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Sample records for active female adolescents

  1. Physical Activity and Adolescent Female Psychological Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covey, Linda A.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between self-reported past and present physical activity levels and self-image, sense of mastery, gender role identity, self-perceived physical ability, and self-perceived attractiveness were studied for 149 female high school sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Results are discussed in terms of adolescent emotional health. (SLD)

  2. Physical Activity in Adolescent Females with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Schweiger, Bahareh; Klingensmith, Georgeanna; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. We sought to identify amount of physical activity and relationship of physical activity to glycemic control among adolescent females 11 to 19 years of age with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We also sought to evaluate associations of age and ethnicity with physical activity levels. Research Design and Methods. Adolescent females ages 11–19 years (n = 203) were recruited during their outpatient diabetes appointment. Physical activity was obtained by self-report and was categorized as the number of days subjects had accumulated 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during the past 7 days and for a typical week. Results. Girls reported being physically active for at least 60 minutes per day on 2.7 ± 2.3 days in the last week, and on 3.1 ± 2.2 days in a typical week. A greater number of physically active days in a typical week were associated with lower A1c (P = .049) in linear regression analysis. Conclusion. Adolescent females with T1DM report exercising for at least 60 minutes about 3 days per week, which does not meet the international recommendations of 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous activity per day. It is particularly important that adolescent girls with T1DM be encouraged to exercise since a greater number of physically active days per week is associated with better glycemic control. PMID:20652080

  3. Physical activity in adolescent females with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Bahareh; Klingensmith, Georgeanna; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K

    2010-01-01

    Objective. We sought to identify amount of physical activity and relationship of physical activity to glycemic control among adolescent females 11 to 19 years of age with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We also sought to evaluate associations of age and ethnicity with physical activity levels. Research Design and Methods. Adolescent females ages 11-19 years (n = 203) were recruited during their outpatient diabetes appointment. Physical activity was obtained by self-report and was categorized as the number of days subjects had accumulated 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during the past 7 days and for a typical week. Results. Girls reported being physically active for at least 60 minutes per day on 2.7 +/- 2.3 days in the last week, and on 3.1 +/- 2.2 days in a typical week. A greater number of physically active days in a typical week were associated with lower A1c (P = .049) in linear regression analysis. Conclusion. Adolescent females with T1DM report exercising for at least 60 minutes about 3 days per week, which does not meet the international recommendations of 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous activity per day. It is particularly important that adolescent girls with T1DM be encouraged to exercise since a greater number of physically active days per week is associated with better glycemic control. PMID:20652080

  4. Views of Adolescent Female Youth on Physical Activity During Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Yungblut, Hope E.; Schinke, Robert J.; McGannon, Kerry R.

    2012-01-01

    Early adolescence is a time when a transition away from sport and physical activity participation is at its highest level among female youth (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004). This has led to the identification of barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation for adolescent females. Consequently there have been calls to overcome barriers and augment facilitators via the creation of gender-relevant programming. Despite these calls and efforts, a gender disparity remains, and a detailed understanding of how girls experience and interpret physical activity within the context of their lives is still lacking. The current project aimed to gain further insight into the foregoing using tenets of Interpretive Phenomenology to further understand the lived physical activity experiences of females during early adolescence, delineating their barriers to participation and the factors enabling participation. Five themes were identified and made into vignettes to facilitate understanding from adolescent females' perspectives: friends or don't know anyone, good or not good enough, fun or not fun; good feeling or gross; and peer support or peer pressure. The physical activity promotion implications for female youth are discussed within the context of these themes. Key points Please provide 3-5 bullet points of the study. Inductive qualitative methodologies can encourage the much-needed voice of female youth in sport and physical activity research. Vignettes serve, not only as a method to illustrate data, but also as a medium to teach contextually relevant information to participants and sport science service providers. The barriers and solutions to female youth engagement in physical activity are best understood through the perspectives of the intended participant. Female youth can serve as central informants in the development and analysis of research projects relating to female youth physical activity. PMID:24149121

  5. Family History Predicts Stress Fracture in Active Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Loud, Keith J.; Micheli, Lyle J.; Bristol, Stephanie; Austin, S. Bryn; Gordon, Catherine M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Increased physical activity and menstrual irregularity have been associated with increased risk for stress fracture among adult women active in athletics. The purposes of this study were to determine whether menstrual irregularity is also a risk factor for stress fracture in active female adolescents and to estimate the quantity of exercise associated with an increased risk for this injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS A case-control study was conducted of 13- to 22-year-old females diagnosed with their first stress fracture, each matched prospectively on age and self-reported ethnicity with 2 controls. Patients with chronic illnesses or use of medications known to affect bone mineral density were excluded, including use of hormonal preparations that could alter menstrual cycles. The primary outcome, stress fracture in any extremity or the spine, was confirmed radiographically. Girls with stress fracture had bone mineral density measured at the lumbar spine by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS The mean ± SD age of the 168 participants was 15.9 ± 2.1 years; 91.7% were postmenarchal, with a mean age at menarche of 13.1 ± 1.1 years. The prevalence of menstrual irregularity was similar among cases and controls. There was no significant difference in the mean hours per week of total physical activity between girls in this sample with stress fracture (8.2 hours/week) and those without (7.4 hours/week). In multivariate models, case subjects had nearly 3 times the odds of having a family member with osteoporosis or osteopenia. In secondary analyses, participants with stress fracture had a low mean spinal bone mineral density for their age. CONCLUSIONS Among highly active female adolescents, only family history was independently associated with stress fracture. The magnitude of this association suggests that further investigations of inheritable skeletal factors are warranted in this population, along with evaluation of bone mineral density in girls with stress

  6. What do sexually active adolescent females say about relationship issues?

    PubMed

    Bralock, Anita; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah

    2009-04-01

    Many sexually active teenagers face risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. The purpose of our study was to gain an understanding about influences on condom use among sexually active adolescents in relationships. Data were collected through semi-structured openended interviews. The findings of this study suggest that many adolescents desired the love of a male partner, and were willing to concede to his request of practicing unprotected sex. Findings support the urgent need for interventions that will promote skill-building techniques to negotiate safer sex behaviors among youth who are most likely to be exposed to STIs through risky behaviors.

  7. What do sexually active adolescent females say about relationship issues?

    PubMed

    Bralock, Anita; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah

    2009-04-01

    Many sexually active teenagers face risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. The purpose of our study was to gain an understanding about influences on condom use among sexually active adolescents in relationships. Data were collected through semi-structured openended interviews. The findings of this study suggest that many adolescents desired the love of a male partner, and were willing to concede to his request of practicing unprotected sex. Findings support the urgent need for interventions that will promote skill-building techniques to negotiate safer sex behaviors among youth who are most likely to be exposed to STIs through risky behaviors. PMID:19268234

  8. Do perceived cues, benefits, and barriers to physical activity differ between male and female adolescents?

    PubMed

    Tergerson, Jennifer L; King, Keith A

    2002-11-01

    A four-page survey was administered to 535 adolescents at two single-sex (one male, one female) high schools in Cincinnati, Ohio, to examine whether perceptions of physical activity differed by gender. More specifically, the survey assessed perceived cues, benefits, and barriers to exercising. Results indicated that the most helpful cue to physical activity for both female and male students was "having a friend to exercise with." The most commonly reported benefit of exercising among females was "to stay in shape," whereas the most commonly reported benefit to exercising among males was "to become strong." Among females, the most common barrier to exercising was "having no time to exercise," whereas males were most likely to report "wanting to do other things with my time." Multivariate analyses of covariance revealed that perceived cues, benefits, and barriers to physical activity differed significantly based on gender. Recommendations on specific strategies to increasing male and female adolescent physical activity levels are offered. PMID:12557633

  9. Factors Predicting Behavioral Response to a Physical Activity Intervention among Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Schneider, Margaret; Cooper, Dan M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether individual factors influenced rates of physical activity change in response to a school-based intervention. Methods: Sedentary adolescent females (N = 63) participated in a 9-month physical activity program. Weekly levels of leisure-time physical activity were reported using an interactive website. Results: Change…

  10. Do Perceived Cues, Benefits, and Barriers to Physical Activity Differ between Male and Female Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tergerson, Jennifer L.; King, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed adolescents at single-sex high schools to examine whether perceptions of physical activity differed by gender. The most helpful cue to physical activity for males and females was having a friend to exercise with. Parental encouragement and having a parent who exercised were also helpful. Wanting to do other things was a common barrier to…

  11. Factors Predicting the Physical Activity Behavior of Female Adolescents: A Test of the Health Promotion Model

    PubMed Central

    Mohamadian, Hashem

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Physical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework. Methods This cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, social support, perceived barriers, and perceived affect. Interactions among the variables were examined using path analysis within a covariance modeling framework. Results The final model accounted for an R2 value of 0.52 for physical activity and offered a good model-data fit. The results indicated that physical activity was predicted by self-esteem (β=0.46, p<0.001), perceived self-efficacy (β=0.40, p<0.001), social support (β=0.24, p<0.001), perceived barriers (β=-0.19, p<0.001), and perceived affect (β=0.17, p<0.001). Conclusions The findings of this study showed that the health promotion model was useful to predict physical activity behavior among the Iranian female adolescents. Information related to the predictors of physical activity behavior will help researchers plan more tailored culturally relevant health promotion interventions for this population. PMID:24570808

  12. Prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living in female adolescent students

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Alaine Souza; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato; Gomes, Mayra Ruana de A.; de Almeida, Ludmila Remígio; de Souza, Gabriely Feitosa F.; Cunha, Samara Barreto; Pitangui, Ana Carolina R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL) in female adolescent students. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified according to the International Headache Society criteria. The chi-square test was used to verify possible associations, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: After the exclusion of 24 questionnaires that did not met the inclusion criteria, 204 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of the adolescents was 14.0±1.4 years. The prevalence of headache was 87.7%. Of the adolescents with headache, 0.5% presented migraine without pure menstrual aura; 6.7%, migraine without aura related to menstruation; 1.6%, non-menstrual migraine without aura; 11.7%, tension-type headache and 79.3%, other headaches. Significant associations were found between pain intensity and the following variables: absenteeism (p=0.001); interference in ADL (p<0.001); medication use (p<0.001); age (p=0.045) and seek for medical care (p<0.022). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of headache in female adolescents observed in this study was high, with a negative impact in ADL and school attendance. PMID:25119759

  13. The Mediating Role of Physical Self-Concept on Relations between Biological Maturity Status and Physical Activity in Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Sean P.; Standage, Martyn; Loney, Tom; Gammon, Catherine; Neville, Helen; Sherar, Lauren B.; Malina, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the mediating role of physical self-concept on relations between biological maturity status and self-reported physical activity in adolescent British females. Biological maturity status, physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed in 407 female British year 7-9 pupils (M age = 13.2 years, SD = 1.0).…

  14. Correlates of sexual abstinence and sexual activity of low-income African American adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Childs, Gwendolyn; Moneyham, Linda; Felton, Gwen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this predictive correlational study was to examine antecedent (knowledge of HIV and spirituality) and psychosocial (attitude toward abstinence, attitude toward condom use, sexual self-efficacy, and perceived parental attitudes toward premarital sex) factors derived from the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior as correlates and predictors of both sexual abstinence and sexual activity. Additionally, this study identified the sexual practices (vaginal-penile, oral, and/or anal sex) in which African American adolescent females were most likely to engage. A sample of 94 African American adolescent females from low-income housing communities completed questionnaires. Major results included the following: (a) a high rate of sexual abstinence was reported, (b) age was the only significant predictor of condom use, and (c) sexual self-efficacy was not a significant predictor of engaging in sexual activity. The study results contribute to the development of HIV risk reduction programs and extend health care providers' knowledge of sexual counseling for adolescents.

  15. Application of a social cognitive model in explaining physical activity in Iranian female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Taymoori, P; Rhodes, R E; Berry, T R

    2010-04-01

    Adolescent Iranian girls are at high risk for physical inactivity due to cultural barriers such as restrictions regarding exercising in public and research is needed to explore ethnic and gender-related factors associated with physical activity (PA) participation. Using social cognitive theory as the guiding model, the purpose of this study was to test the fit and strength of barriers self-efficacy, outcome expectations, self-regulation and social support in explaining PA in female Iranian adolescents (n = 558). Using path analysis, social support was modeled as an antecedent of self-efficacy and outcome expectations, while self-efficacy was modeled as an antecedent of outcome expectations, self-regulatory planning and PA. Outcome expectations and self-regulatory planning were subsequently modeled as additional antecedents of PA. The model explained 52% of the variance in PA. The two significant (P < 0.05) direct effects were from self-efficacy and outcome expectations. Social support from mothers, fathers and friends had significant indirect effects on PA through self-efficacy. These results will allow for future research and interventions not only for female Iranian adolescents but also for similar cultural and immigrant groups that have been neglected to date in the PA literature.

  16. The mediating role of physical self-concept on relations between biological maturity status and physical activity in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Sean P; Standage, Martyn; Loney, Tom; Gammon, Catherine; Neville, Helen; Sherar, Lauren B; Malina, Robert M

    2011-06-01

    The current study examined the mediating role of physical self-concept on relations between biological maturity status and self-reported physical activity in adolescent British females. Biological maturity status, physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed in 407 female British year 7-9 pupils (M age = 13.2 years, SD = 1.0). Participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (Kowalski, Crocker, & Donen, 2004) and the Children and Youth Physical Self-Perceptions Profile (Whitehead, 1995). Percentage of predicted adult height attained at measurement was used as an estimate of biological maturity status. Structural equation modelling using maximum likelihood estimation and bootstrapping procedures revealed that perceptions of sports competence, body attractiveness and physical self-worth mediated an inverse relation between maturity status and physical activity. The results provide partial support for Petersen and Taylor's (1980) Mediated Effects Model of Psychological and Behavioural Adaptation to Puberty within the context of physical activity. PMID:20655102

  17. Anxiety is correlated with running in adolescent female mice undergoing activity-based anorexia

    PubMed Central

    Wable, Gauri S.; Min, Jung-Yun; Chen, Yi-Wen; Aoki, Chiye

    2015-01-01

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is a widely used animal model for identifying the biological basis of excessive exercise and starvation, two hallmarks of anorexia nervosa (AN). Anxiety is correlated with exercise in AN. Yet the anxiety level of animals in ABA has not been reported. We asked: Does food restriction as part of ABA induction change the anxiety level of animals? If so, is the degree of anxiety correlated with degree of hyperactivity? We used the open field test before food restriction and the elevated plus maze test (EPM) during food restriction to quantify anxiety among singly housed adolescent female mice and determined whether food restriction alone or combined with exercise (i.e., ABA induction) abates or increases anxiety. We show that food restriction, with or without exercise, reduced anxiety significantly, as measured by the proportion of entries into the open arms of EPM (35.73 %, p= .04). Moreover, ABA-induced individuals varied in their open arm time measure of anxiety and this value was highly and negatively correlated to the individual’s food restriction-evoked wheel activity during the 24 hours following the anxiety test (R = − .75, p= .004, N = 12). This correlation was absent among the exercise-only controls. Additionally, mice with higher increase in anxiety ran more following food restriction. Our data suggest that food restriction-evoked wheel running hyperactivity can be used as a reliable and continuous measure of anxiety in ABA. The parallel relationship between anxiety level and activity in AN and ABA-induced female mice strengthens the animal model. PMID:25730124

  18. Prospective Study of Physical Activity and Risk of Developing a Stress Fracture among Preadolescent and Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Field, Alison E.; Gordon, Catherine M.; Pierce, Laura M.; Ramappa, Arun; Kocher, Mininder S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify predictors of developing a stress fracture among adolescent females during a seven-year period. Design Prospective cohort study Setting Adolescent females living throughout the United States Participants 6831 females, aged 9–15 years at baseline, in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), an ongoing prospective cohort study. Main Exposures Exposures were assessed by self-report questionnaires completed by adolescent girls in 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2003. The adolescent girl’s history of stress fracture, including age when fracture occurred and site, were reported by their mothers, who are registered nurses, in 2004. Cox proportional hazards models were used in the analysis. Main Outcome Measure Incident stress fracture that occurred between 1997 and 2004. Results During seven years of follow-up, 267 females (3.9%) developed a stress fracture. Independent of age, age at menarche, family history of fracture, and hours per week of low and moderate impact activity, hours per week of running (relative risk (RR)=1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04–1.23), basketball (RR=1.12, 95% CI 1.03–1.22) and cheerleading and gymnastics (RR=1.12, 95% CI 1.02–1.23) were significant predictors of developing a stress fracture. No other type of high impact activity was associated with an increased risk. Conclusions Females who engage in running, basketball, cheerleading, or gymnastics should be encouraged to include varied training in lower impact activities to decrease the cumulative amount of impact in order minimize their risk of stress fractures. PMID:21464375

  19. Prospective Reciprocal Relations between Physical Activity and Depression in Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerstad, Sarah J.; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Stice, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although an inverse correlation between physical activity and depression among adolescents has been found in research, this relation has seldom been examined prospectively. Thus, we tested whether physical activity reduces risk for future escalations in depression and whether depression decreases likelihood of future change in physical…

  20. Female Adolescent Development. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, Max, Ed.

    This book emphasizes female adolescents' healthy development within a psychoanalytic frame of reference for what is normative, that also indicates the boundaries of and transitions to what is deviant. The book's 12 articles relate to 3 general topics. The two articles in part 1 of the book, which addresses biological issues, are "Female Pubertal…

  1. Prospective Reciprocal Relations between Physical Activity and Depression in Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Jerstad, Sarah J.; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Stice, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Objective Although research has found an inverse correlation between physical activity and depression among adolescents, few studies have examined this relation prospectively. Thus, we tested whether physical activity reduces risk for future escalations in depression and whether depression decreases likelihood of future change in physical activity. Method Data from a longitudinal study involving annual assessments of 496 adolescent girls (M age = 13, SD 0.7) followed over a 6-year period were analyzed to address these questions. Results Physical activity significantly reduced risk for future increases in depressive symptoms and risk for onset of major/minor depression and depressive symptoms and major/minor depression significantly reduced future physical activity, controlling for several covariates, though predictive effects were modest. Conclusions Results support a bidirectional relation between exercise and depression and imply that interventions that increase physical activity may reduce risk for depression among this high-risk population. PMID:20350037

  2. Activity-based anorexia is associated with reduced hippocampal cell proliferation in adolescent female rats.

    PubMed

    Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C; Fornal, Casimir A; Takase, Luiz F; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Arner, Candice; Walsh, B Timothy; Hoebel, Bartley G; Jacobs, Barry L

    2013-01-01

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is an animal model of anorexia nervosa that mimics core features of the clinical psychiatric disorder, including severe food restriction, weight loss, and hyperactivity. The ABA model is currently being used to study starvation-induced changes in the brain. Here, we examined hippocampal cell proliferation in animals with ABA (or the appropriate control conditions). Adolescent female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 4 groups: control (24h/day food access), food-restricted (1h/day food access), exercise (24h/day food and wheel access), and ABA (1h/day food access, 24h/day wheel access). After 3 days of ABA, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU; 200mg/kg, i.p.) was injected and the rats were perfused 2h later. Brains were removed and subsequently processed for BrdU and Ki67 immunohistochemistry. The acute induction of ABA reduced cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. This effect was significant in the hilus region of the dentate gyrus, but not in the subgranular zone, where adult neurogenesis occurs. Marked decreases in cell proliferation were also observed in the surrounding dorsal hippocampus and in the corpus callosum. These results indicate a primary effect on gliogenesis rather than neurogenesis following 3 days of ABA. For each brain region studied (except SGZ), there was a strong positive correlation between the level of cell proliferation and body weight/food intake. Future studies should examine whether these changes are maintained following long-term weight restoration and whether alterations in neurogenesis occur following longer exposures to ABA.

  3. Application of a Social Cognitive Model in Explaining Physical Activity in Iranian Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taymoori, P.; Rhodes, R. E.; Berry, T. R.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent Iranian girls are at high risk for physical inactivity due to cultural barriers such as restrictions regarding exercising in public and research is needed to explore ethnic and gender-related factors associated with physical activity (PA) participation. Using social cognitive theory as the guiding model, the purpose of this study was to…

  4. The role of peer groups in male and female adolescents' task values and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Kiuru, Noona; Watt, Anthony

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the role of peer groups and sex in adolescents' task values and physical activity. The participants were 330 Finnish Grade 6 students (173 girls, 157 boys), who responded to questionnaires that assessed physical education task values during the spring semester (Time 1). Students' physical activity was assessed one year later (Time 2). The results indicated that adolescent peer groups were moderately homogeneous in terms of task values toward physical education and physical activity. Girls' peer groups were more homogeneous than those of boys in regards to utility and attainment values. Furthermore, the results for both girls and boys showed that particularly intrinsic task value typical for the peer group predicted group members' physical activity. The findings highlight the important role of peer group membership as a determinant of future physical activity. PMID:21526593

  5. Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

  6. Masculine Female Adolescents at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma'ayan, Hadar Dubowsky

    2003-01-01

    The current literatures on girls, queer youth, and multicultural education have ignored a significant group of young people and their experiences in school. This research is a retrospective exploratory study of masculine female adolescent schooling experiences, focusing on the school experiences of adults aged 18-54 who were socially defined as…

  7. Social influences on physical activity in Anglo-Australian and Vietnamese-Australian adolescent females in a single sex school.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Andrew N; Dollman, James

    2009-01-01

    Social support is a consistent correlate of youth physical activity (PA) but few studies have examined this in cultural sub-groups. Female adolescents (n=113; 13.9+/-0.6years) from a metropolitan single sex private school participated in this study. PA was estimated using the 3 Day Physical Activity Recall (3dPAR), and aspects of social support using a specifically designed questionnaire. Anglo-Australians (n=74), whose parents were both born in Australia, were compared with Vietnamese-Australians (n=39), whose parents were both born in Vietnam. There were non-significant trends towards higher engagement in all measures of PA among Anglo-Australians. Anglo-Australians perceived higher levels of social support to be physically active. In the whole sample and in cultural sub-groups, support by mothers was a consistent predictor of PA. Among Vietnamese-Australians, activities shared with the mother predicted moderate to vigorous PA. Interventions targeting PA among adolescent females should consider interactions of social support and cultural background. PMID:18083632

  8. Cyberspace violence against girls and adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, June F

    2006-11-01

    Children and adolescents today are the first generation raised in a society in which technological literacy is essential for effective citizenship in the 21st century. With many more youth using digital technologies for educational and recreational purposes, there has been an increase in social problems in cyberspace, exposing them to different forms of cyberviolence. This article gives an overview of the developments in cyberspace, describes different types of cyberviolence, and focuses on cyberbullying among girls and adolescent females as both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. At-risk online activities among girls and adolescent females as well as strategies to promote cybersafety are presented. Current research and future directions for research are reviewed. PMID:17189499

  9. [Nutritional problems of female adolescents].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; González Iglesias, María José; Gimeno Pita, Patricia; Ortega, Rosa M

    2015-07-18

    Feeding in infancy is necessary to allow proper growth and development. Health of these early stages of life may influence the development of many diseases in the future (atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, hypertension, obesity ...). Furthermore habits set in childhood will endure throughout life. Therefore, getting adequate dietary and health patterns in childhood is vital. In adolescence occur a number of changes: rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, changes in body composition, ... that will be a challenge when getting or keeping that adequate feeding and habits. In female population requirements of different micronutrients are increased (mainly iron) and also higher energy requirement than in later stages of life occurs. However, adolescents are the main population at risk for developing eating disorders, which can pose serious problems to meet these nutritional requirements to achieve optimal development. These features and others, such as pregnant adolescents, are what make them a population that should be taken special care from nutritional point of view.

  10. Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Kumari, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values.

  11. Patterns of Sedentary Behaviours in Irish Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Aine; Heary, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Engagement in excessive sedentary behaviour represents a health risk for adolescents. The current study aimed to investigate patterns of sedentary behaviour amongst Irish female adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years old. 314 adolescents completed a questionnaire on their sedentary behaviour habits, health behaviours (physical activity, smoking,…

  12. Aerobic Capacity, Activity Levels and Daily Energy Expenditure in Male and Female Adolescents of the Kenyan Nandi Sub-Group

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Alexander R.; Ojiambo, Robert; Konstabel, Kenn; Lieberman, Daniel E.; Reilly, John J.; Speakman, John R.; Pitsiladis, Yannis P.

    2013-01-01

    The relative importance of genetic and socio-cultural influences contributing to the success of east Africans in endurance athletics remains unknown in part because the pre-training phenotype of this population remains incompletely assessed. Here cardiopulmonary fitness, physical activity levels, distance travelled to school and daily energy expenditure in 15 habitually active male (13.9±1.6 years) and 15 habitually active female (13.9±1.2) adolescents from a rural Nandi primary school are assessed. Aerobic capacity () was evaluated during two maximal discontinuous incremental exercise tests; physical activity using accelerometry combined with a global positioning system; and energy expenditure using the doubly labelled water method. The of the male and female adolescents were 73.9±5.7 ml. kg−1. min−1 and 61.5±6.3 ml. kg−1. min−1, respectively. Total time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous physical activities per day was 406±63 min (50% of total monitored time), 244±56 min (30%), 75±18 min (9%) and 82±30 min (10%). Average total daily distance travelled to and from school was 7.5±3.0 km (0.8–13.4 km). Mean daily energy expenditure, activity-induced energy expenditure and physical activity level was 12.2±3.4 MJ. day−1, 5.4±3.0 MJ. day−1 and 2.2±0.6. 70.6% of the variation in was explained by sex (partial R2 = 54.7%) and body mass index (partial R2 = 15.9%). Energy expenditure and physical activity variables did not predict variation in once sex had been accounted for. The highly active and energy-demanding lifestyle of rural Kenyan adolescents may account for their exceptional aerobic fitness and collectively prime them for later training and athletic success. PMID:23805234

  13. Role Models of Australian Female Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study to Inform Programmes Designed to Increase Physical Activity and Sport Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Janet A.; Symons, Caroline M.; Pain, Michelle D.; Harvey, Jack T.; Eime, Rochelle M.; Craike, Melinda J.; Payne, Warren R.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the importance attributed to the presence of positive role models in promoting physical activity during adolescence, this study examined role models of adolescent girls and their influence on physical activity. Seven hundred and thirty two girls in Years 7 and 11 from metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions of Victoria, Australia,…

  14. Taekwondo training and fitness in female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Bae; Stebbins, Charles L; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong-Kook

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we determined the specificity of a low frequency taekwondo training programme on physical fitness levels in adolescent females who receive limited physical education instruction (i.e. 2 days per week). Major components of physical fitness assessed were: skeletal muscle fitness (hand grip strength, bent arm hang, standing long jump, and isokinetic strength), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), speed and agility (10 × 5-m shuttle run), and cardiovascular fitness (VO(2max) and 20-m shuttle run). Changes in body composition were also assessed (dual X-ray absorptiometry, DXA). Participants were divided into two groups, a taekwondo training group (n = 21), which trained 50 min a day, 2 days per week for 12 weeks, and a control group (n = 10). Taekwondo training improved isokinetic strength, standing long jump, and sit-and-reach performance. Body fat mass and percent body fat were reduced. No changes in grip strength, bent arm hang time, speed and agility, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed. Results indicate that low frequency taekwondo training in adolescent females produces beneficial changes in skeletal muscle fitness, flexibility, and body composition in a relatively short period of time. Consequently, this specific type of training can be useful to female adolescents in structured school environments where physical education classes are limited and there is little free time for physical activity.

  15. Race and Ethnic Variation in the Schooling Consequences of Female Adolescent Sexual Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forste, Renata; Tienda, Marta

    1992-01-01

    Presents study results of the influence of adolescent childbearing and marriage on the likelihood of girls completing high school. Reports striking differences by ethnicity. Concludes that the effect of teen marriage on school completion was significant only for whites, with Latinas likely to drop out regardless of pregnancy, and married African…

  16. Thai female adolescents' perceptions of dating violence.

    PubMed

    Thongpriwan, Vipavee; McElmurry, Beverly J

    2009-10-01

    We explored how Thai female adolescents describe the meaning and context of dating violence. Twenty-four students, aged 15-17, were purposively recruited from a secondary school in Bangkok for individually audio-taped interviews. The interviews lasted 45- 70 minutes. ATLAS ti 5.2 was selected for content analysis. Five themes emerged, including characteristics of adolescent romantic relationships, influences on adolescent romantic relationships, perceptions of dating violence, cycle of dating-violence experiences, and influences on adolescents' perceptions of dating violence. The findings indicate a foundation for developing culturally sensitive programs for dating-violence prevention among Thai adolescents. PMID:19742362

  17. Major depression in mothers predict reduced ventral striatum activation in adolescent female offspring with and without depression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior research has identified reduced reward-related brain activation as a promising endophenotype for the early identification of adolescents with major depressive disorder. However, it is unclear whether reduced reward-related brain activation constitutes a true vulnerability for major depressive ...

  18. Turning Point Values of Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Vivian Center

    While the literature reveals interpersonal relations important to females, little specific data is available on values of adolescent females. Social comparison research reveals that when objective measures are unavailable to set standards, individuals compare traits and abilities with similar others. This tendency is more pronounced in periods of…

  19. Activity-based anorexia during adolescence disrupts normal development of the CA1 pyramidal cells in the ventral hippocampus of female rats.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Tara G; Ríos, Mariel B; Chan, Thomas E; Cassataro, Daniela S; Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C; Aoki, Chiye

    2014-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness characterized by restricted eating and irrational fears of gaining weight. There is no accepted pharmacological treatment for AN, and AN has the highest mortality rate among psychiatric illnesses. Anorexia nervosa most commonly affects females during adolescence, suggesting an effect of sex and hormones on vulnerability to the disease. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is a rodent model of AN that shares symptoms with AN, including over-exercise, elevation of stress hormones, and genetic links to anxiety traits. We previously reported that ABA in adolescent female rats results in increased apical dendritic branching in CA1 pyramidal cells of the ventral hippocampus at postnatal day 44 (P44). To examine the long-term effects of adolescent ABA (P44) in female rats, we compared the apical branching in the ventral hippocampal CA1 after recovery from ABA (P51) and after a relapse of ABA (P55) with age-matched controls. To examine the age-dependence of the hippocampal plasticity, we examined the effect of ABA during adulthood (P67). We found that while ABA at P44 resulted in increased branching of ventral hippocampal pyramidal cells, relapse of ABA at P55 resulted in decreased branching. ABA induced during adulthood did not have an effect on dendritic branching, suggesting an age-dependence of the vulnerability to structural plasticity. Cells from control animals were found to exhibit a dramatic increase in branching, more than doubling from P44 to P51, followed by pruning from P51 to P55. The proportion of mature spines on dendrites from the P44-ABA animals is similar to that on dendrites from P55-CON animals. These results suggest that the experience of ABA may cause precocious anatomical development of the ventral hippocampus. Importantly, we found that adolescence is a period of continued development of the hippocampus, and increased vulnerability to mental disorders during adolescence may be due to insults during this

  20. The Female Condom: Effectiveness and Convenience, Not "Female Control," Valued by U.S. Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latka, Mary H.; Kapadia, Farzana; Fortin, Princess

    2008-01-01

    Data on adolescents' views regarding the female condom are limited. We conducted seven single-gender focus groups with 47 New York City boys and girls aged 15-20 years (72% African American; 43% ever on public assistance; 72% sexually active; 25% had either been pregnant or fathered a pregnancy). Conceptual mapping was performed by participants to…

  1. Abnormality of EEG alpha asymmetry in female adolescent suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Graae, F; Tenke, C; Bruder, G; Rotheram, M J; Piacentini, J; Castro-Blanco, D; Leite, P; Towey, J

    1996-10-15

    Abnormal electroencephalographic (EEG) activity has been associated with various psychiatric disorders and behaviors, including depression, suicide, and aggression. We examined quantitative resting EEG in Hispanic female adolescent suicide attempters and matched normal controls. Computerized EEG measures were recorded at 11 scalp sites during eyes open and eyes closed periods from 16 suicide attempters and 22 normal controls. Suicide attempters differed from normal controls in alpha asymmetry. Normal adolescents had greater alpha (less activation) over right than left hemisphere, whereas suicidal adolescents had a nonsignificant asymmetry in the opposite direction. Nondepressed attempters were distinguished from depressed attempters in that they accounted for the preponderance of abnormal asymmetry, particularly in posterior regions. Alpha asymmetry over posterior regions was related to ratings of suicidal intent, but not depression severity. The alpha asymmetry in suicidal adolescents resembled that seen for depressed adults in its abnormal direction, but not in its regional distribution. Findings for suicidal adolescents are discussed in terms of a hypothesis of reduced left posterior activation, which is not related to depression but to suicidal or aggressive behavior. PMID:8894062

  2. Adolescent female C57BL/6 mice with vulnerability to activity-based anorexia exhibit weak inhibitory input onto hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Tara G.; Wable, Gauri S.; Sabaliauskas, Nicole A.; Aoki, Chiye

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by self-imposed severe starvation and often linked with excessive exercise. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is an animal model that reproduces some of the behavioral phenotypes of AN, including the paradoxical increase in voluntary exercise following food restriction (FR). Although certain rodents have been used successfully in this animal model, C57BL/6 mice are reported to be less susceptible to ABA. We re-examined the possibility that female C57BL/6 mice might exhibit ABA vulnerability during adolescence, the developmental stage/sex among the human population with particularly high AN vulnerability. After introducing the running wheel to the cage for three days, ABA was induced by restricting food access to 1 hour per day (ABA1, N=13) or 2 hours per day (ABA2, N=10). All 23 exhibited increased voluntary wheel running (p<0.005) and perturbed circadian rhythm within two days. Only one out of five survived ABA1 for three days, while ten out of ten survived ABA2 for three days and could subsequently restore their body weight and circadian rhythm. Exposure of recovered animals to a second ABA2 induction revealed a large range of vulnerability, even within littermates. To look for the cellular substrate of differences in vulnerability, we began by examining synaptic patterns in the hippocampus, a brain region that regulates anxiety as well as plasticity throughout life. Quantitative EM analysis revealed that CA1 pyramidal cells of animals vulnerable to the second ABA2 exhibit less GABAergic innervation on cell bodies and dendrites, relative to the animals resilient to the second ABA (p<0.001) or controls (p<0.05). These findings reveal that C57BL/6J adolescent females can be used to capture brain changes underlying ABA vulnerability, and that GABAergic innervation of hippocampal pyramidal neurons is one important cellular substrate to consider for understanding the progression of and resilience to AN. PMID

  3. Sapphires-in-Transition: Enhancing Personal Development among Black Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Joyce Lynom

    1994-01-01

    Describes school counselor intervention program used for facilitating the personal development of adolescents. Notes that intervention occurred through activities that were designed for black female adolescents in a secondary public school. Describes how goals were met through structured developmental activities, counseling sessions, and organized…

  4. Delinquency and Reputational Orientations of Adolescent At-Risk and Not-at-Risk Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Steve; Khan, Umneea; Tan, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This research investigated differences in delinquent activities and the reputational orientations of at-risk and not-at-risk male and female adolescents. Initially, we sought to establish that adolescent males and females differed in these respects. This was found to be the case: males (n = 722) scored significantly higher than females (n = 738)…

  5. Defining Sexuality among Female Black Inner-City Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershenson, Harold P.; Handler, Arden

    Adolescents are able to respond correctly to questions about pregnancy risk and contraceptive use, yet still engage in risk-taking behavior. One explanation for this phenomenon may be the existence of a personal fable. To explore the existence of the personal fable in inner-city female adolescents, 22 eighth grade black females in Chicago…

  6. Teachers' Perceptions of Adolescent Females with Voice Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharias, Stephanie R. C.; Kelchner, Lisa N.; Creaghead, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore teachers' attitudes toward, and perceptions of personality traits of, female adolescents who presented with voice disorders. Method: For this comparative study consisting of a 25-item web-based semantic differential survey, teachers rated voice recordings of 4 female adolescents (considered…

  7. Exogenous progesterone exacerbates running response of adolescent female mice to repeated food restriction stress by changing α4-GABAA receptor activity of hippocampal pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Wable, G S; Chen, Y-W; Rashid, S; Aoki, C

    2015-12-01

    Adolescent females are particularly vulnerable to mental illnesses with co-morbidity of anxiety, such as anorexia nervosa (AN). We used an animal model of AN, called activity-based anorexia (ABA), to investigate the neurobiological basis of vulnerability to repeated, food restriction (FR) stress-evoked anxiety. Twenty-one of 23 adolescent female mice responded to the 1st FR with increased wheel-running activity (WRA), even during the limited period of food access, thereby capturing AN's symptoms of voluntary FR and over-exercise. Baseline WRA was an excellent predictor of FR-elicited WRA (severity of ABA, SOA), with high baseline runners responding to FR with minimal SOA (i.e., negative correlation). Nine gained resistance to ABA following the 1st FR. Even though allopregnanolone (3α-OH-5α-pregnan-20-one, THP), the metabolite of progesterone (P4), is a well-recognized anxiolytic agent, subcutaneous P4 to these ABA-resistant animals during the 2nd FR was exacerbative, evoking greater WRA than the counterpart resistant group that received oil vehicle, only. Moreover, P4 had no WRA-reducing effect on animals that remained ABA-vulnerable. To explain the sensitizing effect of P4 upon the resistant mice, we examined the relationship between P4 treatment and levels of the α4 subunit of GABAARs at spines of pyramidal cells of the hippocampal CA1, a parameter previously shown to correlate with resistance to ABA. α4 levels at spine membrane correlated strongly and negatively with SOA during the 1st ABA (prior to P4 injection), confirming previous findings. α4 levels were greater among P4-treated animals that had gained resistance than of vehicle-treated resistant animals or of the vulnerable animals with or without P4. We propose that α4-GABAARs play a protective role by counterbalancing the ABA-induced increase in excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons, and although exogenous P4's metabolite, THP, enhances α4 expression, especially among those that can gain resistance

  8. [Adolescents' physical activity].

    PubMed

    Pagaeva, E K; Misho, P -A; Zhanin, A; Chanturishvili, T P; Pagaeva, K I

    2006-01-01

    The paper defines the parameters reflecting the physical activity of adolescents and their correlation with health and a risk of behavioral disorders, bad habits, and cravings. A total of 9499 Georgian adolescents aged 14-18 years, the senior (9th-llth-form) pupils, selected through two-step cluster sampling were surveyed. The pupils anonymously filled in special questionnaires. This yielded the parameters reflecting the intensity of physical activity of the adolescents and the latter's going in for sports. The parameters were shown to have a beneficial effect on health, including mental health, and on the magnitude of unhealthy behavior.

  9. The female condom: effectiveness and convenience, not "female control," valued by U.S. Urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Latka, Mary H; Kapadia, Farzana; Fortin, Princess

    2008-04-01

    Abstract Data on adolescents' views regarding the female condom are limited. We conducted seven single-gender focus groups with 47 New York City boys and girls aged 15-20 years (72% African American; 43% ever on public assistance; 72% sexually active; 25% had either been pregnant or fathered a pregnancy). Conceptual mapping was performed by participants to reveal the characteristics of protective methods deemed important to them. During analysis we specifically evaluated how the female condom was mapped. Girls consistently organized methods by, and thus were concerned about, contraceptive effectiveness, side effects, and availability (over the counter vs. provider controlled). Participants tended to classify the female condom with the male condom rather than as "female controlled." Maps varied among boys but contraceptive effectiveness was an important theme. Boys, but not girls, consistently and variously articulated an awareness of sexual pleasure when discussing this topic. Emphasizing the female condom's contraceptive effectiveness, lack of side effects, and availability may be important when counseling adolescents.

  10. Do they, don't they, or why haven't they?. Contraceptive use patterns among inner-city sexually active female adolescents

    PubMed

    Greenwald; Gold

    2000-05-01

    Background: Female adolescents frequently practice unprotected vaginal intercourse leading to nearly 1 million unintended pregnancies and 3 million sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) a year. Qualitative reasons for three contraceptive use patterns were explored. Contraceptive use patterns were quantified and correlated with gynecologic history.Methods: A total of 146 predominantly non-white (81%) sexually active female adolescents with a mean age of 17.2 +/- 1.9 years (13-21 years), completed a 45-minute self-administered, computerized questionnaire as part of a larger project. The questionnaire assessed sexual, contraceptive, gynecologic and obstetric history. Nearly a third (32%) had ever been pregnant and 32% had ever had a STD. Subjects were asked to describe their contraceptive use patterns for condoms, pills, and Depo-Provera as either "never used," "have used, but stopped," or "used before and am still using." Adolescents typed in their qualitative reasons for never using, stopping, or still using each of the three methods of contraception.Results:None of the three condom use patterns were significantly correlated with ever having a STD or being pregnant. Of those who had ever been pregnant, 70% had stopped using Depo-Provera as compared to 38% who were still using Depo-Provera, p < 0.02; 47% had stopped using pills as compared to 25% who were still using pills, p = 0.04; 47% had stopped using pills as compared to 22% who had never used pills, p < 0.01. "Using another contraceptive" was the reason why one-third of subjects never used condoms. The most common reasons for never using pills were "on Depo-Provera," "would forget," and not liking to take pills. Reasons for never using Depo-Provera included using another contraceptive, not liking shots and "might make me fat." The top four reasons for discontinuing condom use were being in a trusting, monogamous relationship, using another form of contraception, abstinence, and "don't like the way condoms feel

  11. The Adolescent Female Changing Voice: A Phenomenological Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the experience of female voice change from the perspective of female middle and high school choral students. The study was guided by two questions: How do adolescent female choir students experience voice change? What is the essence of the experience of voice change for middle school…

  12. Nutrition Habits and Knowledge in Competitive Adolescent Female Gymnasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loosli, Alvin R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Diet quality and nutrition knowledge were evaluated in 97 female adolescent competitive gymnasts. Results showed their nutritional knowledge to be poor, with both their caloric intake and their vitamin and mineral intake below recommended levels. (Author/MT)

  13. Factors Related to Female Adolescent Initiation into Violent Street Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Ira; Baskin, Deborah R.

    1994-01-01

    Studied when and how adolescent girls become involved in violent street crime as well as the explanatory factors for this criminal behavior. Subjects were 85 incarcerated women in New York City. Results suggest a need to better understand the impact of neighborhood, peer, and addiction factors in female adolescent criminal violence. (GLR)

  14. Phenomenological Research and Adolescent Female Sexuality: Discoveries and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Gabrielle; Higgs, Joy

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents research in female first sexual intercourse in Australia. Previous research in adolescent sexual behavior, particularly issues around first sexual intercourse behavior, has mainly utilized quantitative methodology. Our research adopted a qualitative approach to provide unique insight into adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes,…

  15. Psychiatric Comorbidities among Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Simmendinger, Nicole; Klinkowski, Nora; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Pfeiffer, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated current comorbid Axis I diagnoses associated with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) in adolescents. The sample included 101 female adolescents treated at a psychiatric unit for primary DSM-IV diagnoses of AN. 73.3% of the AN patients were diagnosed as having a current comorbidity of at least one comorbid Axis I diagnosis, with no…

  16. The relationship of self-concept and autonomy to oral contraceptive compliance among adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Neel, E U; Jay, S; Litt, I F

    1985-11-01

    Self-concept and autonomy are typically negotiated during adolescence, a time when many females also become sexually active. Nonuse and discontinuation of contraceptives by teenagers place them at high risk for pregnancy. The present study explores the relationship between these psychological factors and contraceptive noncompliance during adolescence. Fifty-five adolescent females beginning a contraceptive regimen were entered into the study. Compliance at four months after the initiation of an oral contraceptive was associated with scoring high on the Behavior Subscale of the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale and the Autonomy Scale modified from Eysenk.

  17. The relationship of self-concept and autonomy to oral contraceptive compliance among adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Neel, E U; Jay, S; Litt, I F

    1985-11-01

    Self-concept and autonomy are typically negotiated during adolescence, a time when many females also become sexually active. Nonuse and discontinuation of contraceptives by teenagers place them at high risk for pregnancy. The present study explores the relationship between these psychological factors and contraceptive noncompliance during adolescence. Fifty-five adolescent females beginning a contraceptive regimen were entered into the study. Compliance at four months after the initiation of an oral contraceptive was associated with scoring high on the Behavior Subscale of the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale and the Autonomy Scale modified from Eysenk. PMID:4055464

  18. The adolescent female: Breast and reproductive embryology and anatomy.

    PubMed

    Lemaine, Valerie; Simmons, Patricia S

    2013-01-01

    Congenital breast and genital tract anomalies are seen frequently in the care of children and adolescents. Breast and internal gynecologic anomalies more often present in adolescence than in early childhood. Management is best delivered through a multidisciplinary team approach. Carefully timed surgical intervention is of importance to optimize psychological, aesthetic and functional outcomes. An understanding of the female breast and genital tract embryology and anatomy is important for a meticulous clinical examination and appropriate surgical treatment. This article will review the normal embryology and anatomy of the adolescent female breast and genital tract.

  19. Erotic transference in the male adolescent-female analyst dyad.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, S; Gabbard, G O

    1995-01-01

    Erotic transference involving female analysts and adult male patients has received increased attention in the past ten years. Absent from the literature, however, are any clinical reports concerning erotic transferences of adolescent male patients with female therapists. This paper presents a fragment of a treatment involving an adolescent male patient who developed an erotic transference. The vicissitudes of the transference, as well as his relationship to his mother and father, are discussed from the perspective of developmental conflicts and tasks of adolescence. The countertransference dimensions of this particular gender constellation are also examined from the standpoint of intrapsychic and cultural factors. PMID:7480402

  20. The Female Educational Advantage among Adolescent Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feliciano, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The female advantage in educational achievement is especially puzzling in the case of children of immigrants because it departs from the pattern in most immigrants' home countries. Using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS), this study explores the female advantage in grades and expectations among adolescents and finds…

  1. Adolescent Male-to-Female Transgender Voice and Communication Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Adrienne; Helenius, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current research to describe and evaluate effectiveness of voice and communication therapy for male-to-female transgender people is limited to adults. This paper provides rationale, procedures, and outcomes from voice and communication therapy for a male-to-female transgender adolescent 15 years of age. Treatment addressed vocal hygiene, breath…

  2. Factors Affecting Drug Abuse in Adolescent Females in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renes, Susan L.; Strange, Anthony T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores factors influencing adolescent female substance use in rural communities. Self-reported data gathered from females 12 to 15 years of age in two northwestern communities in the United States showed an association among gender identity, peer and parental relationships, and substance use. Aggressive masculinity had the strongest…

  3. Bone Health in Adolescent Athletes with a Focus on Female Athlete Triad

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Kathryn E.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    Peak bone mass (PBM) is a negative predictor of osteoporosis and life-long fracture risk. Because osteoporosis is such a prevalent disease with life-threatening consequences later in life, it is important to try to maximize PBM. Adolescence is a critical time for bone acquisition. This review discusses some of the differences in male and female skeletal development and modifiable factors that enhance bone accrual in this age group, particularly in athletes. Hormonal influences, physical activity effects, and nutritional contributions are presented, with a focus on the adolescent athlete. Emphasis is placed on the importance of appropriate energy availability in this age group. The Female Athlete Triad (the inter-relationship of decreased energy availability, menstrual irregularity, and low bone density) is an important issue for adolescent, athletic women, and is therefore reviewed, including prevention and treatment strategies. Recommendations for maximizing bone density in both male and female adolescents are discussed. PMID:21378496

  4. Binge drinking differentially affects adolescent male and female brain morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Sorg, Scott F.; Schweinsburg, Alecia Dager; Wetherill, Reagan R.; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Adolescent binge drinking is concerning, as important neurodevelopments occur during this stage. Previous research suggests that binge drinking may disrupt typical brain development, and females may be particularly vulnerable. Objectives We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine cortical thickness in adolescent females and males with and without histories of binge drinking. Methods Participants (N=59) were 16–19-year-old adolescents recruited from local schools. Recent binge drinkers (n=29, 48% female) were matched to non-drinkers (n=30, 50% female) on age, gender, pubertal development, and familial alcoholism. Participants completed a neuropsychological battery and MRI session. Cortical surfaces were reconstructed with FreeSurfer. Results Binge × gender interactions (p<.05) were seen for cortical thickness in four left frontal regions: frontal pole, pars orbitalis, medial orbital frontal, and rostral anterior cingulate. For all interactions, female bingers had thicker cortices than female controls, while male bingers had thinner cortices than male controls. Thicker left frontal cortices corresponded with poorer visuospatial, inhibition, and attention performances for female bingers (r=−0.69 to 0.50, p<0.05) and worse attention for male bingers (r=−0.69, p=0.005). Conclusions Adolescent females with recent binge drinking showed ~8% thicker cortices in left frontal regions than demographically similar female non-drinkers, which was linked to worse visuospatial, inhibition, and attention performances. In contrast, adolescent binge-drinking males showed ~7% thinner cortices in these areas than non-drinking males. These cross-sectional data suggest either different gray matter risk factors for males as for females toward developing heavy drinking, or differential adverse sequelae. PMID:21952669

  5. Sympathetic Activity Assessed During Exercise Recovery in Young Obese Females

    PubMed Central

    Franco, R. Lee; Privett, Stacey H.; Bowen, Mary K.; Acevedo, Edmund O.; Arrowood, James A.; Wickham, Edmond P.; Evans, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate differences in sympathetic activity, as assessed by an exercise recovery index (ERI; heart rate/VO2 plateau), between black and white obese female adolescents. An additional aim was to determine the association of ERI with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), cardiovascular fitness per fat-free mass (VO2FFM), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and percent body fat (%FAT) in both black and white obese adolescents. Study design Sixty-one females volunteered to participate in this study. HOMA-IR, SBP and %FAT were assessed during resting conditions in black (n=49, 13.7±1.6 yrs, 38.1±6.1 kg/m2) and white (n=12, 13.3±2.2 yrs, 34.3±4.9 kg/m2) obese adolescents. An ERI was calculated during a 5-minute passive recovery period immediately following a graded treadmill exercise test to exhaustion. Results The ERI was significantly greater in black compared with white obese adolescent females (29.8 ± 6.4 vs. 24.1 ± 3.1 bpm·mLO2−1 ·min−1, P = 0.004). Using multiple linear regression modeling, there was a significant independent association between ERI and VO2FFM (r = −0.310, P = 0.027) and %FAT (r = 0.326, P = 0.020) in black obese adolescents after controlling for HOMA-IR and SBP. Conclusions These results suggest that black obese adolescent females have greater sympathetic activity, as assessed by an ERI, than white obese adolescent females. These findings support the need for weight management efforts aimed at both reducing %FAT and improving fitness in obese adolescents, specifically black females. Trial registration Registered with Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00562293 PMID:26003997

  6. Psychiatric Symptoms due to Thyroid Disease in a Female Adolescent.

    PubMed

    Capetillo-Ventura, Nelly; Baeza, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is involved in the production of thyroid hormone which is needed to maintain the normal functioning of various organs and systems, including the central nervous system. This study reports a case of hypothyroidism in a fifteen-year-old female adolescent who was attended for psychiatric symptoms. This case reveals the importance of evaluating thyroid function in children and adolescents with neuropsychiatric symptoms.

  7. Psychiatric Symptoms due to Thyroid Disease in a Female Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Capetillo-Ventura, Nelly; Baeza, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is involved in the production of thyroid hormone which is needed to maintain the normal functioning of various organs and systems, including the central nervous system. This study reports a case of hypothyroidism in a fifteen-year-old female adolescent who was attended for psychiatric symptoms. This case reveals the importance of evaluating thyroid function in children and adolescents with neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:25436160

  8. Sexual activities of Malaysian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zulkifli, S N; Low, W Y; Yusof, K

    1995-03-01

    This paper examines data on the sexual activities of 1,200 Malaysian adolescents aged 15-21 years based on a probability household sampled survey carried out in Kuala Lumpur in 1986. Sexual behaviours like premarital sexual intercourse, contraceptive usage and masturbation were presented. Of the 1,181 unmarried respondents, 9% (105) reported having had sexual intercourse; males were significantly more experienced compared to females. Older age groups were also found to be more sexually active than the younger ones. Among those who had experience dating (n = 521), 20% (105) have experienced sexual intercourse, 44% (228) have kissed and necked, and 35% (183) have experienced petting, while 24% (130) have had no physical intimacies. Poor use of contraception was also revealed. The most commonly used were condoms, oral contraceptives and withdrawal. With regard to masturbation, males begin this practice relatively earlier than females. Almost half of those who indulged in masturbation were worried by the act, especially the females. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  9. Adolescent females between tradition and modernity: gender role socialization in South Asian immigrant culture.

    PubMed

    Talbani, A; Hasanali, P

    2000-10-01

    The study examines the social and cultural experiences of adolescent female belonging to various south Asian immigrant groups in Canada. Applying qualitative research method, the authors interviewed 22 adolescent girls of Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin in Montreal. Like other immigrant communities, south Asian families undergo acculturation stress. South Asians tend to integrate secular European cultural elements with their culture; however, family and community structure remain male dominated. The study showed that gender roles were maintained through gender segregation, control over social activities of girls and arranged marriage. Interviewees felt that their parents and communities have more stringent rules for female socialization than any other community in Canada. The study also found that adolescent girls perceived high social cost attached to protest and dissent, therefore, they accept prevalent conditions and expect to change social situation gradually. Some adolescents undergo stress resulting in behavioral problems.

