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Sample records for active exercise program

  1. Factors that influence exercise activity among women post hip fracture participating in the Exercise Plus Program

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, Barbara; Orwig, Denise; D’Adamo, Christopher; Yu-Yahiro, Janet; Hawkes, William; Shardell, Michelle; Golden, Justine; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Magaziner, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Using a social ecological model, this paper describes selected intra- and interpersonal factors that influence exercise behavior in women post hip fracture who participated in the Exercise Plus Program. Model testing of factors that influence exercise behavior at 2, 6 and 12 months post hip fracture was done. The full model hypothesized that demographic variables; cognitive, affective, physical and functional status; pain; fear of falling; social support for exercise, and exposure to the Exercise Plus Program would influence self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and stage of change both directly and indirectly influencing total time spent exercising. Two hundred and nine female hip fracture patients (age 81.0 ± 6.9), the majority of whom were Caucasian (97%), participated in this study. The three predictive models tested across the 12 month recovery trajectory suggest that somewhat different factors may influence exercise over the recovery period and the models explained 8 to 21% of the variance in time spent exercising. To optimize exercise activity post hip fracture, older adults should be helped to realistically assess their self-efficacy and outcome expectations related to exercise, health care providers and friends/peers should be encouraged to reinforce the positive benefits of exercise post hip fracture, and fear of falling should be addressed throughout the entire hip fracture recovery trajectory. PMID:18044192

  2. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L; DeMello, Madison M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 weeks in random order. Energy expenditure and PA were measured with the SenseWear Mini Armband prior to each intervention as well as during week 1, week 8 and week 16 of the aerobic and resistance exercise program. Body composition was measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition did not change in response to either exercise intervention. Total daily energy expenditure on exercise days increased by 443 ± 126 kcal/d and 239 ± 152 kcal/d for aerobic and resistance exercise, respectively (p < 0.01). Non-exercise moderate-to-vigorous PA, however, decreased on aerobic exercise days (-148 ± 161 kcal/d; p = 0.03). There was no change in total daily energy expenditure and PA on non-exercise days with aerobic exercise while resistance exercise was associated with an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA during non-exercise days (216 ± 178 kcal/d, p = 0.01). Results of the present study suggest a compensatory reduction in PA in response to aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise, on the other hand, appears to facilitate non-exercise PA, particularly on non-exercise days, which may lead to more sustainable adaptations in response to an exercise program.

  3. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  4. A Comparison of Attitudes and Exercise Habits of Alumni from Colleges with Varying Degrees of Physical Education Activity Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas M.; Brynteson, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Study compared the exercise attitudes and habits of alumni from four colleges with varying physical education activity (PEA) requirements. Survey results indicated the type of PEA programs offered influenced alumni attitudes toward fitness and exercise behaviors. Students from colleges with higher PEA requirements had more positive exercise…

  5. Promoting Optimal Physical Exercise for Life: An Exercise and Self-Management Program to Encourage Participation in Physical Activity after Discharge from Stroke Rehabilitation—A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Avril; Knorr, Svetlana; Poon, Vivien; Inness, Elizabeth L.; Middleton, Laura; Biasin, Louis; Brunton, Karen; Howe, Jo-Anne; Brooks, Dina

    2016-01-01

    People with stroke do not achieve adequate levels of physical exercise following discharge from rehabilitation. We developed a group exercise and self-management program (PROPEL), delivered during stroke rehabilitation, to promote uptake of physical activity after discharge. This study aimed to establish the feasibility of a larger study to evaluate the effect of this program on participation in self-directed physical activity. Participants with subacute stroke were recruited at discharge from one of three rehabilitation hospitals; one hospital offered the PROPEL program whereas the other two did not (comparison group; COMP). A high proportion (11/16) of eligible PROPEL program participants consented to the study. Fifteen COMP participants were also recruited. Compliance with wearing an accelerometer for 6 weeks continuously and completing physical activity questionnaires was high (>80%), whereas only 34% of daily heart rate data were available. Individuals who completed the PROPEL program seemed to have higher outcome expectations for exercise, fewer barriers to physical activity, and higher participation in physical activity than COMP participants (Hedge's g ≥ 0.5). The PROPEL program delivered during stroke rehabilitation shows promise for reducing barriers to exercise and increasing participation in physical activity after discharge. This study supports feasibility of a larger randomized trial to evaluate this program. PMID:27313948

  6. Promoting Optimal Physical Exercise for Life: An Exercise and Self-Management Program to Encourage Participation in Physical Activity after Discharge from Stroke Rehabilitation-A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Avril; Knorr, Svetlana; Poon, Vivien; Inness, Elizabeth L; Middleton, Laura; Biasin, Louis; Brunton, Karen; Howe, Jo-Anne; Brooks, Dina

    2016-01-01

    People with stroke do not achieve adequate levels of physical exercise following discharge from rehabilitation. We developed a group exercise and self-management program (PROPEL), delivered during stroke rehabilitation, to promote uptake of physical activity after discharge. This study aimed to establish the feasibility of a larger study to evaluate the effect of this program on participation in self-directed physical activity. Participants with subacute stroke were recruited at discharge from one of three rehabilitation hospitals; one hospital offered the PROPEL program whereas the other two did not (comparison group; COMP). A high proportion (11/16) of eligible PROPEL program participants consented to the study. Fifteen COMP participants were also recruited. Compliance with wearing an accelerometer for 6 weeks continuously and completing physical activity questionnaires was high (>80%), whereas only 34% of daily heart rate data were available. Individuals who completed the PROPEL program seemed to have higher outcome expectations for exercise, fewer barriers to physical activity, and higher participation in physical activity than COMP participants (Hedge's g ≥ 0.5). The PROPEL program delivered during stroke rehabilitation shows promise for reducing barriers to exercise and increasing participation in physical activity after discharge. This study supports feasibility of a larger randomized trial to evaluate this program.

  7. Effects of a Multicomponent Exercise Program on Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters, Risk of Falling and Physical Activity in Dementia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Perrochon, Anaïck; Tchalla, Achille E.; Bonis, Joelle; Perucaud, Florian; Mandigout, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise programs are presumed to rehabilitate gait disorders and to reduce the risk of falling in dementia patients. This study aimed to analyze the specific effects of multicomponent exercise on gait disorders and to determine the association between gait impairments and the risk of falling in dementia patients before and after intervention. Methods We conducted an 8-week multicomponent exercise program in 16 dementia patients (age 86.7 ± 5.4 years). All participants were assessed several times for gait analysis (Locométrix®), Tinetti score and physical activity (Body Media SenseWear® Pro armband). Results After 8 weeks of the exercise program, the mean gait speed was 0.12 m/s faster than before the intervention (0.55 ± 0.17 vs. 0.67 ± 0.14 m/s). The multicomponent exercise program improved gait performance and Tinetti score (p < 0.05). Gait performance (gait speed, stride length) was correlated with the Tinetti score (p < 0.05). Conclusion Analysis of spatiotemporal gait parameters using an accelerometer method provided a quick and easy tool to estimate the benefits of an exercise program and the risk of falling. PMID:26557134

  8. The safety of a resistive home exercise program in patients with recent onset active polymyositis or dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Alexanderson, H; Stenström, C H; Jenner, G; Lundberg, I

    2000-01-01

    The objective was to investigate whether a 12-week resistive home exercise program in addition to conventional medical treatment could be safely performed regarding muscle inflammation, muscle function, and quality of life in patients with active polymyositis (PM) or dermatomyositis (DM). Eleven patients diagnosed with active PM or DM were included. Muscle biopsies and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the thighs were performed. Quality of life, function, and subjective global disease impact (SGDI) were assessed and creatine phosphokinase levels (CPK) were analysed. The patients exercised with the exercise program for 15 minutes and took a 15-minute walk five days a week for 12 weeks. After the exercise period there was no sign of increased muscle inflammation. The group showed significantly improved function and quality of life compared to the start of study. It seems that this exercise program safely can be employed in patients with active PM or DM, and we suggest that physical exercise should be included in the rehabilitation of these patients.

  9. Relations of body esteem factors with exercise session attendance in women initiating a physical activity program.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J

    2005-06-01

    Based on tenets of cognitive behavioral and social cognitive theory, the association of change in body-esteem factors and attendance in a newly initiated, 12-wk. cardiovascular exercise program was estimated in women (age range=21 to 60 years, M=41.4, SD= 12.2). For the group given the exercise program (n=48), there were significant positive changes on the Weight Control and Physical Condition scores of the Body Esteem Scale at 12 weeks, but not on Sexual Attractiveness scores. For the no-exercise control group (n=30), no significant changes were found on any of the Body Esteem Scale subscales. For the exercise group, regression analyses indicated between 8% and 9% of the variance in exercise session attendance was accounted for by the changes in scores on each of the three subscales. Entering age into multiple regression equations did not increase the explained variances in attendance. The fit of the findings within behavioral theory, implications for change in exercise behavior, and the need for replication and extension were discussed. PMID:16158686

  10. ISS Update: SPRINT Exercise Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Lori Ploutz-Snyder, Ph.D., NASA Lead Exercise Physiology Scientist, about the SPRINT exercise program used by the crew members aboard the Inter...

  11. Active Intervention Program Using Dietary Education and Exercise Training for Reducing Obesity in Mexican American Male Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sukho; Misra, Ranjita; Kaster, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 10-week active intervention program (AIP), which incorporates dietary education with exercise training, among 30 healthy Mexican American male children, aged 8-12 years, in Laredo, Texas. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups: education (EDU), dietary education to participants and parents and…

  12. Effects of the CORE Exercise Program on Pain and Active Range of Motion in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hwi-Young; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Junesun

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify the effects of the CORE exercise program on pain and active range of motion (AROM) in patients with chronic low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects with chronic low back pain were randomly allocated to two groups: the CORE group (n = 15) and the control group (n = 15). The CORE group performed the CORE exercise program for 30 minutes a day, 3 times a week, for 4 weeks, while the control group did not perform any exercise. The visual analog scale (VAS) and an algometer were used to measure pain, and pain-free AROM in the trunk was measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The CORE group showed significantly decreased VAS scores at rest and during movement and had a significantly increased pressure pain threshold in the quadratus lumborum and AROM in the trunk compared with those in the control group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the CORE exercise program is effective in decreasing pain and increasing AROM in patients with chronic low back pain. Thus, the CORE exercise program can be used to manage pain and AROM in patients with chronic low back pain.

  13. Physical activity levels and patterns in older adults: the influence of a DVD-based exercise program.

    PubMed

    Gothe, Neha P; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Olson, Erin A; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Chung, H David; Zuniga, Krystle E; Mackenzie, Michael J; Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

    2015-02-01

    The use of multimedia to influence health behaviors offers unique advantages over more traditional center-based programs, however, little is known about the effectiveness of such approaches in improving physical activity levels over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a progressive and age-appropriate, DVD-delivered exercise program in promoting physical activity levels among older adult cohorts. Community dwelling older adults (N = 307, Mean age = 71 years) were randomized to one of two groups: a 6-month home-based DVD-delivered exercise (i.e., FlexToBa™) intervention group or a healthy aging DVD control group. Physical activity was assessed objectively using a standard 7-day accelerometer wear period and subjectively using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, at baseline and follow-up. Analysis of covariances indicated a statistically significant treatment effect for subjectively [F(1,250) = 8.42, P = .004, η(2) = .03] and objectively [F(1,240) = 3.77, P = .05, η(2) = .02] measured physical activity. The older cohort (>70) in the FlexToBa condition further had significantly larger improvements in physical activity levels compared to their younger counterparts. From a public health perspective, media-delivered interventions such as the FlexToBa program might prove to be cost-effective, have a broader reach and at the same time be effective in improving physical activity levels in older adults.

  14. Incorporation of exercise, using an underwater treadmill, and active client education into a weight management program for obese dogs.

    PubMed

    Chauvet, Anne; Laclair, Jim; Elliott, Denise A; German, Alexander J

    2011-05-01

    Physical activity improves outcome of weight loss in obese humans, but limited information exists for dogs. Eight obese dogs (body condition score 5/5), of various breeds and genders, undertook a 3-month weight-loss program which included exercise using lead walks and underwater treadmill exercise. The median number of treadmill exercise sessions per dog was 13 (range: 5 to 17). Median distance walked per session was 0.97 km (range: 0.05 to 2.7 km) (0.6 miles; range: 0.03 to 1.70 miles) and this increased sequentially over the course of the study (P < 0.001). Mean [± standard deviation (s)] percentage of starting weight loss over the 3 mo was 18.9 ± 5.44%, equivalent to a rate of weight loss of 1.5 ± 0.43% per week. Thoracic and abdominal girth also declined significantly during the program (P < 0.0001 for both). This study demonstrates the potential benefit of including an organized exercise regimen, utilizing an underwater treadmill, in conventional canine weight management programs.

  15. Exercise Level and Energy Expenditure in the Take 10![R] In-Class Physical Activity Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James A.; Dennison, David A.; Kohl, Harold W., III; Doyle, J. Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an innovative, classroom-based physical activity prevention program designed to integrate academic curriculum elements along with a physical activity program in providing moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. A convenience sample of three public school classrooms (one first, third, and fifth…

  16. A 12-Week Exercise Program for Pregnant Women with Obesity to Improve Physical Activity Levels: An Open Randomised Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Alméras, Natalie; Dufresne, Sébastien S.; Robitaille, Julie; Rhéaume, Caroline; Bujold, Emmanuel; Frenette, Jérôme; Tremblay, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a 12-week supervised exercise program promotes an active lifestyle throughout pregnancy in pregnant women with obesity. Methods In this preliminary randomised trial, pregnant women (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) were allocated to either standard care or supervised training, from 15 to 27 weeks of gestation. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry at 14, 28 and 36 weeks, while fitness (oxygen consumption (VO2) at the anaerobic threshold), nutrition (caloric intake and macronutrients percentage) and anthropometry were assessed at 14 and 28 weeks of gestation. Analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results A total of fifty (50) women were randomised, 25 in each group. There was no time-group interaction for time spent at moderate and vigorous activity (pinteraction = 0.064), but the exercise group’s levels were higher than controls’ at all times (pgroup effect = 0.014). A significant time-group interaction was found for daily physical activity (p = 0.023); similar at baseline ((22.0 ± 6.7 vs 21.8 ± 7.3) x 104 counts/day) the exercise group had higher levels than the control group following the intervention ((22.8 ± 8.3 vs 19.2 ± 4.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.020) and at 36 weeks of gestation ((19.2 ± 1.5 vs 14.9 ± 1.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.034). Exercisers also gained less weight than controls during the intervention period despite similar nutritional intakes (difference in weight change = -0.1 kg/week, 95% CI -0.2; -0.02, p = 0.016) and improved cardiorespiratory fitness (difference in fitness change = 8.1%, 95% CI 0.7; 9.5, p = 0.041). Conclusions Compared with standard care, a supervised exercise program allows pregnant women with obesity to maintain fitness, limit weight gain and attenuate the decrease in physical activity levels observed in late pregnancy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01610323 PMID:26375471

  17. Do Sedentary Older Adults Benefit from Community-Based Exercise? Results from the Active Start Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Tingjian; Wilber, Kathleen H.; Aguirre, Rosa; Trejo, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the effectiveness of Active Start, a community-based behavior change and fitness program, designed to promote physical activity among sedentary community-dwelling older adults. Design and Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used. Data were analyzed using a within-group pretest-post-test design to calculate changes…

  18. Dialysis exercise team: the way to sustain exercise programs in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Capitanini, Alessandro; Lange, Sara; D'Alessandro, Claudia; Salotti, Emilio; Tavolaro, Alba; Baronti, Maria E; Giannese, Domenico; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2014-01-01

    Patients affected by end-stage renal disease (ESRD) show quite lower physical activity and exercise capacity when compared to healthy individuals. In addition, a sedentary lifestyle is favoured by lack of a specific counseling on exercise implementation in the nephrology care setting. Increasing physical activity level should represent a goal for every dialysis patient care management. Three crucial elements of clinical care may contribute to sustain a hemodialysis exercise program: a) involvement of exercise professionals, b) real commitment of nephrologists and dialysis professionals, c) individual patient adaptation of the exercise program. Dialysis staff have a crucial role to encourage and assist patients during intra-dialysis exercise, but other professionals should be included in the ideal "exercise team" for dialysis patients. Evaluation of general condition, comorbidities (especially cardiovascular), nutritional status and physical exercise capacity are mandatory to propose an exercise program, in either extra-dialysis or intra-dialysis setting. To this aim, nephrologist should lead a team of specialists and professionals including cardiologist, physiotherapist, exercise physiologist, renal dietician and nurse. In this scenario, dialysis nurses play a pivotal role since they guarantee a constant and direct approach. Unfortunately dialysis staff may often lack of information and formation about exercise management while they take care patients during the dialysis session. Building an effective exercise team, promoting the culture of exercise and increasing physical activity levels lead to a more complete and modern clinical care management of ESRD patients.

  19. High-intensity functional exercise program and protein-enriched energy supplement for older persons dependent in activities of daily living: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rosendahl, Erik; Lindelöf, Nina; Littbrand, Håkan; Yifter-Lindgren, Elinor; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor; Håglin, Lena; Gustafson, Yngve; Nyberg, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this randomised controlled trial were to determine if a high-intensity functional exercise program improves balance, gait ability, and lower-limb strength in older persons dependent in activities of daily living and if an intake of protein-enriched energy supplement immediately after the exercises increases the effects of the training. One hundred and ninety-one older persons dependent in activities of daily living, living in residential care facilities, and with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of ? 10 participated. They were randomised to a high-intensity functional exercise program or a control activity, which included 29 sessions over 3 months, as well as to protein-enriched energy supplement or placebo. Berg Balance Scale, self-paced and maximum gait speed, and one-repetition maximum in lower-limb strength were followed-up at three and six months and analysed by 2 x 2 factorial ANCOVA, using the intention-to-treat principle. At three months, the exercise group had improved significantly in self-paced gait speed compared with the control group (mean difference 0.04 m/s, p = 0.02). At six months, there were significant improvements favouring the exercise group for Berg Balance Scale (1.9 points, p = 0.05), self-paced gait speed (0.05 m/s, p = 0.009), and lower-limb strength (10.8 kg, p = 0.03). No interaction effects were seen between the exercise and nutrition interventions. In conclusion, a high-intensity functional exercise program has positive long-term effects in balance, gait ability, and lower-limb strength for older persons dependent in activities of daily living. An intake of protein-enriched energy supplement immediately after the exercises does not appear to increase the effects of the training. PMID:16764547

  20. A study on the effect of self bedside exercise program on resilience and activities of daily living for patients with hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yang-Chool; Yi, Eun-Surk; Choi, Won-Ho; Lee, Byung-Mun; Cho, Sung-Bo; Kim, Ji-Youn

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a repeatable universal rehabilitation program in which patients with hemiplegia can participate voluntarily, complementing physical and occupational therapies to increase voluntary exercise practice rate. Also, this study attempted to identify the relationship between psychological resilience due to the implementation of self-bedside exercise and functional recovery of activity of daily living (ADL). 12 patients with hemiplegia voluntarily participated in 8 weeks of self-bedside exercise 5 times a day and more than 5 days a week. Their program implementation, resilience, activities of daily living (MBI), upper limb motor functions (MFT), and balance ability (BBS) were analyzed and compared before and after the program. Compared to before implementing the program, significant increases were found in resilience, MBI, BBS, and MFT in the affected side after the implementation, and the resilience scores showed statistically positive correlation in MBI and MFT. Also, the change in resilience before and after the program implementation showed a statistically positive correlation. Therefore, it can be concluded that the self-bedside exercise developed in this study had a positive effect on voluntary participation in exercise as well as resilience and ADL. However, many studies which complement the psychological aspects of hemiparetic patients with stroke are still needed. PMID:25830141

  1. A study on the effect of self bedside exercise program on resilience and activities of daily living for patients with hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yang-Chool; Yi, Eun-Surk; Choi, Won-Ho; Lee, Byung-Mun; Cho, Sung-Bo; Kim, Ji-Youn

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a repeatable universal rehabilitation program in which patients with hemiplegia can participate voluntarily, complementing physical and occupational therapies to increase voluntary exercise practice rate. Also, this study attempted to identify the relationship between psychological resilience due to the implementation of self-bedside exercise and functional recovery of activity of daily living (ADL). 12 patients with hemiplegia voluntarily participated in 8 weeks of self-bedside exercise 5 times a day and more than 5 days a week. Their program implementation, resilience, activities of daily living (MBI), upper limb motor functions (MFT), and balance ability (BBS) were analyzed and compared before and after the program. Compared to before implementing the program, significant increases were found in resilience, MBI, BBS, and MFT in the affected side after the implementation, and the resilience scores showed statistically positive correlation in MBI and MFT. Also, the change in resilience before and after the program implementation showed a statistically positive correlation. Therefore, it can be concluded that the self-bedside exercise developed in this study had a positive effect on voluntary participation in exercise as well as resilience and ADL. However, many studies which complement the psychological aspects of hemiparetic patients with stroke are still needed. PMID:25830141

  2. From exercise to physical activity.

    PubMed

    Speck, Barbara J

    2002-10-01

    Recommendations for regular exercise have been evident in the nursing literature since the early 1900s. Health professionals and popular media have promoted vigorous exercise for positive health benefits since the 1960s. The concept of exercise as it appeared in the nursing literature during the early part of the 20th century is closer to the concept of physical activity of today--regular, moderate-intensity activities that become part of one's lifestyle. Nurses are in a unique position to counsel individuals, families, and communities on the importance of regular physical activity and to correct misconceptions that only vigorous exercise has health benefits. PMID:12465215

  3. Exercising for Two. What's Safe for the Active Pregnant Woman?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jacqueline

    1992-01-01

    Clinical experience and recent research challenge the current standards of exercise duration and intensity for pregnant women. By carefully assessing patients' self-monitoring techniques, physicians can work with active women to create safe exercise programs during pregnancy. Safety guidelines for developing home exercise programs are included.…

  4. Laboratory Exercise on Active Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalheim-Smith, Ann; Fitch, Greg K.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise which demonstrates qualitatively the specificity of the transport mechanism, including a consideration of the competitive inhibition, and the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in active transport. The exercise, which can be completed in two to three hours by groups of four students, consistently produces reliable…

  5. Exercise and activity - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... basketball and most other organized sports (such as soccer, swimming, and dancing) Younger children cannot stick with ... biking. Group sports are another option, such as soccer, football, basketball, karate, or tennis. Choose an exercise ...

  6. Optimizing Exercise Programs for Arthritis Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulware, Dennis W.; Byrd, Shannon L.

    1993-01-01

    Exercise can help decrease pain and improve function in people with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. Physicians must provide individualized, realistic, enjoyable exercise programs that help affected joints, build fitness, and maximize patient compliance. Physicians must also provide appropriate follow-up care, adjusting the exercise program…

  7. Effects of a short-term exercise training program on aerobic fitness, fatigue, health perception and activity level of subjects with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mostert, S; Kesselring, J

    2002-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients of an inpatient rehabilitation program have been randomly assigned to an exercise training (MS-ET) or nontraining group (MS-NI). Before and after 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training, a graded maximal exercise test with measurement of gas exchange and a lung function test was administered to all 26 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Activity level, fatigue and health perception were measured by means of questionnaires. Twenty-six healthy persons served as control group and were matched in respect of age, gender and activity level. Training intervention consisted of 5x30 min sessions per week of bicycle exercise with individualised intensity. Compared with baseline, the MS training group demonstrated a significant rightward placement of the aerobic threshold (AT) (VO2+13%; work rate [WR])+11%), an improvement of health perception (vitality+46%; social interaction+36%), an increase of activity level (+17%) and a tendency to less fatigue. No changes were observed for the MS-NI group and the control groups. Maximal aerobic capacity and lung function were not changed by either training or nontraining in all four groups. Overall compliance to the training program was quite low (65%), whereas incidence of symptom exacerbation by physical activity has been lower than expected (6%). PMID:11990874

  8. Effects of a High-Intensity Functional Exercise Program on Dependence in Activities of Daily Living and Balance in Older Adults with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Toots, Annika; Littbrand, Håkan; Lindelöf, Nina; Wiklund, Robert; Holmberg, Henrik; Nordström, Peter; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor; Gustafson, Yngve; Rosendahl, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of a high-intensity functional exercise program on independence in activities of  daily living (ADLs) and balance in older people with dementia and whether exercise effects differed between dementia types. Design Cluster-randomized controlled trial: Umeå Dementia and Exercise (UMDEX) study. Setting Residential care facilities, Umeå, Sweden. Participants Individuals aged 65 and older with a dementia diagnosis, a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 10 or greater, and dependence in ADLs (N = 186). Intervention Ninety-three participants each were allocated to the high-intensity functional exercise program, comprising lower limb strength and balance exercises, and 93 to a seated control activity. Measurements Blinded assessors measured ADL independence using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Barthel Index (BI) and balance using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) at baseline and 4 (directly after intervention completion) and 7 months. Results Linear mixed models showed no between-group effect on ADL independence at 4 (FIM=1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=−1.6–4.3; BI=0.6, 95% CI=−0.2–1.4) or 7 (FIM=0.8, 95% CI=−2.2–3.8; BI=0.6, 95% CI=−0.3–1.4) months. A significant between-group effect on balance favoring exercise was observed at 4 months (BBS=4.2, 95% CI=1.8–6.6). In interaction analyses, exercise effects differed significantly between dementia types. Positive between-group exercise effects were found in participants with non-Alzheimer's dementia according to the FIM at 7 months and BI and BBS at 4 and 7 months. Conclusion In older people with mild to moderate dementia living in residential care facilities, a 4-month high-intensity functional exercise program appears to slow decline in ADL independence and improve balance, albeit only in participants with non-Alzheimer's dementia. PMID:26782852

  9. Explaining Long-Term Exercise Adherence in Women Who Complete a Structured Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberty, Jennifer L.; Ransdell, Lynda B.; Sidman, Cara; Flohr, Judith A.; Shultz, Barry; Grosshans, Onie; Durrant, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine factors related to physical activity adherence to understand why women continue to participate in long-term exercise after completing a structured exercise program. Data were collected from focus groups, interviews, and e-mails, and analysis used grounded theory. The central category related…

  10. Exercise Programs for Citizens Sixty and Over--Why Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Frank; Anderson, Gene

    An outline is given of an exercise program for older adults which is designed to increase strength, endurance, and flexibility. Brief descriptions are provided of exercises progressing from modest tone-ups for flexibility to activities involving mildly strenuous physical efforts such as jogging, bicycling, and hiking. Suggestions are offered for…

  11. Adherence to Exercise and Physical Activity: Preface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a collection of papers on adherence to exercise programs and physical activity from the 2000 American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education conference, which included research on middle school boys and girls, college men and women, and men and women in the later years, as well as on the more traditional subject of middle aged…

  12. Automatic Activation of Exercise and Sedentary Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya; Spence, John C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the automatic activation of "sedentary" and "exerciser" stereotypes using a social prime Stroop task. Results showed significantly slower response times between the exercise words and the exercise control words and between the sedentary words and the exercise control words when preceded by an attractive exerciser prime. Words preceded…

  13. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... fitness. Your fitness routine should include aerobic and strength-training activities, and may also include stretching activities. Aerobic ... Examples include walking, jogging, bicycling, swimming, and tennis. Strength-training activities These activities increase the strength and endurance ...

  14. Self-reported adherence to a home-based exercise program among patients affected by psoriatic arthritis with minimal disease activity.

    PubMed

    Chimenti, Maria Sole; Triggianese, Paola; Conigliaro, Paola; Santoro, Matteo; Lucchetti, Ramona; Perricone, Roberto

    2014-11-01

    More than half of all patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) exhibit progressive erosive arthritis, associated with severe functional impairment and psychosocial disability. Biologics have been suggested to be more effective in inducing minimal disease activity" (MDA) than disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Behavioral patient education appears to be more effective in encouraging patients to increase their physical activity (PA) levels. The aim of the study was to evaluate the benefits of home-based exercises program on disease activity and quality of life in MDA-PsA patients treated with an anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and DMARD therapy. We observed a self-reported adherence rate to home-based exercise of 76.6% and data showed the impact of the exercise program on self-reported health and mental assessment. A positive relationship between patient and therapist is crucial, influencing the quality of the performance, the emotional support, and increasing motivation in PsA patients.

  15. Program development for exercise countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. C.; Stewart, D. F.; Harris, B. A.; Siconolfi, S. F.; Greenisen, M. C.; Larochelle, F. T.

    1992-01-01

    The concern of NASA's Exercise Countermeasures Project (ECP) is to ensure crew physical effectiveness for flight- or mission-related tasks, and encompasses postflight as well as preflight and inflight exercise components. Attention is given to the implementation of ECP via the Space Shuttle Orbiter's treadmill, rower, cycle ergometer, and lower body negative pressure apparatus.

  16. An In-School-Based Program of Combined Fine Motor Exercise and Educational Activities for Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Szturm, Tony; Polyzoi, Eleoussa; Marotta, Jonathan; Srikesavan, Cynthia Swarnalatha

    2014-12-01

    This article introduces a game-based rehabilitation platform designed to integrate training of fine motor skills and cognitive functions. A novel computer interface device was developed that can effectively replace a standard computer mouse when doing exercises to rehabilitate hand function. This smart device converts signals from miniature motion sensors to signals equivalent to that of a computer mouse. In this way, nearly any object or utensil can be changed to function exactly as a computer mouse, simply by attaching the motion sensor. Multiple objects with varied sizes, shapes, weights, and functional demands for precision can be used for exercise and to practice a variety of gross or fine motor skills, and, importantly, while playing fun computer games. The platform was designed to work with modern and common computer games, which have a broad range of movement speeds and accuracy levels, cognitive activities (puzzles, choices, distractors), and educational content. The platform includes a designed assessment game with advanced data logging for electronic monitoring. Data analysis methods have been developed to quantify performance metrics that provide insights into the quality, efficiency, and skill of a child and thus mean to conduct trend analyses that indicate how the child is performing over time. PMID:26192639

  17. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 2014 Trends in Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity From a Physician or ...

  18. Explaining long-term exercise adherence in women who complete a structured exercise program.

    PubMed

    Huberty, Jennifer L; Ransdell, Lynda B; Sidman, Cara; Flohr, Judith A; Shultz, Barry; Grosshans, Onie; Durrant, Lynne

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine factors related to physical activity adherence to understand why women continue to participate in long-term exercise after completing a structured exercise program. Data were collected from focus groups, interviews, and e-mails, and analysis used grounded theory. The central category related to physical activity adherence was self-worth. Motivation, activity enjoyment, priorities, body image, ability to access support, and self-regulation skills had an impact on the self-worth of nonadherers and adherers. Women must value themselves enough to continue to participate in physical activity once they start. Exercise and fitness professionals are encouraged to use strategies to increase self-worth and long-term adherence to physical activity. Some recommended strategies include (a) increasing motivation and enjoyment relative to activity, (b) making activity a high priority in a woman's life, (c) improving or deemphasizing body image, (d) increasing a woman's ability to access support, and (e) facilitating the use of self-regulation strategies. This study is the first to examine qualitative perspectives of exercise adherence among women who completed a structured exercise program. Several concepts related to adherence presented in the quantitative literature are confirmed and enhanced in this study.

  19. Stay active and exercise - arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... your overall health and sense of well-being. Exercise keeps your muscles strong and increases your range ... Water exercises may be the best exercise for your arthritis. Swimming laps, water aerobics, or even just walking in ...

  20. Contribution of Structured Exercise Class Participation and Informal Walking for Exercise to Daily Physical Activity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor-Locke, C.; Jones, G. R.; Myers, A. M.; Paterson, D. H.; Ecclestone, N. A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the physical activity and exercise habits of independent-living older adults from a structured exercise program, noting the contribution of formal and informal exercise participation relative to total daily physical activity measured using pedometer and daily activity logs. Participation in structured exercise was an important contributor…

  1. Kennedy Space Center exercise program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Cristy

    1993-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Fitness Program began in Feb. 1993. The program is managed by the Biomedical Operations and Research Office and operated by the Bionetics Corporation. The facilities and programs are offered to civil servants, all contractors, temporary duty assignment (TDY) participants, and retirees. All users must first have a medical clearance. A computer-generated check-in system is used to monitor participant usage. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

  2. Exercise and activity for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    An active lifestyle and exercise routine, along with eating healthy foods, is the best way to lose weight. ... Calories used in exercise > calories eaten = weight loss. This means that to lose weight, the number of calories you burn by exercising needs ...

  3. A Comparison between Prescribed Exercise Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultgren, Philip B.; Burke, Edmund J., Jr.

    This paper compares the methods for prescribing exercise according to various contemporary authorities. The programs are compared as to their goals, the testing modalities and physiological parameters used for prescription of the initial training session, and the methods and the progression of training. Regarding goals, there is a general…

  4. Enablers and barriers in delivery of a cancer exercise program: the Canadian experience

    PubMed Central

    Mina, D. Santa; Petrella, A.; Currie, K.L.; Bietola, K.; Alibhai, S.M.H.; Trachtenberg, J.; Ritvo, P.; Matthew, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise is an important therapy to improve well-being after a cancer diagnosis. Accordingly, cancer-exercise programs have been developed to enhance clinical care; however, few programs exist in Canada. Expansion of cancer-exercise programming depends on an understanding of the process of program implementation, as well as enablers and barriers to program success. Gaining knowledge from current professionals in cancer-exercise programs could serve to facilitate the necessary understanding. Methods Key personnel from Canadian cancer-exercise programs (n = 14) participated in semistructured interviews about program development and delivery. Results Content analysis revealed 13 categories and 15 subcategories, which were grouped by three organizing domains: Program Implementation, Program Enablers, and Program Barriers. ■ Program Implementation (5 categories, 8 subcategories) included Program Initiation (clinical care extension, research project expansion, program champion), Funding, Participant Intake (avenues of awareness, health and safety assessment), Active Programming (monitoring patient exercise progress, health care practitioner involvement, program composition), and Discharge and Follow-up Plan.■ Program Enablers (4 categories, 4 subcategories) included Patient Participation (personalized care, supportive network, personal control, awareness of benefits), Partnerships, Advocacy and Support, and Program Characteristics.■ Program Barriers (4 categories, 3 subcategories) included Lack of Funding, Lack of Physician Support, Deterrents to Participation (fear and shame, program location, competing interests), and Disease Progression and Treatment. Conclusions Interview results provided insight into the development and delivery of cancer-exercise programs in Canada and could be used to guide future program development and expansion in Canada. PMID:26715869

  5. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  6. Effect of a school-based intervention on physical activity and quality of life through serial mediation of social support and exercise motivation: the PESSOA program.

    PubMed

    Quaresma, A M; Palmeira, A L; Martins, S S; Minderico, C S; Sardinha, L B

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of social support and behavioral regulation of exercise on physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL), in a Portuguese school-based intervention. We hypothesized that serial mediation effects would be present leading to greater levels of PA and QoL. The sample comprised 1042 students (549 boys), aged 10-16 years, BMI = 19.31 ± 3.51, allocated to two groups of schools: control (n = 207) and intervention (n = 835). This study will report the 24 months results of the program, which aimed to develop healthy lifestyles. Questionnaires were used to measure PA, QoL, motivation to exercise and social support. There was no direct impact of the intervention on QoL or PA. Serial mediation analyses were conducted. Social support (P < 0.019) and intrinsic motivation (P = 0.085) increased more on intervention group. Indirect effects were observed in all serial mediation models. The positive indirect effects on PA and QoL were explained by the increase on peer/parent support in serial with the increase in intrinsic motivation (P < 0.01). Parental support led to an increase on external motivation (P < 0.05), which buffered the effects of the intervention. This school-based intervention promoted the development of social support and motivational mechanisms that explained higher levels of PA and QoL.

  7. The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

  8. Body composition, physical work capacity and physical activity habits at 18-month follow-up of middle-aged women participating in an exercise intervention program.

    PubMed

    MacKeen, P C; Franklin, B A; Nicholas, W C; Buskirk, E R

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-six sedentary women (29-47 yr) participated in a 12-week, 4-d/week physical conditioning program (CP) involving 15-25 min/d of walking/jogging at a heart rate corresponding to 75 percent of aerobic capacity (VO2max). Twenty-three were classified obese (O, greater than 30 percent body fat, mean = 38 percent) and 13 normal (N, less than 30 percent body fat, mean = 25 percent). Significant post-CP changes included increased VO2max and decreased body fat. At 18 months post-CP a volunteer subgroup of the original 36 subjects (Ss) were re-evaluated, 19 being hydrostatically weighed, 21 exercise-tested and 28 interviewed to assess physical activity over the preceding eight quarterly periods. At CP termination 80 percent of N and 78 percent of O had intended to continue jogging, but by follow-up only 40 percent of N and 33 percent of O were so engaged, none at CP frequency, many at reduced duration and intensity. There was no significant difference between follow-up and pre-CP mean h/week of jogging for the entire follow-up group, even though eight of them (28 percent) increased their jogging over pre-CP levels. Follow-up VO2max and percent body fat means were also not significantly different from pre-CP values. It is suggested that the majority of middle-aged women participating in supervised walk-jog conditioning interventions may regress to pre-program physiologic status when left to exercise ad libitum.

  9. Effectiveness of a free exercise program in a neighborhood park

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bing; Cohen, Deborah A.; Derose, Kathryn P.; Marsh, Terry; Williamson, Stephanie; Loy, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Background Faculty, students, and alumni in a university-based kinesiology program developed an innovative model for health promotion practice by partnering with the local park administration in San Fernando, California to offer these exercise classes for free in a low-income, predominantly Latino neighborhood park. The classes were taught by students as practical training for academic credit. Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of this pilot program in promoting moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Methods We used the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) to assess physical activity in the park during the summer of 2013. We evaluated the effectiveness of the free classes by a within-park comparison and by comparing findings with 50 other parks. Results The classes substantially increased moderate-to-vigorous physical activities, in particular, for female park users. However, when classes were not offered there were no differences in park-based physical activity across parks. Conclusions Active programming can increase park-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, but without programming, people may lack the motivation to exercise on their own. Creating a partnership between parks and kinesiology programs is a promising health promotion model. Replicating this type of program could yield important health dividends. PMID:26000236

  10. The effect of participation in an incentive-based wellness program on self-reported exercise.

    PubMed

    Crespin, Daniel J; Abraham, Jean M; Rothman, Alexander J

    2016-01-01

    Employers are increasingly trying to promote healthy behaviors, including regular exercise, through wellness programs that offer financial incentives. However, there is limited evidence that these types of programs affect exercise habits within employee populations. In this study, we estimate the effect of participation in an incentive-based wellness program on self-reported exercise. Since 2008, the University of Minnesota's Fitness Rewards Program has offered a $20 monthly incentive to encourage fitness center utilization among its employees. Using 2006 to 2010 health risk assessments and university administrative files for 2972 employees, we conducted a retrospective cohort study utilizing propensity score methods to estimate the effect of participation in the Fitness Rewards Program on self-reported exercise days per week from 2008 to 2010. On average, participation in the program led to an increase of 0.59 vigorous exercise days per week (95% Confidence Interval: 0.42, 0.78) and 0.43 strength-building exercise days per week (95% Confidence Interval: 0.31, 0.58) in 2008 for participants relative to non-participants. Increases in exercise persisted through 2010. Employees reporting less frequent exercise prior to the program were least likely to participate in the program, but when they participated they had the largest increases in exercise compared to non-participants. Offering an incentive for fitness center utilization encourages higher levels of exercise. Future policies may want to concentrate on how to motivate participation among individuals who are less frequently physically active.

  11. The effect of participation in an incentive-based wellness program on self-reported exercise.

    PubMed

    Crespin, Daniel J; Abraham, Jean M; Rothman, Alexander J

    2016-01-01

    Employers are increasingly trying to promote healthy behaviors, including regular exercise, through wellness programs that offer financial incentives. However, there is limited evidence that these types of programs affect exercise habits within employee populations. In this study, we estimate the effect of participation in an incentive-based wellness program on self-reported exercise. Since 2008, the University of Minnesota's Fitness Rewards Program has offered a $20 monthly incentive to encourage fitness center utilization among its employees. Using 2006 to 2010 health risk assessments and university administrative files for 2972 employees, we conducted a retrospective cohort study utilizing propensity score methods to estimate the effect of participation in the Fitness Rewards Program on self-reported exercise days per week from 2008 to 2010. On average, participation in the program led to an increase of 0.59 vigorous exercise days per week (95% Confidence Interval: 0.42, 0.78) and 0.43 strength-building exercise days per week (95% Confidence Interval: 0.31, 0.58) in 2008 for participants relative to non-participants. Increases in exercise persisted through 2010. Employees reporting less frequent exercise prior to the program were least likely to participate in the program, but when they participated they had the largest increases in exercise compared to non-participants. Offering an incentive for fitness center utilization encourages higher levels of exercise. Future policies may want to concentrate on how to motivate participation among individuals who are less frequently physically active. PMID:26577868

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life Measures for Physically Active Elderly in Community Exercise Programs in Catalonia: Comparative Analysis with Sedentary People

    PubMed Central

    Fortuño-Godes, Jesús; Guerra-Balic, Myriam; Cabedo-Sanromà, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), medication used, and Stock of Health Capital (SHC) in physically active elderly participants in Community Exercise Programs (CEPs) compared to a sedentary group. Methods. EuroQol standardized instrument was completed by physically active elderly (n = 2,185) who participated in CEPs. Common items were compared to HRQoL data of 1,874 sedentary elderly people, taken from the Catalan Health Survey 2006 (CHS'06). Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) outcomes and medication used were assessed through parametric statistics. Dimensions of health conditions were compared, between sedentary people and physically active elderly participants in CEPs. SHC results were obtained combining the EuroQol scores and Life Expectancy (LE) values. An economic value of €34,858.70 was assigned to these years of LE. Results. Physically active subjects had better HRQoL values (75.36 in males and 70.71 in females) than CHS'06 sedentary subjects (58.35 in males and 50.59 in females). Medication used was different between physically active subjects (1.89 in males and 2.87 in females) and CHS'06 sedentary subjects (4.34 in males and 4.21 in females). SHC data for physically active elderly (€465,988.31/QALY in males and €522,550.31/QALY in females) were higher than for CHS'06 sedentary subjects (€363,689.33/QALY in males and €346,615.91/QALY in females). PMID:24454357

  13. Health-related quality of life measures for physically active elderly in community exercise programs in catalonia: comparative analysis with sedentary people.

    PubMed

    Fortuño-Godes, Jesús; Guerra-Balic, Myriam; Cabedo-Sanromà, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), medication used, and Stock of Health Capital (SHC) in physically active elderly participants in Community Exercise Programs (CEPs) compared to a sedentary group. Methods. EuroQol standardized instrument was completed by physically active elderly (n = 2,185) who participated in CEPs. Common items were compared to HRQoL data of 1,874 sedentary elderly people, taken from the Catalan Health Survey 2006 (CHS'06). Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) outcomes and medication used were assessed through parametric statistics. Dimensions of health conditions were compared, between sedentary people and physically active elderly participants in CEPs. SHC results were obtained combining the EuroQol scores and Life Expectancy (LE) values. An economic value of €34,858.70 was assigned to these years of LE. Results. Physically active subjects had better HRQoL values (75.36 in males and 70.71 in females) than CHS'06 sedentary subjects (58.35 in males and 50.59 in females). Medication used was different between physically active subjects (1.89 in males and 2.87 in females) and CHS'06 sedentary subjects (4.34 in males and 4.21 in females). SHC data for physically active elderly (€465,988.31/QALY in males and €522,550.31/QALY in females) were higher than for CHS'06 sedentary subjects (€363,689.33/QALY in males and €346,615.91/QALY in females).

  14. Health-related quality of life measures for physically active elderly in community exercise programs in catalonia: comparative analysis with sedentary people.

    PubMed

    Fortuño-Godes, Jesús; Guerra-Balic, Myriam; Cabedo-Sanromà, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), medication used, and Stock of Health Capital (SHC) in physically active elderly participants in Community Exercise Programs (CEPs) compared to a sedentary group. Methods. EuroQol standardized instrument was completed by physically active elderly (n = 2,185) who participated in CEPs. Common items were compared to HRQoL data of 1,874 sedentary elderly people, taken from the Catalan Health Survey 2006 (CHS'06). Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) outcomes and medication used were assessed through parametric statistics. Dimensions of health conditions were compared, between sedentary people and physically active elderly participants in CEPs. SHC results were obtained combining the EuroQol scores and Life Expectancy (LE) values. An economic value of €34,858.70 was assigned to these years of LE. Results. Physically active subjects had better HRQoL values (75.36 in males and 70.71 in females) than CHS'06 sedentary subjects (58.35 in males and 50.59 in females). Medication used was different between physically active subjects (1.89 in males and 2.87 in females) and CHS'06 sedentary subjects (4.34 in males and 4.21 in females). SHC data for physically active elderly (€465,988.31/QALY in males and €522,550.31/QALY in females) were higher than for CHS'06 sedentary subjects (€363,689.33/QALY in males and €346,615.91/QALY in females). PMID:24454357

  15. Swim Free. A 10 Day Program of Aquatic Exercises Adapted from Life in the Waterworld.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhardt, Lorraine; Sanborn, Laura

    The completely waterproof book contains instructions for an alternative form of swimming exercises based on the movements of 19 water creatures. The exercises can be used by groups or individuals to enhance training programs, to serve as part of a structured synchronized swimming program, or to supplement recreational activities. The book provides…

  16. [Exercise and Physical Activity for Dementia Prevention].

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko

    2016-07-01

    The effects of exercise and physical activity on cognitive function and brain health have been established by longitudinal and intervention studies. However, it is not clear whether exercise has positive effects on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Further studies, including a ramdomized controlled trial with a larger sample size, are required to identify the effects of exercise and multicomponent intervention on cognitive function in the older adults with mild cognitive impairment. It is also important to identify the adequate duration, frequency, and intensity of exercise intervention that is most effective for older individuals. PMID:27395464

  17. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Managing Activities and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Share Compartir Managing Activities and Exercise On this Page Avoiding Extremes Developing an Activity ... recent manageable level of activity. Strength and Conditioning Exercises Strength and conditioning exercises are an important component ...

  18. Exercise and physical activity of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lugo, L; Calderón, C; Visbal, G; Martínez, V

    1990-05-01

    Multiple studies point toward the beneficial role of regular exercise in preventing cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of physical activity and exercise among adolescents from the only high school in Cataño, Puerto Rico. An open-ended, multiple choice questionnaire was administered to 106 students who were randomly chosen. Questions included frequency of exercise, type of sports which they practiced and would like to practice. Results were statistically analyzed. The study revealed that 53% of the participants did not exercise regularly, exercising less than once a week. Those who did exercise were involved in a competitive team sport (35% of females: volleyball; 65.8% of males: basketball). Approximately 1/3 of the females and of the males replied they would like to practice noncompetitive sports which should be incorporated into their lifestyles through early intervention in the school, home and through the primary care physician.

  19. Active Inquiry, Web-based Oceanography Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckels-Martin, Ellen E.; Howell, Paul D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses using web sites to develop active inquiry lessons that mimic some of the tasks and thought processes scientists use everyday. The exercises available at the web sites are designed to develop science process skills and convey basic course content. Exercises stress the interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere. (Author/SAH)

  20. Effect of a School-Based Intervention on Physical Activity and Quality of Life through Serial Mediation of Social Support and Exercise Motivation: The PESSOA Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaresma, A. M.; Palmeira, A. L.; Martins, S. S.; Minderico, C. S.; Sardinha, L. B.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of social support and behavioral regulation of exercise on physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL), in a Portuguese school-based intervention. We hypothesized that serial mediation effects would be present leading to greater levels of PA and QoL. The sample comprised 1042 students (549…

  1. Defense programs business practices re-engineering QFD exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, C.; Halbleib, L.

    1996-03-01

    The end of the cold war has resulted in many changes for the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC). We now work in a smaller complex, with reduced resources, a smaller stockpile, and no new phase 3 weapons development programs. This new environment demands that we re-evaluate the way we design and produce nuclear weapons. The Defense Program (DP) Business Practices Re-engineering activity was initiated to improve the design and production efficiency of the DP Sector. The activity had six goals: (1) to identify DP business practices that are exercised by the Product Realization Process (PRP); (2) to determine the impact (positive, negative, or none) of these practices on defined, prioritized customer criteria; (3) to identify business practices that are candidates for elimination or re-engineering; (4) to select two or three business practices for re-engineering; (5) to re-engineer the selected business practices; and (6) to exercise the re-engineered practices on three pilot development projects. Business practices include technical and well as administrative procedures that are exercised by the PRP. A QFD exercise was performed to address (1)-(4). The customer that identified, defined, and prioritized the criteria to rate the business practices was the Block Change Advisory Group. Five criteria were identified: cycle time, flexibility, cost, product performance/quality, and best practices. Forty-nine business practices were identified and rated per the criteria. From this analysis, the group made preliminary recommendations as to which practices would be addressed in the re-engineering activity. Sixteen practices will be addressed in the re-engineering activity. These practices will then be piloted on three projects: (1) the Electronic Component Assembly (ECA)/Radar Project, (2) the B61 Mod 11, and (3) Warhead Protection Program (WPP).

  2. The current state of physical activity and exercise programs in German-speaking, Swiss psychiatric hospitals: results from a brief online survey

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Serge; Colledge, Flora; Beeler, Nadja; Pühse, Uwe; Kalak, Nadeem; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Mikoteit, Thorsten; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Gerber, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity and exercise programs (PAEPs) are an important factor in increasing and maintaining physical and mental health. This holds particularly true for patients with psychiatric disorders undergoing treatment in a psychiatric hospital. To understand whether the benefits reported in the literature are mirrored in current treatment modalities, the aim of the present study was to assess the current state of PAEPs in psychiatric hospitals in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Methods All psychiatric hospitals (N=55) in the German-speaking part of Switzerland were contacted in spring 2014. Staff responsible for PAEPs were asked to complete an online questionnaire covering questions related to PAEPs such as type, frequency, staff training, treatment rationale, importance of PAEPs within the treatment strategy, and possible avenues to increase PAEPs. Results Staff members of 48 different psychiatric hospitals completed the survey. Hospitals provided the following therapeutic treatments: relaxation techniques (100%), sports therapy (97%), activity-related psychotherapeutic interventions (95%), physiotherapy (85%), body therapies (59%), far-east techniques (57%), and hippotherapy (22%). Frequencies ranged from once/week to five times/week. Approximately 25% of patients participated in the PAEPs. Interventions were offered irrespective of psychiatric disorders. PAEP providers wanted and needed more vocational training. Conclusion All participating psychiatric hospitals offer a broad variety of PAEPs in their treatment curricula. However, the majority of inpatients do not participate in PAEPs. Furthermore, those who do participate cannot continue to do so following discharge. PAEP providers need specific extended vocational trainings and believe that the potential of PA should be improved. PMID:27350748

  3. Utility of the Living (Well Through) Intergenerational Fitness and Exercise Program as a County-Delivered Extension Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowle, Ashleigh J.; Francis, Sarah L.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Franke, Warren D.

    2016-01-01

    Rural-residing older adults are not participating in regular physical activity. Extension is in an excellent position to fill this programming void through transdisciplinary programming such as the Living (well through) Intergenerational Fitness and Exercise (LIFE) program. Qualitative evaluation was conducted to assess the LIFE program's utility…

  4. An analysis of undergraduate exercise science programs: an exercise science curriculum survey.

    PubMed

    Elder, Craig L; Pujol, Thomas J; Barnes, Jeremy T

    2003-08-01

    Undergraduate exercise science programs develop curricula by referring to standards set by professional organizations. A web-based survey was administered to 235 institutions with exercise science undergraduate programs to evaluate their adherence to stated curricular guidelines. Results indicate that 29% of institutions considered American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs); 33% both ACSM and National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) guidelines; 6% ACSM, NASPE, and National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA); 8% ACSM, NASPE, NSCA, and American Society of Exercise Physiologists, and 5% NASPE. The two largest subgroups had good compliance with the areas of exercise physiology, biomechanics, and human anatomy and physiology. However, neither subgroup adhered to the areas of exercise prescription, testing, and implementation; exercise and aging; or exercise with special populations. Regardless of the implemented guideline(s), most institutions placed minimal emphasis on areas related to health promotion and many curricula did not require any field experience. PMID:12930183

  5. The effects of trunk stability exercise and a combined exercise program on pain, flexibility, and static balance in chronic low back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Hwangbo, Gak; Lee, Chae-Woo; Kim, Seong-Gil; Kim, Hyeon-Su

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effect of trunk stability exercise and combined exercise program on pain, flexibility, and static balance in chronic low back pain patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty persons diagnosed with chronic low back pain were divided into a trunk stability exercise group and a combined exercise group and then conducted exercise for six weeks. [Results] VAS and sway lengths decreased significantly in both groups. A comparison of sway lengths after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the trunk stability exercise group had a bigger decrease than the combined exercise group. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicated that trunk stability exercise would have bigger effect than combined exercise on the daily activities of chronic low back pain patients as it strengthens deep abdominal muscles and improves flexibility and balancing ability.

  6. BabeLO--An Extensible Converter of Programming Exercises Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queiros, R.; Leal, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades, there was a proliferation of programming exercise formats that hinders interoperability in automatic assessment. In the lack of a widely accepted standard, a pragmatic solution is to convert content among the existing formats. BabeLO is a programming exercise converter providing services to a network of heterogeneous…

  7. PROGRAMMING EXERCISES FOR COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami-Dade Junior Coll., FL.

    REFERENCE MATERIAL AND PROGRAMING EXERCISES USED FOR THE COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING SUMMER INSTITUTE AT MIAMI-DADE JUNIOR COLLEGE, JULY 10-28, 1967, ARE PRESENTED. THE EXERCISES, TO BE PROGRAMED FOR EXECUTION ON THE IBM SYSTEM 1620 WITH AN ON-LINE 1627 PLOTTER, PROVIDE A MEDIUM FOR COVERING AND ENFORCING THE SUBJECT MATERIAL. ALSO INCLUDED ARE (1)…

  8. Exercise Clothing for Children in a Weight-Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Kate; Alexander, Marina; Spencer, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether clothing can be perceived as a form of encouragement for success in a weight management exercise program. A small (n = 30) sample of children and parents, enrolled in a weight-management exercise program, responded to a survey instrument that included questions regarding fit and comfort of the clothing children wore…

  9. Evaluation of the Virtual Physiology of Exercise Laboratory Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, John L.

    2009-01-01

    The Virtual Physiology of Exercise Laboratory (VPEL) program was created to simulate the test design, data collection, and analysis phases of selected exercise physiology laboratories. The VPEL program consists of four modules: (1) cardiovascular, (2) maximal O[subscript 2] consumption [Vo[subscript 2max], (3) lactate and ventilatory thresholds,…

  10. [Effectiveness of physical exercise programs in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Cano-De La Cuerda, Roberto; Aguila-Maturana, Ana María; Miangolarra-Page, Juan Carlos

    2009-02-14

    Clinical studies with methodological rigor have shown that the strategies for lifestyle modification and drug therapies can prevent or at least delay the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in individuals at high risk. Combination of regular physical exercise and diet is more effective than each one separately to achieve modest weight loss and improve metabolic control in patients with DM. Our objective is to describe the role of exercise in patients with DM and the exercise programs in relation to the previous considerations, taking into account the intensity of the exercise, components of the program, duration, frequency and precautions. PMID:19211086

  11. [Effectiveness of physical exercise programs in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Cano-De La Cuerda, Roberto; Aguila-Maturana, Ana María; Miangolarra-Page, Juan Carlos

    2009-02-14

    Clinical studies with methodological rigor have shown that the strategies for lifestyle modification and drug therapies can prevent or at least delay the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in individuals at high risk. Combination of regular physical exercise and diet is more effective than each one separately to achieve modest weight loss and improve metabolic control in patients with DM. Our objective is to describe the role of exercise in patients with DM and the exercise programs in relation to the previous considerations, taking into account the intensity of the exercise, components of the program, duration, frequency and precautions.

  12. Exercise, training and neutrophil microbicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Smith, J A; Telford, R D; Mason, I B; Weidemann, M J

    1990-06-01

    The concentration in human plasma of putative neutrophil-"priming" cytokines like endogenous pyrogens is known to increase significantly in response to moderate exercise (11). This is characteristic of an acute-phase response. The ability of blood neutrophils isolated from both trained and untrained human subjects (n = 11, 9) to produce microbicidal reactive oxygen species was determined using luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence both before and after one hour of aerobic exercise at 60% VO2max. Irrespective of training and stimulus concentration, exercise nearly always caused significant "priming" of the capacity of neutrophils to produce H2O2 and HOCl upon stimulation with opsonized zymosan (P less than 0.01); however, compared to their untrained counterparts, the activity of cells isolated from trained individuals was depressed about 50% at unit stimulus concentration, both before and after exercise (P less than 0.075), whilst remaining unaltered at saturating concentrations. Although neutrophil oxygenation activity is only one parameter that contributes to immunological status, regular episodes of moderate exercise may increase resistance to infection by priming the "killing capacity" of neutrophils. In contrast, prolonged periods of intensive training may lead to increased susceptibility to common infections by diminishing this activity. PMID:2115507

  13. Facts about Exercise: How To Get Started. Sample Exercise Programs. What Is Fact and What Is Fiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    These fact sheets focus on exercising for improved physical fitness. Answers to common questions about exercise are presented. An outline is provided on two exercise programs--walking and jogging. A discussion is presented on how to start an exercise program. A chart provides information on heart rates for different ages and the length of exercise…

  14. Educating Young Children: Active Learning Practices for Preschool and Child Care Programs [and] A Study Guide to Educating Young Children: Exercises for Adult Learners. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann, Mary; Weikart, David P.

    High/Scope preschool curriculum is a model for developing high-quality early childhood programs that encourage and support children's initiatives and active learning experiences. This revised manual for early childhood practitioners and students presents essential strategies adults can use to make active learning a reality in their programs. The…

  15. Effects of pelvic stabilization on lumbar muscle activity during dynamic exercise.

    PubMed

    San Juan, Jun G; Yaggie, James A; Levy, Susan S; Mooney, Vert; Udermann, Brian E; Mayer, John M

    2005-11-01

    Many commonly utilized low-back exercise devices offer mechanisms to stabilize the pelvis and to isolate the lumbar spine, but the value of these mechanisms remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of pelvic stabilization on the activity of the lumbar and hip extensor muscles during dynamic back extension exercise. Fifteen volunteers in good general health performed dynamic extension exercise in a seated upright position on a lumbar extension machine with and without pelvic stabilization. During exercise, surface electromyographic activity of the lumbar multifidus and biceps femoris was recorded. The activity of the multifidus was 51% greater during the stabilized condition, whereas there was no difference in the activity of the biceps femoris between conditions. This study demonstrates that pelvic stabilization enhances lumbar muscle recruitment during dynamic exercise on machines. Exercise specialists can use these data when designing exercise programs to develop low back strength.

