Rotheram-Borus, Mary J.; And Others
Compared cognitive style and pleasant activities of 77 suicide-attempting female minority adolescents with those of 39 psychiatrically disturbed and 23 nondisturbed female adolescents. Suicide attempters reported significantly fewer alternatives for solving interpersonal problems, were significantly more focused on problems, and were more likely…
Forste, R T; Heaton, T B
According to the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth, 46% women aged 15-19 had experienced premarital intercourse. Projections based on this study show that by their 20th birthdays, 70% of all women in the US will have experienced premarital intercourse. This article examines the effects of various factors on the likelihood that teenagers will become sexually active. Data for this study were taken from the National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle III. Fieldwork was done in 1982 and included interviews of 7969 women aged 15-44. Data include background characteristics, measures of fertility and contraception, measures of fecundity and birth expectations, use of family planning services, and the respondent's marital history. The study concludes that family stability (intact families), Hispanic ethnicity, high parental education, religious affiliation, regular church attendance, and reproductive education decrease the occurrence of 1st intercourse. Other factors characterize an environment that is unstable and unstructured and has a liberalizing influence upon 1st intercourse. Teens from broken homes, blacks, and the lower social classes are more likely to initiate intercourse. Geographic factors have a very small influence upon the initiation of sexual activity among teens. Similar patterns of influence appear regarding contraceptive use. The same factors that encourage stability, such as high father's education, Catholic or Jewish religious affiliation, religious attendance, and reproductive instruction shift the odds in favor of contracepted rather than noncontracepted sex. Family instability and low social class increase the risk that 1st intercourse will not be contracepted. Providing too much sex education, such as instruction on birth control, may actually contribute to the leniency of the environment, although the authors find no evidence that school-based birth control instruction increases the chances that contraceptives will be used. Environments that are
Yungblut, Hope E; Schinke, Robert J; McGannon, Kerry R
Early adolescence is a time when a transition away from sport and physical activity participation is at its highest level among female youth (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004). This has led to the identification of barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation for adolescent females. Consequently there have been calls to overcome barriers and augment facilitators via the creation of gender-relevant programming. Despite these calls and efforts, a gender disparity remains, and a detailed understanding of how girls experience and interpret physical activity within the context of their lives is still lacking. The current project aimed to gain further insight into the foregoing using tenets of Interpretive Phenomenology to further understand the lived physical activity experiences of females during early adolescence, delineating their barriers to participation and the factors enabling participation. Five themes were identified and made into vignettes to facilitate understanding from adolescent females' perspectives: friends or don't know anyone, good or not good enough, fun or not fun; good feeling or gross; and peer support or peer pressure. The physical activity promotion implications for female youth are discussed within the context of these themes.
Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Smith-Adcock, Sondra
According to the reputation enhancement theory, social bonds influence adolescents' delinquent activity indirectly through the reputations they select. Findings from the current study of a school-based sample of female adolescents indicate that bonds to parents affect reputation enhancement beliefs, which, in turn, predict delinquent activity.…
Madan, Rebecca Pellett; Carpenter, Colleen; Fiedler, Tina; Kalyoussef, Sabah; McAndrew, Thomas C.; Viswanathan, Shankar; Kim, Mimi; Keller, Marla J.; Fredricks, David N.; Herold, Betsy C.
Background Genital secretions collected from adult women exhibit in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), but prior studies have not investigated this endogenous antimicrobial activity or its mediators in adolescent females. Methodology/Principal Findings Anti-HSV and anti-E.coli activity were quantified from cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens collected from 20 sexually active adolescent females (15–18 years). Soluble immune mediators that may influence this activity were measured in CVL, and concentrations of Lactobacillus jensenii and crispatus were quantified by PCR from vaginal swabs. Results for adolescents were compared to those obtained from 54 healthy, premenopausal adult women. Relative to specimens collected from adults, CVL collected from adolescent subjects had significantly reduced activity against E. coli and diminished concentrations of protein, IgG, and IgA but significantly increased anti-HSV activity and concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Vaginal swabs collected from adolescent subjects had comparable concentrations of L. crispatus but significantly reduced concentrations of L. jensenii, relative to adult swabs. Conclusions/Significance Biomarkers of genital mucosal innate immunity may differ substantially between sexually active adolescents and adult women. These findings warrant further study and may have significant implications for prevention of sexually transmitted infections in adolescent females. PMID:22808157
Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Schneider, Margaret; Cooper, Dan M.
Objective: To determine whether individual factors influenced rates of physical activity change in response to a school-based intervention. Methods: Sedentary adolescent females (N = 63) participated in a 9-month physical activity program. Weekly levels of leisure-time physical activity were reported using an interactive website. Results: Change…
Tergerson, Jennifer L.; King, Keith A.