  10. Depressive symptoms and learned resourcefulness among Taiwanese female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Sousa, Valmi D; Tu, Shu-Yin; Hwang, Mei-Yi

    2005-06-01

    Depression in adolescents is a widespread problem and has negative consequences on mental health, including suicidal tendencies. Worldwide, this condition is twice as prevalent in females as in males. To identify factors that may affect the development of depression in female adolescents in Taiwan, a cross-sectional, correlational design was used to examine the relationships among stressors, learned resourcefulness, and depressive symptoms. Four hundred four Taiwanese female adolescents participated in the study. Descriptive statistics and hierarchical multiple regression were used to analyze data. The study findings suggested that low household income, dissatisfaction with grades, perceived poor health state, and poor peer relationships were significant stressors that contribute to the development of depressive symptoms. Adolescents with greater learned resourcefulness had fewer depressive symptoms. In addition, learned resourcefulness mediated the effects of perceived health and peer relationships on depressive symptoms. Health-care providers can use this knowledge to teach adolescents coping strategies such as use of learned resourcefulness to prevent depression and its negative consequences. PMID:15991147

  11. Female adolescent craniofacial growth spurts: real or fiction?

    PubMed

    Buschang, Peter H; Jacob, Helder B; Demirjian, Arto

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine whether the various aspects of the craniofacial complex exhibit female adolescent growth spurts. Multilevel polynomial models were used to estimate the growth curves of a mixed-longitudinal sample of 111 untreated females 10-15 years of age. To evaluate the horizontal and vertical movements of the individual landmarks relative to stable structures, the tracings were superimposed on the natural reference structures in the anterior cranial base. The horizontal and vertical growth changes of four landmarks and the changes of three traditional linear measurements were evaluated. Posterior nasal spine (PNS) moved posteriorly at a constant rate of approximately 0.12mm/year. Five measures showed changes in growth velocity (i.e. quadratic growth curves) but not adolescent growth spurts, including the anterior movements of anterior nasal spine (ANS) and pogonion (Pg), the inferior movements of gonion (Go), and the increases in ANS-PNS and condylion to pogonion (Co-Pg). Five measurements, including the inferior movements of ANS, PNS and Pg, the posterior movements of Go, and the increases of Go-Pg exhibited adolescent growth spurts. Peak growth velocities were attained between 11.4 and 12.8 years of age, approximately 0.7-1.4 years earlier in the maxilla than mandible. While the vertical aspects of craniofacial growth exhibit distinct female adolescent growth spurts, with peak rates occurring earlier in the maxilla than mandible, most horizontal aspects of craniofacial growth do not exhibit an adolescent spurt.

  12. Understanding the Female Adolescent's Self Perceptions of Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinger, Constance L.

    1985-01-01

    Self-perceptions of math ability and four social abilities reported by 284 gifted and talented female adolescents on the Self Directed Search were examined to test two sets of hypotheses. Results supported the second set of hypotheses, that the Personal Attributes Questionnaire M and F scales are measures of socioaffective instrumental and…

  13. Moebius syndrome with baroreflex failure in an adolescent female.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Megan; Simson, Gabrielle Gold-von

    2012-09-01

    An adolescent female with Moebius syndrome developed paroxysmal hypertension, orthostatic hypotension and autonomic symptoms. Common causes of dysautonomia were excluded by the work-up, which supported a diagnosis of baroreflex failure. Neurological testing suggested dysfunction of the tenth cranial nerve as the etiology. This report suggests that baroreflex dysfunction should be considered in Moebius syndrome patients displaying autonomic symptoms. PMID:27625823

  14. Moebius syndrome with baroreflex failure in an adolescent female

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Megan; Simson, Gabrielle Gold-von

    2012-01-01

    An adolescent female with Moebius syndrome developed paroxysmal hypertension, orthostatic hypotension and autonomic symptoms. Common causes of dysautonomia were excluded by the work-up, which supported a diagnosis of baroreflex failure. Neurological testing suggested dysfunction of the tenth cranial nerve as the etiology. This report suggests that baroreflex dysfunction should be considered in Moebius syndrome patients displaying autonomic symptoms.

  15. Disordered Eating among Female Adolescents: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryla, Karen Y.

    2003-01-01

    Disordered eating among American adolescent females represents a significant health issue in our current cultural climate. Disordered eating receives insufficient attention, however, due to the public's unfamiliarity with symptoms and consequences, absence of treatment options, and unreliable instrumentation to detect disordered eating. Disordered…

  16. Variables that Discriminate Bulimic from Nonbulimic Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, G.; Crowther, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    A discriminant function analysis identified variables that significantly differentiated bulimic (N=71) from nonbulimic (N=71) adolescent females within a high school setting. These variables included disturbed eating attitudes, negative perception of weight and body image, depressive symptomatology, and alcohol use. Implications for the etiology…

  17. Psychosexual Background of Female Adolescents Seeking Contraceptive Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichelt, Paul A.

    In order to better meet the needs of female adolescents coming to a Planned Parenthood League Teen Center for prescription contraceptives, a study was undertaken to understand their psychosexual history. The study focused on the past and present sexual and contraceptive behavior of 532 new clients under the age of 18. The data were collected…

  18. Adolescent Females with Communication Disorders Involved in Violence: Educators' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Judy K.; Sanger, Dixie; Moore-Brown, Barbara J.; Smith, Leslie; Scheffler, Marilyn

    2003-01-01

    This study focused on increasing the awareness of educational leaders about the relationship between students with communication disorders and violence. A review of selected research on adolescent females with language problems residing in a correctional facility served to support a survey study and extend discussions about the need for…

  19. Attitudes about Male-Female Relations among Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…

  20. Mathematically Gifted Adolescent Females' Mixed Sentiment toward Gender Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Chen-yao

    2015-01-01

    There has been a paucity of research on gifted individuals' perceptions of gender stereotypes. The purpose of this study was to explore mathematically gifted adolescent females' perceptions of gender stereotypes through a research design of the qualitative multiple case study involving the constant comparison and the Three C's analysis scheme.…

  1. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence. Although, these athletes apparently undergo sufficient physical activity to develop healthy bones, it is possible that other...

  2. Condom and Other Contraceptive Use among a Random Sample of Female Adolescents: A Snapshot in Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimley, Diane M.; Lee, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the sexual practices of 235 females aged 15 to 19 years and their readiness to use specific contraceptive methods. Results indicate that, despite the availability of newer contraceptive methods, most sexually active adolescents were least resistant to using condoms, perceiving the male condom as an acceptable preventative both for…

  3. Ecological Factors Associated with STD Risk Behaviors among Detained Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.; Yarber, William L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors used Bronfenbrenner's conceptual framework of an ecological systems model to examine factors that are independently associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors among 280 sexually active detained female adolescents. Using computer-assisted self-interviewing procedures, the authors assessed individual…

  4. Adolescent Females' Idolization of Male Media Stars as a Transition into Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karniol, Rachel

    2001-01-01

    Examines whether feminine media stars idolized by adolescent girls provide a safe target of romantic love before girls start dating and become sexually active. Surveys of seventh and ninth grade Israeli girls indicate that idolizing feminine stars may be an intermediate step in a sequence that starts with idolizing females and continues to the…

  5. Psychology of male and female communicative activity.

    PubMed

    Vasyura, Svetlana A

    2008-05-01

    The article features a brief overview of theoretical and empirical studies in communication psychology and sociability of men and women, boys and girls. Russian and foreign studies are summarized to point out that girls and women place greater emphasis on communication and interpersonal relations than do boys and men. Moreover, female communication is more emotional. The article presents the results of the author's own empirical study of male and female communicative activity. Communicative activity is viewed as a complex psychological phenomenon, a degree of the subject's willingness to interact. Communicative activity was studied with the test proposed by the Russian psychologist, Krupnov, and designed to detect the following components of communicative activity: dynamic (natural), emotional, motivational, cognitive, regulatory, productive, and two sorts of communication difficulties (operational and personal). Gender differences in communicative activity are shown on a sample of 480 participants aged 18-40 (240 men and 240 women). The article then describes communicative styles of adolescents (130 boys and 130 girls, aged 19-24). Various communicative styles are featured, including "energetic, businesslike," "conformal, emotional," "diplomatic, externally oriented" for boys and "energetic, sociable," "emotional, difficult," and "complaisant, expressive" for girls. Every person's individuality and gender identity are shown to impact their communicative style.

  6. Mechanical loading with or without weight-bearing activity: influence on bone strength index in elite female adolescent athletes engaged in water polo, gymnastics, and track-and-field.

    PubMed

    Greene, David A; Naughton, Geraldine A; Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Moresi, Mark; Ducher, Gaele

    2012-09-01

    Bone health is considered not to benefit from water-based sports because of their weight-supported nature, but available evidence primarily relies on DXA technology. Our purpose was to investigate musculoskeletal health in the upper and lower body in well-trained adolescent female athletes using pQCT and compare these athletes with less-active, age- and sex-matched peers. Bone mineral content, volumetric cortical and trabecular BMD, total and cortical area, and bone strength index were assessed at the distal and proximal tibia and radius in four groups of adolescent females (mean age, 14.9 years) including water polo players (n = 30), gymnasts (n = 25), track-and-field athletes (n = 34), and nonactive controls (n = 28). Water polo players did not show any benefit in bone strength index or muscle size in the lower leg when compared with controls. In contrast, gymnasts showed 60.1 % and 53.4 % greater bone strength index at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, than nonactive females (p < 0.05). Similarly, track-and-field athletes displayed 33.9 % and 14.7 % greater bone strength index at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, compared with controls (p < 0.05). In the upper body, water polo players had 31.9 % greater bone strength index at the distal radius, but not the radial shaft, and 15.2 % larger forearm muscle cross-sectional area than controls (p < 0.05). The greatest musculoskeletal benefits in the upper body were found in gymnasts. In conclusion, despite training at an elite level, female water polo players did not show any benefits in musculoskeletal health in the lower leg and only limited benefits in the upper body when compared with nonactive girls. PMID:22614913

  7. Mechanical loading with or without weight-bearing activity: influence on bone strength index in elite female adolescent athletes engaged in water polo, gymnastics, and track-and-field.

    PubMed

    Greene, David A; Naughton, Geraldine A; Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Moresi, Mark; Ducher, Gaele

    2012-09-01

    Bone health is considered not to benefit from water-based sports because of their weight-supported nature, but available evidence primarily relies on DXA technology. Our purpose was to investigate musculoskeletal health in the upper and lower body in well-trained adolescent female athletes using pQCT and compare these athletes with less-active, age- and sex-matched peers. Bone mineral content, volumetric cortical and trabecular BMD, total and cortical area, and bone strength index were assessed at the distal and proximal tibia and radius in four groups of adolescent females (mean age, 14.9 years) including water polo players (n = 30), gymnasts (n = 25), track-and-field athletes (n = 34), and nonactive controls (n = 28). Water polo players did not show any benefit in bone strength index or muscle size in the lower leg when compared with controls. In contrast, gymnasts showed 60.1 % and 53.4 % greater bone strength index at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, than nonactive females (p < 0.05). Similarly, track-and-field athletes displayed 33.9 % and 14.7 % greater bone strength index at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, compared with controls (p < 0.05). In the upper body, water polo players had 31.9 % greater bone strength index at the distal radius, but not the radial shaft, and 15.2 % larger forearm muscle cross-sectional area than controls (p < 0.05). The greatest musculoskeletal benefits in the upper body were found in gymnasts. In conclusion, despite training at an elite level, female water polo players did not show any benefits in musculoskeletal health in the lower leg and only limited benefits in the upper body when compared with nonactive girls.

  8. Distinguishing female borderline adolescents from normal and other disturbed female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Block, M J; Westen, D; Ludolph, P; Wixom, J; Jackson, A

    1991-02-01

    PSYCHOANALYTIC theory would suggest that differentiating the borderline adolescent from his or her normal peers should be a difficult task. In many respects the developmental crises of adolescence dovetail with critical conflicts of Borderline Personality Disorder--e.g., identity formation and separation-individuation. Extensive semi-structured interviews (Gunderson's Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines) of normal, borderline and other disturbed adolescents provide a data base for examining the hallmarks of borderline pathology in adolescence. This paper focuses on the qualitative differences in patterns of impulsivity, affective lability, dissociative experience, and interpersonal relationships that distinguish borderline teenagers from other seriously disturbed and normal adolescents. The paper also outlines modifications in the Gunderson interview for an adolescent population.

  9. Family correlates of female adolescents' ego-identity development.

    PubMed

    Adams, G R

    1985-03-01

    Past research has suggested that parents may contribute to the positive development of their daughter's identity formation. Theoretical notions from both social learning and symbolic interaction indicate that parents can either facilitate or hinder positive growth. Therefore, to test the predictions that (a) more mature (moratorium and achieved) identity status parents would have daughters with more mature identities, and (b) that both positive and negative parenting styles can be detected to differentiate between less (diffused and foreclosed) and more mature identity status youths, 45 families (145 subjects) were assessed on parent-child relations and identity status formation. In contrast to much past research, parent-child relations were assessed from both the adolescents' and the parents' perspectives. The findings indicate that parental identity status formation may have an effect on the adolescent's identity formation and that parent-child relations differentiate between less and more mature female adolescent identities.

  10. Biological stress regulation in female adolescents: a key role for confiding.

    PubMed

    Oskis, Andrea; Clow, Angela; Loveday, Catherine; Hucklebridge, Frank; Sbarra, David A

    2015-05-01

    Attachment behaviors play a critical role in regulating emotion within the context of close relationships, and attachment theory is currently used to inform evidence-based practice in the areas of adolescent health and social care. This study investigated the association between female adolescents' interview-based attachment behaviors and two markers of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity: cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Unlike the classic stress hormone cortisol, there is very limited investigation of DHEA-a quintessential developmental hormone-in relation to attachment, especially in adolescents. Fifty-five healthy females mean age 14.36 (±2.41) years participated in the attachment style interview. A smaller cortisol awakening response was related to anxious attachment attitudes, including more fear of rejection, whereas greater morning basal DHEA secretion was only predicted by lower levels of reported confiding in one's mother. These attachment-hormone relationships may be developmental markers in females, as they were independent of menarche status. These findings highlight that the normative shifts occurring in attachment to caregivers around adolescence are reflected in adolescents' biological stress regulation. We discuss how studying these shifts can be informed by evolutionary-developmental theory.

  11. Body Image and the Female Adolescent Oncology Patient.

    PubMed

    Burg, Alison Joy

    2016-01-01

    Female adolescent oncology patients undergo many physical changes throughout treatment that have challenging psychological, emotional, and social implications. Body image for this population is a subject that tends to be overlooked in the midst of the cancer experience. This article will examine the complex concept of body image and discuss why female adolescent patients are at such high risk for negative body image. Assessment and care strategies are needed to foster a positive body image, resiliency, and overall well-being. Although survivorship studies may offer insightful information about the effects of the cancer journey on long-term body image, focus should be on prevention and holistic care as part of the treatment itself. The health care team, especially nursing professionals, should acknowledge, recognize, and address this vital issue as a critical part of oncology care.

  12. Body Image and the Female Adolescent Oncology Patient.

    PubMed

    Burg, Alison Joy

    2016-01-01

    Female adolescent oncology patients undergo many physical changes throughout treatment that have challenging psychological, emotional, and social implications. Body image for this population is a subject that tends to be overlooked in the midst of the cancer experience. This article will examine the complex concept of body image and discuss why female adolescent patients are at such high risk for negative body image. Assessment and care strategies are needed to foster a positive body image, resiliency, and overall well-being. Although survivorship studies may offer insightful information about the effects of the cancer journey on long-term body image, focus should be on prevention and holistic care as part of the treatment itself. The health care team, especially nursing professionals, should acknowledge, recognize, and address this vital issue as a critical part of oncology care. PMID:25643971

  13. Adolescent female sex workers: invisibility, violence and HIV.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jay G

    2011-05-01

    A large number of female sex workers are children. Multiple studies demonstrate that up to 40% of women in prostitution started this work prior to age 18. In studies across India, Nepal, Thailand and Canada, young age at entry to sex work has been found to heighten vulnerability to physical and sexual violence victimisation in the context of prostitution, and relates to a two to fourfold increase in HIV infection. Although HIV risk reduction among adult female sex workers has been a major focus of HIV prevention efforts across the globe, no public health interventions, to date, have addressed the increased hazards and HIV risk faced by adolescent female sex workers. Beyond the structural barriers that limit access to this vulnerable group, historical tensions between HIV prevention and child protection agencies must be overcome in order to develop effective strategies to address this large scale yet little recognised human rights and HIV-related crisis. PMID:21357241

  14. The adolescent female athlete: current concepts and conundrums.

    PubMed

    Greydanus, Donald E; Omar, Hatim; Pratt, Helen D

    2010-06-01

    The adolescent female athlete has become a common part of the sports environment at all levels from childhood play to professional adult sports. This article considers various issues common to this athlete to help clinicians care for their patients. Basic sports physiology is reviewed and then specific conditions are considered, including iron deficiency anemia, stress urinary incontinence, breast issues (ie, pain, asymmetry, galactorrhea, injury), the female athlete triad (ie, menstrual dysfunction, abnormal eating patterns, and osteopenia or osteoporosis), and injuries. Clinical conundrums are considered including the difficulty in caring for a dedicated athlete whose intense love of her sport may lead to menstrual and bone loss complications. The knowledgeable clinician in the twenty-first century can be of considerable help to the female athlete who is at and beyond puberty. PMID:20538152

  15. Inappropriate eating behavior: a longitudinal study with female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Almeida, Sebastião de Sousa; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Ferreira, Maria Elisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB) of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months). The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001) and T3 (p=0.001). The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04). The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year. PMID:24676195

  16. Body composition and risk for metabolic alterations in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo C.; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G.; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study anthropometrical and body composition variables as predictors of risk for metabolic alterations and metabolic syndrome in female adolescents. METHODS: Biochemical, clinical and corporal composition data of 100 adolescents from 14 to 17 years old, who attended public schools in Viçosa, Southeastern Brazil, were collected. RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, 83, 11 and 6% showed eutrophia, overweight/obesity and low weight, respectively, and 61% presented high body fat percent. Total cholesterol presented the highest percentage of inadequacy (57%), followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL - 50%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL - 47%) and triacylglycerol (22%). Inadequacy was observed in 11, 9, 3 and 4% in relation to insulin resistance, fasting insulin, blood pressure and glycemia, respectively. The highest values of the fasting insulin and the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were verified at the highest quartiles of body mass index (BMI), waist perimeter, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percent. Body mass index, waist perimeter, and waist-to-height ratio were the better predictors for high levels of HOMA-IR, blood glucose and fasting insulin. Waist-to-hip ratio was associated to arterial hypertension diagnosis. All body composition variables were effective in metabolic syndrome diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Waist perimeter, BMI and waist-to-height ratio showed to be good predictors for metabolic alterations in female adolescents and then should be used together for the nutritional assessment in this age range. PMID:25119752

  17. Sexual behavior and the influencing factors among out of school female adolescents in Mushin market, Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odeyemi, Kofoworola; Onajole, Adebayo; Ogunowo, Babatunde

    2009-01-01

    High rates of adolescent pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and unsafe abortions in Nigeria indicate the need for a greater understanding of factors that affect adolescent sexuality. The sexual health needs of adolescents remain poorly known and addressed particularly among vulnerable subpopulations like out-of-school adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the sexual behavior of female out-of-school adolescents and to identify factors that influence their sexual behavior. This cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of unmarried, out-of-school female adolescents (n = 332, mean age 17 y), selected using cluster sampling, who were working in a major market (Mushin) in Lagos, Nigeria. Data were collected using interviewer administered questionnaires. Many girls (43.7%) have had sexual intercourse. The mean age at initiation was 16 years. The main reason for initiation was curiosity. Risky sexual behavior and transactional sex was common. Nonconsensual sex was also reported. Sexual health knowledge was poor, and friends served as their main source of information on sexual health issues. Factors associated with the initiation of sexual activity were friends sexual behavior, the person adolescents reside with, parents marital status, availability of funds to meet basic needs, and watching pornography (p < .05). Out-of-school female adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior are exposed to sexual abuse, lack skills to resist pressure, and have limited access to credible reproductive health information. Appropriate interventions including provision of sexuality education and a supportive environment must be instituted to address their needs.

  18. Friendship characteristics and activity patterns of adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Melissa H; Orsmond, Gael I; Cohn, Ellen S; Coster, Wendy J

    2013-07-01

    This study compared perceptions of adolescents' friendships between adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents, examined factors associated with friendship qualities, and investigated the adolescents' reports on the activities they did with friends and how activity patterns differed by gender. Ninety-one adolescents with an ASD and their parents completed mail-based surveys during the summer months. Adolescents with an ASD identified more friends than did their parents, but they agreed on the friends' characteristics. About half of the adolescents spent an average of 4 hours per day with friends during the summer months. Male adolescents with an ASD most frequently played video games with friends, whereas females most frequently had conversations with friends. The findings suggest that adolescents with an ASD and their parents identify different peers as the adolescent's friends. The findings also reveal similarities and differences in friendships between adolescents with an ASD and typically developing adolescents.

  19. Adolescent peer-rejection persistently alters pain perception and CB1 receptor expression in female rats.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Peggy; Hannusch, Christin; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin; Spanagel, Rainer; Schneider, Miriam

    2014-02-01

    Peer-interactions are particularly important during adolescence and teenagers display enhanced sensitivity toward rejection by peers. Social rejection has been shown to induce alterations in pain perception in humans. However, the neurobiological consequences of adolescent social rejection have yet to be extensively characterized, and no appropriate animal model is available. Here, we propose inadequate playful interactions in adolescent rats as a novel animal model for social peer-rejection and examine potential long-term consequences into adulthood. Acute social pairing of female adolescent Wistar rats with an age-matched rat from the less playful Fischer344 strain was found to alter social play and decrease pain reactivity, indicating Fischer rats as inadequate social partners for Wistar animals. Therefore, in a second experiment, adolescent female Wistar rats were either reared with another Wistar rat (adequate social rearing; control) or with a Fischer rat (inadequate social rearing; play-deprived). Beginning on day 50, all Wistar rats were group housed with same-strain partners and tested for behavioral, neurobiological and endocrine differences in adulthood. Playful peer-interactions were decreased during adolescence in play-deprived animals, without affecting social contact behavior. Consequently, adult play-deprived rats showed decreased pain sensitivity and increased startle reactivity compared to controls, but did not differ in activity, anxiety-related behavior or social interaction. Both groups also differed in their endocrine stress-response, and expression levels of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor were increased in the thalamus, whereas FAAH levels were decreased in the amygdala. The present animal model therefore represents a novel approach to assess the long-term consequences of peer-rejection during adolescence. PMID:23669059

  20. Psychiatric diagnoses in minority female adolescent suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Trautman, P D; Rotheram-Borus, M J; Dopkins, S; Lewin, N

    1991-07-01

    Psychiatric diagnoses were examined using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children semistructured interview among three groups of minority adolescent females aged 12 to 17:61 suicide attempters, 31 psychiatrically disturbed nonattempters, and 23 nonattempting, nondisturbed girls. Major or minor depressive disorder was found in 42% of the suicide attempters; conduct disorder in 46%; multiple diagnoses in 38%, no diagnosis in 13%. These rates were very similar to those found in disturbed nonattempters. Only one symptom, suicidal ideation, distinguished attempters from disturbed nonattempters, while many symptoms distinguished these two groups from nondisturbed nonattempters. PMID:1890096

  1. Initiating Sexual Experiences: How Do Young Adolescents Make Decisions Regarding Early Sexual Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michels, Tricia M.; Kropp, Rhonda Y.; Eyre, Stephen L.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding how young adolescents make decisions to engage in early sexual activities is vital for intervention efforts aimed at fostering positive youth development and reducing the negative outcomes of adolescent sexual behavior. In-depth interviews with 42 suburban, mostly White, ninth-grade adolescents (52% females, mean age=14.1, SD=.45)…

  2. [Psychodynamik focal therapy of bulimia nervosa for female adolescents and young adults].

    PubMed

    Reich, Günter; Horn, Hildegard; Winkelmann, Klaus; Kronmüller, Klaus-Thomas; Stefini, Anette

    2014-01-01

    A manual for a disorder oriented psychodynamic treatment of bulimia nevosa and atypical bulimia nervosa of female adolescents and young adults is presented. This manual is applied in a therapy project, which started in 2007. The work on conflicts and structural dysfunctions is meant to lead to the removal or alleviation of the symptoms and an improvement of eating behavior and body image. The bulimic symptoms are contextualized and focussed according to the conflicts and ego-structural deficits of the patients. Typical patterns of interpersonal relationships, transference, conflict, defence and structural problems as well as therapeutic steps are described. The typical psychosocial situation of female adolescence and young adult age is taken into account. Special emphasis is laid on the limitedness of the therapy to 60 sessions and the active structuring of the final phase of he therapy by the therapist. PMID:24693801

  3. Cadmium increases the sensitivity of adolescent female mice to nicotine-related behavioral deficits.

    PubMed

    Adeniyi, Philip Adeyemi; Olatunji, Babawale Peter; Ishola, Azeez Olakunle; Ajonijebu, Duyilemi Chris; Ogundele, Olalekan Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates spatial and nonspatial working memory, anxiety related behavior, and motor activities in cadmium and/or nicotine exposed female adolescent mice. P28 female adolescent mice (albino strain) were divided into four groups of five (n = 5) mice each. A set of mice (Nic) received subcutaneous nicotine (2.0 mg/kg) while a separate set (Cd) was treated with 2.0 mg/kg cadmium (subcutaneous). For the combined treatments of cadmium and nicotine, we administered 2.0 mg/kg Nicotine and 2.0 mg/kg of Cd. Subsequently, a separate group of animals (n = 5; control) received normal saline. The total duration of treatment for all groups was 28 days (P28-P56). At P56, the treatment was discontinued, after which the animals were examined in behavioural tests. Nicotine and cadmium increased the metabolism and food intake in the female adolescent mice. This also corresponded to an increase in weight when compared with the control. However, a combined nicotine-cadmium treatment induced a decline in weight of the animals versus the control. Also, nicotine administration increased the motor function, while cadmium and nicotine-cadmium treatment caused a decline in motor activity. Both nicotine and cadmium induced a reduction in memory index; however, nicotine-cadmium treatment induced the most significant decrease in nonspatial working memory.

  4. Relation of School Environment and Policy to Adolescent Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Nefertiti; Harris, Sion K.; Doyle, Stephanie; Person, Sharina; Saelens, Brian E.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Norman, Gregory J.; Sallis, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) declines as children and adolescents age. The purpose of this study was to examine how specific school factors relate to youth PA, TV viewing, and body mass index (BMI). Methods: A sample of 12- to 18-year-old adolescents in 3 cities (N = 165, 53% females, mean age 14.6 [plus or minus] 1.7 years, 44% nonwhite)…

  5. Influence of sexual competition and social context on homosexual behavior in adolescent female Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Gunst, Noëlle; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-05-01

    We explored the role that sexual and social partners play in the expression of female homosexual behavior among adolescent female Japanese macaques at Arashiyama, Japan. Our data fully or partially supported all the predictions related to four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses, namely the "adult male disinterest in adolescent females" hypothesis, the "numerous homosexual adult females" hypothesis, the "safer homosexual interactions" hypothesis and the "same-sex sexual interactions" hypothesis. Our results show that both sexual context (e.g., lack of adolescent female attractivity toward adult males, presence of motivated same-sex sexual partners), and social context (e.g., risk of aggression) help explain the high frequency and prevalence of homosexual behavior in adolescent females in the Arashiyama group of Japanese macaques. As with adult females, whose homosexual consortships do not reflect generalized patterns of social affiliation or kinship, we found that adolescent females' same-sex sexual partners were neither kin, nor were they non-kin individuals with whom adolescent females were closely affiliated outside of a consortship context. Our study furthers the growing database of female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques and provides additional evidence that homosexual behavior as expressed by adolescent female Japanese macaques is, like heterosexual behavior, sexual in nature. We discuss the relevance of our findings to a broader comparative approach that may shed light upon the development and evolution of human homosexuality.

  6. Cross-Sectional analysis of levels and patterns of objectively measured sedentary time in adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescent females have been highlighted as a particularly sedentary population and the possible negative effects of a sedentary lifestyle are being uncovered. However, much of the past sedentary research is based on self-report or uses indirect methods to quantity sedentary time. Total time spent sedentary and the possible intricate sedentary patterns of adolescent females have not been described using objective and direct measure of body inclination. The objectives of this article are to examine the sedentary levels and patterns of a group of adolescent females using the ActivPAL™ and to highlight possible differences in sedentary levels and patterns across the week and within the school day. A full methodological description of how the data was analyzed is also presented. Methods One hundred and eleven adolescent females, age 15-18 yrs, were recruited from urban and rural areas in the Republic of Ireland. Participants wore an ActivPAL physical activity monitor for a 7.5 day period. The ActivPAL directly reports total time spent sitting/lying every 15 seconds and accumulation (frequency and duration) of sedentary activity was examined using a customized MATLAB® computer software programme. Results While no significant difference was found in the total time spent sitting/lying over the full 24 hour day between weekday and weekend day (18.8 vs. 18.9 hours; p = .911), significantly more sedentary bouts of 1 to 5 minutes and 21 to 40 minutes in duration were accumulated on weekdays compared to weekend days (p < .001). The mean length of each sedentary bout was also longer (9.8 vs. 8.8 minutes; p < .001). When school hours (9 am-3 pm) and after school hours (4 pm-10 pm) were compared, there was no difference in total time spent sedentary (3.9 hours; p = .796) but the pattern of accumulation of the sedentary time differed. There were a greater number of bouts of > 20 minutes duration during school hours than after school hours (4.7 vs. 3.5 bouts; p < .001

  7. Evaluating an Adolescent Behavioral Program: Leadership, Education, Achievement, and Development for Adolescent Female Offenders in Corrections.

    PubMed

    Panosky, Denise M; Shelton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a pilot study designed to: test the feasibility of implementation, assess implementation barriers, and determine the effectiveness of a modified evidence-based program designed for adolescent female offenders in a women's correctional facility in the United States. A therapeutic expressive arts behavioral program, Leadership, Education, Achievement and Development (LEAD), has been used in community settings as a health promotion program. This behavioral program was adapted to LEAD-Corrections (LEAD-C) and serves incarcerated adolescent female offenders. Results of this pilot study show that it is feasible to offer LEAD-C in a correctional setting. Positive effects were noted on session satisfaction surveys as well as formative and summative evaluations. Implementation of LEAD-C, using therapeutic expressive arts interventions, included coping strategies to help adolescents become confident and self-assured and review better choices. Adolescents were taught to utilize these learned coping strategies in their life, which may help to overcome adversity, enhance resilience, and support youth transition at the time of reentry to the community. PMID:26186153

  8. Adolescent Female Text Messaging Preferences to Prevent Pregnancy After an Emergency Department Visit: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schnall, Rebecca; Stockwell, Melissa S; Castaño, Paula M; Higgins, Tracy; Westhoff, Carolyn; Santelli, John; Dayan, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Background Over 15 million adolescents use the emergency department (ED) each year in the United States. Adolescent females who use the ED for medical care have been found to be at high risk for unintended pregnancy. Given that adolescents represent the largest users of text messaging and are receptive to receiving text messages related to their sexual health, the ED visit represents an opportunity for intervention. Objective The aim of this qualitative study was to explore interest in and preferences for the content, frequency, and timing of an ED-based text message intervention to prevent pregnancy for adolescent females. Methods We conducted semistructured, open-ended interviews in one urban ED in the United States with adolescent females aged 14-19 years. Eligible subjects were adolescents who were sexually active in the past 3 months, presented to the ED for a reproductive health complaint, owned a mobile phone, and did not use effective contraception. Using an interview guide, enrollment continued until saturation of key themes. The investigators designed sample text messages using the Health Beliefs Model and participants viewed these on a mobile phone. The team recorded, transcribed, and coded interviews based on thematic analysis using the qualitative analysis software NVivo and Excel. Results Participants (n=14) were predominantly Hispanic (13/14; 93%), insured (13/14; 93%), ED users in the past year (12/14; 86%), and frequent text users (10/14; 71% had sent or received >30 texts per day). All were interested in receiving text messages from the ED about pregnancy prevention, favoring messages that were “brief,” “professional,” and “nonaccusatory.” Respondents favored texts with links to websites, repeated information regarding places to receive “confidential” care, and focused information on contraception options and misconceptions. Preferences for text message frequency varied from daily to monthly, with random hours of delivery to

  9. The impact of social stress during adolescence or adulthood and coping strategy on cognitive function of female rats.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Kevin; Barry, Mark; Plona, Zachary; Ho, Andrew; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Valentino, Rita J

    2015-06-01

    The age of stressor exposure can determine its neurobehavioral impact. For example, exposure of adolescent male rats to resident-intruder stress impairs cognitive flexibility in adulthood. The current study examined the impact of this stressor in female rats. Rats were exposed to resident-intruder stress during early adolescence (EA), mid-adolescence (MA) or adulthood (Adult). They were tested in an operant strategy-shifting task for side discrimination (SD), reversal learning (REV) and strategy set-shifting (SHIFT) the following week. Performance varied with age, stress and coping style. MA and EA rats performed SD and SHIFT better than other ages, respectively. Social stress impaired performance in rats depending on their coping strategy as determined by a short (SL) or long (LL) latency to become subordinate. SL rats were impaired in SD and REV, whereas EA-LL rats were impaired in SHIFT. These impairing effects of female adolescent stress did not endure into adulthood. Strategy set-shifting performance for female adolescents was positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation as indicated by c-fos expression suggesting that this region is engaged during task performance. This contrasts with the inverse relationship between these indices reported for male adolescent rats. Together, the results demonstrate that social stress produces cognitive impairments for female rats that depend on age and coping style but unlike males, the impairing effects of female adolescent social stress are immediate and do not endure into adulthood. Sex differences in the impact of adolescent social stress on cognition may reflect differences in mPFC engagement during the task.

  10. Paraoxonase activity in athletic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cakmak, Alpay; Zeyrek, Dost; Atas, Ali; Erel, Ozcan

    2010-02-01

    Regular physical activity may play a protective role against cardiovascular disease in adults, and paraoxonase activity may serve to mediate this effect. This study compared paraoxonase activity and that of other antioxidative agents in adolescent athletes compared with inactive youth. Paraoxonase level was 177.32 +/- 100.10 (U/L) in children with regular physical activity and 98.11 +/- 40.92 (U/L) in the control group (P < 0.0001). The levels of total antioxidative capacity, total oxidative status, oxidative stress index, and lipid hydroperoxide were significantly higher in the athlete group compared with controls (P < 0.0001). Paraoxonase activity was found to be greater in adolescent athletes, suggesting that regular exercise might provide a cardio-protective effect by this means.

  11. The Dilemmas of Peer Relationships Confronting Mathematically Gifted Female Adolescents: Nine Cases in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Chen-Yao

    2011-01-01

    There has been a scarcity of research studies addressing the dilemmas of peer relationships confronting gifted adolescent females. In this study, the peer relationships of nine mathematically gifted adolescent females living in Taiwan are explored using a qualitative multicase study. Data analysis revealed six compelling themes: a proclivity for…

  12. Eating Disorders among a Community-Based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…

  13. 14 Week Group Counselling Proposal for Increasing Self-Esteem in Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Katherine; Mills, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    This psychoeducational counselling group is designed to explore the many facets of the emerging female adolescent identity and foster a high level of self-esteem. According to Powell (2004) adolescence is a time, and even more so for females, which can be marked by many identity conflicts and low levels of self-esteem. As such, this 14 week…

  14. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Extreme Personality Dispositions in Adolescent Female Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pergadia, Michele L.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Lessov, Christina N.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The objective was to determine whether the pattern of environmental and genetic influences on deviant personality scores differs from that observed for the normative range of personality, comparing results in adolescent and adult female twins. Methods: A sample of 2,796 female adolescent twins ascertained from birth records provided…

  15. Comparison of Language Skills of Adjudicated and Nonadjudicated Adolescent Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Debra J.; Dagenais, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study attempted to determine whether there were any differences or similarities in the basic cognitive and language skills of 4 groups of adolescents: adjudicated (a judge's decision to establish responsibility for a delinquent act) and nonadjudicated male and females. Method: The 4 groups of adolescents were 18 adjudicated females,…

  16. [Injuries in male and female adolescent soccer players].

    PubMed

    Schneider, A S; Mayer, H M; Geißler, U; Rumpf, M C; Schneider, C

    2013-03-01

    This study addresses the epidemiology of injuries in adolescent male and female soccer players in Germany. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to analyse the injuries in male and female youth soccer players in Germany. This study was designed as a cross-sectional web-based survey. From March until December 2011 we investigated 1110 soccer players (male n = 841; female n = 269) aged 12 - 19 years (15.0 ± 2.0 years) from 60 clubs in Southern Germany. A total of 664 (79 %) of the 841 boys and 67 (25 %) of the 269 girls reported being injured due to soccer. The total number of injuries was 2373. Respectively the frequency of injury was 2.85 in boys and 7.10 in girls. The lower extremities were affected in 70 % of all reported cases. Strains were the most common injuries in the lower and upper extremities (35 %). The boys reported in 51.5 % of all injuries that the injury was non-contact in nature. In contrast, 52.1 % of the injuries in girls were reported as contact injuries. Similar amounts of injuries were observed in training versus games for both genders. Prevention procedures, such as a thorough warm-up, should be implemented before every game and training to reduce the risk of injury.

  17. Father Involvement, Dating Violence, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among a National Sample of Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection.

  18. Father Involvement, Dating Violence, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among a National Sample of Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T.; Quinn, Camille R.; Cryer, Qiana R.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/ or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman’s life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. PMID:25475102

  19. Exercise and physical activity of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lugo, L; Calderón, C; Visbal, G; Martínez, V

    1990-05-01

    Multiple studies point toward the beneficial role of regular exercise in preventing cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of physical activity and exercise among adolescents from the only high school in Cataño, Puerto Rico. An open-ended, multiple choice questionnaire was administered to 106 students who were randomly chosen. Questions included frequency of exercise, type of sports which they practiced and would like to practice. Results were statistically analyzed. The study revealed that 53% of the participants did not exercise regularly, exercising less than once a week. Those who did exercise were involved in a competitive team sport (35% of females: volleyball; 65.8% of males: basketball). Approximately 1/3 of the females and of the males replied they would like to practice noncompetitive sports which should be incorporated into their lifestyles through early intervention in the school, home and through the primary care physician.

  20. Correlates of receiving recommended adolescent vaccines among adolescent females in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    McRee, Annie-Laurie; Gottlieb, Sami L

    2011-01-01

    Background Immunization is a successful and cost-effective method for preventing disease, yet many adolescents do not receive recommended vaccines. We assessed correlates of uptake of three vaccines (tetanus booster, meningococcal and human papillomavirus [HPV] vaccines) recommended for adolescent females. Results Only 17% of parents indicated their daughters had received all three vaccines. Eighty-seven percent of parents indicated their daughters had received tetanus booster vaccine, 36% reported vaccination against meningococcal disease and 36% reported HPV vaccine initiation. Daughters aged 13–15 years (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.09–2.64) or 16–20 years (OR = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.51–3.44) had received a greater number of these vaccines compared to daughters aged 11–12 years. Daughters who had preventive care visits in the last year (OR = 4.81, 95% CI: 3.14–7.34) or whose parents had at least some college education (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.29–2.80) had also received a greater number of these vaccines. Methods We examined cross-sectional data from 647 parents of 11–20 year-old females from North Carolina who completed the Carolina HPV Immunization Measurement and Evaluation (CHIME) Project follow-up survey in late 2008. Analyses used ordinal and binary logistic regression. Conclusions Few daughters, particularly 11–12 years olds, had received all three vaccines recommended for adolescent females. Ensuring annual preventive care visits and increasing concomitant administration of adolescent vaccines may help increase vaccine coverage. PMID:21263224

  1. Exploring dysmenorrhoea and menstrual experiences among Lebanese female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Santina, T; Wehbe, N; Ziade, F

    2012-08-01

    Data on menstrual experiences and their impact on quality of life among women in developing countries are scant. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dysmenorrhoea among adolescent girls in Sidon city and suburbs, Lebanon, and to explore its possible relationship with menstrual experience. In a cross-sectional design, 389 post-menarcheal schoolgirls aged 13-19 years were selected using a cluster random sampling method. Of these 161 (41.4%) were regularly or sometimes absent from school due to menstrual problems and 289 (74.3%) experienced dysmenorrhoea. Nevertheless only 7.3% of the girls had consulted a physician about dysmenorrhoea. Three-quarters of these young women (75.2%) had scores indicating negative menstrual experience based on the Menstrual Experience and Behavior Questionnaire. Significant predictors of dysmenorrhoea were negative menstrual experience, younger age of girl, longer duration of bleeding and longer cycle length. Better reproductive health educational programmes focusing on menstruation are needed for female adolescents.

  2. Effects of obesity on aerobic fitness in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Rowland, T W

    1991-07-01

    Obesity impairs performance in most athletic events, but the influence of increased body fat on cardiopulmonary function has not been clearly delineated. An understanding of the fatness-fitness relationship is important in the optimal design of exercise programs for obese subjects. In this study, 27 adolescent females with body fat levels ranging from normal to gross obesity were evaluated to determine the impact of adiposity on physiologic factors during maximal and submaximal treadmill walking. Increased skinfold measures correlated significantly with absolute maximal oxygen uptake throughout the range of body fat levels (r = .72), and oxygen consumption per kilogram of body weight and treadmill endurance time both declined as fatness increased (r = -.49 and -.42, respectively). Obesity did not affect submaximal walking economy. These findings indicate that increased fat levels are associated with increased cardiopulmonary exercise capacity, but that functional fitness declines because of the inert load created by excess body fat. Therefore, therapeutic exercise programs for obese adolescents are best designed to increase caloric expenditure and decrease body fat rather than to improve aerobic fitness.

  3. Persistent genital hyperinnervation following progesterone administration to adolescent female rats.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhaohui; Smith, Peter G

    2014-12-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia, a female pelvic pain syndrome affecting substantial numbers of women, is characterized by genital hypersensitivity and sensory hyperinnervation. Previous studies have shown that the risk of developing provoked vestibulodynia is markedly elevated following adolescent use of oral contraceptives with high progesterone content. We hypothesized that progesterone, a steroid hormone with known neurotropic properties, may alter genital innervation through direct or indirect actions. Female Sprague Dawley rats received progesterone (20 mg/kg subcutaneously) from Days 20-27; tissue was removed for analysis in some rats on Day 28, while others were ovariectomized on Day 43 and infused for 7 days with vehicle or 17beta estradiol. Progesterone resulted in overall increases in vaginal innervation at both Day 28 and 50 due to proliferation of peptidergic sensory and sympathetic (but not parasympathetic) axons. Estradiol reduced innervation in progesterone-treated and untreated groups. To assess the mechanisms of sensory hyperinnervation, we cultured dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons and found that progesterone increases neurite outgrowth by small unmyelinated (but not myelinated) sensory neurons, it was receptor mediated, and it was nonadditive with NGF. Pretreatment of ganglion with progesterone also increased neurite outgrowth in response to vaginal target explants. However, pretreatment of vaginal target with progesterone did not improve outgrowth. We conclude that adolescent progesterone exposure may contribute to provoked vestibulodynia by eliciting persistent genital hyperinnervation via a direct effect on unmyelinated sensory nociceptor neurons and that estradiol, a well-documented therapeutic, may alleviate symptoms in part by reducing progesterone-induced sensory hyperinnervation. PMID:25359899

  4. Fluoxetine disrupts motivation and GABAergic signaling in adolescent female hamsters.

    PubMed

    Shannonhouse, John L; DuBois, Dustin W; Fincher, Annette S; Vela, Alejandra M; Henry, Morgan M; Wellman, Paul J; Frye, Gerald D; Morgan, Caurnel

    2016-08-01

    Initial antidepressant treatment can paradoxically worsen symptoms in depressed adolescents by undetermined mechanisms. Interestingly, antidepressants modulate GABAA receptors, which mediate paradoxical effects of other therapeutic drugs, particularly in females. Although the neuroanatomic site of action for this paradox is unknown, elevated GABAA receptor signaling in the nucleus accumbens can disrupt motivation. We assessed fluoxetine's effects on motivated behaviors in pubescent female hamsters - anhedonia in the reward investigational preference (RIP) test as well as anxiety in the anxiety-related feeding/exploration conflict (AFEC) test. We also assessed accumbal signaling by RT-PCR and electrophysiology. Fluoxetine initially worsened motivated behaviors at puberty, relative to adulthood. It also failed to improve these behaviors as pubescent hamsters transitioned into adulthood. Low accumbal mRNA levels of multiple GABAA receptor subunits and GABA-synthesizing enzyme, GAD67, assessed by RT-PCR, suggested low GABAergic tone at puberty. Nonetheless, rapid fluoxetine-induced reductions of α5GABAA receptor and BDNF mRNA levels at puberty were consistent with age-related differences in GABAergic responses to fluoxetine and disruption of the motivational state. Whole-cell patch clamping of accumbal slices also suggested low GABAergic tone by the low amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) at puberty. It also confirmed age-related differences in GABAergic responses to fluoxetine. Specifically, fluoxetine potentiated mIPSC amplitude and frequency at puberty, but attenuated the amplitude during adulthood. These results implicate GABAergic tone and GABAA receptor plasticity in adverse motivational responses and resistance to fluoxetine during adolescence. PMID:27068049

  5. Social isolation in adolescence alters behaviors in the forced swim and sucrose preference tests in female but not in male rats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Suzie; Flashner, Bess; Chiu, Melissa; ver Hoeve, Elizabeth; Luz, Sandra; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2012-01-18

    Social interactions in rodents are rewarding and motivating and social isolation is aversive. Accumulating evidence suggests that disruption of the social environment in adolescence has long-term effects on social interactions, on anxiety-like behavior and on stress reactivity. In previous work we showed that adolescent isolation produced increased reactivity to acute and to repeated stress in female rats, whereas lower corticosterone responses to acute stress and decreased anxiety-related behavior were noted in isolated males. These results indicate a sex specific impact on the effects of social stress in adolescence. However, little is known about whether social isolation impacts behaviors related to affect and whether it does so differently in male and female rats. The present study investigated the impact of adolescent social isolation from day 30-50 of age in male and female Sprague Dawley rats on behavior in the forced swim test at the end of adolescence and in adulthood and on behavior in the sucrose preference test in adulthood. Adult female rats that were isolated in adolescence exhibited increased climbing on the first and second day of the forced swim test and showed an increased preference for sucrose compared to adult females that were group-housed in adolescence. There were no effects in male rats. The results indicate that social isolation in adolescence produces a stable and active behavioral phenotype in adult female rats.

  6. Social isolation in adolescence alters behaviors in the forced swim and sucrose preference tests in female but not in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Suzie; Flashner, Bess; Chiu, Melissa; Hoeve, Elizabeth ver; Luz, Sandra; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2011-01-01

    Social interactions in rodents are rewarding and motivating and social isolation is aversive. Accumulating evidence suggests that disruption of the social environment in adolescence has long-term effects on social interactions, on anxiety-like behavior and on stress reactivity. In previous work we showed that adolescent isolation produced increased reactivity to acute and to repeated stress in female rats, whereas lower corticosterone responses to acute stress and decreased anxiety-related behavior were noted in isolated males. These results indicate a sex specific impact on the effects of social stress in adolescence. However, little is known about whether social isolation impacts behaviors related to affect and whether it does so differently in male and female rats. The present study investigated the impact of adolescent social isolation from day 30-50 of age in male and female Sprague Dawley rats on behavior in the forced swim test at the end of adolescence and in adulthood and on behavior in the sucrose preference test in adulthood. Adult female rats that were isolated in adolescence exhibited increased climbing on the first and second day of the forced swim test and showed an increased preference for sucrose compared to adult females that were group-housed in adolescence. There were no effects in male rats. The results indicate that social isolation in adolescence produces a stable and active behavioral phenotype in adult female rats. PMID:21907226

  7. Dating, Sexual Activity, and Well-Being in Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciairano, Silvia; Bonino, Silvia; Kliewer, Wendy; Miceli, Renato; Jackson, Sandy

    2006-01-01

    Associations among dating, sexual activity, gender, and adjustment were investigated in 2,273 Italian adolescents (54% female, ages 14 to 19 years) attending public high schools. After controlling for age and type of school attended, both being in a dating relationship and being male were associated with less alienation, more positive views of the…

  8. Adolescent Involvement in Extracurricular Activities: Influences on Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Donna; Dyk, Patricia Hyjer; Jones, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Study examined adolescents' participation in sports, school, and community extracurricular activities to assess the influence of different involvement roles and adult support on leadership skills. The study found that males and females who perceived their adult support more positively had more positive perceptions of their leadership skills.…

  9. Variation in Sexual Behaviors in a Cohort of Adolescent Females: The Role of Personal, Perceived Peer and Family Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Melanie A.; Bost, James E.; Adimora, Ada A.; Orr, Donald P.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about how adolescent sexual behaviors develop and the influence of personal or perceived social attitudes. We sought to describe how personal, perceived peer and perceived family attitudes towards adolescent sexual activity influences adolescent females’ sexual behaviors over time. Methods Between 1999–2006, 358 English-speaking females, aged 14–17 were recruited from three urban adolescent clinics. Participants completed quarterly and annual questionnaires over 4 years. Primary outcomes were engagement in eight sexual behaviors: kissing, having breasts or genitals touched, touching partners’ genitals, and oral (giving or receiving), anal, or vaginal sex. Three attitudinal scales assessed personal importance of abstinence, perceived peer beliefs about when to have sex and perceived family beliefs that adolescent sex is negative.. We used generalized estimating equations to identify predictors of each sexual behavior and compared whether personal, perceived peer or perceived family attitudes predicted sexual behaviors over time. Results The odds of reporting each sexual behavior increased with age but were lower among those whose personal or perceived family attitudes were less positive. Participants’ personal attitudes towards adolescent sex were the strongest predictor of engagement in all eight sexual behaviors even after controlling for perceived peer and perceived family attitudes. Conclusions Female adolescent’s personal attitudes towards abstinence appear to be the strongest predictor of engagement in a variety of sexual behaviors. Efforts to influence adolescent attitudes towards abstinence may be an important approach to reducing sexual behaviors that increase the risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. PMID:21185529

  10. Somatic symptoms among US adolescent females: associations with sexual and physical violence exposure.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Tucker, Christine M; Bengtson, Angela; Kupper, Lawrence L; McLean, Samuel A; Martin, Sandra L

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association between physical and sexual violence exposure and somatic symptoms among female adolescents. We studied a nationally representative sample of 8,531 females, aged 11-21 years, who participated in the 1994-1995 Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Female adolescents were asked how often they had experienced 16 specific somatic symptoms during the past 12 months. Two summary categorical measures were constructed based on tertiles of the distributions for the entire female sample: (a) total number of different types of symptoms experienced, and (b) number of frequent (once a week or more often) different symptoms experienced. Groups were mutually exclusive. We examined associations between adolescents' violence exposure and somatic symptoms using multinomial logistic regression analyses. About 5 % of adolescent females reported both sexual and non-sexual violence, 3 % reported sexual violence only, 36 % reported non-sexual violence only, and 57 % reported no violence. Adolescents who experienced both sexual and non-sexual violence were the most likely to report many different symptoms and to experience very frequent or chronic symptoms. Likelihood of high symptomatology was next highest among adolescents who experienced sexual violence only, followed by females who experienced non-sexual violence only. Findings support an exposure-response association between violence exposure and somatic symptoms, suggesting that symptoms can be markers of victimization. Treating symptoms alone, without addressing the potential violence experienced, may not adequately improve adolescents' somatic complaints and well-being.

  11. Does repetitive Ritalin injection produce long-term effects on SD female adolescent rats?

    PubMed

    Lee, Min J; Yang, Pamela B; Wilcox, Victor T; Burau, Keith D; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum

    2009-09-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD), or Ritalin, is a psychostimulant that is prescribed for an extended period of time to children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Adolescence is a time of critical brain maturation and development, and the drug exposure during this time could lead to lasting changes in the brain that endure into the adulthood. Circadian rhythms are 24 h rhythms of physiological processes that are synchronized by the master-clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, to keep the body stable in a changing environment. The aim of present study is to observe the effect of repeated MPD exposure on the locomotor diurnal rhythm activity patterns of female adolescent Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats using the open field assay. 31 female adolescent SD rats were divided into four groups: control, 0.6 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg MPD group. On experimental day 1, all groups were given an injection of saline. On experimental days 2-7, animals were injected once a day with either saline, 0.6 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg, or 10 mg/kg MPD, and experimental days 8-10 were the washout period. A re-challenge injection was given to each animal on experimental day 11 with the similar dose as the experimental days 2-7. The locomotor movements were counted by the computerized animal activity monitoring system. The data were analyzed statistically to find out whether the diurnal rhythm activity patterns were altered. The obtained data showed that repeated administrations of 2.5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg MPD were able to change the locomotor diurnal rhythm patterns, which suggests that these MPD doses exerts long-term effects.