  16. The Efficacy of Exercise Programs for Parkinson's Disease: Tai Chi versus Combined Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Sang-Myung; Chae, Bo-Kyung; Sung, Hye-Ryun; Lee, Geon Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Exercise is recommended for every patient with Parkinson's disease (PD). The effectiveness of two different forms of exercise for PD, Tai Chi and combined stretching-strengthening exercise, was compared. Methods Patients with mild-to-moderate PD were recruited to join either the combined stretching-strengthening exercise group (n=7), the Tai Chi group (n=9), or the control (nonintervention) group (n=7). Exercise was performed three times a week over a period of 8 weeks. The Tai Chi exercise was led by certified instructors based on a Tai-Chi-for-arthritis program. The combined stretching-strengthening exercise comprised folk dancing, stepping, and elastic-band exercises. The subjects' functional fitness, parkinsonian symptoms, quality of life (QoL), and depression were evaluated. Results Both exercise groups yielded better results in their overall functional fitness after the intervention. However, no improvement with exercise was found for parkinsonian symptoms, as evaluated using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. With respect to the domains of QoL, the combined stretching-strengthening exercise group fared better in the social domain of QoL, and the Tai Chi group fared better in the emotional domain, while QoL and depression worsened in the control group. The postintervention QoL was improved relative to the control condition only for the Tai Chi group. Although the exercise interventions did not have any effect on depression, the control group was associated with a significant deterioration. Conclusions Exercise improved the functional fitness and QoL of PD patients, with Tai Chi yielding better results in QoL and favorable results in functional fitness. These findings suggest that Tai Chi could be a good exercise strategy for patients with PD. PMID:24285965

  17. Live Scale Active Shooter Exercise: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Randy

    2008-01-01

    On October 23, 2007, the Lake Land College Public Safety Department conducted a full-scale live exercise that simulated an active shooter and barricaded hostage. In this article, the author will emphasize what they learned, and how they intend to benefit from it. He will list the law enforcement issues and general issues they encountered, and then…

  18. Prescribing an Exercise Program and Motivating Older Adults To Comply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    To help motivate older adults to initiate and adhere to an exercise program, a seven-step approach was developed: education about benefits, screening, goal setting, exposure to exercise, exposure to role models, verbal encouragement from credible sources, and reinforcement and rewards. (Contains 65 references.) (SK)

  19. Two Exercise Programs for People with Diabetes and Visual Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dods, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes two programs, one in Australia and one in the United States, that teach people with diabetes and visual impairment to incorporate proper diets and exercise into their daily lives and thus to gain better control of their blood glucose levels. It also presents a basic model of an exercise regimen that clients can perform at…

  20. Estimation of Exercise Intensity in “Exercise and Physical Activity Reference for Health Promotion”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Tomoyuki; Kurihara, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kajiro

    To maintain or promote the health condition of elderly citizens is quite important for Japan. Given the circumstances, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has established the standards for the activities and exercises for promoting the health, and quantitatively determined the exercise intensity on 107 items of activities. This exercise intensity, however, requires recording the type and the duration of the activity to be calculated. In this paper, the exercise intensities are estimated using 3D accelerometer for 25 daily activities. As the result, the exercise intensities were estimated to be within the root mean square error of 0.83 METs for all 25 activities.

  1. Dietary Supplement Laboratory Quality Assurance Program: The First Five Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Melissa M.; Rimmer, Catherine A.; Wood, Laura J.; Lippa, Katrice A.; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Duewer, David L.; Sander, Lane C.; Betz, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has established a Dietary Supplement Laboratory Quality Assurance Program (DSQAP) in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. Program participants measure concentrations of active and/or marker compounds as well as nutritional and toxic elements in food and dietary supplements distributed by NIST. Data are compiled at NIST, where they are analyzed for accuracy relative to reference values and concordance among the participants. Performance reports and certificates of completion are provided to participants, which can be used to demonstrate compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practices as promulgated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The DSQAP has conducted five exercises to date, with total participation including more than 75 different laboratories and many more individual analysts. PMID:21797008

  2. Impact of an exercise program on adherence and fitness indicators.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Roger; Gilleland, Diana

    2016-05-01

    Adherence to exercise is one of the most problematic health behaviors. This pilot study describes the impact of an exercise program on adherence to exercise and fitness indicators for overweight and obese adults enrolled in an insurance reimbursed exercise plan. Chart reviews were conducted retrospectively in a convenience sample of 77 subjects from a human performance lab (HPL) at a large southern university. Charts from 2004 to 2009 were reviewed for health history, fitness indicators (fitness level, weight, BMI, hip/waist ratio, % body fat, BP, HR, cholesterol), and adherence (number of exercise sessions/month). Exercise supervision was operationalized in two phases over 12 months: Phase I (3 months supervised exercise) and Phase II (9 months unsupervised exercise). Fifty-eight participants completed Phase I, and 8 completed Phase II. Six-nine percent of those completing Phase I visited the gym at least 8 times/month with significant (α=.05) improvement in all fitness indicators. Those visiting <8 times/month had improvement in fitness level, weight, BMI, and % body fat. Twenty-four subjects continued into Phase II, with only eight completing Phase II. Of those eight, only one subject visited the HPL at least 8 times/month. Health history data including co-morbidities, symptoms, habits, perceived tension, job stress, and fitness level were not associated with adherence. Symptoms of swollen, stiff, painful joints, and swollen ankles and legs were associated with decreased adherence to exercise. Supervised exercise was positively related to adherence and improved fitness indicators. Adults with joint symptoms may require more support. Based on these pilot data, designing a study with a larger sample and the inclusion of barriers and facilitators for adherence to self-directed exercise would allow additional analysis. Innovative interventions are needed that mimic the supervised environment, shifting responsibility for the exercise plan from the supervisor to

  3. Exercise portrayal in children’s television programs: analysis of the UK and Irish programming

    PubMed Central

    Scully, Paul; Reid, Orlaith; Macken, Alan P; Healy, Mark; Saunders, Jean; Leddin, Des; Cullen, Walter; Dunne, Colum P; O’Gorman, Clodagh S

    2016-01-01

    Background Television watching is obesogenic due to its sedentary nature and programming content, which influences children. Few studies have examined exercise placement within children-specific programming. This study aimed to investigate the frequency and type of exercise placement in children-specific television broadcasts and to compare placements on the UK and Irish television channels. Methods Content analysis for five weekdays’ worth of children-specific television broadcasting totaling 82.5 hours on both the UK (British Broadcasting Corporation) and Irish (Radió Teilifís Éireann) television channels was performed. For the purposes of comparing the UK and Irish placements, analysis was restricted to programming broadcast between 6 am and 11.30 am. Exercise placements were coded based on type of activity, activity context, activity motivating factors and outcome, and characters involved. Results A total of 780 cues were recorded during the total recording period. A wide variety of sports were depicted, but dancing-related cues were most commonly seen (n=163, 23.3%), with the majority of cues being of mild (n=365, 65.9%) or moderate (n=172, 31.0%) intensity. The majority of cues were associated with a positive outcome (n=404, 61.4%), and social motivations were most commonly seen (n=289, 30.3%). The Irish and the UK portrayals were broadly similar. Conclusion This study highlights the wide variety of sports portrayed and the active effort undertaken by television stations to depict physical exercise and recreation in a positive light. PMID:27729808

  4. Home Exercise Programs for Adults With Neurological Injuries: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to describe current occupational therapy practices in the usage and prescription of and clinical reasoning process supporting home exercise programs (HEPs) for clients with neurological injuries (CWNIs). METHOD. A survey was distributed via mail to 2,000 members of the American Occupational Therapy Association. The survey questions concerned basic demographics, current HEP practices, and attitudes toward using HEPs with CWNIs. RESULTS. In the 360 returned surveys, occupational therapists reported numerous benefits of using HEPs and were able to clearly articulate their clinical reasoning. Commonly reported HEP activities were preparatory in nature, and the most frequently prescribed dosage was 16–30 min daily. Most therapists relied on the same clinical reasoning process but varied in implementation methods. CONCLUSION. This study’s results highlight the gaps between evidence and practice. The active ingredients in HEPs for CWNIs need to be more clearly defined and described. PMID:27089296

  5. Exercise, an Active Lifestyle, and Obesity. Making the Exercise Prescription Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Ross E.

    1999-01-01

    An active lifestyle is important in helping overweight people both lose and manage their weight. Exercise has many health benefits beyond weight control. The traditional exercise prescription of regular bouts of continuous vigorous exercise may need modification to increase rates of adoption and compliance, with people needing encouragement to…

  6. The effects of isometric exercise types on pain and muscle activity in patients with low back pain.

    PubMed

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Park, Hun-Kyung; Park, Jung-Sub; Park, Hye-Sang

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of isometric exercise types on low back pain (LBP) patients. Isometric exercise types were mat exercise and I-Zer exercise. Subjects were divided into 3 groups: LBP control group, LBP mat exercise group, and LBP I-Zer exercise group in 23-25 aged men. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and electromyography (EMG) were used to evaluate the degree of pain and the muscle activity in LBP patients. Root mean square (RMS), median frequency (MDF), and mean frequency (MNF) were checked by EMG power spectrum analysis on longissimus thoracic (LT), iliocostalis lumborum (IL), mulitifidus (M), and rectus abdominis (RA). LBP mat exercise program and LBP I-Zer exercise program were conducted 5 sets once time, 3 times per week during 6 weeks. The two-way ANOVA with repeated measure was used to check the pain degree and muscle activity. The present results showed that muscle activity in the LBP I-Zer exercise group was increased compared to the LBP mat exercise group and LBP control group (P<0.05). LBP I-Zer exercise group and LBP mat exercise group showed increased mean frequency in LT, IL, M, and RA muscles than the LBP control group. Therefore, LBP patients performed isometric exercise may have positive effect to reduce pain degree and to increase muscle activity. Especially, LBP I-Zer exercise type showed more effectiveness in reducing pain degree and enhancing muscle activity.

  7. The effects of isometric exercise types on pain and muscle activity in patients with low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Park, Hun-Kyung; Park, Jung-Sub; Park, Hye-Sang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of isometric exercise types on low back pain (LBP) patients. Isometric exercise types were mat exercise and I-Zer exercise. Subjects were divided into 3 groups: LBP control group, LBP mat exercise group, and LBP I-Zer exercise group in 23–25 aged men. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and electromyography (EMG) were used to evaluate the degree of pain and the muscle activity in LBP patients. Root mean square (RMS), median frequency (MDF), and mean frequency (MNF) were checked by EMG power spectrum analysis on longissimus thoracic (LT), iliocostalis lumborum (IL), mulitifidus (M), and rectus abdominis (RA). LBP mat exercise program and LBP I-Zer exercise program were conducted 5 sets once time, 3 times per week during 6 weeks. The two-way ANOVA with repeated measure was used to check the pain degree and muscle activity. The present results showed that muscle activity in the LBP I-Zer exercise group was increased compared to the LBP mat exercise group and LBP control group (P<0.05). LBP I-Zer exercise group and LBP mat exercise group showed increased mean frequency in LT, IL, M, and RA muscles than the LBP control group. Therefore, LBP patients performed isometric exercise may have positive effect to reduce pain degree and to increase muscle activity. Especially, LBP I-Zer exercise type showed more effectiveness in reducing pain degree and enhancing muscle activity. PMID:26331136

  8. Academic and Research Programs in Exercise Science, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    PARK, KYUNG-SHIN; SONG, WOOK

    2009-01-01

    We appreciate the opportunity to review academic curriculum and current research focus of Exercise Science programs in South Korea. The information of this paper was collected by several different methods, including e-mail and phone interviews, and a discussion with Korean professors who attended the 2009 ACSM annual conference. It was agreed that exercise science programming in South Korea has improved over the last 60 years since being implemented. One of distinguishable achievement is that exercise science programs after the 1980’s has been expanded to several different directions. It does not only produce physical education teachers but also attributes more to research, sports medicine, sports, leisure and recreation. Therefore, it has produced various jobs in exercise-related fields. Some of exercise science departments do not require teacher preparation course work in their curriculum which allows students to focus more on their specialty. Secondly, we believe we South Korea has caught up with advanced countries in terms of research quality. Many Korean researchers have recently published and presented their investigations in international journals and conferences. The quality and quantity of these studies introduced to international societies indicate that Exercise Science programs in South Korea is continuing to develop and plays an important part in the world. PMID:27182314

  9. Implementation of Health Fitness Exercise Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cundiff, David E., Ed.

    This monograph includes the following articles to aid in implementation of fitness concepts: (1) "Trends in Physical Fitness: A Personal Perspective" (H. Harrison Clarke); (2) "A Total Health-Fitness Life-Style" (Steven N. Blair); (3) "Objectives for the Nation--Physical Fitness and Exercise" (Jack H. Wilmore); (4) "A New Physical Fitness Test"…

  10. Muscle activation during various hamstring exercises.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Matt J; Hammond, Kelley G; Schilling, Brian K; Ferreria, Lucas C; Reed, Jacob P; Weiss, Lawrence W

    2014-06-01

    The dorsal muscles of the lower torso and extremities have often been denoted the "posterior chain." These muscles are used to support the thoracic and lumbar spine and peripheral joints, including the hip, knee, and ankle on the dorsal aspect of the body. This study investigated the relative muscle activity of the hamstring group and selected surrounding musculature during the leg curl, good morning, glute-ham raise, and Romanian deadlift (RDL). Twelve healthy, weight-trained men performed duplicate trials of single repetitions at 85% 1-repetition maximum for each lift in random order, during which surface electromyography and joint angle data were obtained. Repeated measures analysis of variance across the 4 exercises was performed to compare the activity from the erector spinae (ES), gluteus medius (GMed), semitendinosus (ST), biceps femoris (BF), and medial gastrocnemius (MGas). Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were noted in eccentric muscle activity between exercise for the MGas (p < 0.027), ST (p < 0.001), BF (p < 0.001), and ES (p = 0.032), and in concentric muscle activity, for the ES (p < 0.001), BF (p = 0.010), ST (p = 0.009), MGas (p < 0.001), and the GMed (p = 0.018). Bonferroni post hoc analysis revealed significant pairwise differences during eccentric actions for the BF, ST, and MGas. Post hoc analysis also revealed significant pairwise differences during concentric actions for the ES, BF, ST, MGas, and GMed. Each of these showed effect sizes that are large or greater. The main findings of this investigation are that the ST is substantially more active than the BF among all exercises, and hamstring activity was maximized in the RDL and glute-ham raise. Therefore, athletes and coaches who seek to maximize the involvement of the hamstring musculature should consider focusing on the glute-ham raise and RDL. PMID:24149748

  11. Parent and Child Perceptions of a Self-Regulated, Home-Based Exercise Program for Children with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Happ, Mary Beth; Hoffman, Leslie A.; Higgins, Linda W.; DiVirgilio, Dana; Orenstein, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite recognized benefits, many children with cystic fibrosis (CF) do not consistently participate in physical activities. There is little empirical literature regarding the feelings and attitudes of children with CF toward exercise programs, parental roles in exercise, or factors influencing exercise experiences during research participation. Objectives To describe the exercise experiences of children with CF and their parents during participation in a six-month program of self-regulated, home-based exercise. Methods This qualitative descriptive study nested within a randomized controlled trial of a self-regulated, home-based exercise program used serial semi-structured interviews conducted individually at two and six months with 11 purposively selected children with CF and their parent(s). Results Six boys and five girls, ages 10–16, and parents (nine mothers, four fathers) participated in a total of 44 interviews. Five major thematic categories describing child and parent perceptions and experience of the bicycle exercise program were identified in the transcripts: (a) motivators; (b) barriers; (c) effort/work; (d) exercise routine; (e) sustaining exercise. Research participation, parent-family participation, health benefits, and the child’s personality traits were primary motivators. Competing activities, priorities and responsibilities were the major barriers to implementing the exercise program as prescribed. Motivation waned and the novelty wore off for several (approximately half) parent-child dyads, who planned to decrease or stop the exercise program after the study ended. Discussion We identified motivators and barriers to a self-regulated, home-based exercise program for children with CF that can be addressed in planning future exercise interventions to maximize the health benefits for children with CF and the feasibility and acceptability to the children and their families. PMID:23995464

  12. Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... article Exercise / physical activity with MS Judy Boone, physical therapist Lynn Williams, Dan Melfi and Dave Altman discuss ... adjusted as changes occur in MS symptoms. A physical therapist experienced with MS can be helpful in designing, ...

  13. Motivational and evolutionary aspects of a physical exercise training program: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, João P. P.; de Souza, Altay A. L.; de Lima, Giscard H. O.; Rodrigues, Dayane F.; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; da Silva Alves, Eduardo; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco T.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that motivational level and prior expectations influence one’s commitment to physical activity. Moreover, these aspects are not properly described in terms of proximal (SDT, Self Determination Theory) and distal (evolutionary) explanations in the literature. This paper aims to verify if level of motivation (BREQ-2, Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2) and expectations regarding regular physical exercise (IMPRAF-54) before starting a 1-year exercise program could determine likelihood of completion. Ninety-four volunteers (53 women) included a completed protocol group (CPG; n = 21) and drop-out group (n = 73). The IMPRAF-54 scale was used to assess six different expectations associated with physical activity, and the BREQ-2 inventory was used to assess the level of motivation in five steps (from amotivation to intrinsic motivation). Both questionnaires were assessed before starting a regular exercise program. The CPG group presented higher sociability and lower pleasure scores according to IMPRAF-54 domains. A logistic regression analysis showed that a one-point increment on sociability score increased the chance of completing the program by 10%, and the same one-point increment on pleasure score reduced the chance of completing the protocol by 16%. ROC curves were also calculated to establish IMPRAF-54 cutoffs for adherence (Sociability – 18.5 points – 81% sensibility/50% specificity) and dropout (Pleasure – 25.5 points – 86% sensibility/20% specificity) of the exercise protocol. Our results indicate that an expectation of social interaction was a positive factor in predicting adherence to exercise. Grounded in SDT and its innate needs (competence, autonomy, relatedness), physical exercise is not an end; it is a means to achieve autonomy and self-cohesion. The association of physical activity with social practices, as occurs in hunter-gathering groups, can engage people to be physically active and can provide

  14. Exercise Science Academic Programs and Research in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    MADRIGAL, NORBERTO; REYES, JOSEPHINE JOY; PAGADUAN, JEFFREY; ESPINO, REIL VINARD

    2010-01-01

    In this invited editorial, professors from leading institutions in the Philippines, share information regarding their programs relating to Exercise Science. They have provided information on academic components such as entrance requirements, progression through programs, and professional opportunities available to students following completion; as well as details regarding funding available to students to participate in research, collaboration, and specific research interests. PMID:27182343

  15. Aerobic Dance Exercise Programs: Maintaining Quality and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Pamela J.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the effectiveness of Washington State University's aerobic dance program showed that participation in the program did not improve students' cardiovascular fitness. Aerobics instructors should be trained to use pulse rate and other principles of exercise physiology to make their work more effective. (PP)

  16. Effects of exercise pressor reflex activation on carotid baroreflex function during exercise in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, K. M.; Fadel, P. J.; Stromstad, M.; Ide, K.; Smith, S. A.; Querry, R. G.; Raven, P. B.; Secher, N. H.

    2001-01-01

    1. This investigation was designed to determine the contribution of the exercise pressor reflex to the resetting of the carotid baroreflex during exercise. 2. Ten subjects performed 3.5 min of static one-legged exercise (20 % maximal voluntary contraction) and 7 min dynamic cycling (20 % maximal oxygen uptake) under two conditions: control (no intervention) and with the application of medical anti-shock (MAS) trousers inflated to 100 mmHg (to activate the exercise pressor reflex). Carotid baroreflex function was determined at rest and during exercise using a rapid neck pressure/neck suction technique. 3. During exercise, the application of MAS trousers (MAS condition) increased mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma noradrenaline concentration (dynamic exercise only) and perceived exertion (dynamic exercise only) when compared to control (P < 0.05). No effect of the MAS condition was evident at rest. The MAS condition had no effect on heart rate (HR), plasma lactate and adrenaline concentrations or oxygen uptake at rest and during exercise. The carotid baroreflex stimulus-response curve was reset upward on the response arm and rightward to a higher operating pressure by control exercise without alterations in gain. Activation of the exercise pressor reflex by MAS trousers further reset carotid baroreflex control of MAP, as indicated by the upward and rightward relocation of the curve. However, carotid baroreflex control of HR was only shifted rightward to higher operating pressures by MAS trousers. The sensitivity of the carotid baroreflex was unaltered by exercise pressor reflex activation. 4. These findings suggest that during dynamic and static exercise the exercise pressor reflex is capable of actively resetting carotid baroreflex control of mean arterial pressure; however, it would appear only to modulate carotid baroreflex control of heart rate.

  17. Exercise Do's and Don'ts: Guidelines for Fitness Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Sharon

    Many common exercises are contraindicated due to their potential for injury relative to benefit produced. Specific contraindicated exercises are discussed, and safer, more effective exercises are recommended. Current stretching and toning guidelines are also given which apply to all fitness activities. (Author)

  18. Understanding older adults' motivators and barriers to participating in organized programs supporting exercise behaviors.

    PubMed

    Biedenweg, Kelly; Meischke, Hendrika; Bohl, Alex; Hammerback, Kristen; Williams, Barbara; Poe, Pamela; Phelan, Elizabeth A

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about older adults' perceptions of organized programs that support exercise behavior. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 older adults residing in King County, Washington, who either declined to join, joined and participated, or joined and then quit a physical activity-oriented program. We sought to explore motivators and barriers to physical activity program participation and to elicit suggestions for marketing strategies to optimize participation. Two programs supporting exercise behavior and targeting older persons were the source of study participants: Enhance(®)Fitness and Physical Activity for a Lifetime of Success. We analyzed interview data using standard qualitative methods. We examined variations in themes by category of program participant (joiner, decliner, quitter) as well as by program and by race. Interview participants were mostly females in their early 70s. Approximately half were non-White, and about half had graduated from college. The most frequently cited personal factors motivating program participation were enjoying being with others while exercising and desiring a routine that promoted accountability. The most frequent environmental motivators were marketing materials, encouragement from a trusted person, lack of program fees, and the location of the program. The most common barriers to participation were already getting enough exercise, not being motivated or ready, and having poor health. Marketing messages focused on both personal benefits (feeling better, social opportunity, enjoyability) and desirable program features (tailored to individual needs), and marketing mechanisms ranged from traditional written materials to highly personalized approaches. These results suggest that organized programs tend to appeal to those who are more socially inclined and seek accountability. Certain program features also influence participation. Thoughtful marketing that involves a variety of messages and mechanisms is

  19. Understanding older adults' motivators and barriers to participating in organized programs supporting exercise behaviors.

    PubMed

    Biedenweg, Kelly; Meischke, Hendrika; Bohl, Alex; Hammerback, Kristen; Williams, Barbara; Poe, Pamela; Phelan, Elizabeth A

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about older adults' perceptions of organized programs that support exercise behavior. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 older adults residing in King County, Washington, who either declined to join, joined and participated, or joined and then quit a physical activity-oriented program. We sought to explore motivators and barriers to physical activity program participation and to elicit suggestions for marketing strategies to optimize participation. Two programs supporting exercise behavior and targeting older persons were the source of study participants: Enhance(®)Fitness and Physical Activity for a Lifetime of Success. We analyzed interview data using standard qualitative methods. We examined variations in themes by category of program participant (joiner, decliner, quitter) as well as by program and by race. Interview participants were mostly females in their early 70s. Approximately half were non-White, and about half had graduated from college. The most frequently cited personal factors motivating program participation were enjoying being with others while exercising and desiring a routine that promoted accountability. The most frequent environmental motivators were marketing materials, encouragement from a trusted person, lack of program fees, and the location of the program. The most common barriers to participation were already getting enough exercise, not being motivated or ready, and having poor health. Marketing messages focused on both personal benefits (feeling better, social opportunity, enjoyability) and desirable program features (tailored to individual needs), and marketing mechanisms ranged from traditional written materials to highly personalized approaches. These results suggest that organized programs tend to appeal to those who are more socially inclined and seek accountability. Certain program features also influence participation. Thoughtful marketing that involves a variety of messages and mechanisms is

  20. Activation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle is dependent on exercise intensity and AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Schwalm, Céline; Jamart, Cécile; Benoit, Nicolas; Naslain, Damien; Prémont, Christophe; Prévet, Jérémy; Van Thienen, Ruud; Deldicque, Louise; Francaux, Marc

    2015-08-01

    In humans, nutrient deprivation and extreme endurance exercise both activate autophagy. We hypothesized that cumulating fasting and cycling exercise would potentiate activation of autophagy in skeletal muscle. Well-trained athletes were divided into control (n = 8), low-intensity (LI, n = 8), and high-intensity (HI, n = 7) exercise groups and submitted to fed and fasting sessions. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis before, at the end, and 1 h after a 2 h LI or HI bout of exercise. Phosphorylation of ULK1(Ser317) was higher after exercise (P < 0.001). In both the fed and the fasted states, LC3bII protein level and LC3bII/I were decreased after LI and HI (P < 0.05), while p62/SQSTM1 was decreased only 1 h after HI (P < 0.05), indicating an increased autophagic flux after HI. The autophagic transcriptional program was also activated, as evidenced by the increased level of LC3b, p62/SQSTM1, GabarapL1, and Cathepsin L mRNAs observed after HI but not after LI. The increased autophagic flux after HI exercise could be due to increased AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) activity, as both AMPKα(Thr172) and ACC(Ser79) had a higher phosphorylation state after HI (P < 0.001). In summary, the most effective strategy to activate autophagy in human skeletal muscle seems to rely on exercise intensity more than diet. PMID:25957282

  1. Effects of a muscle exercise program on exercise capacity in subjects with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, N M; Pendergast, D R

    1994-07-01

    Maximal aerobic power and muscle function have been shown to decrease with age and to be even lower in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). This study was designed to determine if subjects with OA who underwent only a muscle exercise program had improved exercise capacity and cardiovascular fitness. A maximal graded exercise test was given before and after 3 months of exercise (isometric, isotonic, and isometric force generated as a function of time contractions, three times a week). Maximal strength and the tension-time index improved significantly. Peak aerobic power increased from 15.99 +/- 3.96 mL.kg-1.min-1 to 20.34 +/- 3.29 mL.kg-1.min-1. On average, maximal walking speed increased from 2.0 +/- 0.6 mph to 2.4 +/- 0.7mph. Exercise time increased 22%, from 9.2 +/- 2.3 minutes to 11.2 +/- 2.7 minutes. There were significant reductions in submaximal heart rate (15b.min-1) and systolic blood pressure (15mmHg) after training. It would appear that the reduction in aerobic fitness of subjects with OA is secondary to their reduced muscle function. By improving muscle function, increases in exercise capacity and aerobic fitness occurred.

  2. Effects of postpartum exercise program on fatigue and depression during "doing-the-month" period.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yi-Li; Yang, Chi-Li; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2008-09-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of an exercise program on reducing levels of fatigue and depression among postpartum women who were "doing-the-month" in a maternity center in Taiwan. Previous studies related to postpartum have focused on depression rather than women's feelings of fatigue, and no study related to exercise has previously been conducted in a Taiwan maternity center. A low-intensity exercise program was specifically designed and administered to 31 subjects in the study's intervention group. Another 30 subjects (the control group) followed a traditional, non-physically active postpartum care regimen. Those in the intervention group were required to participate in at least 6 exercise program sessions during their one month postpartum stay. All subjects were asked to fill out a fatigue and depression questionnaire before and after the program. A Fatigue Symptom Checklist (FSC) was used to measure fatigue, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD) was used to confirm the development of depression. Results showed statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of fatigue levels, with statistical improvements (p < .05) registered by the intervention group in terms of levels of physical and psychological fatigue and fatigue symptoms. However, no significant changes in depression between the two groups were found. Study results demonstrate that a low-intensity exercise program can offer a good platform for clinicians and researchers to help reduce fatigue in postpartum women. PMID:18792887

  3. PROXIMITY TO AN EXERCISE FACILITY AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN CHINA.

    PubMed

    Ani, Ruopeng; Zheng, Jiakun

    2014-11-01

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for premature morbidity and mortality. We studied the relationship between proximity to an exercise facility and leisure time physical activity in China. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey of 10 provinces in China during 2012 among 5,000 respondents with a completion rate of 82.1%. Respondents were asked about leisure time physical activity, defined as any exercise during the week. Respondents were also asked if they lived within 10 minutes walking distance from an exercise facility. The association between proximity to an exercise facility and physical activity were examined with multivariate regression analysis while attempting to control for sociodemographic factors and province of residence. Proximity to an exercise facility was found to be positively associated with leisure time physical activity. Individuals living within 10 minutes walking distance from an exercise facility were 6.79% (95% confidence interval: 3.67-10.01) more likely to have any leisure time physical activity than those who lived more than 10 minutes walking distance from an exercise facility. Physical exercise among females, younger adults, people with a higher education and urban residents appeared to have a greater association with distance to an exercise facility. Improving accessibility to an exercise facility might increase the likelihood of leisure time physical activity, especially among working-age urban Chinese.

  4. Adult exercise effects on oxidative stress and reproductive programming in male offspring of obese rats.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mery; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L; Ibáñez, Carlos; Vega, Claudia C; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Zambrano, Elena

    2015-02-01

    Exercise improves health but few data are available regarding benefits of exercise in offspring exposed to developmental programming. There is currently a worldwide epidemic of obesity. Obesity in pregnant women predisposes offspring to obesity. Maternal obesity has well documented effects on offspring reproduction. Few studies address ability of offspring exercise to reduce adverse outcomes. We observed increased oxidative stress and impaired sperm function in rat offspring of obese mothers. We hypothesized that regular offspring exercise reverses adverse effects of maternal obesity on offspring sperm quality and fertility. Female Wistar rats ate chow (C) or high-energy, obesogenic diet (MO) from weaning through lactation, bred at postnatal day (PND) 120, and ate their pregnancy diet until weaning. All offspring ate C diet from weaning. Five male offspring (different litters) ran on a wheel for 15 min, 5 times/week from PND 330 to 450 and were euthanized at PND 450. Average distance run per session was lower in MO offspring who had higher body weight, adiposity index, and gonadal fat and showed increases in testicular oxidative stress biomarkers. Sperm from MO offspring had reduced antioxidant enzyme activity, lower sperm quality, and fertility. Exercise in MO offspring decreased testicular oxidative stress, increased sperm antioxidant activity and sperm quality, and improved fertility. Exercise intervention has beneficial effects on adiposity index, gonadal fat, oxidative stress markers, sperm quality, and fertility. Thus regular physical exercise in male MO offspring recuperates key male reproductive functions even at advanced age: it's never too late. PMID:25502750

  5. Exercise in clinical cancer care: a call to action and program development description

    PubMed Central

    Santa Mina, D.; Alibhai, S.M.H.; Matthew, A.G.; Guglietti, C.L.; Steele, J.; Trachtenberg, J.; Ritvo, P.G.

    2012-01-01

    A large and convincing body of evidence demonstrates the benefits of exercise for cancer survivors during and after treatment. Based on that literature, more cancer survivors should be offered exercise support and programming. Unfortunately, exercise programs remain an exception rather than the norm in cancer care. Not surprisingly, common barriers to the implementation of exercise programs in oncology include limited resources, expertise, and awareness of benefits on the part of patients and clinicians. To improve the accessibility and cost-effectiveness of cancer exercise programs, one proposed strategy is to combine the resources of hospital and community-based programs with home-based exercise instruction. The present paper highlights current literature regarding exercise programming for cancer survivors, describes the development of an exercise program for cancer patients in Toronto, Canada, and offers experiential insights into the integration of exercise into oncologic care. PMID:22670103

  6. The Effects of Stress on Physical Activity and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A.; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    to show an inverse association. 85.7 % of higher-quality prospective research (≥7 on a 9-point scale) showed the same trend. Interestingly, some prospective studies (18.2 %) report evidence that PA was positively impacted by stress (behavioral activation). This should not be surprising as some individuals utilize exercise to cope with stress. Several other factors may moderate stress and PA relationships, such as stages of change for exercise. Habitually active individuals exercise more in the face of stress, and those in beginning stages exercise less. Consequently, stress may have a differential impact on exercise adoption, maintenance, and relapse. Preliminary evidence suggests that combining stress management programming with exercise interventions may allay stress-related reductions in PA, though rigorous testing of these techniques has yet to be produced. Conclusions Overall, the majority of the literature finds that the experience of stress impairs efforts to be physically active. Future work should center on the development of a theory explaining the mechanisms underlying the multifarious influences of stress on PA behaviors. PMID:24030837

  7. 33 CFR 155.5061 - Alternative Training and Exercise Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... how the Alternative Training and Exercise Program addresses the requirements of 33 CFR 155.1055(b) through (f) and 33 CFR 155.1060; and (3) An explanation of how vessel owners or operators must implement... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative Training and...

  8. Active-Learning Exercises for Consumer Behavior Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents 13 active-learning activities designed for use in consumer behavior courses. The exercises involve students in brief activities, such as analysis of persuasion techniques in advertising, and follow-up discussion. Reports that students found the exercises enjoyable and worthwhile. (CFR)

  9. Core Muscle Activity, Exercise Preference, and Perceived Exertion during Core Exercise with Elastic Resistance versus Machine.

    PubMed

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus D; Calatayud, Joaquin; Andersen, Lars L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate core muscle activity, exercise preferences, and perceived exertion during two selected core exercises performed with elastic resistance versus a conventional training machine. Methods. 17 untrained men aged 26-67 years participated in surface electromyography (EMG) measurements of five core muscles during torso-twists performed from left to right with elastic resistance and in the machine, respectively. The order of the exercises was randomized and each exercise consisted of 3 repetitions performed at a 10 RM load. EMG amplitude was normalized (nEMG) to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). Results. A higher right erector spinae activity in the elastic exercise compared with the machine exercise (50% [95% CI 36-64] versus 32% [95% CI 18-46] nEMG) was found. By contrast, the machine exercise, compared with the elastic exercise, showed higher left external oblique activity (77% [95% CI 64-90] versus 54% [95% CI 40-67] nEMG). For the rectus abdominis, right external oblique, and left erector spinae muscles there were no significant differences. Furthermore, 76% preferred the torso-twist with elastic resistance over the machine exercise. Perceived exertion (Borg CR10) was not significantly different between machine (5.8 [95% CI 4.88-6.72]) and elastic exercise (5.7 [95% CI 4.81-6.59]). Conclusion. Torso-twists using elastic resistance showed higher activity of the erector spinae, whereas torso-twist in the machine resulted in higher activity of the external oblique. For the remaining core muscles the two training modalities induced similar muscular activation. In spite of similar perceived exertion the majority of the participants preferred the exercise using elastic resistance.

  10. Assessment of Adherence to Eating Habit and Exercise Components in a Behavioral Weight Control Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zegman, Marilyn A.

    Although the augmental value of exercise to behavioral weight control programs has been suggested, demonstration of this value is dependent upon an assessment of adherence to change in eating habits and activity patterns. Self-report measures of adherence were obtained from overweight college women undergoing treatment that involved either dietary…

  11. Contamination by an Active Control Condition in a Randomized Exercise Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Arthur F.; McAuley, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Contamination is commonly overlooked in randomized trials. The present study examined contamination (minutes of aerobic activity outside of exercise sessions) within an active control condition in a 6-month randomized exercise trial for older adults. We hypothesized that outside aerobic activity would be greater in the control condition compared to the intervention conditions. Participants (mean age = 65.06 years, 66.2% female) were randomly assigned to: Dance (n = 50), Walking, (n = 108), or Strength/Stretching/Stability (SSS; n = 48). Dance and Walking represented the experimental conditions and SSS the control condition. Participants attended exercise sessions three times weekly for 24 weeks. Participants recorded their physical activity outside of class on a weekly home log. Group assignment and covariates (age, gender, body mass index, exercise session intensity and enjoyment, and program adherence) were examined as predictors of weekly aerobic activity outside of exercise sessions. Participants who returned zero home logs were removed from the dataset (final N = 195). Out-of-class aerobic activity was lowest in the Walking group. Significant effects of gender, group, enjoyment, and intensity on out-of-class weekly aerobic activity were observed, all p<0.003. Higher perceived enjoyment of exercise sessions was associated with more out-of-class aerobic activity, while higher perceived intensity was associated with less out-of-class aerobic activity. A group x intensity interaction, p = 0.002, indicated that group differences in out-of-class aerobic activity were evident only among those with lower intensity perceptions. Walkers may have perceived exercise sessions as sufficient weekly exercise, while the Dance and SSS groups may have perceived the sessions as necessary, but insufficient. The lower aerobic intensity Dancers attributed to exercise sessions and non-aerobic nature of SSS may partially explain contamination observed in this study. Further

  12. Measurement of exercise habits and prediction of leisure-time activity in established exercise.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Karyn A; Glanz, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Habit formation may be important to maintaining repetitive healthy behaviors like exercise. Existing habit questionnaires only measure part of the definition of habit (automaticity; frequency). A novel habit questionnaire was evaluated that measured contextual cueing. We designed a two-stage observational cohort study of regular exercisers. For stage 1, we conducted an in-person interview on a university campus. For stage 2, we conducted an internet-based survey. Participants were 156 adults exercising at least once per week. A novel measure, The Exercise Habit Survey (EHS) assessed contextual cueing through 13 questions on constancy of place, time, people, and exercise behaviors. A subset of the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI), measuring automaticity, was also collected along with measures of intention and self-efficacy, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), leisure-time section. The EHS was evaluated using factor analysis and test-retest reliability. Its correlation to other exercise predictors and exercise behavior was evaluated using Pearson's r and hierarchical regression. Results suggested that the EHS comprised four subscales (People, Place, Time, Exercise Constancy). Only Exercise Constancy correlated significantly with SRHI. Only the People subscale predicted IPAQ exercise metabolic equivalents. The SRHI was a strong predictor. Contextual cueing is an important aspect of habit but measurement methodologies warrant refinement and comparison by different methods. PMID:23384089

  13. Sympathetic Activation is Associated with Exercise Limitation in COPD.

    PubMed

    Haarmann, Helge; Folle, Jan; Nguyen, Xuan Phuc; Herrmann, Peter; Heusser, Karsten; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Andreas, Stefan; Raupach, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    Exercise intolerance, skeletal muscle dysfunction, and reduced daily activity are central in COPD patients and closely related to quality of life and prognosis. Studies assessing muscle exercise have revealed an increase in sympathetic outflow as a link to muscle hypoperfusion and exercise limitation. Our primary hypothesis was that muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) correlates with exercise limitation in COPD. MSNA was evaluated at rest and during dynamic or static handgrip exercise. Additionally, we assessed heart rate, blood pressure, CO2 tension, oxygen saturation (SpO2), and breathing frequency. Ergospirometry was performed to evaluate exercise capacity. We assessed MSNA of 14 COPD patients and 8 controls. In patients, MSNA was negatively correlated with peak oxygen uptake (VO2% pred) (r = -0.597; p = 0.040). During dynamic or static handgrip exercise, patients exhibited a significant increase in MSNA, which was not observed in the control group. The increase in MSNA during dynamic handgrip was highly negatively correlated with peak exercise capacity in Watts (w) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2/kg) (r = -0.853; p = 0.002 and r = -0.881; p = 0.002, respectively). Our study reveals an association between increased MSNA and limited exercise capacity in patients with COPD. Furthermore, we found an increased sympathetic response to moderate physical exercise (handgrip), which may contribute to exercise intolerance in COPD. PMID:26829234

  14. Development of an efficient rehabilitation exercise program for functional recovery in chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kewwan; Jeon, Kyoungkyu

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to construct an integrated rehabilitation exercise program to prevent chronic pain and improve motor ability in cases of ankle injury and re-injury. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-six male soccer players who required functional strength exercises due to repeated ankle injury were the subjects. A 12-week rehabilitation exercise program was constructed with the aim of improving muscle strength in the ankle and dynamic coordination of the lower limb. Muscle strength and dynamic coordination were evaluated using the Y Balance Test, and isokinetic muscle strength of ankle dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, inversion, and eversion were measured before and after the 12-week program. [Results] Following 12 weeks of rehabilitation exercise, there were statistically significant improvements in the ratios of dorsiflexor strength to plantarflexor strength, eversion strength, and inversion strength on the left side. The other variables showed no significant changes. [Conclusion] The rehabilitation exercise program for chronic ankle instability helped to reduce pain, and to restore normal joint range of motion, muscle strength and endurance, and functional ability. Active protocols to improve complex functions need to be developed to complement these results. PMID:27313347

  15. Development of an efficient rehabilitation exercise program for functional recovery in chronic ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kewwan; Jeon, Kyoungkyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to construct an integrated rehabilitation exercise program to prevent chronic pain and improve motor ability in cases of ankle injury and re-injury. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-six male soccer players who required functional strength exercises due to repeated ankle injury were the subjects. A 12-week rehabilitation exercise program was constructed with the aim of improving muscle strength in the ankle and dynamic coordination of the lower limb. Muscle strength and dynamic coordination were evaluated using the Y Balance Test, and isokinetic muscle strength of ankle dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, inversion, and eversion were measured before and after the 12-week program. [Results] Following 12 weeks of rehabilitation exercise, there were statistically significant improvements in the ratios of dorsiflexor strength to plantarflexor strength, eversion strength, and inversion strength on the left side. The other variables showed no significant changes. [Conclusion] The rehabilitation exercise program for chronic ankle instability helped to reduce pain, and to restore normal joint range of motion, muscle strength and endurance, and functional ability. Active protocols to improve complex functions need to be developed to complement these results. PMID:27313347

  16. Development of an efficient rehabilitation exercise program for functional recovery in chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kewwan; Jeon, Kyoungkyu

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to construct an integrated rehabilitation exercise program to prevent chronic pain and improve motor ability in cases of ankle injury and re-injury. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-six male soccer players who required functional strength exercises due to repeated ankle injury were the subjects. A 12-week rehabilitation exercise program was constructed with the aim of improving muscle strength in the ankle and dynamic coordination of the lower limb. Muscle strength and dynamic coordination were evaluated using the Y Balance Test, and isokinetic muscle strength of ankle dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, inversion, and eversion were measured before and after the 12-week program. [Results] Following 12 weeks of rehabilitation exercise, there were statistically significant improvements in the ratios of dorsiflexor strength to plantarflexor strength, eversion strength, and inversion strength on the left side. The other variables showed no significant changes. [Conclusion] The rehabilitation exercise program for chronic ankle instability helped to reduce pain, and to restore normal joint range of motion, muscle strength and endurance, and functional ability. Active protocols to improve complex functions need to be developed to complement these results.

  17. [Lung exercise: outpatient exercise program has long-term benefits on COPD].

    PubMed

    Spielmanns, Marc; Göhl, Oliver; Schultz, Konrad; Worth, Heinrich

    2015-06-01

    The positive influence of regular physical training on the course of many chronic diseases in different fields is well documented. Especially for obstructive respiratory diseases the benefit of lung exercise is convincing. An overview will be given in this work how lung exercise can be an effective form of therapy for pulmonary diseases. Actually the evidence of the efficacy of physical activity is particularly overwhelming in obstructive pulmonary diseases. Several clinical trials showed an enhancement in endurance and exercise capacity, quality of life and a decrease of dyspnea and disease-related symptoms. However in comparison to other disease groups, the benefits and awareness and therefore a widespread dissemination is still insufficient. Regular physical activity is an important, effective and also cost-effective component of the therapy of respiratory diseases and is sometimes even superior to a drug therapy. Enough reason to share this kind of therapy with our patients with pulmonary diseases.

  18. [Lung exercise: outpatient exercise program has long-term benefits on COPD].

    PubMed

    Spielmanns, Marc; Göhl, Oliver; Schultz, Konrad; Worth, Heinrich

    2015-06-01

    The positive influence of regular physical training on the course of many chronic diseases in different fields is well documented. Especially for obstructive respiratory diseases the benefit of lung exercise is convincing. An overview will be given in this work how lung exercise can be an effective form of therapy for pulmonary diseases. Actually the evidence of the efficacy of physical activity is particularly overwhelming in obstructive pulmonary diseases. Several clinical trials showed an enhancement in endurance and exercise capacity, quality of life and a decrease of dyspnea and disease-related symptoms. However in comparison to other disease groups, the benefits and awareness and therefore a widespread dissemination is still insufficient. Regular physical activity is an important, effective and also cost-effective component of the therapy of respiratory diseases and is sometimes even superior to a drug therapy. Enough reason to share this kind of therapy with our patients with pulmonary diseases. PMID:26115136

  19. The effects of an exercise training program on hand and wrist strength, and function, and activities of daily living, in adults with severe cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Lamela Rodríguez, Beatriz; Mendoza Laiz, Nuria; Díez, Isabel; Barak, Sharon

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the current study was to establish measurement reliability in adults with Cerebral Palsy (CP), and to examine the feasibility and outcomes of an upper extremity strength training program (three times per week for 90 min each time). A control group design mixed with a prospective time series design for the intervention group was completed, including a pre-test, a post-test after a 12-week intervention period, and a follow-up in the intervention group after an additional 10-week period. Seventeen adults with CP with severe motor impairment took part in the study (10 in the intervention and seven in the control group). The test battery was comprised of wrist and hand dynamometry; dominant hand upper-extremity function measures (Jebsen Hand Function Test=JHFT, Minnesota Manual Dexterity Test=MMDT, and the Nine Hole Peg Test=NHPT); and activity of daily living with the Barthel Index. The results indicated that in both the control and the intervention groups, the strength tests exhibited good-to-excellent reliability during pre-test and post-test. The group comparison revealed that while in the pre-test no between-group differences existed, in the post-test the strength training group demonstrated significantly higher values in five out of eight strength measures, as well as in the MMDT. Discontinuing the program for eight weeks reversed the effects almost to baseline. In conclusion, the outcomes demonstrated the reliability of the assessments utilized in this study, as well as the feasibility of the strength training program, in adults with severe motor impairment due to CP.

  20. Fish oil supplementation and physical exercise program: distinct effects on different memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Rachetti, A L F; Arida, R M; Patti, C L; Zanin, K A; Fernades-Santos, L; Frussa-Filho, R; Gomes da Silva, S; Scorza, F A; Cysneiros, R M

    2013-01-15

    Both fish oil supplementation and physical exercise are able to induce benefits to mental health by providing an improvement in cognitive performance and enhancing neuroplasticity and protection against neurological lesions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cognitive effects in rats of the: (1) a diary and prolonged fish oil supplementation (85 mg/kg/day) initiated from prenatal period to the midlife (300 day/old); (2) moderate physical exercise in treadmill initiated from adolescent period to midlife and (3) association of fish oil supplementation and moderate physical exercise protocol during the same period. Animals were submitted to the habituation in the open-field, object recognition and to the plus-maze discriminative avoidance tasks. Our results demonstrated that a diary and prolonged fish oil supplementation can facilitate the persistence of the long-term habituation and recognition memories without, however, affecting the discriminative avoidance memory. Conversely, although the program of physical exercise exerted no effects on habituation or objects recognition, it was able to potentiate the persistence of the discriminative avoidance memory. Such promnestic effects (induced by both fish oil supplementation and physical exercise) were not accompanied by alterations in emotionality or locomotor activity. Our findings suggest that fish oil supplementation, initiated from prenatal period to midlife, and physical exercise program applied throughout the life induced distinctly a better cognitive performance.

  1. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  2. Analog Exercise Hardware to Implement a High Intensity Exercise Program During Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loerch, Linda; Newby, Nate; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Background: In order to evaluate novel countermeasure protocols in a space flight analog prior to validation on the International Space Station (ISS), NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is sponsoring a multi-investigator bedrest campaign that utilizes a combination of commercial and custom-made exercise training hardware to conduct daily resistive and aerobic exercise protocols. This paper will describe these pieces of hardware and how they are used to support current bedrest studies at NASA's Flight Analog Research Unit in Galveston, TX. Discussion: To implement candidate exercise countermeasure studies during extended bed rest studies the following analog hardware are being utilized: Stand alone Zero-Gravity Locomotion Simulator (sZLS) -- a custom built device by NASA, the sZLS allows bedrest subjects to remain supine as they run on a vertically-oriented treadmill (0-15 miles/hour). The treadmill includes a pneumatic subject loading device to provide variable body loading (0-100%) and a harness to keep the subject in contact with the motorized treadmill to provide a ground reaction force at their feet that is quantified by a Kistler Force Plate. Supine Cycle Ergometer -- a commercially available supine cycle ergometer (Lode, Groningen, Netherlands) is used for all cycle ergometer sessions. The ergometer has adjustable shoulder supports and handgrips to help stabilize the subject during exercise. Horizontal Squat Device (HSD) -- a custom built device by Quantum Fitness Corp (Stafford, TX), the HSD allows for squat exercises to be performed while lying in a supine position. The HSD can provide 0 to 600 pounds of force in selectable 5 lb increments, and allows hip translation in both the vertical and horizontal planes. Prone Leg Curl -- a commercially available prone leg curl machine (Cybex International Inc., Medway, MA) is used to complete leg curl exercises. Horizontal Leg Press -- a commercially available horizontal leg press (Quantum Fitness Corporation) is

  3. Physical activity, smoking, and exercise-induced fatigue.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J R; Crow, R S; Jacobs, D R; Mittelmark, M B; Leon, A S

    1984-06-01

    This study determined whether persons with coronary risk factors have increased fatigue during or after exercise. Ratings of perceived exertion were first shown to be a valid measure of fatigue; i.e., ratings of perceived exertion correlated with heart rate both during and after exercise and at each of three exercise tests (all within-subjects r greater than 0.88). Physical inactivity and smoking were associated with increased fatigue. Inactive men and smokers had higher levels of fatigue during both exercise and recovery conditions and at each of three exercise test. The increased fatigue of men who were inactive and smoked was not entirely due to their lower level of fitness. The risk factors of age, Type A behavior pattern, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, serum high-density lipoprotein, and obesity were not associated with increased fatigue. The increased fatigue experienced by inactive persons and smokers may account for their decreased compliance to exercise programs.

  4. The effect of an exercise program on change in curve in adolescents with minimal idiopathic scoliosis. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Stone, B; Beekman, C; Hall, V; Guess, V; Brooks, H L

    1979-06-01

    Forty-two adolescents with minimal idiopathic scoliosis, who had been on an exercise program for 9 to 15 months, were evaluated to determine the influence of exercise on change in their curvatures. A difference of 4 degrees or greater between initial and final curve measurements was considered to be a change. Five percent of the curves increased, 74% remained the same, and 21% decreased. Change in curvature for these patients was also compared with that of a matched retrospective group of adolescents with scoliosis who had not had the exercise program. No significant difference in change in curve between the two groups was found. For patients who had been on the exercise program, there was no significant relationship between change in curve and extent of physical activity or between change in curve and exercise recall, correct performance, or frequency. Limitations in the study design and possible explanations for the results are discussed.

  5. [Exercises in patients with myositis--active treatment intervention?].

    PubMed

    Babić-Naglić, Durdica

    2012-01-01

    Polymyositis, dermatomyositis and inclusion body myositis are rare inflammatory myopathies characterized by muscle weakness. Regardless of pharmacological treatment in most patients remain muscle weakness and inability to perform daily activities. Until recently, the prevailing opinion was that active exercises can exacerbate the inflammatory activity in the muscles and is now known that active exercise and exercise with resistance improve strength and endurance of muscles, aerobic capacity and overall functional ability. Exercises are prescribed according to the disease activity, manual muscle test or dynamometer measurements, range of motion, cardiorespiratory capacity and clinical status of the locomotor system. Each of the components can be influenced by targeted exercises and should be a integral part of myositis therapy.

  6. Work out by Walking: A Pilot Exercise Program for Individuals With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Browne, Julia; Penn, David L; Battaglini, Claudio L; Ludwig, Kelsey

    2016-09-01

    The health benefits of exercise are well documented, yet annual health care costs related to physical inactivity are well within the billions. Furthermore, individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) are more likely to lead sedentary lives, exercise less than the general population, and die prematurely from preventable causes. Previous research examining the effects of exercise on individuals with SSDs has been encouraging yet limited in creating accessible and sustainable interventions. The current pilot study developed and evaluated the impact of Work out by Walking (WOW), a multicomponent group walking intervention on the health of 16 individuals with SSDs. Results indicated improvements in indicators of physical health, activity level, social support, and mental health and a high level of program satisfaction. Future research should examine multicomponent group walking programs for individuals with SSDs in larger samples and with the inclusion of a comparison condition. PMID:27385474

  7. Immediate Effects of Different Trunk Exercise Programs on Jump Performance.

    PubMed

    Imai, A; Kaneoka, K; Okubo, Y; Shiraki, H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of trunk stabilization exercise (SE) and conventional trunk exercise (CE) programs on jump performance. 13 adolescent male soccer players performed 2 kinds of jump testing before and immediate after 3 experimental conditions: SE, CE, and non-exercise (NE). The SE program consisted of the elbow-toe, hand-knee, and back bridge, and the CE program consisted of the sit-up, sit-up with trunk rotation and back extension. Testing of a countermovement jump (CMJ) and rebound jump (RJ) were performed to assess jump performance. Jump height of the CMJ and RJ-index, contact time, and jump height of the RJ were analyzed. The RJ index was improved significantly only after SE (p=0.017). However, contact time and jump height did not improve significantly in the SE condition. Moreover, no significant interaction or main effects of time or group were observed in the CMJ. Consequently, this study showed the different immediate effect on the RJ between the SE and CE, and suggested the possibility that the SE used in this study is useful as a warm-up program to improve the explosive movements. PMID:26667924

  8. Impact of a pilot pharmacy health-care professional out-of-school time physical activity and nutrition education program with exercise on fourth and fifth graders in a rural Texas community

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Ashley; Seifert, Charles F

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Childhood obesity continues to be a problem. Children in rural populations are more likely to be overweight or obese and a lack of resources in those areas may contribute to this problem. We aimed to assess the impact of a pilot pharmacy health-care professional out-of-school time vigorous physical activity and nutrition education program on fourth and fifth graders in a rural Texas community. Methods: We conducted a prospective 12-week cohort study from August to November 2012. Thirty-three children, aged 8–11 years, in Bailey County, Texas, were enrolled in the study. Body mass index, body mass index percentile, blood pressure, waist circumference, and a diet preferences and activities knowledge survey were obtained at 0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Study participants completed a twice weekly physical activity and nutrition education program with exercise over weeks 1–4 with no intervention during weeks 5–12. Results: Thirty-one (94%) of the 33 children, predominately Hispanic girls, completed the program. Body mass index (−0.30 (95% confidence interval, −0.44 to −0.17); P = <0.0001), body mass index percentile (−2.75 (95% confidence interval, −4.89 to −0.62); P = 0.0026), systolic blood pressure (−1.9 (95% confidence interval, −2.9 to −0.9); P = <0.0001), and waist circumference (−0.47 (95% confidence interval, −0.85 to −0.10); P = <0.0001) mean change decreased between baseline and week 12 with no intervention for 8 weeks. Positive survey results at 3 months indicated a decrease in fried/sweet foods; increase in exercise; decreases in video games and computer use; and a change in knowledge regarding the selection of the most healthy food group servings per day. Conclusion: In this pharmacy health-care directed pilot study, participants had a reduction of body mass index, body mass index percentile, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and improvement in certain survey results at the end of 12

  9. A long-term, comprehensive exercise program that incorporates a variety of physical activities improved the blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism, arterial stiffness, and balance of middle-aged and elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Terukazu; Sullivan, Corbet V; Ozoe, Naomi; Higaki, Hidehiko; Kawasaki, Junya

    2011-09-01

    A 6-month, twice-a-week exercise program emphasizing swimming was conducted for 11 men (57-73 years) and 24 women (51-68 years). The control group comprised 11 male (59-70 years) and 11 female (53-70) volunteers. The exercise program significantly improved the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) and lipid and glucose metabolism, with no change in the controls. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), as an index of systemic arterial stiffness, was measured during medical examinations before and after each exercise session using a volume-plethysmographic apparatus. SBP and DBP of the extremities were significantly decreased after exercise, but did not change in the controls. Average baPWV decreased significantly in the exercise group, from 1661±50 to 1581±40 cm per sec. No change was seen in the controls. The sway path of the center of balance was analyzed using a force plate. The length of postural sway, the length of postural sway per sec and the area of postural sway were measured with eyes open and eyes closed, and the rectangular area was calculated. The eyes open/eyes closed ratio (Romberg sign) was also calculated. All parameters of body sway were significantly lower after 6 months in the exercise group, with no change in the controls. The Romberg sign did not change for either group. In addition to promoting better health, as shown by the clinical data, this type of exercise program improves balance function, which could help prevent falls of the elderly.

  10. Biomarkers of physical activity and exercise.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Gonzalo; Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Palacios, Nieves; Maroto-Sánchez, Beatriz; Aznar, Susana; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-02-26

    Traditionally, biomarkers have been of interest in sports in order to measure performance, progress in training and for identifying overtraining. During the last years, growing interest is set on biomarkers aiming at evaluating health-related aspects which can be modulated by regular physical activity and sport. The value or concentration of a biomarker depends on many factors, as the training status of the subject, the degree of fatigue and the type, intensity and duration of exercise, apart from age and sex. Most of the biomarkers are measured in blood, urine and saliva. One of the main limitations for biochemical biomarkers is that reference values for blood concentration of biomarkers specifically adapted to physically active people and athletes are lacking. Concentrations can differ widely from normal reference ranges. Therefore, it is important to adapt reference values as much as possible and to control each subject regularly, in order to establish his/her own reference scale. Other useful biomarkers are body composition (specifically muscle mass, fat mass, weight), physical fitness (cardiovascular capacity, strength, agility, flexibility), heart rate and blood pressure. Depending on the aim, one or several biomarkers should be measured. It may differ if it is for research purpose, for the follow up of training or to prevent risks. For this review, we will get deeper into the biomarkers used to identify the degree of physical fitness, chronic stress, overtraining, cardiovascular risk, oxidative stress and inflammation.

  11. An analysis of Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program exercise results. Volume 1: The CSEPP Exercise Results Database

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, P.L. Jr.; Mitrani, J.E.; Absil-Mills, M.J.G.; Tallarovic, P.; Molsen, J.; Vercellone, J.; Madore, M.A.

    1998-06-01

    The primary focus of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) is to enhance the response capabilities of the eight US Army installations that store chemical weapons agent and of the communities immediately surrounding each Army storage installation. Exercises are a major component of the program and are conducted annually at each of the eight installations. Following each exercise, a report summarizing the results of the exercise is produced. To gain a better perspective on the site-specific and program-wide results of these exercises, the Project Manager for Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness requested that Argonne National Laboratory develop a database containing the results of exercises held through June 1996. This document provides a summary of the process used to develop the CSEPP Exercise Results Database. The database provides CSEPP managers in the Department of the Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency a method for tracking and analyzing exercise results. The report discusses the collection and coding of exercise data and provides tables to guide coding of future exercise results. An electronic copy of the database (CD-ROM) accompanies the report. This report focuses only on methods used to collect exercise data and develop the database; Volume 2 discusses the analysis of the data collected.

  12. Use of Management Training Simulations in a University Educational Administration Program. The Program of Exercises for Management and Organizational Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deep, Samuel D.

    This report describes self-administered exercises on management and organizational development that emphasize a participative approach in small groups. The Program of Exercises (PEX), an integrated set of exercises, incorporates case study, role playing, programed instruction, and sensitivity training. The training provides a series of experiences…

  13. A comprehensive review of the effectiveness of different exercise programs for patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Golightly, Yvonne M; Allen, Kelli D; Caine, Dennis J

    2012-11-01

    Exercise is recommended as a first-line conservative intervention approach for osteoarthritis (OA). A wide range of exercise programs are available and scientific evidence is necessary for choosing the optimal strategy of treatment for each patient. The purpose of this review is to discuss the effectiveness of different types of exercise programs for OA based on trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses in the literature. Publications from January 1997 to July 2012 were searched in 4 electronic databases using the terms osteoarthritis, exercise, exercise program, effectiveness, and treatment outcome. Strong evidence supports that aerobic and strengthening exercise programs, both land- and water-based, are beneficial for improving pain and physical function in adults with mild-to-moderate knee and hip OA. Areas that require further research include examination of the long-term effects of exercise programs for OA, balance training for OA, exercise programs for severe OA, the effect of exercise programs on progression of OA, the effectiveness of exercise for joint sites other than the knee or hip, and the effectiveness of exercise for OA by such factors as age, sex, and obesity. Efforts to improve adherence to evidence-based exercise programs for OA and to promote the dissemination and implementation of these programs are crucial.

