novel alternative medical strategies, new drugs and the search for optimal drug targets are top priority areas of tuberculosis research. Key characteristics of mycobacteria include: slow growth, the ability to transform into a metabolically silent - latent state, intrinsic drug resistance and the relatively rapid development of acquired drug resistance. These factors make finding an ideal antituberculosis drug enormously challenging, even if it is designed to treat drug sensitive tuberculosis strains. A vast majority of canonical antibiotics including antituberculosis agents target bacterial cell wall biosynthesis or DNA/RNA processing. Novel therapeutic approaches are being tested to target mycobacterial cell division, twocomponent regulatory factors, lipid synthesis and the transition between the latent and actively growing states. This review discusses the choice of cellular targets for an antituberculosis therapy, describes putative drug targets evaluated in the recent literature and summarizes potential candidates under clinical and pre-clinical development. We focus on the key cellular process of DNA replication, as a prominent target for future antituberculosis therapy. We describe two main pathways: the biosynthesis of nucleic acids precursors - the nucleotides, and the synthesis of DNA molecules. We summarize data regarding replication associated proteins that are critical for nucleotide synthesis, initiation, unwinding and

  13. Elg1 forms an alternative RFC complex important for DNA replication and genome integrity.

    PubMed

    Bellaoui, Mohammed; Chang, Michael; Ou, Jiongwen; Xu, Hong; Boone, Charles; Brown, Grant W

    2003-08-15

    Genome-wide synthetic genetic interaction screens with mutants in the mus81 and mms4 replication fork-processing genes identified a novel replication factor C (RFC) homolog, Elg1, which forms an alternative RFC complex with Rfc2-5. This complex is distinct from the DNA replication RFC, the DNA damage checkpoint RFC and the sister chromatid cohesion RFC. As expected from its genetic interactions, elg1 mutants are sensitive to DNA damage. Elg1 is redundant with Rad24 in the DNA damage response and contributes to activation of the checkpoint kinase Rad53. We find that elg1 mutants display DNA replication defects and genome instability, including increased recombination and mutation frequencies, and minichromosome maintenance defects. Mutants in elg1 show genetic interactions with pathways required for processing of stalled replication forks, and are defective in recovery from DNA damage during S phase. We propose that Elg1-RFC functions both in normal DNA replication and in the DNA damage response.

  14. DNA2 drives processing and restart of reversed replication forks in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Thangavel, Saravanabhavan; Berti, Matteo; Levikova, Maryna; Pinto, Cosimo; Gomathinayagam, Shivasankari; Vujanovic, Marko; Zellweger, Ralph; Moore, Hayley; Lee, Eu Han; Hendrickson, Eric A.; Cejka, Petr; Stewart, Sheila; Lopes, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Accurate processing of stalled or damaged DNA replication forks is paramount to genomic integrity and recent work points to replication fork reversal and restart as a central mechanism to ensuring high-fidelity DNA replication. Here, we identify a novel DNA2- and WRN-dependent mechanism of reversed replication fork processing and restart after prolonged genotoxic stress. The human DNA2 nuclease and WRN ATPase activities functionally interact to degrade reversed replication forks with a 5′-to-3′ polarity and promote replication restart, thus preventing aberrant processing of unresolved replication intermediates. Unexpectedly, EXO1, MRE11, and CtIP are not involved in the same mechanism of reversed fork processing, whereas human RECQ1 limits DNA2 activity by preventing extensive nascent strand degradation. RAD51 depletion antagonizes this mechanism, presumably by preventing reversed fork formation. These studies define a new mechanism for maintaining genome integrity tightly controlled by specific nucleolytic activities and central homologous recombination factors. PMID:25733713

  15. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dna2 can function as a sole nuclease in the processing of Okazaki fragments in DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Levikova, Maryna; Cejka, Petr

    2015-09-18

    During DNA replication, synthesis of the lagging strand occurs in stretches termed Okazaki fragments. Before adjacent fragments are ligated, any flaps resulting from the displacement of the 5' DNA end of the Okazaki fragment must be cleaved. Previously, Dna2 was implicated to function upstream of flap endonuclease 1 (Fen1 or Rad27) in the processing of long flaps bound by the replication protein A (RPA). Here we show that Dna2 efficiently cleaves long DNA flaps exactly at or directly adjacent to the base. A fraction of the flaps cleaved by Dna2 can be immediately ligated. When coupled with DNA replication, the flap processing activity of Dna2 leads to a nearly complete Okazaki fragment maturation at sub-nanomolar Dna2 concentrations. Our results indicate that a subsequent nucleolytic activity of Fen1 is not required in most cases. In contrast Dna2 is completely incapable to cleave short flaps. We show that also Dna2, like Fen1, interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). We propose a model where Dna2 alone is responsible for cleaving of RPA-bound long flaps, while Fen1 or exonuclease 1 (Exo1) cleave short flaps. Our results argue that Dna2 can function in a separate, rather than in a Fen1-dependent pathway.

  16. FANCM interacts with PCNA to promote replication traverse of DNA interstrand crosslinks

    PubMed Central

    Rohleder, Florian; Huang, Jing; Xue, Yutong; Kuper, Jochen; Round, Adam; Seidman, Michael; Wang, Weidong; Kisker, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    FANCM is a highly conserved DNA remodeling enzyme that promotes the activation of the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway and facilitates replication traverse of DNA interstrand crosslinks. However, how FANCM interacts with the replication machinery to promote traverse remains unclear. Here, we show that FANCM and its archaeal homolog Hef from Thermoplasma acidophilum interact with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), an essential co-factor for DNA polymerases in both replication and repair. The interaction is mediated through a conserved PIP-box; and in human FANCM, it is strongly stimulated by replication stress. A FANCM variant carrying a mutation in the PIP-box is defective in promoting replication traverse of interstrand crosslinks and is also inefficient in promoting FANCD2 monoubiquitination, a key step of the Fanconi anemia pathway. Our data reveal a conserved interaction mode between FANCM and PCNA during replication stress, and suggest that this interaction is essential for FANCM to aid replication machines to traverse DNA interstrand crosslinks prior to post-replication repair. PMID:26825464