Surveyed adolescents at single-sex high schools to examine whether perceptions of physical activity differed by gender. The most helpful cue to physical activity for males and females was having a friend to exercise with. Parental encouragement and having a parent who exercised were also helpful. Wanting to do other things was a common barrier to…
Objectives Physical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework. Methods This cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, social support, perceived barriers, and perceived affect. Interactions among the variables were examined using path analysis within a covariance modeling framework. Results The final model accounted for an R2 value of 0.52 for physical activity and offered a good model-data fit. The results indicated that physical activity was predicted by self-esteem (β=0.46, p<0.001), perceived self-efficacy (β=0.40, p<0.001), social support (β=0.24, p<0.001), perceived barriers (β=-0.19, p<0.001), and perceived affect (β=0.17, p<0.001). Conclusions The findings of this study showed that the health promotion model was useful to predict physical activity behavior among the Iranian female adolescents. Information related to the predictors of physical activity behavior will help researchers plan more tailored culturally relevant health promotion interventions for this population. PMID:24570808
Lima, Alaine Souza; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato; Gomes, Mayra Ruana de A.; de Almeida, Ludmila Remígio; de Souza, Gabriely Feitosa F.; Cunha, Samara Barreto; Pitangui, Ana Carolina R.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL) in female adolescent students. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified according to the International Headache Society criteria. The chi-square test was used to verify possible associations, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: After the exclusion of 24 questionnaires that did not met the inclusion criteria, 204 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of the adolescents was 14.0±1.4 years. The prevalence of headache was 87.7%. Of the adolescents with headache, 0.5% presented migraine without pure menstrual aura; 6.7%, migraine without aura related to menstruation; 1.6%, non-menstrual migraine without aura; 11.7%, tension-type headache and 79.3%, other headaches. Significant associations were found between pain intensity and the following variables: absenteeism (p=0.001); interference in ADL (p<0.001); medication use (p<0.001); age (p=0.045) and seek for medical care (p<0.022). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of headache in female adolescents observed in this study was high, with a negative impact in ADL and school attendance. PMID:25119759
Cumming, Sean P.; Standage, Martyn; Loney, Tom; Gammon, Catherine; Neville, Helen; Sherar, Lauren B.; Malina, Robert M.
The current study examined the mediating role of physical self-concept on relations between biological maturity status and self-reported physical activity in adolescent British females. Biological maturity status, physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed in 407 female British year 7-9 pupils (M age = 13.2 years, SD = 1.0).…
Jones, Cathleen G; Yang, Pamela B; Wilcox, Victor T; Burau, Keith D; Dafny, Nachum
The psychostimulants considered the gold standard in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, one of the most common childhood disorders, are also finding their way into the hands of healthy young adults as brain augmentation to improve cognitive performance. The possible long-term effects of psychostimulant exposure in adolescence are considered controversial, and thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether the chronic exposure to the psychostimulant amphetamine affects the behavioral diurnal rhythm activity patterns of female adolescent Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. The hypothesis of this study is that change in diurnal rhythm activity pattern is an indicator for the long-term effect of the treatment. Twenty-four rats were divided into two groups, control (N = 12) and experimental (N = 12), and kept in a 12:12-h light/dark cycle in an open-field cage. After 5-7 days of acclimation, 11 days of consecutive non-stop behavioral recordings began. On experimental day 1 (ED1), all groups were given an injection of saline. On ED2 to ED7, the experimental group was injected with 0.6 mg/kg amphetamine followed by 3 days of washout from ED8 to ED10, and amphetamine re-challenge on ED11 similar to ED2. The locomotor movements were counted by the computerized animal activity monitoring system, and the cosinor statistical test analysis was used to fit a 24-h curve of the control recording to the activity pattern after treatment. The horizontal activity, total distance, number of stereotypy, vertical activity, and stereotypical movements were analyzed to find out whether the diurnal rhythm activity patterns were altered. Data obtained using these locomotor indices of diurnal rhythm activity pattern suggest that amphetamine treatment significantly modulates the locomotor diurnal rhythm activity pattern of female WKY adolescent rats.
Ramanathan, Subha; Crocker, Peter R E
In this study we explored the role of personal, familial, and cultural attitudes and social norms for physical activity (PA) on actual PA behavior among female adolescents of the Indian diaspora. Six girls, 15 to 19 years of age, from a spiritual center participated in interviews and a focus group. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Participants were high in familism, and felt that PA was important for physical and mental health, and to strengthen relationships with family. Fathers and brothers were considered most influential on PA patterns. Differentiated gender roles in PA emerged: boys were deemed more aggressive and competitive, and girls were perceived to promote fun-based learning environments. The importance of religion and spirituality as influences on PA emerged among participants with strong affinities for Indian cultures. Results show that cultural heritage impacts PA norms, attitudes, and patterns, and must be considered when evaluating adolescent PA participation in multicultural societies.
Keith, J B; McCreary, C; Collins, K; Smith, C P; Bernstein, I
A modified form of Nathanson and Becker's (1983) Health Belief Model Questionnaire and other measures designed to assess cognitive processing were administered to low-income black adolescent female clients of an inner-city comprehensive health care clinic. The purpose of the study was to explore determinants of sexual activity and contraceptive use. Subjects were classified as not sexually active (n = 50), sexually active/noncontracepting (n = 20), or sexually active/contracepting (n = 72). Not sexually active subjects tended to be younger, more career motivated, to have a father at home, to be more influenced by family values, and to have more conservative attitudes regarding adolescent sexuality than did sexually active subjects. Sexually active/noncontracepting subjects tended to report fewer benefits and more barriers to the use of contraception. Level of cognitive processing did not differ among the three groups, but was at a lower-than-expected level for age. Finally, inconsistent contraceptive use was common to both sexually active groups.
Goodenow, Carol; Espin, Olivia M.