  14. Exercise in Treating Hypertension: Tailoring Therapies for Active Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chintanadilok, Jirayos

    2002-01-01

    Exercise can be definitive therapy for some, and adjunctive therapy for many, people with hypertension, though people with secondary hypertension may not derive as much benefit. Low-to- moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can help with mild hypertension and reduce drug dosages in more severe cases. For active patients requiring medication,…

  15. Transformation of Traditional Vocabulary Exercises into Collaborative Writing Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Jian-feng

    2010-01-01

    In the reading course, especially the so-called intensive reading course or integrative English reading course, there are some vocabulary exercises which intend to consolidate the active vocabulary emerging in the reading passages. Mostly, these exercises are in the form of blank-filling or rewriting sentences with the words given. The problem…

  16. Research on Physical Activity in the Elderly: Practical Implications for Program Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Anita M.; Gonda, Gail

    1986-01-01

    The authors critically examine the research on physical activity in the elderly to assess the elderly's capacity for exercise and the benefits accruing from exercise. Lower-intensity exercise programs attract a more representative group of senior participants and overcome many barriers. Implications for program planning and efforts are discussed.…

  17. Analog Exercise Hardware to Implement a High Intensity Exercise Program During Bed Rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loerch, Linda; Newby, Nate; Sinka, Joe; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate novel countermeasure protocols in a spaceflight analog setting before validation on the International Space Station, NASA’s Human Research Program is sponsoring a multi-investigator bed rest campaign that uses a combination of commercial and custom-made exercise training hardware to conduct daily resistance and aerobic exercise protocols. These devices include the stand alone zero-gravity locomotion simulator, horizontal squat device, Lode commercial supine cycle ergometer, Cybex commercial prone leg curl machine, and Quantum Fitness commercial horizontal leg press. This paper will describe these pieces of hardware that are used to support current bed rest studies at NASA’s Flight Analog Research Unit in Galveston, Texas, USA.

  18. Predictors of adherence to a 12-week exercise program among men treated for prostate cancer: ENGAGE study.

    PubMed

    Craike, Melinda; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Courneya, Kerry S; Fraser, Steve F; Salmon, Jo; Owen, Patrick J; Broadbent, Suzanne; Livingston, Patricia M

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the factors that influence adherence to exercise programs is necessary to develop effective interventions for people with cancer. We examined the predictors of adherence to a supervised exercise program for participants in the ENGAGE study - a cluster randomized controlled trial that assessed the efficacy of a clinician-referred 12-week exercise program among men treated for prostate cancer. Demographic, clinical, behavioral, and psychosocial data from 52 participants in the intervention group were collected at baseline through self-report and medical records. Adherence to the supervised exercise program was assessed through objective attendance records. Adherence to the supervised exercise program was 80.3%. In the univariate analyses, cancer-specific quality of life subscales (role functioning r = 0.37, P = 0.01; sexual activity r = 0.26, P = 0.06; fatigue r = -0.26, P = 0.06, and hormonal symptoms r = -0.31, P = 0.03) and education (d = -0.60, P = 0.011) were associated with adherence. In the subsequent multivariate analysis, role functioning (B = 0.309, P = 0.019) and hormonal symptoms (B = -0.483, P = 0.054) independently predicted adherence. Men who experienced more severe hormonal symptoms had lower levels of adherence to the exercise program. Those who experienced more positive perceptions of their ability to perform daily tasks and leisure activities had higher levels of adherence to the exercise program. Hormonal symptoms and role functioning need to be considered when conducting exercise programs for men who have been treated for prostate cancer. PMID:26872005

  19. The Exercise and Environmental Physiology of Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowell, S. A.; Stocks, J. M.; Evans, D. G.; Simonson, S. R.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Over the history of human expansion into space, extravehicular activity (EVA) has become indispensable for both daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. The physiological factors involved in the performance of extensive EVA, necessary for construction and maintenance of the International Space Station and during future human interplanetary missions, require further examination. An understanding of the physiological aspects of exercise and thermoregulation in the EVA environment will help to insure the health, safety, and efficiency of working astronauts. To that end, this review will focus on the interaction of the exercise and environmental aspects of EVA, as well as exercise during spaceflight and ground-based simulations such as bed-rest deconditioning. It will examine inflight exercise thermoregulation, and exercise, muscular strength, supine vs. seated exercise, exercise thermoregulation, and exercise in a hypobaric environment. Due to the paucity of data from controlled human research in this area, it is clear that more scientific studies are needed to insure safe and efficient extravehicular activity.

  20. Perspectives on Physical Activity and Exercise Among Appalachian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Erwin, Heather; Davis, Rian E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most children in the United States receive far less physical activity (PA) than is optimal. In rural, under resourced areas of Appalachian Kentucky, physical inactivity rates are significantly higher than national levels. We sought to understand children’s perceptions of PA, with the goal of developing culturally appropriate programming to increase PA. Methods During 11 focus groups, we explored perspectives on PA among 63 Appalachian children, ages 8–17. Sessions were tape recorded, transcribed, content analyzed, and subjected to verification procedures. Results Several perspectives on PA emerged among these rural Appalachian youth, including the clear distinction between PA (viewed as positive) and exercise (viewed as negative) and an emphasis on time and resource factors as barriers to adequate PA. Additional PA determinants expressed in the focus groups are similar to those of other populations. We include children’s recommendations for appealing PA programs. Conclusions Appalachian and other rural residents contend with the loss of rural health advantages (due to declines in farming/other occupational and avocational transitions). At the same time, Appalachian residents have not benefitted from urban PA facilitators (sidewalks, recreational facilities, clubs and organized leisure activities). Addressing low PA levels requires extensive community input and creative programming. PMID:22397810

  1. An 8-Month Randomized Controlled Exercise Trial Alters Brain Activation During Cognitive Tasks in Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Krafft, Cynthia E.; Schwarz, Nicolette F.; Chi, Lingxi; Weinberger, Abby L.; Schaeffer, David J.; Pierce, Jordan E.; Rodrigue, Amanda L.; Yanasak, Nathan E.; Miller, Patricia H.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Davis, Catherine L.; McDowell, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Children who are less fit reportedly have lower performance on tests of cognitive control and differences in brain function. This study examined the effect of an exercise intervention on brain function during two cognitive control tasks in overweight children. Design and Methods Participants included 43 unfit, overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) children 8- to 11-years old (91% Black), who were randomly divided into either an aerobic exercise (n = 24) or attention control group (n = 19). Each group was offered a separate instructor-led after-school program every school day for 8 months. Before and after the program, all children performed two cognitive control tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): antisaccade and flanker. Results Compared to the control group, the exercise group decreased activation in several regions supporting antisaccade performance, including precentral gyrus and posterior parietal cortex, and increased activation in several regions supporting flanker performance, including anterior cingulate and superior frontal gyrus. Conclusions Exercise may differentially impact these two task conditions, or the paradigms in which cognitive control tasks were presented may be sensitive to distinct types of brain activation that show different effects of exercise. In sum, exercise appears to alter efficiency or flexible modulation of neural circuitry supporting cognitive control in overweight children. PMID:23788510

  2. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercises Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... riding a stationary bike. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use a metered-dose ...

  3. A Qualitative Study of Fitness Instructors' Experiences Leading an Exercise Program for Children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzal, Carolyn E.; Wright, F. Virginia; Stephens, Samantha; Schneiderman-Walker, Jane; Feldman, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    Children with arthritis face challenges when they try to increase their physical activity. The study's objective was to identify elements of a successful community-based exercise program for children with arthritis by investigating the perspectives of fitness instructors who led the program. This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach.…

  4. Recruitment and Retention Strategies among Older African American Women Enrolled in an Exercise Study at a PACE Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan-Marx, Eileen M.; Mangione, Kathleen K.; Ackerson, Theimann; Sidorov, Ingrid; Maislin, Greg; Volpe, Stella L.; Craik, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined employment of specific recruitment and retention strategies in a study evaluating outcomes of a moderate activity exercise program for older African American women with functional impairments attending a Program for All-Inclusive Care of Elders (PACE). Design and Methods: Recruitment and retention strategies focused on…

  5. Effects of exercise and physical activity on knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Esser, Stephan; Bailey, Allison

    2011-12-01

    Exercise is one of the most discussed and controversial nonpharmacologic management strategies for osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Health care providers and patients share varied and often pseudoscientific beliefs regarding the effects of exercise on knee OA formulated on outdated notions of the etiology, pathophysiology, and progression of the condition. Based on the contemporary literature, regular light to moderate physical activity has both preventive and therapeutic benefits for individuals with knee OA. Exercise regimens with strong evidence of benefit include those that focus on aerobic/cardiovascular conditioning and lower extremity strength training. Health care providers should confidently incorporate exercise recommendations into clinical management and offer patients evidence-based and individually tailored exercise prescriptions to help manage the painful and often disabling symptoms of this condition.

  6. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 650: Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity in all stages of life maintains and improves cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk of obesity and associated comorbidities, and results in greater longevity. Physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risks and has been shown to benefit most women, although some modification to exercise routines may be necessary because of normal anatomic and physiologic changes and fetal requirements. Women with uncomplicated pregnancies should be encouraged to engage in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises before, during, and after pregnancy. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should carefully evaluate women with medical or obstetric complications before making recommendations on physical activity participation during pregnancy. Although frequently prescribed, bed rest is only rarely indicated and, in most cases, allowing ambulation should be considered. Regular physical activity during pregnancy improves or maintains physical fitness, helps with weight management, reduces the risk of gestational diabetes in obese women, and enhances psychologic well-being. An exercise program that leads to an eventual goal of moderate-intensity exercise for at least 20-30 minutes per day on most or all days of the week should be developed with the patient and adjusted as medically indicated. Additional research is needed to study the effects of exercise on pregnancy-specific outcomes and to clarify the most effective behavioral counseling methods, and the optimal intensity and frequency of exercise. Similar work is needed to create an improved evidence base concerning the effects of occupational physical activity on maternal-fetal health.

  7. Committee Opinion No. 650 Summary: Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity in all stages of life maintains and improves cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk of obesity and associated comorbidities, and results in greater longevity. Physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risks and has been shown to benefit most women, although some modification to exercise routines may be necessary because of normal anatomic and physiologic changes and fetal requirements. Women with uncomplicated pregnancies should be encouraged to engage in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises before, during, and after pregnancy. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should carefully evaluate women with medical or obstetric complications before making recommendations on physical activity participation during pregnancy. Although frequently prescribed, bed rest is only rarely indicated and, in most cases, allowing ambulation should be considered. Regular physical activity during pregnancy improves or maintains physical fitness, helps with weight management, reduces the risk of gestational diabetes in obese women, and enhances psychologic well-being. An exercise program that leads to an eventual goal of moderate-intensity exercise for at least 20-30 minutes per day on most or all days of the week should be developed with the patient and adjusted as medically indicated. Additional research is needed to study the effects of exercise on pregnancy-specific outcomes and to clarify the most effective behavioral counseling methods, and the optimal intensity and frequency of exercise. Similar work is needed to create an improved evidence base concerning the effects of occupational physical activity on maternal-fetal health.

  8. The effect of active core exercise on fitness and foot pressure in Taekwondo club students.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seong-Deok; Sung, Dong-Hun; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The effects of core training using slings and Togus on the improvement of posture control in Taekwondo club students, that is, balance ability, were investigated. To that end, changes in the Taekwondo players' balance ability resulting from active core training for eight weeks were examined through fitness and foot pressure. [Subjects] The present study was conducted with 13 male Taekwondo players of K University in Deagu, South Korea. Once the experiment process was explained, consent was obtained from those who participated voluntarily. [Methods] Air cushions (Germany), Jumpers (Germany), and Aero-Steps (Germany) were used as lumbar stabilization exercise tools. As a method of training proprioceptive senses by stimulating somatesthesia in standing postures, the subjects performed balance squats, supine pelvic lifts, and push-up plus exercise using slings while standing on an Aero-Step and performed hip extension parallel squats (Wall Gym Ball), and standing press-ups on a Togu using their own weight. The subjects performed four sets of these isometric exercises while maintaining an exercise time per set at 30 seconds in each session and repeated this session three times per week. [Result] Left grip strength significantly increased and number of sit-ups, which indicates muscle endurance, also significantly increased after the eight weeks exercise compared with before the exercise. The values measured during the sit and reach test, which indicate flexibility, also significantly increase after the eight weeks of exercise compared with before the exercise but only in the left foot. [Conclusion] The result of present study suggest that active core exercise using Slings and Togus can be applied as a very effective exercise program for enhancing balance, which is an important physical factor for Taekwondo club students.

  9. MLS student active learning within a "cloud" technology program.

    PubMed

    Tille, Patricia M; Hall, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In November 2009, the MLS program in a large public university serving a geographically large, sparsely populated state instituted an initiative for the integration of technology enhanced teaching and learning within the curriculum. This paper is intended to provide an introduction to the system requirements and sample instructional exercises used to create an active learning technology-based classroom. Discussion includes the following: 1.) define active learning and the essential components, 2.) summarize teaching methods, technology and exercises utilized within a "cloud" technology program, 3.) describe a "cloud" enhanced classroom and programming 4.) identify active learning tools and exercises that can be implemented into laboratory science programs, and 5.) describe the evaluation and assessment of curriculum changes and student outcomes. The integration of technology in the MLS program is a continual process and is intended to provide student-driven active learning experiences.

  10. From nuclides to nerve gas: The development of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Exercise Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gant, K.S.; Adler, M.V.

    1991-12-01

    The Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency established the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), to improve emergency preparedness around each location storing the nation`s aging stockpile of unitary chemical weapons. The CSEPP requires that a series of exercises be conducted at each location on a regular schedule. The CSEPP exercise program drew upon the existing Army and civilian exercises. Merging the exercise traditions of both the communities and installations into a joint exercise program acceptable to both sides and the particular nature of the hazard required a number of adjustments in the usual approaches. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Effect of supine exercise on platelet aggregation and fibrinolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Dag, B; Gleerup, G; Bak, A M; Hindberg, I; Mehlsen, J; Winther, K

    1994-03-01

    In 12 healthy young men, strenuous cycling exercise in the supine position, caused platelet aggregability to decrease and the ADP threshold to rise from 7.0 microM resting, to 9.5 exercising (P < 0.01). At the same time, fibrinolytic activity increased markedly: euglobulin clot lysis time shortened from 178 to 68 min, PAI-1 fell from 8.91 to 5.16 IU ml-1, and t-PA rose from 0.56 to 3.95 IU ml-1, all three values were significant to P < 0.01. When the erect posture was assumed after lying at ease for 1 h after exercise, it did not increase platelet activity as expected, but caused a modest increase of fibrinolytic activity. These results suggest that supine exercise will not affect the haemostatic system adversely.

  12. Effect of Regular Exercise Program on Depression in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Jahangir; Abdi, Alireza; Rezaei, Mansour; Heydarnezhadian, Jafar; Jalali, Rostam

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim. Depression is the most common psychological disorder in hemodialysis patients which decreases their quality of life and increases the mortality. This study was conducted to assess the effect of regular exercise on depression in hemodialysis patients. Methods. In a randomized clinical trial, 51 hemodialysis patients were allocated in two groups. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scale was used to assessing depression rate in participants. Designed program was educated using poster and face-to-face methods for case group. Intervention was carried out three times a week for ten weeks. At the beginning and the end of the study, depression rate of the subjects was assessed. Data was analyzed by SPSS16 software and descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings. According to the results of this study, there were no differences between case and control groups in depression rate at the beginning of the study, but there was significant difference after intervention (P = 0.016). In the beginning of the study, the mean and SD of depression in case group were 23.8 ± 9.29 and reduced to 11.07 ± 12.64 at the end (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The regular exercise program could reduce the depression in hemodialysis patients; therefore it is suggested for training this program for hemodialysis patients. This trial is registered with Iranian Registry of Clinical Trial (IRCT) number IRCT201205159763N1. PMID:27347502

  13. Noncompliance in an exercise rehabilitation program for men who have suffered a myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Oldridge, N.B.; Wicks, J.R.; Hanley, C.; Sutton, J.R.; Jones, N.L.

    1978-01-01

    A group of 163 men in the Hamilton, Ont. region who had suffered a myocardial infarction were enrolled in a rehabilitation program of physical activity. These men constituted one cohort of a multicentre collaborative study designed to determine the effects of regular exercise of differing intensity on morbidity and mortality over a 4-year period. The noncompliance rate was 43% for the men who could have participated for 1 year, 46% of whom were classified as noncompliers within 1 month of entry into the program. There was no difference in overall compliance between the men exercising at high intensity and those exercising at low intensity; lack of motivation or interest was the most common reason for their leaving the program. Those leaving the program early tended to have a type A behaviour pattern (they were aggressive, ambitious and competitive, with a chronic sense of time urgency), were inactive during their leisure time, had had at least two previous infarctions and smoked. These characteristics suggest that the men leaving the program early may have been those at greatest risk for a further myocardial infarction. PMID:630495

  14. Cardioprotective effects of exercise training on myofilament calcium activation in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas; Wattanapermpool, Jonggonnee

    2004-05-01

    The risks associated with hormone replacement therapy, especially cardiac diseases in postmenopausal women, have prompted extensive studies for other preventive or therapeutic alternatives. We investigated the cardioprotective effects of exercise training on the changes in cardiac myofilament Ca2+ activation in 10-wk-old ovariectomized rats. The exercise groups were subjected to a 9-wk running program on a motor-driven treadmill 1 wk after surgery. The relationship between pCa (-log molar free Ca2+ concentration) and myofibrillar MgATPase activity of exercise-sham myofibrils or exercise-ovariectomized myofibrils was the same and could not be distinguished from that of sedentary-sham control hearts. In contrast, a significant suppression in maximum MgATPase activity and a leftward shift of pCa50 (half-maximally activating pCa) in the pCa-ATPase activity relationship were detected in sedentary-ovariectomized rats. Exercise training also prevented the shift in myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms toward beta-MHC in ovariectomized hearts. The upregulation of beta1-adrenergic receptors in the left ventricular membranes of ovariectomized rat hearts, as measured by receptor binding and immunoblot analyses, was no longer observed in exercise-ovariectomized hearts. Immunoblot analyses of heat shock protein (HSP) 72, an inducible form of HSP70, demonstrated a significant downregulation in ovariectomized hearts. Exercise training in ovariectomized rats completely reversed the expression of HSP72 to the same level as sham controls. Our results clearly indicate the cardioprotective effects of exercise training on changes in cardiac myofilament Ca2+ activation in ovariectomized rats. Alterations in expression of beta1-adrenergic receptors and HSP72 may, in part, play a mechanistic role in the cardioprotective effects.

  15. Perceptions and Evaluation of a Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study, conducted in the Midwestern United States, explored the perceptions of teachers at two different elementary schools as they implemented a physical activity program during the school day. The program engaged students in daily physical activity through brief, organized, structured physical exercise. Interviews and…

  16. Acute moderate exercise enhances compensatory brain activation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Kazuki; Dan, Ippeita; Suwabe, Kazuya; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Yamada, Yuhki; Akahori, Mitsuya; Byun, Kyeongho; Kato, Morimasa; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-11-01

    A growing number of reports state that regular exercise enhances brain function in older adults. Recently a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study revealed that an acute bout of moderate exercise enhanced activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) associated with Stroop interference in young adults. Whether this acute effect is also applicable to older adults was examined. Sixteen older adults performed a color-word matching Stroop task before and after 10 minutes of exercise on a cycle ergometer at a moderate intensity. Cortical hemodynamics of the prefrontal area was monitored with a fNIRS during the Stroop task. We analyzed Stroop interference (incongruent-neutral) as Stroop performance. Though activation for Stroop interference was found in the bilateral prefrontal area before the acute bout of exercise, activation of the right frontopolar area (R-FPA) was enhanced after exercise. In the majority of participants, this coincided with improved performance reflected in Stroop interference results. Thus, an acute bout of moderate exercise improved Stroop performance in older adults, and this was associated with contralateral compensatory activation. PMID:22300952

  17. Acute moderate exercise enhances compensatory brain activation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Kazuki; Dan, Ippeita; Suwabe, Kazuya; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Yamada, Yuhki; Akahori, Mitsuya; Byun, Kyeongho; Kato, Morimasa; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-11-01

    A growing number of reports state that regular exercise enhances brain function in older adults. Recently a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study revealed that an acute bout of moderate exercise enhanced activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) associated with Stroop interference in young adults. Whether this acute effect is also applicable to older adults was examined. Sixteen older adults performed a color-word matching Stroop task before and after 10 minutes of exercise on a cycle ergometer at a moderate intensity. Cortical hemodynamics of the prefrontal area was monitored with a fNIRS during the Stroop task. We analyzed Stroop interference (incongruent-neutral) as Stroop performance. Though activation for Stroop interference was found in the bilateral prefrontal area before the acute bout of exercise, activation of the right frontopolar area (R-FPA) was enhanced after exercise. In the majority of participants, this coincided with improved performance reflected in Stroop interference results. Thus, an acute bout of moderate exercise improved Stroop performance in older adults, and this was associated with contralateral compensatory activation.

  18. The effects of treadmill exercise on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity

    PubMed Central

    Tutkun, Erkut; Arslan, Gokhan; Ayyildiz, Mustafa; Agar, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-, moderate- and long-duration treadmill exercise (15, 30 and 60 min) on the mean frequency and amplitude of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in rats. Material and methods In this study, 32 rats were assigned to 15, 30, and 60 min running exercise groups and the control group, each consisting of 8 rats. According to the specified protocol, the rats were submitted to running exercises at the same hour of each day for 90 days. After the exercise program, the rats were administered (500 IU/2.5 µl) of penicillin into the left cortex by the microinjection method. An electrocorticogram (ECoG) recording was performed for 3 h using a data acquisition system. The frequency and the amplitude of the recordings were analyzed. Results Short-duration treadmill exercise (15 min) caused a decrease in the frequency of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity at 70 min after penicillin injection (p < 0.001). The mean frequency of epileptiform activity decreased at 90 min after penicillin injection in the 30 and 60 min treadmill exercise groups (p < 0.01). The mean amplitude of epileptiform activity was not changed in any of the exercise groups compared to the control (p > 0.05). Conclusions The results of the present study demonstrate for the first time that short-, moderate- and long-duration treadmill exercises decreased the frequency of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity. These findings may contribute to improving the quality of life in epileptic patients. PMID:27695482

  19. The effects of treadmill exercise on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity

    PubMed Central

    Tutkun, Erkut; Arslan, Gokhan; Ayyildiz, Mustafa; Agar, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-, moderate- and long-duration treadmill exercise (15, 30 and 60 min) on the mean frequency and amplitude of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in rats. Material and methods In this study, 32 rats were assigned to 15, 30, and 60 min running exercise groups and the control group, each consisting of 8 rats. According to the specified protocol, the rats were submitted to running exercises at the same hour of each day for 90 days. After the exercise program, the rats were administered (500 IU/2.5 µl) of penicillin into the left cortex by the microinjection method. An electrocorticogram (ECoG) recording was performed for 3 h using a data acquisition system. The frequency and the amplitude of the recordings were analyzed. Results Short-duration treadmill exercise (15 min) caused a decrease in the frequency of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity at 70 min after penicillin injection (p < 0.001). The mean frequency of epileptiform activity decreased at 90 min after penicillin injection in the 30 and 60 min treadmill exercise groups (p < 0.01). The mean amplitude of epileptiform activity was not changed in any of the exercise groups compared to the control (p > 0.05). Conclusions The results of the present study demonstrate for the first time that short-, moderate- and long-duration treadmill exercises decreased the frequency of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity. These findings may contribute to improving the quality of life in epileptic patients.

  20. The effectiveness of an aquarobic exercise program for patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Sook; Chung, Seung-Hee; Park, Yeun-Ju; Kang, Hee-Young

    2012-08-01

    Aquarobics, a combination of the words aqua and aerobics, is based on the idea that much more energy is consumed during exercise when resisting water rather than air. The aquarobic exercise program is composed of patient education and aquarobic exercise. The program was effective in enhancing self-efficacy, decreasing pain, and improving depression levels, body weight, and blood lipid levels in patients with osteoarthritis. Therefore, this program can be widely used in a community setting for the management of osteoarthritis.

  1. An exercise program to prevent falls in institutionalized elderly with cognitive deficits: a crossover pilot study.

    PubMed

    DeSure, Ariell R; Peterson, Karen; Gianan, Faith V; Pang, Lorrin

    2013-11-01

    Falls are the leading cause of injury among older adults in the United States, with the institutionalized elderly at elevated risk for injury and death. Physical weakness and mental frailty, prevalent in institutionalized elderly, are major risk factors for falls. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a program that addresses both the physical and mental aspects of exercise to reduce falls in institutionalized elderly. Twenty-seven volunteer subjects residing in an assisted living facility participated in the 24 week randomized crossover study. After demographic, fall history, and mental status examinations, subjects were randomly assigned first to ten weeks of either an exercise class or a control group, followed by a four week "washout period" of no activity, then cross assigned to ten weeks as either a control group or exercise class, respectively. Falls as well as mental status changes were monitored during the study. After adjusting for differences in baseline risk between the control and treatment groups, and for potential residual effects of the treatment during the crossover phase, a statistically significant (P = .025) reduction in falls was found during treatment compared to the control periods. No change in mental status was seen. This small, pilot study shows that exercise programs, which emphasize mental strengthening as well as physical fitness, have the potential to reduce falls among mentally impaired, institutionalized seniors.

  2. Developing a Community-Based Tailored Exercise Program for People With Severe and Persistent Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Kamden D.; Walnoha, Adrienne; Sloan, Jennifer; Buddadhumaruk, Praewpannarai; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Borrebach, Jeffrey; Cluss, Patricia A.; Burke, Jessica G.

    2016-01-01

    Background People with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) are at a greater risk of medical issues compared with the general population. Exercise has a positive effect on physical and mental health outcomes among this population in community settings. Objectives To describe community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods used to tailor an exercise program among people with SPMI, demonstrate its impact, and present lessons learned for future research. Methods The partnership developed a project to explore the feasibility of implementing a physical activity program at a community agency among clients with SPMI. Lessons Learned Data showed improved trends in mood, social support, and physical and mental health outcomes. Facilitators and barriers must be carefully considered for recruitment and retention. Conclusions A gender-specific, group-based, tailored exercise intervention developed through collaboration with a community agency serving people with SPMI using CBPR methods is feasible. Keywords: Community-based participatory research, severe and persistent mental illness, exercise, community partnership, sustainability PMID:26412763

  3. Activity-promoting gaming systems in exercise and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Matthew J D; McCormick, Darren; Shawis, Teshk; Impson, Rebecca; Griffin, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Commercial activity-promoting gaming systems provide a potentially attractive means to facilitate exercise and rehabilitation. The Nintendo Wii, Sony EyeToy, Dance Dance Revolution, and Xbox Kinect are examples of gaming systems that use the movement of the player to control gameplay. Activity-promoting gaming systems can be used as a tool to increase activity levels in otherwise sedentary gamers and also be an effective tool to aid rehabilitation in clinical settings. Therefore, the aim of this current work is to review the growing area of activity-promoting gaming in the context of exercise, injury, and rehabilitation.

  4. Exercise for Those with Chronic Heart Failure: Matching Programs to Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braith, Randy W.

    2002-01-01

    Exercise training increases functional capacity and improves symptoms in selected patients with chronic heart failure and moderate-to-severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Aerobic training forms the basis of such a program. This paper describes contributors to exercise intolerance, responses to exercise training, favorable outcomes with…

  5. Student Usage Patterns and Perceptions for Differentiated Lab Exercises in an Undergraduate Programming Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, H. N.

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated instruction in the form of tiered take-home lab exercises was implemented for students of an undergraduate-level programming course. This paper attempts to uncover the perceptions and usage patterns of students toward these new lab exercises using a comprehensive survey. Findings reveal that these tiered exercises are generally very…

  6. Student Usage Patterns and Perceptions for Differentiated Lab Exercises in an Undergraduate Programming Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Heng Ngee

    2011-01-01

    Differentiated instruction in the form of tiered take-home lab exercises was implemented for students of an undergraduate-level programming course. This paper attempts to uncover the perceptions and usage patterns of students toward these new lab exercises using a comprehensive survey. Findings reveal that these tiered exercises are generally very…

  7. Flexibility and Strength Measures in Children Participating in a Cardiac Rehabilitation Exercise Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Barbara M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A 12-week structured rehabilitation program featuring warm-up exercises, increased aerobic exercise, cool down, and home-based continuation of exercise helped 12 children with surgically corrected congenital heart disease improve lower extremity strength and flexibility. (Author/CB)

  8. Strongwomen® Program Evaluation: Effect of Strength Training Exercises on Physical Fitness of Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Van Horn, Beth; Corbin, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The Strongwomen® Program (SWP) is a nationally disseminated group strength-training exercise and nutrition education program delivered by Extension. The study reported here examined the effect of strength training exercises in SWP on improvement in physical fitness of program participants. Senior Fitness Test was used to collect data. Upon…

  9. Relationships between Physical Activity and the Proximity of Exercise Facilities and Home Exercise Equipment Used by Undergraduate University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Julian A.; Phillips, D. Allen

    2005-01-01

    The authors used stratified random sampling procedures to investigate the relationships among physical activity (PA), the proximity of exercise facilities, and the quantity of home exercise equipment in a sample of 411 undergraduates. To examine the data they collected from the modified Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire and the Home…

  10. Comparison of deep and superficial abdominal muscle activity between experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors and controls during stabilization exercise.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Sang-Min; Kim, Chang-Won; Shin, Yun-A

    2015-06-01

    Pilates and resistance exercises are used for lumbar stabilization training. However, it is unclear which exercise is more effective for lumbar stabilization. In our study, we aimed to compare surface muscle activity and deep muscle thickness during relaxation and spinal stabilization exercise in experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors. This study is a retrospective case control study set in the Exercise Prescription Laboratory and Sports Medicine Center. The participants included Pilates instructors (mean years of experience, 3.20±1.76; n=10), resistance exercise instructors (mean years of experience, 2.53±0.63; n=10), and controls (n=10). The participants performed 4 different stabilization exercises: abdominal drawing-in maneuver, bridging, roll-up, and one-leg raise. During the stabilization exercises, surface muscle activity was measured with electromyography, whereas deep muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging. During the 4 stabilization exercises, the thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) was significantly greater in the Pilates-trained group than the other 2 other groups. The internal oblique (IO) thickness was significantly greater in the Pilates- and resistance-trained group than the control group, during the 4 exercises. However, the surface muscle activities were similar between the groups. Both Pilates and resistance exercise instructors had greater activation of deep muscles, such as the TrA and IO, than the control subjects. Pilates and resistance exercise are both effective for increasing abdominal deep muscle thickness. PMID:26171383

  11. Improving Children's Coordinative Skills and Executive Functions: The Effects of a Football Exercise Program.

    PubMed

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Luppina, Giorgio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have focused on the positive influence of regular physical activity on executive functioning in children. Coordinative skills (agility) and executive functions (updating, attention, inhibition and planning processes) were investigated in children before and after 6 months of a Football Exercise Program compared to a control group of sedentary peers. The participants were 44 children aged 8.8 years: Group 1 comprised 24 children in a football (i.e., soccer) exercise program and Group 2 comprised 20 sedentary children. At pre-test and post-test, coordinative skills and executive functions were measured. After the Football Exercise Program, there were significant differences between sport and sedentary groups in coordinative skills and executive functions. The football group at post-test showed significantly larger gains than the sedentary group on measures of agility, visuo-spatial working memory, attention, planning and inhibition. Findings shed light on the issue to plan structured sport activities as a natural and enjoyable way to improve cognitive skills. PMID:27420304

  12. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging. Exercise or Physical Activity? Some people may wonder what ...

  13. The Advanced Throwers Ten Exercise Program: a new exercise series for enhanced dynamic shoulder control in the overhead throwing athlete.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Kevin E; Yenchak, A J; Arrigo, Christopher A; Andrews, James R

    2011-11-01

    The overhead throwing motion is a high-velocity, extremely stressful athletic movement. Its repetitive nature places tremendous demands on the entire body, frequently resulting in injury to the throwing shoulder. Such injuries, whether managed nonoperatively or surgically, require a multiphased approach beginning with exercises to restore muscular strength and proprioception, and advancing to more demanding exercises to improve power, endurance, and dynamic control. This article presents a new and innovative approach to the rehabilitation of the overhead throwing athlete, The Advanced Throwers Ten Exercise Program. This expanded program incorporates throwing motion-specific exercises and movement patterns performed in a discrete series, utilizing principles of coactivation, high-level neuromuscular control, dynamic stabilization, muscular facilitation, strength, endurance, and coordination, which all serve to restore muscle balance and symmetry in the overhead throwing athlete. This program is a continuation of the Throwers Ten Exercise Program, which has been utilized with excellent results in clinical practice and in athletic performance training. This unique combination of advanced exercise techniques bridges the gap between rehabilitation and training, facilitating a kinetic linking of the upper and lower extremities and providing a higher level of humeral head control necessary for the overhead throwing athlete's symptom-free return to sports.

  14. Specialized core stability exercise: a neglected component of anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation programs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dong-liang; Li, Jing-long; Zhai, Hua; Wang, Hui-fang; Meng, Han; Wang, Yu-bin

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury has continued to increase over the last two decades. This injury is associated with abnormal gait patterns and osteoarthritis of the knee. In order to accelerate recovery, the introduction of core stability exercises into the rehabilitation program is proposed. The theory underlying the use of core stability exercise relates to the neuroplasticity that follows anterior cruciate ligament injury. Neuroplasticity in lumbar, thoracic, cervical and brain regions diminish activation in the contralateral thalamus, postparietal cortex, SM1, basal ganglia-external globus pallidus, SII, cingulated motor area, premotor cortex, and in the ipsilateral cerebellum and SM1 and increase activation in pre-SMA, SIIp, and pITG, indicating modifications of the CNS. In addition, the neuroplasticity can regulate the movement of trunk muscles, for example, sternocleidomastoid and lower trapezius muscles. Core stability also demonstrates a negative correlation with the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Therefore, we propose that core stability exercises may improve the rehabilitation of anterior cruciate ligament injuries by increasing core motor control. Specialized core stability exercises aimed at rectifying biomechanical problems associated with gait and core stability may play a key role in the management of anterior cruciate ligament injury.

  15. Annelid Aminotransferase Activity--An Exercise in Basic Biochemical Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teal, A. R.; Alcock, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A practical exercise is described that allows students to investigate a specific problem using a variety of biochemical techniques. The need for a thorough understanding of the theoretical principles underlying these processes is emphasized. A program of private study and assessment is suggested to enable the progress of students to be followed.…

  16. Gender and Diversity in the Workplace: Learning Activities and Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gary N.

    Many colleges and universities and many work organizations have developed courses and programs on gender and diversity in the workplace. This book provides a complete and comprehensive set of instructional materials on these topics. The exercises have been designed for use with graduate and undergraduate students and members of business and…

  17. Pilot Enhancement of the Arthritis Foundation Exercise Program with a Healthy Aging Program.

    PubMed

    Schlenk, Elizabeth A; Bilt, Joni Vander; Lo-Ciganic, Wei-Hsuan; Jacob, Mini E; Woody, Sarah E; Conroy, Molly B; Kwoh, C Kent; Albert, Steven M; Boudreau, Robert; Newman, Anne B; Zgibor, Janice C

    2016-05-01

    Older adults with arthritis or joint pain were targeted for a pilot program enhancing the Arthritis Foundation Exercise Program with the 10 Keys™ to Healthy Aging Program. Using a one-group, pre-post design, feasibility was examined and improvements in preventive behaviors, arthritis outcomes, and cardiometabolic outcomes were explored. A 10-week program was developed, instructors were recruited and trained, and four sites and 51 participants were recruited. Measures included attendance, adherence, satisfaction, preventive behaviors, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (pain and stiffness), glucose, and cholesterol. Three fourths of participants attended >50% of the sessions. At 6 and 12 months, more than one half performed the exercises 1 to 2 days per week, whereas 28% and 14% exercised 3 to 7 days per week, respectively. Participants (92%) rated the program as excellent/very good. Nonsignificant changes were observed in expected directions. Effect sizes were small for arthritis and cardiometabolic outcomes. This program engaged community partners, demonstrated feasibility, and showed improvements in some preventive behaviors and health risk profiles. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2016; 9(3):123-132.].

  18. Effects of a Renal Rehabilitation Exercise Program in Patients with CKD: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Ana P.; Burris, Debra D.; Lucas, F. Leslie; Crocker, Gail A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Patients with CKD have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease associated with or exacerbated by inactivity. This randomized, controlled study investigated whether a renal rehabilitation exercise program for patients with stages 3 or 4 CKD would improve their physical function and quality of life. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In total, 119 adults with CKD stages 3 and 4 were randomized, and 107 of these patients proceeded to usual care or the renal rehabilitation exercise intervention consisting of usual care plus guided exercise two times per week for 12 weeks (24 sessions). Physical function was determined by three well established performance-based tests: 6-minute walk test, sit-to-stand test, and gait-speed test. Health-related quality of life was assessed by the RAND 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Results At baseline, no differences in self-reported level of activity, 6-minute walk test, and sit-to-stand test scores were observed between the usual care (n=48) and renal rehabilitation exercise (n=59) groups, although baseline gait-speed test score was higher in the renal rehabilitation exercise group (P<0.001). At follow-up, the renal rehabilitation exercise group but not the usual care group showed significant improvements in the 6-minute walk test (+210.4±266.0 ft [19% improvement] versus −10±219.9 ft; P<0.001), the sit-to-stand test (+26.9±27% of age prediction [29% improvement] versus +0.7±12.1% of age prediction; P<0.001), and the RAND-36 physical measures of role functioning (P<0.01), physical functioning (P<0.01), energy/fatigue levels (P=0.01), and general health (P=0.03) and mental measure of pain scale (P=0.04). The renal rehabilitation exercise regimen was generally well tolerated. Conclusions A 12-week/24-session renal rehabilitation exercise program improved physical capacity and quality of life in patients with CKD stages 3 and 4. Longer follow-up is needed to determine if these findings will

  19. Active Video Game Exercise Training Improves the Clinical Control of Asthma in Children: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Evelim L. F. D.; Carvalho, Celso R. F.; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Teixeira-Carvalho, Etiene Farah; Mendonça, Juliana Fernandes Barreto; Stirbulov, Roberto; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Costa, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma. Design A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20) or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16). Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO), maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol) and lung function. Results No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p < 0.05). Although the mean energy expenditure at rest and during exercise training was similar for both groups, the maximum energy expenditure was higher in the VGG. Conclusion The present findings strongly suggest that aerobic training promoted by an active video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvementin their exercise capacity and a reductionin pulmonary inflammation. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294 PMID:26301706

  20. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

    PubMed

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion).

  1. Enhanced muscle activity during lumbar extension exercise with pelvic stabilization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Seong

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pelvic stabilization affects multifidus (MF) and iliocostalis lumborum (IL) muscle activities during dynamic extension exercise. Nine males (age, 25.1±6.3 yr; height, 176.6±2.4 cm; body mass, 74.9±6.7 kg) performed an isometric lumbar extension strength test and dynamic exercise in an upright seated position with or without pelvic stabilization. The electromyography and muscle strength of the MF and IL muscles were measured when the subjects performed the isometric lumbar extension strength test at the trunk angle 110°, 146°, and 182°. In addition, the trunk extensor muscle activities were measured using 50% muscle strength of maximum isometric strength during a dynamic trunk extension exercise. The MF and IL muscle activities were significantly higher at 110°, 146°, and 182° with pelvic stabilization than that without pelvic stabilization during the isometric lumbar extension strength test (P<0.05) and the dynamic exercise (P<0.05). These results suggest that the lumbar extension exercise with pelvic stabilization may be more effective for MF and IL muscle activity compared to that without pelvic stabilization.

  2. Enhanced muscle activity during lumbar extension exercise with pelvic stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Seong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pelvic stabilization affects multifidus (MF) and iliocostalis lumborum (IL) muscle activities during dynamic extension exercise. Nine males (age, 25.1±6.3 yr; height, 176.6±2.4 cm; body mass, 74.9±6.7 kg) performed an isometric lumbar extension strength test and dynamic exercise in an upright seated position with or without pelvic stabilization. The electromyography and muscle strength of the MF and IL muscles were measured when the subjects performed the isometric lumbar extension strength test at the trunk angle 110°, 146°, and 182°. In addition, the trunk extensor muscle activities were measured using 50% muscle strength of maximum isometric strength during a dynamic trunk extension exercise. The MF and IL muscle activities were significantly higher at 110°, 146°, and 182° with pelvic stabilization than that without pelvic stabilization during the isometric lumbar extension strength test (P<0.05) and the dynamic exercise (P<0.05). These results suggest that the lumbar extension exercise with pelvic stabilization may be more effective for MF and IL muscle activity compared to that without pelvic stabilization. PMID:26730390

  3. Teaching Sociological Theory through Active Learning: The Irrigation Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Mellisa

    2005-01-01

    For students, theory is often one of the most daunting aspects of sociology--it seems abstract, removed from the concrete events of their everyday lives, and therefore intimidating. In an attempt to break down student resistance to theory, instructors are increasingly turning to active learning approaches. Active learning exercises, then, appear…

  4. Promoting Physical Activity and Exercise among Children. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Liane M.

    This Digest discusses the importance of and ways to foster activity and exercise in children. Following an introduction, the Digest is organized into four sections. The first section deals with the significant health benefits of physical activity, including: reduction in chronic disease risk; lowered risk of colon cancer; increase in bone density;…

  5. Regional differences in muscle activation during hamstrings exercise.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Contreras, Bret; Tiryaki-Sonmez, Gul; Wilson, Jacob M; Kolber, Morey J; Peterson, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    It is believed that regional activation within a muscle may lead to greater site-specific muscular adaptations in the activated portion of the muscle. Because the hamstrings are a biarticular muscle, it can be theorized that single-joint exercises where movement originates at the hip vs. the knee will result in differential activation of the muscle complex. The purpose of the present study was to assess electromyographic activity in the proximal and distal aspects of the medial and lateral hamstrings during performance of the stiff-legged deadlift (SLDL), a hip-dominant exercise, and the lying leg curl (LLC), a knee-dominant exercise. Ten young, resistance-trained men were recruited from a university population to participate in the study. Employing a within-subject design, participants performed the SLDL and LLC to muscular failure using a load equating to their 8 repetition maximum for each exercise. The order of performance of exercises was counterbalanced between participants so that approximately half of the subjects performed SLDL first and the other half performed LLC first. Surface electromyography was used to record mean normalized muscle activity of the upper lateral hamstrings, lower lateral hamstrings, upper medial hamstrings, and lower medial hamstrings. Results showed that the LLC elicited significantly greater normalized mean activation of the lower lateral and lower medial hamstrings compared with the SLDL (p ≤ 0.05). These findings support the notion that the hamstrings can be regionally targeted through exercise selection. Further investigations are required to determine whether differences in activation lead to greater muscular adaptations in the muscle complex. PMID:24978835

  6. Effects of a Combined Exercise Program Using an iPad for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juhee; Byun, Jinyee; Lee, Minkyung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the function, health status, and efficacy effects of a combined exercise program using an iPad among older women in Korea, a tech-savvy country. Methods The study employed a pretest and posttest experimental design with a control group. The experimental group of subjects comprised 16 female older adults and the control group comprised 10 who were aged 65 years or older. The experimental group participated in a supervised group-based exercise program and an individualized home-based exercise program that involved the use of an iPad. The combined group and home-based exercise program consisted of group exercise, which took place in a senior center for 30 minutes weekly, and a home-based iPad exercise program, which the subjects followed at least 3 times a week. The collected data were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS ver. 9.3 TS Level 1M0) program, which utilized a chi-square test, a Fisher exact test, a t-test, and a repeated-measures ANOVA. Results The results showed that cognitive status changed significantly over time, and there was an interaction between group and time. Further, self-efficacy for exercise and outcome expectations for exercise changed significantly over time. Conclusions Exercise programs using iPad interventions may be useful for the management of cognitive functioning and the integration of functional physical abilities in older adults. PMID:27200215

  7. Effects of performing an abdominal hollowing exercise on trunk muscle activity during curl-up exercise on an unstable surface

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the abdominal hollowing exercise on trunk muscle activity during the curl-up exercise on an unstable surface by measuring electromyography (EMG) activity. [Subjects] Fourteen young healthy adults (nine male, five female) voluntarily participated in this study. [Methods] Each subject was asked to perform a curl-up exercise on two supporting surfaces (stable and unstable surfaces) combined with the abdominal hollowing exercise on an unstable surface. The muscle activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transverse abdominis (TrA) were measured using surface EMG during performance of the curl-up exercise. [Results] The EMG activity of the RA and EO was significantly higher on an unstable surface than on a stable surface during the curl-up exercise. The EMG activities of the TrA and IO were greater in combination with the abdominal hollowing exercise on an unstable surface than during the curl-up exercise on both a stable and unstable surface. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that the local trunk muscle activity during the curl-up exercise is more strongly affected by combination with the abdominal hollowing exercise than by performance on an unstable supporting surface. PMID:25729202

  8. [Program about therapeutics education. Roll-playing exercise].

    PubMed

    Salinas, Carmen Martín

    2011-05-01

    This article presents a program about therapeutics education aimed at a patient with diabetes mellitus type 2, associated with hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity The association of these factors constitutes the so-called metabolic syndrome, which entails an increase in the risk of heart disease. This roll-playing exercise is used in the subject Nutrition and Dietetics, given in the second academic year of the Nursing University School La Paz of Madrid, Spain, in order to strengthen self-directed learning. Solving the case comprises evaluation of the patient's self-care agency identification of the self-care deficit and those nurse interventions which are considered necessary to treat that deficit. Both three Diagnosis Taxonomy by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, Nursing Intervention Classification and Nursing Result Classification were used to solve it.

  9. Effects of a virtual reality-based exercise program on functional recovery in stroke patients: part 1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Hee

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of a virtual reality exercise program using the Interactive Rehabilitation and Exercise System (IREX) on the recovery of motor and cognitive function and the performance of activities of daily living in stroke patients. [Subjects] The study enrolled 10 patients diagnosed with stroke who received occupational therapy at the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of Hospital A between January and March 2014. [Methods] The patients took part in the virtual reality exercise program for 30 minutes each day, three times per week, for 4 weeks. Then, the patients were re-evaluated to determine changes in upper extremity function, cognitive function, and performance of activities of daily living 4 weeks after the baseline assessment. [Results] In the experimental group, there were significant differences in the Korea-Mini Mental Status Evaluation, Korean version of the modified Barthel index, and Fugl-Meyer assessment scores between the baseline and endpoint. [Conclusion] The virtual reality exercise program was effective for restoring function in stroke patients. Further studies should develop systematic protocols for rehabilitation training with a virtual reality exercise program.

  10. Exercise training in asthma.

    PubMed

    Satta, A

    2000-12-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that is often limiting the exercise capacity. Rehabilitation programs are recommended and widely applied in asthmatic patients, and exercise prescription is a keystone of these programs. The impairment of exercise performance in asthmatics, the role of exercise training in such patients, the mechanisms of its beneficial effects and the suggested programs are discussed in a review, accordingly to the current evidence and available data in scientific literature. Exercise performance is impaired in most asthmatics. There is no conclusive evidence that asthma may involve a ventilatory limitation to exercise. The lesser fitness in asthmatics seems mainly due to inactivity and sedentary lifestyle. Exercise induced asthma (EIA) is a significant problem, and the best approach to minimise its effects on exercise capacity is prevention. Exercise training has been proved to have health-related benefits and to improve the quality of life. There is substantial evidence that exercise training increases exercise performance and fitness in asthmatics. It is still unclear whether physical training improves pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness. Since asthma ranges widely, exercise prescription varies for each patient. The proper selection of the patients and the choice of exercise programs are the steps required. Accordingly with the severity of the disease, exercise strategies may range from sports activities to, when the disease is severe, inpatient hospital programs that overlap with COPD rehabilitation. Further research to clarify some aspects (effects on pulmonary function and EIA, outcomes, cost-benefit relationship) is necessary. PMID:11296996

  11. Feasibility of an Exercise Program for Puerto Rican Women who are Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Portela, Ana L. Mulero; Santaella, Carmen L. Colón; Gómez, Cynthia Cruz; Burch, Annlee

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this pilot study was to explore the feasibility of implementing two exercise programs for female patients who are breast cancer survivors and residents of the metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico. Potential benefits and complications of participating in a gym-exercise program or a home-exercise program, as opposed to standard care, were identified. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a gym-exercise group, a home-exercise group, or a non-exercise group. Interventions consisted of exercise programs with both aerobic and strengthening components, offered for a 26-week period. Outcome measures consisted of functional evaluation, shoulder range of motion, 12-minute walk test, handgrip strength, body mass index, and quality of life. The results of this study showed that it is feasible for Puerto Rican women to participate in a moderate intensity exercise program without developing complications. Participation in the exercise programs studied here minimized the side effects after cancer treatment, such as reduced physical functional ability and restricted shoulder mobility. Improvements were found in the measures of shoulder range of motion, upper extremity related physical function, and distance walked. PMID:20664723

  12. A Set of Free Cross-Platform Authoring Programs for Flexible Web-Based CALL Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Myles

    2012-01-01

    The Mango Suite is a set of three freely downloadable cross-platform authoring programs for flexible network-based CALL exercises. They are Adobe Air applications, so they can be used on Windows, Macintosh, or Linux computers, provided the freely-available Adobe Air has been installed on the computer. The exercises which the programs generate are…

  13. The Effects of Regular Exercise Programs for Visually Impaired and Sighted Schoolchildren.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blessing, D. L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study examined effects of a 16-week aerobic exercise training program on the cardiovascular fitness and body composition of 30 students with visual impairments. In comparison with traditional physical education provided to sighted students, the exercise training program resulted in a significant increase in cardiovascular fitness and a…

  14. 77 FR 10542 - Revision of the National Preparedness for Response Exercise Program (PREP) Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public meeting: After considering public comments and developing a revised... SECURITY Coast Guard Revision of the National Preparedness for Response Exercise Program (PREP) Guidelines... Response Exercise Program (PREP) is designed to facilitate the periodic testing of oil spill response...

  15. Non-exercise physical activity attenuates motor symptoms in Parkinson disease independent from nigrostriatal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Jon; Müller, Martijn L.T.M; Kotagal, Vikas; Koeppe, Robert A; Scott, Peter J.H.; Frey, Kirk A; Albin, Roger L.; Bohnen, Nicolaas I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between time spent in non-exercise and exercise physical activity and severity of motor functions in Parkinson disease (PD). Background Increasing motor impairments of PD incline many patients to a sedentary lifestyle. We investigated the relationship between duration of both non-exercise and exercise physical activity over a 4-week period using the Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire and severity of clinical motor symptoms in PD. We accounted for the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Methods Cross-sectional study. PD subjects, n=48 (40M); 69.4±7.4 (56–84) years old; 8.4±4.2 (2.5–20) years motor disease duration, mean UPDRS motor score 27.5 ± 10.3 (7–53) and mean MMSE score 28.4 ± 1.9 (22–30) underwent [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) PET imaging to assess nigrostriatal denervation and completed the CHAMPS questionnaire and clinical assessment. Results Bivariate correlations showed an inverse relationship between motor UPDRS severity scores and duration of non-exercise physical activity (R= −0.37, P=0.0099) but not with duration of exercise physical activity (R= −0.05, P= 0.76) over 4 weeks. Multiple regression analysis using UPDRS motor score as outcome variable demonstrated a significant regressor effect for duration of non-exercise physical activity (F=6.15, P=0.017) while accounting for effects of nigrostriatal degeneration (F=4.93, P=0.032), levodopa-equivalent dose (LED; F=1.07, P=0.31), age (F=4.37, P=0.043) and duration of disease (F=1.46, P=0.23; total model (F=5.76, P=0.0004). Conclusions Non-exercise physical activity is a correlate of motor symptom severity in PD independent of the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Non-exercise physical activity may have positive effects on functional performance in PD. PMID:26330028

  16. Aerobic Exercise for Alcohol Recovery: Rationale, Program Description, and Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Richard A.; Abrantes, Ana M.; Read, Jennifer P.; Marcus, Bess H.; Jakicic, John; Strong, David R.; Oakley, Julie R.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Stuart, Gregory G.; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are a major public health concern. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of a number of different treatments for alcohol dependence, relapse remains a major problem. Healthy lifestyle changes may contribute to long-term maintenance of recovery and interventions targeting physical activity, in particular, may be especially valuable as an adjunct to alcohol treatment. In this paper, we discuss the rationale and review potential mechanisms of action whereby exercise might benefit alcohol dependent patients in recovery. We then describe the development of a 12-week moderate-intensity aerobic exercise program as an adjunctive intervention for alcohol dependent patients in recovery. Preliminary data from a pilot study (n=19) are presented and the overall significance of this research effort is discussed. PMID:19091721

  17. Behavioral and Psychosocial Outcomes of a 16-Week Rebound Therapy-Based Exercise Program for People with Profound Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martyn C.; Walley, Robert M.; Leech, Amanda; Paterson, Marion; Common, Stephanie; Metcalf, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    People with profound intellectual disabilities rarely experience a physically active lifestyle, and their long-term physical inactivity likely contributes to poor health. The authors developed and implemented a pilot exercise program for persons with a profound intellectual disability and conducted a study to evaluate the effort. The development…

  18. Cardiovascular adaptations in weightlessness: The influence of in-flight exercise programs on the cardiovascular adjustments during weightlessness and upon returning to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of in-flight exercise programs on astronauts' cardiovascular adjustments during spaceflight weightlessness and upon return to Earth was studied. Physiological changes in muscle strength and volume, cardiovascular responses during the application of lower body negative pressure, and metabolic activities during pre-flight and flight tests were made on Skylab crewmembers. The successful completion of the Skylab missions showed that man can perform submaximal and maximal aerobic exercise in the weightless enviroment without detrimental trends in any of the physiologic data. Exercise tolerance during flight was unaffected. It was only after return to Earth that a tolerance decrement was noted. The rapid postflight recovery of orthostatic and exercise tolerance following two of the three Skylab missions appeared to be directly related to total in-flight exercise as well as to the graded, regular program of exercise performed during the postflight debriefing period.

  19. The exercise and environmental physiology of extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowell, Stephenie A.; Stocks, Jodie M.; Evans, David G.; Simonson, Shawn R.; Greenleaf, John E.

    2002-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA), i.e., exercise performed under unique environmental conditions, is indispensable for supporting daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. From 1965-1996 an average of 20 h x yr(-1) were spent performing EVA. International Space Station (ISS) assembly will require 135 h x yr(-1) of EVA, and 138 h x yr(-1) is planned for post-construction maintenance. The extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), used to protect astronauts during EVA, has a decreased pressure of 4.3 psi that could increase astronauts' risk of decompression sickness (DCS). Exercise in and repeated exposure to this hypobaria may increase the incidence of DCS, although weightlessness may attenuate this risk. Exercise thermoregulation within the EMU is poorly understood; the liquid cooling garment (LCG), worn next to the skin and designed to handle thermal stress, is manually controlled. Astronauts may become dehydrated (by up to 2.6% of body weight) during a 5-h EVA, further exacerbating the thermoregulatory challenge. The EVA is performed mainly with upper body muscles; but astronauts usually exercise at only 26-32% of their upper body maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). For a given ground-based work task in air (as opposed to water), the submaximal VO2 is greater while VO2max and metabolic efficiency are lower during ground-based arm exercise as compared with leg exercise, and cardiovascular responses to exercise and training are also different for arms and legs. Preflight testing and training, whether conducted in air or water, must account for these differences if ground-based data are extrapolated for flight requirements. Astronauts experience deconditioning during microgravity resulting in a 10-20% loss in arm strength, a 20-30% loss in thigh strength, and decreased lower-body aerobic exercise capacity. Data from ground-based simulations of weightlessness such as bed rest induce a 6-8% decrease in upper-body strength, a 10-16% loss in thigh extensor

  20. The exercise and environmental physiology of extravehicular activity.

    PubMed

    Cowell, Stephenie A; Stocks, Jodie M; Evans, David G; Simonson, Shawn R; Greenleaf, John E

    2002-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA), i.e., exercise performed under unique environmental conditions, is indispensable for supporting daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. From 1965-1996 an average of 20 h x yr(-1) were spent performing EVA. International Space Station (ISS) assembly will require 135 h x yr(-1) of EVA, and 138 h x yr(-1) is planned for post-construction maintenance. The extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), used to protect astronauts during EVA, has a decreased pressure of 4.3 psi that could increase astronauts' risk of decompression sickness (DCS). Exercise in and repeated exposure to this hypobaria may increase the incidence of DCS, although weightlessness may attenuate this risk. Exercise thermoregulation within the EMU is poorly understood; the liquid cooling garment (LCG), worn next to the skin and designed to handle thermal stress, is manually controlled. Astronauts may become dehydrated (by up to 2.6% of body weight) during a 5-h EVA, further exacerbating the thermoregulatory challenge. The EVA is performed mainly with upper body muscles; but astronauts usually exercise at only 26-32% of their upper body maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). For a given ground-based work task in air (as opposed to water), the submaximal VO2 is greater while VO2max and metabolic efficiency are lower during ground-based arm exercise as compared with leg exercise, and cardiovascular responses to exercise and training are also different for arms and legs. Preflight testing and training, whether conducted in air or water, must account for these differences if ground-based data are extrapolated for flight requirements. Astronauts experience deconditioning during microgravity resulting in a 10-20% loss in arm strength, a 20-30% loss in thigh strength, and decreased lower-body aerobic exercise capacity. Data from ground-based simulations of weightlessness such as bed rest induce a 6-8% decrease in upper-body strength, a 10-16% loss in thigh extensor

  1. [Effectiveness of two aerobic exercise programs in the treatment of metabolic syndrome: a preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Salas-Romero, Rebeca; Sánchez-Muñoz, Verónica; Franco-Sánchez, José Gilberto; Del Villar-Morales, Ariadna; Pegueros-Pérez, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of two aerobic exercise programs on the modification of the metabolic syndrome (MS) components and its influence in reducing cardiovascular risk was evaluated in 16 sedentary women (30-66 years old). Patients were randomly divided into two exercise groups: continuous training (CE: 45 minutes at 65-70% of heart rate reserve or HRR) or interval training (IE: 5 x 3 minute intervals at 80-85% HRR with two minutes of active recovery at 65-70% HRR), and each participant gave previous informed consent. The components of MS were assessed according to the criteria for women of the National Cholesterol Education/Third Treatment Adult Panel, and cardiovascular risk factors at baseline and 16 weeks later. Data analyses were performed with the Wilcoxon signed test and the Mann-Whitney U-test (SPSS v. 12.0 Windows: p < 0.05). Both exercise programs were effective in the modification of a number of MS components (triglycerides, systolic/diastolic blood pressure), however IE had a higher percentage of patients without MS diagnosis at the end of the study (62.5%). The CE improved the physical fitness by increasing the VO₂peak and METs and decreasing heart rate recovery, which is reflected on the reduction of cardiovascular risk.