  17. Crystal structure of the homology domain of the eukaryotic DNA replication proteins Sld3/Treslin.

    PubMed

    Itou, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Sachiko; Shirakihara, Yasuo; Araki, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-02

    The initiation of eukaryotic chromosomal DNA replication requires the formation of an active replicative helicase at the replication origins of chromosomal DNA. Yeast Sld3 and its metazoan counterpart Treslin are the hub proteins mediating protein associations critical for the helicase formation. Here, we show the crystal structure of the central domain of Sld3 that is conserved in Sld3/Treslin family of proteins. The domain consists of two segments with 12 helices and is sufficient to bind to Cdc45, the essential helicase component. The structure model of the Sld3-Cdc45 complex, which is crucial for the formation of the active helicase, is proposed.

  18. Porcine circovirus: transcription and rolling-circle DNA replication

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This review summarizes the molecular studies pertaining to porcine circovirus (PCV) transcription and DNA replication. The genome of PCV is circular, single-stranded DNA and contains 1759-1768 nucleotides. Both the genome-strand (packaged in the virus particle) and the complementary-strand (synthesi...

  19. A Paper Model of DNA Structure and Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigismondi, Linda A.

    1989-01-01

    A paper model which is designed to give students a hands-on experience during lecture and blackboard instruction on DNA structure is provided. A list of materials, paper patterns, and procedures for using the models to teach DNA structure and replication are given. (CW)

  20. Evidence for Sequential and Increasing Activation of Replication Origins along Replication Timing Gradients in the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    Guilbaud, Guillaume; Rappailles, Aurélien; Baker, Antoine; Chen, Chun-Long; Arneodo, Alain; Goldar, Arach; d'Aubenton-Carafa, Yves; Thermes, Claude; Audit, Benjamin; Hyrien, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide replication timing studies have suggested that mammalian chromosomes consist of megabase-scale domains of coordinated origin firing separated by large originless transition regions. Here, we report a quantitative genome-wide analysis of DNA replication kinetics in several human cell types that contradicts this view. DNA combing in HeLa cells sorted into four temporal compartments of S phase shows that replication origins are spaced at 40 kb intervals and fire as small clusters whose synchrony increases during S phase and that replication fork velocity (mean 0.7 kb/min, maximum 2.0 kb/min) remains constant and narrowly distributed through S phase. However, multi-scale analysis of a genome-wide replication timing profile shows a broad distribution of replication timing gradients with practically no regions larger than 100 kb replicating at less than 2 kb/min. Therefore, HeLa cells lack large regions of unidirectional fork progression. Temporal transition regions are replicated by sequential activation of origins at a rate that increases during S phase and replication timing gradients are set by the delay and the spacing between successive origin firings rather than by the velocity of single forks. Activation of internal origins in a specific temporal transition region is directly demonstrated by DNA combing of the IGH locus in HeLa cells. Analysis of published origin maps in HeLa cells and published replication timing and DNA combing data in several other cell types corroborate these findings, with the interesting exception of embryonic stem cells where regions of unidirectional fork progression seem more abundant. These results can be explained if origins fire independently of each other but under the control of long-range chromatin structure, or if replication forks progressing from early origins stimulate initiation in nearby unreplicated DNA. These findings shed a new light on the replication timing program of mammalian genomes and provide a general

  1. How and Why Multiple MCMs are Loaded at Origins of DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Das, Shankar P.; Rhind, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Recent work suggests that DNA replication origins are regulated by the number of multiple Mini-Chromosome Maintenance (MCM) complexes loaded. Origins are defined by the loading of MCM - the replicative helicase which initiates DNA replication and replication kinetics determined by origin’s location and firing times. However, activation of MCM is heterogeneous; different origins firing at different times in different cells. Also, more MCMs are loaded in G1 than are used in S phase. These aspects of MCM biology are explained by the observation that multiple MCMs are loaded at origins. Having more MCMs at early origins makes them more likely to fire, effecting differences in origin efficiency that define replication timing. Nonetheless, multiple MCM loading raises new questions, such as how they are loaded, where these MCMs reside at origins and how their presence affects replication timing. In this review, we address these questions and discuss future avenues of research. PMID:27174869

  2. Identification and analysis of a lytic-phase origin of DNA replication in human herpesvirus 7.

    PubMed Central

    van Loon, N; Dykes, C; Deng, H; Dominguez, G; Nicholas, J; Dewhurst, S

    1997-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) DNA sequences colinear with the HHV-6 lytic-phase origin of DNA replication (oriLyt) were amplified by PCR. Plasmid constructs containing these sequences were replicated in HHV-7-infected cord blood mononuclear cells but not in HHV-6-infected cells. In contrast, plasmids bearing HHV-6 oriLyt were replicated in both HHV-6- and HHV-7-infected cells. Finally, the minimal HHV-7 DNA element necessary for replicator activity was mapped to a 600-bp region which contains two sites with high homology to the consensus binding site for the HHV-6 origin binding protein. At least one of these binding sites was shown to be essential for replicator function of HHV-7 oriLyt. PMID:9060695

  3. Dynamics of plant DNA replication based on PCNA visualization.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Ryohei; Hirakawa, Takeshi; Hayashi, Seri; Sakamoto, Takuya; Matsunaga, Sachihiro

    2016-07-15

    DNA replication is an essential process for the copying of genomic information in living organisms. Imaging of DNA replication in tissues and organs is mainly performed using fixed cells after incorporation of thymidine analogs. To establish a useful marker line to measure the duration of DNA replication and analyze the dynamics of DNA replication, we focused on the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which functions as a DNA sliding clamp for replicative DNA polymerases and is an essential component of replisomes. In this study we produced an Arabidopsis thaliana line expressing PCNA1 fused with the green fluorescent protein under the control of its own promoter (pAtPCNA1::AtPCNA1-EGFP). The duration of the S phase measured using the expression line was consistent with that measured after incorporation of a thymidine analog. Live cell imaging revealed that three distinct nuclear localization patterns (whole, dotted, and speckled) were sequentially observable. These whole, dotted, and speckled patterns of subnuclear AtPCNA1 signals were indicative of the G1 or G2 phase, early S phase and late S phase, respectively. The results indicate that the pAtPCNA1::AtPCNA1-EGFP line is a useful marker line for visualization of S-phase progression in live plant organs.