  12. What Factors Influence Sports Participation among Afro-American Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Veronica

    This study investigates factors influencing participation of Afro-American female adolescents in sports. Following a review of the literature, two topics are addressed. The first of these, "Behavior in Sport," discusses benefits of sports to youth; stereotypes of Afro-American female sports participants; behaviors of female athletes; and the…

  13. Ecological factors associated with STD risk behaviors among detained female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Voisin, Dexter R; DiClemente, Ralph J; Salazar, Laura F; Crosby, Richard A; Yarber, William L

    2006-01-01

    The authors used Bronfenbrenner's conceptual framework of an ecological systems model to examine factors that are independently associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors among 280 sexually active detained female adolescents. Using computer-assisted self-interviewing procedures, the authors assessed individual characteristics, peer relations, community factors, and media influences and their association to STD risk behaviors. Findings indicated that factors such as greater substance use, stronger risk-taking attitudes, lower perceived parental monitoring and familial support, gender roles supporting male dominance, risky peer norms, and lower student-teacher connectedness, were independently associated with increased STD risk behaviors. Findings suggest a multisystemic approach to STD prevention among this population.

  14. Eating Disorders Among a Community-based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Granillo, M Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that those with higher symptoms of anxiety and who had tried cigarettes were significantly more likely to have been diagnosed with an eating disorder. Findings indicate that Chilean female adolescents are at risk of eating disorders and that eating disorders, albeit maladaptive, may be a means to cope with negative affect, specifically anxiety.

  15. Repeated ethanol exposure affects the acquisition of spatial memory in adolescent female rats.

    PubMed

    Sircar, Ratna; Basak, Ashim K; Sircar, Debashish

    2009-09-14

    Ethanol has been reported to disrupt spatial learning and memory in adolescent male rats. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of ethanol on the acquisition of spatial memory in adolescent female rats. Adolescent female rats were subjected to repeated ethanol or saline treatments, and spatial learning was tested in the Morris water maze. For comparison, adult female rats were subjected to similar ethanol treatment and behavioral assessments as for adolescent rats. Ethanol-treated adolescent rats took longer and swam greater distances to find the hidden platform than saline controls. In the probe trial, ethanol-treated adolescent rats showed a trend towards reduced time spent in the target quadrant, and made significantly fewer target location crossings than saline-treated controls. Adult saline-treated control rats did not learn the spatial memory task as well as the adolescent saline-treated rats. Although ethanol in adult rats increased both latency and swim distance to find the platform, in the probe trial there was no difference between ethanol-treated adult rats and age-matched saline controls. Ethanol did not alter swim speed or performance in the cued visual task at either age. Together, these data suggest that ethanol specifically impairs the acquisition of spatial memory in adolescent female rats. Since adult females did not learn the task, ethanol-induced alterations in water maze performance may not reflect true learning and memory dysfunction. PMID:19463705

  16. Athletic Activity and Hormone Concentrations in High School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wojtys, Edward M.; Jannausch, Mary L.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Physical activity may affect the concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones in female athletes. Understanding the relationship between athletic and physical activity and circulating female hormone concentrations is critical. Objective: To test the hypotheses that (1) the estradiol-progesterone profile of high school adolescent girls participating in training, conditioning, and competition would differ from that of physically inactive, age-matched adolescent girls throughout a 3-month period; and (2) athletic training and conditioning would alter body composition (muscle, bone), leading to an increasingly greater lean–body-mass to fat–body-mass ratio with accompanying hormonal changes. Design: Cohort study. Settings: Laboratory and participants' homes. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 106 adolescent girls, ages 14–18 years, who had experienced at least 3 menstrual cycles in their lifetime. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants were prospectively monitored throughout a 13-week period, with weekly physical activity assessments and 15 urine samples for estrogen, luteinizing hormone, creatinine, and progesterone concentrations. Each girl underwent body-composition measurements before and after the study period. Results: Seventy-four of the 98 girls (76%) who completed the study classified themselves as athletes. Body mass index, body mass, and fat measures remained stable, and 17 teenagers had no complete menstrual cycle during the observation period. Mean concentrations of log(estrogen/creatinine) were slightly greater in nonathletes who had cycles of <24 or >35 days. Mean log(progesterone/creatinine) concentrations in nonathletes were less in the first half and greater in the second half of the cycle, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: A moderate level of athletic or physical activity did not influence urine concentrations of estrogen, progesterone, or luteinizing hormones. However, none of the

  17. Somatic and Neuroendocrine Changes in Response to Chronic Corticosterone Exposure During Adolescence in Male and Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, E T; Savenkova, M; Karatsoreos, I N; Romeo, R D

    2016-02-01

    Prolonged stress and repeated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis can result in many sex-dependent behavioural and metabolic changes in rats, including alterations in feeding behaviour and reduced body weight. In adults, these effects of stress can be mimicked by corticosterone, a major output of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and recapitulate the stress-induced sex difference, such that corticosterone-treated males show greater weight loss than females. Similar to adults, chronic stress during adolescence leads to reduced weight gain, particularly in males. However, it is currently unknown whether corticosterone mediates this somatic change and whether additional measures of neuroendocrine function are affected by chronic corticosterone exposure during adolescence in a sex-dependent manner. Therefore, we examined the effects of non-invasively administered corticosterone (150 or 300 μg/ml) in the drinking water of male and female rats throughout adolescent development (30-58 days of age). We found that adolescent animals exposed to chronic corticosterone gain significantly less weight than controls, which may be partly mediated by the effects of corticosterone on food consumption, fluid intake and gonadal hormone function. Our data further show that, despite similar circulating corticosterone levels, males demonstrate a greater sensitivity to these changes than females. We also found that Npy1 and Npy5 receptor mRNA expression, genes implicated in appetite regulation, was significantly reduced in the ventral medial hypothalamus of corticosterone-treated males and females compared to controls. Finally, parameters of gonadal function, such as plasma sex steroid concentrations and weight of reproductive tissues, were reduced by adolescent corticosterone treatment, although only in males. The data obtained in the present study indicate that chronic corticosterone exposure throughout adolescent development results in significant and sex

  18. Somatic and Neuroendocrine Changes in Response to Chronic Corticosterone Exposure During Adolescence in Male and Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, E T; Savenkova, M; Karatsoreos, I N; Romeo, R D

    2016-02-01

    Prolonged stress and repeated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis can result in many sex-dependent behavioural and metabolic changes in rats, including alterations in feeding behaviour and reduced body weight. In adults, these effects of stress can be mimicked by corticosterone, a major output of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and recapitulate the stress-induced sex difference, such that corticosterone-treated males show greater weight loss than females. Similar to adults, chronic stress during adolescence leads to reduced weight gain, particularly in males. However, it is currently unknown whether corticosterone mediates this somatic change and whether additional measures of neuroendocrine function are affected by chronic corticosterone exposure during adolescence in a sex-dependent manner. Therefore, we examined the effects of non-invasively administered corticosterone (150 or 300 μg/ml) in the drinking water of male and female rats throughout adolescent development (30-58 days of age). We found that adolescent animals exposed to chronic corticosterone gain significantly less weight than controls, which may be partly mediated by the effects of corticosterone on food consumption, fluid intake and gonadal hormone function. Our data further show that, despite similar circulating corticosterone levels, males demonstrate a greater sensitivity to these changes than females. We also found that Npy1 and Npy5 receptor mRNA expression, genes implicated in appetite regulation, was significantly reduced in the ventral medial hypothalamus of corticosterone-treated males and females compared to controls. Finally, parameters of gonadal function, such as plasma sex steroid concentrations and weight of reproductive tissues, were reduced by adolescent corticosterone treatment, although only in males. The data obtained in the present study indicate that chronic corticosterone exposure throughout adolescent development results in significant and sex

  19. Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Ornelas, India J; Perreira, Krista M; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2007-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-esteem and depression. Methods Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 13,246 youth, grades 7 to 12, interviewed in 1995 and again 1 year later. Logit models were used to evaluate parental influences on achieving five or more bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week [MVPA] and whether the relationship between parental influence and MVPA was mediated by adolescents' level of self-esteem and depression. Results Family cohesion, parent-child communication and parental engagement positively predicted MVPA for both genders one year later (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for females, 1.09 [1.05–1.12], 1.13 [1.07–1.19], 1.25 [1.17–1.33] and males, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], 1.14 [1.07–1.23], 1.23 [1.14–1.33], respectively); however, parental monitoring did not (odds ratio and confidence intervals for females and males, 1.02 [.97–1.07]). For both females and males, self-esteem mediated the relationship between parental influence and physical activity. Depressive symptoms were only a mediator among males. Females reported higher levels of parent-child communication and lower family cohesion compared with males. There were no gender differences in levels of parental monitoring and engagement. Females had significantly lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Conclusion Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on increasing levels of family

  20. Risky Sexual Behavior among Rural Female Adolescents in Malaysia: A Limited Role of Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Results: Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. Conclusion: The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents’ risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia. PMID:24762359

  1. Body dissatisfaction in female adolescents: extent and correlates.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sven; Weiss, Melanie; Thiel, Ansgar; Werner, Anne; Mayer, Jochen; Hoffmann, Holger; Diehl, Katharina

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the extent, patterns, and predictors of feelings of body dissatisfaction experienced by female German adolescents. Using 3D-avatar software, a sample population of 144 girls between 14 and 17 years of age was asked to estimate their actual body image, their desired body image (individual ideal), and the body image they believed their parents and their best female friend considered to be the ideal body image for them. The participants estimated their actual body mass index (BMI) to be 18.82 ± 3.01. The individual ideal body shape reported was significantly thinner, with a BMI score of 16.84 ± 2.51. Given a girl who stands 1.65 m and weighs 55 kg, this corresponds to a difference in weight of about 5.5 kg. After adjustment for the participant's self-reported BMI, participating in an esthetic sport was correlated with a significantly lower body dissatisfaction. Conversely, low socio-economic status and the amount of time spent watching TV was correlated with a significantly higher body dissatisfaction. Negative body image-related comments made by parents were significantly associated with body dissatisfaction. The girls who participated in this study would like to be an average of 1.97 BMI units thinner. The findings presented here suggest that future intervention measures should focus on the risk groups of physically inactive girls, those who smoke, and those with a lower social status and high rates of TV consumption. Intervention measures would be especially effective in German schools which offer lower education levels and should include the pupils' parents, who should be informed about the negative effects weight- and diet-related comments have on their children's body images. PMID:23207738

  2. Keeping Adolescents Busy with Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Salerno, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent participation in academic/extracurricular activities is related to fewer diagnoses of sexually transmitted infections during adolescence. The role parents play in motivating participation in such activities is unclear. This mixed-methods study explored parental influences on academic/extracurricular activity participation, and the…

  3. Maladaptive schemas in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa and implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Reece, John; Reid, Sophie; Atkins, Linsey; Patton, George

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has highlighted the presence of Young's Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) in individuals with an eating disorder (ED). This study assessed the EMSs reported by adolescent females with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) compared with a community group. Thirty-six adolescent females diagnosed with AN or subthreshold AN and 111 female secondary school students completed a questionnaire that included the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Behavior Assessment System for Children Self-report of Personality, and the Eating Disorder Screen for Primary Care. Two independent AN subtypes and two community subtypes were derived from responses to the questionnaire, and significant differences between the four comparison groups were found. High Pathology AN participants reported the highest level of psychological maladjustment. Social Isolation and Emotional Inhibition appeared to be most characteristic of adolescent AN in this sample. The results suggest that EMSs may require attention in the treatment of AN in adolescent females, and that different AN subtypes may require individualized treatment approaches. PMID:25464069

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of Heterosexual Anal Intercourse among Black and Latina Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Roye, Carol F.; Krauss, Beatrice J.; Silverman, Paula L.

    2009-01-01

    Anal intercourse (AI) is a recognized HIV risk behavior, yet little is known about AI among female adolescents. We studied the prevalence and correlates of heterosexual AI (HAI) among Black and Latina female adolescents. The data come from two randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of HIV-prevention interventions with Black and Latina female adolescents. In the second RCT, a Sexual Relationship Power (SRP) Scale was added to the questionnaire. Thirty-five percent of participants in the first RCT (N = 244) and 23% of those in the second RCT (N = 101) reported engaging in HAI, most without a condom. Significant correlations existed between HAI and a high-risk sexual history. HAI is prevalent in this population. Nurses must educate adolescent female patients about risks associated with HAI. PMID:20116300

  5. The Effect of Physical Attractiveness of Models on Advertising Effectiveness for Male and Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  6. Maladaptive schemas in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa and implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Reece, John; Reid, Sophie; Atkins, Linsey; Patton, George

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has highlighted the presence of Young's Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) in individuals with an eating disorder (ED). This study assessed the EMSs reported by adolescent females with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) compared with a community group. Thirty-six adolescent females diagnosed with AN or subthreshold AN and 111 female secondary school students completed a questionnaire that included the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Behavior Assessment System for Children Self-report of Personality, and the Eating Disorder Screen for Primary Care. Two independent AN subtypes and two community subtypes were derived from responses to the questionnaire, and significant differences between the four comparison groups were found. High Pathology AN participants reported the highest level of psychological maladjustment. Social Isolation and Emotional Inhibition appeared to be most characteristic of adolescent AN in this sample. The results suggest that EMSs may require attention in the treatment of AN in adolescent females, and that different AN subtypes may require individualized treatment approaches.

  7. In a Different Position: Conceptualizing Female Adolescent Sexuality Development within Compulsory Heterosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter challenges forthcoming research on adolescent female sexuality to take more seriously the role of dominant cultural ideologies regarding heterosexuality and to consider its theoretical and methodological implications.

  8. Clinical Correlates and Repetition of Self-Harming Behaviors among Female Adolescent Victims of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John; Theriault, Chantal; Cinq-Mars, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated self-harming behaviors in 149 female adolescent victims of sexual abuse, first, by determining the rates of nine types of self-mutilating behavior at intake and nine months later and, second, by investigating comorbidity of clinical correlates associated with these behaviors. The adolescents were divided into three groups…

  9. Women's Sports Media, Self-Objectification, and Mental Health in Black and White Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Kristen; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2003-01-01

    Considers that sports media exposure may be linked to female adolescents' body perceptions. Tests this relationship from the perspective of objectification theory. Finds that self-objectification appears to be as problematic for adolescent girls as for college women, regardless of race or body mass. Focuses on self-objectification in adolescents…

  10. Factor Structure of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosson, David S.; Neumann, Craig S.; Forth, Adelle E.; Salekin, Randall T.; Hare, Robert D.; Krischer, Maya K.; Sevecke, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence for the fit of the 3- and 4-factor models of Psychopathy Checklist-based ratings of psychopathy in adult males and adolescents, evidence is less consistent in adolescent females. However, prior studies used samples much smaller than recommended for examining model fit. To address this issue, we conducted a confirmatory…

  11. What Does She Expect when She Dresses like That? Teacher Interpretation of Emerging Adolescent Female Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimi, Regina; Liston, Delores D.

    2009-01-01

    When examining the experiences of adolescent girls, a study into the presumptions teachers have regarding female adolescent sexuality is a very important aspect to explore. This article presents the findings from a study we conducted with eleven middle- and high school teachers in a southeastern state from both rural and urban districts. In-depth…

  12. Somatic maturation and body composition in female healthy adolescents with or without adjustment for body fat

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Valter Paulo N.; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1), eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2), eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV). Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032). There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049). The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034) and percentage of central fat (p=0.039) compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751). Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess. PMID:24676194

  13. Perceived Physical Attractiveness and Frequency of Substance Use among Male and Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.

    1993-01-01

    Investigated relationship between perceived physical attractiveness and frequency of substance use among 1,297 adolescents. Female adolescents who rated themselves as unattractive were more likely to use illicit psychoactive substances than those who rated themselves as average or attractive. Perceived attractiveness did not contribute to…

  14. Prenatal alcohol exposure and adolescent stress increase sensitivity to stress and gonadal hormone influences on cognition in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Comeau, Wendy L; Lee, Kristen; Anderson, Katie; Weinberg, Joanne

    2015-09-01

    Abnormal activity of stress hormone (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA]), and gonadal hormone (hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal [HPG]) systems is reported following prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). PAE increases vulnerability of brain regions involved in regulation of these systems to stressors or challenges during sensitive periods of development, such as adolescence. In addition, HPA and HPG functions are linked to higher order functions such as executive function (EF), with dysregulation of either system adversely affecting EF processes, including attention and response inhibition, that influence cognition. However, how HPA and HPG systems interact to influence cognitive performance in individuals with an FASD is not fully understood. To investigate, we used a rat model of moderate PAE. Adolescent female PAE and control offspring were exposed to 10days of chronic mild stress (CMS) and cognitive function was assessed on the radial arm maze (RAM) in adulthood. On the final test day, animals were sacrificed, with blood collected for hormone analyses, and vaginal smears taken to assess estrus stage at the time of termination. Analyses showed that adolescent CMS significantly increased levels of CORT and RAM errors during proestrus in adult PAE but not control females. Moreover, CORT levels were correlated with estradiol levels and with RAM errors, but only in PAE females, with outcome dependent on adolescent CMS condition. These results suggest that PAE increases sensitivity to the influences of stress and gonadal hormones on cognition, and thus, in turn, that HPA and HPG dysregulation may underlie some of the deficits in executive function described previously in PAE females.

  15. High Frequency of Staphylococcus Saprophyticus Urinary Tract Infections Among Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lo, Denise Swei; Shieh, Huei Hsin; Barreira, Eliane Roseli; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta; Gilio, Alfredo Elias

    2015-09-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a rarely reported agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in the pediatric population. In our retrospective 3-year study, S. saprophyticus comprised 24.5% of 106 isolates of UTIs in female adolescents 12-15 years of age who attended an emergency department. Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of this etiology when empirically treating UTIs in female adolescents.

  16. High Frequency of Staphylococcus Saprophyticus Urinary Tract Infections Among Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lo, Denise Swei; Shieh, Huei Hsin; Barreira, Eliane Roseli; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta; Gilio, Alfredo Elias

    2015-09-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a rarely reported agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in the pediatric population. In our retrospective 3-year study, S. saprophyticus comprised 24.5% of 106 isolates of UTIs in female adolescents 12-15 years of age who attended an emergency department. Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of this etiology when empirically treating UTIs in female adolescents. PMID:26075812

  17. Determinants of Heterosexual Adolescents Having Sex with Female Sex Workers in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Junice Y. S.; Wong, Mee-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the proportion of and socio-ecological factors associated with ever having had sex with female sex workers (FSWs) among heterosexual adolescents. We also described the characteristics of the adolescents who reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs. Methods This is a cross-sectional study (response rate: 73%) of 300 heterosexually active male adolescents of 16 to 19 years attending a national STI clinic in Singapore between 2009 and 2014. We assessed the ecological factors (individual, parental, peer, school and medial influences) and sexual risk behaviors using a self-reported questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and confidence intervals (CI). Results The proportion of heterosexual male adolescents who had ever had sex with FSWs was 39%. Multivariate analysis showed that significant factors associated with ever having had sex with FSWs were sex initiation before 16 years old (aPR 1.79 CI: 1.30–2.46), never had a sexually active girlfriend (aPR 1.75 CI 1.28–2.38), reported lower self-esteem score (aPR 0.96 CI: 0.93–0.98), higher rebelliousness score (aPR 1.03 CI: 1.00–1.07) and more frequent viewing of pornography (aPR 1.47 CI: 1.04–2.09). Lifetime inconsistent condom use with FSWs was 30%. Conclusions A significant proportion of heterosexual male adolescents attending the public STI clinic had ever had sex with FSWs. A targeted intervention that addresses different levels of influence to this behavior is needed. This is even more so because a considerable proportion of adolescents reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs, who may serve as a bridge of STI transmission to the community. National surveys on adolescent health should include the assessment of frequency of commercial sex visits and condom use with FSWs for long-term monitoring and surveillance. PMID:26808561

  18. Sexual decision making in young black adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Pete, J M; DeSantis, L

    1990-01-01

    Participant observation and a questionnaire guide were used to conduct in-depth interviews with five 14-year-old, black, pregnant or recently delivered girls to obtain a broad and detailed view of perceptions and interpretations of the factors that led to the initiation of sexual activity and the decision to maintain the pregnancy that resulted. Four key and several supporting factors that influenced the girls' sexual decisions emerged from the data. The key factors centered around the girls' attempt to establish a relationship based on trust, a belief in their lack of vulnerability to become pregnant, family structure, and their beliefs about the alternatives available once a pregnancy was confirmed. Some of the findings were consistent with those reported in the literature, while others were not. Further research is needed on the father of the infant as well as the mother of the adolescent girl to assess their perceptions of the factors they believe influence teenagers' sexual decisions. PMID:2333793

  19. [DIFFERENCES IN ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN ADOLESCENT MALE AND FEMALE RATS EXPOSED AS NEWBORNS TO INFLAMMATORY PAIN OR STRESS].

    PubMed

    Butkevich, I P; Mikhailenko, V A; Vershinina, E A; Ulanova, N A

    2015-01-01

    In adolescent rats (25-35-day-old) exposed as newborns (the first and repeatedly second days) to adverse impacts (inflammatory pain, stress of short-term maternal separation or their combination) sex dimorphism was revealed in pain behavior under conditions of similar peripheral inflammation. According to the priority data obtained, strengthening of pain-related response in the formalin test was found in males, whereas pain sensitivity in females was not changed, that is pain experienced by them as newborns did not affect the system reactivity to the same chemical irritant in the adolescent period. However, the rats of both sexes, who experienced short-term stress of maternal deprivation (60 min-during the first and the second days of life), displayed increased pain sensitivity in the formalin test. Combined effect of inflammatory pain and maternal deprivation in newborns did not alter pain sensitivity in both adolescent males and adolescent females. The male and female rats exposed as newborns to maternal deprivation displayed a decrease of the anxiety level in the elevated plus maze; the rats, exposed to each of the above-mentioned early impacts showed a decline of adaptive behavior in the forced swimming test; the males exposed to pain and combined impacts demonstrated impairment of spatial learning in Morris labyrinth. Thus, we pioneered in demonstrating sex differences in the effects of inflammatory pain in newborn pups on pain sensitivity in the formalin test in adolescent rats. Separation of the influence of early stress or pain was revealed in adolescent females in the formalin test: maternal deprivation induced hyperalgesia, whereas pain failed to change functional activity of the tonic nociceptive system. PMID:26547951

  20. Identifying factors predicting iron deficiency in United States adolescent females using the ferritin and the body iron models

    PubMed Central

    Sekhar, Deepa L.; Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Paul, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the United States affecting 9–16% of female adolescents. With the primary purpose of detecting iron deficiency, primary care screening consists of a hemoglobin or hematocrit laboratory test. This method is simple and inexpensive, but tests for anemia, and is neither sensitive nor specific for iron deficiency. Alternate methods for diagnosing iron deficiency using the ferritin and body iron models are not widely utilized. The study objective was to compare iron deficiency risk factors among adolescent females defined by the ferritin and body iron models to better characterize those who may benefit from iron deficiency testing as opposed to the current anemia-based screen. Methods This cross-sectional study of female adolescents aged 12–21 years utilized National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006 data. Anemia was defined by standard hemoglobin cutoffs. The ferritin model defines iron deficiency through transferrin saturation, ferritin and erythrocyte protoporphyrin laboratory testing. Body iron calculates iron status with a formula involving transferrin receptor and ferritin. Bivariate and multivariable analyses examined associations between questionnaire responses and iron deficiency defined by each model. Results Among 1765 participants, 2.7% were anemic. Iron deficiency prevalence was 13.1% and 9.1% by the ferritin and body iron models, respectively. Based on the model, anemia-based screening had a sensitivity of 15.6–18.8% for iron deficiency. Multivariable associations for ferritin model iron deficiency included age, race/ethnicity, activity level and medroxyprogresterone acetate injection. Age and food insecurity were significant using the body iron model. Conclusions Universal anemia-based screening misses the majority of iron-deficient adolescent females. The common risk factor identified here, adolescent age, may both inform preventive care guidelines on

  1. Adolescent females "voice" changes can signal difficulties for teachers and administrators.

    PubMed

    Wren, D J

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the different preferences in learning styles of adolescent females and males, based on the pioneering work on adolescent values development by Lawrence Kohlberg and Carol Gilligan. Since values education programs are currently considered very important, educators need to explore the philosophical, psychological, and social influences on students' learning preferences before they can introduce appropriate curricula. An indication of problems in adolescent females frequently is the occurrence of voice changes, for example, girls may express viewpoints that do not represent their true beliefs and feelings. Curricular and co-curricular suggestions are presented.

  2. High-risk adolescents and female condoms: knowledge, attitudes, and use patterns.

    PubMed

    Haignere, C S; Gold, R; Maskovsky, J; Ambrosini, J; Rogers, C L; Gollub, E

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore data on high-risk male and female adolescents' attitudes towards the female condom as compared with the male condom. Exploratory survey research was utilized with convenience sample of 65 high-risk adolescents at an emergency homeless shelter. A peer-led intervention was conducted and pre- and post-test interviews explored barriers to female condom use. The intervention consisted of 15- to 30-minute small-group sessions, discussing the female condom's construction; purpose of the rings; its efficacy in preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections; and how to lubricate, insert, and use it. Content and Chi-square analyses were utilized. 63% used the male condom as their primary contraceptive method; almost half (48%) said they always used a male condom, but 44% reported having sex without using one at least once in the 2 weeks prior to the pre-test. 95% had heard of the female condom (half had heard "good" things and 24% had heard "bad" things), but only 15% had ever used one. At post-test all respondents gave reasons they might use a female condom in the future, and 77% gave reasons why they might not. Most (73%) adolescents said they would still prefer the male condom to the female condom. The major potential barriers to adolescents' female condom use were not having a female condom available and/or females feeling uncomfortable inserting them. The female condom should be offered to adolescents as an additional choice rather than as a replacement for the male condom. Further research is needed to assure access to, availability of, and comfort with the female condom and male participation in its use.

  3. Adolescents' Occupational and Educational Aspirations and Expectations: Links to High School Activities and Adult Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Sarah J.; Crockett, Lisa J.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored adolescents' future-oriented cognitions, current activities, and later educational attainment using data from 317 adolescents (55% female; mean age = 14.98 years, SD = 0.85) followed into early adulthood. Aspirations and expectations regarding work and education showed modest stability from year to year.…

  4. A Qualitative Study of Parental Modeling and Social Support for Physical Activity in Underserved Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Marcie S.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Griffin, Sarah; Evans, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    This study obtained qualitative data to assess how parental role modeling and parental social support influence physical activity in underserved (minority, low-income) adolescents. Fifty-two adolescents (22 males, 30 females; ages 10-14 years, 85% African-American) participated in a focus group (6-10 per group, same gender). Focus groups were…

  5. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Dairy Intakes and Stress Fractures Among Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Gordon, Catherine M.; Kocher, Mininder S.; Pierce, Laura M.; Ramappa, Arun; Field, Alison E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify whether calcium, vitamin D, and/or dairy intake are prospectively associated with stress fracture risk among female adolescents. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Adolescent girls living throughout the United States. Participants A total of 6712 girls ages 9 to 15 years at baseline in the Growing Up Today Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study. Main Exposure Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intake assessed by food frequency questionnaire every 12-24 months between 1996 and 2001. Main Outcome Measures Incident stress fracture that occurred between 1997 and 2004, as reported by mother’s of the participants in 2004. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine associations. Results During 7 years of follow-up, 3.9% of females developed a stress fracture. Dairy and calcium intake were unrelated to risk of developing a stress fracture. However, vitamin D intake was inversely related to stress fracture risk. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of stress fracture for the highest versus the lowest quintile of vitamin D was 0.49 (95% CI=0.24-1.01; ptrend=0.07). We conducted a stratified analysis to estimate the association between vitamin D intake and stress fracture risk among girls participating in ≥1 hour/day of high-impact activity, among whom 90% of the stress fractures occurred, and found that higher vitamin D intake predicted significantly lower risk of stress fracture (ptrend=0.04) Conclusions Vitamin D intake is associated with lower stress fracture risk among adolescent girls who engage in high levels of high-impact activity. Neither calcium nor dairy intake were prospectively associated with stress fracture risk. PMID:22393172

  6. Self-reported previous knee injury and low knee function increase knee injury risk in adolescent female football.

    PubMed

    Clausen, M B; Tang, L; Zebis, M K; Krustrup, P; Hölmich, P; Wedderkopp, N; Andersen, L L; Christensen, K B; Møller, M; Thorborg, K

    2016-08-01

    Knee injuries are common in adolescent female football. Self-reported previous knee injury and low Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are proposed to predict future knee injuries, but evidence regarding this in adolescent female football is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale score as risk factors for future knee injuries in adolescent female football. A sample of 326 adolescent female football players, aged 15-18, without knee injury at baseline, were included. Data on self-reported previous knee injury and KOOS questionnaires were collected at baseline. Time-loss knee injuries and football exposures were reported weekly by answers to standardized text-message questions, followed by injury telephone interviews. A priori, self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale scores (< 80 points) were chosen as independent variables in the risk factor analyses. The study showed that self-reported previous knee injury significantly increased the risk of time-loss knee injury [relative risk (RR): 3.65, 95% confidence (CI) 1.73-7.68; P < 0.001]. Risk of time-loss knee injury was also significantly increased in players with low KOOS subscale scores (< 80 points) in Activities of Daily Living (RR: 5.0), Sport/Recreational (RR: 2.2) and Quality of Life (RR: 3.0) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, self-reported previous knee injury and low scores in three KOOS subscales significantly increase the risk of future time-loss knee injury in adolescent female football. PMID:26179111

  7. Examining evidence for behavioural mimicry of parental eating by adolescent females. An observational study.

    PubMed

    Sharps, Maxine; Higgs, Suzanne; Blissett, Jackie; Nouwen, Arie; Chechlacz, Magdalena; Allen, Harriet A; Robinson, Eric

    2015-06-01

    Behavioural mimicry is a potential mechanism explaining why adolescents appear to be influenced by their parents' eating behaviour. In the current study we examined whether there is evidence that adolescent females mimic their parents when eating. Videos of thirty-eight parent and female adolescent dyads eating a lunchtime meal together were examined. We tested whether a parent placing a food item into their mouth was associated with an increased likelihood that their adolescent child would place any food item (non-specific mimicry) or the same item (specific mimicry) in their mouth at three different time frames, namely, during the same second or within the next fifteen seconds (+15), five seconds (+5) or two second (+2) period. Parents and adolescents' overall food intake was positively correlated, whereby a parent eating a larger amount of food was associated with the adolescent eating a larger meal. Across all of the three time frames adolescents were more likely to place a food item in their mouth if their parent had recently placed that same food item in their mouth (specific food item mimicry); however, there was no evidence of non-specific mimicry. This observational study suggests that when eating in a social context there is evidence that adolescent females may mimic their parental eating behaviour, selecting and eating more of a food item if their parent has just started to eat that food.

  8. The relationship between regular sports participation and vigilance in male and female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ballester, Rafael; Huertas, Florentino; Yuste, Francisco Javier; Llorens, Francesc; Sanabria, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between regular sport participation (soccer) and vigilance performance. Two groups of male and female adolescents differentiated in terms of their sport participation (athletes, n = 39, and non-athletes, n = 36) took part in the study. In one session, participants performed the Leger Multi-stage fitness test to estimate their aerobic fitness level. In the other session, participants completed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) to evaluate their vigilance performance. Perceived arousal prior to the task and motivation toward the task were also measured in the PVT session. The results revealed that athletes had better cardiovascular fitness and showed better performance in the PVT. However, correlation analyses did not show any significant relationship between cardiovascular fitness and performance in the PVT. Athletes showed larger scores in motivation and perceived arousal measures with respect to non-athletes, although, once again, these variables were not correlated with PVT performance. Gender differences were observed only in the Leger test, with males showing greater fitness level than females. The major outcome of this research points to a positive relationship between regular sport participation and vigilance during adolescence. This relationship did not seem to be influenced by gender, perceived arousal, motivation toward the task or cardiovascular fitness. We discuss our results in terms of the different hypotheses put forward in the literature to explain the relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning. PMID:25849873

  9. Attributions of Female and Male Adolescents for Real-Life Failure Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Helen S.; Vispoel, Walter P.

    1990-01-01

    A study involving 697 male and 765 female ninth and twelfth graders was undertaken to assess learned helplessness in attribution patterns associated with personal failure. Although significant gender differences were identified, little evidence was obtained supporting the learned helplessness model for adolescent female achievement motivation.…

  10. Eating Attitudes in a Diverse Sample of Israeli Adolescent Females: A Comparison Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latzer, Y.; Tzischinsky, O.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the eating attitudes in Israeli Jewish female adolescents. Methods: A representative sample of 1270 females in grades 7-12 from five different Israeli schools from five different residential areas were assessed by EAT-26. Results: Of the total sample, 19.5% were identified as having abnormal eating attitudes. In terms of…

  11. Single-Sex versus Coeducational Environment and Achievement in Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaco, Nanci M.; Gaier, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that, if high school environment reduces discrepancy between conflicting roles, adolescent females may place greater emphasis on achievement. Within this context, explores differential benefits of single-sex and coeducational schooling. Issue explored is not whether one is preferable for females; rather, the concern is how each of these…

  12. "Girls Are Retarded When They're Stoned." Marijuana and the Construction of Gender Roles among Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jessica; Weber, Timothy R.; Albanez, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Uses data from 122 male and 110 female focus-group participants to study why adolescent females use less marijuana than adolescent males, focusing on normative boundaries that restrict females in access to and use of marijuana. Results suggest the limiting effects of traditional gender roles on marijuana use. (SLD)

  13. The Influence of an After School Single Gender Literacy Community on the Early-Adolescent Female's Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Brown, Jibby L.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the research of the 20th and 21st centuries, the ability to sustain voice in our adolescent females continues to present a concern. This qualitative study in educational and literacy research uncovers an educational framework that can strengthen the voice of adolescent females by using non-traditional methods and female preferred learning…

  14. Ego Identity Development in Females: Focus on Adolescent Foreclosure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partoll, Shirley F.

    Erikson marked adolescence for the prime developmental task of identity achievement. An examination of 31 mothers, aged 25 to 45, revealed that foreclosure of identity development was the norm for this sample in adolescence and that, for those who had achieved identity, the subsequent status change was related to the liberating influences of…

  15. Influence of Peers on Young Adolescent Females' Romantic Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee E.; Garwick, Ann W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Initiation of sexual intercourse during early adolescence is a known risk factor for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Purpose: To examine young women's stories describing peer in?uences on their romantic and sexual decisions and behavior during early adolescence. Methods: Semistructured ethnographic interviews were…

  16. Treatment Adherence among Latina Female Adolescent Suicide Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Piacentini, John; Van Rossem, Ronan; Graae, Flemming; Cantwell, Coleen; Castro-Blanco, David; Feldman, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Disenfranchised Latina adolescents (N=140) and their mothers presenting at a large urban emergency room after a suicide attempt by the adolescent were assessed to examine treatment adherence. Predictor variables for treatment adherence were established. Results are discussed in relation to treatment session attendance. Implications for the…

  17. The relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students.

    PubMed

    Bodiba, P; Madu, S N; Ezeokana, J O; Nnedum, O A U

    2008-03-01

    The study investigated the relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students. The study used a mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative methods). Media images of handsome faces and beautiful bodies are used to sell almost everything, from clothes and cosmetic to luncheon, meats, and so on. These images reinforce the western cultural stereotype that women should be thin and shapely to be attractive. Thus, as some girls go through puberty they may become dissatisfied with their weight, and to a lesser extent, with their shape, thus, developing low self-concept or imae of themselves. It is in this context that the study was conceptualised. First year female students from three different Schools and Faculties at the University of Limpopo, Turfloop Campus, South Africa, participated in the study. Using the availability and convenient sampling method, 75 students were selected for this study. For the quantitative aspect of the study, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Measure was used to measure self-esteem. For the qualitative part, a topic guide was used for the focus group discussions. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Pearson's Product Moment Correlation were used to analyse the quantitative data, while the phenomenological principle of open coding used for the thematic analysis. Results showed that there is a relationship between body mass and self-concept and that overweight participants tend to have a low self-esteem. Low self-esteem was perceived to be aggravated by a number of factors, like the attitude of the media and the society. Participants who are overweight also indicated that they are limited in certain activities of daily living (e.g., sports) as a result of their body mass. They expressed mixed feelings and frustration when it comes to such activities. The above results did not differ from those reported from western cultures. Support groups, life-skills programmes and psychotherapy should be

  18. Incidental finding of a huge ovarian serous cystadenoma in an adolescent female with menorrhagia.

    PubMed

    Abu Sulb, Ahmad; Abu El Haija, Marwa; Muthukumar, Akila

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic tumors in adolescent females are very uncommon. While the most common presentation is pelvic discomfort, we report the case of a 14-year-old female presenting with menorrhagia which is an unusual initial complaint for a large pelvic tumor. Adolescent females who present with heavy menstrual bleeding initially undergo assessment to rule out a bleeding disorder. In this case, careful history and physical examination helped in making a quick diagnosis and management. Ultrasound of abdomen showed a huge cystic mass due to serous cystadenoma of the ovary. PMID:27489715

  19. The relationship between stress and body satisfaction in female and male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kristen; Rieger, Elizabeth; Byrne, Don

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship between stress and body satisfaction in adolescence. A sample consisting of 515 adolescents aged 12-16 years completed a series of self-report questionnaires assessing general and specific aspects of adolescent stress, body satisfaction and the psychological constructs of self-esteem, depressive symptoms and body importance. Results revealed a significant association between higher body dissatisfaction and higher ratings of peer stress, lower self-esteem and greater body importance for female and male adolescents. These findings suggest that adolescent stress relates to satisfaction with the body and that this stress is specifically focused on the peer environment for both genders during adolescence. This may have implications for intervention programmes aimed at improving body satisfaction, suggesting that the inclusion of stress management training in these programmes could specifically focus on difficulties within the peer domain. PMID:23897844

  20. Development of multi-dimensional body image scale for malaysian female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chin, Yit Siew; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to develop a Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents. Data were collected among 328 female adolescents from a secondary school in Kuantan district, state of Pahang, Malaysia by using a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The self-administered questionnaire comprised multiple measures of body image, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965). The 152 items from selected multiple measures of body image were examined through factor analysis and for internal consistency. Correlations between Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale and body mass index (BMI), risk of eating disorders and self-esteem were assessed for construct validity. A seven factor model of a 62-item Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents with construct validity and good internal consistency was developed. The scale encompasses 1) preoccupation with thinness and dieting behavior, 2) appearance and body satisfaction, 3) body importance, 4) muscle increasing behavior, 5) extreme dieting behavior, 6) appearance importance, and 7) perception of size and shape dimensions. Besides, a multidimensional body image composite score was proposed to screen negative body image risk in female adolescents. The result found body image was correlated with BMI, risk of eating disorders and self-esteem in female adolescents. In short, the present study supports a multi-dimensional concept for body image and provides a new insight into its multi-dimensionality in Malaysian female adolescents with preliminary validity and reliability of the scale. The Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale can be used to identify female adolescents who are potentially at risk of developing body image disturbance through future intervention programs. PMID:20126371

  1. Voluntary exercise does not enhance long-term potentiation in the adolescent female dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Titterness, A K; Wiebe, E; Kwasnica, A; Keyes, G; Christie, B R

    2011-06-01

    The hippocampus is a dynamic brain structure involved with learning and memory. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a neuronal model of learning and memory and, in adult rodents, is enhanced by voluntary exercise (VEx). The current study sought to elucidate whether synaptic plasticity in the male and female adolescent hippocampus is augmented by VEx. Consistent with previous studies, VEx significantly enhanced LTP in adolescent males following weak and strong theta-burst stimulation. Despite running the same amount as males, however, VEx did not enhance LTP in females above non-runner females. Surprisingly, the exercise-induced enhancement to LTP in males was seen in the absence of a change in brain derived neurotrophic factor in the dentate gyrus (DG). These findings indicate that adolescent males and females are differentially sensitive to the potentiating effect of exercise on hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

  2. Engagement in school and community civic activities among rural adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2011-09-01

    Involvement in civic and community activities is a core part of positive youth development. Adolescents involved in voluntary civic activities have greater academic engagement, enhanced well-being, less involvement in problem behaviors, and they are more likely to value connections to their community than those who are not involved. The current research examined involvement in school and community civic activities as well as religious youth groups among 8th and 9th graders (N = 679, 61.7% female, 85.9% White) from small, rural schools in the Midwest U.S. and linked involvement to religiosity, well-being, problem behavior, academic engagement, and perceptions of parents and peers. Half of the adolescents in the sample reported involvement in civic activities or, more commonly, in religious youth groups. Adolescents who participated in religious youth groups reported more extracurriculars, less problem behavior, higher grades and motivation, and more support from parents and friends than adolescents who did not. The most frequently reported school civic activities were student council and Future Farmers of America, and 4-H was the most popular community civic activity. Those who were involved in school- and community-based civic activities reported more religiosity, academic engagement, and positive perceptions of parents and peers than uninvolved youth. The results support and extend research on rural youth by documenting civic activities across contexts and examining how involvement is associated with positive youth development. PMID:20405186

  3. Engagement in school and community civic activities among rural adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2011-09-01

    Involvement in civic and community activities is a core part of positive youth development. Adolescents involved in voluntary civic activities have greater academic engagement, enhanced well-being, less involvement in problem behaviors, and they are more likely to value connections to their community than those who are not involved. The current research examined involvement in school and community civic activities as well as religious youth groups among 8th and 9th graders (N = 679, 61.7% female, 85.9% White) from small, rural schools in the Midwest U.S. and linked involvement to religiosity, well-being, problem behavior, academic engagement, and perceptions of parents and peers. Half of the adolescents in the sample reported involvement in civic activities or, more commonly, in religious youth groups. Adolescents who participated in religious youth groups reported more extracurriculars, less problem behavior, higher grades and motivation, and more support from parents and friends than adolescents who did not. The most frequently reported school civic activities were student council and Future Farmers of America, and 4-H was the most popular community civic activity. Those who were involved in school- and community-based civic activities reported more religiosity, academic engagement, and positive perceptions of parents and peers than uninvolved youth. The results support and extend research on rural youth by documenting civic activities across contexts and examining how involvement is associated with positive youth development.

  4. Ethnicity and problem behaviors among adolescent females in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guiao, Isabelita Z; Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2004-04-01

    Depression, alcohol use, and suicidal behaviors are common problems among adolescents in the United States. Little is known about how these problem behaviors differ among adolescent, multiethnic females. In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, regression analyses were performed to determine differences in these adolescent problem behaviors among multiethnic females using Latinas as the referent group. The random sample (N = 3,310, aged 12-19 years) included Latinas, and African-, Asian-, Native-, and Euro-American females. Measures included the CES-D, number of drinks each time alcohol was consumed in the past year, and a composite measure of suicidal behaviors. Latinas reported significantly higher risk for adolescent depression than did Euro-American peers and higher risk for alcohol use than did African- and Asian-American peers only. There were no significant differences in risk for suicidal behaviors between Latinas and their peers representing any of the other four ethnic groups. As adolescents of Latin, African, Asian, Native or aboriginal, and European ethnicity live all over the world, the findings inform future studies on adolescent depression, alcohol use, and suicidal behaviors among adolescents representing any of these ethnic groups in any part of the globe. PMID:15199970

  5. Adolescent exposure to THC in female rats disrupts developmental changes in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Tiziana; Prini, Pamela; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Zamberletti, Erica; Trusel, Massimo; Melis, Miriam; Sagheddu, Claudia; Ligresti, Alessia; Tonini, Raffaella; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Parolaro, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Current concepts suggest that exposure to THC during adolescence may act as a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. However, the molecular underpinnings of this vulnerability are still poorly understood. To analyze this, we investigated whether and how THC exposure in female rats interferes with different maturational events occurring in the prefrontal cortex during adolescence through biochemical, pharmacological and electrophysiological means. We found that the endocannabinoid system undergoes maturational processes during adolescence and that THC exposure disrupts them, leading to impairment of both endocannabinoid signaling and endocannabinoid-mediated LTD in the adult prefrontal cortex. THC also altered the maturational fluctuations of NMDA subunits, leading to larger amounts of gluN2B at adulthood. Adult animals exposed to THC during adolescence also showed increased AMPA gluA1 with no changes in gluA2 subunits. Finally, adolescent THC exposure altered cognition at adulthood. All these effects seem to be triggered by the disruption of the physiological role played by the endocannabinoid system during adolescence. Indeed, blockade of CB1 receptors from early to late adolescence seems to prevent the occurrence of pruning at glutamatergic synapses. These results suggest that vulnerability of adolescent female rats to long-lasting THC adverse effects might partly reside in disruption of the pivotal role played by the endocannabinoid system in the prefrontal cortex maturation.

  6. Ecological influences of sexuality on early adolescent African American females.

    PubMed

    Aronowitz, Teri; Rennells, Rachel E; Todd, Erin

    2006-01-01

    African Americans make up the greater proportion of AIDS cases in adolescent girls but little is understood about the development of sexual risk behaviors during the early adolescent years. This article will explore ecological factors influencing adolescent sexual risk behaviors. In the focus groups, which were conducted using 28 African American mothers and their early adolescent daughters, 2 major themes emerged: exposure and support systems. Mothers described the impact community had on their daughters and how monitoring and support systems worked together to control exposure. The girls detailed the different ways they were impacted by the community. Attitudes the girls adopted from their exposures resulted in risk-taking behaviors or a determination to positively impact the community. Community was shown to be the context of the acquisition of sexual knowledge and attitudes. These findings support the development of interventions to address the impact of community on the participation of sexual risk behaviors. PMID:16643100

  7. Ecological influences of sexuality on early adolescent African American females.

    PubMed

    Aronowitz, Teri; Rennells, Rachel E; Todd, Erin

    2006-01-01

    African Americans make up the greater proportion of AIDS cases in adolescent girls but little is understood about the development of sexual risk behaviors during the early adolescent years. This article will explore ecological factors influencing adolescent sexual risk behaviors. In the focus groups, which were conducted using 28 African American mothers and their early adolescent daughters, 2 major themes emerged: exposure and support systems. Mothers described the impact community had on their daughters and how monitoring and support systems worked together to control exposure. The girls detailed the different ways they were impacted by the community. Attitudes the girls adopted from their exposures resulted in risk-taking behaviors or a determination to positively impact the community. Community was shown to be the context of the acquisition of sexual knowledge and attitudes. These findings support the development of interventions to address the impact of community on the participation of sexual risk behaviors.

  8. Black and White Adolescent Females' Pre-Pregnancy Nutrition Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Roger C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Results indicated that black females ingested more energy, protein, calcium, and iron than did white females. Significant percentages of both black and white females' intakes of energy, calcium, and iron fell below recommended allowances, suggesting that most of those surveyed possessed poor prepregnancy nutritional status. (RJM)

  9. Cortical neuroinflammation contributes to long-term cognitive dysfunctions following adolescent delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment in female rats.

    PubMed

    Zamberletti, Erica; Gabaglio, Marina; Prini, Pamela; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    Over 180 million people consume cannabis globally. Cannabis use peaks during adolescence with a trend for continued consumption by adults. Notably, several studies have shown that long-term and heavy cannabis use during adolescence can impair brain maturation and predispose to neurodevelopmental disorders, although the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this association remain largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated whether, in female rats, chronic administration of increasing doses of the psychotropic plant-derived cannabis constituent, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), during adolescence (PND 35-45) could affect microglia function in the long-term. Furthermore, we explored a possible contribution of microglia to the development of THC-induced alterations in mood and cognition in adult female rats. Present data indicate that adolescent THC administration induces a persistent neuroinflammatory state specifically localized within the adult prefrontal cortex (PFC), characterized by increased expression of the pro-inflammatory markers, TNF-α, iNOS and COX-2, and reduction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. This neuroinflammatory phenotype is associated with down-regulation of CB1 receptor on neuronal cells and up-regulation of CB2 on microglia cells, conversely. Interestingly, blocking microglia activation with ibudilast during THC treatment significantly attenuates short-term memory impairments in adulthood, simultaneously preventing the increases in TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2 levels as well as the up-regulation of CB2 receptors on microglia cells. In contrast, THC-induced depressive-like behaviors were unaffected by ibudilast treatment. Our findings demonstrate that adolescent THC administration is associated with persistent neuroinflammation within the PFC and provide evidence for a causal association between microglial activation and the development long-term cognitive deficits induced by adolescent THC treatment.

  10. Prereproductive stress in adolescent female rats affects behavior and corticosterone levels in second-generation offspring.

    PubMed

    Zaidan, Hiba; Gaisler-Salomon, Inna

    2015-08-01

    Human and animal studies indicate that vulnerability to stress may be heritable. We have previously shown that chronic, mild prereproductive stress (PRS) in adolescent female rats affects behavior and corticotropin releasing factor 1 (CRF1) expression in the brain of first-generation (F1) offspring. Here, we investigated the effects of PRS on anxiogenic behavior and CRF1 expression in male and female second-generation (F2) offspring. Furthermore, we assessed levels of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), a direct marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, in PRS females and their F1 and F2 progeny. F2 offspring demonstrated decreased CRF1 mRNA expression at birth, and alterations in anxiogenic behavior in adulthood. CORT levels were elevated in PRS females and in their F1 female, but not male, offspring. In F2, CORT levels in PRS offspring also varied in a sex-dependent manner. These findings indicate that PRS in adolescent females leads to behavioral alterations that extend to second-generation offspring, and has transgenerational effects on endocrine function. Together with our previous findings, these data indicate that PRS to adolescent females affects behavior and HPA axis function across three generations, and highlight the importance of examining the transgenerational effects of stress in both male and female offspring.

  11. The role of adolescent behaviors in the female-male disparity in obesity incidence in US black and white young adults.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Whitney R; Stevens, June; Kaufman, Jay S; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2010-07-01

    In the United States, black women are at much greater risk for obesity than black men. We explored whether adolescent behaviors (family dinners, hours of television, playing sports with mother, playing sports with father, bouts of physical activity) were associated with gender disparity in 6-year obesity incidence in young adulthood. We used data from the nationally representative National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine adolescent behaviors in nonimmigrant black (n = 1,503) and white (n = 4,452) youths in 1994-95 (aged 11-19 years) and 1995-96 (aged 12-20). We assessed gender disparity in obesity incidence (female incidence minus male incidence) during young adulthood (2001-02; aged 18-26). Standardized gender disparities were calculated using race- and gender-stratified, covariate-adjusted logistic regression models in which males and females were set to the same distributions of adolescent behaviors. In adolescence, black females reported less leisure-time physical activity and lower likelihood of playing sports with either parent compared with black males. Setting adolescent behaviors equal for black males and females did not reduce the estimated gender disparity in obesity incidence (nonstandardized: 9.8 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5, 15.1); fully standardized: 10.2 percentage points (5.2, 15.2)). There was little gender disparity in whites before or after adjustments. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine to what extent behavioral differences during adolescence might account for gender disparity in obesity incidence in black young adults. Male-female differences in these adolescent behaviors did not appear to underlie the gender gap in young adult obesity.

  12. Thinning of the lateral prefrontal cortex during adolescence predicts emotion regulation in females.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Dennison, Meg; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-11-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period for the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Despite the fact that structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex during adolescence is often assumed to underlie the maturation of emotion regulation strategies, no longitudinal studies have directly assessed this relationship. This study examined whether use of cognitive reappraisal strategies during late adolescence was predicted by (i) absolute prefrontal cortical thickness during early adolescence and (ii) structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex between early and mid-adolescence. Ninety-two adolescents underwent baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans when they were aged approximately 12 and 16 years, respectively. FreeSurfer software was used to obtain cortical thickness estimates for three prefrontal regions [anterior cingulate cortex; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC); ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)]. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire was completed when adolescents were aged approximately 19 years. Results showed that greater cortical thinning of the left dlPFC and left vlPFC during adolescence was significantly associated with greater use of cognitive reappraisal in females, though no such relationship was evident in males. Furthermore, baseline left dlPFC thickness predicted cognitive reappraisal at trend level. These findings suggest that cortical maturation may play a role in the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies during adolescence.