  2. Taking Exercise: Cultural Diversity and Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Doune; Abbott, Rebecca; Knez, Kelly; Nelson, Alison

    2009-01-01

    "Taking exercise", whether it be recreational walking, participating in club sport, or joining in a physical education (PE) lesson, is a culturally loaded behaviour. We all see, do and talk about physical activity differently, yet, there has been relatively little research or theorising around difference in race, ethnicity, cultural diversity and…

  3. An Active Learning Exercise for Introducing Agent-Based Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in agent-based modeling as a method of systems analysis and optimization indicate that students in business analytics need an introduction to the terminology, concepts, and framework of agent-based modeling. This article presents an active learning exercise for MBA students in business analytics that demonstrates agent-based…

  4. Propagation of Action Potentials: An Active Participation Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsten, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Describes an active participation exercise that demonstrates the propagation of action potentials (the ability to transmit information through the neural network, dependent upon chemical interactions in the brain). Students assume the structure and function of the network by lining up around the room and communicating through hand signals and…

  5. Exercise and Your Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

  6. Impact of Treadmill Exercise on Efficacy Expectations, Physical Activity, and Stroke Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Shaughnessy, Marianne; Michael, Kathleen; Resnick, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Stroke survivors are at high risk for cardiovascular mortality which can be in part mitigated by increasing physical activity. Self–efficacy for exercise is known to play a role in adoption of exercise behaviors. This study examines self-reported psychological outcomes in a group of 64 stroke survivors randomized to either a 6-month treadmill training program or a stretching program. Results indicated that regardless of group, all study participants experienced increased self efficacy (F=2.95, p=0.09) and outcome expectations for exercise (F= 13.23, p<0.001), and improvements in activities of daily living as reported on the Stroke Impact Scale (F=10.97, p=0 .002). No statistically significant between-group differences were noted, possibly due to the fact that specific interventions designed to enhance efficacy beliefs were not part of the study. Theoretically based interventions should be tested to clarify the role of motivation and potential influence on exercise and physical activity in the post-stroke population. PMID:22210302

  7. Older Adults' Participation in a Community-Based Falls Prevention Exercise Program: Relationships between the Easy Tool, Program Attendance, and Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G.; Ahn, SangNam; Bazzarre, Terry L.; Resnick, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The Exercise Assessment Screening for You (EASY) tool was developed to encourage older adults at every functional level to be more physically active. The purposes of this study were to examine characteristics of older adults who participated in an evidence-based falls prevention program by their entry to EASY tool scores,…

  8. Impact of diet, exercise end diet combined with exercise programs on plasma lipoprotein and adiponectin levels in obese girls

    PubMed Central

    Ben Ounis, Omar; Elloumi, Mohamed; Amri, Mohamed; Zbidi, Abdelkarim; Tabka, Zouhair; Lac, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    We studied the effect of three programs, diet restriction (D), individualized exercise training (E) at the maximal lipid oxidation point (LIPOXmax) and diet combined with exercise (D+E), on body mass, plasma lipoprotein and adiponectin levels in obese girls. Eighteen obese adolescents girls aged 12-14 years were studied. A longitudinal intervention was carried out, consisting of a two-month diet (D; -500 kcal·day-1), of individualized exercise (E; 4 days/week, 90 min·day-1) and of diet combined with exercise (D+E). Body mass, body mass index (BMI), body fat mass, waist circumference, substrate crossover point, LIPOXmax point, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) index, fasting levels of lipids and circulatory adiponectin, were measured in all subjects before and after the program. In subjects of the D+E group, body mass, BMI, body fat mass, waist circumference, HOMA-IR, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol / high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio were significantly lower, and HDL-C and adiponectin were higher after the program than that of subjects in the D or E groups. Diet/exercise improved the ability to oxidize lipids during exercise (crossover point: + 18.5 ± 3.4 of % Wmax; p < 0.01 and fat oxidation rate at LIPOXmax: + 89.7 ± 19.7 mg·min-1; p < 0.01). In the D+E group, significant correlations were found between changes in body mass and adiponectin and between changes in the TC/HDL-C ratio and LIPOXmax. These findings show that the combined program of diet restriction and individualized exercise training at the LIPOXmax point is necessary to simultaneously improve body mass loss, adiponectin levels, as well as metabolic parameters, in obese girls. Key pointsDiet combined with exercise training improved body composition, adiponectin levels and metabolic parameters in obese girls.Diet only decreases body mass and LDL-C without improving fat oxidation and HDL- C.Individualized exercise training at LIPOXmax point

  9. Effects of an aquatic exercise program on inhibitory control in children with ADHD: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Hung, Chiao-Ling; Huang, Chung-Ju; Hatfield, Bradley D; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine whether an aquatic exercise intervention that involves both aerobic and coordinative exercises influences restraint inhibition in children with ADHD. Thirty participants were assigned to either an aquatic exercise or a wait-list control group. Participants were assessed by Go/Nogo Task and motor ability prior to and after an 8-week exercise intervention (twice per week, 90 min per session) or a control intervention. Significant improvements in accuracy associated with the Nogo stimulus and the coordination of motor skills were observed over time in the exercise group compared with the control group. Only main effects of group were found for reaction time and accuracy associated with the Go stimulus. These findings suggest that an exercise program that involves both quantitative and qualitative exercise characteristics facilitates the restraint inhibition component of behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD. PMID:24695590

  10. Effects of an aquatic exercise program on inhibitory control in children with ADHD: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Hung, Chiao-Ling; Huang, Chung-Ju; Hatfield, Bradley D; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine whether an aquatic exercise intervention that involves both aerobic and coordinative exercises influences restraint inhibition in children with ADHD. Thirty participants were assigned to either an aquatic exercise or a wait-list control group. Participants were assessed by Go/Nogo Task and motor ability prior to and after an 8-week exercise intervention (twice per week, 90 min per session) or a control intervention. Significant improvements in accuracy associated with the Nogo stimulus and the coordination of motor skills were observed over time in the exercise group compared with the control group. Only main effects of group were found for reaction time and accuracy associated with the Go stimulus. These findings suggest that an exercise program that involves both quantitative and qualitative exercise characteristics facilitates the restraint inhibition component of behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD.

  11. An analysis of Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program exercise results. Volume 2: Preliminary evaluation and analysis of CSEPP exercise database

    SciTech Connect

    Wernette, D.; Lerner, K.

    1998-06-01

    This study investigated the quality and usefulness of the information in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) exercise database. It incorporates the results of two separate analytical efforts. The first effort investigated the process of assigning standardized codes to issues identified in CSEPP exercise reports. A small group of issues was coded independently by each of several individuals, and the results of the individual codings were compared. Considerable differences were found among the individuals` codings. The second effort consisted of a statistical multivariate analysis, to investigate whether exercise issues are evenly distributed among exercise tabs, sites, and objectives. It was found that certain tabs, sites, and objectives were disproportionately associated with problem areas in exercises. In some cases, these problem areas have persisted over time, but in other cases they have undergone significant shifts over the time span of the investigation. The study concludes that the database can be a useful resource for analyzing problem areas and setting priorities for CSEPP program resources. However, some further analyses should be performed in order to more fully explore the data and increase confidence in the results.

  12. The effects of exercise program on burnout and metabolic syndrome components in banking and insurance workers.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Han Hui; Yeh, Ching Ying; Su, Chien Tien; Chen, Chiou Jong; Peng, Shu Mei; Chen, Ruey Yu

    2013-01-01

    To explore the effectiveness of exercise program for banking and insurance workers and clarify the association between exercise, burnout, and metabolic syndrome components. In the process of the study, a practicable worksite exercise program was developed for bank and insurance enterprises. A three-month (12-wk) exercise course was conducted, and its benefits evaluated. Levels of burnout and metabolic syndrome components were analyzed after exercise intervention. After intervention, the indicators of burnout and metabolic syndrome components were significantly improved in both low and high intensity groups, and the improvement were expressed in reduction of waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, person burnout and work-related burnout. A dose-response of burnouts and metabolic syndrome components with exercise intensity are shown (p<0.05). Metabolic syndrome components were independently associated with burnout and exercise intensity in the crude model. After adjustment for potential confounders, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure differences showed significant associations with exercise intensity (p<0.05). This study demonstrated an effective approach to worksite exercise intervention and exercise intensity played an important role to alleviate damage between burnouts and metabolic syndrome components. PMID:23518604

  13. Effects of breathing exercises on lung capacity and muscle activities of elderly smokers

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ki-Jong; Nam, Ki-Won; Kim, Chang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Elderly smokers have a reduced chest diameter due to weakening of the respiratory muscles, and this results in decreased ventilation, leading to a vicious circle. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of an intervention program to enhance the pulmonary function and muscle activity of elderly smokers. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups or a control (CG) group. The experimental groups performed exercises three times per week for six weeks, whereas the CG performed no exercises. One of the experimental groups performed a Feedback Breathing Exercise (FBE) for 15 minutes, and the other repeated three sets of Balloon-Blowing Exercises (BBE) with sufficient rest of more than one minute between sets. [Results] In the experimental groups, FVC, FEV1/FVC, PEF and muscle activity of the rectus abdominis significantly improved after four weeks, but no significant differences were observed in FEV1 or VC after six weeks. [Conclusion] The results show that FBE and BBE improved the pulmonary functions of elderly smokers, demonstrating the potential benefits of the development of various training methods using balloons, and group programs, including recreational factors, for increasing respiratory muscles strength. PMID:27390394

  14. Effects of breathing exercises on lung capacity and muscle activities of elderly smokers.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ki-Jong; Nam, Ki-Won; Kim, Chang-Heon

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] Elderly smokers have a reduced chest diameter due to weakening of the respiratory muscles, and this results in decreased ventilation, leading to a vicious circle. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of an intervention program to enhance the pulmonary function and muscle activity of elderly smokers. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups or a control (CG) group. The experimental groups performed exercises three times per week for six weeks, whereas the CG performed no exercises. One of the experimental groups performed a Feedback Breathing Exercise (FBE) for 15 minutes, and the other repeated three sets of Balloon-Blowing Exercises (BBE) with sufficient rest of more than one minute between sets. [Results] In the experimental groups, FVC, FEV1/FVC, PEF and muscle activity of the rectus abdominis significantly improved after four weeks, but no significant differences were observed in FEV1 or VC after six weeks. [Conclusion] The results show that FBE and BBE improved the pulmonary functions of elderly smokers, demonstrating the potential benefits of the development of various training methods using balloons, and group programs, including recreational factors, for increasing respiratory muscles strength. PMID:27390394

  15. Effects of a Behavioral Program on Exercise Adherence and Exercise Self-Efficacy in Community-Dwelling Older Persons

    PubMed Central

    Azizan, Azliyana; Kuan, Chua Siew

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study determines the effects of a behavioral program on exercise adherence (step counts) and level of exercise self-efficacy (ESE) in community-dwelling older persons. Methods. Sixty-three participants (age = 63.8 ± 4.5 years) were enrolled in this controlled quasi-experimental study. They were divided into 3 groups: (1) EBG performed a 6-week exercise intervention followed by a 5-week behavioral program, (2) EG performed exercise intervention similar to EBG, and (3) control group (CG) did not receive any interventions. Step counts were measured based on the scores recorded by a pedometer while ESE was measured by a self-reported ESE scale. Results. Data analysis showed significant differences due to time effect (F(1,2) = 39.884, P < 0.01, and η = .399); time and group interactions (F(2,60) = 112.683, P < 0.01, and η = .790); and between-group effect (F(2,60) = 12.524, P < 0.01, and η = .295) for step counts. As for ESE, significant differences were also found for time effect (F(2,4) = 66.628, P < 0.05, and η = .526); time and group interactions (F(2,60) = 4.562, P = 0.014, and η = .132); and between-group effect (F(2,60) = 13.632, P < 0.05, and η = .312). EBG presented with significantly higher mean changes for both step counts and ESE compared to other groups (all P < 0.05). Conclusion. This study suggests that the addition of a behavioral program is superior as compared to exercising alone on increasing exercise adherence and level of self-efficacy in older persons. PMID:24489539

  16. Effects of a Task-specific Exercise Program on Balance, Mobility, and Muscle Strength in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Jung-Ho; Park, Young-Han

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a task-specific exercise program based on motor learning on balance ability and strength of the lower extremity in the elderly with/without falling experiences. [Subjects and Methods] Individuals who had experiences of falling over 2 times within the past 6 months were included in the falling group. The task-specific exercise program consisted of 3 stages (weeks 1–2, 3–4, and 5–6) and was conducted according to the level of difficulty in this study. [Results] The scores of the Korean version of the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale and Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment were significantly changed in both the falling group and non-falling group after the task-specific exercise program. In comparisons between the falling group and non-falling group, there were also significant differences in the Korean version of the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale and muscle strength of the semitendinosus and gastrocnemius. [Conclusion] The task-specific exercise program has a positive effect on balance ability and muscle strength related to falls in the elderly. PMID:25435679

  17. Plasma vasopressin, renin activity, and aldosterone responses to maximal exercise in active college females.

    PubMed

    Maresh, C M; Wang, B C; Goetz, K L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of maximal treadmill exercise on plasma concentrations of vasopressin (AVP); renin activity (PRA); and aldosterone (ALDO) was studied in nine female college basketball players before and after a 5-month basketball season. Pre-season plasma AVP increased (p less than 0.05) from a pre-exercise concentration of 3.8 +/- 0.5 to 15.8 +/- 4.8 pg X ml-1 following exercise. Post-season, the pre-exercise plasma AVP level averaged 1.5 +/- 0.5 pg X ml-1 and increased to 16.7 +/- 5.9 pg X ml-1 after the exercise test. PRA increased (p less than 0.05) from a pre-exercise value of 1.6 +/- 0.6 to 6.8 +/- 1.7 ngAI X ml-1 X hr-1 5 min after the end of exercise during the pre-season test. In the post-season, the pre-exercise PRA was comparable (2.4 +/- 0.6 ngAI X ml- X hr-1), as was the elevation found after maximal exercise (8.3 +/- 1.9 ngAI X ml- X hr-1). Pre-season plasma ALDO increased (p less than 0.05) from 102.9 +/- 30.8 pg X ml-1 in the pre-exercise period to 453.8 +/- 54.8 pg X ml-1 after the exercise test. In the post-season the values were 108.9 +/- 19.4 and 365.9 +/- 64.4 pg X ml-1, respectively. Thus, maximal exercise in females produced significant increases in plasma AVP, renin activity, and ALDO that are comparable to those reported previously for male subjects. Moreover, this response is remarkably reproducible as demonstrated by the results of the two tests performed 5 months apart.

  18. 76 FR 59664 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement For Divert Activities and Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Activities and Exercises, Guam and Commomwealth of The Northern Mariana Islands AGENCY: Headquarters Pacific... Divert Activities and Exercises, Guam and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The proposed divert activities and exercises would involve airfield improvements designed to provide additional...

  19. Preliminary Effectiveness and Sustainability of Group Aerobic Exercise Program in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sol; Ryu, Je-Kwang; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Chang, Jhin-Goo; Lee, Hwa-Bock; Kim, Do-Hoon; Roh, Daeyoung

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and sustained effect of a group aerobic exercise program in patients with schizophrenia. Twenty-four schizophrenic patients participated in a group-based individually tailored 90-minute outdoor cycling session per week for 3 months with intervention to enhance motivation. Physical health was evaluated by anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness, and blood tests. Mental health was assessed on self-esteem, interpersonal relationship, quality of life, and global function. Attrition rate for the exercise program was 8.3%. Exercise program significantly increased participant's self-esteem, positive relationship, global function, and quality of life. CR fitness significantly improved after 3 months. At the 9-month follow-up, 6 months after program completion, only in interpersonal relationship change the improved effects were maintained. These findings support the feasibility of group aerobic exercise program with high level of adherence and its long-term benefits in positive relationship change. PMID:27218221

  20. Exercise training program for older adults. Incentives and disincentives for participation.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Joanne Kraenzle; Eveker, Ann; Bronder, Deborah Rilling; Meiner, Sue E; Binder, Ellen F

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the incentives and disincentives for participating in an exercise training program for community-dwelling individuals 78 and older. One hundred forty-seven women and 62 men participated in this descriptive study, and ages ranged from 78 to 95 years (mean 82.7 +/- 4.1). Individuals were interviewed by phone about their decision to participate in an exercise program. Qualitative responses were analyzed using content analysis. Three main incentive themes emerged: Health Benefits, Psychological Benefits, and Positive Program Features. Disincentive themes included Competing Commitments, Doubts about Exercise, and Negative Program Features. To better tailor an exercise program to the needs of this older age group, nurses working with older adults should keep in mind the lifestyle, age-specific obligations, and set of values affecting this cohort's participation. PMID:14528746

  1. Resistance Exercise in Already-Active Diabetic Individuals (READI): study rationale, design and methods for a randomized controlled trial of resistance and aerobic exercise in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Jane E; Kenny, Glen P; Perkins, Bruce A; Riddell, Michael C; Goldfield, Gary S; Donovan, Lois; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Wells, George A; Phillips, Penny; Sigal, Ronald J

    2015-03-01

    The Resistance Exercise in Already Active Diabetic Individuals (READI) trial aimed to examine whether adding a 6-month resistance training program would improve glycemic control (as reflected in reduced HbA₁c) in individuals with type 1 diabetes who were already engaged in aerobic exercise compared to aerobic training alone. After a 5-week run-in period including optimization of diabetes care and low-intensity exercise, 131 physically active adults with type 1 diabetes were randomized to two groups for 22weeks: resistance training three times weekly, or waiting-list control. Both groups maintained the same volume, duration and intensity of aerobic exercise throughout the study as they did at baseline. HbA₁c, body composition, frequency of hypoglycemia, lipids, blood pressure, apolipoproteins B and A-1 (ApoB and ApoA1), the ApoB-ApoA1 ratio, urinary albumin excretion, serum C-reactive protein, free fatty acids, total daily insulin dose, health-related quality of life, cardiorespiratory fitness and musculoskeletal fitness were recorded at baseline, 3 (for some variables), and 6 months. To our knowledge, READI is the only trial to date assessing the incremental health-related impact of adding resistance training for individuals with type 1 diabetes who are already aerobically active. Few exercise trials have been completed in this population, and even fewer have assessed resistance exercise. With recent improvements in the quality of diabetes care, the READI study will provide conclusive evidence to support or refute a major clinically relevant effect of exercise type in the recommendations for physical activity in patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:25559915

  2. Resistance Exercise in Already-Active Diabetic Individuals (READI): study rationale, design and methods for a randomized controlled trial of resistance and aerobic exercise in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Jane E; Kenny, Glen P; Perkins, Bruce A; Riddell, Michael C; Goldfield, Gary S; Donovan, Lois; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Wells, George A; Phillips, Penny; Sigal, Ronald J

    2015-03-01

    The Resistance Exercise in Already Active Diabetic Individuals (READI) trial aimed to examine whether adding a 6-month resistance training program would improve glycemic control (as reflected in reduced HbA₁c) in individuals with type 1 diabetes who were already engaged in aerobic exercise compared to aerobic training alone. After a 5-week run-in period including optimization of diabetes care and low-intensity exercise, 131 physically active adults with type 1 diabetes were randomized to two groups for 22weeks: resistance training three times weekly, or waiting-list control. Both groups maintained the same volume, duration and intensity of aerobic exercise throughout the study as they did at baseline. HbA₁c, body composition, frequency of hypoglycemia, lipids, blood pressure, apolipoproteins B and A-1 (ApoB and ApoA1), the ApoB-ApoA1 ratio, urinary albumin excretion, serum C-reactive protein, free fatty acids, total daily insulin dose, health-related quality of life, cardiorespiratory fitness and musculoskeletal fitness were recorded at baseline, 3 (for some variables), and 6 months. To our knowledge, READI is the only trial to date assessing the incremental health-related impact of adding resistance training for individuals with type 1 diabetes who are already aerobically active. Few exercise trials have been completed in this population, and even fewer have assessed resistance exercise. With recent improvements in the quality of diabetes care, the READI study will provide conclusive evidence to support or refute a major clinically relevant effect of exercise type in the recommendations for physical activity in patients with type 1 diabetes.

  3. Older women's personal goals and exercise activity: an 8-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Saajanaho, Milla; Viljanen, Anne; Read, Sanna; Rantakokko, Merja; Tsai, Li-Tang; Kaprio, Jaakko; Jylhä, Marja; Rantanen, Taina

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the associations of personal goals with exercise activity, as well as the relationships between exercise-related and other personal goals, among older women. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs were used with a sample of 308 women ages 66-79 at baseline. Women who reported exercise-related personal goals were 4 times as likely to report high exercise activity at baseline than those who did not report exercise-related goals. Longitudinal results were parallel. Goals related to cultural activities, as well as to busying oneself around the home, coincided with exercise-related goals, whereas goals related to own and other people's health and independent living lowered the odds of having exercise-related goals. Helping older adults to set realistic exercise-related goals that are compatible with their other life goals may yield an increase in their exercise activity, but this should be evaluated in a controlled trial.

  4. Effects of an Aerobic Exercise Program on Community-Based Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pommering, Thomas L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation of a 10-week aerobic exercise program on 14 community-based adults with mental retardation found a 91.3% attendance rate and significant increases in maximal oxygen consumption, oxygen pulse, maximum ventilation, exercise stress test duration, and flexibility. However, no significant changes were observed in weight or body composition.…

  5. The Exercise Plus Program for Older Women Post Hip Fracture: Participant Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Barbara; Orwig, Denise; Wehren, Lois; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Simpson, Marjorie; Magaziner, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of older women post hip fracture who were exposed to a motivational intervention, the Exercise Plus Program, intended to increase adherence to exercise. Design and Methods: This study used a naturalistic inquiry. We interviewed a total of 70 older women, 12 months post hip fracture,…

  6. Participation in a Twelve-Week Moderate Exercise Program--Selected Physiological Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyness, G. B. Jerry

    1990-01-01

    Adults (N=142) who engaged in a 12-week moderate exercise program requiring the maintenance of training state exercise heart rates for a minimum of 20 minutes, 3 times a week, experienced an improvement in cardiovascular functioning regardless of age and/or sex. (Author/IAH)

  7. Estrogen-related receptor-α coordinates transcriptional programs essential for exercise tolerance and muscle fitness.

    PubMed

    Perry, Marie-Claude; Dufour, Catherine R; Tam, Ingrid S; B'chir, Wafa; Giguère, Vincent

    2014-12-01

    Muscle fitness is an important determinant of health and disease. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the coordinate regulation of the metabolic and structural determinants of muscle endurance are still poorly characterized. Herein, we demonstrate that estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα, NR3B1) is essential for skeletal muscle fitness. Notably, we show that ERRα-null animals are hypoactive and that genetic or therapeutic disruption of ERRα in mice results in reduced exercise tolerance. Mice lacking ERRα also exhibited lactatemia at exhaustion. Gene expression profiling demonstrates that ERRα plays a key role in various metabolic processes important for muscle function including energy substrate transport and use (Ldhd, Slc16a1, Hk2, and Glul), the tricarboxylic acid cycle (Cycs, and Idh3g), and oxidative metabolism (Pdha1, and Uqcrq). Metabolomics studies revealed impairment in replenishment of several amino acids (eg, glutamine) during recovery to exercise. Moreover, loss of ERRα was found to alter the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response (Hmox1), maintenance of muscle fiber integrity (Trim63, and Hspa1b), and muscle plasticity and neovascularization (Vegfa). Taken together, our study shows that ERRα plays a key role in directing transcriptional programs required for optimal mitochondrial oxidative potential and muscle fitness, suggesting that modulation of ERRα activity could be used to manage metabolic myopathies and/or promote the adaptive response to physical exercise. PMID:25361393

  8. Improvement of gross motor and cognitive abilities by an exercise training program: three case reports

    PubMed Central

    Alesi, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Roccella, Michele; Testa, Davide; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Background This work examined the efficacy of an integrated exercise training program (coach and family) in three children with Down syndrome to improve their motor and cognitive abilities, in particular reaction time and working memory. Methods The integrated exercise training program was used in three children with Down syndrome, comprising two boys (M1, with a chronological age of 10.3 years and a mental age of 4.7 years; M2, with a chronological age of 14.6 years and a mental age of less than 4 years) and one girl (F1, chronological age 14.0 years and a mental age of less than 4 years). Results Improvements in gross motor ability scores were seen after the training period. Greater improvements in task reaction time were noted for both evaluation parameters, ie, time and omissions. Conclusion There is a close interrelationship between motor and cognitive domains in individuals with atypical development. There is a need to plan intervention programs based on the simultaneous involvement of child and parents and aimed at promoting an active lifestyle in individuals with Down syndrome. PMID:24672238

  9. Ascorbic acid supplementation does not alter oxidative stress markers in healthy volunteers engaged in a supervised exercise program.

    PubMed

    Bunpo, Piyawan; Anthony, Tracy G

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of ascorbic acid (AA) consumption on the oxidative stress status of untrained volunteers participating in a supervised exercise program. The study included 46 young adults (average age, 23.5 ± 0.59 years; 37 females, 9 males) who remained sedentary (n = 16) or participated in 30 min of outdoor aerobic running (n = 30) at an intensity corresponding to 65%-75% of maximum heart rate for 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Exercised subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group without AA supplementation (control; n = 10) or received either 250 mg (n = 10) or 500 mg (n = 10) of AA supplementation previous to each exercise session. Blood samples were taken on day 0 and day 84 to evaluate metabolic profiles and antioxidant status. Sedentary subjects underwent in a single bout of aerobic running to determine total antioxidant status (TAS) and malondiadehyde (MDA) at pre- and postexercise with or without AA supplementation. No significant change in TAS was observed. Plasma MDA significantly increased at postexercise (P < 0.05), and AA supplementation decreased MDA level significantly (P < 0.05). After 3 months of exercise, there was no significant change in blood glucose, lipid profile, MDA, TAS, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase activities amongst groups. Supplementation of AA was associated with minor and inconsistent reductions in SOD, GPx, and catalase activities (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that pre-exercise supplementation of ascorbic acid does not alter oxidative stress markers in the plasma and erythrocytes of young adults engaged in a supervised exercise program. PMID:26789096

  10. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring during exercise and physical activity.

    PubMed

    White, W B

    1991-12-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure recorders have two potential advantages over standard casual blood pressure measurements; they are able to take multiple recordings automatically throughout the day and night and also during the activities of normal daily living. At present, the general recommendations for validation of blood pressure recorders do not include assessment during motion. In order to obtain accurate information on an ambulatory blood pressure recorder's capabilities during exercise or physical activity, the blood pressure standard must use direct (intra-arterial) measurements. Data from some of the existing ambulatory blood pressure recorders suggest that many are accurate during resting measurements but lose their precision when the subjects are walking or during exercise. If ambulatory recorders are to be used in ambulant conditions with a moving arm, the device should be validated for accuracy and reliability during motion, using simultaneous direct measurements for comparison. PMID:1795196

  11. Effect of an exercise program for posture correction on musculoskeletal pain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, DeokJu; Cho, MiLim; Park, YunHee; Yang, YeongAe

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the effect of an exercise program for posture correction on musculoskeletal pain. [Subjects] Between September 2, 2013 and November 3, 2013, an exercise program was performed in 88 students from S University in K city (male students, n = 34; female students, n = 54). [Methods] The exercise program for posture correction was performed for 20 minutes per session, 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Pain levels were measured using a pain scale, and pain levels before and after the exercise program were compared. [Results] Overall, pain levels of the participants were lower after the exercise program than before the program, and significant differences in pain levels were noted in the shoulders, middle back, and lower back. [Conclusion] In conclusion, shoulder pain, mid back pain, and low back pain were relieved with the exercise program for posture correction. Therefore, the findings of this study can be used to improve the work efficiency of students as well as people engaged in sedentary work. PMID:26180322

  12. A Teaching Exercise for the Identification of Bacteria Using An Interactive Computer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Trevor N.; Smith, John E.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an interactive Fortran computer program which provides an exercise in the identification of bacteria. Provides a way of enhancing a student's approach to systematic bacteriology and numerical identification procedures. (Author/MA)

  13. Relation of Physical Activity to Memory Functioning in Older Adults: The Memory Workout Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebok, George W.; Plude, Dana J.

    2001-01-01

    The Memory Workout, a CD-ROM program designed to help older adults increase changes in physical and cognitive activity influencing memory, was tested with 24 subjects. Results revealed a significant relationship between exercise time, exercise efficacy, and cognitive function, as well as interest in improving memory and physical activity.…

  14. Comparing routine neurorehabilitation program with trunk exercises based on Bobath concept in multiple sclerosis: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Keser, Ilke; Kirdi, Nuray; Meric, Aydin; Kurne, Asli Tuncer; Karabudak, Rana

    2013-01-01

    This study compared trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept with routine neurorehabilitation approaches in multiple sclerosis (MS). Bobath and routine neurorehabilitation exercises groups were evaluated. MS cases were divided into two groups. Both groups joined a 3 d/wk rehabilitation program for 8 wk. The experimental group performed trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept, and the control group performed routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Additionally, both groups performed balance and coordination exercises. All patients were evaluated with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) before and after the physiotherapy program. In group analysis, TIS, BBS, ICARS, and MSFC scores and strength of abdominal muscles were significantly different after treatment in both groups (p < 0.05). When the groups were compared, no significant differences were found in any parameters (p > 0.05). Although trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept are rarely applied in MS rehabilitation, the results of this study show that they are as effective as routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Therefore, trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept can be beneficial in MS rehabilitation programs. PMID:23516089

  15. Comparative effects of horse exercise versus traditional exercise programs on gait, muscle strength, and body balance in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Aranda-García, Silvia; Iricibar, Albert; Planas, Antoni; Prat-Subiran, Joan A; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the separate effect and retention of 12-week traditional (TE) and horse (HE) exercise programs on physical function in healthy older participants (61 to 87 years old). Thirty-eight participants were randomly assigned to three groups: TE (n = 17), HE (n = 10), and control group (n = 11). TE and HE underwent a supervised exercise program (3 day/week). Maximal gait speed, muscle strength, and body balance were assessed at weeks 0, 12, and 16. Only TE and HE displayed significant improvements (P < .05) in knee extensor strength, and only HE had faster gait speed. Marginal balance improvements were found only in HE in the medial-lateral direction. However, TE showed larger improvements in handgrip than HE. The largest retention was in knee extensor strength but most of the exercise effects were lost in the follow-up. Besides TE, exercise with a horse may be an alternative option to older adults, provided that they want to interact with the animal. PMID:24425454

  16. Comparative effects of horse exercise versus traditional exercise programs on gait, muscle strength, and body balance in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Aranda-García, Silvia; Iricibar, Albert; Planas, Antoni; Prat-Subiran, Joan A; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the separate effect and retention of 12-week traditional (TE) and horse (HE) exercise programs on physical function in healthy older participants (61 to 87 years old). Thirty-eight participants were randomly assigned to three groups: TE (n = 17), HE (n = 10), and control group (n = 11). TE and HE underwent a supervised exercise program (3 day/week). Maximal gait speed, muscle strength, and body balance were assessed at weeks 0, 12, and 16. Only TE and HE displayed significant improvements (P < .05) in knee extensor strength, and only HE had faster gait speed. Marginal balance improvements were found only in HE in the medial-lateral direction. However, TE showed larger improvements in handgrip than HE. The largest retention was in knee extensor strength but most of the exercise effects were lost in the follow-up. Besides TE, exercise with a horse may be an alternative option to older adults, provided that they want to interact with the animal.

  17. Mothers' exercise during pregnancy programs vasomotor function in adult offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The intrauterine environment is influenced by maternal behavior and known to influence lifelong atherosclerotic disease susceptibility in offspring. The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that maternal exercise during pregnancy increases endothelial function in offs...

  18. Beyond Strength: Participant Perspectives on the Benefits of an Older Adult Exercise Program.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Marlana; Belza, Basia; Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna; Miyawaki, Christina E

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the expected and experienced benefits among participants in Enhance®Fitness (EF), an evidence-based group physical activity program for older adults. We also describe the implications for program dissemination (reach, implementation, and maintenance) within the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework. Twenty semistructured interviews were conducted with EF participants enrolled from 2005 to 2012. Interviews were digitally recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using a deductive approach. Participants were motivated to join EF for expected physical benefits and the social environment of a group-based class. Actualized benefits of participation included physical, social, functional, and improved self-image/sense of well-being. Participants valued the practical application of class exercises to daily activities that support independent living, such as lifting objects and completing household chores. Organizations looking to implement EF or improve existing EF classes can improve program reach, implementation, and maintenance by incorporating participants' expressed motivations and valued benefits in program marketing and by improving organizational support to meet participant needs. EF class instructors can tailor their classes to engage participants based on their motivations. Understanding participants' motivations and valued benefits can improve EF dissemination by meeting participant needs with tailored class offerings and organizational needs informed by participant insights that aid program sustainability.

  19. Low-intensity and moderate exercise training improves autonomic nervous system activity imbalanced by postnatal early overfeeding in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Postnatal early overfeeding and physical inactivity are serious risk factors for obesity. Physical activity enhances energy expenditure and consumes fat stocks, thereby decreasing body weight (bw). This study aimed to examine whether low-intensity and moderate exercise training in different post-weaning stages of life is capable of modulating the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and inhibiting perinatal overfeeding-induced obesity in rats. Methods The obesity-promoting regimen was begun two days after birth when the litter size was adjusted to 3 pups (small litter, SL) or to 9 pups (normal litter, NL). The rats were organized into exercised groups as follows: from weaning until 90-day-old, from weaning until 50-day-old, or from 60- until 90-days-old. All experimental procedures were performed just one day after the exercise training protocol. Results The SL-no-exercised (SL-N-EXE) group exhibited excess weight and increased fat accumulation. We also observed fasting hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in these rats. In addition, the SL-N-EXE group exhibited an increase in the vagus nerve firing rate, whereas the firing of the greater splanchnic nerve was not altered. Independent of the timing of exercise and the age of the rats, exercise training was able to significantly blocks obesity onset in the SL rats; even SL animals whose exercise training was stopped at the end of puberty, exhibited resistance to obesity progression. Fasting glycemia was maintained normal in all SL rats that underwent the exercise training, independent of the period. These results demonstrate that moderate exercise, regardless of the time of onset, is capable on improve the vagus nerves imbalanced tonus and blocks the onset of early overfeeding-induced obesity. Conclusions Low-intensity and moderate exercise training can promote the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, reduces the large fat pad stores associated to improvement of the ANS activity in adult rats that were

  20. Physical activity, physical fitness and the effect of exercise training interventions in lymphoma patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vermaete, Nele; Wolter, Pascal; Verhoef, Gregor; Gosselink, Rik

    2013-08-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and most distressing problems in lymphoma patients. A vicious circle is presumed between fatigue, physical activity and physical fitness. It is plausible that an exercise training program would be effective in reducing fatigue, by breaking this vicious circle. The purposes of this review are to provide an overview of the literature on physical activity and physical fitness in lymphoma patients before, during and after anticancer treatment, and to summarise the literature on exercise training interventions in lymphoma patients. We conducted a search for studies reporting on physical activity, physical fitness or the effect of exercise training in lymphoma patients. A total of 13 articles were selected. Due to a small number of articles and methodological issues, it was not possible to make final conclusions. The results indicated that 21 % to 29 % of lymphoma survivors meet the American College of Sports Medicine public health guidelines for physical activity. Maximal exercise capacity was decreased before treatment, especially in patients with advanced disease, and was close to normal during and/or after treatment. Lower levels of physical activity as well as lower physical fitness seemed to be associated with more symptoms of fatigue. Aerobic exercise training interventions seemed to be feasible and safe and had positive effects on cardiorespiratory fitness, fatigue and self-reported physical functioning. Further research is needed to examine physical activity and physical fitness in a longitudinal, objective way in large samples and to examine the effect of exercise training in lymphoma patients.

  1. Sixty minutes of what? A developing brain perspective for activating children with an integrative exercise approach.

    PubMed

    Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Edwards, Nicholas M; Clark, Joseph F; Best, Thomas M; Sallis, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    Current recommendations for physical activity in children overlook the critical importance of motor skill acquisition early in life. Instead, they focus on the quantitative aspects of physical activity (eg, accumulate 60 min of daily moderate to vigorous physical activity) and selected health-related components of physical fitness (eg, aerobic fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition). This focus on exercise quantity in youth may limit considerations of qualitative aspects of programme design which include (1) skill development, (2) socialisation and (3) enjoyment of exercise. The timing of brain development and associated neuroplasticity for motor skill learning makes the preadolescence period a critical time to develop and reinforce fundamental movement skills in boys and girls. Children who do not participate regularly in structured motor skill-enriched activities during physical education classes or diverse youth sports programmes may never reach their genetic potential for motor skill control which underlies sustainable physical fitness later in life. The goals of this review are twofold: (1) challenge current dogma that is currently focused on the quantitative rather than qualitative aspects of physical activity recommendations for youth and (2) synthesise the latest evidence regarding the brain and motor control that will provide the foundation for integrative exercise programming that provide a framework sustainable activity for life. PMID:25617423

  2. Sixty minutes of what? A developing brain perspective for activating children with an integrative exercise approach.

    PubMed

    Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Edwards, Nicholas M; Clark, Joseph F; Best, Thomas M; Sallis, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    Current recommendations for physical activity in children overlook the critical importance of motor skill acquisition early in life. Instead, they focus on the quantitative aspects of physical activity (eg, accumulate 60 min of daily moderate to vigorous physical activity) and selected health-related components of physical fitness (eg, aerobic fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition). This focus on exercise quantity in youth may limit considerations of qualitative aspects of programme design which include (1) skill development, (2) socialisation and (3) enjoyment of exercise. The timing of brain development and associated neuroplasticity for motor skill learning makes the preadolescence period a critical time to develop and reinforce fundamental movement skills in boys and girls. Children who do not participate regularly in structured motor skill-enriched activities during physical education classes or diverse youth sports programmes may never reach their genetic potential for motor skill control which underlies sustainable physical fitness later in life. The goals of this review are twofold: (1) challenge current dogma that is currently focused on the quantitative rather than qualitative aspects of physical activity recommendations for youth and (2) synthesise the latest evidence regarding the brain and motor control that will provide the foundation for integrative exercise programming that provide a framework sustainable activity for life.

  3. Exercise, physical activity, and exertion over the business cycle.

    PubMed

    Colman, Gregory; Dave, Dhaval

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in time and income constraints over economic expansions and contractions would be expected to affect individuals' behaviors. We explore the impact of the business cycle on individuals' exercise, time use, and total physical exertion, utilizing information on 112,000 individual records from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Surveys. In doing so, we test a key causal link that has been hypothesized in the relation between unemployment and health, but not heretofore assessed. Using more precise measures of exercise (and other activities) than previous studies, we find that as work-time decreases during a recession, recreational exercise, TV-watching, sleeping, childcare, and housework increase. This, however, does not compensate for the decrease in work-related exertion due to job-loss, and total physical exertion declines. These effects are strongest among low-educated men, which is validating given that employment in the Great Recession has declined most within manufacturing, mining, and construction. We also find evidence of intra-household spillover effects, wherein individuals respond to shifts in spousal employment conditional on their own labor supply. The decrease in total physical activity during recessions is especially problematic for vulnerable populations concentrated in boom-and-bust industries, and may have longer-term effects on obesity and related health outcomes.

  4. Exercise, physical activity, and exertion over the business cycle.

    PubMed

    Colman, Gregory; Dave, Dhaval

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in time and income constraints over economic expansions and contractions would be expected to affect individuals' behaviors. We explore the impact of the business cycle on individuals' exercise, time use, and total physical exertion, utilizing information on 112,000 individual records from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Surveys. In doing so, we test a key causal link that has been hypothesized in the relation between unemployment and health, but not heretofore assessed. Using more precise measures of exercise (and other activities) than previous studies, we find that as work-time decreases during a recession, recreational exercise, TV-watching, sleeping, childcare, and housework increase. This, however, does not compensate for the decrease in work-related exertion due to job-loss, and total physical exertion declines. These effects are strongest among low-educated men, which is validating given that employment in the Great Recession has declined most within manufacturing, mining, and construction. We also find evidence of intra-household spillover effects, wherein individuals respond to shifts in spousal employment conditional on their own labor supply. The decrease in total physical activity during recessions is especially problematic for vulnerable populations concentrated in boom-and-bust industries, and may have longer-term effects on obesity and related health outcomes. PMID:23906116

  5. The role of exercise and physical activity in weight loss and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Swift, Damon L; Johannsen, Neil M; Lavie, Carl J; Earnest, Conrad P; Church, Timothy S

    2014-01-01

    This review explores the role of physical activity (PA) and exercise training (ET) in the prevention of weight gain, initial weight loss, weight maintenance, and the obesity paradox. In particular, we will focus the discussion on the expected initial weight loss from different ET programs, and explore intensity/volume relationships. Based on the present literature, unless the overall volume of aerobic ET is very high, clinically significant weight loss is unlikely to occur. Also, ET also has an important role in weight regain after initial weight loss. Overall, aerobic ET programs consistent with public health recommendations may promote up to modest weight loss (~2 kg), however the weight loss on an individual level is highly heterogeneous. Clinicians should educate their patients on reasonable expectations of weight loss based on their physical activity program and emphasize that numerous health benefits occur from PA programs in the absence of weight loss.

  6. The role of exercise and physical activity in weight loss and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Swift, Damon L; Johannsen, Neil M; Lavie, Carl J; Earnest, Conrad P; Church, Timothy S

    2014-01-01

    This review explores the role of physical activity (PA) and exercise training (ET) in the prevention of weight gain, initial weight loss, weight maintenance, and the obesity paradox. In particular, we will focus the discussion on the expected initial weight loss from different ET programs, and explore intensity/volume relationships. Based on the present literature, unless the overall volume of aerobic ET is very high, clinically significant weight loss is unlikely to occur. Also, ET also has an important role in weight regain after initial weight loss. Overall, aerobic ET programs consistent with public health recommendations may promote up to modest weight loss (~2 kg), however the weight loss on an individual level is highly heterogeneous. Clinicians should educate their patients on reasonable expectations of weight loss based on their physical activity program and emphasize that numerous health benefits occur from PA programs in the absence of weight loss. PMID:24438736

  7. Exercise and Physical Activity Recommendations for People with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark D.; Balemans, Astrid C.J.; Hurvitz, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and its promotion, as well as the avoidance of sedentary behaviour play important roles in health promotion and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases. Guidelines for typically developing youth and adults published by the World Health Organization and American College of Sports Medicine are available. However, detailed recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviour have not been established for children, adolescents and adults with cerebral palsy (CP). This paper presents the first CP-specific PA and exercise recommendations. The recommendations are based on (1) a comprehensive review and analysis of the literature, (2) expert opinion and (3) extensive clinical experience. The evidence supporting these recommendations are based on randomized controlled trials and observational studies involving children, adolescents and adults with CP, and buttressed by the previous guidelines for the general population. These recommendations may be used to guide healthcare providers on exercise and daily PA prescription for individuals with CP. PMID:26853808

  8. Change in trunk muscle activities with prone bridge exercise in patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong-Soo; Park, Seol; Kweon, Mi-Gyong; Park, Ji-Won

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of three different bridge exercises on internal oblique, external oblique, transverse abdominis, and erector spinae activities. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five subjects with chronic low back pain participated in this study. The training outcome was evaluated with three different testing methods: supine bridge exercise, supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise, and prone bridge exercise. The activities of the transverse abdominis, internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] There were significant differences in the internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae according to the three kinds of bridging exercises. The internal oblique, external oblique and transverse abdominis activities were highest in the prone bridge exercise, followed by those in the supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise, and supine bridge exercises. The activity of erector spine was highest in the supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise followed by the supine bridge exercise and prone bridge exercise. [Conclusion] These results suggest that prone bridge exercise is more effective than conventional supine bridge exercise and supine bridge on Swiss ball in increasing trunk muscle activity of chronic low back pain patients.

  9. Change in trunk muscle activities with prone bridge exercise in patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong-Soo; Park, Seol; Kweon, Mi-Gyong; Park, Ji-Won

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of three different bridge exercises on internal oblique, external oblique, transverse abdominis, and erector spinae activities. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five subjects with chronic low back pain participated in this study. The training outcome was evaluated with three different testing methods: supine bridge exercise, supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise, and prone bridge exercise. The activities of the transverse abdominis, internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] There were significant differences in the internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae according to the three kinds of bridging exercises. The internal oblique, external oblique and transverse abdominis activities were highest in the prone bridge exercise, followed by those in the supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise, and supine bridge exercises. The activity of erector spine was highest in the supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise followed by the supine bridge exercise and prone bridge exercise. [Conclusion] These results suggest that prone bridge exercise is more effective than conventional supine bridge exercise and supine bridge on Swiss ball in increasing trunk muscle activity of chronic low back pain patients. PMID:26957771

  10. Change in trunk muscle activities with prone bridge exercise in patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yong-soo; Park, Seol; Kweon, Mi-Gyong; Park, Ji-won

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of three different bridge exercises on internal oblique, external oblique, transverse abdominis, and erector spinae activities. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five subjects with chronic low back pain participated in this study. The training outcome was evaluated with three different testing methods: supine bridge exercise, supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise, and prone bridge exercise. The activities of the transverse abdominis, internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] There were significant differences in the internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae according to the three kinds of bridging exercises. The internal oblique, external oblique and transverse abdominis activities were highest in the prone bridge exercise, followed by those in the supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise, and supine bridge exercises. The activity of erector spine was highest in the supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise followed by the supine bridge exercise and prone bridge exercise. [Conclusion] These results suggest that prone bridge exercise is more effective than conventional supine bridge exercise and supine bridge on Swiss ball in increasing trunk muscle activity of chronic low back pain patients. PMID:26957771

  11. Effects of a 10-week resistance exercise program on soccer kick biomechanics and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Manolopoulos, Evaggelos; Katis, Athanasios; Manolopoulos, Konstantinos; Kalapotharakos, Vasileios; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of a resistance exercise program on soccer kick biomechanics. Twenty male amateur soccer players were divided in the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG), each consisting of 10 players. The EG followed a 10-week resistance exercise program mainly for the lower limb muscles. Maximal instep kick kinematics, electromyography, and ground reaction forces (GRFs) as well as maximum isometric leg strength were recorded before and after training. A 2-way analysis of variance showed significantly higher ball speed values only for the EG (26.14 ± 1.17 m·s vs. 27.59 ± 1.49 m·s before and after training, respectively), whereas no significant differences were observed for the CG. The EG showed a decline in joint angular velocities and an increase in biceps femoris electromyography of the swinging leg during the backswing phase followed by a significant increase in segmental and joint velocities and muscle activation of the same leg during the forward swing phase (p < 0.05). The EG also showed significantly higher vertical GRFs and rectus femoris and gastrocnemius activation of the support leg (p < 0.05). Similarly, maximum and explosive isometric force significantly increased after training only for the EG (p < 0.05). These results suggest that increases in soccer kicking performance after a 10-week resistance training program were accompanied by increases in maximum strength and an altered soccer kick movement pattern, characterized by a more explosive backward-forward swinging movement and higher muscle activation during the final kicking phase.

  12. Changes in the activities of the trunk muscles in different kinds of bridging exercises.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong Soo; Cho, Yong Ho; Park, Ji Won

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different types of bridging exercises on the activities of the trunk muscles. [Methods] Twenty-four students participated in this experiment. The activities of the internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO), rectus abdominis (RA), and erector spinae (ES) muscles were measured in four different bridging exercises. [Results] There were significant differences in the IO, EO, RA, and ES among the four kinds of bridging exercise. The activities of IO, EO and RA were the highest in prone bridging (exercise 4), followed by unilateral bridging (exercise 3), and supine bridging on balance pads (exercise 2). In conventional bridging (exercise 1), the activities of IO, EO, and RA were the lowest. The activity of ES was the highest in exercise 3 followed by exercises 2 and 1. The activity of ES was the lowest than in exercise 1. [Conclusions] Bridging exercise in the prone position may be a more effective method of enhancing trunk muscle activities exercises in other positions. PMID:24409031

  13. Active Fire Mapping Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS ... Data Web Services Latest Detected Fire Activity Other MODIS Products Frequently Asked Questions About Active Fire Maps ...

  14. Metabolic signals and innate immune activation in obesity and exercise.

    PubMed

    Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus; Mooren, Frank C; Krüger, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a sedentary lifestyle and excess energy intake has led to an increased prevalence of obesity which constitutes a major risk factor for several co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Intensive research during the last two decades has revealed that a characteristic feature of obesity linking it to insulin resistance is the presence of chronic low-grade inflammation being indicative of activation of the innate immune system. Recent evidence suggests that activation of the innate immune system in the course of obesity is mediated by metabolic signals, such as free fatty acids (FFAs), being elevated in many obese subjects, through activation of pattern recognition receptors thereby leading to stimulation of critical inflammatory signaling cascades, like IκBα kinase/nuclear factor-κB (IKK/NF- κB), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) and NOD-like receptor P3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway, that interfere with insulin signaling. Exercise is one of the main prescribed interventions in obesity management improving insulin sensitivity and reducing obesity- induced chronic inflammation. This review summarizes current knowledge of the cellular recognition mechanisms for FFAs, the inflammatory signaling pathways triggered by excess FFAs in obesity and the counteractive effects of both acute and chronic exercise on obesity-induced activation of inflammatory signaling pathways. A deeper understanding of the effects of exercise on inflammatory signaling pathways in obesity is useful to optimize preventive and therapeutic strategies to combat the increasing incidence of obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:25825956

  15. Physical activity alters antioxidant status in exercising elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Anne-Sophie; Margaritis, Irène; Arnaud, Josiane; Faure, Henri; Roussel, Anne-Marie

    2006-07-01

    Nutritional adequacy and physical activity are two aspects of a health-promoting lifestyle. Not much is known about antioxidant nutrient requirements for exercising elderly (EE) subjects. The question of whether exercise training alters the status of antioxidant vitamins as well as trace elements in elderly subjects and fails to balance the age-related increase in oxidative stress is addressed in this study. There were 18 EE (68.1+/-3.1 years), 7 sedentary elderly (SE; 70.4+/-5.0 years), 17 exercising young (EY; 31.2+/-7.1 years) and 8 sedentary young (SY; 27.1+/-5.8 years) subjects who completed 7-day food and activity records. Each subject's blood was sampled on Day 8. A similar selenium (Se) status but a higher erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were found in EE subjects as compared with EY and SE subjects. Blood oxidized glutathione was higher and plasma total thiol was lower in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. Mean vitamin C (167 vs. 106 mg/day), vitamin E (11.7 vs. 8.3 mg/day) and beta-carotene (4 vs. 2.4 mg/day) intakes were higher in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. However, EE subjects exhibited the lowest plasma carotenoid concentrations, especially in beta-carotene, which was not related to intakes. Despite high intakes of antioxidant micronutrients, no adaptive mechanism able to counteract the increased oxidative stress in aging was found in EE subjects. Results on GSH-Px activity illustrate that the nature of the regulation of this biomarker of Se status is different in response to training and aging. These data also strongly suggest specific antioxidant requirements for athletes with advancing age, with a special attention to carotenoids.

  16. Effects of type of physical exercise and leisure activities on the depression scores of obese Brazilian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Stella, S G; Vilar, A P; Lacroix, C; Fisberg, M; Santos, R F; Mello, M T; Tufik, S

    2005-11-01

    Several studies have indicated that depressive states may lead to hypokinesia with diminished metabolic rate and energy use. Hypokinesia associated with certain eating behaviors may lead to an unfavorable energy balance that can contribute to the emergence and prevalence of obesity among children and adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine the possibility of reducing depression inventory scores in female adolescents with third-degree obesity while testing the effectiveness of different exercise programs in reducing anxiety and depression scores. The sample consisted of 40 female subjects (mean age 16 +/- 1.56 years) divided into 4 groups (aerobic training, anaerobic training, leisure activities, and control). Subjects had a body mass index of 95% or more in relation to the 50th percentile. The aerobic program consisted of three ergometric bicycle sessions per week over a 3-month period (12 weeks) and the activities were prescribed after determining the anaerobic ventilatory threshold (VO2 threshold). Anaerobic training was based on the Wingate anaerobic power test. The leisure program consisted of a varied range of activities (games, exercises, etc.). A nutritionist interviewed the members of these two groups and the control group every week in order to adapt them to the nutritional guidelines proposed for the study. The study showed that all three programs (aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise and leisure activities) were effective in reducing body mass. However, we found a significant reduction when analyzing the depression scores only for aerobic exercise (18.9 +/- 9.33 to 10.6 +/- 9.56 or 43.9%) but no significant alterations for anaerobic exercise (11.36 +/- 5.23 to 9.63 +/- 4.78 or 15.22%) and leisure (17.28 +/- 7.55 to 15.07 +/- 7.54 or 12.78%), thus indicating that in principle this type of activity could be included to improve emotional well-being of obese adolescent girls.

  17. Activity-Dependent Neurorehabilitation Beyond Physical Trainings: "Mental Exercise" Through Mirror Neuron Activation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ti-Fei; Chen, Wei; Shan, Chunlei; Rocha, Nuno; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flávia; de Sá, Alberto Souza; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The activity dependent brain repair mechanism has been widely adopted in many types of neurorehabilitation. The activity leads to target specific and non-specific beneficial effects in different brain regions, such as the releasing of neurotrophic factors, modulation of the cytokines and generation of new neurons in adult hood. However physical exercise program clinically are limited to some of the patients with preserved motor functions; while many patients suffered from paralysis cannot make such efforts. Here the authors proposed the employment of mirror neurons system in promoting brain rehabilitation by "observation based stimulation". Mirror neuron system has been considered as an important basis for action understanding and learning by mimicking others. During the action observation, mirror neuron system mediated the direct activation of the same group of motor neurons that are responsible for the observed action. The effect is clear, direct, specific and evolutionarily conserved. Moreover, recent evidences hinted for the beneficial effects on stroke patients after mirror neuron system activation therapy. Finally some music-relevant therapies were proposed to be related with mirror neuron system.

  18. Activity-Dependent Neurorehabilitation Beyond Physical Trainings: "Mental Exercise" Through Mirror Neuron Activation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ti-Fei; Chen, Wei; Shan, Chunlei; Rocha, Nuno; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flávia; de Sá, Alberto Souza; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The activity dependent brain repair mechanism has been widely adopted in many types of neurorehabilitation. The activity leads to target specific and non-specific beneficial effects in different brain regions, such as the releasing of neurotrophic factors, modulation of the cytokines and generation of new neurons in adult hood. However physical exercise program clinically are limited to some of the patients with preserved motor functions; while many patients suffered from paralysis cannot make such efforts. Here the authors proposed the employment of mirror neurons system in promoting brain rehabilitation by "observation based stimulation". Mirror neuron system has been considered as an important basis for action understanding and learning by mimicking others. During the action observation, mirror neuron system mediated the direct activation of the same group of motor neurons that are responsible for the observed action. The effect is clear, direct, specific and evolutionarily conserved. Moreover, recent evidences hinted for the beneficial effects on stroke patients after mirror neuron system activation therapy. Finally some music-relevant therapies were proposed to be related with mirror neuron system. PMID:26556068

  19. The effects of sling exercise using vibration on trunk muscle activities of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngin; Kang, Hyungkyu

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of sling exercises with and without vibration on the muscular activity of the internal oblique (IO), rectus abdominis (RA), multifidus (MF), and erector spinae (ES) muscles of healthy adults. [Methods] Eleven healthy university students (11 men) with a mean age of 22.8 years were enrolled in this study. Subjects performed supine and prone bridge exercises with the knees flexed using a sling suspension system with and without vibration. The amplitudes of the EMG activities of selected trunk muscles (internal oblique, rectus abdominis, erector spinae, multifidus) were recorded. Two types of exercise conditions were executed in a random sequence for 5 seconds each. The signals detected from the middle 3 seconds (after discarding the signals of the first and the last one seconds) were used in the analysis. A 3-minute break was given after each exercise to minimize muscle fatigue. [Results] During the supine bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES muscles were significantly higher than those of the supine bridge exercise without vibration. Additionally, during the prone bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES were significantly higher than those of the prone bridge exercise without vibration. [Conclusion] Sling exercises with vibration improved the trunk muscle activities of healthy adults compared to the sling exercises without vibration. The information presented here is important for clinicians who use lumbar stabilization exercises as an evaluation tool or a rehabilitation exercise. PMID:24259778

  20. The effects of sling exercise using vibration on trunk muscle activities of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngin; Kang, Hyungkyu

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of sling exercises with and without vibration on the muscular activity of the internal oblique (IO), rectus abdominis (RA), multifidus (MF), and erector spinae (ES) muscles of healthy adults. [Methods] Eleven healthy university students (11 men) with a mean age of 22.8 years were enrolled in this study. Subjects performed supine and prone bridge exercises with the knees flexed using a sling suspension system with and without vibration. The amplitudes of the EMG activities of selected trunk muscles (internal oblique, rectus abdominis, erector spinae, multifidus) were recorded. Two types of exercise conditions were executed in a random sequence for 5 seconds each. The signals detected from the middle 3 seconds (after discarding the signals of the first and the last one seconds) were used in the analysis. A 3-minute break was given after each exercise to minimize muscle fatigue. [Results] During the supine bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES muscles were significantly higher than those of the supine bridge exercise without vibration. Additionally, during the prone bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES were significantly higher than those of the prone bridge exercise without vibration. [Conclusion] Sling exercises with vibration improved the trunk muscle activities of healthy adults compared to the sling exercises without vibration. The information presented here is important for clinicians who use lumbar stabilization exercises as an evaluation tool or a rehabilitation exercise.

  1. Use of mock media in emergency management exercises: the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program experience.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Ken; Meshenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Disasters of any kind attract significant attention from news media, and media play an important role in disaster response. In a US government program for hazardous materials preparedness, risk communication functions were incorporated into planning and are demonstrated during response exercises. To provide the best training and most realistic play, exercise controllers play the role of news media reporters-mock media-during these exercises. They attend news conferences, interview exercise players in the field, and make calls to participants. They produce news stories including television reports, newspaper articles, radio spots, blog entries, and social media messages. This allows exercise players to experience how their actions and statements would be represented in the media, more effectively mimicking the environment of a real event. PMID:24828909

  2. The intervention composed of aerobic training and non-exercise physical activity (I-CAN) study: Rationale, design and methods.

    PubMed

    Swift, Damon L; Dover, Sara E; Nevels, Tyara R; Solar, Chelsey A; Brophy, Patricia M; Hall, Tyler R; Houmard, Joseph A; Lutes, Lesley D

    2015-11-01

    Recent data has suggested that prolonged sedentary behavior is independent risk factor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality independent of adequate amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated if exercise training and increasing non-exercise physical activity leads to greater reduction in cardiometabolic risk compared to aerobic training alone. The purpose of the Intervention Composed of Aerobic Training and Non-Exercise Physical Activity (I-CAN) study is to determine whether a physical activity program composed of both aerobic training (consistent with public health recommendations) and increasing non-exercise physical activity (3000 steps above baseline levels) leads to enhanced improvements in waist circumference, oral glucose tolerance, systemic inflammation, body composition, and fitness compared to aerobic training alone in obese adults (N=45). Commercially available accelerometers (Fitbits) will be used to monitor physical activity levels and behavioral coaching will be used to develop strategies of how to increase non-exercise physical activity levels. In this manuscript, we describe the design, rationale, and methodology associated with the I-CAN study.

  3. A unique exercise facility for simulating orbital extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Rebecca C.; Sharer, Peter J.; Webbon, Bruce W.

    A unique exercise facility has been developed and used to simulate orbital extravehicular activity (EVA). The device incorporates an arm ergometer into a mechanism which places the subject in the zero-g neutral body posture. The intent of this configuration is to elicit muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses similar to those observed during orbital EVA. Experiments done with this facility will help characterize the astronaut's dynamic heat balance during EVA and will eventually lead to the development of an automated thermal control system which would more effectively maintain thermal comfort.

  4. The Metabolic Cost of a High Intensity Exercise Program During Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackney, Kyle; Everett, Meghan; Guined, Jamie; Cunningham, Daid

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given that disuse-related skeletal muscle atrophy may be exacerbated by an imbalance between energy intake and output, the amount of energy required to complete exercise countermeasures is an important consideration in the well being of subject health during bed rest and spaceflight. Objective: To evaluate the energy cost of a high intensity exercise program performed during short duration bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest and exercise countermeasures. Exercise energy expenditure and excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) were collected once in each of 5 different exercise protocols (30 second, 2 minute and 4 minute intervals, continuous aerobic and a variety of resistance exercises) during bed rest. Body mass, basal metabolic rate (BMR), upper and lower leg muscle, subcutaneous, and intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) volumes were assessed before and at the end of bed rest. Results: There were no significant differences in body mass (pre: 75.1 +/- 10.5 kg; post: 75.2 +/- 10.1 kg), BMR (pre: 1649 +/- 216 kcal; post: 1657 +/- 177 kcal), muscle subcutaneous, or IMAT volumes (Table 2) after 14 days of bed rest and exercise. Body mass was maintained with an average daily intake of 2710 +/- 262 kcal (36.2 +/- 2.1 kcal/kg/day), while average daily energy expenditure was 2579 +/-311 kcal (34.5 +/- 3.6 kcal/kg/day). Exercise energy expenditure was significantly greater as a result of continuous aerobic exercise than all other exercise protocols.