  4. How is epigenetic information maintained through DNA replication?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    DNA replication is a highly conserved process that accurately copies the genetic information from one generation to the next. The processes of chromatin disassembly and reassembly during DNA replication also have to be precisely regulated to ensure that the genetic material is compactly packaged to fit into the nucleus while also maintaining the epigenetic information that is carried by the histone proteins bound to the DNA, through cell divisions. Half of the histones that are deposited during replication are from the parental chromatin and carry the parental epigenetic information, while the other half of the histones are newly-synthesized. It has been of growing interest to understand how the parental pattern of epigenetic marks is re-established on the newly-synthesized histones, in a DNA sequence-specific manner, in order to maintain the epigenetic information through cell divisions. In this review we will discuss how histone chaperone proteins precisely coordinate the chromatin assembly process during DNA replication. We also discuss the recent evidence that histone-modifying enzymes, rather than the parental histones, are themselves epigenetic factors that remain associated with the DNA through replication to re-establish the epigenetic information on the newly-assembled chromatin. PMID:24225278

  5. Chloroplast DNA Replication Is Regulated by the Redox State Independently of Chloroplast Division in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kabeya, Yukihiro; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2013-01-01

    Chloroplasts arose from a cyanobacterial endosymbiont and multiply by division. In algal cells, chloroplast division is regulated by the cell cycle so as to occur only once, in the S phase. Chloroplasts possess multiple copies of their own genome that must be replicated during chloroplast proliferation. In order to examine how chloroplast DNA replication is regulated in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we first asked whether it is regulated by the cell cycle, as is the case for chloroplast division. Chloroplast DNA is replicated in the light and not the dark phase, independent of the cell cycle or the timing of chloroplast division in photoautotrophic culture. Inhibition of photosynthetic electron transfer blocked chloroplast DNA replication. However, chloroplast DNA was replicated when the cells were grown heterotrophically in the dark, raising the possibility that chloroplast DNA replication is coupled with the reducing power supplied by photosynthesis or the uptake of acetate. When dimethylthiourea, a reactive oxygen species scavenger, was added to the photoautotrophic culture, chloroplast DNA was replicated even in the dark. In contrast, when methylviologen, a reactive oxygen species inducer, was added, chloroplast DNA was not replicated in the light. Moreover, the chloroplast DNA replication activity in both the isolated chloroplasts and nucleoids was increased by dithiothreitol, while it was repressed by diamide, a specific thiol-oxidizing reagent. These results suggest that chloroplast DNA replication is regulated by the redox state that is sensed by the nucleoids and that the disulfide bonds in nucleoid-associated proteins are involved in this regulatory activity. PMID:23447524

  6. Regulated transport into the nucleus of herpesviridae DNA replication core proteins.

    PubMed

    Gualtiero, Alvisi; Jans, David A; Camozzi, Daria; Avanzi, Simone; Loregian, Arianna; Ripalti, Alessandro; Palù, Giorgio

    2013-09-16

    The Herpesvirdae family comprises several major human pathogens belonging to three distinct subfamilies. Their double stranded DNA genome is replicated in the nuclei of infected cells by a number of host and viral products. Among the latter the viral replication complex, whose activity is strictly required for viral replication, is composed of six different polypeptides, including a two-subunit DNA polymerase holoenzyme, a trimeric primase/helicase complex and a single stranded DNA binding protein. The study of herpesviral DNA replication machinery is extremely important, both because it provides an excellent model to understand processes related to eukaryotic DNA replication and it has important implications for the development of highly needed antiviral agents. Even though all known herpesviruses utilize very similar mechanisms for amplification of their genomes, the nuclear import of the replication complex components appears to be a heterogeneous and highly regulated process to ensure the correct spatiotemporal localization of each protein. The nuclear transport process of these enzymes is controlled by three mechanisms, typifying the main processes through which protein nuclear import is generally regulated in eukaryotic cells. These include cargo post-translational modification-based recognition by the intracellular transporters, piggy-back events allowing coordinated nuclear import of multimeric holoenzymes, and chaperone-assisted nuclear import of specific subunits. In this review we summarize these mechanisms and discuss potential implications for the development of antiviral compounds aimed at inhibiting the Herpesvirus life cycle by targeting nuclear import of the Herpesvirus DNA replicating enzymes.

  7. G-quadruplex-interacting compounds alter latent DNA replication and episomal persistence of KSHV

    PubMed Central

    Madireddy, Advaitha; Purushothaman, Pravinkumar; Loosbroock, Christopher P.; Robertson, Erle S.; Schildkraut, Carl L.; Verma, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) establishes life-long latent infection by persisting as an extra-chromosomal episome in the infected cells and by maintaining its genome in dividing cells. KSHV achieves this by tethering its epigenome to the host chromosome by latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA), which binds in the terminal repeat (TR) region of the viral genome. Sequence analysis of the TR, a GC-rich DNA element, identified several potential Quadruplex G-Rich Sequences (QGRS). Since quadruplexes have the tendency to obstruct DNA replication, we used G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds to examine their effect on latent DNA replication and the persistence of viral episomes. Our results showed that these G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds led to the activation of dormant origins of DNA replication, with preferential bi-directional pausing of replications forks moving out of the TR region, implicating the role of the G-rich TR in the perturbation of episomal DNA replication. Over time, treatment with PhenDC3 showed a loss of viral episomes in the infected cells. Overall, these data show that G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds retard the progression of replication forks leading to a reduction in DNA replication and episomal maintenance. These results suggest a potential role for G-quadruplex stabilizers in the treatment of KSHV-associated diseases. PMID:26837574