Based on semistructured interviews with five adolescent females, all recent immigrants from Latin America, discusses active role immigrant adolescents can take in balancing the influences of old and new cultures in formation of healthy bicultural identity, and special problems females face in adapting to new sex role culture. (Author/NB)
Mills, David; Sharon, Bazak; Schneider, Kari
Tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) in non-sexually active female adolescents is a rare presentation to the pediatric emergency department. In the following case, bilateral TOA secondary to Streptococcus constellatus was diagnosed in a 13-year-old virginal female. The patient was seen 4 months before presentation for interventional radiology-guided drainage and antibiotic treatment for an intra-abdominal abscess due to suspected appendiceal rupture. Exploratory laparotomy on the most recent presentation demonstrated an appendix with inflammation and serositis on pathology report, a concern for chronic appendicitis with microperforation and subsequent bacterial translocation of the bilateral ovaries. This case report identifies a rare cause, pathogen, and the patient's demographics presenting with bilateral TOA. Most importantly, this case demonstrates the need for emergency medicine physicians to have a high index of suspicion for TOA in patients with a significant medical history of intra-abdominal pathology to promptly diagnose and treat high-morbidity pathology.
Collins, Stephanie L; Izenwasser, Sari
Tobacco use is prevalent in the adolescent population. It is a major concern because tobacco is highly addictive and has also been linked to illicit drug use. There is not much research, however, on the interaction between nicotine and other stimulant drugs in animal models of early adolescence. This study examined the effects of chronic nicotine alone and on cocaine-stimulated activity in male and female periadolescent rats compared to male and female adult rats. During the seven-day nicotine pretreatment period, nicotine increased locomotor activity in all groups compared to vehicle controls. Male and female adult rats and female periadolescent rats developed sensitization to the locomotor-activating effects of nicotine over the 7-day treatment period, while male periadolescent rats did not. All groups treated with nicotine, however, exhibited sensitization to nicotine-induced repetitive motion over the 7-day nicotine treatment period. On day 8, male periadolescent rats pretreated with nicotine were more markedly sensitized to the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine than male adult rats, while female rats pretreated with nicotine were not sensitized to cocaine. In contrast, male and female periadolescent rats, but not adult rats, had increased amounts of repetitive beam breaks induced by cocaine after nicotine pretreatment. Overall, it appears that cross-sensitization to cocaine is greater in periadolescent than in adult rats, and that males are more sensitized than females. Thus, it may be that nicotine use during adolescence carries a greater risk than during adulthood and that male adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the risk of cocaine abuse after nicotine use. This information should be taken into account so as to help us better understand the development of drug addiction in adolescents compared to adults.
Jerstad, Sarah J.; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Stice, Eric
Objective: Although an inverse correlation between physical activity and depression among adolescents has been found in research, this relation has seldom been examined prospectively. Thus, we tested whether physical activity reduces risk for future escalations in depression and whether depression decreases likelihood of future change in physical…
Shaban, Lemia H; Vaccaro, Joan A; Sukhram, Shiryn D; Huffman, Fatma G
Background. The State of Kuwait has a growing obesity epidemic in both genders and all age groups; however, obesity rates in the young seem to be rising. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 169 Kuwaiti female adolescents attending both private and public schools spanning the six governorates in the State of Kuwait in order to explore female adolescents' self-image, body dissatisfaction, type of school (private versus public), TV viewing, and computer games and their relationship to body mass index. Results. Approximately half the students classified as obese perceived their body image to lie in the normal range. Females in the obese category were the most dissatisfied with their body image, followed by those in the overweight category. Eating behavior, level of physical activity, school type, television viewing, computer/video usage, and desired BMI were not significantly associated with level of obesity. Conclusion. This study was one of the few studies to assess adolescent females' body image dissatisfaction in relation to obesity in the State of Kuwait. The results suggest that including body image dissatisfaction awareness into obesity prevention programs would be of value.
Shaban, Lemia H.; Sukhram, Shiryn D.
Background. The State of Kuwait has a growing obesity epidemic in both genders and all age groups; however, obesity rates in the young seem to be rising. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 169 Kuwaiti female adolescents attending both private and public schools spanning the six governorates in the State of Kuwait in order to explore female adolescents' self-image, body dissatisfaction, type of school (private versus public), TV viewing, and computer games and their relationship to body mass index. Results. Approximately half the students classified as obese perceived their body image to lie in the normal range. Females in the obese category were the most dissatisfied with their body image, followed by those in the overweight category. Eating behavior, level of physical activity, school type, television viewing, computer/video usage, and desired BMI were not significantly associated with level of obesity. Conclusion. This study was one of the few studies to assess adolescent females' body image dissatisfaction in relation to obesity in the State of Kuwait. The results suggest that including body image dissatisfaction awareness into obesity prevention programs would be of value. PMID:28042301
Jerstad, Sarah J.; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Stice, Eric
Objective Although research has found an inverse correlation between physical activity and depression among adolescents, few studies have examined this relation prospectively. Thus, we tested whether physical activity reduces risk for future escalations in depression and whether depression decreases likelihood of future change in physical activity. Method Data from a longitudinal study involving annual assessments of 496 adolescent girls (M age = 13, SD 0.7) followed over a 6-year period were analyzed to address these questions. Results Physical activity significantly reduced risk for future increases in depressive symptoms and risk for onset of major/minor depression and depressive symptoms and major/minor depression significantly reduced future physical activity, controlling for several covariates, though predictive effects were modest. Conclusions Results support a bidirectional relation between exercise and depression and imply that interventions that increase physical activity may reduce risk for depression among this high-risk population. PMID:20350037
Sugar, Max, Ed.