  5. Acute effects of exercise and active video games on adults' reaction time and perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, José F; López-García, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of resting, aerobic exercise practised alone, and aerobic exercise with active video games (AVG), on complex reaction time (CRT) and the post-exercise acute rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in young healthy adults. The experimental group was composed of 92 healthy young adults, 78 males and 13 females (age M = 21.9 ± 2.7 years) who completed two sessions, A and B. In session A, participants rode 30 min on an ergometer, while in session B they exercised for 30 min on an ergometer while playing an AVG on a Wii. The control group was composed of 30 young adults, 26 males and 4 females (age M = 21.4 ± 2.9 years) who rested for 30 min. In each session, a CRT task was performed before and after exercising or resting, and post-exercise global RPE was noted. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) and Wilcoxon tests were performed. (1) Both aerobic exercise alone and aerobic exercise combined with AVG improved CRT, while resting did not; (2) aerobic exercise combined with AVG did not improve CRT more than aerobic exercise only; and (3) RPE was lower after aerobic exercise combined with AVG compared with aerobic exercise only. In young adults, exercise produces acute benefits on CRT, and practising exercise with AVG helps to decrease RPE.

  6. Acute effects of exercise and active video games on adults' reaction time and perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, José F; López-García, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of resting, aerobic exercise practised alone, and aerobic exercise with active video games (AVG), on complex reaction time (CRT) and the post-exercise acute rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in young healthy adults. The experimental group was composed of 92 healthy young adults, 78 males and 13 females (age M = 21.9 ± 2.7 years) who completed two sessions, A and B. In session A, participants rode 30 min on an ergometer, while in session B they exercised for 30 min on an ergometer while playing an AVG on a Wii. The control group was composed of 30 young adults, 26 males and 4 females (age M = 21.4 ± 2.9 years) who rested for 30 min. In each session, a CRT task was performed before and after exercising or resting, and post-exercise global RPE was noted. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) and Wilcoxon tests were performed. (1) Both aerobic exercise alone and aerobic exercise combined with AVG improved CRT, while resting did not; (2) aerobic exercise combined with AVG did not improve CRT more than aerobic exercise only; and (3) RPE was lower after aerobic exercise combined with AVG compared with aerobic exercise only. In young adults, exercise produces acute benefits on CRT, and practising exercise with AVG helps to decrease RPE. PMID:27239681

  7. A pilot study of an exercise-based patient education program in people with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kersten, Stephanie; Mahli, Mohammed; Drosselmeyer, Julia; Lutz, Christina; Liebherr, Magnus; Schubert, Patric; Haas, Christian T

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that physical exercise leads to numerous positive effects in PwMS. However, long-term effects of exercise may only be achievable if training is implemented in daily routine. Enabling patients to exercise regularly, we developed a patient education program focused on evidence-based information of training. PwMS were educated in neurophysiological effects of physical exercise, exercise-induced benefits for PwMS, and risk factors (e.g., weather). Fifteen PwMS were analyzed before (T 0) and after (T 1) a 12-week patient education. Afterwards, participants performed their exercises autonomously for 32 weeks and were tested in sustainability tests (T 2). Guided interviews were carried out, additionally. Significant improvements from T 0 to T 1 were found in 6MWT, gait velocity, TUG, fatigue, and quality of life. Significant results of TUG and gait velocity from T 1 to T 2 demonstrated that participants kept few effects after the 32-week training phase. Qualitative analyses showed improved self-confidence and identified training strategies and barriers. This pilot study provides evidence that PwMS are able to acquire good knowledge about physical exercise and apply this knowledge successfully in training management. One might conclude that this exercise-based patient education seems to be a feasible option to maintain or improve patients' integral constitution concerning physical and mental health. PMID:25587449

  8. A Pilot Study of an Exercise-Based Patient Education Program in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mahli, Mohammed; Drosselmeyer, Julia; Lutz, Christina; Liebherr, Magnus; Schubert, Patric; Haas, Christian T.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that physical exercise leads to numerous positive effects in PwMS. However, long-term effects of exercise may only be achievable if training is implemented in daily routine. Enabling patients to exercise regularly, we developed a patient education program focused on evidence-based information of training. PwMS were educated in neurophysiological effects of physical exercise, exercise-induced benefits for PwMS, and risk factors (e.g., weather). Fifteen PwMS were analyzed before (T0) and after (T1) a 12-week patient education. Afterwards, participants performed their exercises autonomously for 32 weeks and were tested in sustainability tests (T2). Guided interviews were carried out, additionally. Significant improvements from T0 to T1 were found in 6MWT, gait velocity, TUG, fatigue, and quality of life. Significant results of TUG and gait velocity from T1 to T2 demonstrated that participants kept few effects after the 32-week training phase. Qualitative analyses showed improved self-confidence and identified training strategies and barriers. This pilot study provides evidence that PwMS are able to acquire good knowledge about physical exercise and apply this knowledge successfully in training management. One might conclude that this exercise-based patient education seems to be a feasible option to maintain or improve patients' integral constitution concerning physical and mental health. PMID:25587449

  9. Do changes in energy intake and non-exercise physical activity affect exercise-induced weight loss? Midwest Exercise Trial-2

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Stephen D.; Willis, Erik A.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Lee, Jaehoon; Washburn, Richard A.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare energy intake, total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), non-exercise energy expenditure (NEEx), resting metabolic rate (RMR), non-exercise physical activity (NEPA), and sedentary time between participants with weight loss <5% (non-responders) vs. ≥5% (responders) in response to exercise. Methods Overweight/obese (BMI 25–40 kg/m2), adults (18–30 yrs.) were randomized to exercise: 5 day/week, 400 or 600 kcal/session, 10 months. Results Forty participants responded and 34 did not respond to the exercise protocol. Non-responder energy intake was higher vs. responders, significant only in men (p=0.034). TDEE increased only in responders (p=0.001). NEEx increased in responders and decreased in non-responders, significant only in men (p=0.045). There were no within or between-group differences for change in RMR. NEPA increased in responders and decreased in non-responders (group-by-time interactions: total sample, p=0.049; men, p=0.016). Sedentary time decreased in both groups, significant only in men. Conclusion Men who did not lose weight in response to exercise (<5%) had higher energy intake and lower NEEx compared to men losing ≥5%. No significant differences in any parameters assessed were observed between women who lost <5% vs. those losing ≥5. Factors associated with the weight loss response to exercise in women warrant additional investigation. PMID:26193059

  10. Exercise performance, core temperature, and metabolism after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Pohoska, E.; Turlejska, E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    Physiological effects of restricted activity (RA) and subsequent retraining have been studied. Ten male mongrel dogs performed a submaximal exercise endurance test on a treadmill during kennel control, after 8 weeks of cage confinement and after eight weeks of retraining using the same treadmill protocol 1 h/d for 6 d/week. Data obtained show that RA reduces exercise endurance, the effectiveness of exercise thermoregulation, muscle glycogen stores, and the lipolytic response to exercise and to noradrenaline stimulation.

  11. Effects of a tailor-made exercise program on exercise adherence and health outcomes in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a mixed-methods pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Fung-Kam Iris; Lee, Tze-Fan Diana; So, Winnie Kwok-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies showed that exercise intervention was effective in symptoms control of knee osteoarthritis (OA) but poor intervention adherence reduced the exercise effect. It has been suspected that the design of exercise intervention mainly from the health care professionals’ perspective could not address the patients’ barriers to exercise. Therefore, a tailor-made exercise program which incorporated the patient’s perspective in the design was developed and ready for evaluation. Objectives This pilot study estimated the effects of a tailor-made exercise program on exercise adherence and health outcomes, and explored the participants’ perception and experience of the program. Methods The intervention of this study was a 4-week community-based group exercise program, which required the participants to attend a 1-hour session each week. Thirty-four older people with knee OA were recruited to the program. Mixed-methods study design was used to estimate the effects of this program and explore the participants’ perception and experience of the program. Exercise adherence and performance in return-demonstration of the exercise were assessed at 12 weeks after the program. Disease-specific health status (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index), general health status (12-item Short Form of the Medical Outcome Study Questionnaire), knee range of motion, muscle strength, and endurance of the lower extremities (Timed-Stands Test) were measured at the beginning of the program and 12 weeks after. Six participants were interviewed individually on the 12th week. Results Thirty-three participants (75.0±7.3 years) completed the one-group pretest and post-test study. The participants’ exercise adherence was 91.4%±14.54%, and their correct performance in return-demonstration was 76.7%±21.75%. Most of the participants’ health outcomes significantly improved at posttests except the 12-item Short Form of the Medical Outcome Study

  12. Effects of a 12-week Rehabilitation Program with Music & Exercise Groups on Range of Motion in Young Children with Severe Burns

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Christine Tuden; Serghiou, Michael; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that rehabilitation programs supplemented with a strength and endurance-based exercise program improve lean body mass, pulmonary function, endurance, strength, and functional outcomes in severely burned children over the age of 7-years when compared to standard of care. To date, supplemental exercise programming for severely burned children under the age of 7-years has not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 12-week rehabilitation program supplemented with music & exercise, was more effective in improving functional outcomes than the standard of care alone. METHODS This is a descriptive study that measured elbow and knee range of motion (ROM) in 24 severely burned children between ages two and six years. Groups were compared for demographics as well as active and passive ROM to bilateral elbows and knees. A total of 15 patients completed the rehabilitation with supplemental music and exercise, and data was compared to 9 patients who received standard of care. RESULTS Patients receiving the 12-week program significantly improved ROM in all joints assessed except for one. Patients receiving standard of care showed a significant improvement in only one of the joints assessed. CONCLUSION Providing a structured supplemental music and exercise program in conjunction with occupational and physical therapy seems to improve both passive and active ROM to a greater extent than the standard of care alone. PMID:18849852

  13. Exercise Program for the Developmentally Disabled: Improving and Maintaining Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarron, Lawrence; And Others

    The manual is designed as a guide for the development of a physical fitness program for handicapped persons. An introduction emphasizes the role of fitness and provides an overview of the 45-minute developmental exercise program described in the following sections. Instructional information adresses such concerns as equipment, vocabulary,…

  14. The Effects of an Aerobic Exercise Program on Anxiety Levels of Recovering Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucarine, Lewis J.

    The effect of an aerobic exercise program on the anxiety levels of recovering alcoholics was studied. Two groups of 25 volunteers each, from 3 alcoholism/rehabilitation programs in New Jersey, were assigned to control and experimental groups. Both groups received pre- and post-tests of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The control…

  15. Combating Obesity in the Beginning: Incorporating Wellness and Exercise Principles in Teacher Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallini, M. Felicia; Wendt, Janice C.; Rice, Desmond

    2007-01-01

    Schools have the potential to foster healthy behaviors among youths through sound health and physical education programs. Teacher candidates who are being certified through teacher preparation programs should take a course on basic wellness and exercise principles, in order to prepare themselves to teach those principles to all school faculty…

  16. Effects of isometric hip movements on electromyographic activities of the trunk muscles during plank exercises.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Soo-Yong; Kang, Myoung-Joo; Yoon, So-Hee; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of isometric hip adduction and abduction on trunk muscle activity during plank exercises. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen healthy male subjects were recruited for this study. All subjects performed the traditional plank exercise (TP), plank exercise with isometric hip adduction (PHAD), and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction (PHAB) by using an elastic band. Electromyographic (EMG) activities of the internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) were measured during the 3 plank exercises by using an Electromyography system. [Results] Internal oblique and external oblique muscle activities were significantly greater during plank exercise with isometric hip adduction and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction than during traditional plank exercise. Internal oblique and external oblique muscle activities did not differ between the plank exercise with isometric hip adduction and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction conditions. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that loaded isometric hip movements may be a useful strategy to increase trunk muscle activity during plank exercises. PMID:27630435

  17. Effects of isometric hip movements on electromyographic activities of the trunk muscles during plank exercises

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Soo-Yong; Kang, Myoung-Joo; Yoon, So-Hee; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of isometric hip adduction and abduction on trunk muscle activity during plank exercises. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen healthy male subjects were recruited for this study. All subjects performed the traditional plank exercise (TP), plank exercise with isometric hip adduction (PHAD), and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction (PHAB) by using an elastic band. Electromyographic (EMG) activities of the internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) were measured during the 3 plank exercises by using an Electromyography system. [Results] Internal oblique and external oblique muscle activities were significantly greater during plank exercise with isometric hip adduction and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction than during traditional plank exercise. Internal oblique and external oblique muscle activities did not differ between the plank exercise with isometric hip adduction and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction conditions. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that loaded isometric hip movements may be a useful strategy to increase trunk muscle activity during plank exercises. PMID:27630435

  18. Effects of isometric hip movements on electromyographic activities of the trunk muscles during plank exercises

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Soo-Yong; Kang, Myoung-Joo; Yoon, So-Hee; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of isometric hip adduction and abduction on trunk muscle activity during plank exercises. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen healthy male subjects were recruited for this study. All subjects performed the traditional plank exercise (TP), plank exercise with isometric hip adduction (PHAD), and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction (PHAB) by using an elastic band. Electromyographic (EMG) activities of the internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) were measured during the 3 plank exercises by using an Electromyography system. [Results] Internal oblique and external oblique muscle activities were significantly greater during plank exercise with isometric hip adduction and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction than during traditional plank exercise. Internal oblique and external oblique muscle activities did not differ between the plank exercise with isometric hip adduction and plank exercise with isometric hip abduction conditions. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that loaded isometric hip movements may be a useful strategy to increase trunk muscle activity during plank exercises.

  19. Environmental health program activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergtholdt, C. P.

    1969-01-01

    Activities reported include studies on toxic air contaminants, excessive noise, poor lighting, food sanitation, water pollution, and exposure to nonionizing radiation as health hazards. Formulations for a radiological health manual provide guidance to personnel in the procurement and safe handling of radiation producing equipment and Apollo mission planning. A literature search and development of a water analysis laboratory are outlined to obtain information regarding microbiological problems involving potable water, waste management, and personal hygiene.

  20. Sustained postexercise vasodilatation and histamine receptor activation following small muscle-mass exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Kaplon, Rachelle E; Halliwill, John R

    2013-01-01

    A sustained postexercise vasodilatation, which is histamine receptor mediated, has been observed following single bouts of whole-body exercise, but the mechanisms that regulate activation of histamine receptors following exercise are undefined. Exploration of vasodilatation after small muscle-mass dynamic or resistance exercise could provide novel insight into the pathways responsible for histamine receptor activation. We hypothesized that there would be a vasodilatation of the previously exercised limb following small muscle-mass dynamic and resistance exercise, which would be mediated by histamine receptors. We studied men and women before and after single-leg dynamic (n = 9) or resistance knee-extension exercise (n = 12) on control and blockade days (combined oral H(1) and H(2) receptor antagonism with fexofenadine and ranitidine). We measured arterial blood pressure (automated brachial oscillometry) and femoral artery blood flow (Doppler ultrasound). Dynamic exercise elevated leg vascular conductance in the active leg by 27.2 ± 8.4% at 60 min postexercise (P < 0.05 versus pre-exercise), but did not alter conductance in the rested leg (change, 4.6 ± 3.5%; P = 0.8 versus pre-exercise). The rise in conductance was abolished on the blockade day (change, 3.7 ± 5.1%; P = 0.8 versus pre-exercise, P = 0.2 versus control). Resistance exercise did not produce a sustained vasodilatation (change, -4.3 ± 4.7% at 60 min postexercise; P = 0.7 versus pre-exercise). These data indicate that histamine receptors are activated following dynamic, but not resistance, exercise. Furthermore, these data suggest that local factors associated with aerobic exercise, and not systemic factors or factors associated with high muscle force, are responsible for activation of histamine receptors in the previously exercised muscle.

  1. Patient Activation through Counseling and Exercise – Acute Leukemia (PACE-AL) – a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with acute leukemia experience a substantial symptom burden and are at risk of developing infections throughout the course of repeated cycles of intensive chemotherapy. Physical activity in recent years has been a strategy for rehabilitation in cancer patients to remedy disease and treatment related symptoms and side effects. To date, there are no clinical practice exercise guidelines for patients with acute leukemia undergoing induction and consolidation chemotherapy. A randomized controlled trial is needed to determine if patients with acute leukemia can benefit by a structured and supervised counseling and exercise program. Methods/design This paper presents the study protocol: Patient Activation through Counseling and Exercise – Acute Leukemia (PACE-AL) trial, a two center, randomized controlled trial of 70 patients with acute leukemia (35 patients/study arm) following induction chemotherapy in the outpatient setting. Eligible patients will be randomized to usual care or to the 12 week exercise and counseling program. The intervention includes 3 hours + 30 minutes per week of supervised and structured aerobic training (moderate to high intensity 70 - 80%) on an ergometer cycle, strength exercises using hand weights and relaxation exercise. Individual health counseling sessions include a self directed home walk program with a step counter. The primary endpoint is functional performance/exercise capacity (6 minute walk distance). The secondary endpoints are submaximal VO2 max test, sit to stand and bicep curl test, physical activity levels, patient reported outcomes (quality of life, anxiety and depression, symptom prevalence, intensity and interference). Evaluation of clinical outcomes will be explored including incidence of infection, hospitalization days, body mass index, time to recurrence and survival. Qualitative exploration of patients’ health behavior and experiences. Discussion PACE-AL will provide evidence of the effect of

  2. Designing Exercise and Nutrition Programs to Promote Normal Weight Maintenance for Nurses.

    PubMed

    Gabel Speroni, Karen

    2014-09-01

    Living a healthy lifestyle is a constant choice. As a life goal, it is a decision to uphold every moment and is best achieved with support of others. There are a multitude of workplace wellness and healthy lifestyle programs that address achieving and maintaining the goal of normal weight over a lifetime. Fewer such evidence based programs exist and a goal of our hospital is to create a comprehensive wellness program based on evidence. In the context of normal weight maintenance in nurses, this article discusses selected challenges for healthy eating and exercise and nurse fitness programs based on the author and her colleagues experiences with specific obesity research interventions, such as Nurses Living FitTM, that we designed and offered. An exemplar provides details about our wellness programs, which included three annual walk or run events, one full day conference, and a series of multiple exercise, yoga, and nutrition sessions. Our goal was to expose nurses to healthier lifestyle aspects with a primary focus on the optimal balance of exercise and nutrition. Over the years of research, events, and programs, greater than 1,000 people have participated. The conclusion includes implications for education and practice in the hope that our experiences may motive nurses to design exercise and nutrition programs to promote normal weight maintenance in nurses.

  3. Safety and efficacy of a 6-month home-based exercise program in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Bankolé, Landry-Cyrille; Millet, Guillaume Y.; Temesi, John; Bachasson, Damien; Ravelojaona, Marion; Wuyam, Bernard; Verges, Samuel; Ponsot, Elodie; Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Kadi, Fawzi; Féasson, Léonard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Previous randomized controlled trials investigating exercise training programs in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) patients are scarce and of short duration only. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of a 6-month home-based exercise training program on fitness, muscle, and motor function in FSHD patients. Methods: Sixteen FSHD patients were randomly assigned to training (TG) and control (CG) groups (both n = 8) in a home-based exercise intervention. Training consisted of cycling 3 times weekly for 35 minutes (combination of strength, high-intensity interval, and low-intensity aerobic) at home for 24 weeks. Patients in CG also performed an identical training program (CTG) after 24 weeks. The primary outcome was change in peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) measured every 6 weeks. The principal secondary outcomes were maximal quadriceps strength (MVC) and local quadriceps endurance every 12 weeks. Other outcome measures included maximal aerobic power (MAP) and experienced fatigue every 6 weeks, 6-minute walking distance every 12 weeks, and muscle characteristics from vastus lateralis biopsies taken pre- and postintervention. Results: The compliance rate was 91% in TG. Significant improvements with training were observed in the VO2 peak (+19%, P = 0.002) and MAP by week 6 and further to week 24. Muscle endurance, MVC, and 6-minute walking distance increased and experienced fatigue decreased. Muscle fiber cross-sectional area and citrate synthase activity increased by 34% (P = 0.008) and 46% (P = 0.003), respectively. Dystrophic pathophysiologic patterns were not exacerbated. Similar improvements were experienced by TG and CTG. Conclusions: A combined strength and interval cycling exercise-training program compatible with patients’ daily professional and social activities leads to significant functional benefits without compromising muscle tissue. PMID:27495097

  4. Cardiovascular Reflexes Activity and Their Interaction during Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Crisafulli, Antonio; Marongiu, Elisabetta; Ogoh, Shigehiko

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac output and arterial blood pressure increase during dynamic exercise notwithstanding the exercise-induced vasodilation due to functional sympatholysis. These cardiovascular adjustments are regulated in part by neural reflexes which operate to guarantee adequate oxygen supply and by-products washout of the exercising muscles. Moreover, they maintain adequate perfusion of the vital organs and prevent excessive increments in blood pressure. In this review, we briefly summarize neural reflexes operating during dynamic exercise with particular emphasis on their interaction. PMID:26557662

  5. Exercise and diet determinants of overweight women participating in an exercise and diet program: a prospective examination of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Rebecca Ellis; Hausenblas, Heather A

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine prospectively the ability of direct and belief-based measures of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs to predict exercise and diet intention and behavior of overweight women. Participants were 117 overweight, community-dwelling women and university students enrolled in a 4-week exercise and diet program. Participants completed baseline measures of demographic characteristics and the TPB constructs. Their exercise and diet adherence were also recorded. We found that: (1) the direct measure of perceived behavioral control (PBC) predicted exercise intention, (2) the direct measures of instrumental attitude, subjective norm, and PBC predicted diet intention, and (3) none of the direct or belief-based measures of the TPB constructs predicted 4-week exercise or diet behavior. Furthermore, several beliefs were associated with the direct measures of attitude, subjective norm, PBC, and intention. Implications of these results for designing exercise and diet interventions with overweight women are discussed.

  6. Practical exercise advice during pregnancy: guidelines for active and inactive women.

    PubMed

    Weiss Kelly, Amanda K

    2005-06-01

    Many women enjoy regular exercise as a part of a healthy lifestyle and may wish to continue exercising after they become pregnant. Some previously sedentary women may want to start an exercise program during pregnancy. Primary care and sports medicine physicians should understand the contraindications (eg, hypertension, diabetes, placenta previa, preeclampsia) and the concerns about exercise during pregnancy (eg, fetal nutrition, risk of preterm labor) and be able to offer reasonable guidelines to women who wish to start or continue exercise during pregnancy. Most non-weight-bearing exercises (eg, swimming, stationary bicycling) and walking are safe for pregnant women, beginning with 15 minutes of exercise three times a week and progressing as tolerated.

  7. [Resource management: ICF-oriented exercise programs for patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Chronic illnesses and biopsychosocial status].

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, K; Huber, G; Baldus, A; Pöthig, D; Schüle, K

    2012-02-01

    Common health problems are increasing due to the combination of decreased physical activity demands in everyday life and demographic changes; thus, the importance of exercise therapy is increasing. The incidence and prevalence of today's predominant chronic diseases are directly related to physical activity. However, daily clinical routine does not stay abreast with these changes. The education of physicians, and thus their scope of action, is dominated by biomedical therapy concepts, predominantly drug therapy concepts. Differential and consolidated findings of modern exercise and sport science are astonishingly rare in the counselling and treatment portfolio of medical care. The present disease management program for persons with diabetes mellitus type 2 is a good example. Referring to this background, the authors address the new approach of "ICF-oriented exercise programs and biopsychosocial status." They present resource-related interventional strategies and health care concepts for chronic health disorders like the metabolic syndrome or diabetes mellitus type 2. The relevance and use of active health promotion and care - due to lifestyle- and age-related health problems of the population - will increase in importance and be more commonly recommended.

  8. Differential effects of exercise on brain opioid receptor binding and activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Arida, Ricardo Mario; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; Brand, Serge; Rocha, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise stimulates the release of endogenous opioid peptides supposed to be responsible for changes in mood, anxiety, and performance. Exercise alters sensitivity to these effects that modify the efficacy at the opioid receptor. Although there is evidence that relates exercise to neuropeptide expression in the brain, the effects of exercise on opioid receptor binding and signal transduction mechanisms downstream of these receptors have not been explored. Here, we characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor or delta opioid receptor in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. As regards short- (acute) or long-term effects (chronic) of exercise, overall, higher opioid receptor binding was observed in acute-exercise animals and the opposite was found in the chronic-exercise animals. The binding of [(35) S]GTPγS under basal conditions (absence of agonists) was elevated in sensorimotor cortex and hippocampus, an effect more evident after chronic exercise. Divergence of findings was observed for mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor, and delta opioid receptor receptor activation in our study. Our results support existing evidence of opioid receptor binding and G protein activation occurring differentially in brain regions in response to diverse exercise stimuli. We characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptors in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. Higher opioid receptor binding was observed in the acute exercise animal group and opposite findings in the chronic exercise group. Higher G protein activation under basal conditions was noted in rats submitted to chronic exercise, as visible in the depicted pseudo-color autoradiograms. PMID:25330347

  9. Differential effects of exercise on brain opioid receptor binding and activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Arida, Ricardo Mario; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; Brand, Serge; Rocha, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise stimulates the release of endogenous opioid peptides supposed to be responsible for changes in mood, anxiety, and performance. Exercise alters sensitivity to these effects that modify the efficacy at the opioid receptor. Although there is evidence that relates exercise to neuropeptide expression in the brain, the effects of exercise on opioid receptor binding and signal transduction mechanisms downstream of these receptors have not been explored. Here, we characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor or delta opioid receptor in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. As regards short- (acute) or long-term effects (chronic) of exercise, overall, higher opioid receptor binding was observed in acute-exercise animals and the opposite was found in the chronic-exercise animals. The binding of [(35) S]GTPγS under basal conditions (absence of agonists) was elevated in sensorimotor cortex and hippocampus, an effect more evident after chronic exercise. Divergence of findings was observed for mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor, and delta opioid receptor receptor activation in our study. Our results support existing evidence of opioid receptor binding and G protein activation occurring differentially in brain regions in response to diverse exercise stimuli. We characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptors in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. Higher opioid receptor binding was observed in the acute exercise animal group and opposite findings in the chronic exercise group. Higher G protein activation under basal conditions was noted in rats submitted to chronic exercise, as visible in the depicted pseudo-color autoradiograms.

  10. The impact of automatically activated motivation on exercise-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Banting, Lauren K; Dimmock, James A; Grove, J Robert

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the effect of motivational primes on participants (N = 171) during a cycling task. Relative to participants primed with a controlled motivational orientation, it was hypothesized that participants primed for autonomous motivation would report greater feelings of enjoyment, effort, and choice in relation to the cycling activity and report greater exercise intentions. Members of the autonomous prime group were expected to exercise for longer, at a greater percentage of their heart rate maximum, and report lower levels of perceived exertion than those in the controlled prime condition. It was found that, relative to participants in the controlled prime group, those who received the autonomous prime enjoyed the exercise more, exercised at a greater percentage of heart rate maximum, and reported a lower rating of perceived exertion. Furthermore, participants experiencing the controlled prime exercised for less time and had lower intentions to exercise than did other participants. Results highlight the importance of automatic processes in activating motivation for exercise. PMID:21808080

  11. Moderate intensity of regular exercise improves cardiac SR Ca2+ uptake activity in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas; Laosiripisan, Jitanan; Wattanapermpool, Jonggonnee

    2009-10-01

    The impact of regular exercise in protecting cardiac deteriorating results of female sex hormone deprivation was evaluated by measuring changes in intracellular Ca2+ removal activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in ovariectomized rats following 9-wk treadmill running exercise at moderate intensity. Despite induction of cardiac hypertrophy in exercised groups of both sham-operated and ovariectomized rats, exercise training had no effect on SR Ca2+ uptake and SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) in hormone intact rat heart. However, exercise training normalized the suppressed maximum SR Ca2+ uptake and SERCA activity in ovariectomized rat heart. While exercise training normalized the leftward shift in pCa (-log[Ca2+])-SR Ca2+ uptake relation in ovariectomized rats, no effect was detected in exercised sham-operated rats. Similar phenomena were also observed on SERCA and on phospholamban (PLB) phosphorylation levels; exercise training in ovariectomized rats enhanced SERCA expression to reach the level as that in sham-operated rats, in which there were no differences in SERCA and phospho-PLB levels between sedentary and exercised groups. In addition, the reduction in phospho-Thr(17) PLB in myocardium of ovariectomized rats was abolished by exercise training. These results showed that regular exercise maintains the molecular activation of cardiac SR Ca2+ uptake under normal physiological conditions and is able to induce a protective impact on cardiac SR Ca2+ uptake in ovarian sex hormone-deprived status.

  12. Non-Exercise Estimation of VO[subscript 2]max Using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schembre, Susan M.; Riebe, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Non-exercise equations developed from self-reported physical activity can estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2]max) as well as sub-maximal exercise testing. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire is the most widely used and validated self-report measure of physical activity. This study aimed to develop and test a VO[subscript…

  13. Activity Book. Fitting in Fitness: An Integrated Approach to Health, Nutrition, and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Bruce; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This integrated unit focuses on healthy hearts and how to use exercise and nutrition to be "heart smart" for life. The unit includes activities on heart function, exercise, workouts, family activities, nutrition, cholesterol, and food labels. The activities help develop research techniques, thinking skills, and cooperative learning habits. (SM)

  14. An Electronic Wellness Program to Improve Diet and Exercise in College Students: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Jamisha T; Klein, Catherine J; Lei, Kai Y; Mackey, Eleanor R

    2016-01-01

    Background In transitioning from adolescence to adulthood, college students are faced with significant challenges to their health habits. Independence, stress, and perceived lack of time by college students have been known to result in poor eating and exercise habits, which can lead to increased disease risk. Objective To assess the feasibility and to determine preliminary efficacy of an electronic wellness program in improving diet and physical activity in college students. Methods A 24-week diet and physical activity program was delivered via email to 148 college students. The intervention involved weekly, tailored, and interactive diet and physical activity goals. The control group received nondiet and nonexercise-related health fact sheets. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, as well as food frequency and physical activity surveys were conducted at baseline, week 12, and week 24. Students’ choice of fruit as a snack was also monitored at study visits. Results Students were 18-20 years old, 69% female, and from a diverse college campus (46% Caucasian, 23% Asian, 20% African American, 11% other). At week 24, 84% of students reported reading at least half of all emails. Mean change (standard error [SE]) from baseline of saturated fat intake was marginally significant between the treatment groups at week 24, 0.7 (SE 0.42) % kcal for control and -0.3 (SE 0.30) % kcal for intervention (P=0.048). A significant difference in percent of snacks chosen that were fruit (χ2 1, N=221 = 11.7, P<0.001) was detected between the intervention and control group at week 24. Conclusions Use of an electronic wellness program is feasible in college students and resulted in a decrease in saturated fat intake and an increase in observed fruit intake compared to a control group. PMID:26929118

  15. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  16. Current perspectives on physical activity and exercise for youth with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pivovarov, Jacklyn A; Taplin, Craig E; Riddell, Michael C

    2015-06-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) for youth with diabetes improves cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, bone health, insulin sensitivity, and psychosocial well-being. However many youth with diabetes or pre-diabetes fail to meet minimum PA guidelines and a large percentage of youth with diabetes are overweight or obese. Active youth with type 1 diabetes tend to have lower HbA1c levels and reduced insulin needs, whereas activity in adolescents at-risk for type 2 diabetes improves various measures of metabolism and body composition. Insulin and nutrient adjustments for exercise in type 1 diabetes is complex because of varied responses to exercise type and because of the different times of day that exercise is performed. This review highlights the benefits of exercise and the established barriers to exercise participation in the pediatric diabetes population. A new exercise management algorithm for insulin and carbohydrate intake strategies for active youth with type 1 diabetes is presented.

  17. Effects of a Community-Based, Post-Rehabilitation Exercise Program in COPD: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial With Embedded Process Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Desveaux, Laura; Beauchamp, Marla K; Lee, Annemarie; Ivers, Noah; Goldstein, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death across the world and will become increasingly common with an aging population. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is an evidence-based, nonpharmacological intervention for individuals with COPD, targeting the secondary impairments of the disease. Although the benefits of participation in PR are well established, improvements in exercise tolerance and health status typically deteriorate following discharge. Challenges with long-term adherence to recommended exercise regimens are thought to explain much of this decline. Therefore, we developed a community-based exercise maintenance program for patients with COPD following discharge from PR. Objectives This manuscript (1) outlines the intervention, (2) describes how its effectiveness is being evaluated in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial, and (3) summarizes the embedded process evaluation aiming to understand key barriers and facilitators for implementation in new environments. Methods Participating centers refer eligible individuals with COPD following discharge from their local PR program. Consenting patients are assigned to a year-long community exercise program or usual care using block randomization and stratifying for supplemental oxygen use. Patients in the intervention arm are asked to attend an exercise session at least twice per week at their local community facility where their progress is supervised by a case manager. Each exercise session includes a component of aerobic exercise, and activities designed to optimize balance, flexibility, and strength. All study participants will have access to routine follow-up appointments with their respiratory physician, and additional health care providers as part of their usual care. Assessments will be completed at baseline (post-PR), 6, and 12 months, and include measures of functional exercise capacity, quality of life, self-efficacy, and health care usage. Intervention

  18. Contributions of a group-based exercise program for coping with fibromyalgia: a qualitative study giving voice to female patients.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Carrillo, Vicente J; Tortosa-Martínez, Juan; Jennings, George; Sánchez, Elena S

    2013-01-01

    Numerous quantitative studies have illustrated the potential usefulness of exercise programs for women with fibromyalgia. However, a deeper understanding of the physical and especially psychosocial benefits of exercise therapy from the subjective perspective of this population is still needed. This study was conducted with 25 women who had fibromyalgia and were participating in a nine-month, group-based exercise program. The aim was to provide an in-depth description and analysis of the perceived physical and psychosocial benefits of participation. Qualitative data were collected through observation, interviews, and focus groups. The exercise program not only alleviated the physical symptoms of fibromyalgia, but social interactions within the group helped to counteract the isolation, frustration, and depression often associated with this chronic condition. The data from this study may contribute to a deeper understanding of the benefits of exercise for women with fibromyalgia and might be useful for the improvement of future exercise programs for this population. PMID:23937732

  19. Perceptions of older Latino adults regarding physical fitness, physical activity, and exercise.

    PubMed

    Melillo, K D; Williamson, E; Houde, S C; Futrell, M; Read, C Y; Campasano, M

    2001-09-01

    Healthy People 2000 has identified the importance of physical activity for healthy aging, but little is known about what motivates older individuals, older Latino adults, in particular, to be physically active. The purpose of this research was to examine the perceptions of older Latino adults toward physical fitness, physical activity, and exercise. This study used a qualitative focus group design. The sample of Latino adults age 60 and older resided in Northeast Massachusetts and was recruited from community settings which serve older Latino adults. Three focus groups, consisting of four to eight individuals in each group, were conducted and audiotaped. Data analysis used a combination of open, axial, and selective coding procedures. Focus group participants viewed physical fitness as being able to do anything; the mind and body working together; and feeling "light," being healthy. Support was viewed as a motivator of physical activity and exercise and included community resources, group support, cultural unity, and health provider assistance Barriers of fear and a feeling of inappropriateness were identified by focus group participants. Although the study was exploratory and the sample size small, it provides useful cultural knowledge and information for community health and gerontological nurses. Knowledge about older Latino adults' perceptions of motivators and barriers to physical activity and exercise is a necessary first step for nurses to prescribe activities that will help improve functional independence and quality of life. Nurses can serve as links for older Latino adults in accessing community resources. Sociocultural factors that influence Latino adult perceptions must be assessed if health promotion program planning is to be tailored to meet individual and group needs.

  20. Exercise program for prevention of groin pain in football players: a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hölmich, P; Larsen, K; Krogsgaard, K; Gluud, C

    2010-12-01

    Groin injuries cause major problems in sports and particularly in football. Exercise is effective in treating adductor-related groin pain, but no trials have been published regarding the specific prevention of groin pain or prevention specifically targeting overuse injuries in sport using exercise programs. We performed a cluster-randomized trial including 55 football clubs representing 1211 players. The clubs were randomized to an exercise program aimed at preventing groin injuries (n=27) or to a control group training as usual (n=28). The intervention program consisted of six exercises including strengthening (concentric and eccentric), coordination, and core stability exercises for the muscles related to the pelvis. Physiotherapists assigned to each club registered all groin injuries. Twenty-two clubs in each group completed the study, represented by 977 players. There was no significant effect of the intervention (HR=0.69, 95% CI 0.40-1.19). The risk of a groin injury was reduced by 31%, but this reduction was not significant. A univariate analysis showed that having had a previous groin injury almost doubles the risk of developing a new groin injury and playing at a higher level almost triples the risk of developing a groin injury. PMID:19883386

  1. Effects of age on physiological and psychological functioning among COPD patients in an exercise program.

    PubMed

    Emery, C F

    1994-02-01

    Older adults with chronic illness may be at greater risk of psychological distress than healthy older adults. This study examined the effect of age on physiological and psychological functioning of exercising older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sixty-four older adults (mean age = 67.4 plus or minus 7.0; 35 male, 29 female) with COPD were included in the study. All subjects participated in a 30-day rehabilitation program consisting of exercise (walking, stationary bicycle, pool exercises), education, and stress management. Subjects underwent assessments of physiological functioning (e.g., bicycle ergometry,12-minute walk), cognitive status (e.g., memory, psychomotor speed, concentration), and psychological well-being (e.g., anxiety, depression, psychiatric symptoms) before and after the exercise program. Results were analyzed by repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance, with age (median split = 67.5 years) as a between-subject factor. Although the exercise program appeared to have a greater effect on physiological functioning and on concentration and short-term memory of younger-old subjects, both groups of subjects achieved gains in physiological functioning, and psychological well-being.

  2. Effect of a muscle strengthening exercise program for pelvic control on gait function of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of strengthening exercises for the hip extensors on the gait performance and stability of patients with hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were fifteen stroke patients (ten males, five females). The experimental subjects performed a hip extensor strengthening exercise (HESE) program for a total of four weeks. [Results] The experimental subjects showed significant improvements after the HESE program. Especially, walking speed and the affected side stance phase time significantly increased after the HESE program. Furthermore, the affected side stride length and symmetry index in the stance phase significantly increased after HESE program. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the HESE program may, in part, help to improve gait performance ability and stabilize physical disability after stroke. PMID:25931698

  3. Effect of a muscle strengthening exercise program for pelvic control on gait function of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of strengthening exercises for the hip extensors on the gait performance and stability of patients with hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were fifteen stroke patients (ten males, five females). The experimental subjects performed a hip extensor strengthening exercise (HESE) program for a total of four weeks. [Results] The experimental subjects showed significant improvements after the HESE program. Especially, walking speed and the affected side stance phase time significantly increased after the HESE program. Furthermore, the affected side stride length and symmetry index in the stance phase significantly increased after HESE program. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the HESE program may, in part, help to improve gait performance ability and stabilize physical disability after stroke. PMID:25931698

  4. [Core muscle chains activation during core exercises determined by EMG-a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Rogan, Slavko; Riesen, Jan; Taeymans, Jan

    2014-10-15

    Good core muscles strength is essential for daily life and sports activities. However, the mechanism how core muscles may be effectively triggered by exercises is not yet precisely described in the literature. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the rate of activation as measured by electromyography of the ventral, lateral and dorsal core muscle chains during core (trunk) muscle exercises. A total of 16 studies were included. Exercises with a vertical starting position, such as the deadlift or squat activated significantly more core muscles than exercises in the horizontal initial position. PMID:25305118

  5. Healthy brain aging: role of exercise and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Yves; Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Vellas, Bruno

    2010-02-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that physical activity has a protective effect on brain functioning in older people. To date, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has shown that regular physical activity prevents dementia, but recent RCTs suggests an improvement of cognitive functioning in persons involved in aerobic programs, and evidence is accumulating from basic research. Future prevention of Alzheimer disease may depend on lifestyle habits such as physical activity.

  6. Onset of exercise and diet program in obese women: metabolic and anorexigenic responses related to weight loss and physical capacities.

    PubMed

    Desgorces, F D; Le Page, C; Police, C; Neveux, N; Cottart, C H; Blanc, M C; Raison, J; Toussaint, J F; Noirez, P

    2015-06-01

    Perturbations of energy balance induce compensatory processes that may alter expected weight loss. In obese patients, our aim was to investigate the relationships that occurred between fasting plasma concentrations of anorexigenic peptides and metabolic parameters, appetite, physical capacity, and weight loss in the 5 first days of a program associating exercise and caloric reduction. Thirteen obese women were monitored from day 1 to day 5 with 2 exercise sessions in day 2 and day 4. We measured, in a fasted state, changes in body weight, hunger ratings, and plasma concentrations of fatty acids, triglycerides, leptin, insulin, amylin, peptide YY, and insulin-resistance index. Physical performance was assessed by a 6-min walking test. The program resulted in significantly reduced body weight (0.75±0.4 kg; p=0.001), of plasma concentrations of triglycerides, insulin, amylin, peptide YY, and the insulin-resistance index, and also increased fatty acids (p<0.05). Hunger ratings were increased (p<0.05). Program-induced changes in fatty acids, leptin, and insulin concentrations were related to physical performance (r(2)=0.45, 0.59, and 0.52; p<0.05, respectively) and to weight loss (r(2)=0.65, 0.57, 0.55; p<0.05, respectively). Five days of diet and exercise induced weight loss, improved lipid profile, and decreased insulin resistance while hunger ratings increased. Subjects with higher physical capacity lost more weight, presented higher increases in fatty acids and lower changes of leptin and insulin concentrations suggesting a better metabolic flexibility. To reduce the compensatory responses that can occur with energy imbalances, our study supports to account for individual activity level before prescribing weight-loss program associating diet and exercise. PMID:25153683

  7. Onset of exercise and diet program in obese women: metabolic and anorexigenic responses related to weight loss and physical capacities.

    PubMed

    Desgorces, F D; Le Page, C; Police, C; Neveux, N; Cottart, C H; Blanc, M C; Raison, J; Toussaint, J F; Noirez, P

    2015-06-01

    Perturbations of energy balance induce compensatory processes that may alter expected weight loss. In obese patients, our aim was to investigate the relationships that occurred between fasting plasma concentrations of anorexigenic peptides and metabolic parameters, appetite, physical capacity, and weight loss in the 5 first days of a program associating exercise and caloric reduction. Thirteen obese women were monitored from day 1 to day 5 with 2 exercise sessions in day 2 and day 4. We measured, in a fasted state, changes in body weight, hunger ratings, and plasma concentrations of fatty acids, triglycerides, leptin, insulin, amylin, peptide YY, and insulin-resistance index. Physical performance was assessed by a 6-min walking test. The program resulted in significantly reduced body weight (0.75±0.4 kg; p=0.001), of plasma concentrations of triglycerides, insulin, amylin, peptide YY, and the insulin-resistance index, and also increased fatty acids (p<0.05). Hunger ratings were increased (p<0.05). Program-induced changes in fatty acids, leptin, and insulin concentrations were related to physical performance (r(2)=0.45, 0.59, and 0.52; p<0.05, respectively) and to weight loss (r(2)=0.65, 0.57, 0.55; p<0.05, respectively). Five days of diet and exercise induced weight loss, improved lipid profile, and decreased insulin resistance while hunger ratings increased. Subjects with higher physical capacity lost more weight, presented higher increases in fatty acids and lower changes of leptin and insulin concentrations suggesting a better metabolic flexibility. To reduce the compensatory responses that can occur with energy imbalances, our study supports to account for individual activity level before prescribing weight-loss program associating diet and exercise.

  8. Nerve growth factor-like activity detected in equine peripheral blood after running exercise.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Koyama, H; Oikawa, M; Yoshihara, T; Kaneko, M

    1991-08-01

    Addition of sera, collected from Thoroughbred horses after sprint exercise, induced significant neurite outgrowth from chick embryo dorsal root ganglia after a 24-hour culture. The nerve growth factor (NGF)-like activity was detected in sera collected immediately, or 1 hour or more, after the exercise. These findings suggest a possible role of serum NGF-like activity under stress conditions (running exercise) of horses.

  9. Effects of current physical activity on affective response to exercise: physical and social-cognitive mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Magnan, Renee E; Kwan, Bethany M; Bryan, Angela D

    2013-01-01

    Affective responses during exercise are often important determinants of exercise initiation and maintenance. Current physical activity may be one individual difference that is associated with the degree to which individuals have positive (or negative) affective experiences during exercise. The objective of this study was to explore physical and cognitive explanations of the relationship between current activity status (more versus less active) and affective response during a 30-minute bout of moderate-intensity exercise. Participants reported their current level of physical activity, exercise self-efficacy and affect during a 30-minute bout of moderate-intensity exercise. More active individuals experienced higher levels of positive affect and tranquillity and lower levels of negative affect and fatigue during exercise. Multivariate models for each affective state indicated separate processes through which physical activity may be associated with changes in affect during exercise. These models indicate that affect experienced during physical activity is related to the current activity level and these relationships can be partially explained by the physical and cognitive factors explored in this study. Recommendations for future research to elucidate whether positive affective response to physical activity improves as a function of becoming more active over time are discussed.

  10. Sympathetic Activity Assessed During Exercise Recovery in Young Obese Females

    PubMed Central

    Franco, R. Lee; Privett, Stacey H.; Bowen, Mary K.; Acevedo, Edmund O.; Arrowood, James A.; Wickham, Edmond P.; Evans, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate differences in sympathetic activity, as assessed by an exercise recovery index (ERI; heart rate/VO2 plateau), between black and white obese female adolescents. An additional aim was to determine the association of ERI with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), cardiovascular fitness per fat-free mass (VO2FFM), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and percent body fat (%FAT) in both black and white obese adolescents. Study design Sixty-one females volunteered to participate in this study. HOMA-IR, SBP and %FAT were assessed during resting conditions in black (n=49, 13.7±1.6 yrs, 38.1±6.1 kg/m2) and white (n=12, 13.3±2.2 yrs, 34.3±4.9 kg/m2) obese adolescents. An ERI was calculated during a 5-minute passive recovery period immediately following a graded treadmill exercise test to exhaustion. Results The ERI was significantly greater in black compared with white obese adolescent females (29.8 ± 6.4 vs. 24.1 ± 3.1 bpm·mLO2−1 ·min−1, P = 0.004). Using multiple linear regression modeling, there was a significant independent association between ERI and VO2FFM (r = −0.310, P = 0.027) and %FAT (r = 0.326, P = 0.020) in black obese adolescents after controlling for HOMA-IR and SBP. Conclusions These results suggest that black obese adolescent females have greater sympathetic activity, as assessed by an ERI, than white obese adolescent females. These findings support the need for weight management efforts aimed at both reducing %FAT and improving fitness in obese adolescents, specifically black females. Trial registration Registered with Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00562293 PMID:26003997

  11. Impact of sympathetic nervous system activity on post-exercise flow-mediated dilatation in humans.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Ceri L; Lewis, Nia C S; Carter, Howard H; Thijssen, Dick H J; Ainslie, Philip N; Green, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    Transient reduction in vascular function following systemic large muscle group exercise has previously been reported in humans. The mechanisms responsible are currently unknown. We hypothesised that sympathetic nervous system activation, induced by cycle ergometer exercise, would contribute to post-exercise reductions in flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). Ten healthy male subjects (28 ± 5 years) undertook two 30 min sessions of cycle exercise at 75% HR(max). Prior to exercise, individuals ingested either a placebo or an α1-adrenoreceptor blocker (prazosin; 0.05 mg kg(-1)). Central haemodynamics, brachial artery shear rate (SR) and blood flow profiles were assessed throughout each exercise bout and in response to brachial artery FMD, measured prior to, immediately after and 60 min after exercise. Cycle exercise increased both mean and antegrade SR (P < 0.001) with retrograde SR also elevated under both conditions (P < 0.001). Pre-exercise FMD was similar on both occasions, and was significantly reduced (27%) immediately following exercise in the placebo condition (t-test, P = 0.03). In contrast, FMD increased (37%) immediately following exercise in the prazosin condition (t-test, P = 0.004, interaction effect P = 0.01). Post-exercise FMD remained different between conditions after correction for baseline diameters preceding cuff deflation and also post-deflation SR. No differences in FMD or other variables were evident 60 min following recovery. Our results indicate that sympathetic vasoconstriction competes with endothelium-dependent dilator activity to determine post-exercise arterial function. These findings have implications for understanding the chronic impacts of interventions, such as exercise training, which affect both sympathetic activity and arterial shear stress.

  12. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain. PMID:27390406

  13. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain.

  14. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain. PMID:27390406

  15. A pilot trial of a videogame-based exercise program for methadone maintained patients.

    PubMed

    Cutter, Christopher J; Schottenfeld, Richard S; Moore, Brent A; Ball, Samuel A; Beitel, Mark; Savant, Jonathan D; Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Doucette, Christopher; Barry, Declan T

    2014-10-01

    Few studies have examined exercise as a substance use disorder treatment. This pilot study investigated the feasibility and acceptability of an exercise intervention comprising the Wii Fit Plus™ and of a time-and-attention sedentary control comprising Wii™ videogames. We also explored their impact on physical activity levels, substance use, and psychological wellness. Twenty-nine methadone-maintained patients enrolled in an 8-week trial were randomly assigned to either Active Game Play (Wii Fit Plus™ videogames involving physical exertion) or Sedentary Game Play (Wii™ videogames played while sitting). Participants had high satisfaction and study completion rates. Active Game Play participants reported greater physical activity outside the intervention than Sedentary Game Play participants despite no such differences at baseline. Substance use decreased and stress and optimism improved in both conditions. Active Game Play is a feasible and acceptable exercise intervention, and Sedentary Game Play is a promising time-and-attention control. Further investigations of these interventions are warranted.

  16. A pilot trial of a videogame-based exercise program for methadone maintained patients.

    PubMed

    Cutter, Christopher J; Schottenfeld, Richard S; Moore, Brent A; Ball, Samuel A; Beitel, Mark; Savant, Jonathan D; Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Doucette, Christopher; Barry, Declan T

    2014-10-01

    Few studies have examined exercise as a substance use disorder treatment. This pilot study investigated the feasibility and acceptability of an exercise intervention comprising the Wii Fit Plus™ and of a time-and-attention sedentary control comprising Wii™ videogames. We also explored their impact on physical activity levels, substance use, and psychological wellness. Twenty-nine methadone-maintained patients enrolled in an 8-week trial were randomly assigned to either Active Game Play (Wii Fit Plus™ videogames involving physical exertion) or Sedentary Game Play (Wii™ videogames played while sitting). Participants had high satisfaction and study completion rates. Active Game Play participants reported greater physical activity outside the intervention than Sedentary Game Play participants despite no such differences at baseline. Substance use decreased and stress and optimism improved in both conditions. Active Game Play is a feasible and acceptable exercise intervention, and Sedentary Game Play is a promising time-and-attention control. Further investigations of these interventions are warranted. PMID:25012555

  17. Maintenance of Physical Activity and Exercise Capacity After Rehabilitation in Coronary Heart Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Aliabad, Hassan Okati; Vafaeinasab, Mohammadreza; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Afshani, Seyed Alireza; Firoozabadi, Mahdieh Ghanbari; Forouzannia, Seyed Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Physical activity is one of the core components in cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention programs. This study investigated the effect of an intervention based on the health action process approach (HAPA) together with family support in the maintenance of physical activity and exercise capacity in coronary heart disease after discharge from rehabilitation. Method and Materials: In this randomized controlled trial, 96 patients with coronary heart disease were randomly assigned to control and intervention groups at the end of a rehabilitation program at Afshar Hospital, Yazd, Iran. HAPA Constructs and family support using a self-reported questionnaire and maximal oxygen uptake through a treadmill exercise test were measured prior to and 4 months after the intervention. Results: HAPA-based intervention together with family support increased scores of HAPA constructs and family support in the intervention group compared with the control group. The results showed that physical activity and exercise capacity in the intervention group was significantly higher than the control group after the intervention. Conclusion: HAPA-based intervention together with family support can be a useful tool for maintenance of physical activity and exercise capacity in coronary heart disease. PMID:25363124

  18. The effects of cognitive activity combined with active extremity exercise on balance, walking activity, memory level and quality of life of an older adult sample with dementia.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung Eun; Lee, Suk Min; Lim, Hee Sung; Kim, Tae Hoon; Jeon, Ji Kyeng; Mun, Mee Hyang

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive activity combined with active physical exercise for a sample of older adults with dementia. [Subjects] A convenience sample of 30 patients with dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination score between 16 and 23) was used. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two groups: cognitive activity combined with physical exercise CAE, n=11), and only cognitive activity CA, n=9). [Methods] Both groups participated in a therapeutic exercise program for 30 minutes, three days a week for 12 weeks. The CAE group performed an additional exercise for 30 minutes a day, three days a week for 12 weeks. A Wii Balance Board (WBB, Nintendo, Japan) was used to evaluate postural sway as an assessment of balance. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Modified Falls Efficacy Scale (MFES) were used to assess dynamic balance abilities. The Timed Up-and-Go test (TUG) was used to assess gait, and the Digit Span Test (DST) and 7 Minute Screening Test (7MST) were used to measure memory performance. The Mini-Mental Status Exam-Korean version (MMSE-K), Kenny Self-Care Evaluation (KSCE), and Short Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were used to assess quality of life (QOL). [Results] There were significant beneficial effects of the therapeutic program on balance (velocity in EOWB, path length in ECNB, BBS, and MMFE), QOL (MMSE-KC, GDS, KSCE), and memory performance (DSB) in the CAE group compared to CA group, and between pre-test and post-test. [Conclusion] A 12-week CAE program resulted in improvements in balance, memory and QOL. Therefore, some older adults with dementia have the ability to acquire effective skills relevant to daily living. PMID:24409029

  19. Plasma lactic dehydrogenase activities in men during bed rest with exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Peak oxygen uptake and the activity of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH-T) and its five isoenzymes were measured by spectrophotometer in seven men before, during, and after bed rest and exercise training. Exercise training consisted of isometric leg exercises of 250 kcal/hr for a period of one hour per day. It is found that LDH-T was reduced by 0.05 percent in all three regimens by day 10 of bed rest, and that the decrease occurred at different rates. The earliest reduction in LDH-T activity in the no-exercise regimen was associated with a decrease in peak oxygen uptake of 12.3 percent. It is concluded that isometric (aerobic) muscular strength training appear to maintain skeletal muscle integrity better during bed rest than isotonic exercise training. Reduced hydrostatic pressure during bed rest, however, ultimately counteracts the effects of both moderate isometric and isotonic exercise training, and may result in decreased LDH-T activity.

  20. Effects of cognitive training with and without aerobic exercise on cognitively demanding everyday activities.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Mark A; Binder, Ellen F; Bugg, Julie M; Waldum, Emily R; Dufault, Carolyn; Meyer, Amanda; Johanning, Jennifer; Zheng, Jie; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Kudelka, Chris

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the potential benefits of a novel cognitive-training protocol and an aerobic exercise intervention, both individually and in concert, on older adults' performances in laboratory simulations of select real-world tasks. The cognitive training focused on a range of cognitive processes, including attentional coordination, prospective memory, and retrospective-memory retrieval, processes that are likely involved in many everyday tasks, and that decline with age. Primary outcome measures were 3 laboratory tasks that simulated everyday activities: Cooking Breakfast, Virtual Week, and Memory for Health Information. Two months of cognitive training improved older adults' performance on prospective-memory tasks embedded in Virtual Week. Cognitive training, either alone or in combination with 6 months of aerobic exercise, did not significantly improve Cooking Breakfast or Memory for Health Information. Although gains in aerobic power were comparable with previous reports, aerobic exercise did not produce improvements for the primary outcome measures. Discussion focuses on the possibility that cognitive-training programs that include explicit strategy instruction and varied practice contexts may confer gains to older adults for performance on cognitively challenging everyday tasks. PMID:25244489

  1. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Philipp; Baumann, Freerk T.; Oberste, Max; Wright, Peter; Garthe, Alexander; Schenk, Alexander; Elter, Thomas; Galvao, Daniel A.; Bloch, Wilhelm; Hübner, Sven T.; Wolf, Florian

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI). Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga) with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings. PMID:27144158

  2. Effects of Cognitive Training with and without Aerobic Exercise on Cognitively-Demanding Everyday Activities

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Binder, Ellen F.; Bugg, Julie M.; Waldum, Emily R.; Dufault, Carolyn; Meyer, Amanda; Johanning, Jennifer; Zheng, Jie; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Kudelka, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential benefits of a novel cognitive training protocol and an aerobic exercise intervention, both individually and in concert, on older adults’ performances in laboratory simulations of select real-world tasks. The cognitive training focused on a range of cognitive processes, including attentional coordination, prospective memory, and retrospective-memory retrieval, processes that are likely involved in many everyday tasks, and that decline with age. Primary outcome measures were three laboratory tasks that simulated everyday activities: Cooking Breakfast, Virtual Week, and Memory for Health Information. Two months of cognitive training improved older adults’ performance on prospective memory tasks embedded in Virtual Week. Cognitive training, either alone or in combination with six months of aerobic exercise, did not significantly improve Cooking Breakfast or Memory for Health Information. Although gains in aerobic power were comparable to previous reports, aerobic exercise did not produce improvements for the primary outcome measures. Discussion focuses on the possibility that cognitive training programs that include explicit strategy instruction and varied practice contexts may confer gains to older adults for performance on cognitively challenging everyday tasks. PMID:25244489

  3. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Philipp; Baumann, Freerk T; Oberste, Max; Wright, Peter; Garthe, Alexander; Schenk, Alexander; Elter, Thomas; Galvao, Daniel A; Bloch, Wilhelm; Hübner, Sven T; Wolf, Florian

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI). Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga) with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings. PMID:27144158

  4. Case Study of an Institutionalized Urban Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Sarah A.; Rukavina, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    This single case study (Yin, 2009) compares an established urban physical education/ sport/physical activity program with two models: Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program/CSPAP (AAHPERD, 2013; CDC, 2013); and Lawson's propositions (2005) for sport, exercise and physical education for empowerment and community development to…

  5. Changes in Short-Term Attitudes Toward Physical Activity and Exercise of University Personal Wellness Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Mick G.; Shaddox, Lea Ann

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the attitudes toward physical activity and exercise of university students enrolled in Personal Wellness classes. 1,625 undergraduate students completed the Attitudes Toward Exercise and Physical Activity (ATEPA) inventory on the first and last day of the class. Paired-samples t test results comparing the mean pretest ATEPA…

  6. A Program of Computational Chemistry Exercises for the First-Semester General Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Scott E.; Dallinger, Richard F.; McKinney, Paul Caylor

    2004-01-01

    The computer systems available for molecular modeling are described, along with a discussion of a molecular modeling program created and supported by computational techniques for the first-semester general chemistry course. Various exercises are listed, which direct the learner from a beginner's course in software practice to more complex…

  7. The Effects of an Aerobic Exercise Program on Psychological Variables in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, Samuel, II; Templer, Donald I.