  8. T-antigen-DNA polymerase alpha complex implicated in simian virus 40 DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Smale, S T; Tjian, R

    1986-01-01

    We have combined in vitro DNA replication reactions and immunological techniques to analyze biochemical interactions between simian virus (SV40) large T antigen and components of the cellular replication apparatus. First, in vitro SV40 DNA replication was characterized with specific origin mutants. Next, monoclonal antibodies were used to demonstrate that a specific domain of T antigen formed a complex with cellular DNA polymerase alpha. Several antibodies were identified that coprecipitated T antigen and DNA polymerase alpha, while others were found to selectively prevent this interaction and concomitantly inhibit DNA replication. DNA polymerase alpha also bound efficiently to a T-antigen affinity column, confirming the immunoprecipitation results and providing a useful method for purification of the complete protein complex. Taken together, these results suggest that the T-antigen-polymerase association may be a key step in the initiation of SV40 DNA replication. Images PMID:3025630

  9. Sequential steps in DNA replication are inhibited to ensure reduction of ploidy in meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Hui; Namdar, Mandana; Ganier, Olivier; Gregan, Juraj; Méchali, Marcel; Kearsey, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    Meiosis involves two successive rounds of chromosome segregation without an intervening S phase. Exit from meiosis I is distinct from mitotic exit, in that replication origins are not licensed by Mcm2-7 chromatin binding, but spindle disassembly occurs during a transient interphase-like state before meiosis II. The absence of licensing is assumed to explain the block to DNA replication, but this has not been formally tested. Here we attempt to subvert this block by expressing the licensing control factors Cdc18 and Cdt1 during the interval between meiotic nuclear divisions. Surprisingly, this leads only to a partial round of DNA replication, even when these factors are overexpressed and effect clear Mcm2-7 chromatin binding. Combining Cdc18 and Cdt1 expression with modulation of cyclin-dependent kinase activity, activation of Dbf4-dependent kinase, or deletion of the Spd1 inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase has little additional effect on the extent of DNA replication. Single-molecule analysis indicates this partial round of replication results from inefficient progression of replication forks, and thus both initiation and elongation replication steps may be inhibited in late meiosis. In addition, DNA replication or damage during the meiosis I–II interval fails to arrest meiotic progress, suggesting absence of checkpoint regulation of meiosis II entry. PMID:23303250

  10. Sequential steps in DNA replication are inhibited to ensure reduction of ploidy in meiosis.

    PubMed

    Hua, Hui; Namdar, Mandana; Ganier, Olivier; Gregan, Juraj; Méchali, Marcel; Kearsey, Stephen E

    2013-03-01

    Meiosis involves two successive rounds of chromosome segregation without an intervening S phase. Exit from meiosis I is distinct from mitotic exit, in that replication origins are not licensed by Mcm2-7 chromatin binding, but spindle disassembly occurs during a transient interphase-like state before meiosis II. The absence of licensing is assumed to explain the block to DNA replication, but this has not been formally tested. Here we attempt to subvert this block by expressing the licensing control factors Cdc18 and Cdt1 during the interval between meiotic nuclear divisions. Surprisingly, this leads only to a partial round of DNA replication, even when these factors are overexpressed and effect clear Mcm2-7 chromatin binding. Combining Cdc18 and Cdt1 expression with modulation of cyclin-dependent kinase activity, activation of Dbf4-dependent kinase, or deletion of the Spd1 inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase has little additional effect on the extent of DNA replication. Single-molecule analysis indicates this partial round of replication results from inefficient progression of replication forks, and thus both initiation and elongation replication steps may be inhibited in late meiosis. In addition, DNA replication or damage during the meiosis I-II interval fails to arrest meiotic progress, suggesting absence of checkpoint regulation of meiosis II entry.

  11. Regulation of DNA Replication in Early Embryonic Cleavages

    PubMed Central

    Kermi, Chames; Lo Furno, Elena; Maiorano, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Early embryonic cleavages are characterized by short and highly synchronous cell cycles made of alternating S- and M-phases with virtually absent gap phases. In this contracted cell cycle, the duration of DNA synthesis can be extraordinarily short. Depending on the organism, the whole genome of an embryo is replicated at a speed that is between 20 to 60 times faster than that of a somatic cell. Because transcription in the early embryo is repressed, DNA synthesis relies on a large stockpile of maternally supplied proteins stored in the egg representing most, if not all, cellular genes. In addition, in early embryonic cell cycles, both replication and DNA damage checkpoints are inefficient. In this article, we will review current knowledge on how DNA synthesis is regulated in early embryos and discuss possible consequences of replicating chromosomes with little or no quality control. PMID:28106858

  12. Replication slippage involves DNA polymerase pausing and dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Viguera, Enrique; Canceill, Danielle; Ehrlich, S.Dusko

    2001-01-01

    Genome rearrangements can take place by a process known as replication slippage or copy-choice recombination. The slippage occurs between repeated sequences in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and is invoked to explain microsatellite instability, which is related to several human diseases. We analysed the molecular mechanism of slippage between short direct repeats, using in vitro replication of a single-stranded DNA template that mimics the lagging strand synthesis. We show that slippage involves DNA polymerase pausing, which must take place within the direct repeat, and that the pausing polymerase dissociates from the DNA. We also present evidence that, upon polymerase dissociation, only the terminal portion of the newly synthesized strand separates from the template and anneals to another direct repeat. Resumption of DNA replication then completes the slippage process. PMID:11350948

  13. Spatiotemporal coupling and decoupling of gene transcription with DNA replication origins during embryogenesis in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Pourkarimi, Ehsan; Bellush, James M; Whitehouse, Iestyn