This book emphasizes female adolescents' healthy development within a psychoanalytic frame of reference for what is normative, that also indicates the boundaries of and transitions to what is deviant. The book's 12 articles relate to 3 general topics. The two articles in part 1 of the book, which addresses biological issues, are "Female…
Ma'ayan, Hadar Dubowsky
The current literatures on girls, queer youth, and multicultural education have ignored a significant group of young people and their experiences in school. This research is a retrospective exploratory study of masculine female adolescent schooling experiences, focusing on the school experiences of adults aged 18-54 who were socially defined as…
This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…
Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; González Iglesias, María José; Gimeno Pita, Patricia; Ortega, Rosa M
Feeding in infancy is necessary to allow proper growth and development. Health of these early stages of life may influence the development of many diseases in the future (atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, hypertension, obesity ...). Furthermore habits set in childhood will endure throughout life. Therefore, getting adequate dietary and health patterns in childhood is vital. In adolescence occur a number of changes: rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, changes in body composition, ... that will be a challenge when getting or keeping that adequate feeding and habits. In female population requirements of different micronutrients are increased (mainly iron) and also higher energy requirement than in later stages of life occurs. However, adolescents are the main population at risk for developing eating disorders, which can pose serious problems to meet these nutritional requirements to achieve optimal development. These features and others, such as pregnant adolescents, are what make them a population that should be taken special care from nutritional point of view.
Regan, Aine; Heary, Caroline
Engagement in excessive sedentary behaviour represents a health risk for adolescents. The current study aimed to investigate patterns of sedentary behaviour amongst Irish female adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years old. 314 adolescents completed a questionnaire on their sedentary behaviour habits, health behaviours (physical activity, smoking,…
Young, Janet A.; Symons, Caroline M.; Pain, Michelle D.; Harvey, Jack T.; Eime, Rochelle M.; Craike, Melinda J.; Payne, Warren R.
In light of the importance attributed to the presence of positive role models in promoting physical activity during adolescence, this study examined role models of adolescent girls and their influence on physical activity. Seven hundred and thirty two girls in Years 7 and 11 from metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions of Victoria, Australia,…
Kim, Hyun-Bae; Stebbins, Charles L; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong-Kook
In this study, we determined the specificity of a low frequency taekwondo training programme on physical fitness levels in adolescent females who receive limited physical education instruction (i.e. 2 days per week). Major components of physical fitness assessed were: skeletal muscle fitness (hand grip strength, bent arm hang, standing long jump, and isokinetic strength), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), speed and agility (10 × 5-m shuttle run), and cardiovascular fitness (VO(2max) and 20-m shuttle run). Changes in body composition were also assessed (dual X-ray absorptiometry, DXA). Participants were divided into two groups, a taekwondo training group (n = 21), which trained 50 min a day, 2 days per week for 12 weeks, and a control group (n = 10). Taekwondo training improved isokinetic strength, standing long jump, and sit-and-reach performance. Body fat mass and percent body fat were reduced. No changes in grip strength, bent arm hang time, speed and agility, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed. Results indicate that low frequency taekwondo training in adolescent females produces beneficial changes in skeletal muscle fitness, flexibility, and body composition in a relatively short period of time. Consequently, this specific type of training can be useful to female adolescents in structured school environments where physical education classes are limited and there is little free time for physical activity.
Pleydon, Anne P.; Schner, Joseph G.
Young female offenders (n=29) and female high school students (n=47) were compared in terms of delinquent behavior and relationships with their best female friend and peer group. Results indicated friendships of delinquent and nondelinquent female adolescents are essentially similar despite higher levels of peer pressure among delinquents. (BF)
activities (e.g., hiking, cycling), and exercise training (Surgeon General’s Report on Physical ... Activity and Health, 1996; USDHHS, 2001). An important distinction to make is between physical activity and exercise because these terms are often...misused interchangeably. Physical activity differs from exercise in that exercise is planned, structured, and repetitive physical activity
Pleydon, A P; Schner, J G
Young female offenders (n = 29) and female high school students (n = 47) were compared in terms of delinquent behavior and relationships with their best female friend and peer group. Young offenders exhibited significantly more delinquent behavior than did high school students in the past year. Delinquents and nondelinquents did not significantly differ in amount of companionship, conflict, help, security, and closeness with their best female friend, and amount of trust, alienation, and perceived intimacy in their peer group. Less communication and more perceived peer pressure in the peer group distinguished delinquent females from nondelinquent females. Perceived peer pressure significantly predicted delinquent behavior in female adolescents. In short, friendships of delinquent and nondelinquent female adolescents are essentially similar despite higher levels of peer pressure among delinquents.