  13. Transgenerational effects of adolescent nicotine exposure in rats: Evidence for cognitive deficits in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Samantha M; Fountain, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether adolescent nicotine exposure in one generation of rats would impair the cognitive capacity of a subsequent generation. Male and female rats in the parental F0 generation were given twice-daily i.p. injections of either 1.0mg/kg nicotine or an equivalent volume of saline for 35days during adolescence on postnatal days 25-59 (P25-59). After reaching adulthood, male and female nicotine-exposed rats were paired for breeding as were male and female saline control rats. Only female offspring were used in this experiment. Half of the offspring of F0 nicotine-exposed breeders and half of the offspring of F0 saline control rats received twice-daily i.p. injections of 1.0mg/kg nicotine during adolescence on P25-59. The remainder of the rats received twice-daily saline injections for the same period. To evaluate transgenerational effects of nicotine exposure on complex cognitive learning abilities, F1 generation rats were trained to perform a highly structured serial pattern in a serial multiple choice (SMC) task. Beginning on P95, rats in the F1 generation were given either 4days of massed training (20patterns/day) followed by spaced training (10 patterns/day) or only spaced training. Transgenerational effects of adolescent nicotine exposure were observed as greater difficulty in learning a "violation element" of the pattern, which indicated that rats were impaired in the ability to encode and remember multiple sequential elements as compound or configural cues. The results indicated that for rats that received massed training, F1 generation rats with adolescent nicotine exposure whose F0 generation parents also experienced adolescent nicotine exposure showed poorer learning of the violation element than rats that experienced adolescent nicotine exposure only in the F1 generation. Thus, adolescent nicotine exposure in one generation of rats produced a cognitive impairment in the next generation.

  14. An exploratory study of evoked facial affect in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Rhind, Charlotte; Mandy, William; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate facial affect in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa (AN). Evoked facial affect was recorded whilst AN and control participants (n=34) viewed emotional films. Significantly less facial affect was found in AN adolescents, despite reporting no differences in subjective emotion experience. These findings correspond with previous studies in adults with AN. Altered facial affect may impair interpersonal functioning and contribute to illness maintenance.

  15. Physical Activity, Screen Time, and Sitting among US Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Valerie; Staiano, Amanda E.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe daily levels of sitting, moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), television viewing, and computer use in a representative sample of US adolescents and to make comparisons between sex, race/ethnicity, weight status, and age groups. Methods Results are based on 3556 adolescents aged 12-19 years from the 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants self-reported demographic variables and their sitting, MVPA, and television viewing (2011-2012 only) and computer use (2011-2012 only) levels. Height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index. Descriptive data were calculated and ANOVA, chi-square, and logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine demographic differences. Results On average, 7.5 hours/day were spent sitting, with females sitting more than males across the majority of demographic groups. Furthermore, obese males sat more than non-overweight males. For MVPA, the overall sample participated in a median 34 minutes/day, with females participating in less MVPA than males across all demographic groups. Additionally, non-overweight males participated in more MVPA than obese males, and non-Hispanic white females participated in more MVPA than females in all other race/ethnicity groups. For television viewing and computer use, 38% and 22% of the sample engaged in more than 2 hours/day, respectively, and several race/ethnicity differences were observed. Conclusions This study provides the first US population estimates on the levels of sitting and updates population estimates of MVPA, television viewing and computer use in US adolescents. Continued efforts are needed to promote healthy active lifestyles in American adolescents. PMID:25050541

  16. Experiential Aging Activities and the Early Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Elbert D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Negative views about the elderly held by adolescents can result in a negative outlook on aging. Physical, mental, and social aging experiential activities are given which can be done at home or at school. (JN)

  17. Suicidal behavior among inner-city Hispanic adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Razin, A M; O'Dowd, M A; Nathan, A; Rodriguez, I; Goldfield, A; Martin, C; Goulet, L; Scheftel, S; Mezan, P; Mosca, J

    1991-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is disproportionately frequent among inner-city Hispanic adolescent girls. In an attempt to generate a multifactorial set of hypotheses to explain this behavior, 33 such subjects consecutively admitted for suicidal behavior and 15 demographically identical nonsuicidal subjects were assessed by means of a structured interview. Mothers of all subjects were also assessed. Attempts were nearly always impulsive and nonlethal, though often with a stated wish to die. Nearly all were overdoses, and were precipitated by conflicts with mother or boyfriend. Mothers could usually identify the precipitants. Attempters' parents were less often born in the U.S., their mothers seemed medically less healthy, and their extended families were more often supported by public assistance, and had a higher incidence of criminal and psychiatric problems. School performance was poorer among attempters, who had suffered more and earlier losses, especially of biologic fathers, with whom fewer had ongoing relationships. They more often had boyfriends, had begun sexual activity, had recently lost friends, and expressed a mistrustful stance toward friendships. Similarly, their mothers had fewer friends and more often expressed a mistrustful stance. Relationships with mothers seemed more intense, desperate, and even violent, and attempters were much more often parentified, i.e., mothering their mothers. Although both groups often assumed caretaking roles in their families, attempters were more negatively described by themselves and by their mothers. While knowledge of suicidal models was common in both groups, attempters' mothers knew of even more models than did their daughters or the nonsuicidal subjects or their mothers. Notably, more attempters' mothers had themselves made attempts. Families of most attempters were usually mobilized by the attempt. These findings permit the construction of a putative profile of risk factors that can be tested more rigorously. PMID:1993520

  18. Organized activity involvement, depressive symptoms, and social adjustment in adolescents: ethnicity and socioeconomic status as moderators.

    PubMed

    Randall, Edin T; Bohnert, Amy M

    2009-10-01

    The current cross-sectional study investigated the links between various dimensions of organized activity involvement and depressive symptoms, loneliness, and peer victimization in an ethnically and economically diverse sample of adolescents (N = 152; 58% female). Results indicate that adolescents who were involved in organized activities for more years also reported lower levels of loneliness. There was evidence of diminishing returns when adolescents were very highly involved in organized activities; those who were either under- or over-involved reported the highest levels of depressive symptoms. Conversely, findings indicate that adolescents who participated in a narrow or wide range of activity contexts reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms. In addition, results suggested that the relation between organized activity involvement and adjustment differs among adolescents from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Findings from the current study also underscore the importance of considering multiple indices of activity involvement when assessing its association with adjustment.

  19. Female Adolescents with Severe Substance and Conduct Problems Have Substantially Less Brain Gray Matter Volume

    PubMed Central

    Dalwani, Manish S.; McMahon, Mary Agnes; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Young, Susan E.; Regner, Michael F.; Raymond, Kristen M.; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Banich, Marie T.; Tanabe, Jody L.; Crowley, Thomas J; Sakai, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages. Hypotheses: Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex), conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate), valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex) and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum). Methods We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years) with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8) toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons at whole-brain cluster-level threshold. Results Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls. Conclusions Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in

  20. Comparison of Substance Use Typologies as Predictors of Sexual Risk Outcomes in African American Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Sales, Jessica M; Brown, Jennifer L; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve S

    2016-01-01

    African American female adolescents have a disproportionate risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other adverse sexual health outcomes. Both alcohol and marijuana use have been shown to predict sexual risk among young African American women. However, no studies have attempted to differentiate alcohol and marijuana typologies use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes exclusively among adolescents who use these substances. This study compared recent alcohol and/or marijuana use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes over 18 months among 182 African American female adolescents. African American females (14-20 years) completed interviews at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-months. At each assessment, pregnancy testing was conducted and self-collected vaginal swab specimens were assayed for Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using DNA amplification. Logistic subject-specific random-intercept models compared sexual risk outcomes during follow-up among adolescents who reported recent use of alcohol only (AO), marijuana only (MO) or both substances (A + M) at the baseline assessment. Relative to baseline AO use, baseline MO use predicted condom non-use at last sex. Relative to AO use, A + M use predicted pregnancy. Relative to MO use, A + M use predicted pregnancy and acquisition of T. vaginalis and any STI. The results suggest that African American female adolescents who use A + M may represent a priority population for STI, HIV, and pregnancy prevention efforts. PMID:25929200

  1. Comparison of Substance Use Typologies as Predictors of Sexual Risk Outcomes in African American Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Sales, Jessica M; Brown, Jennifer L; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve S

    2016-01-01

    African American female adolescents have a disproportionate risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other adverse sexual health outcomes. Both alcohol and marijuana use have been shown to predict sexual risk among young African American women. However, no studies have attempted to differentiate alcohol and marijuana typologies use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes exclusively among adolescents who use these substances. This study compared recent alcohol and/or marijuana use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes over 18 months among 182 African American female adolescents. African American females (14-20 years) completed interviews at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-months. At each assessment, pregnancy testing was conducted and self-collected vaginal swab specimens were assayed for Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using DNA amplification. Logistic subject-specific random-intercept models compared sexual risk outcomes during follow-up among adolescents who reported recent use of alcohol only (AO), marijuana only (MO) or both substances (A + M) at the baseline assessment. Relative to baseline AO use, baseline MO use predicted condom non-use at last sex. Relative to AO use, A + M use predicted pregnancy. Relative to MO use, A + M use predicted pregnancy and acquisition of T. vaginalis and any STI. The results suggest that African American female adolescents who use A + M may represent a priority population for STI, HIV, and pregnancy prevention efforts.

  2. Inter-parental conflict and sibling warmth during adolescence: associations with female depression in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Holt, Melissa; Wiesen-Martin, Desiree

    2013-02-01

    Grounded in Grych and Fincham's cognitive appraisal theory, this study examined whether female emerging adults' (N = 216) recalled sibling warmth moderated the relationship between exposure to inter-parental conflict in adolescence and their current depression. Findings indicated that sibling warmth moderated the relationship between the intensity and frequency of inter-parental conflict and depression, but not inter-parental conflict resolution. Compared to female emerging adults who reported lower sibling warmth, those who reported higher sibling warmth in the face of greater intensity and higher frequency of inter-parental conflict during adolescence had lower depression. The important role of siblings for youth from conflicted homes was highlighted. PMID:23654040

  3. Exposure to methylphenidate during peri-adolescence affects endocrine functioning and sexual behavior in female Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Guarraci, Fay A; Holifield, Caroline; Morales-Valenzuela, Jessica; Greene, Kasera; Brown, Jeanette; Lopez, Rebecca; Crandall, Christina; Gibbs, Nicole; Vela, Rebekah; Delgado, Melissa Y; Frohardt, Russell J

    2016-03-01

    The present study was designed to test the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) exposure on the maturation of endocrine functioning and sexual behavior. Female rat pups received either MPH (2.0mg/kg, i.p.) or saline twice daily between postnatal days 20-35. This period of exposure represents the time just prior to puberty as well as puberty onset. Approximately five weeks after the last injection of MPH or saline, female subjects were hormone-primed and tested during their first sexual experience. Subjects were given the choice to interact with a sexually active male or a sexually receptive female rat (i.e., the partner-preference test). The partner-preference paradigm allows us to assess multiple aspects of female sexual behavior. MPH exposure during peri-adolescence delayed puberty and, when mated for the first time, affected sexual behavior (e.g., increased time spent with the male stimulus and decreased the likelihood of leaving after mounts) during the test of partner preference. When monitoring estrous cyclicity, female subjects treated with MPH during peri-adolescence frequently experienced irregular estrous cycles. The results of the present study suggest that chronic exposure to a therapeutic dose of MPH around the onset of puberty alters long-term endocrine functioning, but with hormone priming, increases sensitivity to sexual stimuli.

  4. Self-Esteem in Hispanic Adolescent Females and Its Relation to Dual Parent Households and Single Mother Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Linda Marie Pettis

    2002-01-01

    The development of a sense of self in adolescence has been shown to be influenced by the perceived level of warmth of the mother. Additionally, the nature of the home environment has been found to relate to an adolescent's level of self-esteem (Buri, 1990; Field, Lang, Yando, and Bendell, 1993). Hispanic adolescent females and their mothers in…

  5. Perceived Parental Care and Control among Israeli Female Adolescents Presenting to Emergency Rooms after Self-Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Gary M.; Didner, Hila; Waniel, Ariela; Priel, Beatriz; Asherov, Jack; Arbel, Shosh

    2005-01-01

    Levels of perceived parental care and control among 24 female Israeli adolescents presenting at emergency rooms after a self-poisoning act of low lethality were compared to those found among 23 non-self-harming, community controls. Adolescents' perceived levels of parental care and control were measured via both adolescents' self-report and…

  6. Barriers and facilitators adolescent females living with HIV face in accessing contraceptive services: a qualitative assessment of providers’ perceptions in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Hagey, Jill M; Akama, Eliud; Ayieko, James; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R; Patel, Rena C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Avoiding unintended pregnancies is important for the health of adolescents living with HIV and has the additional benefit of preventing potential vertical HIV transmission. Health facility providers represent an untapped resource in understanding the barriers and facilitators adolescents living with HIV face when accessing contraception. By understanding these barriers and facilitators to contraceptive use among adolescent females living with HIV, this study aimed to understand how best to promote contraception within this marginalized population. Methods We conducted structured in-depth interviews with 40 providers at 21 Family AIDS Care & Education Services - supported clinics in Homabay, Kisumu and Migori counties in western Kenya from July to August 2014. Our interview guide explored the providers’ perspectives on contraceptive service provision to adolescent females living with HIV with the following specific domains: contraception screening and counselling, service provision, commodity security and clinic structure. Transcripts from the interviews were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Results According to providers, interpersonal factors dominated the barriers adolescent females living with HIV face in accessing contraception. Providers felt that adolescent females fear disclosing their sexual activity to parents, peers and providers, because of repercussions of perceived promiscuity. Furthermore, providers mentioned that adolescents find seeking contraceptive services without a male partner challenging, because some providers and community members view adolescents unaccompanied by their partners as not being serious about their relationships or having multiple concurrent relationships. On the other hand, providers noted that institutional factors best facilitated contraception for these adolescents. Integration of contraception and HIV care allows easier access to contraceptives by removing the stigma of coming to a clinic solely for

  7. Female Adolescents' Educational Choices about Reproductive Health Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Melanie A.; Chiappetta, Laurel; Young, Amanda J.; Zuckoff, Allan; DiClemente, Carlo C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess girls' reproductive educational choices, satisfaction with choice, and relationship between demographics, module choice, and satisfaction. Methods: We recruited 286 girls, aged 13 to 21 years, from a hospital-based adolescent clinic, from advertisements, and by word of mouth. At enrollment, participants completed a 60-minute…

  8. Body Dissatisfaction in Adolescent Females and Males: Risk and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate; Madeley, Mary Clare

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence and consequences of body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys and girls and discusses the role of body dissatisfaction in psychological disorders, including depression and eating disorders. Additionally, it explores predictors of the development of body dissatisfaction, including individual, familial, peer,…

  9. Identity Exploration and Relatedness among Japanese Female Late Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugimura, Kazumi

    Identity researchers are beginning to realize that identity in collectivist cultures is more deeply embedded in relational contexts than is identity in individualistic cultures. However, little is known about the ways in which adolescents use relationships in identity formation in collectivist cultures. Moreover, it is assumed that there are…

  10. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12-17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  11. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  12. The First Few Times: Similarities and Differences in Sexual Behaviors and Attitudes of West German Male and Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Hans; von Salisch, Maria

    The study reported in this paper examined: (1) how the expectations of sexual relationships relate to the sexual experiences which male and female adolescents gather in their relationships with the opposite sex; and (2) whether male and female adolescents differ in their sexual behavior, their expectations for sexual relationships, their…

  13. Do Australian Adolescent Female Fake Tan (Sunless Tan) Users Practice Better Sun-Protection Behaviours than Non-Users?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Melinda; Jones, Sandra C.; Caputi, Peter; Iverson, Don

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine differences in sun-protection behaviours, and incidence of sunburn, between Australian adolescent female fake tan users and non-users. Design: Cross sectional survey. Method: 398 adolescent females aged 12 to 18 years participated in a survey at public venues, schools, and online. The main outcome measures were…

  14. Teacher and Friend Social Support: Association with Body Weight in African-American Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Jevetta; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Webb, Fern J; Lee, Jenny; Doldren, Michelle; Rathore, Mobeen

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect ecological influences of teacher and friend social support on body weight and diet behaviors in African-American adolescent females. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional research design, a convenience sample of 182 urban African-American adolescent females (12-17 years old) completed a 39-item questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed perceived teacher social support, friend social support, nutrition self-efficacy, and diet behaviors (with internal reliability values of scale items: alpha = 0.74, 0.81, 0.77, and 0.69 respectively). Anthropometric assessments were conducted to measure height and weight to compute BMI. Majority of the participants were in middle or early high school (65 %) and were overweight or obese (57.7 %). Both teacher social support and friend social support demonstrated a positive, indirect influence on child weight status through nutrition self-efficacy and diet behaviors following two different and specific paths of influence. Diet behaviors, in turn, demonstrated a positive, direct effect on child weight status. In the structural model, teacher social support had the greatest effect on diet behaviors, demonstrating a direct, positive influence on diet behaviors (B = 0.421, p < 0.05), but its direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy was not significant. Friend social support demonstrated a positive, direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy (B = 0.227, p < 0.05), but its direct effect on diet behaviors was not statistically significant. The study's findings call for actively addressing the childhood obesity epidemic in the school environment by implementing health behavior change strategies at various social and ecological environmental levels.

  15. Sexual behavior of female adolescents on the spread of HIV/AIDS and other STDs in Carriacou.

    PubMed

    Patrice-Coy, Celestine; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan; Boodram, Cheryl Ann Sarita

    2016-09-01

    This article explores information relating to female adolescents knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Carriacou. The authors aimed at finding out whether adolescent females in Carriacou receive adequate information about HIV and other STDs. Where did students receive most of their information about HIV/STDs and whether the knowledge has influenced their sexual behaviors? Furthermore, this study focused on how female adolescents feel toward people living with HIV/STDs.Focus group method was employed with 2 age groups of female adolescent students. Content analysis was carried out by the researcher to analyze the data. Themes were developed using coding and thematic analysis.The findings revealed that female adolescents were highly aware of HIV/STDs-related facts. They were knowledgeable and have received adequate information about HIV/STDs. PMID:27603390

  16. Sexual behavior of female adolescents on the spread of HIV/AIDS and other STDs in Carriacou

    PubMed Central

    Patrice-Coy, Celestine; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan; Boodram, Cheryl Ann Sarita

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article explores information relating to female adolescents knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Carriacou. The authors aimed at finding out whether adolescent females in Carriacou receive adequate information about HIV and other STDs. Where did students receive most of their information about HIV/STDs and whether the knowledge has influenced their sexual behaviors? Furthermore, this study focused on how female adolescents feel toward people living with HIV/STDs. Focus group method was employed with 2 age groups of female adolescent students. Content analysis was carried out by the researcher to analyze the data. Themes were developed using coding and thematic analysis. The findings revealed that female adolescents were highly aware of HIV/STDs-related facts. They were knowledgeable and have received adequate information about HIV/STDs. PMID:27603390

  17. Beliefs and attitudes of male and female adolescents and the risk of smoking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kasim, K; Al-Zalabani, A; Abd El-Moneim, ES; Amer, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescent smoking relates to numerous risk factors, of which beliefs and attitudes toward smoking may play a role. The study aimed to investigate the association between beliefs and attitudes and the risk of adolescent smoking. Materials and Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional study, 3,400 students were recruited from 34 intermediate and secondary schools in Madinah City, Al Madinah Region, Saudi Arabia. Data about sociodemographics, smoking-related factors, and beliefs and attitudes toward smoking were collected using a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of smoking was estimated and the studied beliefs and attitudes were compared by smoking status and sex using appropriate statistical analyses including multivariate logistic regression. Results: Of the 3,322 respondents, 33.02% (38.9% males and 26.4% females) were current smokers. Beliefs and attitudes toward smoking significantly differed between smokers and nonsmokers in the studied male and female students. The adjusted risk of smoking was significantly increased among female adolescents who believed that male smokers were more attractive [odds ratio (OR) = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-2.9] and among male smokers who believed that female smokers are more attractive (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2-2.2). The risk was also increased among all adolescents who believed that smoking lent comfort in social gatherings. Belief that smoking is harmful, however, was negatively associated with the risk of smoking, particularly among females (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.35-0.91). Conclusions: The study revealed a considerable high prevalence of smoking among male and female adolescents. Addressing the beliefs and knowledge about smoking during childhood is crucial in any antismoking program. PMID:27089105

  18. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Coverage Among Female Adolescents in Managed Care Plans - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Ng, Judy; Ye, Faye; Roth, Lindsey; Sobel, Katherine; Byron, Sepheen; Barton, Mary; Lindley, Megan; Stokley, Shannon

    2015-10-30

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection, with a reported 79 million persons aged 15–59 years in the United States currently infected with HPV, and approximately 14 million new cases diagnosed each year. Although most HPV infections are asymptomatic, transient, and do not cause disease, persistent HPV infection can lead to cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancer. In the United States, approximately 27,000 HPV-attributable cancers occur each year. HPV vaccination is an effective primary prevention strategy that can reduce many of the HPV infections that lead to cancer, and is routinely recommended for adolescents aged 11–12 years. To determine whether the recommended HPV vaccination series is currently being administered to adolescents with health insurance, CDC and the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) assessed 2013 data from the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS). The HEDIS HPV Vaccine for Female Adolescents performance measure evaluates the proportion of female adolescent members in commercial and Medicaid health plans who receive the recommended 3-dose HPV vaccination series by age 13 years. In 2013, in the United States, the median HPV vaccination coverage levels for female adolescents among commercial and Medicaid plans were 12% and 19%, respectively (ranges = 0%–34% for commercial plans; 5%–52% for Medicaid plans). Improving HPV vaccination coverage and understanding of what health plans might do to support HPV vaccination are needed, including understanding the barriers to, and facilitators for, vaccination coverage.

  19. Sexual and moral development of Israeli female adolescents from city and kibbutz: perspectives of Kohlberg and Gilligan.

    PubMed

    Linn, R

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyzes real-life moral dilemmas of Israeli city and kibbutz adolescents. The contribution of Gilligan's theory to our knowledge of adolescent moral development as originally conceived by Kohlberg is emphasized. It is suggested that Kohlberg's view of the adolescent as a moral philosopher limits the understanding of the moral development of female adolescents, who use both care and justice in their self-descriptions within existing relationships.

  20. The female athletic role as a status determinant within the social systems of high school adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kane, M J

    1988-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between female athletic participation and status attainment within the social status systems of high school adolescents. Although earlier research has consistently demonstrated that the athletic role for males is associated with greatest status within the school, findings regarding the status of female athletes have been contradictory: Some studies have found high status rankings for female athletes while others have revealed negative results. It was therefore argued that current research go beyond the general construct of "female athlete" and consider the type of sport with which the adolescent female is associated as a possible status determinant. Employing a sport typology proposed by Metheny (1967), it was predicted that females associated with sex-appropriate or "feminine" sports (e.g., tennis) would receive significantly higher status ratings than those identified with sex-inappropriate or "masculine" sports (e.g., basketball). One hundred and twenty-one male subjects were asked to indicate which female athlete (associated with a sex-appropriate versus a sex-inappropriate sport) they would most like to date, while 111 female subjects were asked to choose which female athlete they would most like to have as a friend. Chi-square analyses revealed that, as predicted, females associated with sex-appropriate sports were given significantly greater status than females identified with sex-inappropriate sports by both male and female subjects. These results suggest that social assessments made about female sport participation within high school status systems remain heavily influenced by traditional beliefs regarding feminine, "ladylike" behavior.

  1. Female economic activity in Rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Hyder, Asma; Behrman, Jere R.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates economic activities and their determinants for women in households of rural Malawi, one of the poorest countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Three waves of household panel data for years 2006, 2008 and 2010 from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) are used to examine female labor market participation. This study includes certain important characteristics of Malawian households i.e., polygamy, ethnicity, religion and self reported health status. The study reports five different labor market outcomes for women's participation i.e., agriculture related work, market & sales activities, cottage industry, other economic activities and out of the labor market. The study finds significant relationships between these five different labor market outcomes and age cohorts, ethnicity and marriage (monogamous or polygamous). PMID:26120564

  2. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    "Metabolic Equivalent" (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O₂/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35-41, n = 46), women 24-53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  3. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46), women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  4. Parent Perception of Provider Interactions Influences HPV Vaccination Status of Adolescent Females.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Filipp, Stephanie L; Fisher, Allison M; Stokley, Shannon

    2016-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage among adolescent females is well below national public health goals. Many known barriers to HPV vaccine receipt can be addressed in parent-physician conversations. This study sought to explore parent experiences and attitudes related to HPV vaccination of adolescent girls, focused on interactions with providers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of parents using a nationally representative online panel. Among parents with ≥1 daughter aged 11 to 17 years, provider recommendations for HPV vaccine and specified age to begin the HPV vaccine series were associated with HPV vaccine status. Parents who reported their daughters were unlikely to complete the HPV series were more likely to have had no discussion of HPV vaccine with the provider. Efforts to increase HPV vaccination rates among adolescent females should continue to focus on improving provider discussion of HPV vaccine.

  5. A qualitative study of parental modeling and social support for physical activity in underserved adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wright, Marcie S; Wilson, Dawn K; Griffin, Sarah; Evans, Alexandra

    2010-04-01

    This study obtained qualitative data to assess how parental role modeling and parental social support influence physical activity in underserved (minority, low-income) adolescents. Fifty-two adolescents (22 males, 30 females; ages 10-14 years, 85% African-American) participated in a focus group (6-10 per group, same gender). Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed and coded by independent raters. Inter-rater reliabilities indicated adequate agreement [inter-rater reliability (r) = 0.84]. Themes were identified for parental role modeling and parental social support. Regarding parental role modeling, adolescents reported that parents engaged in a variety of different types of physical activities with their children such as walking, cycling and playing basketball; however, activity was infrequent. Sex differences were noted in parental social support indicating that female adolescents reported receiving more emotional and negative support for physical activity (being required to play outside with a sibling), while boys reported receiving more tangible types of support for physical activity. Adolescents also generated ideas on how to increase parental social support and in particular tangible support was highlighted as important by both males and females. This study suggests that future interventions should focus on improving parental engagement and tangible support that involve direct participation from parents in physical activities with their adolescents.

  6. Creating a Future: A Study of Resilience in Suicidal Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everall, Robin D.; Altrows, K. Jessica; Paulson, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors designed this study to understand how adolescents overcome suicidality from the subjective perspective of 13 previously suicidal female participants. A resilience framework was used to conceptualize the process. Data analysis using basic interpretive qualitative inquiry revealed 4 domains of resilience: social processes, emotional…

  7. Self-Perceptions of a High School Female Adolescent with Asperger Syndrome: A Case History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kemberly V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge base about female adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS). The findings will be useful in providing educators with an insight into the social world of Asperger syndrome in order to give them a better understanding of the syndrome, and to assist them in teaching students more effectively. The…

  8. Influences on Adolescent African American Females' Global Self-Esteem: Body Image and Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnage, Barbara F.

    2004-01-01

    This study of 105 senior high school Southern African American adolescent females examined the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (body image), and ethnic identity. As predicted, the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (r = 0.46, p less than 0.001), and ethnic identity (r = 40, p less than…

  9. The BASC-2 Profiles of Female Adolescents At-Risk of Developing an Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowitz, Annie L.

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders, disordered eating, and body dissatisfaction prevalence rates are on the rise among adolescent females. The present study sought to examine a commonly used social-emotional instrument, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition, Self-Report of Personality (BASC-2, SRP), for the emergence of a common profile of…

  10. Depression as a Moderator of Sociocultural Influences on Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Females and Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…

  11. Aggression toward Female Partners by At-Risk Young Men: The Contribution of Male Adolescent Friendships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Yoerger, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Examined deviancy training as a risk factor for aggression toward female partners among boys and young men in the longitudinal Oregon Youth Study. Found that the relation of adolescent deviant peer association and later aggression toward partners was mediated by antisocial behavior. Observed hostile talk about women with male peers explained…

  12. Understanding and Counseling Self-Mutilation in Female Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zila, Laurie MacAniff; Kiselica, Mark S.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the syndrome of self-mutilation in female adolescents and young adults. Discusses causes, symptoms, types, definitions, and treatments. Includes an explanation of the lexical and conceptual confusion that accompanies self-mutilation. Addresses implications and recommendations for counselors. (Contains 31 references.) (Author/GCP)

  13. Menstrual Knowledge and Practices of Female Adolescents in Urban Karachi, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Tazeen Saeed; Rizvi, Syeda Naghma

    2010-01-01

    Menstruation is a normal physiological process that is managed differently according to various social and cultural understandings. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the menstrual practices among 1275 female adolescents of urban Karachi, Pakistan from April to October 2006 by using interviews. Data was entered and…

  14. Changes in Nutrition Knowledge Scores and Calcium Intake in Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Julie; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Female adolescents were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=29), which received nutrition instruction, and a no-treatment control group (n=20). In the experimental group, nutrition knowledge increased significantly, calcium and vitamin D intake increased, and mean intakes for calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus were closer to the…

  15. The Efficacy of a Systematic Substance Abuse Program for Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froeschle, Janet G.; Smith, Robert L.; Ricard, Richard

    2007-01-01

    A school-based substance abuse prevention program based on the assumptions of the ASCA National Model[R] was designed to change adolescent females' drug-using behaviors. The program was designed to reduce substance abuse, increase negative attitudes toward drug use, and reduce negative behaviors while increasing positive behaviors, knowledge of…

  16. Suicidal Risk in Adolescent Residential Treatment: Being Female Is More Important than a Depression Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Danice L.; Jewell, Jeremy D.; Stevens, Amy L.; Crawford, Jessica D.; Thompson, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between gender and clinician diagnosis of a depressive disorder at intake on variables reflecting depression among adolescents in residential treatment. It was hypothesized that females diagnosed with a depressive disorder would have the highest scores on measures of suicide risk, the number of symptoms of a major…

  17. Factor Structure Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Multisample confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) and latent mean structures analysis (LMS) were used to test measurement invariance and latent mean differences on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Scale[TM] (KAIT) across males and females in the standardization sample. MCFA found that the parameters of the KAIT two-factor model were…

  18. Recovery from Major Depressive Disorder among Female Adolescents: A Prospective Test of the Scar Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beevers, Christopher G.; Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the psychosocial consequences of experiencing major depressive disorder (MDD). In a 7-year longitudinal study of 496 female adolescents, the authors identified 49 girls who experienced their first episode of MDD and then recovered. They were compared with a randomly selected group of 98 never depressed participants on 13…

  19. New Insights into the Comorbidity between ADHD and Major Depression in Adolescent and Young Adult Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas J.; McCreary, Michelle; Cote, Michelle; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adult females is evaluated. Findings indicate that MD emerging in the context of ADHD is an impairing and severe comorbidity that needs to be considered further clinically and scientifically.

  20. Female Incarcerated Adolescents with Language Problems Talk about Their Own Communication Behaviors and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Dixie; Moore-Brown, Barbara J.; Montgomery, Judy; Rezac, Cynthia; Keller, Harold

    2003-01-01

    Qualitative methodology was used to explore communication behaviors of 13 female adolescents with language problems residing in a correctional facility. Most participants expressed feeling dumb, disliked by friends, put down in school, and having trouble understanding jokes, and problems related to understanding the vocabulary in their texts used…

  1. Brief Report: Binge Drinking among High-Risk Male and Female Adolescents in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex

    2006-01-01

    A major factor attributed to the problem and consequences of underage alcohol use is binge drinking. The objective of this study was to examine binge drinking and other alcohol-related problem behaviour among high-risk male and female adolescents who were from alternative schools and programs because of learning and/or behaviour problems.…

  2. Family Correlates of Adjustment Profiles in Mexican-Origin Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Lara, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This study used a person-centered approach to examine patterns of adjustment along psychological (i.e., depression, self-esteem, anxiety) and academic (i.e., academic motivation) domains in a sample (N = 338) of Mexican-origin female adolescents. Four adjustment profiles were identified. A "High Functioning" (n = 173) group, which exhibited high…

  3. A Case Study of the Suicide of a Gifted Female Adolescent: Implications for Prediction and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    In this case study focusing on a gifted adolescent female who took her life at the age of 18 using a firearm, the researcher investigated the personal, environmental, and cultural variables that may have contributed to her suicide. Data were collected from interviews, documents, and other artifacts, including a videotape that was a compilation of…

  4. "Running a Train": Adolescent Boys' Accounts of Sexual Intercourse Involving Multiple Males and One Female

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The authors used qualitative research methods to explore the context and sexual risk behavior associated with sexual intercourse involving multiple males and one female, commonly called "running a train." Participants were 20 adolescent males aged 14 to 22 years who were either perpetrators of dating violence or perceived by teachers to be at risk…

  5. Male or Female Therapists for Eating-Disordered Adolescents: Guidelines Suggested by Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilker, Larry

    1993-01-01

    Explores which therapist-patient gender matches facilitate most patient growth and avoid detriment to female patients with eating disorders. Distills relevant variables from literature on eating disorders, adolescence, transference and countertransference, and psychotherapy to suggest guidelines for effective matches. Sees therapist and patient…

  6. Longitudinal Change and Maternal Influence on Occupational Aspirations of Gifted Female American and German Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiebig, Jennifer Nepper; Beauregard, Erin

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed 43 gifted adolescent females in the United States and Germany over a 4-year period (in 7th or 8th grade and again during the 11th or 12th grade). Factors that were examined included the daughter's career selection, the prestige level and the education required to pursue that career, and the impact of the mother's gender role…

  7. Peer Attitudes Towards Adolescent Participants in Male- and Female-Oriented Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alley, Thomas R.; Hicks, Catherine M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined gender stereotypes in peer ratings of femininity and masculinity for adolescent participants in three sports. Following a preliminary study of gender stereotyping of several sports, high school students rated unfamiliar cohorts each of whom was described in a single paragraph as either a male or female dedicated participant in…

  8. Adolescent MDMA exposure diminishes the physiological and neurotoxic consequences of an MDMA binge in female rats.

    PubMed

    Piper, Brian J; Henderson, Christina S; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2014-07-01

    Intermittent MDMA pretreatment blocked the reductions in serotonin transporter (SERT) binding induced by an MDMA binge in a prior study in adolescent male rats. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the physiological, behavioral, and neurochemical responses to MDMA are sexually dimorphic. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received MDMA (10 mg/kg × 2) or Saline on every fifth day from postnatal day (PD) 35-60 and an MDMA binge (5 mg/kg × 4) on PD 67. The MDMA binge induced a pronounced temperature dysregulation in MDMA-naïve, but not MDMA-pretreated, groups. Similarly, MDMA-pretreated animals were resistant to the binge-induced SERT reductions, especially in the hippocampus. Motor activity at PD 68 was not reduced by the binge, unlike the responses found in males. These results show that female rats differ from males in their responses to an MDMA binge but are similar with respect to preconditioning from prior MDMA exposure.

  9. Female Reproductive Health After Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers: Guidelines for the Assessment and Management of Female Reproductive Complications

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Monika L.; Meacham, Lillian R.; Patterson, Briana; Casillas, Jacqueline S.; Constine, Louis S.; Hijiya, Nobuko; Kenney, Lisa B.; Leonard, Marcia; Lockart, Barbara A.; Likes, Wendy; Green, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose As more young female patients with cancer survive their primary disease, concerns about reproductive health related to primary therapy gain relevance. Cancer therapy can often affect reproductive organs, leading to impaired pubertal development, hormonal regulation, fertility, and sexual function, affecting quality of life. Methods The Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer (COG-LTFU Guidelines) are evidence-based recommendations for screening and management of late effects of therapeutic exposures. The guidelines are updated every 2 years by a multidisciplinary panel based on current literature review and expert consensus. Results This review summarizes the current task force recommendations for the assessment and management of female reproductive complications after treatment for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers. Experimental pretreatment as well as post-treatment fertility preservation strategies, including barriers and ethical considerations, which are not included in the COG-LTFU Guidelines, are also discussed. Conclusion Ongoing research will continue to inform COG-LTFU Guideline recommendations for follow-up care of female survivors of childhood cancer to improve their health and quality of life. PMID:23382474

  10. Dual-task performance under acute stress in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Koenig, Julian; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Research to elucidate early alterations of higher cognitive processes in adolescents with BPD is rare. This study investigated differences in dual-task performance in adolescents with BPD during stress and non-stress conditions. The study sample comprised 30 female adolescents with BPD and 34 healthy controls. The impact of stress on dual-task performance was measured using a standardized stressor. Self-reports of distress and measures of heart rate (HR) were obtained to measure stress reactivity. There were no group differences in task performance. Under stress conditions, the performance on the auditory task decreased in both groups but without significant group differences. Healthy controls showed an increase of mean HR after stress induction compared to no change in the BPD group. The finding of attenuated HR response to acute stress in adolescent patients with BPD may contradict current theories that the affective hyperresponsivity in BPD is based on a biologically determined mechanism. PMID:26852226

  11. Mediators involved in the relation between depressive symptoms and weight status in female adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, A B; Wall, M M; Choo, T-H J; Larson, N I; Neumark-Sztainer, D

    2015-06-01

    Depression may be a risk factor for overweight status, but mechanisms involved in this relationship are unclear. This study explored behavioral factors involved in the relationship between adolescent depression symptoms and adult overweight status. A population-based cohort of female participants in Project EAT (n=1035) was followed over 10 years and reported on psychological functioning, weight status and eating and activity patterns in early/middle adolescence (1999=Time 1; T1), middle adolescence/early young adulthood (2004=Time 2; T2) and early/middle young adulthood (2009=Time 3; T3). Structural equation models were fit which included T1 depression scores predicting overweight status at T3, with T2 fruit and vegetable consumption, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and binge eating examined as mediators. There were small but significant effects of T1 depression scores predicting an increased likelihood of T3 overweight status (standardized estimate=0.038; P=0.007), and of T2 binge eating mediating the relation between T1 depression and T3 overweight status (standardized indirect effect estimate=0.036; P=0.009). Binge eating may be one pathway to overweight among depressed females, suggesting that recognition and treatment of eating pathology in individuals with depression may help prevent overweight. Examination of other behavioral (and non-behavioral) factors explaining the relationship between depression and overweight is warranted.

  12. Intimate Partner Violence and Health Care-Seeking Patterns Among Female Users of Urban Adolescent Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Raj, Anita; Reed, Elizabeth; Marable, Danelle; Silverman, Jay G.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and associations with health care-seeking patterns among female patients of adolescent clinics, and to examine screening for IPV and IPV disclosure patterns within these clinics. A self-administered, anonymous, computerized survey was administered to female clients ages 14–20 years (N = 448) seeking care in five urban adolescent clinics, inquiring about IPV history, reasons for seeking care, and IPV screening by and IPV disclosure to providers. Two in five (40%) female urban adolescent clinic patients had experienced IPV, with 32% reporting physical and 21% reporting sexual victimization. Among IPV survivors, 45% reported abuse in their current or most recent relationship. IPV prevalence was equally high among those visiting clinics for reproductive health concerns as among those seeking care for other reasons. IPV victimization was associated with both poor current health status (AOR 1.57, 95% CI 1.03–2.40) and having foregone care in the past year (AOR 2.59, 95% CI 1.20–5.58). Recent IPV victimization was associated only with past 12 month foregone care (AOR 2.02, 95% CI 1.18–3.46). A minority (30%) reported ever being screened for IPV in a clinical setting. IPV victimization is pervasive among female adolescent clinic attendees regardless of visit type, yet IPV screening by providers appears low. Patients reporting poor health status and foregone care are more likely to have experienced IPV. IPV screening and interventions tailored for female patients of adolescent clinics are needed. PMID:19760162

  13. Maternal deprivation effects on brain plasticity and recognition memory in adolescent male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Marco, Eva M; Valero, Manuel; de la Serna, Oscar; Aisa, Barbara; Borcel, Erika; Ramirez, Maria Javier; Viveros, María-Paz

    2013-05-01

    Data from both human and animal studies suggest that exposure to stressful life events at neonatal stages may increase the risk of psychopathology at adulthood. In particular, early maternal deprivation, 24 h at postnatal day (pnd) 9, has been associated with persistent neurobehavioural changes similar to those present in developmental psychopathologies such as depression and schizophrenic-related disorders. Most neuropsychiatric disorders first appear during adolescence, however, the effects of MD on adolescent animals' brain and behaviour have been scarcely explored. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the emotional and cognitive consequences of MD in adolescent male and female rats, as well as possible underlying neurobiological mechanisms within frontal cortex and hippocampus. Animals were exposed to a battery of behavioural tasks, from pnd 35 to 42, to evaluate cognitive [spontaneous alternation task (SAT) and novel object test (NOT)] and anxiety-related responses [elevated plus maze (EPM)] during adolescence. Changes in neuronal and glial cells, alterations in synaptic plasticity as well as modifications in cannabinoid receptor expression were investigated in a parallel group of control and adolescent (pnd 40) male and female animals. Notably, MD induced a significant impairment in recognition memory exclusively among females. A generalized decrease in NeuN expression was found in MD animals, together with an increase in hippocampal glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) expression exclusively among MD adolescent males. In addition, MD induced in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of male and female adolescent rats a significant reduction in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and postsynaptic density (PSD95) levels, together with a decrease in synaptophysin in frontal cortex and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in hippocampus. MD induced, in animals of both sexes, a significant reduction in CB1R expression, but an increase in CB2R that was

  14. Coaching behaviors, motivational climate, and psychosocial outcomes among female adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Maureen R; Amorose, Anthony J; Wilko, Anna Marie

    2009-11-01

    Based on Harter's (12,13) competence motivation theory, this study examined the relationship of coaches' performance feedback and motivational climate with female athletes' perceived competence, enjoyment, and intrinsic motivation. Female adolescent soccer players (N = 141) completed measures of relevant constructs toward the latter part of their season. Canonical correlation analysis revealed that athletes' perceptions of greater positive and informational feedback given by coaches in response to successful performance attempts, greater emphasis placed on a mastery climate, and less emphasis placed on a performance climate, were significantly related to greater ability perceptions, enjoyment, and intrinsic motivation. Exploratory analyses also showed that the relationship between feedback and the psychosocial outcomes may vary as a function of the perceived motivational climate. Overall, these results suggest that coaching feedback and motivational climate are important contributors to explaining adolescent females' continued motivation to participate in sport.

  15. The effects of grade level, context, and family type on male and female adolescents' distributive justice reasoning.

    PubMed

    McGillicuddy-De Lisi, Ann V; De Lisi, Richard; Van Gulik, Kate

    2008-02-01

    This study investigated ninth and twelfth grade students' (N=640) distributive justice reasoning. Participants read stories presenting characters that varied in personal characteristics (popularity, productivity, need, and appearance), family type (biologically related/stepsiblings), and context (work/education). Adolescents allocated rewards to story characters, provided rationales for allocations, and judged the fairness of allocation patterns representing different justice principles. Older adolescents were more likely to favor equity and benevolence principles than younger adolescents on all three measures. Older adolescents, especially female students, also took kinship and contextual factors into account more often than younger adolescents. Male students tended to favor equity across conditions; female students' views of fairness showed greater nuance, varying to a greater degree with relationship and contextual factors. Findings suggest distributive justice reasoning continues to develop through late adolescence, probably due to age-related cognitive and socialization factors and experiences. Further, findings suggest that gender differences in adult justice reasoning arise in adolescence.

  16. Activity Therapy: An Alternative Therapy for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottman, Terry T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of activity therapy for preteens and adolescents, where the client is engaged in nonverbal modes of relationship--games, free play, movement, drama, music, art or other activities, as the chief therapeutic media in which conflicts are resolved and intellectual and emotional energies freed. Reviews the literature, describes…

  17. Premarital Contraceptives Usage among Male and Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornick, Joesph P.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Variables important in predicting female contraception usage were found to be those which involved dyadic commitment, conditions of love, self-esteem, and father's occupation (social class). The best predictors of male contraception usage involved experience in dating and internalization of role models via mother's and father's permissiveness.…

  18. Pathways to Sexual Risk Taking among Female Adolescent Detainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African…

  19. Nutrition Knowledge among Adolescent High School Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Patricia; Toma, Ramses B.; Tuveson, Richard V.; Jacob, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the effectiveness of a sports nutrition education program in changing the nutrition behavior of females (N=72) on high school varsity softball teams. Pretests indicated no significant difference in nutrition knowledge between experimental and control groups. However, following nutrition education, significant differences in nutrition…

  20. Predicting Adolescent and Adult Antisocial Behavior among Adjudicated Delinquent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernkovich, Stephen A.; Lanctot, Nadine; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2008-01-01

    Studies identifying the mechanisms underlying the causes and consequences of antisocial behavior among female delinquents as they transit to adulthood are scarce and have important limitations: Most are based on official statistics, they typically are restricted to normative samples, and rarely do they gather prospective data from samples of…

  1. Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Delinquent Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariga, Michio; Uehara, Toru; Takeuchi, Kazuo; Ishige, Yoko; Nakano, Reiko; Mikuni, Masahiko

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although juveniles within the justice system have high psychiatric morbidity, few comprehensive investigations have shown posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female delinquents. Here, we aim to describe the nature and extent of PTSD and trauma exposure and to clarify the relationships among comorbidity and psychosocial factors in…

  2. Aberrant brain responses to emotionally valent words is normalised after cognitive behavioural therapy in female depressed adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Jie-Yu; J Whitaker, Kirstie; Murray, Graham K; Elliott, Rebecca; Hagan, Cindy C; Graham, Julia ME; Ooi, Cinly; Tait, Roger; Holt, Rosemary J; van Nieuwenhuizen, Adrienne O; Reynolds, Shirley; Wilkinson, Paul O; Bullmore, Edward T; Lennox, Belinda R; Sahakian, Barbara J; Goodyer, Ian; Suckling, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression in adolescence is debilitating with high recurrence in adulthood, yet its pathophysiological mechanism remains enigmatic. To examine the interaction between emotion, cognition and treatment, functional brain responses to sad and happy distractors in an affective go/no-go task were explored before and after Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) in depressed female adolescents, and healthy participants. Methods Eighty-two Depressed and 24 healthy female adolescents, aged 12–17 years, performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) affective go/no-go task at baseline. Participants were instructed to withhold their responses upon seeing happy or sad words. Among these participants, 13 patients had CBT over approximately 30 weeks. These participants and 20 matched controls then repeated the task. Results At baseline, increased activation in response to happy relative to neutral distractors was observed in the orbitofrontal cortex in depressed patients which was normalised after CBT. No significant group differences were found behaviourally or in brain activation in response to sad distractors. Improvements in symptoms (mean: 9.31, 95% CI: 5.35–13.27) were related at trend-level to activation changes in orbitofrontal cortex. Limitations In the follow-up section, a limited number of post-CBT patients were recruited. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first fMRI study addressing the effect of CBT in adolescent depression. Although a bias toward negative information is widely accepted as a hallmark of depression, aberrant brain hyperactivity to positive distractors was found and normalised after CBT. Research, assessment and treatment focused on positive stimuli could be a future consideration. Moreover, a pathophysiological mechanism distinct from adult depression may be suggested and awaits further exploration. PMID:26406969

  3. A Developmental-Contextual Model of Depressive Symptoms in Mexican-Origin Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gayles, Jochebed G.

    2011-01-01

    The current study tested a developmental-contextual model of depressive symptomatology among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin females and their mothers. The final sample was comprised of 271 dyads. We examined the interrelations among cultural (i.e., acculturation dissonance), developmental (i.e., pubertal development and autonomy expectation discrepancies), and interpersonal (i.e., mother-daughter conflict and maternal supportive parenting) factors in predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms. For both early and middle adolescents, maternal support was negatively associated with mother-daughter conflict and depressive symptoms. Importantly, mother-daughter autonomy expectation discrepancies were positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but this association was found only among early adolescents. Further, mother-daughter acculturation dissonance was positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but only among middle adolescents. Findings call for concurrently examining the interface of developmental, relational, and cultural factors in predicting female adolescents’ depressive symptomatology and the potential differences by developmental stage (e.g., early vs. middle adolescence) PMID:21967564

  4. Effects of endurance training on blood lipid profiles in adolescent female distance runners.

    PubMed

    Mitsuzono, Ryoichi; Ube, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of endurance training on the relationships of body composition, blood lipid profiles and sex hormones in adolescent female distance-runners. We cross-sectionally compared body composition, blood lipid profiles and blood sex hormones of non-athletes (n=7) and distance-runners (n=8), with the similar lower level of BMI (17.1 kg/m(2) vs. 18.7 kg/m(2), respectively). After the cross sectional comparison on the influence of endurance training, body composition, blood lipid profiles and blood sex hormones were examined at pre- and post-one year endurance training in the distance-runners (n=6) to determine longitudinal effects. %Fat in distance-runners revealed a tendency to be lower than that in non-athletes (23.8+/-3.5 vs 27.3+/-2.5%). Both groups showed good blood lipid profiles, such as high levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), HDL-2c, and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I). However, the estrogen (E(2)) level of distance-runners was less than one third of that in non-athletes (30.5+/-11.3 vs 112.9+/-66.2 pg/ml, p<0.01). In addition, the blood E(2) levels (pg/ml) were significantly associated with the internal fat mass (IF, kg) in all subjects (r=-0.613, p<0.05, n=15). On the other hand, the overall body composition and good blood lipid profiles in the longitudinal comparison were maintained to a constant level for one year endurance training, except for significant elevations in the two enzyme activities and E(2) level (LPL activity: from 145.3+/-40.8 to 362.2+/-65.8 ng/ml, HTGL activity: from 0.054+/-0.020 to 0.173+/-0.080 micromole/ml/min, E(2): from 30.7+/-13.2 to 65.6+/-24.2 pg/ml, p<0.05). These results suggest that the lipid profiles such as HDL-c and Apo A-I in adolescent female distance-runners could be rather affected by endurance training, despite the low level of E(2) for a long term.

  5. [Active career management needed for female doctors].

    PubMed

    Maas, Angela H E M; ter Braak, Edith W M T; Verbon, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    For more than 15 years two-thirds of medical students have been women. Despite this, they represent a minority (16-25 %) of professors in academic medicine. There is still a major gender gap to the disadvantage of women in leading positions in academia, with women earning only 80% of the salary of their male counterparts and fewer opportunities for scientific grants. Recent studies have shown that career ambition among men and women in medicine is comparable. However, successful women more often doubt their own achievements than men do. This is known as the 'imposter phenomenon' and acts as a barrier to career progression. Female leadership should be more actively promoted and encouraged to establish the diversity and creativity that we need in our current healthcare system.

  6. [Active career management needed for female doctors].

    PubMed

    Maas, Angela H E M; ter Braak, Edith W M T; Verbon, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    For more than 15 years two-thirds of medical students have been women. Despite this, they represent a minority (16-25 %) of professors in academic medicine. There is still a major gender gap to the disadvantage of women in leading positions in academia, with women earning only 80% of the salary of their male counterparts and fewer opportunities for scientific grants. Recent studies have shown that career ambition among men and women in medicine is comparable. However, successful women more often doubt their own achievements than men do. This is known as the 'imposter phenomenon' and acts as a barrier to career progression. Female leadership should be more actively promoted and encouraged to establish the diversity and creativity that we need in our current healthcare system. PMID:26959735

  7. Barriers to and Suggestions for a Healthful, Active Lifestyle as Perceived by Rural and Urban Costa Rican Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Garita-Arce, Carlos; Sanchez-Lopez, Marta; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the perceptions of rural and urban Costa Rican adolescents regarding which barriers and motivators affect their adoption of an active lifestyle. Design: Data were collected in focus group discussions. Participants: 108 male and female adolescents aged 12 to 18 from the 7th to 11th grades. Setting: Two urban and 1 rural high…

  8. Patterns and Predictors of Participation in Leisure Activities outside of School in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Egmar; Badia, Marta; Orgaz, Begona M.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the patterns and predictors of participation in leisure activities outside of school of Spanish children and adolescents with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Children and adolescents with CP (n = 199; 113 males and 86 females) participated in this cross-sectional study. Their mean age was 12.11 years (SD = 3.02; range 8-18 years), and…

  9. Extracurricular Activities, Athletic Participation, and Adolescent Alcohol Use: Gender-Differentiated and School-Contextual Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, John P.

    2006-01-01

    This research investigates the effects of extracurricular activities on alcohol use among male (n = 4,495) and female (n = 5,398) adolescents who participated in the 1990-92 National Education Longitudinal Study. Previous studies have assessed the association between extracurricular activities and alcohol use, but none have explored whether the…

  10. Physical Activity, Physical Self-Concept, and Health-Related Quality of Life of Extreme Early and Late Maturing Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Sean P.; Sherar, Lauren B.; Smart, Joanna E. Hunter; Rodrigues, Aristides M. M.; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B.; Malina, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we tested for differences in physical activity (PA), physical self-concept, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) between the least and most biologically mature adolescent females within their respective chronological and academic year groups. A total of 222 British female adolescents aged 10 to 14 years (X[bar] age = 12.7…

  11. Exploring self-perceptions and social influences as correlates of adolescent leisure-time physical activity.

    PubMed

    Sabiston, Catherine M; Crocker, Peter R E

    2008-02-01

    This study examined adolescent leisure-time physical activity correlates using the expectancy-value (EV) model. Adolescents (N = 857) completed questionnaires to assess competence and value self-perceptions, social influences, and physical activity. Direct and indirect effects of self-perceptions and parent and best friend influences on physical activity were explored using structural equation modeling. Measurement models were a good fit to the data and gender invariance was supported. The structural mediation model was a reasonable fit to the data, whereby the indirect effects of parents and peers and the direct effects of competence beliefs and values together accounted for 49% of the variance in physical activity. In this model, the pattern of relationships was similar for adolescent males and females. Findings supporting the EV model provide theoretical and practical implications for understanding adolescent physical activity.