    2016-01-01

    The primary task of developing embryos is genome replication, yet how DNA replication is integrated with the profound cellular changes that occur through development is largely unknown. Using an approach to map DNA replication at high resolution in C. elegans, we show that replication origins are marked with specific histone modifications that define gene enhancers. We demonstrate that the level of enhancer associated modifications scale with the efficiency at which the origin is utilized. By mapping replication origins at different developmental stages, we show that the positions and activity of origins is largely invariant through embryogenesis. Contrary to expectation, we find that replication origins are specified prior to the broad onset of zygotic transcription, yet when transcription initiates it does so in close proximity to the pre-defined replication origins. Transcription and DNA replication origins are correlated, but the association breaks down when embryonic cell division ceases. Collectively, our data indicate that replication origins are fundamental organizers and regulators of gene activity through embryonic development. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21728.001 PMID:28009254

  14. The mechanism of DNA replication termination in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Dewar, James M.; Budzowska, Magda; Walter, Johannes C.

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA replication terminates when replisomes from adjacent replication origins converge. Termination involves local completion of DNA synthesis, decatenation of daughter molecules, and replisome disassembly. Termination has been difficult to study because termination events are generally asynchronous and sequence non-specific. To overcome these challenges, we paused converging replisomes with a site-specific barrier in Xenopus egg extracts. Upon removal of the barrier, forks underwent synchronous and site-specific termination, allowing mechanistic dissection of this process. We show that DNA synthesis does not slow detectably as forks approach each other and that leading strands pass each other unhindered before undergoing ligation to downstream lagging strands. Dissociation of CMG helicases occurs only after the final ligation step, and is not required for completion of DNA synthesis, strongly suggesting that converging CMGs pass one another and dissociate from double-stranded DNA. This termination mechanism allows rapid completion of DNA synthesis while avoiding premature replisome disassembly PMID:26322582

  15. Control of DNA replication by anomalous reaction-diffusion kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Michel; Bechhoefer, John

    2009-05-01

    DNA replication requires two distinct processes: the initiation of pre-licensed replication origins and the propagation of replication forks away from the fired origins. Experiments indicate that these origins are triggered over the whole genome at a rate I(t) (the number of initiations per unreplicated length per time) that increases throughout most of the synthesis (S) phase, before rapidly decreasing to zero at the end of the replication process. We propose a simple model for the control of DNA replication in which the rate of initiation of replication origins is controlled by the interaction with a population of rate-limiting proteins. We find the time set by reaction-diffusion kinetics for such proteins to find, bind to, and trigger a potential origin. Analyzing data from Xenopus frog embryos, we find that the initiation rate is reaction limited until nearly the end of replication, when it becomes diffusion limited. Initiation of origins and hence I(t) is suppressed when the diffusion-limited search time dominates. We find that, in order to fit the experimental data, the interaction between DNA and the rate-limiting protein must be subdiffusive.

  16. DNA replication and transcription programs respond to the same chromatin cues

    PubMed Central

    Lubelsky, Yoav; Prinz, Joseph A.; DeNapoli, Leyna; Li, Yulong; Belsky, Jason A.; MacAlpine, David M.

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication is a dynamic process that occurs in a temporal order along each of the chromosomes. A consequence of the temporally coordinated activation of replication origins is the establishment of broad domains (>100 kb) that replicate either early or late in S phase. This partitioning of the genome into early and late replication domains is important for maintaining genome stability, gene dosage, and epigenetic inheritance; however, the molecular mechanisms that define and establish these domains are poorly understood. The modENCODE Project provided an opportunity to investigate the chromatin features that define the Drosophila replication timing program in multiple cell lines. The majority of early and late replicating domains in the Drosophila genome were static across all cell lines; however, a small subset of domains was dynamic and exhibited differences in replication timing between the cell lines. Both origin selection and activation contribute to defining the DNA replication program. Our results suggest that static early and late replicating domains were defined at the level of origin selection (ORC binding) and likely mediated by chromatin accessibility. In contrast, dynamic domains exhibited low ORC densities in both cell types, suggesting that origin activation and not origin selection governs the plasticity of the DNA replication program. Finally, we show that the male-specific early replication of the X chromosome is dependent on the dosage compensation complex (DCC), suggesting that the transcription and replication programs respond to the same chromatin cues. Specifically, MOF-mediated hyperacetylation of H4K16 on the X chromosome promotes both the up-regulation of male-specific transcription and origin activation. PMID:24985913

  17. DNA replication and transcription programs respond to the same chromatin cues.

    PubMed

    Lubelsky, Yoav; Prinz, Joseph A; DeNapoli, Leyna; Li, Yulong; Belsky, Jason A; MacAlpine, David M

    2014-07-01

    DNA replication is a dynamic process that occurs in a temporal order along each of the chromosomes. A consequence of the temporally coordinated activation of replication origins is the establishment of broad domains (>100 kb) that replicate either early or late in S phase. This partitioning of the genome into early and late replication domains is important for maintaining genome stability, gene dosage, and epigenetic inheritance; however, the molecular mechanisms that define and establish these domains are poorly understood. The modENCODE Project provided an opportunity to investigate the chromatin features that define the Drosophila replication timing program in multiple cell lines. The majority of early and late replicating domains in the Drosophila genome were static across all cell lines; however, a small subset of domains was dynamic and exhibited differences in replication timing between the cell lines. Both origin selection and activation contribute to defining the DNA replication program. Our results suggest that static early and late replicating domains were defined at the level of origin selection (ORC binding) and likely mediated by chromatin accessibility. In contrast, dynamic domains exhibited low ORC densities in both cell types, suggesting that origin activation and not origin selection governs the plasticity of the DNA replication program. Finally, we show that the male-specific early replication of the X chromosome is dependent on the dosage compensation complex (DCC), suggesting that the transcription and replication programs respond to the same chromatin cues. Specifically, MOF-mediated hyperacetylation of H4K16 on the X chromosome promotes both the up-regulation of male-specific transcription and origin activation.