Yoo, Sang Bae; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Kim, Jin Young; Ryu, Vitaly; Kang, Dong-Won; Lee, Jong-Ho; Jahng, Jeong Won
This study was conducted to examine if fluoxetine, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, would reverse adverse behavioral effects of neonatal maternal separation in female rats. Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam daily for 3h during postnatal day (PND) 1-14 (maternal separation; MS) or left undisturbed (non-handled; NH). Female NH and MS pups received intraperitoneal injection of fluoxetine (10mg/kg) or vehicle daily from PND 35 until the end of the whole experimental period. Rats were either subjected to behavioral tests during PND 44-54, or sacrificed for neurochemical analyses during PND 43-45. Daily food intake and weight gain of both NH and MS pups were suppressed by fluoxetine, with greater effects in MS pups. MS experience increased immobility and decrease swimming in forced swim test. Swimming was increased, although immobility was not significantly decreased, in MS females by adolescence fluoxetine. However, adolescence fluoxetine increased immobility during forced swim test and decreased time spent in open arms during elevated plus maze test in NH females. Fluoxetine normalized MS-induced decrease of the raphe 5-HT levels and increased 5-HT metabolism in the hippocampus in MS females, and increased the hypothalamic 5-HT both in NH and MS. Fluoxetine decreased the raphe 5-HT and increased the plasma corticosterone in NH females. Results suggest that decreased 5-HTergic activity in the raphe nucleus is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression-like behaviors, and increased 5-HTergic activities in the raphe-hippocampus axis may be a part of anti-depressant efficacy of fluoxetine, in MS females. Also, an extra-hypothalamic 5-HTergic activity may contribute to the increased anorectic efficacy of fluoxetine in MS females. Additionally, decreased 5-HT in the raphe and elevated plasma corticosterone may be related with fluoxetine-induced depression- and/or anxiety-like behaviors in NH females.
Prior research has identified reduced reward-related brain activation as a promising endophenotype for the early identification of adolescents with major depressive disorder. However, it is unclear whether reduced reward-related brain activation constitutes a true vulnerability for major depressive ...
Braverman, P K; Strasburger, V C
Adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages. One half of the adolescents in the United States are sexually active. This article reviews adolescent sexual activity, including rates of sexual activity, sexual practices, gay and lesbian youth, and factors affecting the initiation of sexual activity. In addition, adolescent pregnancy, with possible outcomes and effects on teen parents and their offspring, is discussed.
Ackerman, Kathryn E; Misra, Madhusmita
Peak bone mass (PBM) is a negative predictor of osteoporosis and lifelong fracture risk. Because osteoporosis is such a prevalent disease with life-threatening consequences, it is important to try to maximize PBM. Adolescence is a critical period for bone acquisition. This article discusses some of the differences in male and female skeletal development and modifiable factors that enhance bone accrual in this age group, particularly in athletes. Hormonal influences, effects of physical activity, and nutritional contributions are included, with a focus on the adolescent athlete. Emphasis is placed on the importance of appropriate energy availability in this age group. We also review prevention and treatment strategies for the female athlete triad (ie, the inter-relationship of decreased energy availability, menstrual irregularity, and low bone density) in adolescents and athletic women. Recommendations for maximizing bone density in both male and female adolescents are discussed.
Chowdhury, Tara G; Ríos, Mariel B; Chan, Thomas E; Cassataro, Daniela S; Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C; Aoki, Chiye
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness characterized by restricted eating and irrational fears of gaining weight. There is no accepted pharmacological treatment for AN, and AN has the highest mortality rate among psychiatric illnesses. Anorexia nervosa most commonly affects females during adolescence, suggesting an effect of sex and hormones on vulnerability to the disease. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is a rodent model of AN that shares symptoms with AN, including over-exercise, elevation of stress hormones, and genetic links to anxiety traits. We previously reported that ABA in adolescent female rats results in increased apical dendritic branching in CA1 pyramidal cells of the ventral hippocampus at postnatal day 44 (P44). To examine the long-term effects of adolescent ABA (P44) in female rats, we compared the apical branching in the ventral hippocampal CA1 after recovery from ABA (P51) and after a relapse of ABA (P55) with age-matched controls. To examine the age-dependence of the hippocampal plasticity, we examined the effect of ABA during adulthood (P67). We found that while ABA at P44 resulted in increased branching of ventral hippocampal pyramidal cells, relapse of ABA at P55 resulted in decreased branching. ABA induced during adulthood did not have an effect on dendritic branching, suggesting an age-dependence of the vulnerability to structural plasticity. Cells from control animals were found to exhibit a dramatic increase in branching, more than doubling from P44 to P51, followed by pruning from P51 to P55. The proportion of mature spines on dendrites from the P44-ABA animals is similar to that on dendrites from P55-CON animals. These results suggest that the experience of ABA may cause precocious anatomical development of the ventral hippocampus. Importantly, we found that adolescence is a period of continued development of the hippocampus, and increased vulnerability to mental disorders during adolescence may be due to insults during this
Hurowitz, Laurie; Gaier, Eugene
Focuses on one specific kind of information and guidance employed by many adolescent females as a source of information on sexuality, female erotica, and for information on the female role--the female self concept. (Author/RK)
Latka, Mary H.; Kapadia, Farzana; Fortin, Princess
Data on adolescents' views regarding the female condom are limited. We conducted seven single-gender focus groups with 47 New York City boys and girls aged 15-20 years (72% African American; 43% ever on public assistance; 72% sexually active; 25% had either been pregnant or fathered a pregnancy). Conceptual mapping was performed by participants to…
Young, Joyce Lynom
Describes school counselor intervention program used for facilitating the personal development of adolescents. Notes that intervention occurred through activities that were designed for black female adolescents in a secondary public school. Describes how goals were met through structured developmental activities, counseling sessions, and organized…
Carlson, Victor R.; Boden, Barry P.; Shen, Aricia; Jackson, Jennifer N.; Alter, Katharine E.; Sheehan, Frances T.