    1985-01-01

    In a study assessing the psychological effects of exercise in the elderly, a 14-week aerobic program for older adults (N=23) produced a significant increase in self-concept and a significantly greater perceived internal locus of control. Improvement in memory was not found. (Author)

  8. Keeping Fit with Asta O'Donnell. An Exercise Program for Problem Backs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Asta

    An estimated 75 million people in the United States suffer from some type of back problem. Most are caused by muscle strain and improper posture. This book describes an exercise program designed to relieve muscle strain, improve and correct posture, and reduce stress and tension. The book is divided into four sections: "Warm Ups,""Basic Exercise…

  9. Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Exercise Programs for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, In-Soo; Park, Eun-Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of physical exercise programs on individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). This meta-analysis analyzed 67 effect sizes and 14 studies and calculated the standardized mean difference in effect size. The unit of analysis for overall effects was the study, and the sub-group analysis focused…

  10. The Effectiveness of an Additional Stretching Exercise Program in Improving Flexibility Level among Preschool Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Wee Akina Sia Seng; Rengasamy, Shabeshan A/L; Raju, Subramaniam A/L

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a two minutes' additional stretching exercise program in a 30 minutes games teaching lesson in improving the flexibility level of 6 year old preschool boys (M = 5.92, SD = 0.27) in a preschool in Malaysia. Fifty (50) preschool boys were selected for the study based on the intact sampling…

  11. Exercise Programming for Cardiacs--A New Direction for Physical Therapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutin, Bernard

    This speech begins with the presentation of a conceptual scheme of the physical working capacity of a person starting a training program. The scheme shows that after exercise, when recovery begins and sufficient time elapses, the individual recovers and adapts to a level of physical working capacity which is higher than his starting level. From…

  12. Maternal diet, bioactive molecules, and exercising as reprogramming tools of metabolic programming.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Paulo C F; Elmhiri, Ghada; de Oliveira, Júlio C; Delayre-Orthez, Carine; Barella, Luiz F; Tófolo, Laize P; Fabricio, Gabriel S; Chango, Abalo; Abdennebi-Najar, Latifa

    2014-04-01

    Nutrition and lifestyle, particularly over-nutrition and lack of exercise, promote the progression and pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic diseases. Nutrition is likely the most important environmental factor that modulates the expression of genes involved in metabolic pathways and a variety of phenotypes associated with obesity and diabetes. During pregnancy, diet is a major factor that influences the organ developmental plasticity of the foetus. Experimental evidence shows that nutritional factors, including energy, fatty acids, protein, micronutrients, and folate, affect various aspects of metabolic programming. Different epigenetic mechanisms that are elicited by bioactive factors in early critical developmental ages affect the susceptibility to several diseases in adulthood. The beneficial effects promoted by exercise training are well recognised, and physical exercise may be considered one of the more prominent non-pharmacological tools that can be used to attenuate metabolic programming and to consequently ameliorate the illness provoked by metabolic diseases and reduce the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Literature on the different outcomes of unbalanced diets and the beneficial effects of some bioactive molecules during gestation and lactation on the metabolic health of offspring, as well as the potential mechanisms underlying these effects, was reviewed. The importance of the combined effects of functional nutrition and exercise as reprogramming tools of metabolic programming is discussed in depth. Finally, this review provides recommendations to healthcare providers that may aid in the control of early programming in an attempt to optimise the health of the mother and child.

  13. Structured-Exercise-Program (SEP): An Effective Training Approach to Key Healthcare Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miazi, Mosharaf H.; Hossain, Taleb; Tiroyakgosi, C.

    2014-01-01

    Structured exercise program is an effective approach to technology dependent resource limited healthcare area for professional training. The result of a recently conducted data analysis revealed this. The aim of the study is to know the effectiveness of the applied approach that was designed to observe the level of adherence to newly adopted…

  14. Surveying the effects of an exercise program on the sleep quality of elderly males

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Saba; Soroush, Ali; Towhidi, Farhad; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza; Karimi, Maryam; Jamehshorani, Saeid; Akhgar, Afshin; Fakhri, Mahmoud; Abdi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background Old age is a stage of life featured with many physiological and mental changes. The Iranian population is aging, and one of the problems that the elderly are faced with is sleep disorders. The present study is an attempt to examine the effectiveness of an exercise program on the sleep quality of the elderly. Methods A semi-experimental study was carried out on the elderly males referred to the Shahid Yari Elderly Center, Kermanshah, Iran. The sample group comprised of 46 participants: 23 in the experimental group and 23 in the control group. The study was carried out for a period of 2 months and follow-up was conducted every week. To improve the quality of sleep of the participants, a four-stage exercise program was implemented and the collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results The results of a Mann–Whitney test showed that the quality of sleep of the majority in the experimental group improved compared with that of the control group (P<0.05). In addition, a Wilcoxon test showed improvement of the Petersburg’s sleep quality index based on subelements and the results of a total score of sleep in the experimental group after the intervention. Conclusion The study showed effectiveness of scheduled exercising on the quality of sleep of the elderly. It is recommended, therefore, to add an exercise program to the daily program of the elderly. PMID:27555754

  15. Pulmonary rehabilitation for COPD: are programs with minimal exercise equipment effective?

    PubMed

    Alison, Jennifer A; McKeough, Zoe J

    2014-11-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is an essential component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management with strong evidence supporting the efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation to improve exercise capacity and quality of life, as well as reduce hospital admissions. However, it is estimated that only 2-5% of people with COPD who could benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation have access to programs. Most research on the benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation has used equipment such as cycle ergometers and treadmills for endurance training and weight machines for resistance training. To enable greater availability of pulmonary rehabilitation, the efficacy of exercise training using minimal equipment needs to be evaluated. Randomised controlled trials that used minimal, low cost equipment for endurance (eight trials) and strength training (three trials) compared to no training in people with COPD were evaluated. Statistically and clinically significant differences in functional exercise capacity and quality of life, as well as improvements in strength were demonstrated when exercise training with minimal equipment was compared to no training [six-minute walk test: mean difference 40 (95% CI: 13 to 67) metres; St George's Respiratory Questionnaire: mean difference -7 (95% CI: -12 to -3) points]. While the number of studies is relatively small and of variable quality, there is growing evidence that exercise training using minimal, low cost equipment may be an alternative to equipment-intensive pulmonary rehabilitation programs. PMID:25478201

  16. Feasibility of a Customized, In-Home, Game-Based Stroke Exercise Program Using the Microsoft Kinect® Sensor.

    PubMed

    Proffitt, Rachel; Lange, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of a 6-week, game-based, in-home telerehabilitation exercise program using the Microsoft Kinect® for individuals with chronic stroke. Four participants with chronic stroke completed the intervention based on games designed with the customized Mystic Isle software. The games were tailored to each participant's specific rehabilitation needs to facilitate the attainment of individualized goals determined through the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Likert scale questionnaires assessed the feasibility and utility of the game-based intervention. Supplementary clinical outcome data were collected. All participants played the games with moderately high enjoyment. Participant feedback helped identify barriers to use (especially, limited free time) and possible improvements. An in-home, customized, virtual reality game intervention to provide rehabilitative exercises for persons with chronic stroke is practicable. However, future studies are necessary to determine the intervention's impact on participant function, activity, and involvement. PMID:27563384

  17. Feasibility of a Customized, In-Home, Game-Based Stroke Exercise Program Using the Microsoft Kinect® Sensor

    PubMed Central

    PROFFITT, RACHEL; LANGE, BELINDA

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of a 6-week, game-based, in-home telerehabilitation exercise program using the Microsoft Kinect® for individuals with chronic stroke. Four participants with chronic stroke completed the intervention based on games designed with the customized Mystic Isle software. The games were tailored to each participant’s specific rehabilitation needs to facilitate the attainment of individualized goals determined through the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Likert scale questionnaires assessed the feasibility and utility of the game-based intervention. Supplementary clinical outcome data were collected. All participants played the games with moderately high enjoyment. Participant feedback helped identify barriers to use (especially, limited free time) and possible improvements. An in-home, customized, virtual reality game intervention to provide rehabilitative exercises for persons with chronic stroke is practicable. However, future studies are necessary to determine the intervention’s impact on participant function, activity, and involvement. PMID:27563384

  18. Determinants of physical activity and exercise in healthy older adults: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The health benefits of regular physical activity and exercise have been widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, a decline in physical activity is observed in older adults. Knowledge of the determinants of physical activity (unstructured activity incorporated in daily life) and exercise (structured, planned and repetitive activities) is needed to effectively promote an active lifestyle. Our aim was to systematically review determinants of physical activity and exercise participation among healthy older adults, considering the methodological quality of the included studies. Methods Literature searches were conducted in PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO/OVID for peer reviewed manuscripts published in English from 1990 onwards. We included manuscripts that met the following criteria: 1) population: community dwelling healthy older adults, aged 55 and over; 2) reporting determinants of physical activity or exercise. The outcome measure was qualified as physical activity, exercise, or combination of the two, measured objectively or using self-report. The methodological quality of the selected studies was examined and a best evidence synthesis was applied to assess the association of the determinants with physical activity or exercise. Results Thirty-four manuscripts reporting on 30 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which two were of high methodological quality. Physical activity was reported in four manuscripts, exercise was reported in sixteen and a combination of the two was reported in fourteen manuscripts. Three manuscripts used objective measures, twenty-two manuscripts used self-report measures and nine manuscripts combined a self-report measure with an objective measure. Due to lack of high quality studies and often only one manuscript reporting on a particular determinant, we concluded "insufficient evidence" for most associations between determinants and physical activity or exercise. Conclusions Because physical activity was reported in four manuscripts

  19. The effects of hip external rotator exercises and toe-spread exercises on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking in subjects with pronated foot

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Young-Mi; Kim, Da-Yeon; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of toe-spread (TS) exercises and hip external rotator strengthening exercises for pronated feet on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy adults with no present or previous pain, no past history of surgery on the foot or the ankle, and no foot deformities. Ten subjects performed hip external rotator strengthening exercises and TS exercises and the remaining ten subjects performed only TS exercises five times per week for four weeks. [Results] Less change in navicular drop height occurred in the group that performed hip external rotator exercises than in the group that performed only TS exercises. The group that performed only TS exercises showed increased abductor hallucis muscle activity during both stair-climbing and -descending, and the group that performed hip external rotator exercises showed increased muscle activities of the vastus medialis and abductor hallucis during stair-climbing and increased muscle activity of only the abductor hallucis during stair-descending after exercise. [Conclusion] Stair-walking can be more effectively performed if the hip external rotator muscle is strengthened when TS exercises are performed for the pronated foot. PMID:27134364

  20. Effects of different types of exercise on muscle activity and balance control

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Gim, Min-A; Kim, Young-Hwan; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzed the effects of isotonic, isokinetic, and isometric exercises of ankle joint muscles on lower extremity muscle activity and balance control. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 30 healthy adults (15 males) in their 20s who were randomly assigned to three different exercise method groups of 10 people each. The isokinetic exercise group performed three sets at an angular velocity of 60°/sec, including a single rest period after every set of 10 repetitions. The isometric exercise group performed three sets consisting of three 15 repetitions of a 15-second exercise followed by a 5-second rest. [Results] Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that depending on the exercise method, the non-dominant tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius muscle, and peroneus longus showed significant differences in muscle activity for weight-bearing non-dominant sides; when the dominant side was weight-bearing, the dominant gastrocnemius and peroneus longus showed significant differences in muscle activity; and the non-dominant and dominant sides showed significant differences in balance control depending on the duration of support in the area. [Conclusion] Muscle fatigue from the three exercise methods produced a decline in muscle activity and balance control; due to the fatigue before exercise, the side that did not perform the exercises was affected. PMID:26180340

  1. Does pilates exercise increase physical activity, quality of life, latency, and sleep quantity in middle-aged people?

    PubMed

    García-Soidán, J L; Giraldez, V Arufe; Cachón Zagalaz, J; Lara-Sánchez, A J

    2014-12-01

    This prospective study assessed the effects of a 12-wk. exercise program based on the Pilates method (2 one-hr. sessions per week) on 99 sedentary middle-aged volunteers (M age = 47.6 yr., SD = 0.8), using an accelerometry, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the SF-36 questionnaire to measure changes in physical activity, quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity. The variables (quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity) were compared before and after applying the Pilates program. All of the physical and emotional components of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement, and the latency and sleep quantity also showed significant increases. The results indicate that Pilates is an accessible, interesting exercise program that can generate important changes in middle age. PMID:25456245

  2. Does pilates exercise increase physical activity, quality of life, latency, and sleep quantity in middle-aged people?

    PubMed

    García-Soidán, J L; Giraldez, V Arufe; Cachón Zagalaz, J; Lara-Sánchez, A J

    2014-12-01

    This prospective study assessed the effects of a 12-wk. exercise program based on the Pilates method (2 one-hr. sessions per week) on 99 sedentary middle-aged volunteers (M age = 47.6 yr., SD = 0.8), using an accelerometry, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the SF-36 questionnaire to measure changes in physical activity, quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity. The variables (quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity) were compared before and after applying the Pilates program. All of the physical and emotional components of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement, and the latency and sleep quantity also showed significant increases. The results indicate that Pilates is an accessible, interesting exercise program that can generate important changes in middle age.

  3. Breakpoints in ventilation, cerebral and muscle oxygenation, and muscle activity during an incremental cycling exercise

    PubMed Central

    Racinais, Sebastien; Buchheit, Martin; Girard, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to locate the breakpoints of cerebral and muscle oxygenation and muscle electrical activity during a ramp exercise in reference to the first and second ventilatory thresholds. Twenty-five cyclists completed a maximal ramp test on an electromagnetically braked cycle-ergometer with a rate of increment of 25 W/min. Expired gazes (breath-by-breath), prefrontal cortex and vastus lateralis (VL) oxygenation [Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)] together with electromyographic (EMG) Root Mean Square (RMS) activity for the VL, rectus femoris (RF), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles were continuously assessed. There was a non-linear increase in both cerebral deoxyhemoglobin (at 56 ± 13% of the exercise) and oxyhemoglobin (56 ± 8% of exercise) concomitantly to the first ventilatory threshold (57 ± 6% of exercise, p > 0.86, Cohen's d < 0.1). Cerebral deoxyhemoglobin further increased (87 ± 10% of exercise) while oxyhemoglobin reached a plateau/decreased (86 ± 8% of exercise) after the second ventilatory threshold (81 ± 6% of exercise, p < 0.05, d > 0.8). We identified one threshold only for muscle parameters with a non-linear decrease in muscle oxyhemoglobin (78 ± 9% of exercise), attenuation in muscle deoxyhemoglobin (80 ± 8% of exercise), and increase in EMG activity of VL (89 ± 5% of exercise), RF (82 ± 14% of exercise), and BF (85 ± 9% of exercise). The thresholds in BF and VL EMG activity occurred after the second ventilatory threshold (p < 0.05, d > 0.6). Our results suggest that the metabolic and ventilatory events characterizing this latter cardiopulmonary threshold may affect both cerebral and muscle oxygenation levels, and in turn, muscle recruitment responses. PMID:24782786

  4. Passive and active exercises are similarly effective in elderly nursing home residents

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Takeshi; Takeshima, Nobuo; Rogers, Nicole L.; Rogers, Michael E.; Islam, Mohammod Monirul

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of passive motion exercise and active motion exercise on functional fitness in elderly nursing home residents. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three (female 22 and male 1) nursing home residents (84.8±4.3 yr) volunteered for this study. They were divided into a passive motion exercise group (n=12) and an active motion exercise group (n=11) and performed 30-min sessions of training twice a week for 12 weeks. Functional fitness (Arm Curl, Chair Stand, Up & Go, Sit & Reach, Back Scratch, functional Reach, and 12-min Walk tests) was evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] No significant baseline difference was noted between the groups in measured variables. Following the 12 week intervention, no significant interaction (group × time) was noted in functional fitness variables between the groups, except for the functional reach scores (active motion exercise 40%, passive motion exercise 9%). Significant improvement over time was noted in passive motion exercise group in Arm Curl (19%), Chair Stand (15%), Up & Go (6%), and 12-min Walk (12%) scores; and in the active motion exercise group in Arm Curl (14%), Chair Stand (19%), Up & Go (11%), functional Reach (40%) and 12-min Walk (13%) scores. The adherence rates in the passive and active motion exercise groups were 95.8% and 93.1% respectively. [Conclusion] Passive motion exercise and active motion exercise were found to be similarly effective for improving the functional fitness of elderly nursing home residents. PMID:26504320

  5. Effects of an acute, outpatient physiotherapy exercise program following pediatric heart or lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Deliva, R D; Hassall, A; Manlhiot, C; Solomon, M; McCrindle, B W; Dipchand, A I

    2012-12-01

    This prospective interventional study investigated the impact of a three-month, ambulatory HA or HB, semi-individualized, PT-prescribed exercise program following pediatric HTx or LTx. SMW distance, strength, and flexibility were assessed at start and completion of the program and one yr after enrollment. Subjects received either an HB or HA exercise program three times per week. The cohort demonstrated clinically and statistically significant improvements in SMW distances at three months (425.7 ± 109.4-500.6 ± 93.6 m, p < 0.001) and at one yr (528.5 ± 66.6 m, p = 0.001), although there was no difference between the two groups at any time. Similar improvements were also observed in strength and flexibility measures. Correlates with higher SMW distance at three months and one yr included older age, male gender, and underlying diagnosis other than CHD. Male gender and diagnosis other than CHD were associated with a slower improvement in the SMW distance. This is the first report of institutionally based, outpatient exercise rehabilitation in the recovery following pediatric thoracic transplantation. We found similar improvements to HB interventions up to one yr after surgery. Further study of the role of exercise rehabilitation and long-term fitness outcomes is needed.

  6. Queen's University Aboriginal Teacher Education Program: An Exercise in Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Janice C.

    The Aboriginal Teacher Education Program (ATEP) at Queen's University (Ontario) delivers two models of teacher education. One is community-based, part-time, and for Aboriginal students only, who may enter with a secondary school graduation diploma or equivalent. The second is campus-based, full-time, and open to both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal…

  7. Motivations of Volunteer Leaders in an Extension Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Lisa T.; Cornell, Carol E.; Traywick, LaVona; Felix, Holly C.; Phillips, Martha

    2015-01-01

    This article describes findings from a qualitative study of volunteer leaders in the StrongWomen strength training program in Arkansas. The study explored reasons volunteers initially agreed to serve, perceptions of volunteer role, and motivations for continuing to lead strength training groups long-term. Findings suggest a combination of factors…

  8. Adherence to a home-based exercise program and incidence of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Shinji, S; Shigeru, M; Ryusei, U; Mitsuru, M; Shigehiro, K

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between adherence to a home-based exercise program and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated 102 patients with type 2 diabetes aged 35 to 75 years, and followed them prospectively for 17.2 months. Before enrollment, all patients received a traditional exercise prescription. The exercise program consisted of a daily walking exercise at home for 20 - 30 minutes. Self-reported adherence to the exercise program and the incidence of CVD were confirmed by information obtained from telephone interviews. There were 38 dropouts among the patients in the exercise program. Dropouts were significantly younger than completers. The rate of obesity was significantly higher among the dropouts than among the completers. No differences were observed between the two groups for gender, history of CVD and other clinical characteristics. During the follow-up, we documented 8 new cases of CVD. The incidence of CVD during the follow-up was 1.56 percent among the program completers and 18.4 percent among the dropouts. Adherence to the home-based exercise was inversely related to the incidence of CVD (p < 0.01). These associations persisted after adjustment for age and other covariates. In conclusion, adherence to an exercise program is associated with a reduced incidence of CVD among patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:17436204

  9. Muscle sympathetic activity in resting and exercising humans with and without heart failure.

    PubMed

    Notarius, Catherine F; Millar, Philip J; Floras, John S

    2015-11-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is critical for coordinating the cardiovascular response to various types of physical exercise. In a number of disease states, including human heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), this regulation can be disturbed and adversely affect outcome. The purpose of this review is to describe sympathetic activity at rest and during exercise in both healthy humans and those with HFrEF and outline factors, which influence these responses. We focus predominately on studies that report direct measurements of efferent sympathetic nerve traffic to skeletal muscle (muscle sympathetic nerve activity; MSNA) using intraneural microneurographic recordings. Differences in MSNA discharge between subjects with and without HFrEF both at rest and during exercise and the influence of exercise training on the sympathetic response to exercise will be discussed. In contrast to healthy controls, MSNA increases during mild to moderate dynamic exercise in the presence of HFrEF. This increase may contribute to the exercise intolerance characteristic of HFrEF by limiting muscle blood flow and may be attenuated by exercise training. Future investigations are needed to clarify the neural afferent mechanisms that contribute to efferent sympathetic activation at rest and during exercise in HFrEF.

  10. Muscle sympathetic activity in resting and exercising humans with and without heart failure.

    PubMed

    Notarius, Catherine F; Millar, Philip J; Floras, John S

    2015-11-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is critical for coordinating the cardiovascular response to various types of physical exercise. In a number of disease states, including human heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), this regulation can be disturbed and adversely affect outcome. The purpose of this review is to describe sympathetic activity at rest and during exercise in both healthy humans and those with HFrEF and outline factors, which influence these responses. We focus predominately on studies that report direct measurements of efferent sympathetic nerve traffic to skeletal muscle (muscle sympathetic nerve activity; MSNA) using intraneural microneurographic recordings. Differences in MSNA discharge between subjects with and without HFrEF both at rest and during exercise and the influence of exercise training on the sympathetic response to exercise will be discussed. In contrast to healthy controls, MSNA increases during mild to moderate dynamic exercise in the presence of HFrEF. This increase may contribute to the exercise intolerance characteristic of HFrEF by limiting muscle blood flow and may be attenuated by exercise training. Future investigations are needed to clarify the neural afferent mechanisms that contribute to efferent sympathetic activation at rest and during exercise in HFrEF. PMID:26481289

  11. Leg strength declines with advancing age despite habitual endurance exercise in active older adults.

    PubMed

    Marcell, Taylor J; Hawkins, Steven A; Wiswell, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    Age-associated loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength (dynapenia) is associated with a loss of independence that contributes to falls, fractures, and nursing home admissions, whereas regular physical activity has been suggested to offset these losses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of habitual endurance exercise on muscle mass and strength in active older adults. A longitudinal analysis of muscle strength (≈4.8 years apart) was performed on 59 men (age at start of study: 58.6 ± 7.3 years) and 35 women (56.9 ± 8.2 years) who used endurance running as their primary mode of exercise. There were no changes in fat-free mass although body fat increased minimally (1.0-1.5%). Training volume (km·wk, d·wk) decreased in both the men and women. There was a significant loss of both isometric knee extension (≈5% per year) and knee flexion (≈3.6% per year) strength in both the men and women. However, there was no significant change in either isokinetic concentric or eccentric torque of the knee extensors. Our data demonstrated a significant decline in isometric knee extensor and knee flexor strength although there were no changes in body mass in this group of very active older men and women. Our data support newer exercise guidelines for older Americans suggesting resistance training be an integral component of a fitness program and that running alone was not sufficient to prevent the loss in muscle strength (dynapenia) with aging.

  12. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  13. Music Attenuated a Decrease in Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity after Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Misa; Ito, Osamu; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Music and exercise can both affect autonomic nervous system activity. However, the effects of the combination of music and exercise on autonomic activity are poorly understood. Additionally, it remains unknown whether music affects post-exercise orthostatic tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of music on autonomic nervous system activity in orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Twenty-six healthy graduate students participated in four sessions in a random order on four separate days: a sedentary session, a music session, a bicycling session, and a bicycling with music session. Participants were asked to listen to their favorite music and to exercise on a cycle ergometer. We evaluated autonomic nervous system activity before and after each session using frequency analysis of heart rate variability. High frequency power, an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity, was significantly increased in the music session. Heart rate was increased, and high frequency power was decreased, in the bicycling session. There was no significant difference in high frequency power before and after the bicycling with music session, although heart rate was significantly increased. Additionally, both music and exercise did not significantly affect heart rate, systolic blood pressure or also heart rate variability indices in the orthostatic test. These data suggest that music increased parasympathetic activity and attenuated the exercise-induced decrease in parasympathetic activity without altering the orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Therefore, music may be an effective approach for improving post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, resulting in a faster recovery and a reduction in cardiac stress after exercise. PMID:26840532

  14. Music Attenuated a Decrease in Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity after Exercise.

    PubMed

    Jia, Tiantian; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Miura, Misa; Ito, Osamu; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Music and exercise can both affect autonomic nervous system activity. However, the effects of the combination of music and exercise on autonomic activity are poorly understood. Additionally, it remains unknown whether music affects post-exercise orthostatic tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of music on autonomic nervous system activity in orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Twenty-six healthy graduate students participated in four sessions in a random order on four separate days: a sedentary session, a music session, a bicycling session, and a bicycling with music session. Participants were asked to listen to their favorite music and to exercise on a cycle ergometer. We evaluated autonomic nervous system activity before and after each session using frequency analysis of heart rate variability. High frequency power, an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity, was significantly increased in the music session. Heart rate was increased, and high frequency power was decreased, in the bicycling session. There was no significant difference in high frequency power before and after the bicycling with music session, although heart rate was significantly increased. Additionally, both music and exercise did not significantly affect heart rate, systolic blood pressure or also heart rate variability indices in the orthostatic test. These data suggest that music increased parasympathetic activity and attenuated the exercise-induced decrease in parasympathetic activity without altering the orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Therefore, music may be an effective approach for improving post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, resulting in a faster recovery and a reduction in cardiac stress after exercise.

  15. Active play exercise intervention in children with asthma: a PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Westergren, Thomas; Fegran, Liv; Nilsen, Tonje; Haraldstad, Kristin; Kittang, Ole Bjørn; Berntsen, Sveinung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Increased physical activity (PA) may be beneficial for children with asthma. Knowledge about how to intervene and encourage children with asthma to be physically active is required. In the present study, we aimed to pilot a 6-week exercise intervention designed as active play and examine attendance rate, exercise intensity and children's perceptions of participating. Methods 6 children with asthma (4 boys, 2 girls) aged 10–12 years, participated in 60 min of active play exercise twice weekly. A mixed-methods design was applied. The data analysed included attendance rate, exercise intensity assessed by heart rate (HR) monitoring during exercise sessions, registration and description of the active play exercise programme, 3 semistructured focus groups, field observations of 5 exercise sessions, and preintervention and postintervention testing. Findings The average attendance rate was 90%. Intensity ≥80% of maximal HR (HRmax) was recorded for a median (IQR) time of 22 (8) out of 60 min per session. Median (IQR) HR during the sessions was 146 (9; 74% of HRmax) bpm. Children reported increased health-related quality of life (HRQoL) post-test compared with baseline. Children enjoyed participating and reported no limitations by asthma or serious asthma attacks. Instead, they perceived that their asthma and fitness had improved after the programme. The instructors created an inclusive atmosphere that was characterised by easy-to-master games, fair competition, humour and mutual participation. Conclusions The exercise intervention pilot focusing on active play had a high attendance rate, relatively high exercise intensity, and satisfaction; the children perceived that their fitness and asthma had improved, and reported increased HRQoL. A randomised controlled trial of active play exercise including children with asthma should be conducted to evaluate effect on PA level, physical fitness, asthma control and HRQoL. PMID:26733570

  16. Effects of exercise and conditioning on clotting and fibrinolytic activity in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Earl W.; Bernier, Lani L.; Banta, Guy R.; Yu-Yahiro, Janet; Schoomaker, Eric B.

    1987-01-01

    Blood clotting and fibrinolytic activity in three groups of nonsmoking, nonobese, healthy men ranging from 19 to 59 years are studied. The groups consisted of (1) marathoners (men running more than 50 miles/week); (2) joggers (men running 5-15 miles/week; and (3) sedentary subjects (men who did not exercise routinely). It is observed that the rate of blood clotting is accelerated by exercise; marathoners had greater increases in fibrinolytic activity than the other two groups; and fibrin degradation products increased with exercise. The data reveal that the changes in clotting assays with exercise do not correlate with changes in whole blood lactate, blood pyruvate, or rectal temperatures. It is noted that the level of acceleration for fibrinolytic activity is directly related to the maximum aerobic capacity and work load of the individual, and that conditioning enhances the fibrinolytic response to exercise.

  17. Physical activity, physical fitness, and exercise therapy in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Kristin

    2012-09-01

    Arthritis in childhood can be associated with low levels of physical activity and poor physical fitness. Children with arthritis may have decreased aerobic and anaerobic fitness, muscle weakness, low bone mass, and low bone strength. Suboptimal physical activity and exercise capacity may contribute to further deconditioning and disability, placing children with arthritis at risk for poor health outcomes. Recent studies suggest that exercise therapy is safe and does not worsen arthritis. Exercise therapy may improve function, quality of life, and physical fitness. However, little is known about the exercise prescription that is most effective to improve clinical outcomes in children with arthritis. This article reviews the current literature on physical activity, physical fitness, and exercise therapy in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  18. Dissociation of Increases in PGC-1α and Its Regulators from Exercise Intensity and Muscle Activation Following Acute Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Hankinson, Paul B.; Simpson, Craig A.; Little, Jonathan P.; Graham, Ryan B.; Gurd, Brendon J.

    2013-01-01

    Muscle activation as well as changes in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) following high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) were examined in young healthy men (n  = 8; age, 21.9±2.2 yrs; VO2peak, 53.1±6.4 ml/min/kg; peak work rate, 317±23.5 watts). On each of 3 visits HIIE was performed on a cycle ergometer at a target intensity of 73, 100, or 133% of peak work rate. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest and three hours after each exercise condition. Total work was not different between conditions (∼730 kJ) while average power output (73%, 237±21; 100%, 323±26; 133%, 384±35 watts) and EMG derived muscle activation (73%, 1262±605; 100%, 2089±737; 133%, 3029±1206 total integrated EMG per interval) increased in an intensity dependent fashion. PGC-1α mRNA was elevated after all three conditions (p<0.05), with a greater increase observed following the 100% condition (∼9 fold, p<0.05) compared to both the 73 and 133% conditions (∼4 fold). When expressed relative to muscle activation, the increase in PGC-1α mRNA for the 133% condition was less than that for the 73 and 100% conditions (p<0.05). SIRT1 mRNA was also elevated after all three conditions (∼1.4 fold, p<0.05), with no difference between conditions. These findings suggest that intensity-dependent increases in PGC-1α mRNA following submaximal exercise are largely due to increases in muscle recruitment. As well, the blunted response of PGC-1α mRNA expression following supramaximal exercise may indicate that signalling mediated activation of PGC-1α may also be blunted. We also indentify that increases in PDK4, SIRT1, and RIP140 mRNA following acute exercise are dissociated from exercise intensity and muscle activation, while increases in EGR1 are augmented with supramaximal HIIE (p<0.05). PMID:23951207

  19. The effect of high intensity interval exercise on postprandial triacylglycerol and leukocyte activation--monitored for 48 h post exercise.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Brendan Morris; Pugh, Jamie; Pruneta-Deloche, Valerie; Moulin, Philippe; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Gray, Stuart Robert

    2013-01-01

    Postprandial phenomenon are thought to contribute to atherogenesis alongside activation of the immune system. A single bout of high intensity interval exercise attenuates postprandial triacylglycerol (TG), although the longevity and mechanisms underlying this observation are unknown. The aims of this study were to determine whether this attenuation in postprandial TG remained 2 days after high intensity interval exercise, to monitor markers of leukocyte activation and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Eight young men each completed two three day trials. On day 1: subjects rested (Control) or performed 5 x 30 s maximal sprints (high intensity interval exercise). On day 2 and 3 subjects consumed high fat meals for breakfast and 3 h later for lunch. Blood samples were taken at various times and analysed for TG, glucose and TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL)-bound LPL-dependent TRL-TG hydrolysis (LTTH). Flow cytometry was used to evaluate granulocyte, monocyte and lymphocyte CD11b and CD36 expression. On day 2 after high intensity interval exercise TG area under the curve was lower (P<0.05) (7.46 ± 1.53 mmol/l/7h) compared to the control trial (9.47 ± 3 .04 mmol/l/7h) with no differences during day 3 of the trial. LTTH activity was higher (P<0.05) after high intensity interval exercise, at 2 hours of day 2, compared to control. Granulocyte, monocyte and lymphocyte CD11b expression increased with time over day 2 and 3 of the study (P<0.0001). Lymphocyte and monocyte CD36 expression decreased with time over day 2 and 3 (P<0.05). There were no differences between trials in CD11b and CD36 expression on any leukocytes. A single session of high intensity interval exercise attenuated postprandial TG on day 2 of the study, with this effect abolished by day 3.The reduction in postprandial TG was associated with an increase in LTTH. High intensity interval exercise had no effect on postprandial responses of CD11b or CD36.

  20. Glucose Infusion into Exercising Dogs after Confinement: Rectal and Active Muscle Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Falecka-Wieczorek, I.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1995-01-01

    Intravenous glucose infusion into ambulatory dogs results in attenuation of exercise-induced increase of both rectal and thigh muscle temperatures. That glucose (Glu) infusion attenuates excessive increase in body temperature from restricted activity during confinement deconditioning. Intravenous glucose infusion attenuates the rise in exercise core temperature in deconditioned dogs by a yet undefined mechanism.

  1. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  2. The Influence of Physical Activity, Sport and Exercise Motives among UK-Based University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Simon; Reeves, Matthew; Ryrie, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the majority of the adult population fails to achieve the recommended target of 30-minutes moderate intensity exercise, days a week. This includes university students who often have the time to engage in physical activity. The aim of this study was to determine exercise motives for a UK-based student population. The…

  3. "Exercise Dependence"--A Problem or Natural Result of High Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Suzanne; Bond, Dale S.; Lang, Wei; Jordan, Dustin; Wing, Rena R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare physical activity (PA) and exercise dependence (ED) in 267 weight-loss maintainers (WLM) and 213 normal-weight (NW) controls. Methods: PA and ED assessed via accelerometery and the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire. Results: WLM had higher PA levels and ED scores than those of NW (P less than 0.0001). WLM status (P = 0.006)…

  4. Effect of neck flexion restriction on sternocleidomastoid and abdominal muscle activity during curl-up exercises

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Moon, Dong-Chul; Hong, Ki-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neck flexion restriction on sternocleidomastoid (SCM), rectus abdominis (RA), and external oblique (EO) muscle activity during a traditional curl-up exercise and a curl-up with neck flexion restriction. [Subjects] In total, 13 healthy male subjects volunteered for this study. [Methods] All subjects performed a traditional curl-up exercise and a curl-up exercise in which neck flexion was restricted by the subject’s hand. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from the SCM, RA, and EO during the curl-up. [Results] There was significantly lower EMG activity of the SCM during the curl-up exercise with neck flexion restriction compared to the traditional curl-up exercise. Conversely, the activity of the RA and EO muscles was significantly higher in the curl-up exercise with neck flexion restriction than in the traditional curl-up exercise. [Conclusion] Neck flexion restriction is recommended to prevent excessive activation of superficial cervical flexors during the curl-up exercise. PMID:26957735

  5. Exercise Prevents Amyloid-β-Induced Hippocampal Network Disruption by Inhibiting GSK3β Activation.

    PubMed

    Isla, Arturo G; Vázquez-Cuevas, Francisco Gabriel; Peña-Ortega, Fernando

    2016-03-16

    Exercise is becoming a promising therapeutic approach to prevent alterations both in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and in transgenic models of AD. This neuroprotection has been associated with changes in hippocampal structure and function, as well as with the reduction of amyloid-β (Aβ) production and accumulation. However, whether exercise produces lasting changes in hippocampal population activity and renders it resistant to Aβ-induced network dysfunction is still unknown. Thus, we tested whether voluntary exercise changes hippocampal population activity and prevents its alteration in the presence of Aβ, which has been associated to glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) activation. We found that the hippocampal population activity recorded in slices obtained from mice that exercised voluntarily (with free access to a running wheel for 21 days) exhibits higher power and faster frequency composition than slices obtained from sedentary animals. Moreover, the hippocampal network of mice that exercised becomes insensitive to Aβ-induced inhibition of spontaneous population activity. This protective effect correlates with the inability of Aβ to activate GSK3β, is mimicked by GSK3β inhibition with SB126763 (in slices obtained from sedentary mice), and is abolished by the inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 (in slices obtained from mice that exercised). We conclude that voluntary exercise produces a lasting protective state in the hippocampus, maintained in hippocampal slices by a PI3K-dependent mechanism that precludes its functional disruption in the presence of Aβ by avoiding GSK3β activation.

  6. Effects of trajectory exercise using a laser pointer on electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and erector spinae during bridging exercises.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate activities of the hip extensors and erector spinae during bridging exercise by using instruments with a laser pointer on the pelvic belt. [Subjects] Twelve subjects (age, 23 to 33 years) with non-specific low back pain volunteered for this study. [Methods] Subjects performed bridging exercises with and without trajectory exercises by using a laser pointer fixed to a pelvic strap. The erector spinae, gluteus maximus and hamstring activities with and without trajectory exercises using a laser pointer were recorded on using electromyography. [Results] Compared to the without laser pointer group, the group that underwent bridging with trajectory exercises using a laser pointer had significantly higher gluteus maximus activity and significantly lower erector spinae activity. Significantly higher gluteus maximus/erector spinae activity ratios were observed when performing trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during bridging exercises. [Conclusion] This result suggests that trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during a bridging exercise would be effective for improving gluteus maximus activity. PMID:27065555

  7. Effects of trajectory exercise using a laser pointer on electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and erector spinae during bridging exercises

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate activities of the hip extensors and erector spinae during bridging exercise by using instruments with a laser pointer on the pelvic belt. [Subjects] Twelve subjects (age, 23 to 33 years) with non-specific low back pain volunteered for this study. [Methods] Subjects performed bridging exercises with and without trajectory exercises by using a laser pointer fixed to a pelvic strap. The erector spinae, gluteus maximus and hamstring activities with and without trajectory exercises using a laser pointer were recorded on using electromyography. [Results] Compared to the without laser pointer group, the group that underwent bridging with trajectory exercises using a laser pointer had significantly higher gluteus maximus activity and significantly lower erector spinae activity. Significantly higher gluteus maximus/erector spinae activity ratios were observed when performing trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during bridging exercises. [Conclusion] This result suggests that trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during a bridging exercise would be effective for improving gluteus maximus activity. PMID:27065555

  8. Effects of trajectory exercise using a laser pointer on electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and erector spinae during bridging exercises.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate activities of the hip extensors and erector spinae during bridging exercise by using instruments with a laser pointer on the pelvic belt. [Subjects] Twelve subjects (age, 23 to 33 years) with non-specific low back pain volunteered for this study. [Methods] Subjects performed bridging exercises with and without trajectory exercises by using a laser pointer fixed to a pelvic strap. The erector spinae, gluteus maximus and hamstring activities with and without trajectory exercises using a laser pointer were recorded on using electromyography. [Results] Compared to the without laser pointer group, the group that underwent bridging with trajectory exercises using a laser pointer had significantly higher gluteus maximus activity and significantly lower erector spinae activity. Significantly higher gluteus maximus/erector spinae activity ratios were observed when performing trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during bridging exercises. [Conclusion] This result suggests that trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during a bridging exercise would be effective for improving gluteus maximus activity.

  9. Electromyographic activity of selected trunk muscles during stabilization exercises using a gym ball.

    PubMed

    Mori, A

    2004-01-01

    Trunk stabilization is very important for the injured lower back. The use of a gym ball, the surface of which is labile, is becoming more popular for strengthening the trunk muscles and challenging the motor control system in trunk stabilization exercises. However, little is known about the activity of the trunk muscles during such exercises. The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the trunk muscles during seven stabilization exercises using a gym ball. Eleven healthy men (19.9 +/- 1.8 years old) without low back pain volunteered to participate in the study. Bipolar surface electrodes were attached to the right side of the upper and lower rectus abdominis, the obliquus externus abdominis and the upper and lower back extensor muscles. EMG signals were recorded during seven types of stabilization exercises using a gym ball and normalized to maximal voluntary contraction (% MVC). A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on % MVC from each task for each of the five trunk muscle sites (p < 0.05). Push-up exercise, supporting with both hands on the gym ball and toes on the floor in prone position, resulted in the highest activity of all abdominal muscles, and an exercise of the lifting the gym ball up, holding it actively between both legs with both knees flexed in supine position resulted in the lowest. Lifting up of the pelvis in a bridged position exercise, supporting the head with the gym ball and with the feet on the floor in supine position, resulted in higher muscle activity of the back extensor muscles than another exercise. It is very important for physical therapists to make clear the purpose of the trunk stabilization exercises, because different kinds of exercises with the gym ball demand various levels of muscular activity and use of various parts of the trunk muscles.

  10. Effect of Weight-bearing Therapeutic Exercise on the Q-angle and Muscle Activity Onset Times of Elite Athletes with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jehoon; Lee, Hwangjae; Lee, Wanhee

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a weight-bearing therapeutic exercise program for elite athletes diagnosed as having patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). [Subjects] The subjects were 34 elite athletes from the Seoul T Center. They were randomly allocated to three groups: an elastic band exercise group (EBG), a sling exercise group (SEG), or a control group (CG). [Methods] Therapeutic exercises were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The visual analogue scale (VAS) hamstring length, and static and dynamic Q angles were used to test the exercise effect of the exercises, as well as the onset time of electromyographic activity of vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL). [Results] Decrease of the dynamic Q-angle in EBG was significant and significantly greater than that in CG. The decrease in VAS in SEG was significant and significantly greater than that in CG. There were significant differences in the VL and VMO activity onset times in SEG between pre- and post-test, and their differences between pre- and post-test were also significantly different. [Conclusion] Weight-bearing therapeutic exercise is hoped that clinicians will use this information for better implementation of effective exercise methods for elite athletes with PFPS. PMID:25140080

  11. Effects of horse-riding exercise on balance, gait, and activities of daily living in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Nam; Lee, Dong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of horse-riding exercise on balance, gait, and activities of daily living (ADLs) in stroke patients. [Subjects] Among 20 participants with stroke, 10 were randomly assigned to the experimental group, and 10 were randomly assigned to the control group. The experimental group participated in horse-riding exercise for 30 minutes per day, 5 days a week for 6 weeks. Balance was tested with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Gait was measured using the 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT). ADLs were tested with the Modified Barthel Index (MBI). Differences between pre- and post-experiment values within the two groups were compared using paired t-tests. Between-group differences were compared using independent t-tests. [Results] The experimental group showed significant improvements in balance, gait, and ADLs following horse-riding exercise. Additionally, the experimental group showed significant differences in balance, gait, and ADLs compared with in the control group. [Conclusion] These results support that horse-riding exercise enhances balance, gait, and ADLs in stroke patients. This study supports the need for further research on horse-riding exercise programs. PMID:25931690

  12. Chronic stress and moderate physical exercise prompt widespread common activation and limited differential activation in specific brain regions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Kyung; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2016-10-01

    Chronic stress in rodents produces depressive behaviors, whereas moderate physical exercise counteracts stress-induced depressive behaviors. Chronic stress and physical exercise appear to produce such opposing effects by changing the neural activity of specific brain regions. However, the detailed mechanisms through which the two different types of stimuli regulate brain function in opposite directions are not clearly understood. In the present study, we attempted to explore the neuroanatomical substrates mediating stress-induced behavioral changes and anti-depressant effects of exercise by examining stimulus-dependent c-Fos induction in the brains of mice that were exposed to repeated stress or exercise in a scheduled manner. Systematic and integrated analyses of c-Fos expression profiles indicated that various brain areas, including the prelimbic cortex, lateral septal area, and paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamus were commonly and strongly activated by both stress and exercise, while the lateral habenula and hippocampus were identified as being preferentially activated by stress and exercise, respectively. Exercise-dependent c-Fos expression in all regions examined in the brain occurred in both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. These results suggest that chronic stress and moderate exercise produce counteractive effects on mood behaviors, along with prompting widespread common activation and limited differential activation in specific brain regions. PMID:27539656

  13. Chronic stress and moderate physical exercise prompt widespread common activation and limited differential activation in specific brain regions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Kyung; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2016-10-01

    Chronic stress in rodents produces depressive behaviors, whereas moderate physical exercise counteracts stress-induced depressive behaviors. Chronic stress and physical exercise appear to produce such opposing effects by changing the neural activity of specific brain regions. However, the detailed mechanisms through which the two different types of stimuli regulate brain function in opposite directions are not clearly understood. In the present study, we attempted to explore the neuroanatomical substrates mediating stress-induced behavioral changes and anti-depressant effects of exercise by examining stimulus-dependent c-Fos induction in the brains of mice that were exposed to repeated stress or exercise in a scheduled manner. Systematic and integrated analyses of c-Fos expression profiles indicated that various brain areas, including the prelimbic cortex, lateral septal area, and paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamus were commonly and strongly activated by both stress and exercise, while the lateral habenula and hippocampus were identified as being preferentially activated by stress and exercise, respectively. Exercise-dependent c-Fos expression in all regions examined in the brain occurred in both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. These results suggest that chronic stress and moderate exercise produce counteractive effects on mood behaviors, along with prompting widespread common activation and limited differential activation in specific brain regions.

  14. The Effects of an Exercise Program Consisting of Taekwondo Basic Movements on Posture Correction

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Sunghak; An, Changkyoo; Kim, Minho; Han, Dongwook

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of posture correctional programs using basic TaeKwonDo movements. [Subjects] The subjects were TaeKwonDo trainees attending an elementary school in B city. They were separated into experimental and control groups according to posture problems found during posture analysis. [Methods] The subjects of the training exercise program performed basic TaeKwonDo movements for 8 weeks, 3 times per week. The TaeKwonDo exercise program consisted of basic TaeKwonDo movements including Hwangso Makki, Meongye Chigi, Olgul Makki, Olgul Yop Makki, Batangson Arae Makki, Momtong An Makki and Apkubi. [Results] Hwangso Makki and Meongye Chigi movements had a significant positive effect on the correction of neck inclination. Olgul Makki, Olgul Yop Makki, Batangson Arae Makki and Momtong An Makki movements had beneficial effects on the correction of shoulder inclination. Apkubi movement had a significant beneficial effect on the correction of pelvis inclination. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that an exercise program consisting of basic TaeKwonDo movements is an effective means of posture correction. PMID:25364119

  15. The effects of an exercise program consisting of taekwondo basic movements on posture correction.

    PubMed

    Byun, Sunghak; An, Changkyoo; Kim, Minho; Han, Dongwook

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of posture correctional programs using basic TaeKwonDo movements. [Subjects] The subjects were TaeKwonDo trainees attending an elementary school in B city. They were separated into experimental and control groups according to posture problems found during posture analysis. [Methods] The subjects of the training exercise program performed basic TaeKwonDo movements for 8 weeks, 3 times per week. The TaeKwonDo exercise program consisted of basic TaeKwonDo movements including Hwangso Makki, Meongye Chigi, Olgul Makki, Olgul Yop Makki, Batangson Arae Makki, Momtong An Makki and Apkubi. [Results] Hwangso Makki and Meongye Chigi movements had a significant positive effect on the correction of neck inclination. Olgul Makki, Olgul Yop Makki, Batangson Arae Makki and Momtong An Makki movements had beneficial effects on the correction of shoulder inclination. Apkubi movement had a significant beneficial effect on the correction of pelvis inclination. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that an exercise program consisting of basic TaeKwonDo movements is an effective means of posture correction. PMID:25364119

  16. The effects of an exercise program consisting of taekwondo basic movements on posture correction.

    PubMed

    Byun, Sunghak; An, Changkyoo; Kim, Minho; Han, Dongwook

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of posture correctional programs using basic TaeKwonDo movements. [Subjects] The subjects were TaeKwonDo trainees attending an elementary school in B city. They were separated into experimental and control groups according to posture problems found during posture analysis. [Methods] The subjects of the training exercise program performed basic TaeKwonDo movements for 8 weeks, 3 times per week. The TaeKwonDo exercise program consisted of basic TaeKwonDo movements including Hwangso Makki, Meongye Chigi, Olgul Makki, Olgul Yop Makki, Batangson Arae Makki, Momtong An Makki and Apkubi. [Results] Hwangso Makki and Meongye Chigi movements had a significant positive effect on the correction of neck inclination. Olgul Makki, Olgul Yop Makki, Batangson Arae Makki and Momtong An Makki movements had beneficial effects on the correction of shoulder inclination. Apkubi movement had a significant beneficial effect on the correction of pelvis inclination. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that an exercise program consisting of basic TaeKwonDo movements is an effective means of posture correction.

  17. Effectiveness of an exercise program on postural control in frail older adults

    PubMed Central

    Alfieri, Fábio Marcon; Riberto, Marcelo; Abril-Carreres, Àngels; Boldó-Alcaine, Maria; Rusca-Castellet, Elisabet; Garreta-Figuera, Roser; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo

    2012-01-01

    Background Exercise programs have proved to be helpful for frail older adults. This study aimed to investigate the effects of an exercise program with a focus on postural control exercises in frail older adults. Method Twenty-six older adults (76.7 ± 4.9 years) deemed clinically stable, chosen from the Falls Unit, University Hospital Mútua Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain, participated in this single-group study. Volunteers’ postural control was evaluated using the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and the Guralnik test battery, and their static and dynamic posturography were evaluated using the Synapsys Posturography System®. These evaluations were performed before and after the intervention program, which included an educational session and two weekly 1-hour sessions over an 8-week period of stretching exercises, proprioception, balance, and motor coordination. Data were analyzed using the Student’s t-test or the Wilcoxon test, with a significance level of 5%. Results The TUG and Guralnik tests did not show significant differences. Concerning static posturography, there was improvement in the base of support (P = 0.006), anteroposterior displacement with eyes open (P = 0.02) and closed (P = 0.03), and the total amplitude of the center of pressure with eyes closed (P = 0.02). Regarding dynamic posturography, a decrease of the oscillation speed in the anteroposterior direction (P = 0.01) was observed in individuals with their eyes open. Conclusion The program used in this study was safe and was able to promote some improvement in postural control, especially in the anteroposterior direction and in the base of support. However, it is noteworthy that further improvements could be obtained from a program of longer duration and greater frequency. PMID:23269865

  18. Effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women. Before participating in Pilates exercise programs, researcher explained the purpose and the intention of the research to elderly women who were willing to participate in this research. A total of 148 elderly women agreed to participate in the program and they filled in ego resiliency and depression questionnaires. Then, the elderly participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program and completed the same questionnaires afterwards. Collected data was analyzed by the SPSS ver. 20.0 program and results of paired t-test were as follows; there were statistically significant differences in all subvariables of the ego resiliency such as self-confidence (t=7.770, P<0.001), communication efficiency (t=2.690, P<0.01), optimistic trait (t=1.996, P<0.05), and anger management (t=4.525, P<0.001) after elderly women participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program, there was a statistically significant difference in depression of elderly women who participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program (t=−6.506, P<0.001) which was statistically lower than before their participation in the program. Consequently, participating in the Pilates exercise program can help improve the ego-resiliency and alleviate depression of the elderly women. PMID:27807531

  19. Exercise Improves Executive Function and Achievement and Alters Brain Activation in Overweight Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Catherine L.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; McDowell, Jennifer E.; Austin, Benjamin P.; Miller, Patricia H.; Yanasak, Nathan E.; Allison, Jerry D.; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This experiment tested the hypothesis that exercise would improve executive function. Design Sedentary, overweight 7- to 11-year-old children (N = 171, 56% female, 61% Black, M ± SD age 9.3 ± 1.0 yrs, body mass index (BMI) 26 ± 4.6 kg/m2, BMI z-score 2.1 ± 0.4) were randomized to 13 ± 1.6 weeks of an exercise program (20 or 40 minutes/day), or a control condition. Main outcome measures Blinded, standardized psychological evaluations (Cognitive Assessment System and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement III) assessed cognition and academic achievement. Functional magnetic resonance imaging measured brain activity during executive function tasks. Results Intent to treat analysis revealed dose response benefits of exercise on executive function and mathematics achievement. Preliminary evidence of increased bilateral prefrontal cortex activity and reduced bilateral posterior parietal cortex activity due to exercise was also observed. Conclusion Consistent with results obtained in older adults, a specific improvement on executive function and brain activation changes due to exercise were observed. The cognitive and achievement results add evidence of dose response, and extend experimental evidence into childhood. This study provides information on an educational outcome. Besides its importance for maintaining weight and reducing health risks during a childhood obesity epidemic, physical activity may prove to be a simple, important method of enhancing aspects of children’s mental functioning that are central to cognitive development. This information may persuade educators to implement vigorous physical activity. PMID:21299297

  20. Exercise-Based School Obesity Prevention Programs: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yetter, Georgette

    2009-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major health concerns for young people. Schools are particularly promising environments for preventing and treating obesity. The Institutes of Medicine recommends 60 minutes per day of physical activity for children and youth, including at least 30 minutes at school. Yet the amount of moderate to vigorous physical…

  1. Garbage collection: an exercise in distributed, fault-tolerant programming

    SciTech Connect

    Vestal, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Two garbage-collection algorithms are presented to reclaim unused storage in object-oriented systems implemented on local area networks. The algorithms are fault-tolerant and allowed parallel, incremental collection in an object address space distributed throughout the system. The two approaches allow multiple collectors, so some unused storage can be reclaimed in partitioned networks. The first method makes use of fault-tolerant reference counts together with an algorithm to collect cycles of objects that would otherwise remain unclaimed. The second method adapts a parallel collector so that it can be used to collect subspaces of the entire network address space. Throughout this work concern is with a methodology for developing distributed, parallel, fault-tolerant programs. Also, there is concern with the suitability of object-oriented systems for such applications.

  2. Short time sports exercise boosts motor imagery patterns: implications of mental practice in rehabilitation programs

    PubMed Central

    Wriessnegger, Selina C.; Steyrl, David; Koschutnig, Karl; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.

    2014-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) is a commonly used paradigm for the study of motor learning or cognitive aspects of action control. The rationale for using MI training to promote the relearning of motor function arises from research on the functional correlates that MI shares with the execution of physical movements. While most of the previous studies investigating MI were based on simple movements in the present study a more attractive mental practice was used to investigate cortical activation during MI. We measured cerebral responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in twenty three healthy volunteers as they imagined playing soccer or tennis before and after a short physical sports exercise. Our results demonstrated that only 10 min of training are enough to boost MI patterns in motor related brain regions including premotor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA) but also fronto-parietal and subcortical structures. This supports previous findings that MI has beneficial effects especially in combination with motor execution when used in motor rehabilitation or motor learning processes. We conclude that sports MI combined with an interactive game environment could be a promising additional tool in future rehabilitation programs aiming to improve upper or lower limb functions or support neuroplasticity. PMID:25071505

  3. Lifetime exercise activity and breast cancer risk among post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, C L; Ross, R K; Paganini-Hill, A; Bernstein, L

    1999-08-01

    Lifetime exercise activity has been linked to breast cancer risk among young women. However, no study has specifically evaluated whether lifetime exercise activity is related to the breast cancer risk of post-menopausal women. We conducted a population-based case-control study of post-menopausal white women (1123 newly diagnosed cases and 904 healthy controls) aged 55-64 who lived in Los Angeles County, California, USA to evaluate this relationship. Although neither exercise activity from menarche to age 40 years, nor exercise after age 40 separately predicted breast cancer risk, risk was lower among women who had exercised each week for at least 17.6 MET-hours (metabolic equivalent of energy expenditure multiplied by hours of activity) since menarche than among inactive women (odds ratio (OR) = 0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.83). Exercise activity was not protective for women who gained considerable (> 17%) weight during adulthood. However, among women with more stable weight, breast cancer risk was substantially reduced for those who consistently exercised at high levels throughout their lifetime (OR = 0.42; 95% CI 0.24-0.75), those who exercised more than 4 h per week for at least 12 years (OR = 0.59; 95% CI 0.40-0.88), and those who exercised vigorously (24.5 MET-hours per week) during the most recent 10 years (OR = 0.52; 95% CI 0.32-0.85). Strenuous exercise appears to reduce breast cancer risk among post-menopausal women who do not gain sizable amounts of weight during adulthood.

  4. Using a personalized DVD to prescribe an exercise program to older people post-hip fracture enhances adherence to the exercises - A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Moran, Luke; Francis-Coad, Jacqueline; Patman, Shane; Hill, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Optimum recovery from hip fracture has been linked to the provision of effective rehabilitation, but levels of adherence vary among older patients. In this feasibility study a novel personalized DVD was designed for four participants, which delivered a 5 week tailored home exercise program (HEP), with the participant being videoed completing their exercises. Treatment fidelity of the DVD HEP was evaluated, including participants' perceptions of and response to the DVD-HEP, which was explored using diaries and interviews and analyzed thematically. Secondary outcome measures including exercise adherence and self-efficacy for exercise were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Levels of adherence to the HEP were 1.2-3.5 times more than the minimum prescribed dose and participants demonstrated higher levels of self-efficacy for exercise. Adherence was found to be enhanced by physical improvement, positive self-reflection about engagement in the DVD-HEP, the format of the DVD, and increased self-efficacy. Personalized DVDs may be a feasible method of promoting adherence to home exercise programs among older patients. PMID:25816921

  5. Enhancing the Efficacy of Behavior Therapy for Obesity: Effects of Aerobic Exercise and a Multicomponent Maintenance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, Michael G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Moderately obese volunteers were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions (behavior therapy or behavior therapy plus aerobic exercise) and two posttreatment conditions (no further contact or a multicomponent maintenance program). Clients in the aerobic exercise condition lost significantly more weight than those who received behavior therapy…

  6. Intellectual Differences of Adult Men Related to Age and Physical Fitness before and after an Exercise Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsayed, Mohamed; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Investigates intellectual differences among high-fit young and old and low-fit young and old adult men before and after an exercise program. It is not clear from this study whether improvement in cognitive functioning with exercise is due to physiological or psychological changes or both. (Author/CC)

  7. Effects of a Supported Speed Treadmill Training Exercise Program on Impairment and Function for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Therese E.; Watson, Kyle E.; Ross, Sandy A.; Gates, Philip E.; Gaughan, John P.; Lauer, Richard T.; Tucker, Carole A.; Engsberg, Jack R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effects of a supported speed treadmill training exercise program (SSTTEP) with exercise on spasticity, strength, motor control, gait spatiotemporal parameters, gross motor skills, and physical function. Method: Twenty-six children (14 males, 12 females; mean age 9y 6mo, SD 2y 2mo) with spastic cerebral palsy (CP; diplegia, n =…

  8. Cardio Respiratory Adaptations with Long Term Personalized Exercise Program in a T12 Spinal Cord Injured Person

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasiliadis, Angelo; Christoulas, Kosmas; Evaggelinou, Christina; Vrabas, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological adaptations in cardio respiratory endurance with a personalized exercise program with arm-cranking exercise in a paraplegic person (incomplete T12 spinal cord injury). A 32 year-old man with spinal cord injury (T12) participated in the present study performing 30 minutes arm cranking…

  9. Effect of prolonged physical exercise on muscular phospholipase A2 activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Federspil, G; Baggio, B; De Palo, C; De Carlo, E; Borsatti, A; Vettor, R

    1987-06-01

    Prolonged muscular exercise stimulates glucose uptake by the working muscles themselves. The mechanism of this phenomenon is at present unclear. It has been proposed that the kallikrein-kinin-prostaglandin system plays a role in the physiological regulation of muscular glucose metabolism during exercise. Since bradykinin can stimulate phospholipase A2, a key enzymatic step in prostaglandin synthesis, phospholipase A2 activity was assayed in rats at rest and in rats compelled to swim for 60 minutes. The physiological significance of an increase in muscular phospholipase A2 activity is not clear. Since bradykinin can stimulate both muscular glucose uptake and phospholipase A2 activity, it is possible that the increased activity of this enzyme is involved in the exercise-induced increase of muscular glucose uptake. Phospholipase A2 activity was strongly increased in the exercising rat muscles. A small but significant increase in phospholipase A2 activity was observed in the heart, whereas no variation in activity was demonstrated in either the kidney or the liver of exercising rats. These findings strongly indicate that prolonged exercise increases muscular phospholipase A2 activity only in the muscle and heart. This phenomenon appears to be strongly related to muscular contraction, since other stress situations such as cold exposure did not modify phospholipase A2 activity. Our data are in agreement with the hypothesis of a possible involvement of prostaglandins in the priming action of insulin on glucose uptake during muscular work.