  18. Budding Yeast Rif1 Controls Genome Integrity by Inhibiting rDNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Shyian, Maksym; Mattarocci, Stefano; Albert, Benjamin; Hafner, Lukas; Lezaja, Aleksandra; Costanzo, Michael; Boone, Charlie; Shore, David

    2016-11-01

    The Rif1 protein is a negative regulator of DNA replication initiation in eukaryotes. Here we show that budding yeast Rif1 inhibits DNA replication initiation at the rDNA locus. Absence of Rif1, or disruption of its interaction with PP1/Glc7 phosphatase, leads to more intensive rDNA replication. The effect of Rif1-Glc7 on rDNA replication is similar to that of the Sir2 deacetylase, and the two would appear to act in the same pathway, since the rif1Δ sir2Δ double mutant shows no further increase in rDNA replication. Loss of Rif1-Glc7 activity is also accompanied by an increase in rDNA repeat instability that again is not additive with the effect of sir2Δ. We find, in addition, that the viability of rif1Δ cells is severely compromised in combination with disruption of the MRX or Ctf4-Mms22 complexes, both of which are implicated in stabilization of stalled replication forks. Significantly, we show that removal of the rDNA replication fork barrier (RFB) protein Fob1, alleviation of replisome pausing by deletion of the Tof1/Csm3 complex, or a large deletion of the rDNA repeat array all rescue this synthetic growth defect of rif1Δ cells lacking in addition either MRX or Ctf4-Mms22 activity. These data suggest that the repression of origin activation by Rif1-Glc7 is important to avoid the deleterious accumulation of stalled replication forks at the rDNA RFB, which become lethal when fork stability is compromised. Finally, we show that Rif1-Glc7, unlike Sir2, has an important effect on origin firing outside of the rDNA locus that serves to prevent activation of the DNA replication checkpoint. Our results thus provide insights into a mechanism of replication control within a large repetitive chromosomal domain and its importance for the maintenance of genome stability. These findings may have important implications for metazoans, where large blocks of repetitive sequences are much more common.

  19. Budding Yeast Rif1 Controls Genome Integrity by Inhibiting rDNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Benjamin; Hafner, Lukas; Lezaja, Aleksandra; Costanzo, Michael; Boone, Charlie; Shore, David

    2016-01-01

    The Rif1 protein is a negative regulator of DNA replication initiation in eukaryotes. Here we show that budding yeast Rif1 inhibits DNA replication initiation at the rDNA locus. Absence of Rif1, or disruption of its interaction with PP1/Glc7 phosphatase, leads to more intensive rDNA replication. The effect of Rif1-Glc7 on rDNA replication is similar to that of the Sir2 deacetylase, and the two would appear to act in the same pathway, since the rif1Δ sir2Δ double mutant shows no further increase in rDNA replication. Loss of Rif1-Glc7 activity is also accompanied by an increase in rDNA repeat instability that again is not additive with the effect of sir2Δ. We find, in addition, that the viability of rif1Δ cells is severely compromised in combination with disruption of the MRX or Ctf4-Mms22 complexes, both of which are implicated in stabilization of stalled replication forks. Significantly, we show that removal of the rDNA replication fork barrier (RFB) protein Fob1, alleviation of replisome pausing by deletion of the Tof1/Csm3 complex, or a large deletion of the rDNA repeat array all rescue this synthetic growth defect of rif1Δ cells lacking in addition either MRX or Ctf4-Mms22 activity. These data suggest that the repression of origin activation by Rif1-Glc7 is important to avoid the deleterious accumulation of stalled replication forks at the rDNA RFB, which become lethal when fork stability is compromised. Finally, we show that Rif1-Glc7, unlike Sir2, has an important effect on origin firing outside of the rDNA locus that serves to prevent activation of the DNA replication checkpoint. Our results thus provide insights into a mechanism of replication control within a large repetitive chromosomal domain and its importance for the maintenance of genome stability. These findings may have important implications for metazoans, where large blocks of repetitive sequences are much more common. PMID:27820830

  20. ORC function in late G1: maintaining the license for DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Da-Silva, Lance F; Duncker, Bernard P

    2007-01-15

    The origin recognition complex (ORC) is essential as a scaffold for the assembly of prereplicative complexes (pre-RCs) in G(1) phase of the cell cycle. Some models have proposed that once origins have been licensed for DNA replication, ORC is dispensable for MCM protein association, and ensuing DNA replication. Although budding yeast Orc6 is not needed for origin recognition or binding in vitro, we have recently shown that this ORC subunit is required in late G(1) phase for maintenance of MCMs, and subsequent DNA replication. Further investigation shows that depletion of Orc6 results in displacement of MCM proteins from both early- and late-firing origins, and eventually results in the activation of the Rad53 checkpoint kinase, consistent with incomplete DNA replication. Loss of MCM association at origins may be mediated by the displacement of Mcm10 and/or Orc2 as a consequence of late G(1) Orc6 depletion.