Background: Patellofemoral pain is one of the most common conditions seen in sports medicine practices, particularly among adolescent females. However, the natural history of the underlying pathology in patellofemoral pain during puberty remains poorly understood. Purpose: The purpose of this longitudinal study is to assess changes in patellar maltracking patterns in subjects with patellofemoral pain as they mature from mid- to late adolescence. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Three-dimensional patellofemoral kinematic data were acquired during active knee extension-flexion using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in 6 girls (10 knees; mean age, 14.0 years) with clinically diagnosed patellofemoral pain. The subjects then returned as late adolescents (mean age, 18.5 years) for follow-up scanning. Three-dimensional patellofemoral kinematic parameters were evaluated across the range of motion, but comparison between time points was restricted to 10° of flexion. Participation in impact and nonimpact physical activities, pain score based on the visual analog scale, and the anterior knee pain score were also compared across initial and follow-up visits. Results: All subjects reported improved patellofemoral pain symptoms at follow-up, and one subject reported complete resolution. However, relative to the initial visit, no differences were found in patellar maltracking. There was a decrease in hours engaged in impact physical activities for all subjects at follow-up. Conclusion: This study provides insight into the natural history of patellofemoral pain in adolescent females. The relatively unchanged patellofemoral maltracking across subjects suggests that potential anatomic and kinematic abnormalities contributing to patellofemoral pain during mid-adolescence persist during skeletal maturation. Symptom improvement for these subjects did not result from a change in patellofemoral tracking, but rather from other causes. PMID:28210658
Zacharias, Stephanie R. C.; Kelchner, Lisa N.; Creaghead, Nancy
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore teachers' attitudes toward, and perceptions of personality traits of, female adolescents who presented with voice disorders. Method: For this comparative study consisting of a 25-item web-based semantic differential survey, teachers rated voice recordings of 4 female adolescents (considered…
Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Steve; Khan, Umneea; Tan, Carol
This research investigated differences in delinquent activities and the reputational orientations of at-risk and not-at-risk male and female adolescents. Initially, we sought to establish that adolescent males and females differed in these respects. This was found to be the case: males (n = 722) scored significantly higher than females (n = 738)…
Blythe, M J; Rosenthal, S L
Health care providers must recognize the specific challenges and rewards of providing services for adolescents. Quality care begins with the establishment of trust, respect, and confidentiality between the health care provider and the adolescent. Data suggest that the normal age for beginning puberty is decreasing, which has important clinical, educational, and social implications. The health care provider should be aware of the broad range of potential sexual behaviors involving adolescents, as well as the teen's acceptance of such behaviors, often dictated by age, gender, culture, and education. When providing gynecologic care to adolescent girls, the physician should not only provide contraception and screen for sexually transmitted diseases but should contribute to the development of the patient's sexual health. Especially when providing care for the younger teen, the health care provider must focus on involving a member of the family or another significant adult to provide needed support and guidance. Anticipatory guidance for parents should focus on assessing their parenting styles and promoting supervision. Although parents should strive to maintain open communication with their adolescents, they may not accurately estimate the sexual activity of and the sexual risk for their teenage children. Parents need to be encouraged to consider the implications of their own sexual behaviors. The provider should attempt to foster a comfortable environment in which youth may seek help and support for appropriate medical care while reserving the right to disclose their sexual identity when ready. Health care professionals cannot exclude heterosexual behavior on the basis that a young woman self-identifies as homosexual. Her reported sexual behaviors may not indicate her sexual orientation. Self-definition of sexual orientation is a dynamic process including factors such as fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Self-definition of sexual identity is affected by individual
Sirpresi, S; Antoniazzi, F; Costantini, E; Zamboni, G; Tatò, L
Adolescence is usually defined as the period of rapid physical and psychological growth and development occurring during the second decade of life. After the introduction about the physiology of puberty and menstrual cycle, the major problems in female adolescents are discussed: delayed puberty, hypo and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, causes of primary and secondary amenorrhea, menstrual irregularity, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea, breast disorders, hirsutism, acne. Finally, adolescent pregnancy prevention and contraception are discussed. The Authors want to stress the importance of the endocrinological and gynaecological disorders in female adolescents and their impact on the psychological and emotional development at this very delicate age.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the experience of female voice change from the perspective of female middle and high school choral students. The study was guided by two questions: How do adolescent female choir students experience voice change? What is the essence of the experience of voice change for middle school…
exercise because these terms are often misused interchangeably. Physical activity differs from exercise in that exercise is planned, structured, and...distinction between physical activity and exercise is relevant to the current investigations for two reasons. First, this project monitored... physical activity as opposed to a forced exercise program (e.g., swimming or running wheel) in rats. Physical activity was used to examine what
Morrissey, Gabrielle; Higgs, Joy
This paper presents research in female first sexual intercourse in Australia. Previous research in adolescent sexual behavior, particularly issues around first sexual intercourse behavior, has mainly utilized quantitative methodology. Our research adopted a qualitative approach to provide unique insight into adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes,…
Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Simmendinger, Nicole; Klinkowski, Nora; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Pfeiffer, Ernst
This study investigated current comorbid Axis I diagnoses associated with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) in adolescents. The sample included 101 female adolescents treated at a psychiatric unit for primary DSM-IV diagnoses of AN. 73.3% of the AN patients were diagnosed as having a current comorbidity of at least one comorbid Axis I diagnosis, with no…
Lemaine, Valerie; Simmons, Patricia S
Congenital breast and genital tract anomalies are seen frequently in the care of children and adolescents. Breast and internal gynecologic anomalies more often present in adolescence than in early childhood. Management is best delivered through a multidisciplinary team approach. Carefully timed surgical intervention is of importance to optimize psychological, aesthetic and functional outcomes. An understanding of the female breast and genital tract embryology and anatomy is important for a meticulous clinical examination and appropriate surgical treatment. This article will review the normal embryology and anatomy of the adolescent female breast and genital tract.