  12. Exploring self-perceptions and social influences as correlates of adolescent leisure-time physical activity.

    PubMed

    Sabiston, Catherine M; Crocker, Peter R E

    2008-02-01

    This study examined adolescent leisure-time physical activity correlates using the expectancy-value (EV) model. Adolescents (N = 857) completed questionnaires to assess competence and value self-perceptions, social influences, and physical activity. Direct and indirect effects of self-perceptions and parent and best friend influences on physical activity were explored using structural equation modeling. Measurement models were a good fit to the data and gender invariance was supported. The structural mediation model was a reasonable fit to the data, whereby the indirect effects of parents and peers and the direct effects of competence beliefs and values together accounted for 49% of the variance in physical activity. In this model, the pattern of relationships was similar for adolescent males and females. Findings supporting the EV model provide theoretical and practical implications for understanding adolescent physical activity. PMID:18369240

  13. Predictors of stress in adolescents: an exploratory study of pregnant and of parenting females.

    PubMed

    Pasley, K; Langfield, P A; Kreutzer, J A

    1993-07-01

    A study of 152 adolescents enrolled in school-based programs for pregnant and parenting youth in Colorado in 1987-88 found no differences in overall stress levels between these two groups; however, salient predictors of stressful life events for pregnant teens were not the same as those for teen mothers. The mean age of study subjects was 16.5 years (range 14-19 years); most were living with a parent rather than the child's father. The dependent variable, level of stress, was measured through use of an abbreviated Life Events Questionnaire. Independent variables were assessed through administration of the Inventory of Social Supportive Behaviors, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences scale. Of the 5 sources of stress measured (family, accidents, autonomy, deviance, relocation, and distress), only stress related to accidents differed significantly between pregnant and parenting adolescents. For pregnant adolescents, self-esteem was the only significant predictor of the overall level of stress; among parents, the only significant predictor was objective social support. Among adolescents, self-esteem was associated with more frequent use of social support and coping strategies. For parenting adolescents, self-esteem was correlated with the frequency of use of social support, satisfaction resulting from such use, and frequent use of coping strategies. Overall, the independent variables of social support, self-esteem, coping, and age were stronger predictors of stress in pregnant than in parenting adolescent females. This finding suggests that parenting teens may have successfully negotiated the multiple transitions involved in this new stage of the life-cycle. An important implication of this study is the need to design separate counseling components of school-based programs for pregnant versus parenting adolescents rather than to use a single curriculum. PMID:12318583

  14. Stress, active coping, and problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Zimmerman, Marc A; Xue, Yange; Bauermeister, Jose A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Wang, Zhenhong; Hou, Yubo

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the stress and coping mechanisms on problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents, which might be quite different from their counterparts in Western cultures. We examined risk process of stress for internalizing outcomes (i.e., psychological distress, self-acceptance) and externalizing outcomes (i.e., substance use, delinquency, violent behavior) among Chinese adolescents. We also examined John Henryism Active Coping as a protective factor in a test of resilience from the negative effects of stress. A cross-sectional survey using self-reported questionnaires was conducted in 2 urban cities in China: Beijing and Xian. Participants included 1,356 students in Grades 7 to 12 (48% male, 52% female). Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test the conceptual model. The modifying (protective) effects of John Henryism were tested in multiple-group analysis. After controlling for demographics, we found that stress was associated with decreased self-acceptance and increased psychological distress among adolescents. Higher degree of psychological distress was then associated with increased delinquent behaviors and substance use. The results also indicated that individuals who scored higher in John Henryism reported more substance use as a result of psychological distress. Overall, our results support previous research with Western samples. Although John Henryism did not serve as a protective factor between stress and its negative outcomes, the findings underscore the relevance of addressing stress and possible coping strategies among Chinese adolescents. Further research that refines the active coping tailored for Chinese adolescents is necessary to more precisely test its protective effects. PMID:24999522

  15. Does self-esteem affect body dissatisfaction levels in female adolescents?☆

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Coelho, Fernanda Dias; Paes, Santiago Tavares; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of self-esteem on levels of body dissatisfaction among adolescent females. Methods: A group of 397 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were enrolled in the study. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was applied to assess body dissatisfaction. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to assess self-esteem. Weight, height, and skinfold thickness were also measured. These anthropometric data were controlled in the statistical analyses. Results: The multiple regression model indicated influence of "positive self-esteem" (R2=0.16; p=0.001) and "negative self-esteem" (R2=0.23; p=0.001) subscales on the BSQ scores. Univariate analysis of covariance demonstrated differences in BSQ scores (p=0.001) according to groups of self-esteem. Conclusion: It was concluded that self-esteem influenced body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls from Juiz de Fora, MG. PMID:25479855

  16. Physical activity and health in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bhavesh; Robinson, Rebecca; Till, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Adolescence represents a critical period of development during which personal lifestyle choices and behaviour patterns establish, including the choice to be physically active. Physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and low cardiorespiratory fitness are strong risk factors for the development of chronic diseases with resulting morbidity and mortality, as well as economic burden to wider society from health and social care provision, and reduced occupational productivity. Worrying trends in adverse physical activity behaviours necessitate urgent and concerted action. Healthcare professionals caring for adolescents and young adults are ideally placed and suited to deliver powerful messages promoting physical activity and behaviour change. Every encounter represents an opportunity to ask about physical activity, provide advice, or signpost to appropriate pathways or opportunities. Key initial targets include getting everyone to reduce their sedentary behaviour and be more active, with even a little being more beneficial than none at all.

  17. Influences of Tobacco Advertising Exposure and Conduct Problems on Smoking Behaviors Among Adolescent Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescents with conduct problems are more likely to smoke, and tobacco advertising exposure may exacerbate this risk. Males’ excess risk for conduct problems and females’ susceptibility to advertising suggest gender-specific pathways to smoking. We investigated the associations between gender, conduct problems, and lifetime smoking and adolescents’ exposure to tobacco advertising, and we examined prospective relationships with smoking behaviors. Methods: Adolescents completed baseline (2001–2004; n = 541) and 5-year follow-up (2007–2009; n =320) interviews for a family study of smoking risk. Baseline interviews assessed conduct problems and tobacco advertising exposure; smoking behavior was assessed at both timepoints. Generalized linear models analyzed gender differences in the relationship between conduct problems, advertising exposure, and smoking behavior at baseline and longitudinally. Results: At baseline, among males, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure independent of demographics and lifetime smoking. Among females at baseline, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure only among never-smokers after adjusting for demographics. In longitudinal analyses, baseline advertising exposure predicted subsequent smoking initiation (i.e., smoking their first cigarette between baseline and follow-up) for females but not for males. Baseline conduct problems predicted current (i.e., daily or weekly) smoking at follow-up for all adolescents in adjusted models. Conclusions: The findings of this study reinforce that conduct problems are a strong predictor of subsequent current smoking for all adolescents and reveal important differences between adolescent males and females in the relationship between conduct problems, tobacco advertising behavior, and smoking behavior. The findings suggest gender-specific preventive interventions targeting advertising exposure may be warranted. PMID:24590388

  18. Factors Associated with Weight Resilience in Obesogenic Environments in Female African-American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brogan, Kathryn; Idalski Carcone, April; Jen, K.-L. Catherine; Ellis, Deborah; Marshall, Sharon; Naar-King, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    This study used a descriptive, cross-sectional analysis to examine a social ecological model of obesity among African-American female adolescents residing in obesogenic environments. The goal was to identify factors that promote weight resilience, defined as maintaining a healthy body weight despite living in an environment that encourages inactivity and undermines healthy weight behaviors. During 2005 to 2008, weight-resilient (n=32) and obese (n=35) African-American female adolescents (12 to 17 years) living in Detroit, MI, and their caregivers completed measures of individual, family, and extrafamilial weight-resilience factors. Variables related to weight resilience in bivariate analyses were subjected to multivariate analysis using logistic regression to test the hypothesis that these factors independently predicted adolescent membership into the weight-resilient or obese group. As hypothesized, the odds of an adolescent being weight resilient were predicted by lower caregiver body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) (odds ratio [OR]=0.790; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.642 to 0.973), lower caregiver distress (OR=0.796; 95% CI: 0.635 to 0.998), higher caregiver monitoring and supervision of exercise (OR=5.746; 95% CI: 1.435 to 23.004), more frequent full-service grocery store shopping (OR=5.147; 95% CI: 1.137 to 23.298), and more peer support for eating (OR=0.656; 95% CI: 0.445 to 0.969). Contrary to prediction, lower eating self-efficacy (OR=0.597; 95% CI: 0.369 to 0.965) also predicted weight resilience. The model correctly classified 92.5% of all cases. Findings suggest that increasing psychosocial weight-resilience factors across multiple systems might be an important intervention strategy for obese African-American female adolescents residing in obesogenic environments. PMID:22709777

  19. Reasons for Fighting among Violent Female Adolescents: A Qualitative Investigation from an Urban, Midwestern Community.

    PubMed

    Resko, Stella M; Reddock, Ebony C; Ranney, Megan L; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen; Mountain, Sarah Kruman; Zimmerman, Marc A; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Walton, Maureen A

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the self-reported reasons for fighting among female adolescents (N = 72). Data are drawn from brief intervention sessions addressing violent behavior and alcohol use. Young women age 14 to 18 (Mean = 16) were recruited in an urban emergency department (58.3% African American/Black, 31.9% White, and 9.7% other races/ethnicities). Participants identified multiple reasons that they engage in fights including self-protection/self-defense, enhancing social status and respect, safety (e.g., preventing future fights or sexual assaults), revenge/retaliation, social motivations (e.g., defending family or friends, fighting over romantic interests), coping, and enjoyment. Results provide insight into opportunities and challenges in developing interventions addressing aggression among female adolescents. PMID:27018828

  20. Physical activity patterns among Minnesota Somali adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Thul, Chelsey M.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Larson, Nicole I.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the physical activity patterns of Somali adolescents. This study compared time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and participation in specific physical activities among Somali, other Non-Hispanic black and white adolescents. Methods A subsample of 1,268 adolescents (mean age= 14.6) who completed surveys as part of the EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) study was included in analyses. Gender-stratified linear and logistic regressions, controlling for body mass index and demographic characteristics, were conducted to estimate mean weekly hours of self-reported MVPA and mean weekly hours and prevalence of engagement in each of 26 physical activities assessed by ethnic/racial group. Results Somali girls had lower mean MVPA hours than their peers; however, no differences were found for Somali boys. Involvement in most activities was similar for Somali and other groups, but some differences were observed. For example, Somali youth were more likely to play soccer than their same-sex other black peers (boys: 52.4% vs. 20.4%; girls: 34.6% vs. 14.6%; p<.05). Somali girls also engaged in more hours per week of soccer than their black or white peers. Conclusions Activities for which Somali youth indicated higher involvement may be particularly relevant for culturally-tailored physical activity programming. PMID:25493419

  1. Differential motivational profiles following adolescent sucrose access in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Reichelt, Amy C; Abbott, Kirsten N; Westbrook, R Fred; Morris, Margaret J

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents are the highest consumers of sugar sweetened drinks. Excessive consumption of such drinks is a likely contributor to the development of obesity and may be associated with enduring changes in the systems involved in reward and motivation. We examined the impact of daily sucrose consumption in young male and female rats (N=12 per group) across the adolescent period on the motivation to perform instrumental responses to gain food rewards as adults. Rats were or were not exposed to a sucrose solution for 2 h each day for 28 days across adolescence [postnatal days (P) 28-56]. They were then trained as adults (P70 onward) to lever press for a palatable 15% cherry flavored sucrose reward and tested on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule to assess motivation to respond for reinforcement. Female rats exposed to sucrose had higher breakpoints on the PR schedule than controls, whereas male rats exposed to sucrose had lower breakpoints than controls. These results show that consumption of sucrose during adolescence produced sex-specific behavioral changes in responding for sucrose as adults. PMID:26826605

  2. Single-sex versus coeducational environment and achievement in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Monaco, N M; Gaier, E L

    1992-01-01

    For women, the nature and range of experiences during the high school years take on special significance, since it is during this period that they usually weigh their various roles and adjust their levels of aspirations accordingly. If the high school environment is successful in reducing the discrepancy between what are often viewed as conflicting roles, adolescent females may place greater emphasis on achievement. It is within this context that the present paper explored the differential benefits of single-sex and coeducational schooling. The issue explored is not whether one is preferable for females; rather, the concern here is how each of these settings influences both achievement and personal fulfillment. PMID:1414569

  3. Is competition making a comeback? Discovering methods to keep female adolescents engaged in STEM: A phenomenological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notter, Kathryn Betz

    of role models, the need for parental support, social stigmatisms and peer pressure are still major factors that determine whether adolescent females seek out STEM activities. An interesting finding, which was an exception to previous findings, was these female adolescents enjoyed the challenge of the competition. The informal learning environments encouraged an atmosphere of social engagement and cooperative learning. Many volunteers that led the afterschool programs were women (role models) and a majority of parents showed support by accommodating an afterschool situation. The young women that were engaged in the competition noted it was a friendly competition, but they were all there to win. All who participated in the competition had a similar learning environment: competitive but cooperative. Further research is needed to determine if it is the learning environment that lures adolescent females to the program and entices them to continue in the STEM fields or if it is the competitive aspect of the culminating activity.

  4. Delinquency, depression, and substance use disorder among child welfare-involved adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Lalayants, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Although adolescents with delinquency are known to have higher-than-average rates of depression or substance use disorder (SUD), research on the topic is inconsistent. It remains unclear weather depression or SUD leads to delinquency, whether delinquency leads to depression or SUD, or whether there is bi-directionality. Utilizing the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (Wave I: 2008–2009; Wave II: 18 months later: N = 5872), we used logistic regression to predict depression from delinquency (and vice versa), and SUD from delinquency (and vice versa). After inclusion of control variables, we found that females with minor theft in Wave I were more than 4 times as likely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.34; 95% CI: 1.10–17.16) as females without minor theft to be depressed in Wave II, and those with public disorder in Wave I were almost 3 times as likely (aOR = 2.74; 95% CI: 1.03–7.30) as those without public disorder to have SUD in Wave II. Overall delinquency also predicted depression or SUD, and SUD predicted delinquency. Practitioners could address risk for depression or SUD among child welfare-involved adolescent females by focusing on overall delinquency or on specific types of delinquency (minor theft for depression and public disorder for SUD) and by offering interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy) that have been shown to be effective in preventing depression or SUD. In addition, with respect to our finding that SUD predicts delinquency among adolescent females, practitioners can help prevent delinquency by offering interventions (e.g., intensive outpatient treatments) that have well documented effectiveness in addressing SUD. PMID:24060474

  5. HTLV-1-associated infective dermatitis and probable HTLV-1- associated myelopathy in an adolescent female*

    PubMed Central

    Steglich, Raquel Bisacotti; Tonoli, Renata Elise; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Pinto, Giselle Martins; Riesgo, Rudimar dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated infective dermatitis (ID) is a chronic, severe and recurrent eczema occurring during childhood in patients vertically infected with HTLV-1. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesia (HAM/ TSP) is slow and progressive. We report the case of an adolescent female from a non-endemic area for HTLV-1 who presents ID and, most likely, associated HAM/TSP. PMID:26312674

  6. The prevalence of risk factors for general recidivism in female adolescent sexual offenders: a comparison of three subgroups.

    PubMed

    van der Put, Claudia E

    2013-09-01

    To our knowledge, there are no former studies in which subgroups of female adolescent sexual offenders are studied. Therefore, we examined differences in risk factors for general recidivism between female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense against a younger child (CSO, n=25), female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense with a peer victim (PSO, n=15) and female adolescents who have committed a misdemeanor sexual offenses (MSO, n=31). Results showed that CSOs had considerably fewer problems in the domains of school (truancy, behavior problems, dropping out of school), family (e.g., parental alcohol problems, parental mental health problems, poor authority and control, out of home placements and run away from home) and friends (antisocial friends) than MSOs and/or PSOs. No differences were found in the prevalence of mental health problems, physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:23830779

  7. SUPPORT FOR THE CONTINUATION OF FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN JIMMA ZONE, SOUTHWEST ETHIOPIA

    PubMed Central

    Mariam, Abebe G.; Hailemariam, Assefa; Belachew, Tefera; Michael, Kifle W.; Lindstrom, David

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Female genital mutilation/cutting is a harmful practice which has effect on female’s wellbeing. However, the practice has continued to prevail in many cultures. Research on the social determinants of the practice and its continuation are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess whether attitude towards the continuation of female genital mutilation is predicted by gender role perception among adolescents in Jimma zone. METHODS This study used data collected in the first round of Jimma Longitudinal Family Survey of Youth. A total of 2084 adolescents were identified from 3700 households and one adolescent were interviewed from each household using structured questionnaire. Data on the socio-demographic characteristics, religiosity, access to electronic media, perception of gender role, attitude towards continuation of Female circumcision was collected. Descriptive and multivariate statistical techniques were used to analyze the data using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Statically tests were performed at the level of significance of 5%. RESULTS Of the 2084 adolescents, 1146 (55.0%) were aged 12–14 years, 1025 (49.2%) females and 749 (35.9%) from rural areas. The majority, 1289 (61.9%) were Muslims and 1351 (64.8%) Oromo. Five hundred seventy three (28.1%) of the male youth did not agree to the importance of marrying a circumcised girl. However, 149 (13.8%) and 258 (12.7%) agreed that it is very important and important, to marry a circumcised girl, respectively. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, perception of gender role, sex, place of residence, highest education in the household and religion remained to be important predictors of attitude towards the continuation of female genital mutilation after adjustment for age and ethnicity. Adolescents who had low gender role perception were 1.4 times more likely to have a positive attitude towards the continuation of the female genital mutilation (OR: 95%CI, 1.41: 1.02–1.94). Female

  8. Factors associated with physical inactivity among female and male rural adolescents in Borneo - a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Whye Lian; Helmy, Hazmi; Chang, Ching Thon

    2014-01-01

    Rural communities have shown marked increase in metabolic syndrome among young people, with physical inactivity as one of the main contributing factors. This study aimed to determine factors associated with physical inactivity among male and female rural adolescents in a sample of schools in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 145 students aged 13-15 years. Data on socio-demographic, health-related, and psychosocial factors (perceived barriers, self-efficacy, social influences) were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Anthropometric measurement was taken to generate body mass index (BMI)-for-age, while physical activity (PA) level was assessed using pedometers. The mean steps per day was 6251.37 (SD=3085.31) with males reported as being more active. About 27% of the respondents were either overweight or obese, with more females in this group. There was no significant difference in steps among males and females (p=0.212), and nutritional status (BMI-for-age) (p=0.439). Females consistently scored higher in most items under perceived barriers, but had significantly lower scores in self-efficacy's items. Males were more influenced by peers in terms of PA (p<0.001) and were more satisfied with their body parts (p=0.047). A significantly higher body size discrepancy score was found among females (p=0.034, CI -0.639, -0.026). PA level was low and almost one-third of the respondents were overweight and obese. Female students faced more barriers and had lower self-efficacy with regards PA. Based on the findings, it is recommended that interventions focus on reducing barriers while increasing support for PA. This is particularly important in improving the health status of the youth, especially among the females. PMID:24447982

  9. Brief Report: Sexual Sensation Seeking and Its Relationship to Risky Sexual Behaviour among African-American Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…

  10. Female Adolescent Subjectivities in Las Vegas: Poststructural Thoughts on the Intersections of Gender, Sexuality, Consumer Logic and Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dentith, Audrey M.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, data collected from an ethnographic study of adolescent girls growing up in the city of Las Vegas in the US is used to further our understanding of the role of mediated sex and consumer culture and in relationship to emerging adolescent female identities. Girls in this study articulated a clear sense of their abilities to make…

  11. Effect of Aerobics Exercise on Self-Esteem in Iranian Female Adolescents Covered by Welfare Organization

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Mansooreh; Alavi, Mousa; Zolaktaf, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Deprivation of parents might decrease self-esteem (SE) and result in affective and social incompatibility. In this randomized control trial, we examined the effect of aerobics exercise on SE among female adolescents living with no natural family. Materials and Methods. The sample consisted of all female adolescents aged 13 to 19 years (n: 72) who were covered by Isfahan Welfare organization. Participants were assigned into intervention and control groups by matched random sampling. Intervention included 8 weeks of aerobics exercise. Coppersmith SE inventory was administered before and after intervention as well as after one month follow-up. Results. No significant difference was seen between pre-SE scores of intervention (32.7 ± 8.4) and control (33.0 ± 6.7) groups (t = .16, P = .87). A significant difference was obtained in post-SE scores (40.2 ± 5.7 versus 34.7 ± 6.8, t = 3.58, P = .001) and in one month follow-up scores (36.4 ± 5.2 versus 33.0 ± 5.2, t = 2.25, P = .03). Discussion. The results demonstrated a low level of pre-SE in both groups. However, a significant improvement was seen in posttest of intervention group which persisted even one month after intervention. It supports the use of aerobics for female adolescents deprived from family life. PMID:25610905

  12. Association between Adverse Life Events and Addictive Behaviors among Male and Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Grace P.; Storr, Carla L.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Martins, Silvia S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Adverse life events have been associated with gambling and substance use as they can serve as forms of escapism. Involvement in gambling and substance use can also place individuals in adversely stressful situations. Objectives To explore potential male-female differences in the association between addictive behavior and adverse life events among an urban cohort of adolescents. Methods The study sample comprised of 515 adolescent participants in a randomized prevention trial. With self-reported data, four addictive behavior groups were created: Non-Substance Users and Non-Gamblers, Substance Users Only, Gamblers Only, and Substance Users and Gamblers. Multinomial logistic regression analyses with interaction terms of sex and adverse life events were conducted. Results Adverse life events and engaging in at least one addictive behavior were common for both sexes. Substance Users and Gamblers had more than twice the likelihood of Non-Substance Users and Non-Gamblers to experience any event as well as events of various domains (i.e., relationship, violence, and instability). Neither relationship nor instability events’ associations with the co-occurrence of substance use and gambling significantly differed between sexes. Conversely, females exposed to violence events were significantly more likely than similarly exposed males to report the co-occurrence of substance use and gambling. Conclusion Findings from the current study prompt future studies to devote more attention to the development of effective programs that teach adaptive coping strategies to adolescents, particularly to females upon exposure to violence. PMID:23082829

  13. Barriers to and Enablers of Contraceptive Use among Adolescent Females and their Interest in an Emergency Department-based Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Chernick, Lauren S; Schnall, Rebecca; Higgins, Tracy; Stockwell, Melissa; Castaño, Paula; Santelli, John; Dayan, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Objective Over 15 million adolescents, many at high risk for pregnancy, use emergency departments (ED) in the United States annually, but little is known regarding reasons for failure to use contraceptives in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers to and enablers of contraceptive use among adolescent females using the ED and determine their interest in an ED-based pregnancy prevention intervention. Study Design We conducted semi-structured, open-ended interviews with females in an urban ED. Eligible females were 14-19 years old, sexually active, presenting for reproductive health complaints, and at risk for pregnancy, defined as non-use of effective (per the World Health Organization) contraception. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded based on thematic analysis. Enrollment continued until no new themes emerged. A modified Health Belief Model guided the organization of the data. Results Participants (n=14) were predominantly Hispanic (93%), insured (93%), and in a sexual relationship (86%). The primary barrier to contraceptive use was perceived health risk, including effects on menstruation, weight, and future fertility. Other barriers consisted of mistrust in contraceptives, ambivalent pregnancy intentions, uncertainty about the future, partner's desire for pregnancy, and limited access to contraceptives. Enablers of past contraceptive use included the presence of a school-based health clinic and clear plans for the future. All participants were receptive to ED-based pregnancy prevention interventions. Conclusions The identified barriers and enablers influencing hormonal contraceptive use can be used to inform the design of future ED-based adolescent pregnancy prevention interventions. PMID:25499588

  14. Female adolescent athletes' coping: a season-long investigation.

    PubMed

    Tamminen, Katherine A; Holt, Nicholas L

    2010-01-01

    Athletes' stressors and coping have been studied over relatively short periods or time (i.e. 28 or 31 days; Nicholls, 2007), but little is known about how stressors and coping fluctuate over the course of an entire competitive season. The first objective of this study was to examine recurrent stressors and coping strategies over the course of the season. The second objective was to examine coping as a process. Thirteen female basketball players (mean age 16 years) completed pre- and post-season interviews and maintained audio diaries during the season. Content analyses were completed and themes were analysed longitudinally across three phases of the season (early, mid, and late). Reported stressors changed across phases of the season, and these changes appeared to relate to the team's changing contextual demands. Coping strategies also changed across phases of the season. Individual profiles of each athlete's coping over the season were created. Ten athletes were generally more reactive in their coping, while only three athletes were more proactive. The three athletes identified with a proactive approach planned their coping and used feedback to evaluate coping efforts. Planning and evaluation appeared to distinguish between more reactive and more proactive coping.

  15. Factors related to physical activity: a study of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vilhjalmsson, R; Thorlindsson, T

    1998-09-01

    Although the consequences of physical activity have been carefully documented, less is known about its correlates, particularly among children and youth. Based on a representative national survey of 1131 Icelandic adolescents, the study examined various physical, psychological, social and demographic factors related to physical activity. Male sex, significant others' involvement in physical activity (father, friend and older brother), sociability, perceived importance of sport and of health improvement and satisfaction with mandatory gym classes in school, were all related to more involvement, whereas hours of paid work and TV-viewing were related to less. Furthermore, the data suggested that the influence of friend's participation in physical activity depends on his or her emotional significance. Influential others appeared to affect males and females in the same way. The meaning of the results and their implications for future research are discussed.

  16. Rare Parenchyma Meningioma in an Adolescent Female With Cheek Tingling

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wenjie; Li, Meirong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The following is a report on a rare parenchyma meningioma and the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. To our knowledge, this was the first characterization of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in a parenchyma meningioma. Three days after initial presentation, a 14-year-old female student reported feeling tingling in her cheek, grading 3 to 4 points. Two hours later, the tingling had disappeared. The patient was admitted to hospital with stable vital signs and no abnormal presentations upon physical examination. A routine CT scan of the brain showed a quasicircular region of the left occipital lobe was homogenous hyperdense and an arcualia calcification was found on the lesion's margin and the boundary was ill-defined. Further MRI and contrast-enhanced scanning of the brain showed that a lobulated nidus with abnormal signaling was present in the left occipital lobe and was approximately 1.9 × 2.0 cm. Hypointensity on T1-weighted imaging and a slight hyperintensity on T2-weighted imaging was also observed. A short T2 signal appeared on the margin and a few longer T2 edema zones appeared around the nidus, whereas the lesion showed homogenous enhancement. MRS was characterized by a slight or moderate increase of a choline (Cho) peak and a small reduction of the N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) peak. After completing the preoperative preparation, the excision of the supratentorial deep lesions was performed on the patient. The pathology led to a diagnosis of a left occipital lobe meningioma, WHO I. The patient was followed-up for 14 months postoperation, and had no reoccurrences. Intraparenchymal meningioma rarely occurs in brain parenchyma, and is characterized by lesions with abundant blood supply and requires a glioma to be identified. MRS is a potential tool for preoperative diagnosis of intraparenchymal meningioma. PMID:27082619

  17. Parental and Adolescent Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety Related to Adolescents' Physical Activity in Their Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Carlson, Jordan A.; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Saelens, Brian E.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Glanz, Karen; Roman, Caterina G.; Sallis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between adolescent and parental perceptions of neighborhood safety and adolescents' physical activity in multiple locations and to investigate the moderating effect of sex within this association. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 928 adolescents aged 12 to 16…

  18. Romantic and Sexual Activities, Parent-Adolescent Stress, and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Joanne; Stroud, Catherine B.; Starr, Lisa R.; Miller, Melissa Ramsay; Yoneda, Athena; Hershenberg, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Building on evidence that romantic experiences are associated with depressive symptoms in adolescence, we examined their bidirectional association, as well as the role of sexual activity and parent-adolescent stress in their association. Data were collected from 71 early adolescent girls (M age 13.45 years; SD = 0.68) and their primary caregiver…

  19. Links between Adolescent Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Adolescent and Parent Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan Lee; Mummery, W. Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Identification of the relationships between adolescent overweight and obesity and physical activity and a range of intrapersonal and interpersonal factors is necessary to develop relevant interventions which target the health needs of adolescents. This study examined adolescent body mass index (BMI) and participation in moderate and vigorous…

  20. A School-Based Resistance Intervention Improves Skeletal Growth in Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill; Fast, Joshua; Day, Molly; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Scerpella, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity modulates bone growth during adolescence, but an effective activity has not been identified for general use. PURPOSE To examine the effect of a school-based resistance-training program on skeletal growth in peri-menarcheal females. METHODS 6th grade girls participated in a 7-month, resistance-training program (INT) embedded in physical education classes (PE). Age and maturity matched controls (CON) from a neighboring school participated in standard PE. INT dose defined high (HI) and low (LO) groups. At baseline (BL) and follow-up (FU), Non-INT organized activity (PA, h/wk) and maturity status were recorded; DXA scans assessed total-body, distal radius, proximal femur, and lumbar spine. Regression models analyzed growth in bone outcomes for HI v CON, accounting for age, Tanner stage, height, and PA. RESULTS 44 girls (22 HI, 22 CON) were 11.7 ± 0.3 yrs at BL; all were ≤6 mo post-menarche and did not differ in bone growth over the course of the intervention (p>0.05). However, in a sub-analysis limited to subjects who were Tanner breast II (T2) or III (T3) at BL (n=21 CON, n=17 HI), T2 HI had greater gains in narrow neck (NN) width (p=0.01) compared to T2 CON, while T3 HI had greater gains in L3 BMD (p=0.03) compared to T3 CON. CONCLUSIONS In a group of T2 and T3 6th grade girls, a school-based resistance-training intervention produced maturity-specific differential gains for HI v CON at the hip and spine. PMID:24114402

  1. Activities and Accomplishments in Various Domains: Relationships with Creative Personality and Creative Motivation in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Peng, Yun; O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relationships between five personal traits and adolescents' creative activities and accomplishments in five domains--music, visual arts, creative writing, science, and technology. Participants were 439 tenth graders (220 males and 219 females) in China. The relationships were examined using confirmatory factor analysis.…

  2. Testing a Conceptual Model Related to Weight Perceptions, Physical Activity and Smoking in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Bercovitz, Kim; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a conceptual model based on theoretical and empirically supported relationships related to the influences of weight perceptions, weight concerns, desires to change weight, friends, age and location in relation to physical activity (PA) and smoking in adolescents. A total of 1242 males and 1446 females (mean…

  3. Unwanted Sexual Activity among Peers during Early and Middle Adolescence: Incidence and Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Stephen A.; Kerns, Donell

    1993-01-01

    Assessed incidence and risk factors of unwanted sexual activity initiated by peers for 1,149 adolescent females. Twenty percent of sample reported some type of unwanted sexual contact in past year. Over one-third of this group reported having been forced to have sexual intercourse. Boyfriends were most commonly reported perpetrators followed by…

  4. Adolescent Sexual Activity and the Development of Delinquent Behavior: The Role of Relationship Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Despite the well-established association between adolescent sexual activity and delinquent behavior, little research has examined the potential importance of relationship contexts in moderating this association. The current study used longitudinal, behavioral genetic data on 519 same-sex twin pairs (48.6% female) divided into two age cohorts…

  5. Female adolescents and their sexuality: notions of honour, shame, purity and pollution during the floods.

    PubMed

    Rashid, S F; Michaud, S

    2000-03-01

    This paper explores the experiences of female adolescents during the 1998 floods in Bangladesh, focusing on the implications of socio-cultural norms related to notions of honour, shame, purity and pollution. These cultural notions are reinforced with greater emphasis as girls enter their adolescence, regulating their sexuality and gender relationships. In Bangladeshi society, adolescent girls are expected to maintain their virginity until marriage. Contact is limited to one's family and extended relations. Particularly among poorer families, adolescent girls tend to have limited mobility to safeguard their 'purity'. This is to ensure that the girl's reputation does not suffer, thus making it difficult for the girl to get married. For female adolescents in Bangladesh, a disaster situation is a uniquely vulnerable time. Exposure to the unfamiliar environment of flood shelters and relief camps, and unable to maintain their 'space' and privacy from male strangers, a number of the girls were vulnerable to sexual and mental harassment. With the floods, it became difficult for most of the girls to be appropriately 'secluded'. Many were unable to sleep, bathe or get access to latrines in privacy because so many houses and latrines were under the water. Some of the girls who had begun menstruation were distressed at not being able to keep themselves clean. Strong social taboos associated with menstruation and the dirty water that surrounded them made it difficult for the girls to wash their menstrual cloths or change them frequently enough. Many of them became separated from their social network of relations, which caused them a great deal of anxiety and stress. Their difficulty in trying to follow social norms have had far-reaching implications on their health, identity, family and community relations.

  6. Body Image Satisfaction, Eating Attitudes and Perceptions of Female Body Silhouettes in Rural South African Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Titilola M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal (< = Tanner stage 2), and mid to post pubertal (Tanner stage > 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5%) of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001). There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be "unhappy" and "weak" and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the "best". These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents. PMID:27171420

  7. Body Image Satisfaction, Eating Attitudes and Perceptions of Female Body Silhouettes in Rural South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal (< = Tanner stage 2), and mid to post pubertal (Tanner stage > 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5%) of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001). There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be “unhappy” and “weak” and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the “best”. These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents. PMID:27171420

  8. [Serum values of interleukin-10, gamma-interferon and vitamin A in female adolescents].

    PubMed

    Leal, Jorymar Y; Romero, Tania; Ortega, Pablo; Amaya, Daisy

    2007-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects the immunomodulated response mediated by cytokines. However, these studies are controversial. The purpose of the present study was to analyze Interleukin-10, gamma-Interferon and vitamin A serum concentrations in adolescents. Seventy three female, not pregnant adolescents (15.95 +/- 1.10 years old), of a low socioeconomic condition were studied. Serum retinol was determined by HPLC using the Bieri method. International reference standards were considered to define VAD (serum retinol < 20 microg/dL), risk of VAD (20-30 microg/dL) and vitamin A sufficiency (>30 microg/dL). Serum concentrations of Interleukine-10 (IL-10) and gamma-Interferon (gamma-IFN) were detected by an ELISA method (pg/mL). The data were analyzed using the SAS/STAT statistical program; the results were presented as mean +/- Standard deviation and the differences between mean values were analyzed by the ANOVA test. The prevalence of VAD in adolescents was 6.85% (serum retinol <20 microg/dL) and 41.10% adolescents had VAD risk (20-30 microg/dL). Adolescents with VAD showed a significant increase of gamma-IFN serum concentration (p = 0.01). Correlation between serum retinol and gamma-IFN was r = -0.29 (p = 0.01). Adolescents represent a VAD risk group. Low serum levels of retinol were correlated with high levels of gamma-IFN, this cytokine has been associated with chronics inflammatory processes and it can contribute to increase the morbidity and mortality in this population.

  9. Creating a new framework for promoting the health of African-American female adolescents: beyond risk taking.

    PubMed

    Roberts, L

    1999-01-01

    African-American female adolescents bear a disproportionate burden of poor health outcomes compared to young white women. The racial and gender disparities in adolescent health are readily apparent in the reported rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, poor nutrition, victimization and exposure to traumatic violence, incarceration, and mortality among young African-American women, especially those who are poor and living in inner cities. Risk behavior, the dominant construct explaining adolescent morbidity and mortality, is inadequate because it assumes that all adolescents develop similarly when, in fact, gender, race, and socioeconomic status force different developmental patterns and health outcomes. The author calls for interdisciplinary collaborations examining the structural inequities and combined consequences of sexism, racism, and inner-city poverty for young women of color in order to inform public health interventions to improve the health of African-American female adolescents.

  10. Ohio Appalachia public health department personnel: human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability, and acceptance and concerns among parents of male and female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Oldach, Benjamin R; Katz, Mira L

    2012-12-01

    Public health departments (n = 48) serving the 32 counties of Ohio Appalachia were contacted to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability and to assess patient and parental attitudes, perceived barriers, and decisional differences about vaccination for male and female adolescents. Nurses or nursing supervisors in 46 of 48 health departments agreed to participate with 45 (97.8 %) reporting that HPV vaccines were available for males and females. HPV vaccination barriers reported most frequently were lack of knowledge about the vaccines, concerns about potential side effects, the newness of the HPV vaccines, and parents believing their children were not sexually active or were too young to receive an HPV vaccine. Provider reports of the primary differences in the acceptability of an HPV vaccine among parents of males compared to the parents of females were lack of awareness that an HPV vaccine was available for males, not understanding why the vaccine should be given to males, and fear of vaccination increasing sexual promiscuity among female adolescents. Half of the health departments (n = 24) reported that parents of females were more receptive toward HPV vaccination, 16 health departments reported no difference in acceptability based on gender of the child, and 5 health departments reported that parents of males were more receptive. This study suggests that there are different informational needs of males and females and parents of male and female children when making an informed decision about HPV vaccination. Findings highlight content to include in strategies to increase HPV vaccination rates among Appalachia Ohio residents. PMID:22968822

  11. Ohio Appalachia public health department personnel: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability, and acceptance and concerns among parents of male and female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Oldach, Benjamin R.; Katz, Mira L.

    2012-01-01

    Public health departments (n=48) serving the 32 counties of Ohio Appalachia were contacted to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability and to assess patient and parental attitudes, perceived barriers, and decisional differences about vaccination for male and female adolescents. Nurses or nursing supervisors in 46 of 48 health departments agreed to participate with 45 (97.8%) reporting that HPV vaccines were available for males and females. HPV vaccination barriers reported most frequently were lack of knowledge about the vaccines, concerns about potential side effects, the newness of the HPV vaccines, and parents believing their children were not sexually active or were too young to receive an HPV vaccine. Provider reports of the primary differences in the acceptability of an HPV vaccine among parents of males compared to the parents of females were lack of awareness that an HPV vaccine was available for males, not understanding why the vaccine should be given to males, and fear of vaccination increasing sexual promiscuity among female adolescents. Half of the health departments (n=24) reported that parents of females were more receptive toward HPV vaccination, 16 health departments reported no difference in acceptability based on gender of the child, and 5 health departments reported that parents of males were more receptive. This study suggests that there are different informational needs of males and females and parents of male and female children when making an informed decision about HPV vaccination. Findings highlight content to include in strategies to increase HPV vaccination rates among Appalachia Ohio residents. PMID:22968822

  12. Psychological barriers to optimal insulin therapy: more concerns in adolescent females than males

    PubMed Central

    Wisting, Line; Bang, Lasse; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Rø, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to investigate psychological barriers (illness perceptions, insulin beliefs, and coping strategies) to optimal insulin therapy among adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D), with a specific focus on gender differences and mode of treatment (insulin pump vs pen). Methods A total of 105 males and females (12–20 years) participated in this study. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire, and the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences were completed. Additionally, diabetes clinical data were collected by the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry. Results Females had significantly more negative illness perceptions than males on all dimensions (p<0.05), with moderate-to-large effect sizes. Regarding insulin beliefs, females scored significantly higher than males on insulin concern (p<0.001), indicating more concerns about insulin. There were no significant gender differences on perceptions of insulin necessity. Finally, females scored significantly higher on the coping strategies being social and solving family problems (p<0.01), indicating more positive coping among females than males for these subscales. In terms of treatment mode, the only statistically significant difference in the psychological aspects was for the illness perception treatment control, with patients using insulin pen reporting more negative perceptions on this dimension than patients using insulin pump. Conclusions Addressing psychological aspects may be a clinically important supplement to standard somatic T1D care. The consistent finding of gender differences across the psychological measures implies that a tailored treatment approach for males and females with T1D may be warranted. PMID:27403325

  13. Gender hierarchy and adolescent sexuality: the control of female reproduction in an Australian aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Burbank, V K

    1995-03-01

    Women can bear children; men cannot. The author explores why women fail to realize more power from their ability to procreate. An instance is considered in which the practice and resistance of female Australian Aboriginal adolescents created circumstances in which their sexuality and reproduction were largely uncontrolled. The products of women's reproductive ability, children, are socially appropriated, but not women's reproductive abilities. The author views gender as a system of power relations both generated and changed in the quotidian interactions between human males and females. Adolescent sexuality and reproduction in Mangrove, and culture, power, and reproduction are discussed. The author finds women's sexual and reproductive freedom, as it is currently experienced by adolescent girls in Mangrove, to be supported by the confluence of the following factors: the diminished force of ideologies which may circumscribe women's behavior, the control of male violence, and the appreciation of motherhood and of any child simply by virtue of its being a child. It is unclear how long this arrangement will persist. Changes which may presage diminished freedom for women can already be discerned. Women's sexual and reproductive freedom are clearly human possibilities, but they are possibilities which can easily be denied.

  14. The role of dissociation in self-injurious behavior among female adolescents who were sexually abused.

    PubMed

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Zohar, Gali

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the role of dissociation (persistent versus peritraumatic) in self-injurious behavior among at-risk Israeli female adolescents. In addition, the relationship between childhood sexual abuse, depression, dissociation, and potency was investigated. A convenience sample of 93 female adolescents aged 12 years to 18 years were recruited from institutions for at-risk adolescent girls in Israel. Participants were administered an anonymous self-report questionnaire that included six measures: Demographics, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire, the Traumatic Events Questionnaire, and the Potency Scale. Results indicated that childhood sexual abuse increases the risk for self-injurious behavior more than threefold. Higher levels of persistent dissociation were found among girls who reported child sexual abuse compared to those who did not. Self-injurious behavior was predicted by persistent dissociation. Girls who engaged in self-injurious behavior had lower potency and higher depression levels, regardless of childhood sexual abuse history. PMID:25101954

  15. Comparisons of female and male early adolescent sex role attitude and behavior development.

    PubMed

    Nelson, C; Keith, J

    1990-01-01

    This study contrasted female and male early adolescent sex role attitude and behavior development in an ecological context as defined by Bronfenbrenner. Data were the results of a state-wide survey of early adolescents and their parents. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test both sex role attitude development and behavior development models. Only the models for attitude development were significant. The level of traditionalism of female sex role attitude development was significantly influenced by maternal employment, the level of traditionalism of the father's sex role attitudes in interaction with the amount of time he spent with his daughter, and chronological age. In contrast, the level of traditionalism of male sex role attitude development was significantly influenced by the level of traditionalism of the mother's sex role attitudes in interaction with the level of closeness to the mother that was reported by the son, and both mother's and father's perception of pubertal age. The implications of the findings for human development theory, early adolescence as a stage of development, and sex role theory and research are discussed.

  16. Family Correlates of Adjustment Profiles in Mexican-Origin Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Lara, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study used a person-centered approach to examine patterns of adjustment along psychological (i.e., depression, self-esteem, anxiety) and academic (i.e., academic motivation) domains in a sample (N = 338) of Mexican-origin female adolescents. Four adjustment profiles were identified. A High Functioning (n = 173) group, which exhibited high positive adjustment and academic functioning, an Average Functioning (n = 83) group, who exhibited average psychological and academic functioning, an Academically Oriented and Stressed (n = 19) group, who exhibited high academic motivation, but poor psychological functioning in anxiety and negative affect, and a Low Functioning” (n = 25) group, who exhibited poor adjustment overall. Further, paternal and maternal parenting characteristics (i.e., autonomy granting, parent-adolescent conflict, and supportive parenting) were differentially related to Mexican-origin female adolescents’ profiles, providing further evidence for the existence of the profiles. Results contribute to the current literature on Latino adolescents and highlight the importance of examining psychological and academic domains concurrently to determine how these two domains of adjustment are linked among this population. PMID:23678230

  17. Perceptions of Child Support and Sexual Activity of Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Han, Wen-Jui

    2004-01-01

    Using the 1995 new cohort of the National Survey of Adolescent Males, this paper examines the association between perceptions of child support and adolescent males' sexual activity. The results indicate that adolescent males who expect the chance of being required to pay child support is high if one becomes a non-resident father or who has a…

  18. Dance 4 Your Life: Exploring the Health and Well-Being Implications of a Contemporary Dance Intervention for Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Mary Kate; Quin, Edel; Redding, Emma

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the physiological and psychological impact of contemporary dance classes on adolescent females. Fifty-five females, aged 14 were recruited from secondary schools in the UK. The intervention constituted a program of contemporary dance classes with an emphasis on building muscular strength. Full ethics…

  19. The Moderating Role of Father's Care on the Onset of Binge Eating Symptoms among Female Late Adolescents with Insecure Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Ugo; Cacioppo, Marco; Schimmenti, Adriano

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the association between quality of attachment, perception of the father's bond, and binge eating symptoms in a sample of female late adolescents. In total, 233 female students aged between 18 and 20 years completed measures on binge eating, quality of attachment and parent-child relationship. Data showed that respondents…

  20. "Sisters of Nia": A Social Justice Advocacy Intervention for School Counselors in Their Work with Adolescent African American Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Lee Edmondson; Haizlip, Breyan; Rogers, Tiffany; Brown, Kimberly D.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent African American females face multiple obstacles that hinder their educational success. High school completion and college attendance rates remain lower for African American females than those for other racial and gender groups, while pregnancy rates for African American teens are higher. Group work holds promise for meeting the…

  1. A Pilot Study of Alcohol and Cigarette Consumption among Adolescent and Young Adult Females Attending Health Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…

  2. The Moderating Effect of State Anger on Treatment Outcome in Female Adolescents With PTSD.

    PubMed

    Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Asnaani, Anu; Zhong, Jody; Foa, Edna B

    2016-08-01

    Trauma experienced in childhood and adolescence negatively affects the development of adaptive regulation of emotions and is associated with greater symptoms of anger. Prior research has suggested that high levels of anger may impede the outcome of treatment in adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study investigated whether high levels of anger resulted in poorer treatment outcomes in adolescent girls with PTSD. Participants included 61 female adolescent survivors of sexual abuse or assault who were randomized to either prolonged exposure for adolescents (PE-A) or client-centered therapy (CCT) for traumatized children for 8-14 weekly sessions. Participants were followed for 12 months posttreatment. High levels of state anger at baseline were associated with less improvement in PTSD symptoms in the CCT group than the PE-A group (d = 0.62). The moderating effects of state anger on improvement in PTSD symptoms was significant with emotion regulation difficulties, which may underlie anger symptoms (d = 0.58) in the model. The results of this study suggessted that high state anger was less of an impediment to treatment of PTSD for those receiving PE-A than those receiving less differentiated approaches such as CCT. PMID:27459380

  3. The Moderating Effect of State Anger on Treatment Outcome in Female Adolescents With PTSD.

    PubMed

    Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Asnaani, Anu; Zhong, Jody; Foa, Edna B

    2016-08-01

    Trauma experienced in childhood and adolescence negatively affects the development of adaptive regulation of emotions and is associated with greater symptoms of anger. Prior research has suggested that high levels of anger may impede the outcome of treatment in adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study investigated whether high levels of anger resulted in poorer treatment outcomes in adolescent girls with PTSD. Participants included 61 female adolescent survivors of sexual abuse or assault who were randomized to either prolonged exposure for adolescents (PE-A) or client-centered therapy (CCT) for traumatized children for 8-14 weekly sessions. Participants were followed for 12 months posttreatment. High levels of state anger at baseline were associated with less improvement in PTSD symptoms in the CCT group than the PE-A group (d = 0.62). The moderating effects of state anger on improvement in PTSD symptoms was significant with emotion regulation difficulties, which may underlie anger symptoms (d = 0.58) in the model. The results of this study suggessted that high state anger was less of an impediment to treatment of PTSD for those receiving PE-A than those receiving less differentiated approaches such as CCT.

  4. Assessing weight perception accuracy to promote weight loss among U.S. female adolescents: A secondary analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity have become a global epidemic. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among U.S. adolescents has almost tripled in the last 30 years. Results from recent systematic reviews demonstrate that no single, particular intervention or strategy successfully assists overweight or obese adolescents in losing weight. An understanding of factors that influence healthy weight-loss behaviors among overweight and obese female adolescents promotes effective, multi-component weight-loss interventions. There is limited evidence demonstrating associations between demographic variables, body-mass index, and weight perception among female adolescents trying to lose weight. There is also a lack of previous studies examining the association of the accuracy of female adolescents' weight perception with their efforts to lose weight. This study, therefore, examined the associations of body-mass index, weight perception, and weight-perception accuracy with trying to lose weight and engaging in exercise as a weight-loss method among a representative sample of U.S. female adolescents. Methods A nonexperimental, descriptive, comparative secondary analysis design was conducted using data from Wave II (1996) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Data representative of U.S. female adolescents (N = 2216) were analyzed using STATA statistical software. Descriptive statistics and survey weight logistic regression were performed to determine if demographic and independent (body-mass index, weight perception, and weight perception accuracy) variables were associated with trying to lose weight and engaging in exercise as a weight-loss method. Results Age, Black or African American race, body-mass index, weight perception, and weight perceptions accuracy were consistently associated with the likeliness of trying to lose weight among U.S. female adolescents. Age, body-mass index, weight perception, and weight-perception accuracy were

  5. Balance Comparisons between Female Dancers and Active Nondancers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambegaonkar, Jatin P.; Caswell, Shane V.; Winchester, Jason B.; Shimokochi, Yohei; Cortes, Nelson; Caswell, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Female dancers have lower anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rates compared with physically active women. Enhanced balance can decrease musculoskeletal injury risk. Dancers are proposed to have superior balance compared with physically active nondancers, and this may reduce their risk for ACL injury. However, whether female dancers…

  6. RasGRF1 regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis specifically in early-adolescent female mice.

    PubMed

    Uzturk, Belkis Gizem; Jin, Shan-Xue; Rubin, Beverly; Bartolome, Christopher; Feig, Larry A

    2015-10-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated in the induction and prolongation of a variety of psychiatric disorders. As such, much effort has been made to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in its control. However, the vast majority of the studies on the HPA axis have used adult animals, and among these the majority has used males. Here we show that in knockout mice lacking the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, RasGRF1, habituation to 30 min/day of restraint stress is markedly accelerated, such that these mice do not display elevated corticosterone levels or enhanced locomotion after 7 days of stress exposure, like WT mice do. Strikingly, this phenotype is present in early-adolescent female RasGRF1 knockout mice, but not in their early-adolescent male, mid-adolescent female, adult female or adult male counterparts. Moreover, not only is there a clear response to restraint stress in early-adolescent female RasGRF1 knockout mice, their response after one, three and five exposures is magnified approximately threefold compared to WT mice. These findings imply that distinct mechanisms exist to regulate the HPA axis in early-adolescent females that involves RasGRF1. A full understanding of how RasGRF1 controls the HPA axis response to stress may be required to design effective strategies to combat stress-associated psychiatric disorders initiated in young females.