  1. Replication factor A is required in vivo for DNA replication, repair, and recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Longhese, M P; Plevani, P; Lucchini, G

    1994-01-01

    Replication factor A (RF-A) is a heterotrimeric single-stranded-DNA-binding protein which is conserved in all eukaryotes. Since the availability of conditional mutants is an essential step to define functions and interactions of RF-A in vivo, we have produced and characterized mutations in the RFA1 gene, encoding the p70 subunit of the complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This analysis provides the first in vivo evidence that RF-A function is critical not only for DNA replication but also for efficient DNA repair and recombination. Moreover, genetic evidence indicate that p70 interacts both with the DNA polymerase alpha-primase complex and with DNA polymerase delta. Images PMID:7969128

  2. Microfluidic-assisted analysis of replicating DNA molecules

    PubMed Central

    Sidorova, Julia M.; Li, Nianzhen; Schwartz, David C.; Folch, Albert; Monnat, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Single molecule-based protocols have been gaining popularity as a way to visualize DNA replication at the global genomic and locus-specific levels. These protocols take advantage of the ability of many organisms to incorporate nucleoside analogs during DNA replication, together with a method for displaying stretched DNA on glass for immunostaining and microscopy. We describe here a microfluidic platform that can be used to stretch and capture labeled DNA molecules for replication analyses. This platform consists of parallel arrays of 3-sided, 3 or 4 μm high, variable width capillary channels fabricated from polymethyl siloxane (PDMS) by conventional soft lithography, and silane-modified glass coverslips to reversibly seal the open side of the channels. Capillary tension in these microchannels facilitates DNA loading, stretching and glass coverslip deposition from μL-scale DNA samples. The simplicity and extensibility of this platform should facilitate DNA replication analyses using small samples from a variety of biological and clinical sources. PMID:19444242

  3. The human cruciform-binding protein, CBP, is involved in DNA replication and associates in vivo with mammalian replication origins.

    PubMed

    Novac, Olivia; Alvarez, David; Pearson, Christopher E; Price, Gerald B; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, Maria

    2002-03-29

    We previously identified and purified from human (HeLa) cells a 66-kDa cruciform-binding protein, CBP, with binding specificity for cruciform DNA regardless of its sequence. DNA cruciforms have been implicated in the regulation of initiation of DNA replication. CBP is a member of the 14-3-3 family of proteins, which are conserved regulatory molecules expressed in all eukaryotes. Here, the in vivo association of CBP/14-3-3 with mammalian origins of DNA replication was analyzed by studying its association with the monkey replication origins ors8 and ors12, as assayed by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and quantitative PCR analysis. The association of the 14-3-3beta, -epsilon, -gamma, and -zeta isoforms with these origins was found to be approximately 9-fold higher, compared with other portions of the genome, in logarithmically growing cells. In addition, the association of these isoforms with ors8 and ors12 was also analyzed as a function of the cell cycle. Higher binding of 14-3-3beta, -epsilon, -gamma, and -zeta isoforms with ors8 and ors12 was found at the G(1)/S border, by comparison with other stages of the cell cycle. The CBP/14-3-3 cruciform binding activity was also found to be maximal at the G(1)/S boundary. The involvement of 14-3-3 in mammalian DNA replication was analyzed by studying the effect of anti-14-3-3beta, -epsilon, -gamma, and -zeta antibodies in the in vitro replication of p186, a plasmid containing the minimal replication origin of ors8. Anti-14-3-3epsilon, -gamma, and -zeta antibodies alone or in combination inhibited p186 replication by approximately 50-80%, while anti-14-3-3beta antibodies had a lesser effect ( approximately 25-50%). All of the antibodies tested were also able to interfere with CBP binding to cruciform DNA. The results indicate that CBP/14-3-3 is an origin-binding protein, acting at the initiation step of DNA replication by binding to cruciform-containing molecules, and dissociates after origin firing.

  4. Epigenetic Instability due to Defective Replication of Structured DNA

    PubMed Central

    Sarkies, Peter; Reams, Charlie; Simpson, Laura J.; Sale, Julian E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The accurate propagation of histone marks during chromosomal replication is proposed to rely on the tight coupling of replication with the recycling of parental histones to the daughter strands. Here, we show in the avian cell line DT40 that REV1, a key regulator of DNA translesion synthesis at the replication fork, is required for the maintenance of repressive chromatin marks and gene silencing in the vicinity of DNA capable of forming G-quadruplex (G4) structures. We demonstrate a previously unappreciated requirement for REV1 in replication of G4 forming sequences and show that transplanting a G4 forming sequence into a silent locus leads to its derepression in REV1-deficient cells. Together, our observations support a model in which failure to maintain processive DNA replication at G4 DNA in REV1-deficient cells leads to uncoupling of DNA synthesis from histone recycling, resulting in localized loss of repressive chromatin through biased incorporation of newly synthesized histones. PMID:21145480

  5. Bacterial DNA replication enzymes as targets for antibacterial drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Gautam; Doig, Peter

    2012-04-01

    The bacterial replisome is composed of a large number of enzymes, which work in exquisite coordination to accomplish chromosomal replication. Effective inhibition inside the bacterial cell of any of the 'essential' enzymes of the DNA replication pathway should be detrimental to cell survival. This review covers DNA replication enzymes that have been shown to have a potential for delivering antibacterial compounds or drug candidates including: type II topoisomerases, a clinically validated target family, and DNA ligase, which has yielded inhibitors with in vivo efficacy. A few of the 'replisome' enzymes that are structurally and functionally well characterized and have been subjects of antibacterial discovery efforts are also discussed. Identification of several essential genes in the bacterial replication pathway raised hopes that targeting these gene products would lead to novel antibacterials. However, none of these novel, single gene targets have delivered antibacterial drug candidates into clinical trials. This lack of productivity may be due to the target properties and inhibitor identification approaches employed. For DNA primase, DNA helicase and other replisome targets, with the exception of DNA ligase, the exploitation of structure for lead generation has not been tested to the same extent that it has for DNA gyrase. Utilization of structural information should be considered to augment HTS efforts and initiate fragment-based lead generation. The complex protein-protein interactions involved in regulation of replication may explain why biochemical approaches have been less productive for some replisome targets than more independently functioning targets such as DNA ligase or DNA gyrase. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

  6. Affinity Purification of an Archaeal DNA Replication Protein Network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuo; Santangelo, Thomas J.; Čuboňová, Ľubomíra; Reeve, John N.; Kelman, Zvi