  10. Overview of Pre-Flight Physical Training, In-Flight Exercise Countermeasures and the Post-Flight Reconditioning Program for International Space Station Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) astronauts receive supervised physical training pre-flight, utilize exercise countermeasures in-flight, and participate in a structured reconditioning program post-flight. Despite recent advances in exercise hardware and prescribed exercise countermeasures, ISS crewmembers are still found to have variable levels of deconditioning post-flight. This presentation provides an overview of the astronaut medical certification requirements, pre-flight physical training, in-flight exercise countermeasures, and the post-flight reconditioning program. Astronauts must meet medical certification requirements on selection, annually, and prior to ISS missions. In addition, extensive physical fitness testing and standardized medical assessments are performed on long duration crewmembers pre-flight. Limited physical fitness assessments and medical examinations are performed in-flight to develop exercise countermeasure prescriptions, ensure that the crewmembers are physically capable of performing mission tasks, and monitor astronaut health. Upon mission completion, long duration astronauts must re-adapt to the 1 G environment, and be certified as fit to return to space flight training and active duty. A structured, supervised postflight reconditioning program has been developed to prevent injuries, facilitate re-adaptation to the 1 G environment, and subsequently return astronauts to training and space flight. The NASA reconditioning program is implemented by the Astronaut Strength, Conditioning, and Rehabilitation (ASCR) team and supervised by NASA flight surgeons. This program has evolved over the past 10 years of the International Space Station (ISS) program and has been successful in ensuring that long duration astronauts safely re-adapt to the 1 g environment and return to active duty. Lessons learned from this approach to managing deconditioning can be applied to terrestrial medicine and future exploration space flight missions.

  11. The effects of senior brain health exercise program on basic physical fitness, cognitive function and BDNF of elderly women - a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Eun-Bum

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was to investigate the impacts of senior brain heath exercise (SBHE) program for 12 weeks to basic active physical fitness, cognitive function and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in elderly women. [Methods] Subject of this study is total of 24 women in the age of 65-79 who can conduct normal daily activity and communication but have not participated in regular exercise in recent 6 months. The study groups were divided into an exercise group (EG, n=13) and a control group (CG, n=11). The exercise program was consisted of SBHE, and training frequency was 4 times weekly, of which training time was a total of 50 minutes each time in level of intensity of 9-14 by rating of perceived exertion (RPE). [Results] First, 12-week SBHE program has shown statistical increase in basic physical fitness in the EG comparing with the CG, such as lower body strength, upper body strength and aerobic endurance, but not in flexibility, agility and dynamic balance. Second, in the case of Mini-mental state examination Korean version (MMSE-K) and BDNF, it showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the EG comparing with the CG. [Conclusion] In this study, 12-week SBHE program has resulted in positive effect on change of basic physical fitness (strength and aerobic endurance), cognitive function and BDNF. If above program adds movements that can enhance flexibility, dynamic balance and agility, this can be practical exercise program to help seniors maintain overall healthy lifestyle. PMID:27508149

  12. Neuromuscular activity during bench press exercise performed with and without the preexhaustion method.

    PubMed

    Brennecke, Allan; Guimarães, Thiago M; Leone, Ricardo; Cadarci, Mauro; Mochizuki, Luiz; Simão, Roberto; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Júlio C

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of exercise order on the tonic and phasic characteristics of upper-body muscle activity during bench press exercise in trained subjects. The preexhaustion method involves working a muscle or a muscle group combining a single-joint exercise immediately followed by a multi-joint exercise (e.g., flying exercise followed by bench press exercise). Twelve subjects performed 1 set of bench press exercises with and without the preexhaustion method following 2 protocols (P1-flying before bench press; P2-bench press). Both exercises were performed at a load of 10 repetition maximum (10RM). Electromyography (EMG) sampled at 1 kHz was recorded from the pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoid (DA), and triceps brachii (TB). Kinematic data (60 Hz) were synchronized to define upward and downward phases of exercise. No significant (p > 0.05) changes were seen in tonic control of PM and DA muscles between P1 and P2. However, TB tonic aspect of neurophysiologic behavior of motor units was significantly higher (p < 0.05) during P1. Moreover, phasic control of PM, DA, and TB muscles were not affected (p > 0.05). The kinematic pattern of movement changed as a result of muscular weakness in P1. Angular velocity of the right shoulder performed during the upward phase of the bench press exercise was significantly slower (p < 0.05) during P1. Our results suggest that the strategies set by the central nervous system to provide the performance required by the exercise are held constant throughout the exercise, but the tonic aspects of the central drive are increased so as to adapt to the progressive occurrence of the neuromuscular fatigue. Changes in tonic control as a result of the muscular weakness and fatigue can cause changes in movement techniques. These changes may be related to limited ability to control mechanical loads and mechanical energy transmission to joints and passive structures.

  13. A self-assessment tool to measure older adults' perceptions regarding physical fitness and exercise activity.

    PubMed

    Devereaux Melillo, K; Williamson, E; Futrell, M; Chamberlain, C

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to qualitatively generate and psychometrically assess an instrument which assesses the self-perceived physical fitness and exercise activity levels of community-dwelling older adults and examines perceived factors which enhance or impede their exercise activity level. This research was carried out in two stages: qualitative and quantitative. Items for the instrument were generated through qualitative interviews with 23 community-dwelling older adults, 9 males and 14 females, with an age range of 63 to 82 years. From this qualitative study, 50 items were generated, representing nine categories of elements which enhance or impede physical activity. The 50 items were incorporated into a 4-point, forced-choice, Likert format instrument which was pilot tested for clarity and ease of administration with a convenience sample of community-dwelling older adults. Following the pilot testing, 41 items were retained. The 41-item instrument, entitled Physical Fitness and Exercise Activity Levels of Older Adults Scale, was categorized into the following subscales: Physical Fitness, Barriers, Motivators, and Exercise Frequency. Initial testing of the Physical Fitness and Exercise Activity Levels of Older Adults Scale seems to indicate adequate validity and reliability. Correlation coefficients for the total instrument, as well as the subscales, were significantly positive for both stability and internal consistency. Results with respect to predictive validity were mixed. The Physical Fitness and Motivators subscales were significant predictors of Exercise Frequency. Although the correlation between the Barriers subscale and Exercise Frequency was negative, it was non-significant.

  14. Effects of a 2-Year Supervised Exercise Program Upon the Body Composition and Muscular Performance of HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Paes, Lorena da Silva; Borges, Juliana Pereira; dos Santos, Fernanda Monteiro; de Oliveira, Taciana Pinto; Dupin, Jaciara Gomes; Harris, Elizabeth Assumpção; Farinatti, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Background : There is a lack of research investigating long-term effects of exercise training upon the body composition and muscle function in HIV-infected patients (PHIV). The study investigated the influence of a 2-year supervised exercise program on body composition and strength of PHIV under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods : A training program including aerobic, strength and flexibility exercises was performed by 27 PHIV (17 men/ 10 women; age: 48.7±7.0 years; HAART: 150.7±65.3 months) during 1 year and 18 PHIV (10 men/ 8 women; age: 50.6±5.2 years; HAART: 176.6±53.1 months) during 2 years. Body composition and knee isokinetic strength were assessed at baseline and at the end of each year of intervention. Results : Body composition remained stable along the whole experiment vs baseline (1-year - total muscle mass: Δ men=1.1%, P=0.21; Δ women=1.4%, P=0.06; trunk fat: Δ men=-0.1%, P=0.65; Δ women=-1.5%, P=0.45; 2 years - total muscle mass: Δ men=2.7%, P=0.54; Δ women=-1.9%, P=0.71; trunk fat: Δ men=4.4%, P=0.96; Δ women=10.0%, P=0.30). After 1-year, peak torque increased in men (Δ extension=4.2%, P=0.01; Δ flexion=12.2%, P=0.04) and total work reduced in women (Δ extension=-15.4%, P=0.01, Δ flexion=-17.5%, P=0.05). All strength markers remained stable vs baseline after 2 years of intervention (P>0.05). Only men showed significant reduction in the risk of disability due to sarcopenia (P=0.05) after 1 year of intervention, which remained stable after 2 years. Conclusion : Long-term exercise training preserved strength and muscle mass in PHIV under HAART. Exercise programs should be part of HIV therapy to prevent sarcopenia of this population along the years. Trial Registration : ACTRN12610000683033; UTN U1111-1116-4416. PMID:26587076

  15. The trajectory of chronic pain: can a community-based exercise/education program soften the ride?

    PubMed

    Dubin, Ruth; King-VanVlack, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    The entire primary care record of six patients attending a community-based education/exercise self-management program for chronic noncancer pain (YMCA Pain Exercise/Education Program [Y-PEP]) was reviewed. Medical visits, consultations and hospital admissions were coded as related or unrelated to their pain diagnoses. Mood disruption, financial concerns, conflicts with employers/insurers, analgesic doses, medication side effects and major life events were also recorded. The 'chronic pain trajectory' resembled a roller coaster with increased health care visits at the time of initial injuries and during 'crises' (reinjury, conflict with insurers/employers, failed back-to-work attempts and life events). Visits decreased when conflicts were resolved. Analgesic doses increased during 'crises' but did not fall after resolution. After attending Y-PEP, health care use fell for four of six patients and two returned to work. Primary care physicians need to recognize the functional limitations and psychosocial complications experienced by their chronic pain patients. A program such as Y-PEP may promote active self-management strategies resulting in lowered health care use. PMID:21165369

  16. Hip Muscle Activity During 3 Side-Lying Hip-Strengthening Exercises in Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    McBeth, Joseph M.; Earl-Boehm, Jennifer E.; Cobb, Stephen C.; Huddleston, Wendy E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Lower extremity overuse injuries are associated with gluteus medius (GMed) weakness. Understanding the activation of muscles about the hip during strengthening exercises is important for rehabilitation. Objective: To compare the electromyographic activity produced by the gluteus medius (GMed), tensor fascia latae (TFL), anterior hip flexors (AHF), and gluteus maximus (GMax) during 3 hip-strengthening exercises: hip abduction (ABD), hip abduction with external rotation (ABD-ER), and clamshell (CLAM) exercises. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty healthy runners (9 men, 11 women; age = 25.45 ± 5.80 years, height = 1.71 ± 0.07 m, mass = 64.43 ± 7.75 kg) participated. Intervention(s): A weight equal to 5% body mass was affixed to the ankle for the ABD and ABD-ER exercises, and an equivalent load was affixed for the CLAM exercise. A pressure biofeedback unit was placed beneath the trunk to provide positional feedback. Main Outcome Measure(s): Surface electromyography (root mean square normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction) was recorded over the GMed, TFL, AHF, and GMax. Results: Three 1-way, repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated differences for muscle activity among the ABD (F3,57 = 25.903, P<.001), ABD-ER (F3,57 = 10.458, P<.001), and CLAM (F3,57 = 4.640, P=.006) exercises. For the ABD exercise, the GMed (70.1 ± 29.9%), TFL (54.3 ± 19.1%), and AHF (28.2 ± 21.5%) differed in muscle activity. The GMax (25.3 ± 24.6%) was less active than the GMed and TFL but was not different from the AHF. For the ABD-ER exercise, the TFL (70.9 ± 17.2%) was more active than the AHF (54.3 ± 24.8%), GMed (53.03 ± 28.4%), and GMax (31.7 ± 24.1 %). For the CLAM exercise, the AHF (54.2 ± 25.2%) was more active than the TFL (34.4 ± 20.1%) and GMed (32.6 ± 16.9%) but was not different from the GMax (34.2 ± 24.8%). Conclusions: The ABD exercise is preferred if targeted activation of the

  17. A Practical Lab Exercise for Teaching Medical Informatics in a Biomedical Engineering Graduate Program

    PubMed Central

    Lober, WB; Lau, C; Chang, H; Kim, Y

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a lab exercise, which we have made available under open source license, designed to accompany a ten-hour “introduction to medical informatics” lecture module. The goal of this lab is to teach the students some basic Web application programming, to illustrate the challenges of building clinical systems, and to reinforce systems engineering material presented in a basic methodology course.

  18. Lack of Skeletal Muscle IL-6 Affects Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Activity at Rest and during Prolonged Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Gudiksen, Anders; Schwartz, Camilla Lindgren; Bertholdt, Lærke; Joensen, Ella; Knudsen, Jakob G.; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) plays a key role in the regulation of skeletal muscle substrate utilization. IL-6 is produced in skeletal muscle during exercise in a duration dependent manner and has been reported to increase whole body fatty acid oxidation, muscle glucose uptake and decrease PDHa activity in skeletal muscle of fed mice. The aim of the present study was to examine whether muscle IL-6 contributes to exercise-induced PDH regulation in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle-specific IL-6 knockout (IL-6 MKO) mice and floxed littermate controls (control) completed a single bout of treadmill exercise for 10, 60 or 120 min, with rested mice of each genotype serving as basal controls. The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was overall higher (P<0.05) in IL-6 MKO than control mice during the 120 min of treadmill exercise, while RER decreased during exercise independent of genotype. AMPK and ACC phosphorylation also increased with exercise independent of genotype. PDHa activity was in control mice higher (P<0.05) at 10 and 60 min of exercise than at rest but remained unchanged in IL-6 MKO mice. In addition, PDHa activity was higher (P<0.05) in IL-6 MKO than control mice at rest and 60 min of exercise. Neither PDH phosphorylation nor acetylation could explain the genotype differences in PDHa activity. Together, this provides evidence that skeletal muscle IL-6 contributes to the regulation of PDH at rest and during prolonged exercise and suggests that muscle IL-6 normally dampens carbohydrate utilization during prolonged exercise via effects on PDH. PMID:27327080

  19. Effect of antioxidants on histamine receptor activation and sustained post-exercise vasodilatation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Steven A.; Ely, Matthew R.; Sieck, Dylan C.; Luttrell, Meredith J.; Buck, Tahisha M.; Kono, Jordan M.; Branscum, Adam J.; Halliwill, John R.

    2015-01-01

    An acute bout of aerobic exercise elicits a sustained post-exercise vasodilatation that is mediated by histamine H1 and H2 receptor activation. However, the upstream signaling pathway that leads to post-exercise histamine receptor activation is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the potent antioxidant ascorbate would inhibit this histaminergic vasodilatation following exercise. Subjects performed 1 hr unilateral dynamic knee extension at 60% of peak power in three conditions: 1) control; 2) intravenous ascorbate infusion; and, 3) ascorbate infusion plus oral H1/H2 histamine receptor blockade. Femoral artery blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) was measured before exercise and for 2 hr post-exercise. Femoral vascular conductance was calculated as flow/pressure. Post-exercise vascular conductance was greater for control condition (3.4 ± 0.1 ml min−1 mmHg−1) compared with ascorbate (2.7 ± 0.1 ml min−1 mmHg−1, P < 0.05) and ascorbate plus H1/H2 blockade (2.8 ± 0.1 ml min−1 mmHg−1, P < 0.05), which did not differ from one another (P = 0.9). Because ascorbate may catalyze the degradation of histamine in vivo, we conducted a follow-up study where subjects performed exercise in two conditions: 1) control and 2) intravenous N-acetylcysteine infusion. Post-exercise vascular conductance was similar for control (4.0 ± 0.1 ml min−1 mmHg−1) and N-acetylcysteine conditions (4.0 ± 0.1 ml min−1 mmHg−1; P = 0.8). Thus, the results in study 1 were due to the degradation of histamine in skeletal muscle by ascorbate, since the histaminergic vasodilatation was unaffected by N-acetylcysteine. Taken together, exercise-induced oxidative stress does not appear to contribute to sustained post-exercise vasodilatation. PMID:25664905

  20. Muscle ultrastructural changes from exhaustive exercise performed after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Philpott, D.; Pohoska, E.; Olszewska, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on ultrastructural changes in the quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy dogs, before and after restricted activity (RA), and following a subsequent 2 month treadmill exercise retraining period for the 5 mo group. Mean time to exhaustion in the 2 mo group decreased from 177 + or - 22 min before to 90 + or - 32 min after RA. Retraining increased tolerance to 219 + or - 73 min; 24 pct. above the before RA and 143 pct. above the after RA time. After RA exhaustion time in the 5 mo group was 25 and 45 min. Before RA, pre-exercise muscle structure was normal and post exercise there was only slight swelling of mitochondria. After RA, pre-exercise, numerous glycogen granules and lipid droplets appeared in the muscle fibers, mitochondria were smaller, and sarcoplasmic reticulum channels widened; post exercise these changes were accentuated and some areas were devoid of glycogen, and there was fiber degradation. After 5 mo RA pre-exercise there were more pronounced changes; mitochondria were very small and dense, there were many lipid droplets, myofibrils were often separated, and the fibers appeared edematous and degenerating; post exercise the sarcoplasmic reticulum was swollen, no glycogen was present, and there was marked swelling and deformation of mitochondria. After retraining, both pre-exercise and post exercise there was still evidence of fiber degeneration. Thus, susceptibility of active skeletal muscle structures and subcellular elements, e.g., mitochondria, to the action of damaging factors occurring during exhaustive exercise is enhanced considerably by prolonged disuse.

  1. Mobile Exercise Apps and Increased Leisure Time Exercise Activity: A Moderated Mediation Analysis of the Role of Self-Efficacy and Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Zohn; Spierer, David; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah; Goldschein, Akiva; Robinson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background There are currently over 1000 exercise apps for mobile devices on the market. These apps employ a range of features, from tracking exercise activity to providing motivational messages. However, virtually nothing is known about whether exercise apps improve exercise levels and health outcomes and, if so, the mechanisms of these effects. Objective Our aim was to examine whether the use of exercise apps is associated with increased levels of exercise and improved health outcomes. We also develop a framework within which to understand how exercise apps may affect health and test multiple models of possible mechanisms of action and boundary conditions of these relationships. Within this framework, app use may increase physical activity by influencing variables such as self-efficacy and may help to overcome exercise barriers, leading to improved health outcomes such as lower body mass index (BMI). Methods In this study, 726 participants with one of three backgrounds were surveyed about their use of exercise apps and health: (1) those who never used exercise apps, (2) those who used exercise apps but discontinued use, and (3) those who are currently using exercise apps. Participants were asked about their long-term levels of exercise and about their levels of exercise during the previous week with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Results Nearly three-quarters of current app users reported being more active compared to under half of non-users and past users. The IPAQ showed that current users had higher total leisure time metabolic equivalent of task (MET) expenditures (1169 METs), including walking and vigorous exercise, compared to those who stopped using their apps (612 METs) or who never used apps (577 METs). Importantly, physical activity levels in domains other than leisure time activity were similar across the groups. The results also showed that current users had lower BMI (25.16) than past users (26.8) and non-users (26.9) and

  2. A 6-month supervised employer-based minimal exercise program for police officers improves fitness.

    PubMed

    Rossomanno, Colleen I; Herrick, Jeffery E; Kirk, Stacie M; Kirk, Erik P

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of a 6-month supervised, job-specific moderate exercise program in police officers on body composition, cardiovascular and muscular fitness. Body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular and muscular fitness were assessed at baseline, after a 6-month supervised fitness program and at 12-month follow-up (18 months). One hundred sixty-five (n = 131 men and n = 34 women) young (mean ± SEM, 26.4 ± 1.9 years), overweight (BMI = 26.2 ± 1.2 kg·m) police officers participated. Aerobic exercise progressed from 3 d·wk, 20 minutes per session at 60% of the heart rate reserve (HRR) to 5 d·wk, 30 minutes per session at 75% of HRR at 3 months, and this level was maintained until 6 months. Muscular strength training progressed using 8 different calisthenics exercises from 3 d·wk, 2 sets of 5 repetitions using the participant's own BW to 5 d·wk, 3 sets of 15 repetitions of the participant's own BW at 3 months, and this level was maintained until 6 months. Cardiovascular and muscular fitness was measured using a 0.25-mile obstacle course incorporating various job-specific exercises and expressed as the physical abilities test (PAT) time. There was a significant reduction in BMI (-0.6 ± 0.2 kg·m, p < 0.001) and BW (-2.8 ± 2.3 kg) and reduction in PAT time (-11.9 ± 2.1%, p < 0.01) from baseline to 6 months. However, BMI (1.4 ± 1.1 kg·m, p < 0.001), BW (5.1 ± 3.0 kg, p < 0.01), and PAT time significantly increased (12.8 ± 2.2%, p < 0.01) from 6 to 18 months. There were no sex by time differences. The practical applications of this study indicate that a supervised, job-specific exercise program for police officers improves fitness and body composition after 6 months in both men and women, but continued supervision of exercise program may be necessary for maintenance of health benefits.

  3. Scapular Muscle-Activation Ratios in Patients With Shoulder Injuries During Functional Shoulder Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Chad R.; Bliven, Kellie C. Huxel; Valier, Alison R. Snyder

    2014-01-01

    Context: Alterations in scapular muscle activation, which are common with glenohumeral (GH) injuries, affect stability and function. Rehabilitation aims to reestablish activation between muscles for stability by progressing to whole-body movements. Objective: To determine scapular muscle-activation ratios and individual muscle activity (upper trapezius [UT], middle trapezius [MT], lower trapezius [LT], serratus anterior [SA]) differences between participants with GH injuries and healthy control participants during functional rehabilitation exercises. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-nine participants who had GH injuries (n = 20; age = 23.6 ± 3.2 years, height = 170.7 ± 11.5 cm, mass = 74.7 ± 13.1 kg) or were healthy (n = 19; age = 24.4 ± 3.3 years, height = 173.6 ± 8.6 cm, mass = 74.7 ± 14.8 kg) were tested. Intervention(s): Clinical examination confirmed each participant's classification as GH injury or healthy control. Participants performed 4 exercises (bow and arrow, external rotation with scapular squeeze, lawnmower, robbery) over 3 seconds with no load while muscle activity was recorded. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used surface electromyography to measure UT, MT, LT, and SA muscle activity. Scapular muscle-activation ratios (UT:MT, UT:LT, and UT:SA) were calculated (normalized mean electromyography of the UT divided by normalized mean electromyography of the MT, LT, and SA). Exercise × group analyses of variance with repeated measures were conducted. Results: No group differences for activation ratios or individual muscle activation amplitude were found (P > .05). Similar UT:MT and UT:LT activation ratios during bow-and-arrow and robbery exercises were seen (P > .05); both had greater activation than external-rotation-with-scapular-squeeze and lawnmower exercises (P < .05). The bow-and-arrow exercise elicited the highest activation from the UT, MT, and LT muscles; SA activation was greatest

  4. Ballistic abdominal exercises: muscle activation patterns during three activities along the stability/mobility continuum.

    PubMed

    McGill, Stuart M; Karpowicz, Amy; Fenwick, Chad M J

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the muscle activity and spine motion during several tasks requiring rapid abdominal contraction. Eight healthy men from a university population were instrumented to obtain surface electromyography of selected trunk and hip muscles, together with video analysis to calculate joint moments and electromagnetic lumbar spine position sensor to track spine posture. Exercises included a punch, throw, and a ballistic torso-stiffening maneuver. This study found that no muscle turned on significantly before any other muscle during both the 1-in. punch and ballistic torso-stiffening maneuver. Conversely, there was a significant order or muscle onset during the baseball throw. Muscles reached peak activation significantly before any other muscle during the baseball throw and 1-in. punch, but there were no significant differences for the torso-stiffening maneuver. The exercises quantified in this study demonstrated how muscle contraction dynamics change to meet differing demands for stiffening, for force/moment production, and for rapid movements. Specifically, it seems that there is an order of contraction when movement is the goal but not when just spine stability is required. Thus, a different intensity of abdominal bracing is required to achieve the different objectives of sports tasks and exercises.

  5. Un Corazón Saludable: factors influencing outcomes of an exercise program designed to impact cardiac and metabolic risks among urban Latinas.

    PubMed

    Harralson, Tina L; Emig, Julie Cousler; Polansky, Marcia; Walker, Renee E; Cruz, Joanna Otero; Garcia-Leeds, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    A high prevalence of physical inactivity, metabolic risk factors, and depression place Latinas in peril of developing cardiovascular disease. "Un Corazón Saludable: A Healthy Heart" was developed to engage urban Latinas in physical activity and increase awareness of cardiac and metabolic risk factors. Two hundred and twenty-five Latinas enrolled in the program that included salsa aerobics and culturally sensitive health education modules. Cardiac and metabolic risk factors measured in this study were body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, abdominal obesity, and blood pressure. Psychosocial risk factors measured included depressive symptoms and perceived social support. Fifty-two percent of the enrollees completed the program. Results indicated decreases in BMI, abdominal obesity, and symptoms of depression among Latinas who completed the program. Those who did not complete the program were younger, had greater depressive symptomatology, reported poorer social support, and they tended to be caregivers and U.S. born. Focus groups of program participants ascertained that caregiving and family obligations were major barriers to exercise while social support was a major facilitator of exercise. This research indicates that programs developed to recognize and address cultural barriers can impact physical and psychosocial risk factors among urban Latinas who are able to attend. Program retention may improve if future exercise programs conducted through community-base organizations offered support to Latinas regarding issues that interfere with self-care and health promotion. Future programs should consider including mental health and social service case management as part of comprehensive exercise/educational programs.

  6. Exercise, physical activity, and self-determination theory: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Motivation is a critical factor in supporting sustained exercise, which in turn is associated with important health outcomes. Accordingly, research on exercise motivation from the perspective of self-determination theory (SDT) has grown considerably in recent years. Previous reviews have been mostly narrative and theoretical. Aiming at a more comprehensive review of empirical data, this article examines the empirical literature on the relations between key SDT-based constructs and exercise and physical activity behavioral outcomes. Methods This systematic review includes 66 empirical studies published up to June 2011, including experimental, cross-sectional, and prospective studies that have measured exercise causality orientations, autonomy/need support and need satisfaction, exercise motives (or goal contents), and exercise self-regulations and motivation. We also studied SDT-based interventions aimed at increasing exercise behavior. In all studies, actual or self-reported exercise/physical activity, including attendance, was analyzed as the dependent variable. Findings are summarized based on quantitative analysis of the evidence. Results The results show consistent support for a positive relation between more autonomous forms of motivation and exercise, with a trend towards identified regulation predicting initial/short-term adoption more strongly than intrinsic motivation, and intrinsic motivation being more predictive of long-term exercise adherence. The literature is also consistent in that competence satisfaction and more intrinsic motives positively predict exercise participation across a range of samples and settings. Mixed evidence was found concerning the role of other types of motives (e.g., health/fitness and body-related), and also the specific nature and consequences of introjected regulation. The majority of studies have employed descriptive (i.e., non-experimental) designs but similar results are found across cross

  7. Improved Infrared-Sensing Running Wheel Systems with an Effective Exercise Activity Indicator

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Wen; Chang, Ching-Ping; Chang, Wen-Ying; Chang, Shin-Chieh; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Yang, Chin-Lung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an infrared-sensing running wheel (ISRW) system for the quantitative measurement of effective exercise activity in rats. The ISRW system provides superior exercise training compared with commercially available traditional animal running platforms. Four infrared (IR) light-emitting diode/detector pairs embedded around the rim of the wheel detect the rat’s real-time position; the acrylic wheel has a diameter of 55 cm and a thickness of 15 cm, that is, it is larger and thicker than traditional exercise wheels, and it is equipped with a rubber track. The acrylic wheel hangs virtually frictionless, and a DC motor with an axially mounted rubber wheel, which has a diameter of 10 cm, drives the acrylic wheel from the outer edge. The system can automatically train rats to run persistently. The proposed system can determine effective exercise activity (EEA), with the IR sensors (which are connected to a conventional PC) recording the rat exercise behavior. A prototype of the system was verified by a hospital research group performing ischemic stroke experiments on rats by considering middle cerebral artery occlusion. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed system provides greater neuroprotection in an animal stroke model compared with a conventional treadmill and a motorized running wheel for a given exercise intensity. The quantitative exercise effectiveness indicator showed a 92% correlation between an increase in the EEA and a decrease in the infarct volume. This indicator can be used as a noninvasive and objective reference in clinical animal exercise experiments. PMID:25875841

  8. Improved infrared-sensing running wheel systems with an effective exercise activity indicator.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Wen; Chang, Ching-Ping; Chang, Wen-Ying; Chang, Shin-Chieh; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Yang, Chin-Lung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an infrared-sensing running wheel (ISRW) system for the quantitative measurement of effective exercise activity in rats. The ISRW system provides superior exercise training compared with commercially available traditional animal running platforms. Four infrared (IR) light-emitting diode/detector pairs embedded around the rim of the wheel detect the rat's real-time position; the acrylic wheel has a diameter of 55 cm and a thickness of 15 cm, that is, it is larger and thicker than traditional exercise wheels, and it is equipped with a rubber track. The acrylic wheel hangs virtually frictionless, and a DC motor with an axially mounted rubber wheel, which has a diameter of 10 cm, drives the acrylic wheel from the outer edge. The system can automatically train rats to run persistently. The proposed system can determine effective exercise activity (EEA), with the IR sensors (which are connected to a conventional PC) recording the rat exercise behavior. A prototype of the system was verified by a hospital research group performing ischemic stroke experiments on rats by considering middle cerebral artery occlusion. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed system provides greater neuroprotection in an animal stroke model compared with a conventional treadmill and a motorized running wheel for a given exercise intensity. The quantitative exercise effectiveness indicator showed a 92% correlation between an increase in the EEA and a decrease in the infarct volume. This indicator can be used as a noninvasive and objective reference in clinical animal exercise experiments.

  9. Matrix metallopeptidase 2 activity in tendon regions: effects of mechanical loading exercise associated to anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    PubMed

    Marqueti, Rita C; Prestes, Jonato; Paschoal, Milena; Ramos, Oscar H P; Perez, Sérgio E A; Carvalho, Hernandes F; Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa S

    2008-12-01

    Matrix metallopeptidases (MMPs) are responsible for degradation of the extracellular matrix components and tissue remodeling. To achieve a better understanding of AAS effects in rat tendon, MMP-2 activity in the proximal and distal regions of the calcanear tendon (CT) and proximal, intermediate and distal region of superficial (SFT) and deep flexor tendons (DFT) after mechanical load exercise associated with AAS was investigated. Animals were grouped into four groups: sedentary animals (S); sedentary animals with ASS supplementation (S + A); trained animals (T) and trained animals with AAS supplementation (T + A). Analysis of MMP activity in tendon extracts was done by gelatin zymography. Both proximal and distal regions of the calcanear tendon showed the lowest MMP-2 concentration and the highest proportion in MMP-2 active form. The intermediate region of the SFT differed (P < 0.01) from the proximal and distal regions with higher % of active MMP-2 in the sedentary group. The proportion of active MMP-2 decreased in the proximal region of the CT. AAS treatment strongly decreased both MMP-2 concentration and active form in the three regions of the SFT and on the proximal region of the CT, but not on the DFT. The differences in the response to exercise and AAS treatment are a result of distinct metabolism and recruitment of these tendon regions in the exercise program employed in this study.

  10. Working the Continuum between Therapy and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sova, Ruth

    Because of the relative weightlessness factor, water exercise is an excellent low-impact aerobic activity for people with physical difficulties. Participants should inform their physicians of intentions to begin aquatic exercise, and physicians should advise participants that water exercise is exertive. Program instructors must be prepared to…

  11. Exercise Therapy for Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Superior Efficacy of Activity Monitors over Pedometers

    PubMed Central

    Umezono, Tomoya; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of activity monitor (which displays exercise intensity and number of steps) versus that of pedometer in exercise therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes. The study subjects were divided into the activity monitor group (n = 92) and pedometer group (n = 95). The primary goal was improvement in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). The exercise target was set at 8,000 steps/day and 20 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise (≥3.5 metabolic equivalents). The activity monitor is equipped with a triple-axis accelerometer sensor capable of measuring medium-intensity walking duration, number of steps, walking distance, calorie consumption, and total calorie consumption. The pedometer counts the number of steps. Blood samples for laboratory tests were obtained during the visits. The first examination was conducted at the start of the study and repeated at 2 and 6 months. A significant difference in the decrease in HbA1c level was observed between the two groups at 2 months. The results suggest that the use of activity level monitor that displays information on exercise intensity, in addition to the number of steps, is useful in exercise therapy as it enhances the concept of exercise therapy and promotes lowering of HbA1c in diabetic patients. PMID:27761471

  12. Role of the AMP-activated protein kinase in regulating fatty acid metabolism during exercise.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Gregory R

    2009-06-01

    During moderate-intensity exercise, fatty acids are the predominant substrate for working skeletal muscle. The release of fatty acids from adipose tissue stores, combined with the ability of skeletal muscle to actively fine tune the gradient between fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism, depending on substrate availability and energetic demands, requires a coordinated system of metabolic control. Over the past decade, since the discovery that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was increased in accordance with exercise intensity, there has been significant interest in the proposed role of this ancient stress-sensing kinase as a critical integrative switch controlling metabolic responses during exercise. In this review, studies examining the role of AMPK as a regulator of fatty acid metabolism in both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle during exercise will be discussed. Exercise induces activation of AMPK in adipocytes and regulates triglyceride hydrolysis and esterfication through phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyl-transferase, respectively. In skeletal muscle, exercise-induced activation of AMPK is associated with increases in fatty acid uptake, phosphorylation of HSL, and increased fatty acid oxidation, which is thought to occur via the acetyl-CoA carboxylase-malony-CoA-CPT-1 signalling axis. Despite the importance of AMPK in regulating fatty acid metabolism under resting conditions, recent evidence from transgenic models of AMPK deficiency suggest that alternative signalling pathways may also be important for the control of fatty acid metabolism during exercise.

  13. Shoulder muscular activity during isometric three-point kneeling exercise on stable and unstable surfaces.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato; de Andrade, Rodrigo; Tucci, Helga Tatiana; Martins, Jaqueline; de Oliveira, Anamaria Siriani

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if performing isometric 3-point kneeling exercises on a Swiss ball influenced the isometric force output and EMG activities of the shoulder muscles when compared with performing the same exercises on a stable base of support. Twenty healthy adults performed the isometric 3-point kneeling exercises with the hand placed either on a stable surface or on a Swiss ball. Surface EMG was recorded from the posterior deltoid, pectoralis major, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, upper trapezius, and serratus anterior muscles using surface differential electrodes. All EMG data were reported as percentages of the average root mean square (RMS) values obtained in maximum voluntary contractions for each muscle studied. The highest load value was obtained during exercise on a stable surface. A significant increase was observed in the activation of glenohumeral muscles during exercises on a Swiss ball. However, there were no differences in EMG activities of the scapulothoracic muscles. These results suggest that exercises performed on unstable surfaces may provide muscular activity levels similar to those performed on stable surfaces, without the need to apply greater external loads to the musculoskeletal system. Therefore, exercises on unstable surfaces may be useful during the process of tissue regeneration.

  14. Voluntary Exercise Preconditioning Activates Multiple Antiapoptotic Mechanisms and Improves Neurological Recovery after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zaorui; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Wu, Junfang; Faden, Alan I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Physical activity can attenuate neuronal loss, reduce neuroinflammation, and facilitate recovery after brain injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms of exercise-induced neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or its modulation of post-traumatic neuronal cell death. Voluntary exercise, using a running wheel, was conducted for 4 weeks immediately preceding (preconditioning) moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI), a well-established experimental TBI model in mice. Compared to nonexercised controls, exercise preconditioning (pre-exercise) improved recovery of sensorimotor performance in the beam walk task, as well as cognitive/affective functions in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and tail-suspension tests. Further, pre-exercise reduced lesion size, attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus, and decreased microglial activation in the cortex. In addition, exercise preconditioning activated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway before trauma and amplified the injury-dependent increase in heat shock protein 70 expression, thus attenuating key apoptotic pathways. The latter include reduction in CCI-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-homology 3–only Bcl-2 family molecules (Bid, Puma), decreased mitochondria permeabilization with attenuated release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), reduced AIF translocation to the nucleus, and attenuated caspase activation. Given these neuroprotective actions, voluntary physical exercise may serve to limit the consequences of TBI. PMID:25419789

  15. Voluntary Exercise Preconditioning Activates Multiple Antiapoptotic Mechanisms and Improves Neurological Recovery after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zaorui; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Wu, Junfang; Faden, Alan I; Stoica, Bogdan A

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity can attenuate neuronal loss, reduce neuroinflammation, and facilitate recovery after brain injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms of exercise-induced neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or its modulation of post-traumatic neuronal cell death. Voluntary exercise, using a running wheel, was conducted for 4 weeks immediately preceding (preconditioning) moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI), a well-established experimental TBI model in mice. Compared to nonexercised controls, exercise preconditioning (pre-exercise) improved recovery of sensorimotor performance in the beam walk task, as well as cognitive/affective functions in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and tail-suspension tests. Further, pre-exercise reduced lesion size, attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus, and decreased microglial activation in the cortex. In addition, exercise preconditioning activated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway before trauma and amplified the injury-dependent increase in heat shock protein 70 expression, thus attenuating key apoptotic pathways. The latter include reduction in CCI-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-homology 3-only Bcl-2 family molecules (Bid, Puma), decreased mitochondria permeabilization with attenuated release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), reduced AIF translocation to the nucleus, and attenuated caspase activation. Given these neuroprotective actions, voluntary physical exercise may serve to limit the consequences of TBI. PMID:25419789

  16. Voluntary Exercise Preconditioning Activates Multiple Antiapoptotic Mechanisms and Improves Neurological Recovery after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zaorui; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Wu, Junfang; Faden, Alan I; Stoica, Bogdan A

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity can attenuate neuronal loss, reduce neuroinflammation, and facilitate recovery after brain injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms of exercise-induced neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or its modulation of post-traumatic neuronal cell death. Voluntary exercise, using a running wheel, was conducted for 4 weeks immediately preceding (preconditioning) moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI), a well-established experimental TBI model in mice. Compared to nonexercised controls, exercise preconditioning (pre-exercise) improved recovery of sensorimotor performance in the beam walk task, as well as cognitive/affective functions in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and tail-suspension tests. Further, pre-exercise reduced lesion size, attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus, and decreased microglial activation in the cortex. In addition, exercise preconditioning activated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway before trauma and amplified the injury-dependent increase in heat shock protein 70 expression, thus attenuating key apoptotic pathways. The latter include reduction in CCI-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-homology 3-only Bcl-2 family molecules (Bid, Puma), decreased mitochondria permeabilization with attenuated release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), reduced AIF translocation to the nucleus, and attenuated caspase activation. Given these neuroprotective actions, voluntary physical exercise may serve to limit the consequences of TBI.

  17. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Differentiated and Undifferentiated Ratings of Perceived Exertion During Cycle and Treadmill Exercise in Recreationally Active and Trained Women

    PubMed Central

    Bolgar, Melinda R.; Baker, Carol E.; Goss, Fredric. L.; Nagle, Elizabeth; Robertson, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on components of the differentiated perceived exertion model in young women performing weight bearing and non-weight bearing aerobic exercise. Subjects were 18-25 yr old women who were recreationally active (n = 19; VO2max = 33.40 ml·kg-1·min-1) and trained (N = 22; VO2max = 43.3 ml·kg-1·min-1). Subjects underwent two graded exercise tests (GXT) on a treadmill and bike which were separated by 48 hours. RPE-Overall, -Legs, and -Chest, as well as oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate were recorded each minute. Individual regression analyses were used to identify RPE-Overall,-Legs, and -Chest at 40, 60, 80% VO2max/peak. Separate two factor (site (3) x intensity (3)) ANOVAs with repeated measures on site and intensity were computed for each training status. Furthermore, RPE responses were also examined with a one factor (site (3)) within subject ANOVA with repeated measure on site at the ventilatory breakpoint. For both the recreationally active and trained groups no significant differences were observed for RPE-Overall, -Legs, and -Chest during treadmill exercise. However, for cycling exercise results indicated that RPE-Legs was significantly greater at all exercise intensities than RPE-Overall and RPE-Chest for trained subjects while for recreationally active subjects RPE-Legs was only significantly higher at the highest exercise intensity. Responses at the ventilatory breakpoint during cycle exercise indicated that RPE-Legs was significantly greater than RPE-Chest and RPE-Overall for trained subjects but not for recreationally active subjects. Signal dominance was not observed at an intensity equivalent to the ventilatory breakpoint during treadmill exercise in either of the groups. In recreationally active and trained females signal dominance was demonstrated only during cycling exercise, but not during treadmill exercise. Signal integration could not be demonstrated during cycling and

  18. Enjoyment of exercise moderates the impact of a school-based physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A school-based physical activity intervention designed to encourage adolescent girls to be more active was more effective for some participants than for others. We examined whether baseline enjoyment of exercise moderated response to the intervention. Methods Adolescent girls with a low level of baseline activity who participated in a controlled trial of an intervention to promote increased physical activity participation (n = 122) self-reported their enjoyment of exercise and physical activity participation at baseline, mid-way through the intervention, and at the end of the 9-month intervention period. At all three time points, participants also underwent assessments of cardiovascular fitness (VO2peak) and body composition (percent body fat). Repeated measures analysis of variance examined the relationship of baseline enjoyment to change in physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, body composition and enjoyment of exercise. Results A significant three-way interaction between time, baseline enjoyment, and group assignment (p < .01) showed that baseline enjoyment moderated the effect of the intervention on vigorous activity. Within the intervention group, girls with low enjoyment of exercise at baseline increased vigorous activity from pre-to post-intervention, and girls with high baseline enjoyment of exercise showed no pre-post change in vigorous activity. No differences emerged in the comparison group between low-and high-enjoyment girls. Conclusion Adolescent girls responded differently to a physical activity promotion intervention depending on their baseline levels of exercise enjoyment. Girls with low enjoyment of exercise may benefit most from a physical-education based intervention to increase physical activity that targets identified barriers to physical activity among low-active adolescent girls. PMID:21689396

  19. Cilnidipine but not amlodipine suppresses sympathetic activation elicited by isometric exercise in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Koike, Yumi; Kawabe, Tetsuya; Nishihara, Kanami; Iwane, Naomi; Hano, Takuzo

    2015-01-01

    Pupillometry was used to evaluate the effects of the calcium channel blockers cilnidipine (CL) and amlodipine (AM) on changes in autonomic nervous activity induced by isometric exercise in patients with hypertension. After handgrip exercise, the velocity of miosis increased in both the CL and AM groups. However, the velocity of mydriasis increased in only the AM group. Velocity slopes of miosis and mydriasis were smaller in the CL group than in the AM group. The low-to-high frequency ratio obtained from pulse wave analysis increased in only the AM group. Sympathetic activation elicited by isometric exercise was suppressed more effectively by CL than by AM. PMID:25977982

  20. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Simony Lira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Morais, Sirlei Siani

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants’ medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR), with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI), followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%. Results Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1%) (p = 0.01). Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6%) and third trimesters (13.4%). Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%). Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28–2.60), primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07–2.07), exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64–8.96), and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80–3.57). Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women. Conclusion The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a

  1. Effects of a 12-week resistance exercise program on physical self-perceptions in college students.

    PubMed

    Moore, Justin B; Mitchell, Nathanael G; Bibeau, Wendy S; Bartholomew, John B

    2011-06-01

    There is an increase in literature suggesting exercise can promote positive changes in physical self-perceptions that can manifest as an increase in global self-esteem. In the present study, we assessed self-esteem using the hierarchical framework of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM) along with cognitive facets at the subdomain level (e.g., competence, certainty, importance, and ideal self-discrepancy). This allowed for an analysis of cognitive facets as possible contributors to changes in physical self-perceptions. We addressed these aims with a sample of 120 college-age adults who completed a 12-week resistance exercise program. Results indicated significant improvements in self-perception constructs at all levels of the EXSEM. The hierarchical structure of the EXSEM was partially supported, as we observed successively smaller improvements at each level of the model (e.g., self-esteem showed lesser improvements than physical self-worth). In addition, a path model developed to explain the impact of strength changes on self-esteem proved a good fit for the data. Results are discussed in terms of contemporary models of self-perception, potential mediators of exercise on self-esteem, and the need to consider cognitive facets of self-perception. PMID:21699109

  2. Effect of a MAST Exercise Program on Anthropometric Parameters, Physical Fitness, and Serum Lipid Levels in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Trabka, Bartosz; Zubrzycki, Igor Z.; Ossowski, Zbigniew; Bojke, Olgierd; Clarke, Anna; Wiacek, Magdalena; Latosik, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine an influence of a mixed aerobic and strength training program (MAST) on anthropometry, serum lipid levels, physical performance, and functional fitness in obese postmenopausal women. The MAST sessions were held three times per week, and the exercise program lasted for 10 weeks. The exercise group demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake, a waist/hip ratio, and strength of the upper and lower body. An increase in LDL-C levels was observed in the control group. A 10-week MAST program encompassing Nordic-walking as an aerobic component, and strength exercises, induces positive changes in functional fitness, HDL-C, LDL-C and a waist/hip ratio in obese postmenopausal women. The observed changes implicate an increase in a health-related quality of life among the women administered to the physical exercise program. PMID:25414748

  3. Preventing weight gain through exercise and physical activity in the elderly: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stehr, Mareike D; von Lengerke, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    This review examines the role of exercise and physical activity for preventing weight gain in older people. A structured search using MeSH-vocabulary and Title/Abstract-searches was conducted in PubMed for January 2000 to June 2011, identifying weight gain and exercise or physical activity as study topics, and aged adults as target group. In study selection, all types of exercise and physical activity and any measure of weight change in aged adults (≥65 years) or postmenopausal women were considered. N=9 primary studies were identified. All were conducted in the US, with one study additionally including samples from Canada and the UK. Three studies focused on aged adults, while six concentrated specifically on postmenopausal women. Forms of exercise or physical activity comprised self-reported exercise history in four studies and low, moderate or high intensity exercise interventions in five studies. Four studies combined exercise with a hypocaloric diet and included comparison groups receiving either diet only, health education, stretching or a delayed intervention (one study each). Exercise was associated with weight loss (1.1-6 kg) in all intervention studies, all of which studied an overweight sample, and with weight maintenance in most observational studies, all of which studied a general population or otherwise overweight-unspecific sample. In sum, exercise and physical activity can effectively prevent weight gain in older adults and postmenopausal women either in terms of weight loss or maintenance. They can preserve lean body mass and thus are important for the balance between potentially positive and negative effects of weight reduction in later life. In addition, since all intervention studies were conducted with an overweight sample, it seems that primordial prevention (in terms of preventing the development of risk factors such as excess weight in the first place) might be a neglected issue in geriatric and postmenopausal prevention.

  4. Long-term aerobic exercise increases redox-active iron through nitric oxide in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Xiao, De-Sheng

    2014-01-30

    Adult hippocampus is highly vulnerable to iron-induced oxidative stress. Aerobic exercise has been proposed to reduce oxidative stress but the findings in the hippocampus are conflicting. This study aimed to observe the changes of redox-active iron and concomitant regulation of cellular iron homeostasis in the hippocampus by aerobic exercise, and possible regulatory effect of nitric oxide (NO). A randomized controlled study was designed in the rats with swimming exercise treatment (for 3 months) and/or an unselective inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) (L-NAME) treatment. The results from the bleomycin-detectable iron assay showed additional redox-active iron in the hippocampus by exercise treatment. The results from nonheme iron content assay, combined with the redox-active iron content, showed increased storage iron content by exercise treatment. NOx (nitrate plus nitrite) assay showed increased NOx content by exercise treatment. The results from the Western blot assay showed decreased ferroportin expression, no changes of TfR1 and DMT1 expressions, increased IRP1 and IRP2 expression, increased expressions of eNOS and nNOS rather than iNOS. In these effects of exercise treatment, the increased redox-active iron content, storage iron content, IRP1 and IRP2 expressions were completely reversed by L-NAME treatment, and decreased ferroportin expression was in part reversed by L-NAME. L-NAME treatment completely inhibited increased NOx and both eNOS and nNOS expression in the hippocampus. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise could increase the redox-active iron in the hippocampus, indicating an increase in the capacity to generate hydroxyl radicals through the Fenton reactions, and aerobic exercise-induced iron accumulation in the hippocampus might mainly result from the role of the endogenous NO.

  5. Development and Process Evaluation of a 5-Week Exercise Program to Prevent Falls in People after Stroke: The FALLS Program

    PubMed Central

    van Duijnhoven, H. J. R.; De Kam, D.; Hellebrand, W.; Smulders, E.; Geurts, A. C. H.; Weerdesteyn, V.

    2012-01-01

    Falls are a common complication after stroke, with balance and gait deficits being the most important risk factors. Taking into account the specific needs and capacities of people with stroke, we developed the FALLS program (FALL prevention after Stroke), based on the “Nijmegen falls prevention program” (a proven-effective 5-week exercise program designed for community-dwelling elderly people). The program was tested in twelve community-dwelling persons with stroke, and a process evaluation was conducted with patients, trainers, health care professionals, and managers. The FALLS program was considered suitable and feasible by people with stroke in the study and relevant health care professionals, and recommendations for implementation in clinical practice have been suggested. PMID:22195292

  6. Muscular Activation During Plyometric Exercises in 90° of Glenohumeral Joint Abduction

    PubMed Central

    Ellenbecker, Todd S.; Sueyoshi, Tetsuro; Bailie, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Plyometric exercises are frequently used to increase posterior rotator cuff and periscapular muscle strength and simulate demands and positional stresses in overhead athletes. The purpose of this study was to provide descriptive data on posterior rotator cuff and scapular muscle activation during upper extremity plyometric exercises in 90° of glenohumeral joint abduction. Hypothesis: Levels of muscular activity in the posterior rotator cuff and scapular stabilizers will be high during plyometric shoulder exercises similar to previously reported electromyographic (EMG) levels of shoulder rehabilitation exercises. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Twenty healthy subjects were tested using surface EMG during the performance of 2 plyometric shoulder exercises: prone external rotation (PERP) and reverse catch external rotation (RCP) using a handheld medicine ball. Electrode application included the upper and lower trapezius (UT and LT, respectively), serratus anterior (SA), infraspinatus (IN), and the middle and posterior deltoid (MD and PD, respectively) muscles. A 10-second interval of repetitive plyometric exercise (PERP) and 3 repetitions of RCP were sampled. Peak and average normalized EMG data were generated. Results: Normalized peak and average IN activity ranged between 73% and 102% and between 28% and 52% during the plyometric exercises, respectively, with peak and average LT activity measured between 79% and 131% and between 31% and 61%. SA activity ranged between 76% and 86% for peak and between 35% and 37% for average activity. Muscular activity levels in the MD and PD ranged between 49% and 72% and between 12% and 33% for peak and average, respectively. Conclusion: Moderate to high levels of muscular activity were measured in the rotator cuff and scapular stabilizers during these plyometric exercises with the glenohumeral joint abducted 90°. PMID:25553216

  7. Exercise Decreases Risk of Future Active Disease in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients in Remission

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Patricia D.; Kappelman, Michael D.; Martin, Christopher F.; Chen, Wenli; Sandler, Robert S.; Long, Millie D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although exercise impacts quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), little is known about its role in disease activity. Among IBD patients in remission, we aimed to evaluate the association between exercise and subsequent active disease. Methods We performed a prospective study using the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America (CCFA) Partners Internet-based cohort of individuals with self-reported IBD. We identified participants in remission, defined as short Crohn's disease activity index (sCDAI) <150 or simple clinical colitis activity index (SCCAI) ≤2. The primary exposure was exercise status, measured using the validated Godin leisure time activity index. The primary study outcome, assessed after six months, was active disease defined using the above disease activity index thresholds. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to describe the independent association between exercise and risk of active disease. Results We identified 1308 patients with Crohn's Disease (CD) and 549 with ulcerative or indeterminate colitis (UC/IC) in remission, of whom 227(17.4%) with CD and 135 (24.6%) with UC/IC developed active disease after 6 months. Higher exercise level was associated with decreased risk of active disease for CD (adjusted RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.55-0.94) and UC/IC (adjusted RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.54-1.13). Conclusions In patients with CD in remission, those with higher exercise levels were significantly less likely to develop active disease at six months. In patients with UC/IC in remission, patients with higher exercise levels were less likely to develop active disease at six months, however this was not statistically significant. PMID:25723616

  8. Effect of a cardiac rehabilitation program on exercise oscillatory ventilation in Japanese patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Fumitake; Adachi, Hitoshi; Tomono, Jun-Ichi; Toyoda, Shigeru; Iwamatsu, Koichi; Sakuma, Masashi; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Oshima, Shigeru; Inoue, Teruo

    2016-10-01

    Although exercise oscillatory ventilation has emerged as a potent independent risk factor for adverse prognosis in heart failure, it is not well known whether cardiac rehabilitation can improve oscillatory ventilation. In this study, we investigated the magnitude of oscillations in ventilation before and after cardiac rehabilitation in chronic heart failure patients with exercise oscillatory ventilation. Cardiac rehabilitation (5-month program) was performed in 26 patients with chronic heart failure who showed an oscillatory ventilation pattern during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). After the 5-month rehabilitation program was completed, the patients again underwent CPX. To determine the magnitude of oscillations in ventilation, the amplitude and cycle length of the oscillations were calculated and compared with several other parameters, including biomarkers that have established prognostic value in heart failure. At baseline before cardiac rehabilitation, both oscillation amplitude (R = 0.625, P < 0.01) and cycle length (R = 0.469, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the slope of minute ventilation vs. carbon dioxide production. Plasma BNP levels were positively correlated with amplitude (R = 0.615, P < 0.01) but not cycle length (R = 0.371). Cardiac rehabilitation decreased oscillation amplitude (P < 0.01) but failed to change cycle length. The change in amplitude was positively correlated with the change in BNP levels (R = 0.760, P < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that only the change in amplitude was an independent predictor of the change in BNP levels (R = 0.717, P < 0.01). A 5-month cardiac rehabilitation program improves exercise oscillatory ventilation in chronic heart failure patients by reducing the oscillation amplitude. This effect is associated with a reduction of plasma BNP levels, potentially contributing to an improvement of heart failure.

  9. Platelet activation during exercise induced asthma: effect of prophylaxis with cromoglycate and salbutamol.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C E; Belfield, P W; Davis, S; Cooke, N J; Spencer, A; Davies, J A

    1986-01-01

    Peak expiratory flow (PEF) and plasma concentrations of platelet factor 4 and beta thromboglobulin were measured before and after exercise in nine asthmatic patients and 12 non-asthmatic volunteers. Exercise was preceded by administration in random order of either placebo, salbutamol 200 micrograms, or sodium cromoglycate 2 mg from a pressurised inhaler. In control subjects there were minimal changes in PEF and plasma concentrations of platelet factor 4 and beta thromboglobulin. In the asthmatic patients the typical changes in PEF were seen on exercise; plasma concentrations of platelet factor 4 and beta thromboglobulin rose significantly in parallel, the rise preceding the fall in PEF. The changes in peak flow and platelet activation induced by exercise were attenuated by prior administration of salbutamol or cromoglycate. These results indicate that exercise induced asthma is associated with a rise in platelet release products similar to that observed in antigen induced asthma. PMID:2943049

  10. TRPV1 activation improves exercise endurance and energy metabolism through PGC-1α upregulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhidan; Ma, Liqun; Zhao, Zhigang; He, Hongbo; Yang, Dachun; Feng, Xiaoli; Ma, Shuangtao; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhu, Tianqi; Cao, Tingbing; Liu, Daoyan; Nilius, Bernd; Huang, Yu; Yan, Zhencheng; Zhu, Zhiming

    2012-03-01

    Impaired aerobic exercise capacity and skeletal muscle dysfunction are associated with cardiometabolic diseases. Acute administration of capsaicin enhances exercise endurance in rodents, but the long-term effect of dietary capsaicin is unknown. The capsaicin receptor, the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel has been detected in skeletal muscle, the role of which remains unclear. Here we report the function of TRPV1 in cultured C2C12 myocytes and the effect of TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin on energy metabolism and exercise endurance of skeletal muscles in mice. In vitro, capsaicin increased cytosolic free calcium and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression in C2C12 myotubes through activating TRPV1. In vivo, PGC-1α in skeletal muscle was upregulated by capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activation or genetic overexpression of TRPV1 in mice. TRPV1 activation increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial respiration, promoted mitochondrial biogenesis, increased oxidative fibers, enhanced exercise endurance and prevented high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders. Importantly, these effects of capsaicin were absent in TRPV1-deficient mice. We conclude that TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin improves energy metabolism and exercise endurance by upregulating PGC-1α in skeletal muscles. The present results indicate a novel therapeutic strategy for managing metabolic diseases and improving exercise endurance.

  11. Exercises for Older Adults, Using Free and Inexpensive Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, David E.; Metal-Corbin, Josie

    1986-01-01

    This article illustrates how old bicycle inner tubes, wire coat hangers, stockings, panty hose, and milk dispenser bladders can be used as part of an exercise program for older adults. Specific exercises and activities are suggested. (MT)

  12. Sex differences in brain cholinergic activity in MSG-obese rats submitted to exercise.

    PubMed

    Sagae, Sara Cristina; Grassiolli, Sabrina; Raineki, Charlis; Balbo, Sandra Lucinei; Marques da Silva, Ana Carla

    2011-11-01

    Obesity is an epidemic disease most commonly caused by a combination of increased energy intake and lack of physical activity. The cholinergic system has been shown to be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Moreover, physical exercise promotes a reduction of fat pads and body mass by increasing energy expenditure, but also influences the cholinergic system. The aim of this study is to evaluate the interaction between physical exercise (swimming) and central cholinergic activity in rats treated with monosodium glutamate (MSG, a model for obesity) during infancy. Our results show that MSG treatment is able to induce obesity in male and female rats. Specifically, MSG-treated rats presented a reduced body mass and nasoanal length, and increased perigonadal and retroperitoneal fat pads in relation to the body mass. Physical exercise was able to reduce body mass in both male and female rats, but did not change the fat pads in MSG-treated rats. Increased food intake was only seen in MSG-treated females submitted to exercise. Cholinergic activity was increased in the cortex of MSG-treated females and physical exercise was able to reduce this activity. Thalamic cholinergic activity was higher in sedentary MSG-treated females and exercised MSG-treated males. Hypothalamic cholinergic activity was higher in male and female MSG-treated rats, and was not reduced by exercise in the 2 sexes. Taken together, these results show that MSG treatment and physical exercise have different effects in the cholinergic activity of males and females. PMID:22039988

  13. [Promoting exercise and sports activities among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Rivière, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The fight against sedentariness and encouraging older people to exercise is a major public health objective. The aim is to preserve the health of the elderly, to avoid the excessive cost of care and to prevent the loss of autonomy. PMID:27449303

  14. Phat Exercise: How Young Adults Enjoy and Sustain Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimiecik, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Sport psychologists know that many people who do a behavior voluntarily over a long period of time have discovered for themselves an inner feeling that motivates them to perform the behavior, such as exercise, for its own sake. This form of motivation has been labeled "intrinsic" by some researchers. The concept of intrinsic motivation, when…

  15. Morning Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Natalie Crohn

    2006-01-01

    In this article, Natalie Schmitt recalls her teaching experiences with morning exercise programs, beginning with her first teaching job as assistant Morning Exercise teacher at the Francis W. Parker School in Chicago. In the Morning Exercises, students were encouraged to employ all means of expression: speaking, drawing, dancing, singing, acting.…

  16. Multimodal Guided Self-Help Exercise Program to Prevent Speech, Swallowing, and Shoulder Problems Among Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Cnossen, Ingrid C; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Rinkel, Rico NPM; Aalders, IJke J; de Goede, Cees JT; de Bree, Remco; Doornaert, Patricia; Rietveld, Derek HF; Langendijk, Johannes A; Witte, Birgit I; Leemans, C Rene

    2014-01-01

    Background During a 6-week course of (chemo)radiation many head and neck cancer patients have to endure radiotherapy-induced toxicity, negatively affecting patients’ quality of life. Pretreatment counseling combined with self-help exercises could be provided to inform patients and possibly prevent them from having speech, swallowing, and shoulder problems during and after treatment. Objective Our goal was to investigate the feasibility of a multimodal guided self-help exercise program entitled Head Matters during (chemo)radiation in head and neck cancer patients. Methods Head and neck cancer patients treated with primary (chemo)radiation or after surgery were asked to perform Head Matters at home. This prophylactic exercise program, offered in three different formats, aims to reduce the risk of developing speech, swallowing, shoulder problems, and a stiff neck. Weekly coaching was provided by a speech and swallowing therapist. Patients filled out a diary to keep track of their exercise activity. To gain insight into possible barriers and facilitators to exercise adherence, reports of weekly coaching sessions were analyzed by 2 coders independently. Results Of 41 eligible patients, 34 patients were willing to participate (83% uptake). Of participating patients, 21 patients completed the program (64% adherence rate). The majority of participants (58%) had a moderate to high level of exercise performance. Exercise performance level was not significantly associated with age (P=.50), gender (P=.42), tumor subsite (P=1.00) or tumor stage (P=.20), treatment modality (P=.72), or Head Matters format (Web-based or paper) (P=1.00). Based on patients’ diaries and weekly coaching sessions, patients’ perceived barriers to exercise were a decreased physical condition, treatment-related barriers, emotional problems, lack of motivation, social barriers, and technical problems. Patients’ perceived facilitators included an increased physical condition, feeling motivated, and

  17. Reproductive profile of physically active men after exhaustive endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Vaamonde, D; Da Silva, M E; Poblador, M S; Lancho, J L

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study on non-professional (recreational) athletes was two-fold: 1) to determine if endurance exercise (EE) routinely used by professional athletes would produce reproductive changes in the general population, and 2) to assess reversion. Short-term exhaustive endurance exercise (EEE) can produce alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis with subsequent fertility changes. Sixteen healthy adult male volunteers were divided into experimental (8) and control (8) groups for the exercise period. A cycloergometer provided EEE for a period of 2 weeks. The experimental group exercised four times a week; controls were without EEE. The hormonal and seminological profiles of all subjects were evaluated. Two weeks of EEE produced hormonal and seminological values in the experimental group that were statistically different from their own pre-treatment values (FSH: 3.33 +/- 1.7; LH: 3.73 +/- 1.36; sperm concentration/ml: 42.50 +/- 29.46; type a velocity: 25.23 +/- 10.9; type d velocity: 46.18 +/- 15.81; % of normal forms: 10.42 +/- 1.97) as well as from the pre- and post-treatment control group values. The measured parameters almost returned to pre-treatment levels in the experimental group 2 - 3 days after EEE ended. From this study we concluded that when subjected to EEE, individuals drawn from a recreational exercising life style experienced changes similar to those observed in studies done with athletes, and short-term EEE induced a reversible alteration to the HPG axis.