  7. RasGRF1 Regulates the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Specifically in Early-Adolescent Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Uzturk, Belkis Gizem; Jin, Shan-xue; Rubin, Beverly; Bartolome, Christopher; Feig, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated in the induction and prolongation of a variety of psychiatric disorders. As such, much effort has been made to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in its control. However, the vast majority of the studies on the HPA axis have used adult animals, and among these the majority has used males. Here we show that in knockout mice lacking the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, RasGRF1, habituation to 30 minutes a day of restraint stress is markedly accelerated, such that these mice do not display elevated corticosterone levels or enhanced locomotion after 7 days of stress exposure, like WT mice do. Strikingly, this phenotype is present in early-adolescent female RasGRF1 knockout mice, but not in their early-adolescent male, mid-adolescent female, adult female or adult male counterparts. Moreover, not only is there a clear response to restraint stress in early-adolescent female RasGRF1 knockout mice, their response after 1, 3, and 5 exposures is magnified ~3-fold compared to WT mice. These findings imply that distinct mechanisms exist to regulate the HPA axis in early-adolescent females that involves RasGRF1. A full understanding of how RasGRF1 controls the HPA axis response to stress may be required to design effective strategies to combat stress-associated psychiatric disorders initiated in young females. PMID:26246084

  8. Time Out from Sex or Romance: Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Decisions to Purposefully Avoid Sexual Activity or Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Byers, E Sandra; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Brotto, Lori A

    2016-05-01

    Researchers have given significant attention to abstinence among adolescents, but far less is known about purposeful avoidance of sexual activity (and relationship involvement). Typically, it is assumed that, once adolescents have initiated sexual activity, they will thereafter engage in sexual activity if given the opportunity. However, it is unclear whether that is true as some research indicates that many adolescents engage in sexual activity intermittently. Sexually experienced adolescents may purposefully avoid engaging in sexual activity for a period of time and, if so, this has implications for understanding their sexual decision-making. We used a mixed methods approach to investigate sexually experienced adolescents' decisions to purposefully avoid further sexual activity and/or romantic relationships with a focus on how common these decisions are and factors influencing them. Participants were 411 (56 % female) adolescents (16-21 years old) who completed an on-line survey that assessed reasons for each type of avoidance, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs. Overall, 27 % of participants had engaged in sexual avoidance and 47 % had engaged in romantic avoidance. Significantly more female than male adolescents reported sexual and romantic avoidance. Adolescents' reasons for sexual avoidance included: lack of sexual pleasure or enjoyment, relationship reasons, negative emotions, values, fear of negative outcomes, negative physical experience, and other priorities. Reasons for romantic avoidance included: effects of previous relationship, not interested in commitment, wrong time, other priorities, negative emotions, no one was good enough, and sexual concerns. Logistical regressions were used to assess associations between age, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, experience of sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs and having engaged in romantic and/or sexual avoidance. The

  9. Time Out from Sex or Romance: Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Decisions to Purposefully Avoid Sexual Activity or Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Byers, E Sandra; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Brotto, Lori A

    2016-05-01

    Researchers have given significant attention to abstinence among adolescents, but far less is known about purposeful avoidance of sexual activity (and relationship involvement). Typically, it is assumed that, once adolescents have initiated sexual activity, they will thereafter engage in sexual activity if given the opportunity. However, it is unclear whether that is true as some research indicates that many adolescents engage in sexual activity intermittently. Sexually experienced adolescents may purposefully avoid engaging in sexual activity for a period of time and, if so, this has implications for understanding their sexual decision-making. We used a mixed methods approach to investigate sexually experienced adolescents' decisions to purposefully avoid further sexual activity and/or romantic relationships with a focus on how common these decisions are and factors influencing them. Participants were 411 (56 % female) adolescents (16-21 years old) who completed an on-line survey that assessed reasons for each type of avoidance, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs. Overall, 27 % of participants had engaged in sexual avoidance and 47 % had engaged in romantic avoidance. Significantly more female than male adolescents reported sexual and romantic avoidance. Adolescents' reasons for sexual avoidance included: lack of sexual pleasure or enjoyment, relationship reasons, negative emotions, values, fear of negative outcomes, negative physical experience, and other priorities. Reasons for romantic avoidance included: effects of previous relationship, not interested in commitment, wrong time, other priorities, negative emotions, no one was good enough, and sexual concerns. Logistical regressions were used to assess associations between age, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, experience of sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs and having engaged in romantic and/or sexual avoidance. The

  10. The influence of self-compassion on emotional well-being among early and older adolescent males and females

    PubMed Central

    Bluth, Karen; Blanton, Priscilla W.

    2014-01-01

    Self-compassion has been associated with well-being in adult samples, but has rarely been assessed in adolescents. In this study, 90 students ages 11–18 completed an online survey assessing self-compassion, life satisfaction, perceived stress and positive and negative affect. Findings indicated that older female adolescents had lower self-compassion than either older male adolescents or early adolescents of either gender, and self-compassion was associated significantly with all dimensions of emotional well-being with the exception of positive affect. Additionally, phase of adolescence, but not gender, was found to moderate the relationship between self-compassion and dimensions of well-being; for older adolescents, the inverse relationship between self-compassion and negative affect was stronger. Lastly, the influence of the various components of self-compassion was investigated and discussed. PMID:25750655

  11. A model to explain at-risk/problem gambling among male and female adolescents: gender similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed at testing a model in which cognitive, dispositional, and social factors were integrated into a single perspective as predictors of gambling behavior. We also aimed at providing further evidence of gender differences related to adolescent gambling. Participants were 994 Italian adolescents (64% Males; Mean age = 16.57). Hierarchical logistic regressions attested the predictive power of the considered factors on at-risk/problem gambling - measured by administering the South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA) - in both boys and girls. Sensation seeking and superstitious thinking were consistent predictors across gender, while probabilistic reasoning ability, the perception of the economic profitability of gambling, and peer gambling behavior were found to be predictors only among male adolescents, whereas parental gambling behavior had a predictive power in female adolescents. Findings are discussed referring to practical implications for preventive efforts toward adolescents' gambling problems. PMID:23177386

  12. African American Adolescent Females: Mother-Involved HIV Risk-Reduction Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Dancy, Barbara L.; Hsieh, Yu-Li; Crittenden, Kathleen S.; Kennedy, Arlisha; Spencer, Bernel; Ashford, Daniell

    2009-01-01

    African American adolescent females continue to be at disproportionate high risk for HIV infection. A repeated measures quasi-experimental comparison group design compared an HIV risk-reduction intervention delivered by mothers with an HIV risk-reduction intervention delivered by health professionals and with a health promotion intervention delivered by mothers. The three interventions were randomly assigned to one of three geographical distinct sites. A convenience sample of 553 low-income African American adolescent girls with a baseline age of 11 to 14 years participated in the study. The results revealed that over a 6-month period, compared to girls in the health promotion intervention, the girls in the HIV risk-reduction interventions had significant higher scores on HIV transmission knowledge, condom attitudes, and self-efficacy to use condoms. The implication is mothers who receive appropriate training may be able to deliver HIV risk reduction to their daughters as well as health professionals. PMID:20090855

  13. Factors Affecting Female Attitude Formation toward Science. Specific Reference to 12-14 Year Old Female Adolescents and Their Affective Orientation toward Middle School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Deborah A.

    This paper: (1) briefly reviews the existing literature which supports that female adolescents possess significantly more negative attitudes toward middle school science than do males; (2) examines the process of gender socialization in the United States to establish the socio-cultural and social psychological framework within which an attitudinal…

  14. Multiple Sexual Partnerships among Female Adolescents in Rural Uganda: The effects of family structure and school attendance

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, Nanlesta A.; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Gray, Ronald H.; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Lutalo, Tom; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Background A better understanding is needed of the contextual factors that influence HIV risk behaviors among female adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of family structure on lifetime sexual partners and on the number of sexual partners in the last year among female adolescents in rural Rakai, Uganda; and to determine if the influence of family structure on these outcomes differed by adolescents’ school attendance status. Methods The sample consisted of 2,337 unmarried adolescent girls, aged 15-19, enrolled in the Rakai Community Cohort Study. The last survey interview within the time period 2001-2008 available for each girl was used. Analyses were stratified by age (15-17 year olds and 18-19 year olds) and school status. Multinomial logistic regression was used. Results Living in a household with a biological father was protective against both outcomes. Family structure was not associated with the outcomes among in-school adolescents but was significantly associated with outcomes among out-of-school adolescents. Conclusions Findings suggest that understanding the familial context in which female adolescents develop, as well as its interaction with school attendance, is important for HIV prevention efforts. Both research and programmatic initiatives must consider the interplay between the family and school domains when considering ways to reduce HIV acquisition among adolescent women. PMID:25415632

  15. Effects of perpetrator identity on suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury in sexually victimized female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Unlu, Gulsen; Cakaloz, Burcu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Child sexual abuse and sexual dating violence victimization are common problems that are known to have long-term negative consequences. This study aimed to compare the sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features of female adolescents who were sexually abused by different perpetrators, and identify the factors associated with suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in these cases. Patients and methods Data of 254 sexually abused female adolescents between the ages of 12–18 years were evaluated. The cases were classified into three groups, namely “sexual dating violence”, “incest”, and “other child sexual abuse”, according to the identity of the perpetrator. The three groups were compared in terms of sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features. Results Major depressive disorder was the most common psychiatric diagnosis, which was present in 44.9% of the cases. Among all victims, 25.6% had attempted suicide, 52.0% had suicidal ideation, and 23.6% had NSSI during the postabuse period. A logistic regression analysis revealed that attempted suicide was predicted by dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.053; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.473, 6.330) and depression (AOR =2.238; 95% CI =1.226, 4.086). Dating violence victimization was also the strongest predictor of subsequent suicidal ideation (AOR =3.500; 95% CI =1.817, 6.741). In addition, revictimization was determined to be an important risk factor for both suicidal ideation (AOR =2.897; 95% CI =1.276, 6.574) and NSSI (AOR =3.847; 95% CI =1.899, 7.794). Conclusion Perpetrator identity and revictimization are associated with negative mental health outcomes in sexually victimized female adolescents. Increased risk of suicidality and NSSI should be borne in mind while assessing cases with dating violence and revictimization histories, in particular. PMID:27382291

  16. Genetic sensitivity to emotional cues, racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among African–American adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Swartzendruber, Andrea L.; Smearman, Erica L.; Brody, Gene H.; DiClemente, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial stress, including stress resulting from racial discrimination (RD), has been associated with elevated depressive symptoms. However, individuals vary in their reactivity to stress, with some variability resulting from genetic differences. Specifically, genetic variation within the linked promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) is related to heightened reactivity to emotional environmental cues. Likewise, variations within this region may interact with stressful life events (e.g., discrimination) to influence depressive symptoms, but this has not been empirically examined in prior studies. The objective of this study was to examine whether variation in the 5-HTTLPR gene interacts with RD to predict depressive symptoms among a sample of African–American adolescent females. Participants were 304 African–American adolescent females enrolled in a sexually transmitted disease prevention trial. Participants completed a baseline survey assessing psychosocial factors including RD (low vs. high) and depressive symptomatology (low vs. high) and provided a saliva sample for genotyping the risk polymorphism 5-HTTLPR (s allele present vs. not present). In a logistic regression model adjusting for psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms, an interaction between RD and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with depressive symptomatology (AOR = 3.79, 95% CI: 1.20–11.98, p = 0.02). Follow-up tests found that high RD was significantly associated with greater odds of high depressive symptoms only for participants with the s allele. RD and 5-HTTLPR status interact to differentially impact depressive symptoms among African–American adolescent females. Efforts to decrease depression among minority youth should include interventions which address RD and strengthen factors (e.g., coping, emotion regulation, building support systems) which protect youth from the psychological costs of discrimination. PMID:26157407

  17. Gender identification and sex role attribution in sexually abused adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Aiosa-Karpas, C J; Karpas, R; Pelcovitz, D; Kaplan, S

    1991-03-01

    An exploratory study of the association between child sexual abuse and subsequent gender identification and sex role attribution was conducted with 93 adolescent females. Victims of intrafamilial sexual abuse with a history of psychotherapeutic treatment were compared with nonabused subjects with a history of treatment and nonabused control subjects with no treatment history. Measures of gender identity found that sexually abused and nonabused treatment groups differed significantly from the no-treatment controls. Distinct patterns of gender identification emerged for the sexually abused victims. Hypothesized differences in sex role attribution were not found. Potential directions for future research are proposed and implications and recommendations for treatment are discussed.

  18. Disordered eating and substance use among a female sample of Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Unikel, Claudia; Root, Tammy; Vonholle, Ann; Ocampo, René; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2011-01-01

    The relation between disordered eating and substance use was examined among Mexican female adolescents in a probabilistic sample of 2537 high school students in central Mexico, stratified by marginalization status and migratory intensity, obtained during 2006 ?2007 school year. The Brief Disordered Eating Questionnaire and the World Health Organization and United Nations Division of Narcotic Drugs recommendations for substance use assessments were used. Prevalence and odds ratios for disordered eating and substance use items were calculated separately across low and high marginalization groups. Study's implications and limitations are noted, as well as future research and prevention strategies are suggested.

  19. WISC-R incentives and the academic achievement of conduct disordered adolescent females: a validity study.

    PubMed

    Saigh, P A; Antoun, F T

    1983-09-01

    Selected and randomly assigned 51 institutionalized conduct disordered adolescent females to one of three treatment conditions. Ss' responses to a short form of the WISC-R were followed by examiner praise, neutral feedback, or token reinforcement. A series of Pearson product-moment correlations were calculated between the scaled scores of the three treatment groups and their GPAs. The results revealed that the identified subtests, regardless of treatment condition, were poor predictors of achievement. The correlations were discussed in view of the association between the selected subtests and the curricula of the special education classes, observed variations between the WISC-R treatment scores, and the special characteristics of the Ss.

  20. A displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with female athlete triad: A case report.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shinichi; Arai, Yuji; Hara, Kunio; Tsuzihara, Takashi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a case of a displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with amenorrhea. Both reduction and internal fixation were performed early after the injury. At 24 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy showed no positive signs of femoral head necrosis and bone union was confirmed on plain X-ray. A medical examination for the presence of the signs of the female athlete triad by checking weight, calorie intake and menstrual cycles is most important to prevent such stress fractures. Athletes as well as their coaches or parents therefore need to understand female athlete triad. PMID:20205723

  1. Physical activity and social support in adolescents: analysis of different types and sources of social support.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Gerfeson; Júnior, José Cazuza de Farias

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of different types and sources of social support on physical activity in adolescents. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between physical activity and different types and sources of social support in adolescents. The sample consisted of 2,859 adolescents between 14-19 years of age in the city of João Pessoa, in Northeastern Brazil. Physical activity was measured with a questionnaire and social support from parents and friends using a 10-item scale five for each group (type of support: encouragement, joint participation, watching, inviting, positive comments and transportation). Multivariable analysis showed that the types of support provided by parents associated with physical activity in adolescents were encouragement for females (P < 0.001) and adolescents between 14-16 years of age (P = 0.003), and transportation (P = 0.014) and comments (P = 0.037) for males. The types of social support provided by friends were: joint participation in male adolescents (P < 0.001) and in these 17-19-year-olds (P < 0.001), and comments in both genders (males: P = 0.009; females: P < 0.001) and 14-16-year-olds (P < 0.001). We conclude that the type of social support associated with physical activity varies according to its source, as well as the gender and age of the adolescents.

  2. Competitiveness Among Females and Males in Physical Activity Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Diane L.

    1986-01-01

    Competitive orientations of 237 male and female undergraduates enrolled in competitive and noncompetitive physical activity classes were investigated using the Work and Family Orientation Questionnaire and a Competitiveness Inventory. Females scored higher on work and goal orientation, while males scored higher on competitiveness. (KH)

  3. Diurnal patterns of salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol secretion in female adolescent tennis players after 16 weeks of training.

    PubMed

    Filaire, Edith; Ferreira, Jose Pedro; Oliveira, Miguel; Massart, Alain

    2013-07-01

    We examined the effects of 16 weeks of training on diurnal pattern of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), cortisol, and the ratio of sAA over cortisol (AOC) in 12 national adolescent female tennis players. Stress and recovery were also evaluated using the Recovery-Stress-Questionnaire for Athletes-RESTQ-Sport. Data were collected after a 2-week rest (January, W0), and 4 months after W0 (W16). Subjects collected five saliva samples throughout a day. While all participants displayed the previously shown decrease after awakening in adolescents at W0, they showed a rise in the alpha-amylase awakening response and a higher alpha-amylase activity output (p<0.01) at W16 compared to W0. For the daily rhythm of cortisol we found subjects having a low overall output of salivary cortisol (p<0.01) and a blunted response to awakening at W16. Furthermore, an increase in the ratio AOC at W16, and a negative correlation between this ratio and Sport-specific recovery score. Our findings offer support for the hypothesis that increase of training load during the study period induced asymmetry activation between the two stress systems, in relation to psychological alterations and performance decrease. These results provide encouragement to continue exploring the impact of training program using a psychobiological approach among young athletes in order to prevent fatigue and preserve the health of these athletes.

  4. Oral contraceptives did not affect biochemical folate indexes and homocysteine concentrations in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Green, T J; Houghton, L A; Donovan, U; Gibson, R S; O'Connor, D L

    1998-01-01

    The impact of oral contraceptive (OC) use, smoking, and alcohol drinking on biochemical indexes of folate and vitamin B-12 was investigated in 229 adolescents 14-20 years old recruited from advertisements in Ontario, Canada. Subjects completed a life-style questionnaire and a 3-day, weighed food record, followed by overnight fasting and the collection of blood samples. Of the 48 participants (21%) who were OC users, 30 had used the pill for more than 12 months. Only 37 adolescents (16%) smoked, but 94 (60%) had consumed alcohol in the month preceding the study. Median daily intake of folate and vitamin B-12 (including intake from supplements) was 215 mcg and 1.9 mcg, respectively. OC use, smoking, and alcohol consumption were not significantly associated with lower serum or red blood cell folate levels, after controlling for folate intake. Serum homocysteine levels were not correlated with smoking or OC use, but were 13% higher among alcohol drinkers than nondrinkers. Finally, although smoking and alcohol use were not associated with serum B-12 levels, OC use was linked with an estimated 33% lower serum B-12 level than was nonuse. These findings fail to validate concerns that OC use has a negative impact on the folate status of adolescent females, but suggest a need to improve the dietary folate intake of young women who smoke.

  5. Timing of neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps and hamstrings prior to landing in high school male athletes, female athletes, and female non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Medina, Jennifer M; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Howell, Suzanne K; Kingma, Jackie J

    2008-08-01

    There is a discrepancy between males and females in regards to lower extremity injury rates, particularly at the knee [Agel, J., Arendt, E.A., Bershadsky, B., 2005. Anterior cruciate ligament injury in National Collegiate Athletic Association basketball and soccer: a 13-year review. American Journal of Sports Medicine 33, (4) 524-530]. Gender differences in neuromuscular recruitment characteristics of the muscles that stabilize the knee are often implicated as a factor in this discrepancy. There is considerable research in the area of gender differences in regards to neuromuscular characteristics of the lower extremity in response to perturbation; however, most studies have been performed on the adult population only. Additionally, there is no consensus as to the gender differences that have been demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to compare muscular preactivation of selected lower extremity muscles (vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and medial/lateral hamstrings) in adolescent female basketball athletes, male basketball athletes, and female non-athletes in response to a drop landing. Subjects in the female non-athlete group recruited rectus femoris significantly slower than both the female athlete and male athlete groups (619.9=588.5>200.1ms prior to ground contact). The female non-athlete group also demonstrated a significantly slower vastus medialis compared to the female athlete group (127.1 vs 408.1ms), but not significantly slower than the male athlete group (127.1 vs 275.7ms). There were no differences between female athletes and male athletes for time to initial contraction of any muscle groups. No differences were found among the groups for medial or lateral hamstring activation. This study demonstrates that physical conditioning due to basketball participation appears to affect neuromuscular recruitment in adolescents and reveals a necessity to find alternate methods of training the hamstrings for improved neuromuscular capabilities to prevent

  6. Patterns of adolescent physical activity and dietary behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Natalie; Atkin, Andrew J; Biddle, Stuart JH; Gorely, Trish; Edwardson, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Background The potential synergistic effects of multiple dietary and physical activity behaviours on the risk of chronic conditions and health outcomes is a key issue for public health. This study examined the prevalence and clustering patterns of multiple health behaviours among a sample of adolescents in the UK. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 176 adolescents aged 12–16 years (49% boys). Adolescents wore accelerometers for seven days and completed a questionnaire assessing fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption. The prevalence of adolescents meeting the physical activity (≥ 60 minutes moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/day), fruit and vegetable (≥ 5 portions of FV per day) and breakfast recommendations (eating breakfast on ≥ 5 days per week), and clustering patterns of these health behaviours are described. Results Boys were more active than girls (p < 0.001) and younger adolescents were more active than older adolescents (p < 0.01). Boys ate breakfast on more days per week than girls (p < 0.01) and older adolescents ate more fruit and vegetables than younger adolescents (p < 0.01). Almost 54% of adolescents had multiple risk behaviours and only 6% achieved all three of the recommendations. Girls had significantly more risk factors than boys (p < 0.01). For adolescents with two risk behaviours, the most prevalent cluster was formed by not meeting the physical activity and fruit and vegetable recommendations. Conclusion Many adolescents fail to meet multiple diet and physical activity recommendations, highlighting that physical activity and dietary behaviours do not occur in isolation. Future research should investigate how best to achieve multiple health behaviour change in adolescent boys and girls. PMID:19624822

  7. [Nutritional evaluation, micronutrient deficiencies and anemia among female adolescents in an urban and a rural zone from Zulia state, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ortega, Pablo; Leal, Jorymar; Amaya, Daysi; Chávez, Carlos

    2010-03-01

    Female adolescents in reproductive age are a susceptible group to anemia and micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to know the nutritional, anthropometric and dietetic status, the prevalence of anemia, depletion of iron deposits (FeD) and Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in female adolescents. Seventy-eight not pregnant female adolescents (15.9 +/- 1.1 years old), from an urban and a periurban zone of Maracaibo, and a rural zone near this city, without infectious and inflammatory processes, were analyzed. Anemia in adolescents was considered when Hb < 120 g/L; FeD: ferritin < 12 microg/L; VAD serum retinol <20 microg/dL; risk of VAD (RVAD) 20-30 microg/dL. The data were analyzed with the SAS program and expressed as Means +/- Standard Deviations, statistical significance was considered when p < 0.05. The percentage of caloric and protean adjustment in all groups was below the daily requirements. Adolescents from the rural zone showed significant lower values of weight (p = 0.0024), height (p = 0.0027), body mass index BMI (p = 0.0487), fatty area (p = 0.0183), MCV (p = 0.0241), MCH (p = 0.0488), MHCC (p = 0.0228), and the highest prevalence of anemia (66.67%), anemia+FeD (33.33%), and anemia+FeD+RVAD (5.56%), with respect to adolescents from the urban zone. Although, anemic adolescents from the rural zone showed a non significant decrease of the iron percentage adjustment. Iron requirements are increased during adolescence, reaching a maximum at the peak of growth and remaining almost as high in girls after menarche, to replace menstrual losses. The low iron status among adolescents from the rural zone determine that this is a high risk group to anemia and FeD and they require prevention, control and suplementation strategies.

  8. Understanding soft drink consumption among female adolescents using the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Nada O; Lee, Jerry W; Modeste, Naomi N; Johnston, Patricia K

    2003-06-01

    This study identified factors that influence regular soda consumption among 707 female students, aged 13-18 years, attending North Los Angeles County public high schools. Participants completed a group-administered Theory of Planned Behavior-based questionnaire. Almost all of the participants, 96.3%, reported that they currently drink soda; 50.1% reported drinking 2 glasses of soda or more per day during the past year. Students reported drinking regular soda more than diet soda and reported drinking phosphoric acid-containing soda more than non-phosphoric acid-containing soda. Attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control had statistically significant positive associations with intention, and were each significant predictors of intention to drink regular soda and together explained 64% of its variance. The strongest predictor was attitude, followed by perceived behavioral control and subjective norm. Our results suggest that efforts to reduce soda consumption among female adolescents should include parents and friends. It is also important that soda should not be excessively available at home or widely accessible to teenagers at schools. Healthy eating messages for adolescents need to be developed and incorporated into existing and future campaigns to reinforce the perception that there are other healthier drinks that quench thirst and that taste good as well.

  9. Fruit consumption, fitness, and cardiovascular health in female adolescents: the Penn State Young Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, T; Chinchilli, V M; Rollings, N; Kieselhorst, K; Tregea, D F; Henderson, N A; Sinoway, L I

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the relations among nutrient intake, fitness, serum antioxidants, and cardiolipoprotein profiles in female adolescents. The study design was a cross-sectional analysis of the Penn State Young Women's Health Study. The present study was performed with the entire cohort (n = 86) when they were 17.1+/-0.5 y (x+/-SD) of age. Primary measurements included cardiolipoprotein indexes, serum antioxidants, nutrient intakes, aerobic fitness, and percentage body fat. The cohort was stratified by estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) measurements and by percentage body fat. The fifth quintile by estimated VO2max had significantly lower percentage body fat, higher athletic scores, higher fruit intake, lower total serum cholesterol, and lower ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL cholesterol than members of the first quintile. When the members of the first and fifth quintiles by percentage body fat were compared, the first quintile had significantly lower weight, lower body mass index, higher estimated VO2max, higher athletic scores, lower ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, and higher fruit, carbohydrate, and fiber intakes. Correlation analyses performed with the data for the entire cohort showed fruit consumption to be positively correlated with estimated VO2max, and predicted VO2max to be positively correlated with circulating beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol. This study provided evidence that the positive associations of exercise and fruit consumption with cardiovascular health apply to female adolescents as well as to adults. PMID:9537609

  10. Understanding soft drink consumption among female adolescents using the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Nada O; Lee, Jerry W; Modeste, Naomi N; Johnston, Patricia K

    2003-06-01

    This study identified factors that influence regular soda consumption among 707 female students, aged 13-18 years, attending North Los Angeles County public high schools. Participants completed a group-administered Theory of Planned Behavior-based questionnaire. Almost all of the participants, 96.3%, reported that they currently drink soda; 50.1% reported drinking 2 glasses of soda or more per day during the past year. Students reported drinking regular soda more than diet soda and reported drinking phosphoric acid-containing soda more than non-phosphoric acid-containing soda. Attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control had statistically significant positive associations with intention, and were each significant predictors of intention to drink regular soda and together explained 64% of its variance. The strongest predictor was attitude, followed by perceived behavioral control and subjective norm. Our results suggest that efforts to reduce soda consumption among female adolescents should include parents and friends. It is also important that soda should not be excessively available at home or widely accessible to teenagers at schools. Healthy eating messages for adolescents need to be developed and incorporated into existing and future campaigns to reinforce the perception that there are other healthier drinks that quench thirst and that taste good as well. PMID:12828230

  11. Female adolescents' perceptions, beliefs, motivations, and attitudes in the negotiation of science texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Camille

    This study was an investigation of female adolescents' perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and reading science-related texts. Three surveys were used to collect data from 253 middle school students in Grade 7 and Grade 8 and six interviews were conducted with students. The interviews allowed a deeper analysis of the value students placed on science and on reading science-related texts. The quantitative data were collected through the following surveys: Test of Science Related Attitudes, Motivation for Reading Informational Books in School adapted, and Metacognitive Awareness Reading Strategies Inventory adapted. The purpose of the surveys was to provide a comprehensive picture of students' self-reported perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and the motivation to engage. Literacy processes and practices make engagement and learning in science possible; however, intrinsic motivation and cognitive strategies are critical influential components that educators cannot overlook. The female adolescents in this study expressed greater competence when involved in learning science through inquiry experimentation integrated with literacy presented in different formats.

  12. Association between dietary fiber intake and the folate status of a group of female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Houghton, L A; Green, T J; Donovan, U M; Gibson, R S; Stephen, A M; O'Connor, D L

    1997-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the association between dietary fiber intake and the folate status of Canadian female adolescents. We also assessed dietary folate intakes and evaluated the prevalence of biochemical folate deficiency in these subjects. Female adolescents aged 14-19 y (n = 224) were recruited and fasting blood samples were collected. Dietary intakes (3-d food record) were recorded and participants were classified as lactoovovegetarians, semivegetarians, or omnivores on the basis of food-consumption patterns assessed with food-frequency questionnaires. Fourteen percent, 17%, and 26% of lactoovovegetarians, semivegetarians, and omnivores, respectively, had dietary folate intakes below their predicted requirements; 1%, 4%, and 23%, respectively, had serum folate concentrations indicative of deficiency. Despite low dietary folate intakes and serum folate concentrations, few subjects had homocysteine concentrations indicative of deficiency, suggesting that the degree of folate depletion had not yet produced functional consequences. Most important, results suggest that the consumption of nonstarch polysaccharide is significantly associated with serum folate concentrations (P < 0.001). For each 1-g increase in nonstarch polysaccharide intake, a 1.8% increase in serum folate concentration is expected. In summary, we propose that an increase in nonstarch polysaccharide intake may promote the intestinal biosynthesis of folate, providing a complementary strategy to enhance the folate nutriture of humans.

  13. Knowledge of pediatricians regarding physical activity in childhood and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Gordia, Alex Pinheiro; de Quadros, Teresa Maria Bianchini; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues; dos Santos, Gilton Marques

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the knowledge and guidance given by pediatricians regarding physical activity in childhood and adolescence. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of pediatricians (n=210) who participated in a national pediatrics congress in 2013. Sociodemographic and professional data and data regarding habitual physical activity and pediatricians’ knowledge and instructions for young people regarding physical activity were collected using a questionnaire. Absolute and relative frequencies and means and standard deviations were calculated. Results: Most pediatricians were females, had graduated from medical school more than 15 years ago, and had residency in pediatrics. More than 70% of the participants reported to include physical activity guidance in their prescriptions. On the other hand, approximately two-thirds of the pediatricians incorrectly reported that children should not work out and less than 15% answered the question about physical activity barriers correctly. With respect to the two questions about physical activity to tackle obesity, incorrect answers were marked by more than 50% of the pediatricians. Most participants incorrectly reported that 30 min should be the minimum daily time of physical activity in young people. Less than 40% of the pediatricians correctly indicated the maximum time young people should spend in front of a screen. Conclusions: In general, the pediatricians reported that they recommend physical activity to their young patients, but specific knowledge of this topic was limited. Programs providing adequate information are needed. PMID:26298654

  14. Adolescent pre-treatment with oxytocin protects against adult methamphetamine-seeking behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Callum; Cornish, Jennifer L; Baracz, Sarah J; Suraev, Anastasia; McGregor, Iain S

    2016-03-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), given acutely, reduces self-administration of the psychostimulant drug methamphetamine (METH). Additionally, chronic OT administration to adolescent rats reduces levels of alcohol consumption in adulthood, suggesting developmental neuroplasticity in the OT system relevant to addiction-related behaviors. Here, we examined whether OT exposure during adolescence might subsequently inhibit METH self-administration in adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered vehicle or OT (1 mg/kg, i.p.) once daily from postnatal days (PND) 28 to 37 (adolescence). At PND 62 (adulthood), rats were trained to self-administer METH (intravenous, i.v.) in daily 2-hour sessions for 10 days under a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) reinforcement schedule, followed by determination of dose-response functions (0.01-0.3 mg/kg/infusion, i.v.) under both FR1 and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. Responding was then extinguished, and relapse to METH-seeking behavior assessed following priming doses of non-contingent METH (0.1-1 mg/kg, i.p.). Finally, plasma was collected to determine pre-treatment effects on OT and corticosterone levels. Results showed that OT pre-treatment did not significantly inhibit the acquisition of METH self-administration or FR1 responding. However, rats pre-treated with OT responded significantly less for METH under a PR reinforcement schedule, and showed reduced METH-primed reinstatement with the 1 mg/kg prime. Plasma OT levels were also significantly higher in OT pre-treated rats. These results confirm earlier observations that adolescent OT exposure can subtly, yet significantly, inhibit addiction-relevant behaviors in adulthood.

  15. Predictors of Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) in African American Young Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Thind, Herpreet; Affuso, Olivia; Gary, Lisa C.; LaGory, Mark; Hwang, Sean-Shong

    2014-01-01

    Background African American adolescents residing in the South are at increased risk for obesity and physical inactivity, yet our understanding of potential influences is limited. Purpose Using an ecological framework, this study explored multilevel predictors (individual, family, home, and neighborhood environment) of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among 116 African American adolescents (ages 12–16). Methods Adolescents and their parents completed self-report surveys for hypothesized predictors. Youth physical activity was measured using accelerometry. Results In multiple regression models, decreased daily MVPA was associated with female sex (β=−24.27, p<0.0001). Family social support (β=1.07, p=0.004) and adolescent self efficacy for PA (β=6.89, p=0.054) were positively associated with daily MVPA. Conclusions Adolescent demographics along with family social support and self-efficacy influence younger African American adolescent physical activity. Further exploration of the complex interaction of multiple levels of influence is needed to develop appropriate interventions for this vulnerable group. PMID:23334766

  16. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult

  17. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult

  18. Social Physique Anxiety and Physical Activity among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklund, Robert C.; Bianco, Theresa

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the potential impact of adolescent social physique anxiety on behavior and physical activity settings. Offers that an awareness and consideration of the self-presentational sensitivities that adolescents may experience in physical activity settings provide important avenues for understanding and addressing certain types of…

  19. Rest-Activity Cycles in Childhood and Adolescent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armitage, Roseanne; Hoffmann, Robert; Emslie, Graham; Rintelman, Jeanne; Moore, Jarrette; Lewis, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To quantify circadian rhythms in rest-activity cycles in depressed children and adolescents. Method: Restactivity cycles were evaluated by actigraphy over five consecutive 24-hour periods in 100 children and adolescents, including 59 outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 41 healthy normal controls. Total activity, total…

  20. Looking at the Social Activity for Adolescents with Orthopedic Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biastro, Leslie; Frank, Heather; Larwin, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with identified orthopedic impairments are often less likely to participate in social activities outside of the school setting. However, the adolescents who are able to participate in activities have higher social skills, more academic successes, and show more satisfaction in their roles as family member or friend. The aim of this…

  1. Online Activities and Writing Practices of Urban Malaysian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kok Eng; Ng, Melissa L. Y.; Saw, Kim Guan

    2010-01-01

    Among a number of urban adolescents in Malaysia, going online is a much valued practice. They are regularly drawn to the Internet to engage in activities across school, nonschool, mainstream and alternative domains. The aim of this study is to know more about what these adolescents do online. Data on the online activities were collected from 535…

  2. Brain Cortical Thickness Differences in Adolescent Females with Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Boulos, Peter K.; Dalwani, Manish S.; Tanabe, Jody; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Banich, Marie T.; Crowley, Thomas J.; Sakai, Joseph T.

    2016-01-01

    Some youths develop multiple substance use disorders early in adolescence and have severe, persistent courses. Such youths often exhibit impulsivity, risk-taking, and problems of inhibition. However, relatively little is known about the possible brain bases of these behavioral traits, especially among females. Methods We recruited right-handed female patients, 14–19 years of age, from a university-based treatment program for youths with substance use disorders and community controls similar for age, race and zip code of residence. We obtained 43 T1-weighted structural brain images (22 patients and 21 controls) to examine group differences in cortical thickness across the entire brain as well as six a priori regions-of-interest: 1) medial orbitofrontal cortex; 2) rostral anterior cingulate cortex; and 3) middle frontal cortex, in each hemisphere. Age and IQ were entered as nuisance factors for all analyses. Results A priori region-of-interest analyses yielded no significant differences. However, whole-brain group comparisons revealed that the left pregenual rostral anterior cingulate cortex extending into the left medial orbitofrontal region (355.84 mm2 in size), a subset of two of our a priori regions-of-interest, was significantly thinner in patients compared to controls (vertex-level threshold p = 0.005 and cluster-level family wise error corrected threshold p = 0.05). The whole-brain group differences did not survive after adjusting for depression or externalizing scores. Whole-brain within-patient analyses demonstrated a positive association between cortical thickness in the left precuneus and behavioral disinhibition scores (458.23 mm2 in size). Conclusions Adolescent females with substance use disorders have significant differences in brain cortical thickness in regions engaged by the default mode network and that have been associated with problems of emotional dysregulation, inhibition, and behavioral control in past studies. PMID:27049765

  3. Parent-adolescent conversations about eating, physical activity and weight: prevalence across sociodemographic characteristics and associations with adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jerica M; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-02-01

    This paper aims to describe the prevalence of parent-adolescent conversations about eating, physical activity and weight across sociodemographic characteristics and to examine associations with adolescent body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Data from two linked epidemiological studies were used for cross-sectional analysis. Parents (n = 3,424; 62% females) and adolescents (n = 2,182; 53.2% girls) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Fathers reported more parent-adolescent conversations about healthful eating and physical activity with their sons and mothers reported more weight-focused conversations with their daughters. Parents of Hispanic/Latino and Asian/Hmong youth and parents from lower socioeconomic status categories engaged in more conversations about weight and size. Adolescents whose mothers or fathers had weight-focused conversations with them had higher BMI percentiles. Adolescents who had two parents engaging in weight-related conversations had higher BMI percentiles. Healthcare providers may want to talk about the types of weight-related conversations parents are having with their adolescents and emphasize avoiding conversations about weight specifically.

  4. Parent-Adolescent Conversations about Eating, Physical Activity and Weight: Prevalence across Sociodemographic Characteristics and Associations with Adolescent Weight and Weight-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the prevalence of parent-adolescent conversations about eating, physical activity and weight across sociodemographic characteristics and to examine associations with adolescent BMI, dietary intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Data from two linked epidemiological studies were used for cross-sectional analysis. Parents (n=3,424; 62% females) and adolescents (n=2,182; 53.2% girls) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Fathers reported more parent-adolescent conversations about healthful eating and physical activity with their sons and mothers reported more weight-focused conversations with their daughters. Parents of Hispanic/Latino and Asian/Hmong youth and parents from lower SES categories engaged in more conversations about weight and size. Adolescents whose mothers or fathers had weight-focused conversations with them had higher BMI percentiles. Adolescents who had two parents engaging in weight-related conversations had higher BMI percentiles. Healthcare providers may want to talk about the types of weight-related conversations parents are having with their adolescents and emphasize avoiding conversations about weight specifically. PMID:24997555

  5. The contribution of physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence to adult women's body image.

    PubMed

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of both past and current physical activity and media use on women's body image. A sample of 144 female undergraduate students completed measures of current physical activity, media use and body image, as well as providing retrospective reports of their physical activity participation and media usage during childhood and adolescence. Regression analyses showed that childhood experiences of physical activity and media use predicted adult body-image concerns more strongly than current activities. It was concluded that early experiences of both physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence play an important role in the development of adult women's body image.

  6. Association between Family Structure and Physical Activity of Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijuan; Qi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study examines the association between family structure and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of adolescents in China. Methods. The participants included 612 adolescents (317 boys and 295 girls) from Shanghai with ages ranging from 10 to 16 years. Accelerometers were used to measure the duration of MVPA of adolescents, and questionnaires on family structure were completed by the parents of these adolescents. Results. Findings suggested that family structure significantly increased the likelihood of adolescents engaging in physical activity (PA) and explained 6% of MPVA variance. Adolescents living in single-parent households and step families were more physically active than those living in two-parent homes and with biological parents, respectively. However, adolescents residing with grandparents were less active than those living with neither grandparent. No significant difference was found in MVPA time between adolescents living with one sibling and those without siblings. Conclusion. Family environment may be considered in the development of PA interventions and policies, and adolescents living with their grandparents may be targeted in PA promotion. PMID:27123446

  7. A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of a Community-Based HIV Prevention Intervention for Mexican American Female Adolescents: The SHERO's Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Gary W.; Bangi, Audrey K.; Sanchez, Bernadette; Doll, Mimi; Pedraza, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a quasi-experimental evaluation of a community-based, culturally and ecologically tailored HIV prevention intervention for Mexican American female adolescents grounded in the AIDS risk reduction model. A total of 378 Mexican American female adolescents (mean age = 15.2) participated in either the nine-session SHERO's (a…

  8. The Impact of Correcting Cognitive Distortions in Reducing Depression and the Sense of Insecurity among a Sample of Female Refugee Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mhaidat, Fatin; ALharbi, Bassam H. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the level of depression and sense of insecurity among a sample of female refugee adolescents, and the impact of an indicative program for reducing cognitive distortions in reducing depression and their sense of insecurity. The study sample consisted of 220 female refugee adolescents, 7th to 1st secondary stage, at…

  9. Phasic dopamine neuron activity elicits unique mesofrontal plasticity in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mastwal, Surjeet; Ye, Yizhou; Ren, Ming; Jimenez, Dennisse V; Martinowich, Keri; Gerfen, Charles R; Wang, Kuan Hong

    2014-07-16

    The mesofrontal dopaminergic circuit, which connects the midbrain motivation center to the cortical executive center, is engaged in control of motivated behaviors. In addition, deficiencies in this circuit are associated with adolescent-onset psychiatric disorders in humans. Developmental studies suggest that the mesofrontal circuit exhibits a protracted maturation through adolescence. However, whether the structure and function of this circuit are modifiable by activity in dopaminergic neurons during adolescence remains unknown. Using optogenetic stimulation and in vivo two-photon imaging in adolescent mice, we found that phasic, but not tonic, dopamine neuron activity induces the formation of mesofrontal axonal boutons. In contrast, in adult mice, the effect of phasic activity diminishes. Furthermore, our results showed that dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission regulate this axonal plasticity in adolescence and inhibition of dopamine D2-type receptors restores this plasticity in adulthood. Finally, we found that phasic activation of dopamine neurons also induces greater changes in mesofrontal circuit activity and psychomotor response in adolescent mice than in adult mice. Together, our findings demonstrate that the structure and function of the mesofrontal circuit are modifiable by phasic activity in dopaminergic neurons during adolescence and suggest that the greater plasticity in adolescence may facilitate activity-dependent strengthening of dopaminergic input and improvement in behavioral control.

  10. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for the DSM-5 of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Female Adolescents: Diagnostic and Clinical Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is included as conditions for further study in the DSM-5. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the proposed diagnostic criteria and the diagnostic and clinical correlates for the validity of a diagnostic entity. The authors investigated the characteristics of NSSI disorder and the proposed diagnostic criteria. A sample of 73 female inpatient adolescents and 37 nonclinical adolescents (aged 13 to 19 years) was recruited. Patients were classified into 4 groups (adolescents with NSSI disorder, adolescents with NSSI without impairment/distress, clinical controls without NSSI, and nonclinical controls). Adolescents were compared on self-reported psychopathology and diagnostic cooccurrences. Results indicate that adolescents with NSSI disorder have a higher level of impairment than adolescents with other mental disorders without NSSI. Most common comorbid diagnoses were major depression, social phobia, and PTSD. There was some overlap of adolescents with NSSI disorder and suicidal behaviour and borderline personality disorder, but there were also important differences. Results further suggest that the proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for NSSI are useful and necessary. In conclusion, NSSI is a highly impairing disorder characterized by high comorbidity with various disorders, providing further evidence that NSSI should be a distinct diagnostic entity. PMID:24236273

  11. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16-19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors.

  12. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16-19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors. PMID:26635492

  13. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16–19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors. PMID:26635492

  14. Reliability of a wellness inventory for use among adolescent females aged 12–14 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The wellness construct has application in a number of fields including education, healthcare and counseling, particularly with regard to female adolescents. The effective measurement of wellness in adolescents can assist researchers and practitioners in determining lifestyle behaviors in which they are lacking. Behavior change interventions can then be designed which directly aid in the promotion of these areas. Methods The 5-Factor Wellness Inventory (designed to measure the Indivisible Self model of wellness) is a popular instrument for measuring the broad aspects of wellness amongst adolescents. The instrument comprises 97 items contributing to 17 subscales, five dimension scores, four context scores, total wellness score, and a life satisfaction index. This investigation evaluated the test-retest (intra-rater) reliability of the 5F-Wel instrument in repeated assessments (seven days apart) among adolescent females aged 12–14 years. Percentages of exact agreement for individual items, and the number of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 points for total wellness and the five summary dimension scores were calculated. Results Overall, 46 (95.8%) participants responded with complete data and were included in the analysis. Item agreement ranged from 47.8% to 100% across the 97 items (median 69.9%, interquartile range 60.9%-73.9%). The percentage of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 points for total wellness at the re-assessment was 87.0%, 97.8% and 97.8% respectively. The percentage of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 for the domain scores at the reassessment ranged between 54.3-76.1%, 78.3-95.7% and 89.1-95.7% respectively across the five dimensions. Conclusions These findings suggest there was considerable variation in agreement between the two assessments on some individual items. However, the total wellness score and the five dimension summary scores remained comparatively stable between assessments

  15. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p < 0.05) more sedentary, much less physically active, especially with vigorous physical activity, and there were fewer days per week when they consumed breakfast, fruit, milk and diary products, sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods and energy drinks than did males. However, the females' intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the males'. Screen time was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated inversely with the intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p < 0.05) positive relationship with fruit and vegetable intake but not with sedentary behaviors. Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and

  16. Socialization agents and activities of young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Arnon, Sara; Shamai, Shmuel; Ilatov, Zinaida

    2008-01-01

    Research examined the relative importance of peer groups for young adolescents as compared with diverse adult socialization agents--family, school, and community. The factors involved were teenagers' activities, preferences, feelings, and thoughts as to how they spend their leisure time, their preferences for help providers, and their sense of attachment to their community. These comparisons were made with religious and non-religious youngsters, in both rural and urban communities, and in gender subgroups. Questionnaires were administered to teenagers at secondary schools in a northern peripheral region of Israel. Findings showed the primary importance of peer groups and family in leisure activities and support, and the secondary importance of school and community. No evidence was found of a sharp generation gap. Community could also be significant if its organizations accepted youth as a peer group, and not only individually, on an equal and cooperating basis.

  17. Brief report: Performing on the stage, the field, or both? Australian adolescent extracurricular activity participation and self-concept.

    PubMed

    Blomfield, Corey J; Barber, Bonnie L

    2009-06-01

    The relationship between Australian adolescents' participation in extracurricular activities and their self-concepts was investigated. A total of 1489 adolescents (56% female; mean age 13.8 years) completed measures of social self-concept, academic self-concept, and general self-worth, and reported on their extracurricular activity participation. In general, participation in any type of extracurricular activity was associated with a higher social and academic self-concept, and general self-worth, compared to no participation. Adolescents who participated in both sports and non-sports also reported a more positive social self-concept and general self-worth, compared to those who only participated in one of the activity types. This research provides support for extracurricular activities as a context facilitative of positive self-concept, and demonstrates the importance of a mixed participation profile for an adolescent's self-concept.

  18. Negative Mood Increases Selective Attention to Negatively Valenced Body Parts in Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Svaldi, Jennifer; Bender, Caroline; Caffier, Detlef; Ivanova, Viliana; Mies, Nina; Fleischhaker, Christian; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN), especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation. Method In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12) and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12) were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded. Results After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants’ attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive) mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG. Discussion The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients’ body image disturbance. PMID:27123587

  19. Adolescents Engaging in Risky Sexual Behavior: Sexual Activity and Associated Behavioral Risk Factors in Bolivian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…

  20. Stress during Adolescence Increases Novelty Seeking and Risk-Taking Behavior in Male and Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Toledo-Rodriguez, Maria; Sandi, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of major physical, hormonal, and psychological change. It is also characterized by a significant increase in the incidence of psychopathologies and this increase is gender-specific. Likewise, stress during adolescence is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. Previously, using a rat model of psychogenic stress (exposure to predator odor followed by placement on an elevated platform) during the pre-pubertal period (postnatal days 28–30), we reported sex-specific effects on auditory and contextual fear conditioning. Here, we study the short-term impact of psychogenic stress before and during puberty (postnatal days 28–42) on behavior (novelty seeking, risk taking, anxiety, and depression) and hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis activation during late adolescence (postnatal days 45–51). Peri-pubertal stress decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased risk taking and novelty seeking behaviors during late adolescence (measured with the elevated plus maze, open field and exposure to novel object tests and intake of chocopop pellets before or immediate after stress). Finally neither depressive-like behavior (measured at the forced-swim test) nor HPA response to stress (blood corticosterone and glucose) were affected by peri-pubertal stress. Nevertheless, when controlling for the basal anxiety of the mothers, animals exposed to peri-pubertal stress showed a significant decrease in corticosterone levels immediate after an acute stressor. The results from this study suggest that exposure to mild stressors during the peri-pubertal period induces a broad spectrum of behavioral changes in late adolescence, which may exacerbate the independence-building behaviors naturally happening during this transitional period (increase in curiosity, sensation-seeking, and risk-taking behaviors). PMID:21519389

  1. Longitudinal and secular trends in parental encouragement for healthful eating, physical activity, and dieting throughout the adolescent years

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Katherine W.; Laska, Melissa N.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Parental encouragement of healthful eating and physical activity has been found to be associated with adolescents’ long-term healthful habits, while parental encouragement to diet has been associated with disordered eating behaviors among adolescents. However, little is known about how parental encouragement changes as adolescents grow older (longitudinal trends), or how parental encouragement has changed over time (secular trends). This study examined 5-year longitudinal and secular trends in adolescents’ report of their parents’ encouragement to eat healthfully, be physically active, and diet. Methods Project EAT surveyed a cohort of Minnesota adolescents (n=2516) in 1999 and 2004. Mixed-model regressions were used to assess changes in adolescents’ report of parental encouragement from early to middle adolescence (middle school to high school) and from middle to late adolescence (high school to post-high school), and secular changes in parental encouragement among middle adolescents between 1999 and 2004. Results There were significant decreases in parental encouragement to eat healthfully, be active, and diet between early and middle adolescence. Between middle and late adolescence, among males parental encouragement for all behaviors decreased while among females parental encouragement to diet increased. Few secular changes in parental encouragement were observed between 1999 and 2004. Conclusions Given the importance of parental support for healthful eating and physical activity, efforts should be made to help parents maintain a high level of encouragement for their children's healthful behavior throughout adolescence. Parents of late-adolescent females should aim to decrease the pressure on their daughters to diet during these critical developmental years. PMID:21856524

  2. "Let's Talk About Sex": pilot study of an interactive CD-ROM to prevent HIV/STIS in female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kristin E; Kalyanaraman, Sri; Ford, Carol A; Brown, Jane D; Miller, William C

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and pilot-test an interactive CD-ROM aimed at the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in female adolescents. The CD-ROM includes prevention information, models skills for negotiating abstinence and consistent condom use, teaches media literacy, and allows the user to choose a culturally appropriate host to guide them through the CD-ROM. Forty-seven female adolescents attending a health department clinic were randomized to receive the CD-ROM plus an educator-led didactic session versus the didactic session alone. The CD-ROM was highly acceptable and feasible for use among female adolescents in the clinic setting. Hispanic and African American adolescents were more likely to choose hosts of the same race/ethnicity to guide them through the CD-ROM. HIV/STI knowledge increased significantly and nearly all adolescents intended to use condoms at next intercourse after viewing the CD-ROM. However, there were no significant differences measured between CD-ROM and comparison groups. PMID:18312069

  3. Prospective study on food fortification with vitamin D among adolescent females in Finland: minor effects.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen-Veromaa, Marjo; Möttönen, Timo; Leino, Aila; Heinonen, Olli J; Rautava, Essi; Viikari, Jorma

    2008-08-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is common particularly during winter time. After the recommendation by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Finnish fluid milks and margarines have been fortified with vitamin D since February 2003. The aims of the present study were to examine the impact of vitamin D fortification of food supplies on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D) concentrations and on daily dietary vitamin D intake among adolescent females. One hundred and forty-two girls of Caucasian ethnicity aged 12-18 years completed semi-quantitative FFQ from which the dietary vitamin D and Ca intakes were calculated. S-25(OH)D was measured by radioimmunoassay. The study was performed from February-March 2000 to February-March 2004, one year after the initiation of fortification. The mean dietary intake of vitamin D was < 7.5 microg in 91.5 % of the adolescent girls in 2000 and 83.8 % in 2004. The midwinter mean S-25(OH)D concentration did not change significantly during the follow-up period (48.3 v. 48.1 nmol/l, NS). The proportion of participants who had S-25(OH)D concentration < 50 nmol/l was 60.6 % in 2000 and 65.5 % in 2004. Only 7.0 % of the participants had an adequate S-25(OH)D ( >or= 75 nmol/l) level in 2000 or 4 years later. The vitamin D fortification of fluid milks and margarines was inadequate to prevent vitamin D insufficiency. There are numerous adolescent girls and women who are not reached by the current fortification policy. Therefore new innovative and feasible ways of improving vitamin D nutrition are urged. PMID:18275625

  4. Perceptions of parental control and the development of indecision among late adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, J R; Olivette, M J

    1993-01-01

    Late adolescent females (N = 86; M age = 19.1 years) completed reliable and valid self-report measures on their perception of both parents' authority style (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) and their own tendency toward decisional procrastination. Households where daughters perceived both parents as high authoritarian (n = 32) were significantly more likely to raise daughters with strong indecision tendencies than were parents perceived as low authoritarian (n = 23). Mothers and fathers perceived as high (n = 22) or low (n = 22) authoritative, and high (n = 32) or low (n = 24) permissive, did not produce significant differences in daughters' self-reported decisional procrastination. Results suggest that parental authority characterized by stern inflexibility and overcontrol has the greatest influence on daughters who develop chronic indecision tendencies.

  5. Kallmann syndrome in a female adolescent: a new mutation in the FGFR1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Novo, Ana; Guerra, Isabel Couto; Rocha, Felisbela; Gama-de-Sousa, Susana; Borges, Teresa; Cerqueira, Rita; Tavares, Purificação; Fonseca, Paula

    2012-01-01

    The Kallmann syndrome is characterised by the association of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and hypo/anosmia. It represents a phenotypically and genotypically heterogeneous clinical entity, with six genes identified so far in the literature—KAL1, FGFR1, PROKR2, PROK2, CHD7 and FGF8. Mutations in the FGFR1 gene can be found in approximately 10% of the patients. The authors present the case of a female adolescent with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and impaired olfactory acuity in the presence of hypoplasia of the nasal sulcus and agenesis of the olfactory bulbs. The molecular analysis of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 identified a heterozygous mutation c.1377_78insA (p.V460SfsX3) in exon 10 of FGFR1 gene. This mutation has not yet been reported in the literature. A theoretical review of clinical features and therapeutic approach of this syndrome is also presented. PMID:22751423

  6. Depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms in adolescent females and males.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; Chabrol, Henri

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and the media. Both girls and boys displaying high levels of depressive symptoms perceived stronger media and peer influences on appearance. Among girls, eating disorder symptoms were directly affected by sociocultural influences, in particular media influences, as well as by depression. However, depression played only a limited role as a moderator of these relationships. Among boys, sociocultural influences and depression revealed fewer direct effects on eating disorder symptoms. However, depression had a greater moderating effect on these relationships. Future research into the role of depression may increase the understanding of gender differences in body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness and bulimic symptoms.