    2010-01-01

    Nineteen Thermococcus kodakarensis strains have been constructed, each of which synthesizes a different His6-tagged protein known or predicted to be a component of the archaeal DNA replication machinery. Using the His6-tagged proteins, stable complexes assembled in vivo have been isolated directly from clarified cell lysates and the T. kodakarensis proteins present have been identified by mass spectrometry. Based on the results obtained, a network of interactions among the archaeal replication proteins has been established that confirms previously documented and predicted interactions, provides experimental evidence for previously unrecognized interactions between proteins with known functions and with unknown functions, and establishes a firm experimental foundation for archaeal replication research. The proteins identified and their participation in archaeal DNA replication are discussed and related to their bacterial and eukaryotic counterparts. PMID:20978540

  7. Mechanism of Archaeal MCM Helicase Recruitment to DNA Replication Origins

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Rachel Y.; Abeyrathne, Priyanka D.; Bell, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cellular DNA replication origins direct the recruitment of replicative helicases via the action of initiator proteins belonging to the AAA+ superfamily of ATPases. Archaea have a simplified subset of the eukaryotic DNA replication machinery proteins and possess initiators that appear ancestral to both eukaryotic Orc1 and Cdc6. We have reconstituted origin-dependent recruitment of the homohexameric archaeal MCM in vitro with purified recombinant proteins. Using this system, we reveal that archaeal Orc1-1 fulfills both Orc1 and Cdc6 functions by binding to a replication origin and directly recruiting MCM helicase. We identify the interaction interface between these proteins and reveal how ATP binding by Orc1-1 modulates recruitment of MCM. Additionally, we provide evidence that an open-ring form of the archaeal MCM homohexamer is loaded at origins. PMID:26725007

  8. Low-template DNA: A single DNA analysis or two replicates?

    PubMed Central

    Gittelson, Simone; Steffen, Carolyn R.; Coble, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the following two questions: (1) Should the DNA analyst concentrate the DNA extract into a single amplification or should he/she split it up to do two replicates? (2) Given the electropherogram obtained from a first analysis, is it worthwhile for the DNA analyst to invest in obtaining a second replicate? A decision-theoretic approach addresses these questions by quantitatively expressing the expected net gain (ENG) of each DNA analysis of interest. The results indicate that two replicates generally have a greater ENG than a single DNA analysis for DNA quantities capable of producing two replicates having an average allelic peak height as low as 43 rfu. This supports the position that two replicates increase the information content with regard to a single analysis. PMID:27131143

  9. Low-template DNA: A single DNA analysis or two replicates?

    PubMed

    Gittelson, Simone; Steffen, Carolyn R; Coble, Michael D

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the following two questions: (1) Should the DNA analyst concentrate the DNA extract into a single amplification or should he/she split it up to do two replicates? (2) Given the electropherogram obtained from a first analysis, is it worthwhile for the DNA analyst to invest in obtaining a second replicate? A decision-theoretic approach addresses these questions by quantitatively expressing the expected net gain (ENG) of each DNA analysis of interest. The results indicate that two replicates generally have a greater ENG than a single DNA analysis for DNA quantities capable of producing two replicates having an average allelic peak height as low as 43rfu. This supports the position that two replicates increase the information content with regard to a single analysis. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Replication of adenovirus type 4 DNA by a purified fraction from infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Temperley, S M; Hay, R T

    1991-01-01

    An extract from Adenovirus type 4 infected HeLa cells was fractionated by ion-exchange and DNA affinity chromatography. One fraction, which bound tightly to single stranded DNA, contained predominantly a protein of apparent molecular weight 65,000 and three less abundant proteins. Immunological cross-reactivity with adenovirus type 2 proteins confirmed the presence of preterminal protein and indicated that the abundant species was the virus coded DNA binding protein. This fraction contained an aphidicolin resistant DNA polymerase activity and in the presence of a linearised plasmid containing the adenovirus type 4 origin of DNA replication efficient transfer of dCMP onto preterminal protein, indicative of initiation, was observed. Furthermore, addition of all four deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates and an ATP regenerating system resulted in the elongation of initiated molecules to generate plasmid molecules covalently attached to preterminal protein. Adenovirus type 4 DNA binding protein was extensively purified from crude adenovirus-4 infected HeLa extract by immunoaffinity chromatography using a monoclonal antibody raised against adenovirus type 2 DNA binding protein. A low level of initiation of DNA replication was detected in the fraction depleted of DNA binding protein but activity was restored by addition of purified DNA binding protein. DNA binding protein therefore plays an important role in the initiation of Ad4 DNA replication. Images PMID:1829516

  11. Prereplicative complexes assembled in vitro support origin-dependent and independent DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    On, Kin Fan; Beuron, Fabienne; Frith, David; Snijders, Ambrosius P; Morris, Edward P; Diffley, John F X

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA replication initiates from multiple replication origins. To ensure each origin fires just once per cell cycle, initiation is divided into two biochemically discrete steps: the Mcm2-7 helicase is first loaded into prereplicative complexes (pre-RCs) as an inactive double hexamer by the origin recognition complex (ORC), Cdt1 and Cdc6; the helicase is then activated by a set of “firing factors.” Here, we show that plasmids containing pre-RCs assembled with purified proteins support complete and semi-conservative replication in extracts from budding yeast cells overexpressing firing factors. Replication requires cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK). DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2-7 does not by itself promote separation of the double hexamer, but is required for the recruitment of firing factors and replisome components in the extract. Plasmid replication does not require a functional replication origin; however, in the presence of competitor DNA and limiting ORC concentrations, replication becomes origin-dependent in this system. These experiments indicate that Mcm2-7 double hexamers can be precursors of replication and provide insight into the nature of eukaryotic DNA replication origins. PMID:24566989

  12. An autoradiographic demonstration of nuclear DNA replication by DNA polymerase alpha and of mitochondrial DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Geuskens, M; Hardt, N; Pedrali-Noy, G; Spadari, S

    1981-01-01

    The incorporation of thymidine into the DNA of eukaryotic cells is markedly depressed, but not completely inhibited, by aphidicolin, a highly specific inhibitor of DNA