  18. Energy Security and Restoration Exercise Program/Best Practices and Information Sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Barbara McCabe; John Kovach

    2009-03-30

    The first year of this cooperative agreement focused on the following elements: curriculum development and presentation, curriculum maintenance, enhancements, and effectiveness, and smart card initiative. During the second year of this grant, with redirection from DOE, the IUOE modified its mission statement under the cooperative agreement. It states: 'The mission of the IUOE is to provide expertise to provide best practices, information sharing, and develop scenarios and conduct exercises ranging in size and complexity from table top to national level to prepare all stakeholders to protect and restore energy infrastructure should an event, terrorist or natural, occur'. The Program developed a number of products under this Cooperative Agreement. These products include: FOSTER (Facility Operations Safety Training Event Response) Curriculum and Training Models, Alternative Energy Supply - Generators Training Module, Liquefied Natural Gas Training Module, Education Program - Distributed Generations, Compendium of Resources and References, Energy Security and Restoration Training Manual, Manual of Situations and Scenarios Developed for Emergency Exercises, Manual of Best Practices/Lessons Learned for Energy Load Management, Training Plan, Strategic Information and Exercise Plan, National Certification Plan Report, and a Smart Card Project Report.

  19. Patients' mental models and adherence to outpatient physical therapy home exercise programs.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Jon

    2015-05-01

    Within physical therapy, patient adherence usually relates to attending appointments, following advice, and/or undertaking prescribed exercise. Similar to findings for general medical adherence, patient adherence to physical therapy home exercise programs (HEP) is estimated between 35 and 72%. Adherence to HEPs is a multifactorial and poorly understood phenomenon, with no consensus regarding a common theoretical framework that best guides empirical or clinical efforts. Mental models, a construct used to explain behavior and decision-making in the social sciences, may serve as this framework. Mental models comprise an individual's tacit thoughts about how the world works. They include assumptions about new experiences and expectations for the future based on implicit comparisons between current and past experiences. Mental models play an important role in decision-making and guiding actions. This professional theoretical article discusses empirical research demonstrating relationships among mental models, prior experience, and adherence decisions in medical and physical therapy contexts. Specific issues related to mental models and physical therapy patient adherence are discussed, including the importance of articulation of patients' mental models, assessment of patients' mental models that relate to exercise program adherence, discrepancy between patient and provider mental models, and revision of patients' mental models in ways that enhance adherence. The article concludes with practical implications for physical therapists and recommendations for further research to better understand the role of mental models in physical therapy patient adherence behavior. PMID:25585516

  20. The history of in-flight exercise in the US manned space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas P.

    1989-01-01

    A historical perspective on in-flight exercise in the U.S. manned space program is given. We have learned a great deal in the 25 years since the inception of Project Mercury. But, as we look forward to a Space Station and long-duration space flight, we must recognize the challenge that lies ahead. The importance of maintenance of the crewmember's physical condition during long stays in weightlessness is a prime concern that should not be minimized. The challenge lies in the design and development of exercise equipment and protocols that will prevent or minimize the deleterious sequelae of long-duration space flight while maximizing valuable on-orbit crew time.

  1. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  2. The effects of a strategic strength resistance exercise program on the isokinetic muscular function of the ankle

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Kyoung-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Young; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a strategic strength resistance exercise program on the isokinetic muscular function of the ankle joint. [Subjects] This study included 22 males in their twenties who were diagnosed with functional injury of the ankle joint. [Methods] To strengthen plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle joint, 8 weeks of weight, resistance band, and plyometric training, and training using props were performed. [Results] A medical examination by interview indicated that pain, swelling, instability, running, and support capacity of the ankle joint significantly improved with the strategic strength resistance exercise program. For the isokinetic peak torque of the ankles, significant differences were observed in right plantar flexion and bilateral dorsiflexion. [Conclusion] The strategic strength resistance exercise program is highly recommended for the functional stability of the ankle joint. Efficient exercise therapy is useful for muscle damage prevention, muscle strengthening, and functional interventions. PMID:26644696

  3. Effects of unilateral and bilateral lower-body heavy resistance exercise on muscle activity and testosterone responses.

    PubMed

    Jones, Margaret T; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Nindl, Bradley C; Smith, Jeffrey A; Headley, Samuel A

    2012-04-01

    Unilateral and bilateral lower-body heavy resistance exercises (HREs) are used for strength training. Little research has examined whether muscle activation and testosterone (TES) responses differ between these exercises. Our purpose was to compare the effects of unilateral and bilateral lower-body HRE on muscle activity using surface electromyography (sEMG) and TES concentrations. Ten resistance-trained, college-aged male athletes (football, track and field) completed 5 testing sessions in which bilateral (back squat [BS]) and unilateral (pitcher squat [PS]) exercises were performed using a counterbalanced design. Sessions 1 and 2 determined estimated maximum strength (10 repetition maximum [10RM]) in the BS and PS. During testing session 3, muscle activation (sEMG) was measured in the right vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae (ES) during both BS and PS (stance leg) exercises. In sessions 4 and 5, total TES concentrations (nanomoles per liter) were measured via blood draws at baseline (preexercise), 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes postexercise after 4 sets of 10 repetitions at the 10RM. Separate repeated-measures analyses of variance examined differences in sEMG and TES between BS and PS (p < 0.05). The sEMG amplitudes were similar (p = 0.80) for BS (0.22 ± 0.06 mV) and PS (0.20 ± 0.07 mV). The TES responses were also similar (p = 0.15) between BS (21.8 ± 6.9 nmol·L(-1)) and PS (26.2 ± 10.1 nmol·L(-1)). The similar lower limb and back sEMG and TES responses may indicate that the neuromuscular and hormonal demands were comparable for both the BS and PS exercises despite the absolute work being less in the PS. The PS exercise may be an effective method for including unilateral exercise into lower-body resistance training when designing training programs for ground-based activities.

  4. Exercising and asthma at school

    MedlinePlus

    ... asthma attack, modify PE activities. For example, a running program might be set up this way: Walk ... whole distance Run part of the distance Alternate running and walking Some exercises may be less likely ...

  5. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7–10 min for warm-up, 35–40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5–7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility. PMID:27419122

  6. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7-10 min for warm-up, 35-40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5-7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility.

  7. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7-10 min for warm-up, 35-40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5-7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility. PMID:27419122

  8. Variability of corticosteroid responses during exercise stress in active and sedentary middle-aged males.

    PubMed

    White, J A; Ismail, A H; Bottoms, G D

    1975-04-01

    Two groups of middle-aged male subjects (both N=11), one active (mean age 44.6 years) and one sedentary (mean age 43.7 years), undertook a graded exercise stress test on a bicycle ergometer in the post-absorptive state. Blood serum corticosteroid levels were measured at the following stages of metabolism; at rest, under conditions of submaximal and "maximal' exercise and during recovery. The active group showed no significant change in mean serum corticosteroid levels from resting values, during exercise and recovery. However the sedentary group displayed a significant increase in mean serum corticosteroid levels from a resting value of 5.81 plus or minus 0.41 mub-g/100 ml. (mean plus or minus S.E.) to 7.83 plus or minus 0.71 mug/100 ml. during "maximal' exercise (p smaller than 0.05), which was maintained throughout recovery 7.82 plus or minus 0.70 ug/100 ml (p smaller than 0.05). Futhermore the active group demonstrated significantly lower mean serum corticosteroid levels compared with the sedentary group under conditions of submaximal (p smaller than 0.05) and "maximal' (p smaller than 0.01) exercise and during recovery (p smaller than 0.01). It was concluded that the variability in the response patterns of serum corticosteroids during exercise stress in active and sedentary middle-aged males, reflected the physiological differences observed between the two groups of subjects.

  9. Barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise among middle-aged and elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Justine, Maria; Azizan, Azliyana; Hassan, Vaharli; Salleh, Zoolfaiz; Manaf, Haidzir

    2013-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Although the benefits of physical activity and exercise are widely acknowledged, many middle-aged and elderly individuals remain sedentary. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation among middle-aged and elderly individuals, as well as identify any differences in these barriers between the two groups. METHODS Recruited individuals were categorised into either the middle-aged (age 45-59 years, n = 60) or elderly (age ≥ 60 years, n = 60) group. Data on demographics, anthropometry, as well as external and internal barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise were collected. RESULTS Analysis showed no significant differences in the total scores of all internal barriers between the two groups (p > 0.05). The total scores for most external barriers between the two groups also showed no significant differences (p > 0.05); only 'cost' (p = 0.045) and 'exercise interferes with social/family activities' (p = 0.011) showed significant differences. The most common external barriers among the middle-aged and elderly respondents were 'not enough time' (46.7% vs. 48.4%), 'no one to exercise with' (40.0% vs. 28.3%) and 'lack of facilities' (33.4% vs. 35.0%). The most common internal barriers for middle-aged respondents were 'too tired' (48.3%), 'already active enough' (38.3%), 'do not know how to do it' (36.7%) and 'too lazy' (36.7%), while those for elderly respondents were 'too tired' (51.7%), 'lack of motivation' (38.4%) and 'already active enough' (38.4%). CONCLUSION Middle-aged and elderly respondents presented with similar external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation. These factors should be taken into account when healthcare policies are being designed and when interventions such as the provision of facilities to promote physical activity and exercise among older people are being considered.

  10. Exercise activates compensatory thermoregulatory reaction in rats: a modeling study.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeonjoo; LaPradd, Michelle; Kline, Hannah; Zaretskaia, Maria V; Behrouzvaziri, Abolhassan; Rusyniak, Daniel E; Molkov, Yaroslav I; Zaretsky, Dmitry V

    2015-12-15

    The importance of exercise is increasingly emphasized for maintaining health. However, exercise itself can pose threats to health such as the development of exertional heat shock in warm environments. Therefore, it is important to understand how the thermoregulation system adjusts during exercise and how alterations of this can contribute to heat stroke. To explore this we measured the core body temperature of rats (Tc) running for 15 min on a treadmill at various speeds in two ambient temperatures (Ta = 25°C and 32°C). We assimilated the experimental data into a mathematical model that describes temperature changes in two compartments of the body, representing the muscles and the core. In our model the core body generates heat to maintain normal body temperature, and dissipates it into the environment. The muscles produce additional heat during exercise. According to the estimation of model parameters, at Ta = 25°C, the heat generation in the core was progressively reduced with the increase of the treadmill speed to compensate for a progressive increase in heat production by the muscles. This compensation was ineffective at Ta = 32°C, which resulted in an increased rate of heat accumulation with increasing speed, as opposed to the Ta = 25°C case. Interestingly, placing an animal on a treadmill increased heat production in the muscles even when the treadmill speed was zero. Quantitatively, this "ready-to-run" phenomenon accounted for over half of the heat generation in the muscles observed at maximal treadmill speed. We speculate that this anticipatory response utilizes stress-related circuitry.

  11. Chronic Exercise-Induced Leg Pain in Active People.

    PubMed

    Schon, L C; Baxter, D E; Clanton, T O; Sammarco, G J

    1992-01-01

    In brief "Shin splints" is a catchall term for any kind persistent exercise-related lower leg pain with no obvious cause. Such pain can originate from a number of conditions, such as medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fracture, compartment syndrome, vascular pathology, nerve entrapment, and others. A methodical work-up designed to detect problems in all anatomic structures from bone to skin will narrow the possibilities and lay the basis for appropriate treatment.

  12. Exercising at work: barriers to women's participation.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, M J; Hamm, R D; Love, E J

    1993-06-01

    Only a minority of women in an urban random sample have the opportunity to exercise at work, and even fewer women use these opportunities. Lack of time and inconvenient times are the major reasons for not participating in exercise programs at work. Exercise programs at work are used by women who are already physically active, suggesting that workplace exercise programs do not serve the needs of women who may need exercise programs most. Multivariate analysis shows that age, having children, lack of energy, and lack of support are significant barriers to women's exercise participation at work. The results of this study suggest a leadership opportunity for on site occupational health nurses in addressing these barriers to workplace exercise. PMID:8512611

  13. Exercise Prescription for Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines current guidelines for physical fitness, noting issues that may influence the updating of the American College of Sports Medicine exercise statement. Differences between exercise prescription for fitness and physical activity for health are discussed, noting the importance of designing individualized programs with appropriate levels of…

  14. Design and methods for a pilot randomized clinical trial involving exercise and behavioral activation to treat comorbid type 2 diabetes and major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kristin L; Pagoto, Sherry L; Handschin, Barbara; Panza, Emily; Bakke, Susan; Liu, Qin; Blendea, Mihaela; Ockene, Ira S; Ma, Yunsheng

    2011-06-01

    BACKGROUND: The comorbidity of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and depression is associated with poor glycemic control. Exercise has been shown to improve mood and glycemic control, but individuals with comorbid T2DM and depression are disproportionately sedentary compared to the general population and report more difficulty with exercise. Behavioral activation, an evidence-based depression psychotherapy, was designed to help people with depression make gradual behavior changes, and may be helpful to build exercise adherence in sedentary populations. This pilot randomized clinical trial will test the feasibility of a group exercise program enhanced with behavioral activation strategies among women with comorbid T2DM and depression. METHODS/DESIGN: Sedentary women with inadequately controlled T2DM and depression (N=60) will be randomly assigned to one of two conditions: exercise or usual care. Participants randomized to the exercise condition will attend 38 behavioral activation-enhanced group exercise classes over 24 weeks in addition to usual care. Participants randomized to the usual care condition will receive depression treatment referrals and print information on diabetes management via diet and physical activity. Assessments will occur at baseline and 3-, 6-, and 9-months following randomization. The goals of this pilot study are to demonstrate feasibility and intervention acceptability, estimate the resources and costs required to deliver the intervention and to estimate the standard deviation of continuous outcomes (e.g., depressive symptoms and glycosylated hemoglobin) in preparation for a fully-powered randomized clinical trial. DISCUSSION: A novel intervention that combines exercise and behavioral activation strategies could potentially improve glycemic control and mood in women with comorbid type 2 diabetes and depression. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01024790.

  15. Design and methods for a pilot randomized clinical trial involving exercise and behavioral activation to treat comorbid type 2 diabetes and major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Kristin L.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Handschin, Barbara; Panza, Emily; Bakke, Susan; Liu, Qin; Blendea, Mihaela; Ockene, Ira S.; Ma, Yunsheng

    2011-01-01

    Background The comorbidity of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and depression is associated with poor glycemic control. Exercise has been shown to improve mood and glycemic control, but individuals with comorbid T2DM and depression are disproportionately sedentary compared to the general population and report more difficulty with exercise. Behavioral activation, an evidence-based depression psychotherapy, was designed to help people with depression make gradual behavior changes, and may be helpful to build exercise adherence in sedentary populations. This pilot randomized clinical trial will test the feasibility of a group exercise program enhanced with behavioral activation strategies among women with comorbid T2DM and depression. Methods/Design Sedentary women with inadequately controlled T2DM and depression (N=60) will be randomly assigned to one of two conditions: exercise or usual care. Participants randomized to the exercise condition will attend 38 behavioral activation-enhanced group exercise classes over 24 weeks in addition to usual care. Participants randomized to the usual care condition will receive depression treatment referrals and print information on diabetes management via diet and physical activity. Assessments will occur at baseline and 3-, 6-, and 9-months following randomization. The goals of this pilot study are to demonstrate feasibility and intervention acceptability, estimate the resources and costs required to deliver the intervention and to estimate the standard deviation of continuous outcomes (e.g., depressive symptoms and glycosylated hemoglobin) in preparation for a fully-powered randomized clinical trial. Discussion A novel intervention that combines exercise and behavioral activation strategies could potentially improve glycemic control and mood in women with comorbid type 2 diabetes and depression. Trial registration NCT01024790 PMID:21765864

  16. The comparison of abdominal muscle activation on unstable surface according to the different trunk stability exercises

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-seok; Kim, Da-yeon; Kim, Tae-ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effect of abdominal muscle activities and the activation ratio related to trunk stabilization to compare the effects between the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and lumbar stabilization exercises on an unstable base of support. [Subjects and Methods] Study subjects were 20 male and 10 female adults in their 20s without lumbar pain, who were equally and randomly assigned to either the abdominal drawing-in maneuver group and the lumbar stabilization exercise group. Abdominal muscle activation and ratio was measured using a wireless TeleMyo DTS during right leg raise exercises while sitting on a Swiss ball. [Results] Differences in rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominis, and internal oblique abdominis muscle activation were observed before and after treatment. Significant differences were observed between the groups in the muscle activation of the external oblique abdominis and internal oblique abdominis, and the muscle activation ratio of external oblique abdominis/rectus abdominis and internal oblique abdominis/rectus abdominis. [Conclusion] Consequently trunk stability exercise enhances internal oblique abdominis activity and increases trunk stabilization. In addition, the abdominal drawing-in maneuver facilitates the deep muscle more than LSE in abdominal muscle. Therefore, abdominal drawing-in maneuver is more effective than lumbar stabilization exercises in facilitating trunk stabilization. PMID:27134401

  17. Forced-exercise delays neuropathic pain in experimental diabetes: effects on voltage-activated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Shankarappa, Sahadev A; Piedras-Rentería, Erika S; Stubbs, Evan B

    2011-07-01

    Physical exercise produces a variety of psychophysical effects, including altered pain perception. Elevated levels of centrally produced endorphins or endocannabinoids are implicated as mediators of exercise-induced analgesia. The effect of exercise on the development and persistence of disease-associated acute/chronic pain remains unclear. In this study, we quantified the physiological consequence of forced-exercise on the development of diabetes-associated neuropathic pain. Euglycemic control or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic adult male rats were subdivided into sedentary or forced-exercised (2-10 weeks, treadmill) subgroups and assessed for changes in tactile responsiveness. Two weeks following STZ-treatment, sedentary rats developed a marked and sustained hypersensitivity to von Frey tactile stimulation. By comparison, STZ-treated diabetic rats undergoing forced-exercise exhibited a 4-week delay in the onset of tactile hypersensitivity that was independent of glucose control. Exercise-facilitated analgesia in diabetic rats was reversed, in a dose-dependent manner, by naloxone. Small-diameter (< 30 μm) DRG neurons harvested from STZ-treated tactile hypersensitive diabetic rats exhibited an enhanced (2.5-fold) rightward (depolarizing) shift in peak high-voltage activated (HVA) Ca(2+) current density with a concomitant appearance of a low-voltage activated (LVA) Ca(2+) current component. LVA Ca(2+) currents present in DRG neurons from hypersensitive diabetic rats exhibited a marked depolarizing shift in steady-state inactivation. Forced-exercise attenuated diabetes-associated changes in HVA Ca(2+) current density while preventing the depolarizing shift in steady-state inactivation of LVA Ca(2+) currents. Forced-exercise markedly delays the onset of diabetes-associated neuropathic pain, in part, by attenuating associated changes in HVA and LVA Ca(2+) channel function within small-diameter DRG neurons possibly by altering opioidergic tone. PMID:21554321

  18. The effects of reality-based television programming on diet and exercise motivation and self-efficacy in young adults.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Robin L; Thomas, Jenna

    2013-01-01

    Grounded in social cognitive theory, this research examines the effects of reality entertainment programming and embedded commercials on viewers' perceived motivations and efficacy to exercise and consume a healthy diet as well as on food preference. In a 3 (program type) × 2 (advertisement type) study design, 253 female undergraduates were randomly assigned to watch an episode of a health-oriented reality program, a non-heath-oriented reality program, or a health-themed sitcom in which commercials for either healthy or unhealthy foods were embedded. Results indicated that perceived realism of the health-oriented reality program generated greater confidence to eat more healthily and exercise, as well as greater motivation to exercise. Additionally, program viewing differentially affected motivations to eat healthily and to exercise, but only when type of advertisement (high vs. low calorie food ads) was taken into consideration. Finally, women who watched the health-oriented reality program were more likely to choose a healthy snack at the conclusion of the experiment than those exposed to other programs, thus supporting the assertion that reality programming may potentiate positive health behaviors. The role of the embedded advertisements in altering the interpretation and health impact of the programming is also discussed. PMID:23046177

  19. Changes in markers of brain serotonin activity in response to chronic exercise in senior men.

    PubMed

    Melancon, Michel O; Lorrain, Dominique; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2014-11-01

    Aging is associated with noticeable impairments in brain serotonin transmission, which might contribute to increased vulnerability to developing depression in later life. Animal and human studies have shown that aerobic exercise can stimulate brain serotonin activity and trigger parallel elevations in tryptophan (TRP, the serotonin precursor) availability in blood plasma. However, the influence of chronic exercise on serotonergic activity in older adults is not yet known. Sixteen men aged 64 ± 3 years exercised for 1 h (67%-70% peak oxygen consumption) at baseline and following 16 weeks of aerobic training. The main outcome measures were cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), TRP, prolactin, lactate, and free fatty acids (FFA). Changes in plasma free-TRP/BCAA and prolactin served as surrogates for TRP availability and serotonin activity, respectively. Chronic exercise decreased body mass (P < 0.05) whilst it increased ventilatory threshold 2 (P < 0.01). Although training did not affect plasma TRP availability to the brain at rest, both pre- and post-training exercise challenges markedly increased TRP availability (P < 0.001). The free-TRP/BCAA values reached a ceiling during exercise that was lower following training (P < 0.05), whereas similar patterns were found for prolactin, lactate, and FFA. These data show that aerobic exercise elicits consistent transient elevations in plasma TRP availability to the brain in older men; the elevations were independent from physical training, although less pronounced following training. The data support the contention that repeated elevations in brain serotonin activity might be involved in the antidepressant effect of exercise training in older adults.

  20. Exposing College Students to Exercise: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailors, Mary H.; Jackson, Andrew S.; McFarlin, Brian K.; Turpin, Ian; Ellis, Kenneth J.; Foreyt, John P.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Bray, Molly S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. Participants: A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age 18 to 35 years,…

  1. Exposing college students to exercise: the training interventions and genetics of exercise response (TIGER) study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age ...

  2. Exercise and weight control.

    PubMed

    Stefanick, M L

    1993-01-01

    Several important questions need to be answered to increase the likelihood that exercise will be accepted by the millions in the population who are obese. What is the minimum exercise "dose" (intensity, duration, frequency) and what is the optimal mode to bring about substantial fat weight loss, with minimal loss of lean mass? What is the best nutritional plan to optimize fat utilization during exercise, without impairing performance or loss of lean mass? Which diet and exercise programs maximally increase utilization of centrally deposited fat and how can hyperplastic obesity best be treated? Also of interest is the potential role of resistance exercise for weight loss, and the predictors of weight loss success. For instance, do individuals with gynoid obesity really differ from individuals with android obesity in their utilization and loss of body fat during exercise? The potential advantages of exercise include: stimulation of fat as opposed to carbohydrate oxidation; increased energy use during the exercise itself and in the postexercise period; protection of lean body mass; possible reversal of the diet-induced suppression of BMR; and other health benefits. Among other parameters, the effectiveness of exercise on weight loss may be influenced by the type, intensity, frequency, and duration of exercise bouts and the duration of the training program, the nature of the excess fat stores, i.e., whether the person has obesity characterized by hyperplastic or hypertrophic adipose tissue or central (with large-intra-abdominal depot) or peripheral obesity, the composition and caloric content of the diet, and behavioral aspects that affect adherence to the program. With respect to this latter concern, even if a person has been very successful at weight loss in a metabolic ward or intensive program, he/she must eventually return to the outside world and figure out for himself/herself how to eat real food and/or maintain an activity level that promotes weight maintenance

  3. CORRECTED ERROR VIDEO VERSUS A PHYSICAL THERAPIST INSTRUCTED HOME EXERCISE PROGRAM: ACCURACY OF PERFORMING THERAPEUTIC SHOULDER EXERCISES

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Kamesh; Hopp, Jennifer; Stanley, Laura; Spores, Ken; Braunreiter, David

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The accurate performance of physical therapy exercises can be difficult. In this evolving healthcare climate it is important to continually look for better methods to educate patients. The use of handouts, in-person demonstration, and video instruction are all potential avenues used to teach proper exercise form. The purpose of this study was to examine if a corrected error video (CEV) would be as effective as a single visit with a physical therapist (PT) to teach healthy subjects how to properly perform four different shoulder rehabilitation exercises. Study Design This was a prospective, single-blinded interventional trial. Methods Fifty-eight subjects with no shoulder complaints were recruited from two institutions and randomized into one of two groups: the CEV group (30 subjects) was given a CEV comprised of four shoulder exercises, while the physical therapy group (28 subjects) had one session with a PT as well as a handout of how to complete the exercises. Each subject practiced the exercises for one week and was then videotaped performing them during a return visit. Videos were scored with the shoulder exam assessment tool (SEAT) created by the authors. Results There was no difference between the groups on total SEAT score (13.66 ± 0.29 vs 13.46 ± 0.30 for CEV vs PT, p = 0.64, 95% CI [−0.06, 0.037]). Average scores for individual exercises also showed no significant difference. Conclusion/Clinical Relevance These results demonstrate that the inexpensive and accessible CEV is as beneficial as direct instruction in teaching subjects to properly perform shoulder rehabilitation exercises. Level of Evidence 1b PMID:27757288

  4. Chin tuck against resistance (CTAR): new method for enhancing suprahyoid muscle activity using a Shaker-type exercise.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Wai Lam; Khoo, Jason Kai Peng; Rickard Liow, Susan J

    2014-04-01

    For patients with dysphagia resulting from upper esophageal sphincter dysfunction, strengthening the suprahyoid muscles through therapeutic exercise has proved effective in restoring oral feeding. The aim of this study was to compare the maximum and mean surface electromyography (sEMG) activity of the suprahyoid muscles during the Chin Tuck Against Resistance (CTAR) exercise and the Shaker exercise for both isokinetic and isometric tasks. During the CTAR exercises, the participant is seated while tucking the chin to compress an inflatable rubber ball, whereas during the Shaker exercise, the participant is lay supine while lifting the head to look at the feet. Forty healthy participants (20 males, 20 females) aged 21-39 years completed all four tasks in counterbalanced order, with measures of resting activation taken prior to each exercise. Although subjective feedback suggested that the sitting position for CTAR is less strenuous than the supine position for Shaker, the results of separate analyses showed significantly greater maximum sEMG values during the CTAR isokinetic and isometric exercises than during the equivalent Shaker exercises, and significantly greater mean sEMG values were observed for the CTAR isometric exercise than for the Shaker isometric exercise. Clinical trials are now needed, but the CTAR exercises appear effective in exercising the suprahyoid muscles, and they could achieve therapeutic effects comparable to those of Shaker exercises, with the potential for greater compliance by patients.

  5. Building Technologies Program Key Activities

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-15

    The Building Technologies Program (BTP) employs a balanced approach to making buildings more energy efficient. The three pillars of our program, research and development (R&D), market stimulation, and building and equipment standards, help meet our strategic vision.

  6. Acute effects of exercise on mood and EEG activity in healthy young subjects: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lattari, Eduardo; Portugal, Eduardo; Moraes, Helena; Machado, Sérgio; Santos, Tony M; Deslandes, Andrea C

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography has been used to establish the relationship among cortical activity, exercise and mood, such as asymmetry, absolute and relative power. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the influence of cortical activity on mood state induced by exercise. The Preferred Reporting Items in Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses was followed in this study. The studies were retrieved from MEDLINE/PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and SciELO. Search was conducted in all databases using the following terms: EEG asymmetry, sLORETA, exercise, with affect, mood and emotions. Based on the defined criteria, a total of 727 articles were found in the search conducted in the literature (666 in Pubmed, 54 in ISI Web of Science, 2 in SciELO and 5 in other data sources). Total of 11 studies were selected which properly met the criteria for this review. Nine out of 11 studies used the frontal asymmetry, four used absolute and relative power and one used sLORETA. With regard to changes in cortical activity and mood induced by exercise, six studies attributed this result to different intensities, one to duration, one to type of exercise and one to fitness level. In general, EEG measures showed contradictory evidence of its ability to predict or modulate psychological mood states through exercise intervention.

  7. The Activity of Surface Electromyographic Signal of Selected Muscles during Classic Rehabilitation Exercise.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jinzhuang; Sun, Jinli; Gao, Junmin; Wang, Hongrui; Yang, Xincai

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Prone bridge, unilateral bridge, supine bridge, and bird-dog are classic rehabilitation exercises, which have been advocated as effective ways to improve core stability among healthy individuals and patients with low back pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of seven selected muscles during rehabilitation exercises through the signal of surface electromyographic. Approaches. We measured the surface electromyographic signals of four lower limb muscles, two abdominal muscles, and one back muscle during rehabilitation exercises of 30 healthy students and then analyzed its activity level using the median frequency method. Results. Different levels of muscle activity during the four rehabilitation exercises were observed. The prone bridge and unilateral bridge caused the greatest muscle fatigue; however, the supine bridge generated the lowest muscle activity. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between left and right body side muscles in the median frequency slope during the four rehabilitation exercises of seven muscles. Conclusions. The prone bridge can affect the low back and lower limb muscles of most people. The unilateral bridge was found to stimulate muscles much more active than the supine bridge. The bird-dog does not cause much fatigue to muscles but can make most selected muscles active. PMID:27195151

  8. Does a Wii-based exercise program enhance balance control of independently functioning older adults? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Laufer, Yocheved; Dar, Gali; Kodesh, Einat

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise programs that challenge an individual’s balance have been shown to reduce the risk of falls among older adults. Virtual reality computer-based technology that provides the user with opportunities to interact with virtual objects is used extensively for entertainment. There is a growing interest in the potential of virtual reality-based interventions for balance training in older adults. This work comprises a systematic review of the literature to determine the effects of intervention programs utilizing the Nintendo Wii console on balance control and functional performance in independently functioning older adults. Methods Studies were obtained by searching the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, and Google Scholar, followed by a hand search of bibliographic references of the included studies. Included were randomized controlled trials written in English in which Nintendo Wii Fit was used to enhance standing balance performance in older adults and compared with an alternative exercise treatment, placebo, or no treatment. Results Seven relevant studies were retrieved. The four studies examining the effect of Wii-based exercise compared with no exercise reported positive effects on at least one outcome measure related to balance performance in older adults. Studies comparing Wii-based training with alternative exercise programs generally indicated that the balance improvements achieved by Wii-based training are comparable with those achieved by other exercise programs. Conclusion The review indicates that Wii-based exercise programs may serve as an alternative to more conventional forms of exercise aimed at improving balance control. However, due to the great variability between studies in terms of the intervention protocols and outcome measures, as well as methodological limitations, definitive recommendations as to optimal treatment protocols and the potential of such an intervention as a safe and effective home

  9. Effects of circuit-based exercise programs on the body composition of elderly obese women

    PubMed Central

    Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Lima, Lucas S; de Andrade, Socrates; Madureira, Angelo; Rica, Roberta L; dos Santos, Rodrigo Nolasco; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Silva, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez, Daniel; Figueira, Aylton; Pontes, Francisco Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of circuit-based exercise on the body composition in obese older women by focusing on physical exercise and body weight (BW) gain control in older people. Methods Seventy older women (>60 years old) voluntarily took part in the study. Participants were randomized into six different groups according to body mass index (BMI): appropriate weight (AW) control (AWC) and trained (AWT) groups, overweight (OW) control (OWC) and trained (OWT) groups, and obesity (O) control (OC) and trained (OT) groups. The exercise program consisted of 50 minutes of exercise three times per week for 12 weeks. The exercises were alternated between upper and lower body using rest between sets for 40 seconds with intensity controlled by heart rate (70% of work). The contraction time established was 5 seconds to eccentric and concentric muscular action phase. The following anthropometric parameters were evaluated: height (m), body weight (BW, kg), body fat (BF, %), fat mass (FM, kg), lean mass (LM, kg), and BMI (kg/m2). Results The values (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) of relative changes to BW (−8.0% ± 0.8%), BF (−21.4% ± 2.1%), LM (3.0% ± 0.3%), and FM (−31.2% ± 3.0%) to the OT group were higher (P < 0.05) than in the AWT (BW: −2.0% ± 1.1%; BF: −4.6% ± 1.8%; FM: −7.0% ± 2.8%; LM: 0.2% ± 1.1%) and OWT (BW: −4.5% ± 1.0%; BF: −11.0% ± 2.2%; FM: −16.1% ± 3.2%; LM: −0.2% ± 1.0%) groups; additionally, no differences were found for C groups. While reduction (P < 0.03) in BMI according to absolute values was observed for all trained groups (AWT: 22 ± 1 versus 21 ± 1; OWT: 27 ± 1 versus 25 ± 1, OT: 34 ± 1 versus 30 ± 1) after training, no differences were found for C groups. Conclusion In summary, circuit-based exercise is an effective method for promoting reduction in anthropometrics parameters in obese older women. PMID:23271901

  10. Effects of Pilates Exercise Programs in People With Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Patti, Antonino; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Messina, Giuseppe; Montalto, Maria Alessandra; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Pilates method has recently become a fast-growing popular way of exercise recommended for healthy individuals and those engaged in rehabilitation. Several published studies have examined the effects of Pilates method in people with chronic low back pain (LBP). The objective of this study is to describe and provide an extensive overview of the scientific literature comparing the effectiveness of the Pilates method on pain and disability in patients with chronic nonspecific LBP. The study is based on the data from the following sources: MEDLINE-NLM, MEDLINE-EBSCO, Scopus Elsevier, Cochrane, DOAJ, SciELO, and PLOSONE. Original articles and systematic reviews of adults with chronic nonspecific LBP that evaluated pain and/or disability were included in this study; studies in which the primary treatment was based on Pilates method exercises compared with no treatment, minimal intervention, other types of intervention, or other types of exercises. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were adopted. The literature search included 7 electronic databases and the reference list of relevant systematic reviews and original articles to July 2014. Two independent investigators conducted the literature search and performed the synthesis as follows: Study Design; Sample (n); Disability measure; Intervention; and Main results. The searches identified a total of 128 articles. From these, 29 were considered eligible and were included in the analysis. The items were stratified as follows: Pilates method versus other kind of exercises (n = 6 trials) and Pilates method versus no treatment group or minimal intervention for short-term pain (n = 9 trials); the therapeutic effect of the Pilates method in randomized cohorts (n = 5); and analysis of reviews (n = 9). We found that there is a dearth of studies that clearly demonstrates the efficacy of a specific Pilates exercise program over another in the treatment of chronic pain. However

  11. Effects of Pilates exercise programs in people with chronic low back pain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Patti, Antonino; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Messina, Giuseppe; Montalto, Maria Alessandra; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The Pilates method has recently become a fast-growing popular way of exercise recommended for healthy individuals and those engaged in rehabilitation. Several published studies have examined the effects of Pilates method in people with chronic low back pain (LBP). The objective of this study is to describe and provide an extensive overview of the scientific literature comparing the effectiveness of the Pilates method on pain and disability in patients with chronic nonspecific LBP. The study is based on the data from the following sources: MEDLINE-NLM, MEDLINE-EBSCO, Scopus Elsevier, Cochrane, DOAJ, SciELO, and PLOSONE. Original articles and systematic reviews of adults with chronic nonspecific LBP that evaluated pain and/or disability were included in this study; studies in which the primary treatment was based on Pilates method exercises compared with no treatment, minimal intervention, other types of intervention, or other types of exercises. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were adopted. The literature search included 7 electronic databases and the reference list of relevant systematic reviews and original articles to July 2014. Two independent investigators conducted the literature search and performed the synthesis as follows: Study Design; Sample (n); Disability measure; Intervention; and Main results. The searches identified a total of 128 articles. From these, 29 were considered eligible and were included in the analysis. The items were stratified as follows: Pilates method versus other kind of exercises (n = 6 trials) and Pilates method versus no treatment group or minimal intervention for short-term pain (n = 9 trials); the therapeutic effect of the Pilates method in randomized cohorts (n = 5); and analysis of reviews (n = 9). We found that there is a dearth of studies that clearly demonstrates the efficacy of a specific Pilates exercise program over another in the treatment of chronic pain. However, the

  12. A computer program for comprehensive ST-segment depression/heart rate analysis of the exercise ECG test.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, R; Vänttinen, H; Sievänen, H; Malmivuo, J

    1996-06-01

    The ST-segment depression/heart rate (ST/HR) analysis has been found to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the exercise ECG test in detecting myocardial ischemia. Recently, three different continuous diagnostic variables based on the ST/HR analysis have been introduced; the ST/HR slope, the ST/HR index and the ST/HR hysteresis. The latter utilises both the exercise and recovery phases of the exercise ECG test, whereas the two former are based on the exercise phase only. This present article presents a computer program which not only calculates the above three diagnostic variables but also plots the full diagrams of ST-segment depression against heart rate during both exercise and recovery phases for each ECG lead from given ST/HR data. The program can be used in the exercise ECG diagnosis of daily clinical practice provided that the ST/HR data from the ECG measurement system can be linked to the program. At present, the main purpose of the program is to provide clinical and medical researchers with a practical tool for comprehensive clinical evaluation and development of the ST/HR analysis. PMID:8835841

  13. A computer program for comprehensive ST-segment depression/heart rate analysis of the exercise ECG test.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, R; Vänttinen, H; Sievänen, H; Malmivuo, J

    1996-06-01

    The ST-segment depression/heart rate (ST/HR) analysis has been found to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the exercise ECG test in detecting myocardial ischemia. Recently, three different continuous diagnostic variables based on the ST/HR analysis have been introduced; the ST/HR slope, the ST/HR index and the ST/HR hysteresis. The latter utilises both the exercise and recovery phases of the exercise ECG test, whereas the two former are based on the exercise phase only. This present article presents a computer program which not only calculates the above three diagnostic variables but also plots the full diagrams of ST-segment depression against heart rate during both exercise and recovery phases for each ECG lead from given ST/HR data. The program can be used in the exercise ECG diagnosis of daily clinical practice provided that the ST/HR data from the ECG measurement system can be linked to the program. At present, the main purpose of the program is to provide clinical and medical researchers with a practical tool for comprehensive clinical evaluation and development of the ST/HR analysis.

  14. [Effect of therapeutic exercise on physical fitness in a school health program for obese children].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Tatsumi, M

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determined characteristics of physical fitness in obese children, and to examine the effect of a diet-exercise program, developed in our laboratory, on the physical fitness of these children. To accomplish the first objective, a physical fitness test consisting of 11 items was administered on 126 obese and normal weight children (boys 83, girls 43) matched for age, sex, and stature. The children, 9-10 years of age, were pupils from 11 public elementary schools in Morioka, Iwate, Japan. To accomplish the second objective, 92 obese children participated in a study. The children were divided into experimental and control groups. Children in the experimental group (n = 50) participated in a diet-exercise program for three months, while children in the control group (n = 42) were left alone without taking part in the program. The results of this study are summarized as follows; 1. The obese children were found to be significantly inferior to the normal-weight children in fitness items such as standing long jump, pull-ups, sit-ups, step test, and total fitness scores. While no differences in lying trunk extension and standing trunk flexion for body flexibility were observed, the obese children were found to be superior to the normal weight children in static strength such as grip and back strengths. 2. The poor physical fitness of the obese children was found to be negatively affected by their excess body fat, rather than body weight, and that this trend was more pronounced for boys than for girls. 3. The intervention study clearly demonstrated that children in the experimental group improved in physical fitness for most items, especially in abdominal muscle endurance, aerobic capacity, and total physical fitness. 4. It was shown that the diet-exercise program, which comprised guidance on physical exercise and individual nutrition counseling was very useful, because the participants should decrease a considerable in percent overweight

  15. Changes in voluntary activation assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation during prolonged cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Jubeau, Marc; Rupp, Thomas; Perrey, Stephane; Temesi, John; Wuyam, Bernard; Levy, Patrick; Verges, Samuel; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2014-01-01

    Maximal central motor drive is known to decrease during prolonged exercise although it remains to be determined whether a supraspinal deficit exists, and if so, when it appears. The purpose of this study was to evaluate corticospinal excitability and muscle voluntary activation before, during and after a 4-h cycling exercise. Ten healthy subjects performed three 80-min bouts on an ergocycle at 45% of their maximal aerobic power. Before exercise and immediately after each bout, neuromuscular function was evaluated in the quadriceps femoris muscles under isometric conditions. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess voluntary activation at the cortical level (VATMS), corticospinal excitability via motor-evoked potential (MEP) and intracortical inhibition by cortical silent period (CSP). Electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve was used to measure voluntary activation at the peripheral level (VAFNES) and muscle contractile properties. Maximal voluntary force was significantly reduced after the first bout (13 ± 9%, P<0.01) and was further decreased (25 ± 11%, P<0.001) at the end of exercise. CSP remained unchanged throughout the protocol. Rectus femoris and vastus lateralis but not vastus medialis MEP normalized to maximal M-wave amplitude significantly increased during cycling. Finally, significant decreases in both VATMS and VAFNES (∼ 8%, P<0.05 and ∼ 14%, P<0.001 post-exercise, respectively) were observed. In conclusion, reductions in VAFNES after a prolonged cycling exercise are partly explained by a deficit at the cortical level accompanied by increased corticospinal excitability and unchanged intracortical inhibition. When comparing the present results with the literature, this study highlights that changes at the cortical and/or motoneuronal levels depend not only on the type of exercise (single-joint vs. whole-body) but also on exercise intensity and/or duration. PMID:24586559

  16. Effects of a single bout of lower-body aerobic exercise on muscle activation and performance during subsequent lower- and upper-body resistance exercise workouts.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jeremy G; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E; Judelson, Daniel A

    2014-05-01

    A single bout of lower-body aerobic exercise may negatively affect a subsequent lower-body resistance exercise workout. However, less is known regarding the effects of a lower-body aerobic workout on muscle activation and performance during a subsequent upper-body resistance exercise workout. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation and performance during lower- and upper-body resistance exercise workouts after a single bout of lower-body aerobic exercise on an elliptical machine. Fourteen men (mean age = 24.1 ± 2.3 years, height = 180.8 ± 6.9 cm, body mass = 91.9 ± 16.4 kg) completed 4 trials in random order. Two trials consisted of 30 minutes on the elliptical machine, using the lower body only, at 70% of age-predicted maximum heart rate before either a back squat or bench press workout, consisting of 3 sets to failure performed at 75% 1 repetition maximum. The other 2 trials consisted of only the back squat or bench press resistance workouts. To quantify muscle activation, bipolar surface electromyography electrodes were placed on the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis or pectoralis major. Acute lower-body aerobic exercise on an elliptical machine significantly reduced the number of repetitions completed for the back squat but not the bench press exercise. There was no significant difference in muscle activation between the elliptical and no elliptical conditions. However, for both exercises and conditions, muscle activation increased significantly between the first and final repetitions for the first 2 sets but not for the third set. These results suggest that to optimize the quality of a lower-body resistance-training workout, the workout should not be preceded by lower-body aerobic exercise.

  17. Effect of a four-week exercise program on the secretion of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2 and IL-6 cytokines in elite Taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine how a 4-week exercise program affects the serum levels of certain cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The study involved 10 elite male Taekwondo athletes (mean age, 20.67±0.24 years; mean weight, 65.45±1.69 kg) who were studying at the Physical Education and Sports High School of Selçuk University (Konya, Turkey) in June 2014. The subjects were involved in a Taekwondo exercise program on every weekday for 4 weeks. The subjects were also engaged in an exercise to exhaustion session twice; once before starting the 4-week exercise program and once upon completion of the program. Blood samples were collected from the subjects in four rounds: During rest, upon fatigue, and before and after the 4-week exercise program. These samples were analyzed to establish the serum levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-6 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kits. Pre- and post-exercise program, the IFN-γ and TNF-α levels did not show any significant difference. When compared with the pre-exercise levels, serum IL-2 levels of the subjects were found to be elevated after the 4-week exercise program. The highest serum IL-6 values were established after the subjects were exercised to fatigue before the exercise program was initiated (P<0.05). The 4-week exercise program resulted in a decrease in IL-6 levels (P<0.05). The findings of the study indicate that a 4-week exercise program did not result in significant changes in IFN-γ and TNF-α levels, but led to an increase in IL-2 levels. The notable finding of the present study is that a 4-week exercise program reduces cellular immune functions and, thus, the levels of IL-6, which negatively influences performance. PMID:27588179

  18. Exercise-Induced Release of Pharmacologically Active Substances and Their Relevance for Therapy of Hepatic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Schon, Hans-Theo; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Chronic liver disease (CLD) features constant parenchymal injury and repair together with an increasing hepatic impairment, finally leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis and a heightened risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Closely related to the rise in obesity, the worldwide prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the most common form of CLD, has reached an epidemic dimension and is estimated to afflict up to 46% of the general population, including more than one out of three U.S. citizens. Up to now there is no effective drug treatment available, which is why recommendations encompass both exercise programs and changes in dietary habits. Exercise is well-known for unleashing potent anti-inflammatory effects, which can principally counteract liver inflammation and chronic low-grade inflammation. This review article summarizes the underlying mechanisms responsible for the exercise-mediated anti-inflammatory effects, illustrates the application in animal models as well as in humans, and highlights the therapeutic value when possible. Based on the available results there is no doubt that exercise can even be beneficial in an advanced stage of liver disease and it is the goal of this review article to provide evidence for the therapeutic impact on fibrosis, cirrhosis, and HCC and to assess whether exercise might be of value as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of CLD. In principle, all exercise programs carried out in these high-risk patients should be guided and observed by qualified healthcare professionals to guarantee the patients’ safety. Nevertheless, it is also necessary to additionally determine the optimal amount and intensity of exercise to maximize its value, which is why further studies are essential. PMID:27625607

  19. Exercise-Induced Release of Pharmacologically Active Substances and Their Relevance for Therapy of Hepatic Injury.

    PubMed

    Schon, Hans-Theo; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Chronic liver disease (CLD) features constant parenchymal injury and repair together with an increasing hepatic impairment, finally leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis and a heightened risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Closely related to the rise in obesity, the worldwide prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the most common form of CLD, has reached an epidemic dimension and is estimated to afflict up to 46% of the general population, including more than one out of three U.S. citizens. Up to now there is no effective drug treatment available, which is why recommendations encompass both exercise programs and changes in dietary habits. Exercise is well-known for unleashing potent anti-inflammatory effects, which can principally counteract liver inflammation and chronic low-grade inflammation. This review article summarizes the underlying mechanisms responsible for the exercise-mediated anti-inflammatory effects, illustrates the application in animal models as well as in humans, and highlights the therapeutic value when possible. Based on the available results there is no doubt that exercise can even be beneficial in an advanced stage of liver disease and it is the goal of this review article to provide evidence for the therapeutic impact on fibrosis, cirrhosis, and HCC and to assess whether exercise might be of value as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of CLD. In principle, all exercise programs carried out in these high-risk patients should be guided and observed by qualified healthcare professionals to guarantee the patients' safety. Nevertheless, it is also necessary to additionally determine the optimal amount and intensity of exercise to maximize its value, which is why further studies are essential. PMID:27625607

  20. Exercise-Induced Release of Pharmacologically Active Substances and Their Relevance for Therapy of Hepatic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Schon, Hans-Theo; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Chronic liver disease (CLD) features constant parenchymal injury and repair together with an increasing hepatic impairment, finally leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis and a heightened risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Closely related to the rise in obesity, the worldwide prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the most common form of CLD, has reached an epidemic dimension and is estimated to afflict up to 46% of the general population, including more than one out of three U.S. citizens. Up to now there is no effective drug treatment available, which is why recommendations encompass both exercise programs and changes in dietary habits. Exercise is well-known for unleashing potent anti-inflammatory effects, which can principally counteract liver inflammation and chronic low-grade inflammation. This review article summarizes the underlying mechanisms responsible for the exercise-mediated anti-inflammatory effects, illustrates the application in animal models as well as in humans, and highlights the therapeutic value when possible. Based on the available results there is no doubt that exercise can even be beneficial in an advanced stage of liver disease and it is the goal of this review article to provide evidence for the therapeutic impact on fibrosis, cirrhosis, and HCC and to assess whether exercise might be of value as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of CLD. In principle, all exercise programs carried out in these high-risk patients should be guided and observed by qualified healthcare professionals to guarantee the patients’ safety. Nevertheless, it is also necessary to additionally determine the optimal amount and intensity of exercise to maximize its value, which is why further studies are essential.

  1. Posterior muscle chain activity during various extension exercises: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Back extension exercises are often used in the rehabilitation of low back pain. However, at present it is not clear how the posterior muscles are recruited during different types of extension exercises. Therefore, the present study will evaluate the myoelectric activity of thoracic, lumbar and hip extensor muscles during different extension exercises in healthy persons. Based on these physiological observations we will make recommendations regarding the use of extensions exercises in clinical practice. Methods Fourteen healthy subjects performed four standardized extension exercises (dynamic trunk extension, dynamic-static trunk extension, dynamic leg extension, dynamic-static leg extension) in randomized order at an intensity of 60% of 1-RM (one repetition maximum). Surface EMG signals of Latissimus dorsi (LD), Longissimus thoracis pars thoracic (LTT) and lumborum (LTL), Iliocostalis lumborum pars thoracic (ILT) and lumborum (ILL), lumbar Multifidus (LM) and Gluteus Maximus (GM) were measured during the various exercises. Subsequently, EMG root mean square values were calculated and compared between trunk and leg extension exercises, as well as between a dynamic and dynamic-static performance using mixed model analysis. During the dynamic exercises a 2 second concentric contraction was followed by a 2 second eccentric contraction, whereas in the dynamic-static performance, a 5 second isometric interval was added in between the concentric and eccentric contraction phase. Results In general, the muscles of the posterior chain were recruited on a higher level during trunk extension (mean ± SD, 56.6 ± 30.8%MVC) compared to leg extension (47.4 ± 30.3%MVC) (p ≤ 0.001). No significant differences were found in mean muscle activity between dynamic and dynamic-static performances (p = 0.053). The thoracic muscles (LTT and ILT) were recruited more during trunk extension (64.9 ± 27.1%MVC) than during leg extension (54.2 ± 22.1%MVC) (p = 0.045) without

  2. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-08-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12-16 Hz), and beta (16-25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children.

  3. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-01-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5–8 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12–16 Hz), and beta (16–25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children. PMID:27656629

  4. Cross-activation and detraining effects of tongue exercise in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Schaser, Allison J; Ciucci, Michelle R; Connor, Nadine P

    2016-01-15

    Voice and swallowing deficits can occur with aging. Tongue exercise paired with a swallow may be used to treat swallowing disorders, but may also benefit vocal function due to cross-system activation effects. It is unknown how exercise-based neuroplasticity contributes to behavior and maintenance following treatment. Eighty rats were used to examine behavioral parameters and changes in neurotrophins after tongue exercise paired with a swallow. Tongue forces and ultrasonic vocalizations were recorded before and after training/detraining in young and old rats. Tissue was analyzed for neurotrophin content. Results showed tongue exercise paired with a swallow was associated with increased tongue forces at all ages. Gains diminished after detraining in old rats. Age-related changes in vocalizations, neurotrophin 4 (NT4), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were found. Minimal cross-system activation effects were observed. Neuroplastic benefits were demonstrated with exercise in old rats through behavioral improvements and up-regulation of BDNF in the hypoglossal nucleus. Tongue exercise paired with a swallow should be developed, studied, and optimized in human clinical research to treat swallowing and voice disorders in elderly people.

  5. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-01-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5–8 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12–16 Hz), and beta (16–25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children.

  6. Adolescents’ attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness predict physical activity 5 and 10 years later

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Dan J.; Sirard, John R.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether adolescent attitudes towards sports, exercise and fitness predict moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) 5 and 10 years later. Method A diverse group of 1902 adolescents participating in Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens), reported weekly MVPA and attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness in EAT-I (1998-99), EAT-II (2003-04), and EAT-III (2008-09). Results Mean MVPA was 6.4, 4.8, and 4.0 hrs/wk at baseline, 5-yr, and 10-yr follow-up, respectively. Attitudes toward sports, exercise, and fitness together predicted MVPA at 5- and 10-years. Among the predictors of 5- and 10-year MVPA, attitude’s effect size, though modest, was comparable to the effect sizes for sports participation and BMI. Adolescents with more-favorable attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness engaged in approximately 30-40% more weekly MVPA at follow-up (1.7 hr/wk at 5 years and 1.2 hr/wk at 10 years) than those with less-favorable attitudes. Conclusion Adolescents’ exercise-related attitudes predict subsequent MVPA independent of baseline behavior suggesting that youth MVPA promotion efforts may provide long-term benefits by helping youth develop favorable exercise attitudes. PMID:21130803

  7. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-08-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12-16 Hz), and beta (16-25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children. PMID:27656629

  8. Examining the role of activity, exercise, and pharmacology in mild COPD.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Denis E; Gebke, Kevin B

    2014-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and, although it is a preventable and treatable disease, it often remains undiagnosed in patients with mild disease. It is now evident that pathologic changes and physiologic impairment start early in disease progression, and even patients with mild airflow limitation have impairment in the form of exertional dyspnea, general fatigue, and exercise intolerance. Primary care physicians are optimally positioned to recognize these progressive activity restrictions in their patients, usually involving little more than a detailed patient history and a simple symptom questionnaire. Once a patient with persistent activity-related dyspnea has been diagnosed with COPD, bronchodilators can effectively address expiratory airflow limitation and lung hyperinflation that underlie symptoms. These pharmacologic interventions work in conjunction with nonpharmacologic interventions, including smoking cessation, exercise training, and pulmonary rehabilitation. Although the benefits of exercise intervention are well established in patients with more severe COPD, a small amount of new data is emerging that supports the benefits of both pharmacologic treatment and exercise training for improving exercise endurance in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD. This review examines the growing body of data that suggests that early identification-most likely by primary care physicians-and appropriate intervention can favorably impact the symptoms, exercise tolerance, health status, quality of life, hospitalizations, and economic costs of COPD. PMID:25295658

  9. Muscle mitochondrial density after exhaustive exercise in dogs - Prolonged restricted activity and retraining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Philpott, D.; Pohoska, E.; Olszewska, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on mitochondrial density (MD) and ultrastructural changes in quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy, male mongrel dogs before and after restricted activity (RA) and following a subsequent 2-month exercise retraining period. Mean time to exhaustion in the 2-month group decreased from 177 +/- 11 min before to 90 +/- 16 min after RA; retraining increased tolerance to 219 +/- 36 min above the pre-RA and 143 percent above the post-RA time. Post-RA exhaustion time in the 5-months group was 25 and 45 min. Muscle samples taken after RA showed abnormalities indicative of degeneration, which were reversed by retraining. Resting MD decreased from a control level of 27.8 percent to 14.7 percent and 16.3 percent, and was restored to 27.1 percent after retraining. Exhaustive exercise caused an increase in MD under control conditions and after RA, but not following retraining. Disruption of mitochondria after exercise was evident after 5-month confinement. Factors causing mitochondrial changes and eventually their disruption during exercise after restricted activity are not related as much to the state of fatigue as to the pre-exercise quality of the muscle modified by disease or training.

  10. Rapid decrease in active tension generated by C2C12 myotubes after termination of artificial exercise.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hideaki; Hirano, Minoru; Shimizu, Kazunori; Nagamori, Eiji

    2010-12-01

    We found that the active tension of C2C12 myotubes that had been subjected to artificial exercise for ~10 days decreased rapidly after termination of the artificial exercise. When differentiated C2C12 myotubes were subjected to continuous 1 Hz artificial exercise for ~10 days, the active tension increased to ~4× compared to that before application of the artificial exercise, as reported previously. On termination of artificial exercise, the active tension decreased rapidly, the level reaching that before application of the artificial exercise within 8 h. Concomitant with the decrease in the active tension, an increase in the amount of ubiquitinated proteins was observed. Real time RT-PCR revealed that the expression of several genes associated with atrophy, namely Smc6, Vegfa, Jarid2, Kitl, Cds2, Inmt, Fasn, Neurl, Topors, and Cul2, were also changed after termination of artificial exercise. These results indicate that termination of artificial exercise induced atrophy-like responses of C2C12 myotubes. Here we found that during the decrease in active tension, the sarcomere structure, especially the thin filament structure, decayed rapidly after termination of artificial exercise. On reapplication of the artificial exercise, the active tension was restored rapidly, within 8 h, concomitant with reformation of the sarcomere structure. These results indicate that disassembly of the sarcomere structure may be one of the reasons for the active tension decrease during disuse muscle atrophy.

  11. Exercise and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chipkin, S R; Klugh, S A; Chasan-Taber, L

    2001-08-01

    As rates of diabetes mellitus and obesity continue to increase, physical activity continues to be a fundamental form of therapy. Exercise influences several aspects of diabetes, including blood glucose concentrations, insulin action and cardiovascular risk factors. Blood glucose concentrations reflect the balance between skeletal muscle uptake and ambient concentrations of both insulin and counterinsulin hormones. Difficulties in predicting the relative impact of these factors can result in either hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. Despite the variable impact of exercise on blood glucose, exercise consistently improves insulin action and several cardiovascular risk factors. Beyond the acute impact of physical activity, long-term exercise behaviors have been repeatedly associated with decreased rates of type 2 diabetes. While exercise produces many benefits, it is not without risks for patients with diabetes mellitus. In addition to hyperglycemia, from increased hepatic glucose production, insufficient insulin levels can foster ketogenesis from excess concentrations of fatty acids. At the opposite end of the glucose spectrum, hypoglycemia can result from excess glucose uptake due to either increased insulin concentrations, enhanced insulin action or impaired carbohydrate absorption. To decrease the risk for hypoglycemia, insulin doses should be reduced prior to exercise, although some insulin is typically still needed. Although precise risks of exercise on existing diabetic complications have not been well studied, it seems prudent to consider the potential to worsen nephropathy or retinopathy, or to precipitate musculoskeletal injuries. There is more substantive evidence that autonomic neuropathy may predispose patients to arrhythmias. Of clear concern, increased physical activity can precipitate a cardiac event in those with underlying CAD. Recognizing these risks can prompt actions to minimize their impact. Positive actions that are part of exercise programs for