  7. Depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms in adolescent females and males.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; Chabrol, Henri

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and the media. Both girls and boys displaying high levels of depressive symptoms perceived stronger media and peer influences on appearance. Among girls, eating disorder symptoms were directly affected by sociocultural influences, in particular media influences, as well as by depression. However, depression played only a limited role as a moderator of these relationships. Among boys, sociocultural influences and depression revealed fewer direct effects on eating disorder symptoms. However, depression had a greater moderating effect on these relationships. Future research into the role of depression may increase the understanding of gender differences in body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness and bulimic symptoms. PMID:20229229

  8. Self-esteem and social anxiety in an adolescent female eating disorder population: age and diagnostic effects.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Nicole; Buchholz, Annick; Boerner, Katelynn E; Henderson, Katherine A; Norris, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study explored symptoms of social anxiety and multidimensional self-esteem in a clinical, adolescent female eating disorder population. Using self-report measures, data from 344 females revealed significant negative relationships between dimensions of self-esteem and social anxiety. A diagnostic difference emerged, with the restricting subgroup reporting significantly higher perceived physical appearance and global self-worth than those with binge/purge symptoms or bulimia nervosa. No significant age differences or age by diagnosis interaction effects emerged. These findings suggest that in clinical samples of adolescent eating disorders, self-esteem and social anxiety share a significant inverse relationship and seem to remain fairly constant across adolescence. PMID:23421697

  9. ''A Burden in Your Heart'': Lessons of Disclosure from Female Preadolescent and Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staller, Karen M.; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To enhance understanding of the sexual abuse disclosure process from the perspective of preteen and teenage survivors. To reconsider prominent models of the disclosure process in light of our findings. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from four focus groups in which 34 preadolescent and adolescent female survivors of…

  10. The Use of the BASC-2 for the Identification of Female Adolescents at Risk for Developing an Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowitz, Annie L.; Choi, Hee-Sook; Schweinle, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders, disordered eating, and body dissatisfaction prevalence rates are on the rise among adolescent females. The present study examined the potential use of a commonly used social--emotional instrument, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2), for detecting the presence of possible eating disorders in…

  11. Identity Development of Gifted Female Adolescents: The Influence of Career Development, Age, and Life-Role Salience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoffner, Marie F.; Newsome, Deborah W.

    2001-01-01

    This study identified a set of factors, including vocational exploration and commitment, commitment to the role of work, and participation in the role of studying, which explained 43.3 percent of the variance in the identity development of 95 gifted female adolescents. Of these factors, vocational exploration and commitment contributed the most to…

  12. Violence Exposure and Health-Related Risk among African American Adolescent Female Detainees: A Strategy for Reducing Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodson, Kamilah M.; Hives, Courtney C.; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile crime and violent victimization continue to be significant social problems, in that adolescents, females in particular, are likely to participate in health-related risk behaviors as a result of having been victimized or exposed to a violent environment. Specifically, abuse, neglect, sexual molestation, poverty, and witnessing violence are…

  13. Sexual Victimization among African American Adolescent Females: Examination of the Reliability and Validity of the Sexual Experiences Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, Heather; Matson, Steven C.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent females are disproportionately represented among reported cases of sexual victimization. Because sexual victimization is associated with an array of negative sequelae (e.g., depression, alcohol abuse), psychometrically sound instruments are urgently needed to assess sexual victimization or coercion. The investigation conducts a…

  14. A Cross-Cultural Perspective of Parental Influence on Female Adolescents' Achievement Beliefs and Behaviors in Sport and School Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhalla, Jennifer A.; Weiss, Maureen R.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about parental socialization processes for youth participants from different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to examine parental influence on self-perceptions, task values, and achievement behaviors among female adolescents from two cultures using Eccles' expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983). Twelve…

  15. "Let's Talk about Sex": Pilot Study of an Interactive CD-ROM to Prevent HIV/STIS in Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Kristin E.; Kalyanaraman, Sri; Ford, Carol A.; Brown, Jane D.; Miller, William C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and pilot-test an interactive CD-ROM aimed at the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in female adolescents. The CD-ROM includes prevention information, models skills for negotiating abstinence and consistent condom use, teaches media literacy, and allows the user to choose a culturally…

  16. Prior Victimization and Sexual and Contraceptive Self-Efficacy among Adolescent Females under Child Protective Services Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovsepian, S. Lory; Blais, Martin; Manseau, Helene; Otis, Joanne; Girard, Marie-Eve

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent females under Child Protective Services care in Quebec, Canada (n = 328) completed a questionnaire designed to explore associations between prior victimization (childhood sexual abuse and four forms of dating violence) and four dimensions of sexual and contraceptive self-efficacy. Five MANCOVAs were performed. In each model, a…

  17. Randomized Trial Outcomes of a TTM-Tailored Condom Use and Smoking Intervention in Urban Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.; Armstrong, Kay; Rossi, Joseph S.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Sun, Xiaowu; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Yin, Hui-Qing; Coviello, Donna; Evers, Kerry; Velicer, Wayne F.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and sexual risk behaviors in urban adolescent females are prevalent and problematic. Family planning clinics reach those who are at most risk. This randomized effectiveness trial evaluated a transtheoretical model (TTM)-tailored intervention to increase condom use and decrease smoking. At baseline, a total of 828 14- to 17-year-old females…

  18. Self-Esteem and Theoretical Mediators of Safer Sex among African American Female Adolescents: Implications for Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Lescano, Celia M.; Brown, Larry K.; Harrington, Kathy; Davies, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Theories of health behavior posit that change is accomplished by modifying factors deemed as mediators. A set of mediators from several theoretical models used in sexual risk reduction programs was assessed among a sample of 522 African American female adolescents. The goal was to determine whether self-esteem was associated with sexually…

  19. Depression as a Moderator of Sociocultural Influences on Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Females and Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…

  20. The BASC-2 Profiles of Female Adolescents At-Risk of Developing an Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowitz, Annie L.

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders, disordered eating, and body dissatisfaction prevalence rates are on the rise among adolescent females. The present study sought to examine a commonly used social-emotional instrument, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition, Self-Report of Personality (BASC-2, SRP), for the emergence of a common profile of…

  1. The Relationship of Body Image Perception and Weight Status to Recent Change in Weight Status of the Adolescent Female.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Barbara Ann

    1989-01-01

    Investigated relationship of body image perception and weight status to recent change in weight status of adolescent females. Nonobese, overweight, and obese girls (N=90) aged 13 through 17 completed Body-Cathexis Scale and self-report recent change in weight status and demographic questionnaire. Results revealed significant positive correlation…

  2. The Relationship of Parental Education and Maternal Work and Occupational Status to Occupational Aspiration in Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlin, Frances-Dee

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of parental education and maternal work and occupational status to the occupational aspirations of adolescent females. Significant association was found between occupational aspiration and father's education and between occupational aspiration and mother's occupational status (traditional or…

  3. The Uptake of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine among Adolescent Females in the United States: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Jacqueline A.; Peterson, Jane Anthony

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive review of literature was conducted to identify the barriers and facilitators, from the parents'/guardians' and primary care providers' (PCPs) perspective, that are associated with the uptake of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among adolescent females. Findings from 14 peer-reviewed articles indicate that 37% of adolescent…

  4. Brief Report: Direct and Indirect Relations of Risk Factors with Eating Behavior Problems in Late Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Birgit; Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Zimmermann-van Beuningen, Ritine

    2009-01-01

    This study explored correlations between risk factors and eating behavior problems in late adolescent, non-clinical females (N = 301). Participants completed questionnaires for assessing eating problems, the closely associated factors of Body Mass Index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction, and a number of other risk variables that are thought to be…

  5. Physical Activity in Adolescents following Treatment for Cancer: Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Wright, Marilyn; Bryans, Angie; Gray, Kaylin; Skinner, Leah; Verhoeve, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels and influencing individual and environmental factors in a group of adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparison group. Methods. The study was conducted using a "mixed methods" design. Quantitative data was collected from 48 adolescent survivors of cancer and 48 comparison adolescents using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Fatigue Scale-Adolescents, and the Amherst Health and Activity Study-Student Survey. Qualitative data was collected in individual semistructured interviews. Results. Reported leisure-time physical activity total scores were not significantly different between groups. Physical activity levels were positively correlated with adult social support factors in the group of adolescent survivors of cancer, but not in the comparison group. Time was the primary barrier to physical activity in both groups. Fatigue scores were higher for the comparison but were not associated with physical activity levels in either group. The qualitative data further supported these findings. Conclusions. Barriers to physical activity were common between adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparative group. Increased knowledge of the motivators and barriers to physical activity may help health care providers and families provide more effective health promotion strategies to adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer.

  6. [Risk behaviors for eating disorders among female adolescents from different social strata in the Brazilian Northeastern].

    PubMed

    do Vale, Antonio Maia Olsen; Kerr, Ligia Regina Sansigolo; Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to estimate the prevalence of eating disorders (ED) and identify risk factors among female adolescents in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. It was conducted a sectional study with 652 high school students (14-20 years) using the Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh (BITE). A logistic regression model was applied. Approximately one quarter of participants showed risk eating pattern and control weight practices, among 1.2% signs of an installed ED were found. Fear of weight gain was reported by 62% of adolescents, independently if studying at public or private schools (p>0.05), but the use of risk practices was higher among private schools students (p<0.05). Not having a religion (OR: 2.2, 95%CI: 1.1-4.2) and studying in private school (OR: 1.7, 95%CI: 1.2-2.5) were associated with an increased risk of ED. The ED emerge as a public health problem even in the poor areas of Brazil and the desire for a thin body was not differentiated between different social strata, although the risk practices are significantly higher among respondents from private schools. Subjective and cultural aspects are presented not only as risk factors, but also as protectors.

  7. Female-to-male transsexuals compared to lesbians: behavioral patterns of childhood and adolescent development.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, A A; Grisanti, G; McCauley, E A

    1979-11-01

    We report detailed interview data on a clinical sample (N = 15) of female-to-male transsexuals (FTs) compared to a matched research sample (N = 15) of lesbians (Ls). Both groups were relatively young, with a mean age of 21 years 10 months (FTs) and 23 years 8 months (Ls), respectively, and were of middle or lower SES. Both groups did not differ from each other in respect to frequency of tomboyish behavior or interest in doll play and other aspects of materanl rehearsal. Male peer preference was more often remembered among the FTs, but the difference between the groups was only of borderline significance. The groups differed significantly regarding childhood cross-dressing (80% for FTs, 0% for Ls), gender identity confusion in adolescence (absent among Ls), and negative reaction to breast development and menarche (approximately 70% for FTs, 10% for Ls). The similarities and differences between the two groups in childhood and adolescent development are relevant for clinical management and the differential diagnosis of transsexualism vs. lesbianism.

  8. Closed quotient and spectral measures of female adolescent singers in different singing styles.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Christopher; Lovetri, Jeannette

    2010-05-01

    Although quantifiable assessment of the singing voice is now commonplace, research on young (child and adolescent) voices is still in its infancy. There is still insufficient data on young people's voices based on which, "norms" in behavior could be modeled, particularly for contemporary commercial music (CCM), such as musical theater (MT). The objective of this study was to assess if quantifiable differences in vocal production and acoustic output of young singers exist between "classical" and "MT" styles. The study was a prospective cohort study of 20 adolescent female singers aged 12-17 years training their voices using a system, which includes both "classical" and "MT" styles. The study examined laryngographically derived closed quotient (CQ), average vowel spectra (AVS) and long-term average spectra (LTAS) measures of the sung voices of singers in "classical" and "MT" styles. The spectral slope was shallower for the MT voice, and the mean CQ was significantly higher across the pitch range when singing in an MT style than in a "classical" style. The second to fifth harmonics were stronger in the MT style than in classical, with a significant difference between the two styles. The increase in relative intensity in the first five harmonics was disproportionately higher than the increase in CQ. Results, therefore, suggested that MT singing primarily uses change in resonance strategy rather than raised vocal tension to achieve the tonal changes associated with the genre. PMID:19595563

  9. Parental knowledge of adolescent activities: links with parental attachment style and adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jason D; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Lejuez, C W; Cassidy, Jude

    2015-04-01

    Parents' knowledge of their adolescents' whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents' attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents' alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (M age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in 2-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers' and fathers' insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all 3 reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers' and fathers' attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed.

  10. Persistent Genital Hyperinnervation Following Progesterone Administration to Adolescent Female Rats1

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Zhaohui; Smith, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Provoked vestibulodynia, a female pelvic pain syndrome affecting substantial numbers of women, is characterized by genital hypersensitivity and sensory hyperinnervation. Previous studies have shown that the risk of developing provoked vestibulodynia is markedly elevated following adolescent use of oral contraceptives with high progesterone content. We hypothesized that progesterone, a steroid hormone with known neurotropic properties, may alter genital innervation through direct or indirect actions. Female Sprague Dawley rats received progesterone (20 mg/kg subcutaneously) from Days 20–27; tissue was removed for analysis in some rats on Day 28, while others were ovariectomized on Day 43 and infused for 7 days with vehicle or 17beta estradiol. Progesterone resulted in overall increases in vaginal innervation at both Day 28 and 50 due to proliferation of peptidergic sensory and sympathetic (but not parasympathetic) axons. Estradiol reduced innervation in progesterone-treated and untreated groups. To assess the mechanisms of sensory hyperinnervation, we cultured dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons and found that progesterone increases neurite outgrowth by small unmyelinated (but not myelinated) sensory neurons, it was receptor mediated, and it was nonadditive with NGF. Pretreatment of ganglion with progesterone also increased neurite outgrowth in response to vaginal target explants. However, pretreatment of vaginal target with progesterone did not improve outgrowth. We conclude that adolescent progesterone exposure may contribute to provoked vestibulodynia by eliciting persistent genital hyperinnervation via a direct effect on unmyelinated sensory nociceptor neurons and that estradiol, a well-documented therapeutic, may alleviate symptoms in part by reducing progesterone-induced sensory hyperinnervation. PMID:25359899

  11. Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Female Adolescents According to Age, Bone Age and Pubertal Breast Stage

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, M.R; Silva, C.C; Kurokawa, C.S; Fortes, C.M; Capela, R.C; Teixeira, A.S; Dalmas, J.C; Goldberg, T.B

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Methods: Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner’s criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe’s test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. Results: BMD (g·cm-2) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Conclusion: Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry. PMID:21966336

  12. Dietary Intake, Anthropometric Characteristics, and Iron and Vitamin D Status of Female Adolescent Ballet Dancers Living in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kathryn L; Mitchell, Sarah; Foskett, Andrew; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R

    2015-08-01

    Ballet dancing is a multifaceted activity requiring muscular power, strength, endurance, flexibility, and agility; necessitating demanding training schedules. Furthermore dancers may be under aesthetic pressure to maintain a lean physique, and adolescent dancers require extra nutrients for growth and development. This cross-sectional study investigated the nutritional status of 47 female adolescent ballet dancers (13-18 years) living in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants who danced at least 1 hr per day 5 days per week completed a 4-day estimated food record, anthropometric measurements (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry) and hematological analysis (iron and vitamin D). Mean BMI was 19.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2 and percentage body fat, 23.5 ± 4.1%. The majority (89.4%) of dancers had a healthy weight (5th-85th percentile) using BMI-for-age growth charts. Food records showed a mean energy intake of 8097.3 ± 2155.6 kJ/day (48.9% carbohydrate, 16.9% protein, 33.8% fat, 14.0% saturated fat). Mean carbohydrate and protein intakes were 4.8 ± 1.4 and 1.6 ± 0.5 g/kg/day respectively. Over half (54.8%) of dancers consumed less than 5 g carbohydrate/kg/day, and 10 (23.8%) less than 1.2 g protein/kg/day. Over 60% consumed less than the estimated average requirement for calcium, folate, magnesium and selenium. Thirteen (28.3%) dancers had suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin (SF) < 20 μg/L). Of these, four had iron deficiency (SF < 12 μg/L, hemoglobin (Hb) ≥ 120 g/L) and one iron deficiency anemia (SF < 12 μg/L, Hb < 120 g/L). Mean serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D was 75.1 ± 18.6 nmol/L, 41 (91.1%) had concentrations above 50 nmol/L. Female adolescent ballet dancers are at risk for iron deficiency, and possibly inadequate nutrient intakes. PMID:25386731

  13. Dietary Intake, Anthropometric Characteristics, and Iron and Vitamin D Status of Female Adolescent Ballet Dancers Living in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kathryn L; Mitchell, Sarah; Foskett, Andrew; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R

    2015-08-01

    Ballet dancing is a multifaceted activity requiring muscular power, strength, endurance, flexibility, and agility; necessitating demanding training schedules. Furthermore dancers may be under aesthetic pressure to maintain a lean physique, and adolescent dancers require extra nutrients for growth and development. This cross-sectional study investigated the nutritional status of 47 female adolescent ballet dancers (13-18 years) living in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants who danced at least 1 hr per day 5 days per week completed a 4-day estimated food record, anthropometric measurements (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry) and hematological analysis (iron and vitamin D). Mean BMI was 19.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2 and percentage body fat, 23.5 ± 4.1%. The majority (89.4%) of dancers had a healthy weight (5th-85th percentile) using BMI-for-age growth charts. Food records showed a mean energy intake of 8097.3 ± 2155.6 kJ/day (48.9% carbohydrate, 16.9% protein, 33.8% fat, 14.0% saturated fat). Mean carbohydrate and protein intakes were 4.8 ± 1.4 and 1.6 ± 0.5 g/kg/day respectively. Over half (54.8%) of dancers consumed less than 5 g carbohydrate/kg/day, and 10 (23.8%) less than 1.2 g protein/kg/day. Over 60% consumed less than the estimated average requirement for calcium, folate, magnesium and selenium. Thirteen (28.3%) dancers had suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin (SF) < 20 μg/L). Of these, four had iron deficiency (SF < 12 μg/L, hemoglobin (Hb) ≥ 120 g/L) and one iron deficiency anemia (SF < 12 μg/L, Hb < 120 g/L). Mean serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D was 75.1 ± 18.6 nmol/L, 41 (91.1%) had concentrations above 50 nmol/L. Female adolescent ballet dancers are at risk for iron deficiency, and possibly inadequate nutrient intakes.

  14. Body Image and Quality-of-Life in Untreated Versus Brace-Treated Females With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Schwieger, Traci; Campo, Shelly; Weinstein, Stuart L.; Dolan, Lori A.; Ashida, Sato; Steuber, Keli R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design. The Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial (BrAIST) included skeletally immature high-risk patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with moderate curve sizes (20°– 40°). BrAIST was a multicenter, controlled trial using both randomized and preference treatment arms into either an observation group or a brace treatment group. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare body image and quality-of-life (QOL) in female AIS patients who were observed or treated with a brace. Summary of Background Data. Brace treatment is an effective means for controlling progressive scoliosis and preventing the need for surgery, but there is no consensus regarding the effect of brace treatment on body image or on QOL in adolescents with AIS. Methods. Data from female BrAIST patients in the randomized (n = 132) or preference (n = 187) arms and were observed (n = 120) or brace treated (n = 199) were analyzed. Patients completed the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQOL) 4.0 Generic Scales at baseline and 6 month follow-up visits up to 2 years. Items on the SAQ measured three body image constructs (self, ideal, and overall). The PedsQOL measured health, activities, feelings, social factors, and school. Results. . In general, there were no significant differences within or between study arms or treatments regarding body image or QOL through 2 years of follow-up. Poorer body image was significantly correlated with poorer QOL during the first 2 years of follow-up regardless of study arm or treatment. Patients who crossed-over to a different treatment and patients with largest Cobb angles ≥ 40 degrees had significantly poorer body image, in particular self-body image, compared with those that did not. Conclusion. This study does not support findings from previous research indicating that wearing a brace has a negative impact on or is negatively impacted by body image or

  15. Activity Spaces and Urban Adolescent Substance Use and Emotional Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.; Korpela, Kalevi

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed routine locations (activity spaces) of urban adolescents enrolled in a substance abuse treatment program to understand the relationship between their spatial lives and health outcomes such as substance use and mental health. Sixty-eight adolescents were interviewed and produced a list of 199 locations identified as most…

  16. Extracurricular activity availability and participation and substance use among American Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Moilanen, Kristin L; Markstrom, Carol A; Jones, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    School-based extracurricular activity involvement has been associated with lower levels of substance use among adolescents from various populations; however, these associations have only been slightly examined among American Indian (AI) adolescents. Building from various theoretical perspectives, it was hypothesized that AI adolescents' perceived access to and the intensity (i.e., frequency) of participation in extracurricular activities would be associated with lower substance use and less engagement in risky substance use behaviors (i.e., being drunk or high at school, riding/driving with an intoxicated driver, and selling drugs). The moderating influences of sex, age, reservation residence, and metropolitan status also were examined. Data from the 2010 Arizona Youth Survey were analyzed for 5,701 8th, 10th, and 12th grade AI adolescents (49.1% female). The expected protective effects of extracurricular participation were demonstrated, such that high levels of perceived availability and intensity of participation consistently predicted low levels of all outcomes. Some of these associations were moderated by one or more demographic factors, with unique patterns emerging for each behavior. Ultimately, the findings suggest that AI adolescents benefit from the availability of extracurricular activities and intensity of participation in them, but the degree of the effect is contingent upon other individual and contextual characteristics.

  17. Clustering patterns of physical activity, sedentary and dietary behavior among European adolescents: The HELENA study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. A better insight in the clustering of those behaviors, could help to identify groups who are at risk in developing chronic diseases. This study examines the prevalence and clustering of physical activity, sedentary and dietary patterns among European adolescents and investigates if the identified clusters could be characterized by socio-demographic factors. Methods The study comprised a total of 2084 adolescents (45.6% male), from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured using self-reported questionnaires and diet quality was assessed based on dietary recall. Based on the results of those three indices, cluster analyses were performed. To identify gender differences and associations with socio-demographic variables, chi-square tests were executed. Results Five stable and meaningful clusters were found. Only 18% of the adolescents showed healthy and 21% unhealthy scores on all three included indices. Males were highly presented in the cluster with high levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and low quality diets. The clusters with low levels of MVPA and high quality diets comprised more female adolescents. Adolescents with low educated parents had diets of lower quality and spent more time in sedentary activities. In addition, the clusters with high levels of MVPA comprised more adolescents of the younger age category. Conclusion In order to develop effective primary prevention strategies, it would be important to consider multiple health indices when identifying high risk groups. PMID:21586158

  18. Increased depressive behaviour in females and heightened corticosterone release in males to swim stress after adolescent social stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Iva Z; Wilton, Aleena; Styles, Amy; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2008-06-26

    We previously reported that males undergoing chronic social stress (SS) (daily 1h isolation and new cage partner on days 30-45 of age) in adolescence habituated (decreased corticosterone release) to the homotypic stressor, but females did not. Here, we report that adolescent males exposed to chronic social stress had potentiated corticosterone release to a heterotypic stressor (15 min of swim stress) compared to acutely stressed and control males. The three groups of males did not differ in depressive-like behaviour (time spent immobile) during the swim stress. Corticosterone release in socially stressed females was elevated 45 min after the swim stress compared to acutely stressed and control females, and socially stressed females exhibited more depressive behaviour (longer durations of immobility and shorter durations of climbing) than the other females during the swim stress. Separate groups of rats were tested as adults several weeks after the social stress, and there were no group differences in corticosterone release after the swim stress. The only group difference in behaviour among the adults was more time spent climbing in socially stressed males than in controls. Thus, there are sex-specific effects of social stress in adolescence on endocrine responses and depressive behaviour to a heterotypic stressor, but, unlike for anxiety, substantial recovery is evident in adulthood in the absence of intervening stress exposures.

  19. The tracking of active travel and its relationship with body composition in UK adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, Catherine L.; Leary, Sam D.; Page, Angie S.; Cooper, Ashley R

    2015-01-01

    Background To examine the tracking of active travel through adolescence, and its association with body mass index (BMI) and fat mass at age 17 in a UK cohort. Methods We analysed data collected from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The analyses include all participants with self-reported travel mode to school at ages 12, 14 and 16 years, and measured height, weight and body composition at age 17 (n=2,026). Tracking coefficients were calculated for individual travel behaviours (including walking and cycling) through adolescence using Generalised Estimating Equations. Linear regression analyses examined associations between travel pattern (consistently passive, consistently active, active at two time points or active at one time point), BMI, and DXA-measured fat mass (expressed as internally derived standard deviation scores) at 17 years. Analyses were adjusted for height (where appropriate), sex, age, parental social class, and maternal education with interaction terms to assess sex differences. Results There was substantial tracking in active travel through adolescence, with 38.5% of males and 32.3% of females consistently walking or cycling to school. In males, a consistently or predominantly active travel pattern was associated with a lower BMI SD score at age 17 (consistently active: adjusted β=−0.23; 95% CI −0.40, −0.06; active at two time points: adjusted β−0.30; 95% CI −0.50, −0.10) compared to those with a consistently passive pattern. No associations were seen in females. Conclusions Maintenance of active travel behaviours throughout adolescence may help to protect against the development of excess BMI in males. In addition to encouraging the adoption of active travel to school, public health messages should aim to prevent drop out from active travel to promote good health in youth. PMID:26740922

  20. A flowchart for managing sexually transmitted infections among Nigerian adolescent females.

    PubMed Central

    Obunge, O. K.; Brabin, L.; Dollimore, N.; Kemp, J.; Ikokwu-Wonodi, C.; Babatunde, S.; White, S.; Briggs, N. D.; Hart, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To devise a flowchart suitable for assessing risk of trichomoniasis, chlamydia and gonorrhoea in an adolescent population, not all of whom will be sexually experienced or currently in a relationship. METHODS: The data used to derive the flowchart were generated from cross-sectional microbiological surveys of girls aged 14-19 years in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The flowchart screened on the basis of: (i) sexual experience; (ii) recent sexual activity; (iii) a positive urine leukocyte esterase (LE) test; and (iv) among LE negatives, a history of malodorous/pruritic discharge. FINDINGS: Using this flowchart, we found that 26.2% of all adolescents screened would receive treatment for cervicitis and vaginitis. Chlamydial, gonococcal, and trichomonal infections were correctly diagnosed in 37.5%, 66.7%, and 50% of the cases, respectively. CONCLUSION: Although the flowchart is more suitable for an adolescent population than the vaginal discharge algorithm used in syndromic management protocols, it still lacks precision and needs adapting to local settings. PMID:11357208

  1. Expanding our lens: female pathways to antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Javdani, Shabnam; Sadeh, Naomi; Verona, Edelyn

    2011-12-01

    Women and girls' engagement in antisocial behavior represents a psychological issue of great concern given the radiating impact that women's antisociality can have on individuals, families, and communities. Despite its importance and relevance for psychological science, this topic has received limited attention to date and no systematic review of risk factors exists. The present paper aims to systematically review the empirical literature informing risk factors relevant to women's antisocial behavior, with a focus on adolescence and adulthood. Primary aims are to 1) review empirical literatures on risk factors for female antisocial behavior across multiple levels of influence (e.g., person-level characteristics, risky family factors, and gender-salient contexts) and fields of study (e.g., psychology, sociology); 2) evaluate the relevance of each factor for female antisocial behavior; and 3) incorporate an analysis of how gender at both the individual and ecological levels shapes pathways to antisocial behavior in women and girls. We conclude that women's antisocial behavior is best-understood as being influenced by person-level or individual vulnerabilities, risky family factors, and exposure to gender-salient interpersonal contexts, and underscore the importance of examining women's antisocial behavior through an expanded lens that views gender as an individual level attribute as well as a social category that organizes the social context in ways that may promote engagement in antisocial behavior. Based on the present systematic review, an integrative pathway model is proposed toward the goal of synthesizing current knowledge and generating testable hypotheses for future research.

  2. Bilateral Single Ectopic Ureters Draining Into a Grossly Dilated Vagina in an Adolescent Female

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Soumendra Nath; Kamal, Mir Reza; Mukherjee, Satyadip; Das, Ranjit Kumar; Karmakar, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    A 16-year-old female presented with dribbling of urine along with voluntary voiding since birth. Renal imaging revealed hydroureteronephrosis on the right side; the uterus and ovary were normal. A radionuclide scan showed a left nonfunctional kidney. On cystovaginoscopy, the urethra was shown to be normal and the urinary bladder was tubular with small capacity and an absent trigone. Although the vagina was capacious, no ureteric orifices were found. Computed tomography corroborated the diagnosis of bilateral, single ectopic ureters draining into a grossly dilated vagina. This case is unique because it is a bilateral single-system ureteral ectopia in a completely differentiated female genital tract that presented late in adolescence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second such ureteral abnormality reported in the literature so far. The patient underwent ileocystoplasty with right ureteric reimplantation and nephroureterectomy for the left nonfunctional kidney, which histopathology showed to be tuberculosis. The patient is continent with cystometric capacity of more than 300 mL. PMID:23878693

  3. Hurricane Katrina's impact on the mental health of adolescent female offenders.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Angela A; Morse, David T; Baird-Thomas, Connie

    2009-07-01

    Exposure to multiple traumatic events and high rates of mental health problems are common among juvenile offenders. This study draws on Conservation of Resources (COR) stress theory to examine the impact of a specific trauma, Hurricane Katrina, relative to other adverse life events, on the mental health of female adolescent offenders in Mississippi. Teenage girls (N=258, 69% African American) were recruited from four juvenile detention centers and the state training school. Participants were interviewed about the occurrence and timing of adverse life events and hurricane-related experiences and completed a self-administered mental health assessment. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to identify predictors of anxiety and depression. Pre-hurricane family stressors, pre-hurricane traumatic events, hurricane-related property damage, and receipt of hurricane-related financial assistance significantly predicted symptoms of anxiety and depression. Findings support COR theory. Family stressors had the greatest influence on symptoms of anxiety and depression, highlighting the need for family based services that address the multiple, inter-related problems and challenges in the lives of female juvenile offenders.

  4. [Social environment and risky eating behaviors: an exploratory study in adolescent females in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Bojorquez, Ietza; Saucedo-Molina, Teresita de Jesús; Juárez-García, Francisco; Unikel-Santoncini, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to explore: (1) the association between the social environment at the city and family levels and risky eating behaviors in adolescent females and (2) the interaction between the social and cultural environment and body mass index (BMI). The data were obtained from a representative survey of female high school students in Mexico State, Mexico (15-19 years). A questionnaire was applied on risky eating behaviors and socio-demographic data. The municipal social and cultural environment was evaluated using the municipal marginalization index. Data analysis used multivariate regression. Prevalence of risky eating behaviors was 4.23%. BMI and family socioeconomic status were directly associated with risky eating behaviors. The municipal marginalization index was not associated with risky eating behaviors. Possible explanations for the latter are that the relevant components of the social and cultural environment were not measured, or that the municipal level does not exert a contextual effect on risky eating behaviors. The effect of BMI on risky eating behaviors was greater in more marginalized municipalities. PMID:23370022

  5. Relationship between Violent Behavior and Repeated Weight-Loss Dieting among Female Adolescents in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Nao; Nishida, Atsushi; Shimodera, Shinji; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Oshima, Norihito; Watanabe, Norio; Akechi, Tatsuo; Furukawa, Toshiaki A.; Okazaki, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether interpersonal violence perpetration and violence toward objects are associated with body mass index (BMI), body weight perception (BWP), and repeated weight-loss dieting in female adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional survey using a self-report questionnaire was performed evaluating interpersonal violence perpetration, violence toward objects, the number of diets, BMI, BWP, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), victimization, substance use, and other psychosocial variables among 9,112 Japanese females aged between 12–18 years. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze the contribution of BMI, BWP, and weight-control behavior to the incidence of violent behavior, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Results The number of diets was associated with both interpersonal violence perpetration (OR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.08–1.29, p<0.001) and violence toward objects (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.24–1.45, p<0.001), after adjusting for age, BMI, BWP, the GHQ-12 total score, victimization, and substance use. In terms of BMI and BWP, the “overweight” BWP was associated with violence toward objects (OR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.07–1.54, p<0.05). On the other hand, the “Underweight” and “Slightly underweight” BMI were related to violence toward objects [(OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.01–1.62, p<0.05) and (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.07–1.51, p<0.05), respectively]. The “Underweight” BWP was related to interpersonal violence perpetration (OR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.38–3.84, p<0.05). Conclusions The cumulative number of diets is associated with violent behavior in female adolescents. In addition, underweight BMI and extreme BWP are associated with violent behavior. PMID:25210854

  6. Various aspects of physical activity among Lithuanian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bergier, Barbara; Bergier, Józef; Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the physical activity of 17-year-old adolescents attending selected schools in Lithuania were conducted in 2010 with the use of the IPAQ. The adolescents differed with respect to the scope of leisure time possessed. Considerably more boys than girls indicated that they had a sufficient amount of leisure time, but to the contrary, considerably more girls than boys declared that they possessed an insufficient amount of free time. The majority of schoolchildren were characterized by a high level of physical activity, with the larger group being boys. Low activity was not observed among boys, and in only a few girls. Moderate effort constituted the highest percentage of physical activity among adolescents, whereas an intensive activity - the lowest. Considering the total area of activity, there dominated occupational activity (education), while its smallest percentage was devoted to sports and recreation. Boys evaluated their physical efficacy in more negative terms than girls. Adolescents with a higher self-reported efficacy were characterized by higher physical activity. The majority of adolescents had a normal BMI. Girls and boys had different preferences concerning motor activities. Girls mainly used walks, bicycle riding, and running, while boys also chose bicycle riding and running, and played sports games. The adolescents also had new expectations - girls reported mainly horse riding, aerobics and dancing, whereas boys mentioned football and bodybuilding fitness exercises.

  7. Cardiorespiratory fitness, weight status and objectively measured sedentary behaviour and physical activity in rural and urban Portuguese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J; Mota, Jorge; Padez, Cristina; Ronque, Enio; Cumming, Sean P; Malina, Robert M

    2012-06-01

    Relationships among weight status (body mass index [BMI]), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objective measures of sedentary behaviour and physical activity (PA) were considered in a cross-sectional sample of Portuguese adolescents. The sample included 362 youth aged 13-16 years (165 males, 197 females) from urban and rural regions of the Portuguese midlands. CRF was assessed with the 20-m shuttle-run test. An uniaxial accelerometer was used to obtain five consecutive days of activity behaviours including time being sedentary. Pearson correlations and logistic regression analysis were used to examine relationships among variables. Rural adolescents were less active than their urban peers over the weekend. Both rural and urban youth with higher levels of CRF had a lower relative risk of being overweight/obese. The observations indicate important associations between weight status and CRF in both rural and urban Portuguese adolescents. In addition, place of residence has an important impact on weight status of this sample of adolescents.

  8. A Dyadic Approach to Understanding the Relationship of Maternal Knowledge of Youths' Activities to Youths' Problem Behavior among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Most studies that explore parental knowledge of youths' activities utilize parents' and youths' reports separately. Using a sample of 938 rural early adolescents (53% female; 84% White), we explore congruence between mothers' and youths' perceptions of maternal knowledge and its association with youth problem behaviors (delinquency, substance use,…

  9. Extra-curricular physical activity and socioeconomic status in Italian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Giuseppe La; Masala, Daniele; De Vito, Elisabetta; Langiano, Elisa; Capelli, Giovanni; Ricciardi, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Background The relationship between physical activity and health status has been thoroughly investigated in several studies, while the relation between physical activity and socio-economic status (SES) is less investigated. The aim of this study was to measure the extra-curricular physical activity of adolescents related to the socio-economic status (SES) of their families. Methods The survey was carried out by submitting an anonymous questionnaire to junior high school students in the following Regions: Lazio, Abruzzo, Molise, Campania, Puglia, during the school year 2002–2003. Extra-curriculum physical activity was evaluated considering whether or not present and hours of activity weekly conducted. 2411 students agreed to participate in the study. Results Participants were 1121 males (46.5%) and 1290 females (53.5%), aged between 11 and 17 years (median age: 12 years). 71.1% of the students reported to practice extra-curricular physical activity. Parents' educational levels and work activities play an important role in predicting students' physical activity, with the more remunerative activities and higher educational levels being more predictive. Conclusion The results confirm the relationship between adolescents' physical activity and their families' SES. In particular, a positive relationship between participation in extra-curricular physical activity and their families high SES was found. These data will be useful for school administrators and for politicians in order to reduce the gap between adolescents from the least and most disadvantaged families. PMID:16448561

  10. Prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection in sexually active adolescents from Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Márcia Sacramento Cunha; Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando Borges da; Gomes, Igor Logetto Caetité; Santana, Iuri Usêda; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents is increasing worldwide. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in young women, and undetected disease is highly associated with long-term complications in women. Our goal was to determine the prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a sexually active population of female adolescents from Salvador, Brazil, and to describe their socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics. 100 sexually active adolescents (10-19 years) were included in this study, between 2008 and 2010. Endocervical samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Inhouse polymerase chain reaction of cervical specimens was used for Chlamydia trachomatis detection. The overall prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection was 31% (95% CI 22-40). There were no statistically significant differences in the age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, and frequency of condom use between Chlamydia infected and uninfected adolescents. The prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection among adolescents from Salvador was the highest in Brazil up to the present date. These results demonstrate an urgent need for continued and comprehensive prevention strategies along with proper screening for Chlamydia in high-risk populations in order to decrease the rates of infection.

  11. Urban adolescent females' views on the implant and contraceptive decision-making: a double paradox.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, H; Miller, S; Martinez, E; Loeb, L; Darney, P

    1997-01-01

    Focus groups and in-depth interviews were used to explore the decline in popularity of the contraceptive implant in a clinic-based sample of 41 ethnically diverse, urban, sexually active adolescents. While these teenagers' socioeconomic status and patterns of inconsistent contraceptive use made them potentially ideal implant recipients, they were unlikely to select this method. Negative media reports about the method were less influential than social conditions such as peer perspectives and gender relations. Oral networks that propagated misinformation went unchallenged because of the silence of satisfied users. Personal factors such as future orientation, autonomous decision-making and value of control also influenced contraceptive decision-making.

  12. Withdrawal from THC during adolescence: sex differences in locomotor activity and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Harte-Hargrove, Lauren C; Dow-Edwards, Diana L

    2012-05-16

    Research suggests that the use and abuse of marijuana can be especially harmful if it occurs during adolescence, a period of vast developmental changes throughout the brain. Due to the localization of cannabinoid receptors within the limbic system and the established effects of cannabinoids on emotional states and anxiety levels of rats and humans, we studied the sex- and dose-related effects of Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the main psychoactive component in marijuana) on behavior and anxiety during spontaneous withdrawal. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were administered 2, 7.5 or 15 mg/kg THC or vehicle from postnatal day 35-41 (approximating mid-adolescence in humans). Locomotor activity and anxiety-related behaviors were measured during drug administration and abstinence. THC caused significant dose-dependent locomotor depression during drug administration. Locomotor depression initially abated upon drug cessation, but re-emerged by the end of the abstinence period and was greater in female than male rats. We found sensitization to the locomotor-depressing effects of THC in middle- and high-dose rats and the subsequent development of tolerance in high-dose rats. The high dose of THC increased anxiety-like behaviors while the low dose decreased anxiety-like behaviors during drug administration, with females more sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of THC than males. During abstinence, females were again especially sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of THC. This study demonstrates sexually-dimorphic effects of THC on anxiety-related behaviors and locomotor activity during and after THC administration during adolescence. This information may be useful in the development of therapeutic approaches for the treatment of marijuana withdrawal in adolescents.

  13. Adolescents' Accounts of Growth Experiences in Youth Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Jodi B.; Larson, Reed; Hansen, David

    2003-01-01

    Conducted 10 focus groups in which adolescents discussed their "growth experiences" in extracurricular and community-based activities. The 55 participants reported personal and interpersonal processes and generally described themselves as agents of their own development and change. (SLD)

  14. Pregnancy incidence and associated factors among HIV-infected female adolescents in HIV care in urban Côte d'Ivoire, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Arikawa, Shino; Eboua, Tanoh; Kouakou, Kouadio; N'Gbeche, Marie-Sylvie; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Moh, Corinne; Amoussou-Bouah, Ursula Belinda; Coffie, Patrick Ahuatchi; Becquet, Renaud; Leroy, Valériane

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adolescents living with HIV are sexually active and engaged in risky sexual behaviors. Knowledge on how and to what extent adolescents in HIV care are affected by pregnancy is needed so as to adopt better preventive services. We estimated 4-year pregnancy incidence and correlates among HIV-infected female adolescents in HIV care in urban Côte d'Ivoire. Design We conducted retrospective analysis of a pediatric prospective cohort of the International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) West Africa Collaboration. Female patients with confirmed HIV infection aged 10–19 years, having at least one clinical visit in 2009 to health facilities participating in the pediatric IeDEA West African cohort in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, were included. Data on incident pregnancies were obtained through medical records and interviews with health professionals. Pregnancy incidence rate was estimated per 100 person-years (PY). Poisson regression models were used to identify factors associated with the first pregnancy and provided incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results In 2009, 266 female adolescents were included, with a median age of 12.8 years (interquartile range, IQR: 10.0–15.0), CD4 cell counts of 506 cells/mm3 (IQR: 302–737), and 80% on antiretroviral treatment. At the 48th month, 17 new pregnancies were reported after 938 PY of follow-up: 13 girls had one pregnancy while 2 had two pregnancies. Overall incidence rate of pregnancy was 1.8/100 PY (95% CI: 1.1–2.9). High incidence was observed among those aged 15–19 years: 3.6/100 PY (95% CI: 2.2–5.9). Role of maternal death in the risk of pregnancy was at the limit of statistical significance (adjusted IRR: 3.1, 95% CI: 0.9–11.0; ref. non-maternal orphans). Conclusions Incidence of pregnancy among HIV-infected adolescents in care aged 15–19 years reached a level observed in adult cohorts in Sub-Saharan Africa. Health personnel in pediatric care have to

  15. Reduced Presynaptic Dopamine Activity in Adolescent Dorsal Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Marguerite; Bondi, Corina; Torres, Gonzalo; Moghaddam, Bita

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence coincides with symptomatic onset of several psychiatric illnesses including schizophrenia and addiction. Excess limbic dopamine activity has been implicated in these vulnerabilities. We combined molecular and dynamic indices of dopamine neurotransmission to assess dopamine function in adolescent rats in two functionally distinct striatal subregions: nucleus accumbens (NAc) and dorsal striatum (DS). In adolescents, we find an overall reduction in dopamine availability selective to the DS. Dopamine release in the DS, but not in the NAc, was less responsive to amphetamine in adolescents compared to adults. The dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor, nomifensine, similarly inhibited basal and amphetamine-induced dopamine release in either regions of both the age groups, suggesting that the reduced effectiveness of amphetamine is not due to differences in DAT function. Furthermore, DAT and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 expressions were similar in the DS and NAc of adolescent rats. In contrast, expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was reduced in the DS, but not in the NAc, of adolescents compared to adults. Behaviorally, adolescents were less sensitive to amphetamine but more sensitive to a TH inhibitor. These data indicate that, in contrast to the general notion that dopamine is hyperactive in adolescents, there is diminished presynaptic dopamine activity in adolescents that is selective to the DS and may result from attenuated TH activity. Given recent reports of altered dopamine activity in associative/dorsal striatum of individuals at a clinically high risk of psychosis, our data further support the idea that dorsal, as opposed to ventral, regions of the striatum are a locus of vulnerability for psychosis. PMID:23358239

  16. Reduced presynaptic dopamine activity in adolescent dorsal striatum.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Marguerite; Bondi, Corina; Torres, Gonzalo; Moghaddam, Bita

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence coincides with symptomatic onset of several psychiatric illnesses including schizophrenia and addiction. Excess limbic dopamine activity has been implicated in these vulnerabilities. We combined molecular and dynamic indices of dopamine neurotransmission to assess dopamine function in adolescent rats in two functionally distinct striatal subregions: nucleus accumbens (NAc) and dorsal striatum (DS). In adolescents, we find an overall reduction in dopamine availability selective to the DS. Dopamine release in the DS, but not in the NAc, was less responsive to amphetamine in adolescents compared to adults. The dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor, nomifensine, similarly inhibited basal and amphetamine-induced dopamine release in either regions of both the age groups, suggesting that the reduced effectiveness of amphetamine is not due to differences in DAT function. Furthermore, DAT and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 expressions were similar in the DS and NAc of adolescent rats. In contrast, expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was reduced in the DS, but not in the NAc, of adolescents compared to adults. Behaviorally, adolescents were less sensitive to amphetamine but more sensitive to a TH inhibitor. These data indicate that, in contrast to the general notion that dopamine is hyperactive in adolescents, there is diminished presynaptic dopamine activity in adolescents that is selective to the DS and may result from attenuated TH activity. Given recent reports of altered dopamine activity in associative/dorsal striatum of individuals at a clinically high risk of psychosis, our data further support the idea that dorsal, as opposed to ventral, regions of the striatum are a locus of vulnerability for psychosis.

  17. Where can they play? Outdoor spaces and physical activity among adolescents in U.S. urbanized areas

    PubMed Central

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Casanova, Kathleen; Richardson, Andrea S.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate behavior-specific effects of several objectively-measured outdoor spaces on different types of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a large, diverse sample of U.S. adolescents. Methods Using data from Wave I (1994–95) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (U.S., n=10,359) and a linked geographic information system, we calculated percent greenspace coverage and distance to the nearest neighborhood and major parks. Using sex-stratified multivariable logistic regression, we modeled reported participation in wheel-based activities, active sports, exercise, and ≥5 MVPA bouts/week as a function of each outdoor space variable, controlling for individual- and neighborhood-level sociodemographics. Results Availability of major or neighborhood parks was associated with higher participation in active sports and, in females, wheel-based activity and reporting ≥5 MVPA bouts/week [OR (95% CI): up to 1.71 (1.29. 2.27)]. Greater greenspace coverage was associated with reporting ≥5 MVPA bouts/week in males and females [OR (95% CI): up to 1.62 (1.10, 2.39) for 10.1 to 20% versus ≤10% greenspace] and exercise participation in females [OR (95% CI): up to 1.73 (1.21, 2.49)]. Conclusions Provision of outdoor spaces may promote different types of physical activities, with potentially greater benefits in female adolescents, who have particularly low physical activity levels. PMID:20655948

  18. Impact of physical activity and cardiovascular fitness on total homocysteine concentrations in European adolescents: The HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Benser, Jasmin; Valtueña, Jara; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Breidenassel, Christina; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Ferrari, Marika; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yannis; Sjöström, Michael; Molnar, Denes; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Kafatos, Antony; Palacios, Gonzalo; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J; Stehle, Peter; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association of physical activity (PA), cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and fatness with total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in European adolescents. The present study comprised 713 European adolescents aged 14.8 ± 1.2 y (females 55.3%) from the multicenter HELENA cross-sectional study. PA was assessed through accelerometry, CVF by the 20-m shuttle run test, and body fat by skinfold thicknesses with the Slaughter equation. Plasma folate, cobalamin, and tHcy concentrations were measured. To examine the association of tHcy with PA, CVF, and fatness after controlling for a set of confounders including age, maturity, folate, cobalamin, creatinine, smoking, supplement use, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 genotype (CC 47%, CT 43%, TT 10%), bivariate correlations followed by multiple regression models were performed. In the bivariate correlation analysis, tHcy concentrations were slightly negatively correlated (p<0.05) with CVF in females (measured both by stages: r=-0.118 and by VO2max: r=-0.102) and positively with body mass index (r=0.100). However, daily time spent with moderate and vigorous PA showed a weak positive association with tHcy in females (p<0.05). tHcy concentrations showed a tendency to decrease with increasing CVF and increase with increasing BMI in female European adolescents. However, tHcy concentrations were positively associated with moderate and vigorous PA in female European adolescents.

  19. [Tobacco consumption and its relationship to the level of regular physical activity and physical fitness in adolescents from the region of Murcia (Spain)].

    PubMed

    García-Cantó, Eliseo; Rodríguez García, Pedro Luis; Pérez-Soto, Juan José; López Villalba, Francisco José; Rosa-Guillamón, Andrés

    2015-12-01

    This study looks at the relationship between tobacco consumption and the physical activity and fitness levels of adolescents. In a sample of 533 adolescents, both a questionnaire to obtain information regarding tobacco consumption and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for information on physical activity were implemented; a battery of tests to assess physical fitness were also applied. Tobacco consumption was significantly higher in females (32.5%) than in males (25.7%). Levels of physical activity in both males and females were significantly associated with tobacco consumption (p<0.0005). Moreover, subjects who consumed tobacco showed lower overall averages in physical fitness tests than those who did not (4.26 vs. 5.77 in males and 4.54 vs. 6.71 in females). Tobacco consumption is therefore shown to be related to lower levels of physical activity and physical fitness in adolescents.

  20. Risk taking as a predictor of adolescent sexual activity and use of contraception.

    PubMed

    White, H R; Johnson, V

    1988-01-01

    A hypothesis of high-risk behaviors associated with adolescent sexual activity and lack of contraceptive use was tested in a longitudinal random sample of both male and female youths. The data were part of the Rutgers Health and Human Development Project. 1380 subjects were ascertained by random telephone calling were given self-report questionnaires and personality profiles including the Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, and Jackson's Personality Research Form in 1979 and 1981. Incidence of sexual activity and use of contraceptives increased with age from age 12-21. Cohort effects were apparent with use of some contraceptive methods. Of the variables indicating risk- taking, disinhibition, impulsivity and experience seeking, there were significant associations between sexual activity and disinhibition and experience seeking, for females. There were no significant associations between these variables and sexual activity in males. Contrary to the hypothesis, there were no relationships between either consistency of birth control use or reliability of the method used and behavioral indicators of risk-taking. Thus this 1st study in the field that included both males and females from the general population, as opposed to college students, found that sexually active adolescents were higher risk-takers than virgins, but no relationship between risk-taking and effectiveness of contraception was observed. PMID:12342680

  1. An animal model of female adolescent cannabinoid exposure elicits a long-lasting deficit in presynaptic long-term plasticity.

    PubMed

    Lovelace, Jonathan W; Corches, Alex; Vieira, Philip A; Hiroto, Alex S; Mackie, Ken; Korzus, Edward

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis continues to be the most accessible and popular illicit recreational drug. Whereas current data link adolescence cannabinoid exposure to increased risk for dependence on other drugs, depression, anxiety disorders and psychosis, the mechanism(s) underlying these adverse effects remains controversial. Here we show in a mouse model of female adolescent cannabinoid exposure deficient endocannabinoid (eCB)-mediated signaling and presynaptic forms of long-term depression at adult central glutamatergic synapses in the prefrontal cortex. Increasing endocannabinoid levels by blockade of monoacylglycerol lipase, the primary enzyme responsible for degrading the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), with the specific inhibitor JZL 184 ameliorates eCB-LTD deficits. The observed deficit in cortical presynaptic signaling may represent a neural maladaptation underlying network instability and abnormal cognitive functioning. Our study suggests that adolescent cannabinoid exposure may permanently impair brain functions, including the brain's intrinsic ability to appropriately adapt to external influences.

  2. An animal model of female adolescent cannabinoid exposure elicits a long-lasting deficit in presynaptic long-term plasticity.

    PubMed

    Lovelace, Jonathan W; Corches, Alex; Vieira, Philip A; Hiroto, Alex S; Mackie, Ken; Korzus, Edward

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis continues to be the most accessible and popular illicit recreational drug. Whereas current data link adolescence cannabinoid exposure to increased risk for dependence on other drugs, depression, anxiety disorders and psychosis, the mechanism(s) underlying these adverse effects remains controversial. Here we show in a mouse model of female adolescent cannabinoid exposure deficient endocannabinoid (eCB)-mediated signaling and presynaptic forms of long-term depression at adult central glutamatergic synapses in the prefrontal cortex. Increasing endocannabinoid levels by blockade of monoacylglycerol lipase, the primary enzyme responsible for degrading the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), with the specific inhibitor JZL 184 ameliorates eCB-LTD deficits. The observed deficit in cortical presynaptic signaling may represent a neural maladaptation underlying network instability and abnormal cognitive functioning. Our study suggests that adolescent cannabinoid exposure may permanently impair brain functions, including the brain's intrinsic ability to appropriately adapt to external influences. PMID:25979486

  3. The Specific Role of Childhood Abuse, Parental Bonding, and Family Functioning in Female Adolescents With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Infurna, Maria Rita; Brunner, Romuald; Holz, Birger; Parzer, Peter; Giannone, Francesca; Reichl, Corinna; Fischer, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2016-04-01

    This study examined a broad variety of adverse childhood experiences in a consecutive sample of female adolescent inpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD; n = 44) compared with a clinical control (CC; n = 47) group with mixed psychiatric diagnoses. BPD was diagnosed using a structured clinical interview; different dimensions of childhood adversity were assessed using the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Family Assessment Device. A history of childhood adversity was significantly more common in patients with BPD than in the CC group. Using a multivariate model, sexual abuse (OR = 13.8), general family functioning (OR = 8.9), and low maternal care (OR = 7.6) were specific and independent predictors of adolescent BPD. The results increase our knowledge of the specific role of different dimensions of childhood adversity in adolescent BPD. They have important implications for prevention and early intervention as they highlight the need for specific strategies for involving the family. PMID:25905734

  4. Parental Knowledge of Adolescent Activities: Links with Parental Attachment Style and Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jason D.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Lejuez, C. W.; Cassidy, Jude

    2015-01-01

    Parents’ knowledge of their adolescents’ whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents’ attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents’ alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (mean age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in two-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers’ and fathers’ insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all three reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers’ and fathers’ attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed. PMID:25730406

  5. Body composition and physical capacity of elite adolescent female tennis players.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Ewa; Sledziewska, Ewelina; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Gibson, Ann L; Wierzba, Tomasz H

    2011-01-01

    The study was performed to evaluate relationships among the major anthropological parameters: (body mass - BM, height, body mass index - BMI, lean body mass - FFM, proportion of fat mass -Fat%), physical capacity, and the tennis federations ranking position as an index of the temporal sport success. Seventeen elite female tennis players, divided into three age-matched groups (15, 16, and 17 yr) participated in this study. All the players had a national singles ranking (positions between 1st-80th) and in International Tennis Federation's Junior Circuit ranking (ITFJC; 21st to 990th position of ITF). Body composition was assessed via bioelectrical impedance. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was calculated from the distance covered in 12-min run test via Cooper's formula. Wingate test with lactate assay was used as an index of anaerobic capacity. There was a significant age-related trend for an increase in BM, height, FFT, and Fat%, associated with impressive shift of the anthropological indexes of body weight and height, assessed by the percentile chart analysis. The unexpected body growth spurt evidently observed between aged 15 and 17 is supposed to reflect a delay in somatic development, related to extensive exercise load. Body composition did not correlate to the ranking positions. All tested tennis players revealed excellent aerobic capacity associated with poor indices of anaerobic fitness. The position in the tennis federations rankings correlated to VO2max but not with maximal power or maximal work output assessed by Wingate test. In the whole group the maximal power and work output were proportional to BMI and FFM, but not to Fat%. In conclusion, in light of the contradictory reports concerning a possible link between strenuous regular exercise performed by young children and adolescent elite sportsmen our data indicate a delayed growth spurt in the elite female tennis players to occur between ages 15 and 17. The other important finding in terms of

  6. Expanding our Lens: Female Pathways to Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence and Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Javdani, Shabnam; Sadeh, Naomi; Verona, Edelyn

    2012-01-01

    Women and girls’ engagement in antisocial behavior represents a psychological issue of great concern given the radiating impact that women’s antisociality can have on individuals, families, and communities. Despite its importance and relevance for psychological science, this topic has received limited attention to date and no systematic review of risk factors exists. The present paper aims to systematically review the empirical literature informing risk factors relevant to women’s antisocial behavior, with a focus on adolescence and adulthood. Primary aims are to 1) review empirical literatures on risk factors for female antisocial behavior across multiple levels of influence (e.g., person-level characteristics, risky family factors, and gender-salient contexts) and fields of study (e.g., psychology, sociology); 2) evaluate the relevance of each factor for female antisocial behavior; and 3) incorporate an analysis of how gender at both the individual and ecological level shapes pathways to antisocial behavior in women and girls. We conclude that women’s antisocial behavior is best-understood as being influenced by person-level or individual vulnerabilities, risky family factors, and exposure to gender-salient interpersonal contexts, and underscore the importance of examining women’s antisocial behavior through an expanded lens that views gender as an individual level attribute as well as a social category that organizes the social context in ways that may promote engagement in antisocial behavior. Based on the present systematic review, an integrative pathway model is proposed toward the goal of synthesizing current knowledge and generating testable hypotheses for future research. PMID:22001339

  7. Developmental experiences during extracurricular activities and Australian adolescents' self-concept: particularly important for youth from disadvantaged schools.

    PubMed

    Blomfield, Corey J; Barber, Bonnie L

    2011-05-01

    Extracurricular activities provide adolescents with a number of positive personal and interpersonal developmental experiences. This study investigated whether developmental experiences that occurred during extracurricular activities were linked to a more positive self-concept for Australian adolescents, and whether this link was particularly salient for youth from disadvantaged schools. Adolescents (N = 1,504, 56% Female) from 26 diverse high schools across Western Australia were surveyed. The findings revealed that adolescents from low socio-economic status schools who participated in extracurricular activities had a more positive general self-worth and social self-concept than adolescents from similar socio-economic schools who did not participate in any extracurricular activities. Furthermore, the positive developmental experiences that occurred during extracurricular activities predicted a more positive general self-worth and social and academic self-concept, and this link was stronger for youth from low SES schools. These findings suggest that the developmental experiences afforded by extracurricular activities may foster positive adolescent development.

  8. Moderate amounts of fructose- or glucose-sweetened beverages do not differentially alter metabolic health in male and female adolescents123

    PubMed Central

    Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Park, Young-Min; Nyhoff, Lauryn M; Winn, Nathan C; Kanaley, Jill A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adolescents consume more sugar-sweetened beverages than do individuals in any other age group, but it is unknown how the type of sugar-sweetened beverage affects metabolic health in this population. Objective: The objective was to compare the metabolic health effects of short-term (2-wk) consumption of high-fructose (HF) and high-glucose (HG)–sweetened beverages in adolescents (15–20 y of age). Design: In a counterbalanced, single-blind fashion, 40 male and female adolescents completed two 2-wk trials that included 1) an HF trial in which they consumed 710 mL of a sugar-sweetened beverage/d (equivalent to 50 g fructose/d and 15 g glucose/d) for 2 wk and 2) an HG trial in which they consumed 710 mL of a sugar-sweetened beverage/d (equivalent to 50 g glucose/d and 15 g fructose/d) for 2 wk in addition to their normal ad libitum diet. In addition, the participants maintained similar physical activity levels during each trial. The day after each trial, insulin sensitivity and resistance [assessed via Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index] and fasting and postprandial glucose, lactate, lipid, cholesterol, insulin, C-peptide, insulin secretion, and clearance responses to HF or HG mixed meals were assessed. Results: Body weight, QUICKI (whole-body insulin sensitivity), HOMA-IR (hepatic insulin resistance), and fasting lipids, cholesterol, glucose, lactate, and insulin secretion or clearance were not different between trials. Fasting HDL- and HDL3-cholesterol concentrations were ∼10–31% greater (P < 0.05) in female adolescents than in male adolescents. Postprandial triacylglycerol, HDL-cholesterol, HDL3-cholesterol, and glucose concentrations were not different between HF and HG trials. The lactate incremental area under the curve was ∼3.7-fold greater during the HF trial (P < 0.05), whereas insulin secretion was 19% greater during the HG trial (P < 0

  9. Depression and Associated Factors among Adolescent Females in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Raheel, Hafsa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescents who suffer from depression early in life, have an increase in suicidal tendency, anxiety, conduct disorders, substance abuse, and continue to be depressed, later on in life. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescent girls in Riyadh city in order to carry out early intervention. Methods: A cross-sectional, school-based survey was conducted among 1028 adolescent girls aged 15–19 years in secondary schools of Riyadh city. Riyadh was divided into clusters and within each cluster, both public and private schools were enrolled. From the selected schools students from grade 10–12 were surveyed. Survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire including the beck depression inventory-II, and questions exploring the correlates of depression. Results: About 30% of participants were found to be depressed. Depression was more prevalent among female adolescents whose household income was <12,000 Saudi Riyal/month (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, confidence interval [CI] 0.97–6.84), did not have a good relationship with peers and family members (OR 4.63, CI 2.56–8.41), lived with single parent or alone (OR 1.77, CI 0.97–3.23), been emotionally abused (OR 3.45, CI 2.56–8.41), and those who had been subjected to physical violence, at least once (OR 3.34, CI 1.89–5.91). Conclusions: Strategies need to be developed to identify early signs and symptoms of depression among Saudi female adolescents. Training can be given to groups of students to help their peers, and also to the teachers to identify, and help students identify early signs of depression and provide them with better-coping strategies to combat progression of depression and anxiety among such adolescents. PMID:26445637

  10. The relationship between ethnic identity and Chlamydia and Gonorrhea infections among low-income detained African American adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Voisin, Dexter R; Salazar, Laura F; Crosby, Richard; Diclemente, Ralph J

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between ethnic identity and Chlamydia and Gonorrhea infections among detained African American female adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 123 African American female adolescents within eight detention facilities in Georgia. Using audio-computer assisted self-interviewing technology, data were collected on demographics, ethnic identity, laboratory-confirmed Chlamydia and Gonorrhea, and other known correlates for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as socioeconomic status, parental monitoring, and risky sexual behaviors. Rates of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea testing yielded incidence rates of 22.6% and 4.3%, respectively. Findings indicated that, controlling for STI correlates, participants who indicated high ethnic identity were 4.3 times more likely to test positive for an STI compared to those scoring low on the measure of ethnic identity.

  11. Association between dietary habits and body mass index of adolescent females in intermediate schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Muammar, M N; El-Shafie, M; Feroze, S

    2014-01-01

    Obesity among Saudi youth is a growing public health challenge. This cross-sectional study measured body mass index (BMI) and determined the eating habits and lifestyle of 107 randomly selected female adolescent students (age 12-15 years) at schools in Riyadh. The students' heights and weights were measured and a pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data on diet and lifestyle. The majority of the students' families had monthly income > 10 000 riyals (US$ 1 = 3.75 riyals). About half the students (53.3%) were within normal weight, 28.6% were underweight, 12.4% overweight and 5.7% obese. The majority of the students did not have healthy dietary or exercise habits. There were no significant differences between BMI category and dietary pattern and lifestyle. Increasing educational programmes with healthy dietary concepts to improve the dietary pattern of female adolescents is recommended.

  12. A cross-cultural perspective of parental influence on female adolescents' achievement beliefs and behaviors in sport and school domains.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Jennifer A; Weiss, Maureen R

    2010-12-01

    Little is known about parental socialization processes for youth participants from different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to examine parental influence on self-perceptions, task values, and achievement behaviors among female adolescents from two cultures using Eccles' expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983). Twelve Anglo Canadian and nine East Indian female adolescents were interviewed about perceptions of parental influence on expectancy-value constructs for sport and academic domains. Inductive and deductive content analyses were performed to identify lower and higher order themes from interview responses. Similarities and differences in perceived parental influence emerged for girls of both cultural groups and in both domains. Our findings support links among expectancy-value constructs and highlight cultural variations in parental socialization of achievement cognitions and behaviors in multiple domains. PMID:21268474

  13. Patellofemoral knee pain treatment using neuromuscular retraining of the hip musculature in an adolescent female: a case report.

    PubMed

    Frounfelter, Gregory G; Stutzriem, David E

    2011-10-01

    is unique in the lack of physical agents and taping used to improve the patient's condition. It reinforces how exercise technique can carry over to functional athletic activities. This study provides a case for the use of hip and knee mechanical retraining in the treatment of PFP in adolescent female athletes who do not exhibit abnormal foot mechanics in weight bearing. It is important that sports medicine professionals be aware of these treatment options and are able to use them to correct these deficits in order to facilitate return to training and competition as quickly and safely as possible.

  14. Patellofemoral knee pain treatment using neuromuscular retraining of the hip musculature in an adolescent female: a case report.

    PubMed

    Frounfelter, Gregory G; Stutzriem, David E

    2011-10-01

    is unique in the lack of physical agents and taping used to improve the patient's condition. It reinforces how exercise technique can carry over to functional athletic activities. This study provides a case for the use of hip and knee mechanical retraining in the treatment of PFP in adolescent female athletes who do not exhibit abnormal foot mechanics in weight bearing. It is important that sports medicine professionals be aware of these treatment options and are able to use them to correct these deficits in order to facilitate return to training and competition as quickly and safely as possible. PMID:22043475

  15. Experiences in sport, physical activity, and physical education among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kaori; Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952

  16. Experiences in sport, physical activity, and physical education among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kaori; Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed.

  17. Experiences in Sport, Physical Activity, and Physical Education Among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952

  18. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Female Reproduction and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Vitti, Maurizio; Di Emidio, Giovanna; Di Carlo, Michela; Carta, Gaspare; Antonosante, Andrea; Artini, Paolo Giovanni; Cimini, Annamaria; Tatone, Carla; Benedetti, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive functions may be altered by the exposure to a multitude of endogenous and exogenous agents, drug or environmental pollutants, which are known to affect gene transcription through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) activation. PPARs act as ligand activated transcription factors and regulate metabolic processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, inflammation, and cell proliferation and differentiation. All PPARs isotypes are expressed along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are strictly involved in reproductive functions. Since female fertility and energy metabolism are tightly interconnected, the research on female infertility points towards the exploration of potential PPARs activating/antagonizing compounds, mainly belonging to the class of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and fibrates, as useful agents for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in women with ovarian dysfunctions. In the present review, we discuss the recent evidence about PPARs expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and their involvement in female reproduction. Finally, the therapeutic potential of their manipulation through several drugs is also discussed. PMID:27559343

  19. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Female Reproduction and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Vitti, Maurizio; Di Emidio, Giovanna; Di Carlo, Michela; Carta, Gaspare; Antonosante, Andrea; Artini, Paolo Giovanni; Cimini, Annamaria; Tatone, Carla; Benedetti, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive functions may be altered by the exposure to a multitude of endogenous and exogenous agents, drug or environmental pollutants, which are known to affect gene transcription through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) activation. PPARs act as ligand activated transcription factors and regulate metabolic processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, inflammation, and cell proliferation and differentiation. All PPARs isotypes are expressed along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are strictly involved in reproductive functions. Since female fertility and energy metabolism are tightly interconnected, the research on female infertility points towards the exploration of potential PPARs activating/antagonizing compounds, mainly belonging to the class of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and fibrates, as useful agents for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in women with ovarian dysfunctions. In the present review, we discuss the recent evidence about PPARs expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and their involvement in female reproduction. Finally, the therapeutic potential of their manipulation through several drugs is also discussed.

  20. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Female Reproduction and Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Carta, Gaspare; Artini, Paolo Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive functions may be altered by the exposure to a multitude of endogenous and exogenous agents, drug or environmental pollutants, which are known to affect gene transcription through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) activation. PPARs act as ligand activated transcription factors and regulate metabolic processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, inflammation, and cell proliferation and differentiation. All PPARs isotypes are expressed along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are strictly involved in reproductive functions. Since female fertility and energy metabolism are tightly interconnected, the research on female infertility points towards the exploration of potential PPARs activating/antagonizing compounds, mainly belonging to the class of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and fibrates, as useful agents for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in women with ovarian dysfunctions. In the present review, we discuss the recent evidence about PPARs expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and their involvement in female reproduction. Finally, the therapeutic potential of their manipulation through several drugs is also discussed. PMID:27559343

  1. Effects of Phlomis umbrosa Root on Longitudinal Bone Growth Rate in Adolescent Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donghun; Kim, Young-Sik; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Guo, Hailing; Kim, Hocheol

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Phlomis umbrosa root on bone growth and growth mediators in rats. Female adolescent rats were administered P. umbrosa extract, recombinant human growth hormone or vehicle for 10 days. Tetracycline was injected intraperitoneally to produce a glowing fluorescence band on the newly formed bone on day 8, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was injected to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 8-10. To assess possible endocrine or autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, we evaluated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in response to P. umbrosa administration in either growth plate or serum. Oral administration of P. umbrosa significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate, height of hypertrophic zone and chondrocyte proliferation of the proximal tibial growth plate. P. umbrosa also increased serum IGFBP-3 levels and upregulated the expressions of IGF-1 and BMP-2 in growth plate. In conclusion, P. umbrosa increases longitudinal bone growth rate by stimulating proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocyte with the increment of circulating IGFBP-3. Regarding the immunohistochemical study, the effect of P. umbrosa may also be attributable to upregulation of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expressions in the growth plate, which can be considered as a GH dependent autocrine/paracrine pathway. PMID:27070559

  2. A possible association between sports and isolated fallopian tube torsion in children and adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Romano, Mercedes; Di Giuseppe, Jacopo; Serri, Matteo; Noviello, Carmine; Martino, Ascanio; Cobellis, Giovanni; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Isolated fallopian tube torsion (IFTT) is a rare occurrence characterized by the rotation of the fallopian tube on its own axis, without twisting the ipsilateral ovary. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult due to the lack of specific clinical symptoms and radiological signs. The etiology is to date unknown and only some pre-disposing factors have been reported. The history, clinical presentation, laboratory findings and surgical treatment of five patients aged 12-16 with IFTT were evaluated. All patients came to be examined for worsening abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting. 75% of them practiced sports involving sudden changes in body position. They all underwent blood tests, ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance and then laparoscopy for the persistence of acute symptoms. Laparoscopic salpingectomy was performed in three patients. Another two needed a conversion to open salpingectomy due to the presence of pelvic adhesions. During the follow-up period, every girl was fine. The cause of IFTT is undetermined. In this series, a close association between IFTT and sports causing rapid body movements was found. The possibility of IFTT should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain in children or adolescent females, especially if they practice sports.

  3. Predictors of delayed disclosure of rape in female adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Hehenkamp, Lieve M.; van de Putte, Elise M.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad

    2015-01-01

    Background Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape) among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years), who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR) 2.05, confidence intervals (CI) 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46), and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60) contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services. PMID:25967381

  4. Racial differences in the influence of female adolescents' body size on dating and sex.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Rizzo, John A; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Heiland, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of body size on dating and sexual experiences of white (non-Hispanic) and African American (non-Hispanic) female adolescents. Using data from Add-Health, we estimate the effects of obesity and BMI z-score on the probability of having been involved in a romantic relationship, having ever been touched in the genital area in a sexual way, and having ever engaged in sexual intercourse. We find that obese white teenage girls are less likely to have been in a romantic relationship compared to their non-obese counterparts. In addition, obese white girls are less likely to ever have had sex (intercourse) or to ever have been intimate. There are no systematic differences in relationship experiences and sexual behaviors between obese and non-obese black girls. Overall, the estimated relationships are very robust to common environmental influences at the school-level and to the inclusion of proxies for low self-esteem, attitudes toward sex and interviewer assessment of appearance and personality. Instrumental variables estimates and estimates from models with lagged weight status confirm the overall patterns. PMID:24361085

  5. Fallopian Tube Torsion as a Cause of Acute Pelvic Pain in Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Torsion of the fallopian tube, involving hydatids of Morgagni, though a rare cause of acute pelvic pain in young girls, can pose significant risks to future fertility. Tubal torsion may present as a diagnostic dilemma since the ovary itself usually appears normal on ultrasound. Thus, surgical intervention may be delayed which can lead to worsening necrosis and result in the need for resection of the affected tube. Methods. We reviewed two cases of fallopian tube torsion associated with hydatids of Morgagni in adolescent females. Results. The patients were premenarchal in both cases, aged 10 and 13 years. Both presented with acute clinical signs of ovarian torsion but ultrasound showed the ovary itself to be normal with an adjacent cystic structure. In both cases, the fallopian tube was detorsioned laparoscopically and preserved. The associated cyst was excised in one case and marsupialized in the other. Conclusions. We propose that prompt recognition and operative management of this relatively uncommon source of pelvic pain may prevent unnecessary tubal resection and improve long-term fertility in this population.

  6. Response of parathyroid hormone to anaerobic exercise in adolescent female athletes.

    PubMed

    Takada, H; Washino, K; Nagashima, M; Iwata, H

    1998-02-01

    It has been shown that moderate exercise suppresses parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, while strenuous exercise is apt to induce continuous secretion, which has a negative effect on bone mineral densities (BMD). The present study investigated a typical response of PTH to brief exercise. The study group comprised six adolescent female basketball players whose BMD were within normal limits. Maximal anaerobic power by three-step cycling was loaded on each subject. The first blood sample was drawn 30 min prior to testing test, the second was immediately following, the third was 15 min after, and the fourth was 30 min after. The proportional change in plasma volume was -11.5% immediately following (P < 0.05), +2.1% 15 min after, and +5.5% at 30 min after exercise (P < 0.05). The expected value was calculated on the assumption of no effect, except changes in plasma volume, by exercise. The measured values of PTH and calcium (Ca) immediately after exercise were lower than each of the expected values (P < 0.05 for both). At 15 min after, there was no significant difference between expected and measured values of PTH, Ca and magnesium (Mg), respectively. At 30 min after, the measured value of Ca and Mg was higher than each expected value (P < 0.05 for both). It was concluded that PTH secretion is suppressed transiently immediately after maximal anaerobic exercise and is then stimulated during the recovery time in normal BMD subjects.

  7. Time perspective and physical activity among central Appalachian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gulley, Tauna

    2013-04-01

    Time perspective is a cultural behavioral concept that reflects individuals' orientations or attitudes toward the past, present, or future. Individuals' time perspectives influence their choices regarding daily activities. Time perspective is an important consideration when teaching adolescents about the importance of being physically active. However, little is known about the relationship between time perspective and physical activity among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the time perspective of central Appalachian adolescents and explore the relationship between time perspective and physical activity. This study was guided by The theory of planned behavior (TPB). One hundred and ninety-three students completed surveys to examine time perspective and physical activity behaviors. Data were collected in one school. Results of this study can inform school nurses and high school guidance counselors about the importance of promoting a future-oriented time perspective to improve physical activity and educational outcomes.

  8. Parental and childhood overweight in sedentary and active adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pahkala, K; Heinonen, O J; Lagström, H; Hakala, P; Sillanmäki, L; Kaitosaari, T; Viikari, J; Aromaa, M; Simell, O

    2010-02-01

    We studied whether the prevalence of overweight since age 2 years differed in sedentary and active adolescents (N=346). Further, we analyzed the energy intake of sedentary and active adolescents across 12 years. BMI was assessed annually since birth, energy intake since age 13 months and parents' BMI from the time their child was 7 months old in a longitudinal atherosclerosis prevention study. Data on physical activity were collected at age 13 years (N=560). Sedentary and Active groups were formed by upper and lower physical activity tertile cut-points. Girls Sedentary at 13 years were more often overweight than Active peers already since age 2 years (P=0.048). Activity habits were not associated with energy intake. Conversely, among boys, activity habits in adolescence were not associated with childhood overweight, while the energy intake of Active boys was higher than that of Sedentary boys (P=0.008). Parental overweight was not associated with the physical activity of children; however, Sedentary girls more often had an overweight mother than Active girls (P=0.021). In conclusion, overweight during early years of life is more common among girls who are Sedentary as adolescents than in Active peers. Overweight mothers more often have Sedentary daughters than normal-weight mothers. A healthy lifestyle right from early childhood requires active support.

  9. Synaptic number changes in the medial prefrontal cortex across adolescence in male and female rats: A role for pubertal onset.

    PubMed

    Drzewiecki, Carly M; Willing, Jari; Juraska, Janice M

    2016-09-01

    Adolescence is a unique period of development, marked by maturation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a region important for executive functioning. During this time, the human PFC decreases in overall volume and thickness. Likewise in adolescent rodents, losses of neurons, dendrites, dendritic spines and neurotransmitter receptors have been documented within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), sometimes with sex and layer specificity. However, changes in the number of synapses during this time have not been examined. In the present study, we stereologically quantified the number of synaptophysin-immunoreactive boutons in the male and female rat mPFC across multiple time points from the juvenile period through adulthood (postnatal days (P) 25, 35, 45, 60 and 90). In females, there was a significant decrease in synaptophysin boutons between P35 and P45, coinciding with the onset of puberty. In males, there was no significant main effect of age on synaptophysin boutons; however, in both males and females, pubertal onset was associated with significant synaptic losses. These results suggest that puberty is a critical period for synaptic pruning within the rat mPFC, potentially contributing to maturation of adolescent executive function. Synapse 70:361-368, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27103097

  10. Prone to excitement: adolescent females with Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) show altered cortical pattern to emotional and NSS-related material.

    PubMed

    Plener, Paul L; Bubalo, Nikola; Fladung, Anne K; Ludolph, Andrea G; Lulé, Dorothée

    2012-01-01

    Emotion-regulation difficulties have been identified as one of the core components in Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), a behaviour often beginning in adolescence. This pilot study evaluated differences in emotion processing between 18 female adolescents with and without NSSI by using verbal responses and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Responses to pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System and slides with reference to NSSI were recorded both by verbal rating of valence and arousal and by fMRI. The NSSI group rated pictures with self-injurious reference as significantly more arousing than controls. For emotional pictures, the NSSI group showed a significantly stronger brain response in the amygdala, hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally. Depression explained differences between groups in the limbic area. Furthermore, the NSSI group also showed increased activity in the middle orbitofrontal cortex, and inferior and middle frontal cortex when viewing NSSI picture material. Participants with NSSI showed decreased activity in correlation to arousal in the occipital cortex and to valence in inferior frontal cortex when watching emotional pictures. The fMRI data support the notion that individuals with NSSI show an altered neural pattern for emotional and NSSI pictures. Behavioural data highlight proneness to excitement regarding NSSI topics. This fMRI study provides evidence for emotion-regulation deficits in the developing brain of adolescents with NSSI.

  11. Young Urban African American Adolescents' Experience of Discretionary Time Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnert, Amy M.; Richards, Maryse H.; Kolmodin, Karen E.; Lakin, Brittany L.

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the daily discretionary time experiences of 246 (107 boys, 139 girls) fifth through eighth grade urban African American adolescents using the Experience Sampling Method. Relations between the types of activities (i.e., active structured, active unstructured, passive unstructured) engaged in during discretionary…

  12. Early Risk, Attention, and Brain Activation in Adolescents Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, Dennis P.; Bendersky, Margaret; Dunn, Stanley M.; DeMarco, J. Kevin; Hegyi, Thomas; Hiatt, Mark; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The relations among early cumulative medical risk, cumulative environmental risk, attentional control, and brain activation were assessed in 15-16-year-old adolescents who were born preterm. Functional magnetic resonance imaging found frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex activation during an attention task with greater activation of the left…

  13. Perceived and Police Reported Neighborhood Crime: Linkages to Adolescent Activity Behaviors and Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Melanie; Choo, Tse; Larson, Nicole; Van Riper, David; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Inadequate physical activity and obesity during adolescence are areas of public health concern. Questions exist about the role of neighborhoods in the etiology of these problems. This research addressed the relationships of perceived and objective reports of neighborhood crime to adolescent physical activity, screen media use, and BMI. Methods Socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (N=2,455, 53.4% female) from 20 urban, public middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota responded to a classroom survey in the EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) study. Body mass index (BMI) was measured by research staff. Participants’ mean age was 14.6 (SD=2.0); 82.7% represented racial/ethnic groups other than non-Hispanic white. Linear regressions examined associations between crime perceived by adolescents and crime reported to police and the outcomes of interest (BMI z-scores, physical activity, and screen time). Models were stratified by gender and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school. Results BMI was positively associated with perceived crime among girls and boys and with reported crime in girls. For girls, there was an association between higher perceived crime and increased screen time; for boys, between higher reported property crime and reduced physical activity. Perceived crime was associated with reported crime, both property and personal, in both genders. Conclusions Few prior studies of adolescents have studied the association between both perceived and reported crime and BMI. Community-based programs for youth should consider addressing adolescents’ safety concerns along with other perceived barriers to physical activity. Interventions targeting actual crime rates are also important. PMID:26206444

  14. Dietary habits and physical activity levels in Jordanian adolescents attending private versus public schools.

    PubMed

    Tayyem, R F; Al-Hazzaa, H M; Abu-Mweis, S S; Bawadi, H A; Hammad, S S; Musaiger, A O

    2014-07-08

    The present study examined differences in dietary habits and physical activity levels between students attending private and public high schools in Jordan. A total of 386 secondary-school males and 349 females aged 14-18 years were randomly recruited using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling technique. Dietary habits and physical activity level were self-reported in a validated questionnaire. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among adolescents in private (26.0%) than in public schools (16.7%). The frequency of breakfast intake was significantly higher among adolescents in private schools, whereas French fries and sweets intake was significantly higher in public schools. Television viewing showed a significant interaction with school type by sex. A higher rate of inactivity was found among students attending private schools. Despite a slightly better overall dietary profile for students in private schools, they had a higher rate of overweight and obesity compared with those in public schools.

  15. Adolescent perceptions of alcohol risk: variation by sex, race, student activity levels and parental communication.

    PubMed

    Denham, Bryan E

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on data gathered from adolescents (N = 18,991) in the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), this study examined the effects of sex and race, as well as measures of student activity levels and frequency of recognition from parents, on perceptions of the risks associated with binge drinking. Overall, female, Black, Asian, and Hispanic adolescents, as well as individuals who indicated belonging to more than one race, perceived higher levels of risk. Male, White, and Native American/Alaskan/Pacific Islander respondents perceived lower risk levels. In addition, those who participated the most in school and community activities, as well as those who received more frequent recognition from parents, estimated higher levels of risk associated with binge drinking.

  16. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections in At-Risk Adolescent Females at a Comprehensive, Stand-Alone Adolescent Health Center in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Yavorsky, Risa L.; Hollman, Dominic; Steever, John; Soghomonian, Christine; Diaz, Angela; Strickler, Howard; Schlecht, Nicolas; Burk, Robert D.; Ochner, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common among adolescents, and multiple STIs over one’s lifetime can increase health risks. Few studies have assessed lifetime STI prevalence. This study evaluates minority, underserved adolescents’ self-reported lifetime STI history and objective STI rates. Methods Lifetime STI rates of female patients at an urban adolescent health center were obtained from self-administered questionnaires. Additionally, STI test results were retrieved from electronic medical records. Results Patients reported a high lifetime prevalence of STIs. By comparing self-report and objective data, underreporting was identified for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and herpes. Conclusions STI rates in at-risk adolescent females are higher than in the general population and remain elevated over time. Lifetime STI reports could expand our understanding of sexual health and should be further studied. Underreporting, which may increase health risks and hinder health care delivery, requires further investigation. Improvements in STI screening and prevention targeting at-risk populations are warranted. PMID:24807980

  17. Sex Trafficking Related Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes among Adolescent Female Students in Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Sex trafficking has been a long-standing concern in Nepal. Very little has been achieved, however, in terms of actual reduction in the number of victims despite numerous anti-sex trafficking programs. This situation may be attributable to a lack of empirical evidence upon which to formulate anti-sexual trafficking interventions. This study aimed to assess sex trafficking-related knowledge, awareness and attitudes, and factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns among adolescent female students in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between August–September 2013 among 292 adolescent female students (>10 years old) using systematic random sampling from three high schools in Sindhupalchowk district, Nepal. As an initial step, descriptive analyses were employed to characterize the data and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and related attitudes. Results Seventy-six percent of sampled students reported that they were aware of sex trafficking and 94.6% indicated media (i.e., radio or television) as the primary sources of their knowledge. Fifty-one percent mentioned relatives/friends as mediators of sex trafficking, 60.4% reported promise for better jobs as the primary attraction behind sex trafficking, and 48.6% mentioned adolescent females as the most vulnerable group for sex trafficking. Over half (56.8%) of the respondents had positive attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns. Age (OR = 3.38, 95% CI:2.51–4.55), parents’ occupation (OR = 3.89, 95% CI:1.58–9.58), and having a radio/TV at home (OR = 6.67, 95% CI:3.99–9.54) were significantly associated with awareness, whereas being younger (OR = 0.67, 95% CI:0.55–0.79) and having joint-family (OR = 2.67, 95% CI:1.49–4.80) were significantly associated with

  18. The Developmental Pathway From Pubertal Timing to Delinquency and Sexual Activity From Early to Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Negriff, Sonya; Elizabeth, J. Susman; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2013-01-01

    There is strong evidence that early pubertal timing is associated with adolescent problem behaviors. However, there has been limited investigation of the mechanisms or developmental relationships. The present study examined longitudinal models incorporating pubertal timing, delinquency, and sexual activity in a sample of 454 adolescents (9–13 years old at enrollment; 47% females). Participants were seen for three assessments approximately 1 year apart. Characteristics of friendship networks (older friends, male friends, older male friends) were examined as mediators. Structural equation modeling was used to test these associations as well as temporal relationships between sexual activity and delinquency. Results showed that early pubertal timing at Time 1 was related to more sexual activity at Time 2, which was related to higher delinquency at Time 3, a trend mediation effect. None of the friendship variables mediated these associations. Gender or maltreatment status did not moderate the meditational pathways. The results also supported the temporal sequence of sexual activity preceding increases in delinquency. These findings reveal that early maturing adolescents may actively seek out opportunities to engage in sexual activity which appears to be risk for subsequent delinquency. PMID:21191640

  19. The developmental pathway from pubertal timing to delinquency and sexual activity from early to late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Negriff, Sonya; Susman, Elizabeth J; Trickett, Penelope K

    2011-10-01

    There is strong evidence that early pubertal timing is associated with adolescent problem behaviors. However, there has been limited investigation of the mechanisms or developmental relationships. The present study examined longitudinal models incorporating pubertal timing, delinquency, and sexual activity in a sample of 454 adolescents (9-13 years old at enrollment; 47% females). Participants were seen for three assessments approximately 1 year apart. Characteristics of friendship networks (older friends, male friends, older male friends) were examined as mediators. Structural equation modeling was used to test these associations as well as temporal relationships between sexual activity and delinquency. Results showed that early pubertal timing at Time 1 was related to more sexual activity at Time 2, which was related to higher delinquency at Time 3, a trend mediation effect. None of the friendship variables mediated these associations. Gender or maltreatment status did not moderate the meditational pathways. The results also supported the temporal sequence of sexual activity preceding increases in delinquency. These findings reveal that early maturing adolescents may actively seek out opportunities to engage in sexual activity which appears to be risk for subsequent delinquency. PMID:21191640

  20. Prevalence of physical activity through the practice of sports among adolescents from Portuguese speaking countries.

    PubMed

    Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo; Martins, Catarina; Ronque, Enio Ricardo Vaz; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel João; Silva, Analiza Mônica; Sardinha, Luis Bettencourt; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of physical activity through the practice of sports in adolescents from schools in two Brazilian cities and a Portuguese school, and its association with independent variables, such as gender and age. A cross-sectional study was conducted of schoolchildren from two cities in Brazil and one in Portugal. The total study sample was 3694 subjects (1622 males and 1872 females). Physical activity levels were assessed using Baecke's questionnaire. Body weight was measured on electronic scales and stature was measured with a portable wooden stadiometer. Numerical variables were expressed as mean, categorical variables were expressed as percentages and the chi-square test analyzed associations. The prevalence of no sport was high (39.7%), being higher in the Portuguese school than in the Brazilian schools (p < 0.001). Irrespective of being an adolescent in a Brazilian or Portuguese school, boys showed higher engagement in sports practice than girls (p < 0.001). In both, differences were identified between adolescents aged 13 to 15 (P = 0.001) and 16 to 17 (P = 0.001). The prevalence of physical inactivity among schoolchildren from two cities in Brazil and a school in Portugal was high, with the girls practicing less sport than the boys and with this imbalance likely to be higher in adolescents.

  1. Violence exposure and health related risk among African American adolescent female detainees: A strategy for reducing recidivism

    PubMed Central

    Woodson, Kamilah M.; Hives, Courtney; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile crime and violent victimization continue to be significant social problems (Fitzpatrick, Piko, Wright, & LaGory, 2005); in that, adolescents, females in particular, are likely to participate in health related risk behaviors as result of having been victimized or exposed to a violent environment. Specifically, abuse, neglect, sexual molestation, poverty, and witnessing violence are well known risk factors for the development of trauma-related psychopathology and poor outcomes relative to delinquency, drug and alcohol abuse, and HIV risk behaviors (Steiner, Garcia, & Matthews, 1997). HIV infection is a common public health concern disproportionally affecting adolescent African American female detainees. This unique population has a serious history of violence exposure, which subsequently tends to lead to engaging in risky sexual behaviors, mental health problems, and abusing substances. Also, as a result of little to no intervention, this population is recidivating at an alarming rate, a problem that may further exacerbate the expression of health-related risk behaviors among African American adolescent female detainees. The authors briefly describe a pilot program to be implemented in the juvenile justice system that is based on the Model of Accumulated Risk (Garbarino, 1996), Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model (1994), and the Positive Youth Justice Model (Butts, Bazemore, & Meroe, 2009). The program proposes to reduce risky sexual behaviors, teach alternatives to abusing substances, treat mental health concerns, and reduce the rate of recidivism through “positive youth development”, PYD (Butts, Bazemore, & Meroe, 2009). Tying elements of wraparound services and reeducation together, this program addresses salient concerns that may have an impact on an adolescent detainees’ success following their release from prison in a holistic manner. PMID:21373205

  2. Active lifestyle in childhood and adolescence prevents obesity development in young adulthood: Iowa Bone Development Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soyang; Janz, Kathleen F.; Letuchy, Elena M.; Burns, Trudy L.; Levy, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that individuals who are active but who decrease physical activity (PA) over time have a higher risk of becoming obese in young adulthood, when compared to individuals who are consistently active throughout childhood and adolescence. Methods Iowa Bone Development Study cohort members (242 males and 251 females) participated in accelerometry assessments, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and dietary questionnaire surveys at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 years. Group-based trajectory analyses identified distinct trajectory patterns of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), percentage of body fat (%BF), and energy intake. A multivariable logistic regression model was fit to estimate the odds of “becoming obese” based on the MVPA trajectories, adjusted for mother’s education, somatic maturation, and energy intake. Results Among males, 74.7% had a “normal” body fat pattern, 14.6% had a “becoming obese” pattern, and 10.7% had a “consistently obese” pattern, while among females, the percentages were 58.6%, 28.6% and 12.8%, respectively. Participants who were active (≥45 minutes MVPA) as children but decreased MVPA with age were more likely to become obese, compared to consistently active participants (adjusted OR=2.77; 95% CI=1.16, 6.58). Conclusions An active lifestyle throughout childhood and adolescence could prevent obesity development in young adulthood. PMID:26538514

  3. Beyond Effects: Adolescents as Active Media Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The articles in this special issue take a "uses and gratifications" approach that emphasizes that people make choices about the media they choose and that they differ in their interpretations of media content. The articles integrate this approach with developmental perspectives on adolescence. (SLD)

  4. An exploratory study of adolescent female reactions to direct-to-consumer advertising: the case of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Leader, Amy E; Cashman, Rebecca; Voytek, Chelsea D; Baker, Jillian L; Brawner, Bridgette M; Frank, Ian

    2011-10-01

    When the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was approved in 2006, an extensive direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising campaign raised awareness and promoted vaccination. This study explores adolescents' exposure to and understanding of the messages in these advertisements. Sixty-seven African American females participated in a focus group about DTC advertising for the HPV vaccine. Virtually all adolescents had seen an HPV vaccine DTC advertisement, but most did not understand the health information contained in it. If DTC advertising is to be an effective source of health information for adolescents in the future, it must take into account the unique features of an adolescent audience.

  5. Engagement in School and Community Civic Activities among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2011-01-01

    Involvement in civic and community activities is a core part of positive youth development. Adolescents involved in voluntary civic activities have greater academic engagement, enhanced well-being, less involvement in problem behaviors, and they are more likely to value connections to their community than those who are not involved. The current…

  6. Associations between the School Environment and Adolescent Girls' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Joanna; Levin, Kate A.; Inchley, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores school sports facility provision, physical education allocation and opportunities for physical activity and their association with the number of days adolescent girls participate in at least 60 min of moderate-vigorous physical activity per week (MVPAdays). Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires from…

  7. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN NONOVERWEIGHT AND OVERWEIGHT HISPANIC CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the high prevalence of childhood obesity among U.S. Hispanic children and adolescents, quantitative, objective data on their patterns and levels of physical activity are scarce. Our objectives were: 1) To describe qualitatively the types of physical activities in which nonoverweight and over...

  8. Sedentary and Physical Activity Habits of Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkoff, Brooke E.; Petosa, Rick L.; Balk, Elizabeth K.; Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Bonny, Andrea E.; Hoffman, Robert P.; Devor, Steven T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The independent association between sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) is such that, regardless of accumulated PA, high amounts of SB are detrimental to health, even in adolescents. Purpose: Our aim was to profile activity patterns in free-living environments and to measure levels of SB and light (LT) and moderate (MOD)…

  9. Spondylolysis in Active Adolescents: Expediting Return to Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, James L.; Rifat, Sami F.

    2001-01-01

    Spondylolysis is a common cause of back pain in active adolescents. For prolonged pain, an aggressive workup and specific diagnosis are needed. History and physical exam findings are not diagnostic. Tests beyond radiographs (computed tomography, bone scans, and magnetic resonance imaging) are necessary to determine metabolic activity and full…

  10. Physical and Sedentary Activity in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Carol A.; Williams, Marie T.; Olds, Tim; Lane, Alison E.

    2007-01-01

    Participation in regular physical activity (PA) provides health, psychological, and physiological benefits for people with and without a physical disability. This study investigated the physical and sedentary activity patterns of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). A cross-sectional, descriptive, postal survey was used, consisting of the…

  11. Physical Activity Monitoring in Extremely Obese Adolescents from the Teen-LABS Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Renee M.; Inge, Thomas H.; Jenkins, Todd M; King, Wendy; Oruc, Vedran; Douglas, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The accuracy of physical activity (PA) monitors to discriminate between PA, sedentary behavior, and non-wear in extremely obese (EO) adolescents is unknown. Methods Twenty-five subjects (9 male/16 female; age=16.5±2.0 y; BMI=51±8 kg/m2) wore three activity monitors (StepWatch [SAM], Actical [AC], Actiheart [AH]) during a 400 meter walk test (400MWT), two standardized PA bouts of varying duration, and one sedentary bout. Results For the 400MWT, percent error between observed and monitor recorded steps was 5.5±7.1% and 82.1±38.6% for the SAM and AC steps, respectively (observed vs. SAM steps: −17.2±22.2 steps; observed vs. AC steps: −264.5±124.8 steps). All activity monitors were able to differentiate between PA and sedentary bouts but only SAM steps and AH heart rate were significantly different between sedentary behavior and non-wear (p<0.001). For all monitors, sedentary behavior was characterized by bouts of zero steps/counts punctuated by intermittent activity steps/counts; non-wear was represented almost exclusively by zero steps/counts. Conclusion Of all monitors tested, the SAM was most accurate in terms of counting steps and differentiating levels of PA, and thus, most appropriate for EO adolescents. The ability to accurately characterize PA intensity in EO adolescents critically depends on activity monitor selection. PMID:25205688

  12. Comparison of Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviors between Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Without

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Stephanie M.; Jakicic, John M.; Barone Gibbs, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Body mass index classification, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behaviors were compared in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to typically developing adolescents. Participants included 42,747 adolescents (ASD, n = 915) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. After controlling for covariates, adolescents were…

  13. Chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats induces emotional and memory deficits associated with morphological and molecular alterations in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Ca; Pereira, Maria Cs; Santana, Luana N da Silva; Fernandes, Rafael M; Teixeira, Francisco B; Oliveira, Gedeão B; Fernandes, Luanna Mp; Fontes-Júnior, Enéas A; Prediger, Rui D; Crespo-López, Maria E; Gomes-Leal, Walace; Lima, Rafael R; Maia, Cristiane do Socorro Ferraz

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that heavy ethanol exposure in early life may produce long-lasting neurobehavioral consequences, since brain structural maturation continues until adolescence. It is well established that females are more susceptible to alcohol-induced neurotoxicity and that ethanol consumption is increasing among women, especially during adolescence. In the present study, we investigated whether chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats may induce hippocampal histological damage and neurobehavioral impairments. Female rats were treated with distilled water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) by gavage from the 35(th)-90(th) day of life. Ethanol-exposed animals displayed reduced exploration of the central area and increased number of fecal boluses in the open field test indicative of anxiogenic responses. Moreover, chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence induced marked impairments on short-term memory of female rats addressed on social recognition and step-down inhibitory avoidance tasks. These neurobehavioral deficits induced by ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood were accompanied by the reduction of hippocampal formation volume as well as the loss of neurons, astrocytes and microglia cells in the hippocampus. These results indicate that chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats induces long-lasting emotional and memory deficits associated with morphological and molecular alterations in the hippocampus.

  14. Detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus in urine samples from unvaccinated male and female adolescents in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena Rosanna; Panatto, Donatella; Martinelli, Marianna; Amicizia, Daniela; Zotti, Carla Maria; Martinese, Morena; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara; Coppola, Rosa Cristina; Masia, Giuseppina; Meloni, Angelo; Castiglia, Paolo; Piana, Andrea; Gasparini, Roberto; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in adolescent girls in 2006 has focused virological surveillance on this age group. As few studies have evaluated HPV infections in young populations, further data are needed in order to improve and extend prophylactic policy and to monitor epidemiological changes. The present study aimed at evaluating overall and type-specific HPV prevalence in both female and male adolescents in Italy. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed on urine samples collected from 870 unvaccinated adolescents (369 females, 501 males, 11-18 years of age) in five cities in Italy. Following DNA extraction by means of a commercial kit (NucliSENS(®)-miniMAG(®), bioMérieux), the L1 gene fragment was PCR amplified and genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. HPV DNA was detected in 1.5% of all samples, and in 3% and 0.4% of samples from females and males, respectively. In approximately 70% of HPV DNA positive adolescents, the infection was due to a single genotype, with 88.9% of genotypes belonging to the HR-clade. The only two HPV-positive boys (14 and 18 years old) had HPV-70 genotype. Only one of the 11 HPV-infected girls was in the 11-14 age-group. HPV prevalence was 4.2% in girls aged 15-18 years and 60% of infections were due to vaccine types HPV-16 or HPV-6/-11. This is one of the few studies, the first conducted in Italy, on HPV infection in adolescents. Urine testing is the easier way of detecting HPV infection in younger populations. Our data revealed a very low HPV prevalence, and no infections were observed in the 12-year-old vaccine target population. The majority of infections were seen in females aged 15-18 years. Overall, more than 50% and 30% of the potentially persistent HPV infections detected in this group could have been prevented by the quadrivalent and the bivalent vaccines, respectively.

  15. Detection and Genotyping of Human Papillomavirus in Urine Samples from Unvaccinated Male and Female Adolescents in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena Rosanna; Panatto, Donatella; Martinelli, Marianna; Amicizia, Daniela; Zotti, Carla Maria; Martinese, Morena; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara; Coppola, Rosa Cristina; Masia, Giuseppina; Meloni, Angelo; Castiglia, Paolo; Piana, Andrea; Gasparini, Roberto; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in adolescent girls in 2006 has focused virological surveillance on this age group. As few studies have evaluated HPV infections in young populations, further data are needed in order to improve and extend prophylactic policy and to monitor epidemiological changes. The present study aimed at evaluating overall and type-specific HPV prevalence in both female and male adolescents in Italy. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed on urine samples collected from 870 unvaccinated adolescents (369 females, 501 males, 11-18 years of age) in five cities in Italy. Following DNA extraction by means of a commercial kit (NucliSENS®-miniMAG®, bioMérieux), the L1 gene fragment was PCR amplified and genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. HPV DNA was detected in 1.5% of all samples, and in 3% and 0.4% of samples from females and males, respectively. In approximately 70% of HPV DNA positive adolescents, the infection was due to a single genotype, with 88.9% of genotypes belonging to the HR-clade. The only two HPV-positive boys (14 and 18 years old) had HPV-70 genotype. Only one of the 11 HPV-infected girls was in the 11-14 age-group. HPV prevalence was 4.2% in girls aged 15-18 years and 60% of infections were due to vaccine types HPV-16 or HPV-6/-11. This is one of the few studies, the first conducted in Italy, on HPV infection in adolescents. Urine testing is the easier way of detecting HPV infection in younger populations. Our data revealed a very low HPV prevalence, and no infections were observed in the 12-year-old vaccine target population. The majority of infections were seen in females aged 15-18 years. Overall, more than 50% and 30% of the potentially persistent HPV infections detected in this group could have been prevented by the quadrivalent and the bivalent vaccines, respectively. PMID:24255711

  16. Parent & Family Influences on Adopting Healthy Weight-Related Behaviors: Views and Perceptions of Obese African-American Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Keeley J; McRitchie, Susan; Collier, David N; Lutes, Lesley D; Sumner, Susan

    2015-06-01

    RTI International is acknowledged for supporting the time of Susan McRitchie, Keeley Pratt and Susan Sumner to participate in the design, execution, or analysis of this study. East Carolina University would like to acknowledge Brittney France for being a triangulated investigator for the qualitative analysis and to the Pitt Memorial Hospital Foundation for financial support of the healthy lifestyles camp. Our purpose was to evaluate the views of obese African-American (AA) female adolescents concerning parent and family factors relating to obesity and a healthy lifestyle. Obese AA female adolescents enrolled in a residential healthy lifestyle program completed inventories measuring family functioning and perceptions of parenting styles, and participated in focus groups to identify themes regarding parent and family involvement in healthy lifestyle change. The majority of participants' mothers were scored as "inductive/authoritative" and fathers were "indulgent". Mothers reportedly were seen as more likely to encourage dieting to control weight than fathers. Common themes of the focus groups included a desire for family involvement, identification of family behaviors that were supportive as well as those which were perceived as unhelpful. Though generalizability of these results is limited by a homogenous small sample size, our results suggest that obese adolescents seeking weight loss treatment desire significant family involvement in their efforts. PMID:27269493

  17. Active commuting and physical activity in adolescents from Europe: results from the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Chillón, Palma; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Martínez-Gómez, David; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Dénes; Gottrand, Frédéric; González-Gross, Marcela; Ward, Dianne S; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-05-01

    We assessed commuting patterns in adolescents from 10 European cities and examined associations with physical activity (PA). A total of 3112 adolescents were included. PA was objectively measured with accelerometry. Commuting patterns and overall PA were self-reported using questions from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire modified for adolescents (IPAQ-A). Adolescents reported to spend 30 min (15,60) [expressed as median (25th, 75th percentiles)] walking. In boys, associations between active commuting (walking and biking) and PA levels were observed for moderate, moderate-to-vigorous and overall PA. In girls, these associations were observed for moderate and moderate-to-vigorous PA (walking). Similar results were found with the IPAQ-A. We observed positive associations between overall commuting and PA levels in European adolescents, yet due to the cross-sectional study design we cannot state the direction of these. Future studies should address the causation between active commuting and PA levels.

  18. Adolescents' Clothing Purchase Motivations, Information Sources, and Store Selection Criteria: A Comparison of Male/Female and Impulse/Nonimpulse Shoppers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen-Yu, Jessie H.; Seock, Yoo-Kyoung

    2002-01-01

    Male (n=69) and female (n=68) adolescents spent similar amounts on clothing with similar conformity, sexual attractiveness, and recognition motivations. Females shopped significantly more often and were more influenced by friends and magazines. There were significant differences between impulse buyers and others in shopping frequency, expenditure,…

  19. Carbohydrate Electrolyte Solutions Enhance Endurance Capacity in Active Females

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Feng-Hua; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Chen, Shi-Hui; Poon, Tsz-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of supplementation with a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) in active females during a prolonged session of submaximal running to exhaustion. Eight healthy active females volunteered to perform a session of open-ended running to exhaustion at 70% of their maximal oxygen consumption on a treadmill during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle on two occasions. During each run, the subjects consumed either 3mL·kg−1 body mass of a 6% CES or a placebo drink (PL) every 20 min during exercise. The trials were administered in a randomized double-blind, cross-over design. During the run, the subjects ingested similar volumes of fluid in two trials (CES: 644 ± 75 mL vs. PL: 593 ± 66 mL, p > 0.05). The time to exhaustion was 16% longer during the CES trial (106.2 ± 9.4 min) than during the PL trial (91.6 ± 5.9 min) (p < 0.05). At 45 min during exercise, the plasma glucose concentration in the CES trial was higher than that in PL trial. No differences were observed in the plasma lactate level, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, perceived rate of exertion, sensation of thirst, or abdominal discomfort between the two trials (p > 0.05). The results of the present study confirm that CES supplementation improves the moderate intensity endurance capacity of active females during the follicular phases of the menstrual cycle. However, the exogenous oxidation of carbohydrate does not seem to explain the improved capacity after CES supplementation. PMID:25988766

  20. Using Artwork and Photography to Explore Adolescent Females' Perceptions of Dating Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Danica G.; Forman, Julia; Sikes, April

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 75% of young people report being involved in dating relationships by the eighth grade (Centers for Disease Control [CDC], 2005). This indicates a significant need to understand how adolescents conceptualize dating relationships. More specifically, there is minimal literature on how adolescents define healthy and unhealthy…