Hancock, Adrienne; Helenius, Lauren
Current research to describe and evaluate effectiveness of voice and communication therapy for male-to-female transgender people is limited to adults. This paper provides rationale, procedures, and outcomes from voice and communication therapy for a male-to-female transgender adolescent 15 years of age. Treatment addressed vocal hygiene, breath…
Barral, Romina; Desai, Ruchi; Zheng, Xiaojing; Frazer, Lauren C; Sucato, Gina S; Haggerty, Catherine L; O'Connell, Catherine M; Zurenski, Matthew A; Darville, Toni
An evaluation of CD4 T cell responses to candidate Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine antigens was conducted in an adolescent female cohort exposed through natural infection to explore antigen immunogenicity and correlation with protection from reinfection. The frequency of peripheral blood CD4 T cell IFN-γ and IL-17 responses to three candidate vaccine antigens, polymorphic membrane protein G (PmpG), F (PmpF), and major outer membrane protein (MOMP), were determined by ELISPOT; responses to chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) and to elementary bodies (EB) were included for comparison. Responses of Infected (n=8), Seropositive/Uninfected (n=13), and Seronegative/Uninfected (n=18) participants were compared. The median CD4 IFN-γ response to EB was significantly increased in Infected (P=0.003) and Seropositive/Uninfected (P=0.002) versus Seronegative/Uninfected female subjects. Higher rates of positive IFN-γ responders to EB, PmpF, and MOMP were detected in Seropositive/Uninfected versus Seronegative/Uninfected participants (P=0.021). IL-17 responses were generally low. A positive IFN-γ response to any of the antigens tested was associated with a trend toward a reduced risk of reinfection, although not statistically significant. Among this adolescent cohort, chlamydial-specific CD4 IFN-γ but not IL-17 responses were detected in acutely and previously infected participants and a positive CD4 IFN-γ response was associated with a non-significant reduced risk of reinfection.
Wainright, Jennifer L; Patterson, Charlotte J
This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents), adolescent gender, family and relationship variables, and the peer relations of adolescents. Participants included 44 adolescents parented by same-sex female couples and 44 adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics and drawn from a national sample. On both self-reported and peer-reported measures of relations with peers, adolescents were functioning well, and the quality of their peer relations was not associated with family type. Regardless of family type, adolescents whose parents described closer relationships with them reported higher quality peer relations and more friends in school and were rated as more central in their friendship networks.
Capetillo-Ventura, Nelly; Baeza, Inmaculada
The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is involved in the production of thyroid hormone which is needed to maintain the normal functioning of various organs and systems, including the central nervous system. This study reports a case of hypothyroidism in a fifteen-year-old female adolescent who was attended for psychiatric symptoms. This case reveals the importance of evaluating thyroid function in children and adolescents with neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:25436160
Barral, Romina; Desai, Ruchi; Zheng, Xiaojing; Frazer, Lauren C.; Sucato, Gina S.; Haggerty, Catherine L.; O’Connell, Catherine M.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Darville, Toni
An evaluation of CD4 T cell responses to candidate Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine antigens was conducted in an adolescent female cohort exposed through natural infection to explore antigen immunogenicity and correlation with protection from reinfection. The frequency of peripheral blood CD4 T cell IFN-γ and IL-17 responses to three candidate vaccine antigens, polymorphic membrane protein G (PmpG), F (PmpF), and major outer membrane protein (MOMP), were determined by ELISPOT; responses to chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) and to elementary bodies (EB) were included for comparison. Responses of Infected (n = 8), Seropositive/Uninfected (n = 13), and Seronegative/Uninfected (n = 18) participants were compared. The median CD4 IFN-γ response to EB was significantly increased in Infected (P = 0.003) and Seropositive/Uninfected (P = 0.002) versus Seronegative/Uninfected female subjects. Higher rates of positive IFN-γ responders to EB, PmpF, and MOMP were detected in Seropositive/Uninfected versus Seronegative/Uninfected participants (P = 0.021). IL-17 responses were generally low. A positive IFN-γ response to any of the antigens tested was associated with a trend toward a reduced risk of reinfection, although not statistically significant. Among this adolescent cohort, chlamydial-specific CD4 IFN-γ but not IL-17 responses were detected in acutely and previously infected participants and a positive CD4 IFN-γ response was associated with a non-significant reduced risk of reinfection. PMID:24582738
Smith, Chad E; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn; Lieberth, Ann
Adolescent health and health literacy are critical health topics recognized in Healthy People 2020. Evidence indicates that adolescents who are d/Deaf have unique health-related needs, yet health communication efforts have not reached them. Despite the Internet's exponential growth and the growth of online health information-seeking behavior among adolescents, reliable information devoted specifically to d/Deaf adolescents who communicate primarily in ASL is rare. D/deaf adolescent females face numerous challenges accessing web-based health information to enhance their decision making about important health issues such as body image, physical activity and nutrition, puberty, and relationships. A strong need exists for interdisciplinary professionals to investigate the health interests and online health information-seeking behaviors of this group in order to effectively plan, implement, and evaluate a web-based health repository that delivers content in ASL. This Call to Action represents a first step in addressing that need.
Rubin, Roger H.
Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…
Bowers, Megan; Simson, Gabrielle Gold-von
An adolescent female with Moebius syndrome developed paroxysmal hypertension, orthostatic hypotension and autonomic symptoms. Common causes of dysautonomia were excluded by the work-up, which supported a diagnosis of baroreflex failure. Neurological testing suggested dysfunction of the tenth cranial nerve as the etiology. This report suggests that baroreflex dysfunction should be considered in Moebius syndrome patients displaying autonomic symptoms.
Fouquier, Katherine Ferrell; Camune, Barbara D
The complexity of caring for female adolescents with neurodisabilities often overshadows normal biological changes. These young women may require additional or individualized support as they adapt to normal puberty and sexual maturation. Many choices are available to assist in managing menstrual problems, hygiene issues, and contraception. Special considerations regarding contraceptive methods, sexual education, and improving service accessibility are explored for clinicians.
Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.
Examines ethnic differences in rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in female adolescents (N=205) receiving care at two family-planning clinics; new infection and reinfection rates were also examined. Black teens had a higher rate of past STDs than Hispanics or Whites; however, there were no differences in rates at the time of the clinic…
Slater, Elisa J.; And Others
Examined the effects of separation and divorce on adolescents' (N=217) self-image, anxiety, locus of control, and perception of their family. Results indicated males from disrupted homes had better self-concepts and better perceptions of their family environment than those from intact homes. The opposite results were found among females. (JAC)
Montgomery, Judy K.; Sanger, Dixie; Moore-Brown, Barbara J.; Smith, Leslie; Scheffler, Marilyn
This study focused on increasing the awareness of educational leaders about the relationship between students with communication disorders and violence. A review of selected research on adolescent females with language problems residing in a correctional facility served to support a survey study and extend discussions about the need for…
Reichelt, Paul A.
In order to better meet the needs of female adolescents coming to a Planned Parenthood League Teen Center for prescription contraceptives, a study was undertaken to understand their psychosexual history. The study focused on the past and present sexual and contraceptive behavior of 532 new clients under the age of 18. The data were collected…
Bryla, Karen Y.
Disordered eating among American adolescent females represents a significant health issue in our current cultural climate. Disordered eating receives insufficient attention, however, due to the public's unfamiliarity with symptoms and consequences, absence of treatment options, and unreliable instrumentation to detect disordered eating. Disordered…
There has been a paucity of research on gifted individuals' perceptions of gender stereotypes. The purpose of this study was to explore mathematically gifted adolescent females' perceptions of gender stereotypes through a research design of the qualitative multiple case study involving the constant comparison and the Three C's analysis scheme.…
Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence. Although, these athletes apparently undergo sufficient physical activity to develop healthy bones, it is possible that other...
Grimley, Diane M.; Lee, Patricia A.
Examines the sexual practices of 235 females aged 15 to 19 years and their readiness to use specific contraceptive methods. Results indicate that, despite the availability of newer contraceptive methods, most sexually active adolescents were least resistant to using condoms, perceiving the male condom as an acceptable preventative both for…
Ball, Joanna; Armistead, Lisa; Austin, Barbara-jeanne
Study provides a description of religiosity in a sample of African-American female teens and examines religion as a resource for these adolescents by focusing on the association between religiosity and sexual activity, self-esteem, and general psychological functioning. Results reveal that greater overall religiosity was associated with greater…
Voisin, Dexter R.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.; Yarber, William L.
The authors used Bronfenbrenner's conceptual framework of an ecological systems model to examine factors that are independently associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors among 280 sexually active detained female adolescents. Using computer-assisted self-interviewing procedures, the authors assessed individual…
Examines whether feminine media stars idolized by adolescent girls provide a safe target of romantic love before girls start dating and become sexually active. Surveys of seventh and ninth grade Israeli girls indicate that idolizing feminine stars may be an intermediate step in a sequence that starts with idolizing females and continues to the…
Greene, David A; Naughton, Geraldine A; Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Moresi, Mark; Ducher, Gaele
Bone health is considered not to benefit from water-based sports because of their weight-supported nature, but available evidence primarily relies on DXA technology. Our purpose was to investigate musculoskeletal health in the upper and lower body in well-trained adolescent female athletes using pQCT and compare these athletes with less-active, age- and sex-matched peers. Bone mineral content, volumetric cortical and trabecular BMD, total and cortical area, and bone strength index were assessed at the distal and proximal tibia and radius in four groups of adolescent females (mean age, 14.9 years) including water polo players (n = 30), gymnasts (n = 25), track-and-field athletes (n = 34), and nonactive controls (n = 28). Water polo players did not show any benefit in bone strength index or muscle size in the lower leg when compared with controls. In contrast, gymnasts showed 60.1 % and 53.4 % greater bone strength index at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, than nonactive females (p < 0.05). Similarly, track-and-field athletes displayed 33.9 % and 14.7 % greater bone strength index at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, compared with controls (p < 0.05). In the upper body, water polo players had 31.9 % greater bone strength index at the distal radius, but not the radial shaft, and 15.2 % larger forearm muscle cross-sectional area than controls (p < 0.05). The greatest musculoskeletal benefits in the upper body were found in gymnasts. In conclusion, despite training at an elite level, female water polo players did not show any benefits in musculoskeletal health in the lower leg and only limited benefits in the upper body when compared with nonactive girls.
Burg, Alison Joy
Female adolescent oncology patients undergo many physical changes throughout treatment that have challenging psychological, emotional, and social implications. Body image for this population is a subject that tends to be overlooked in the midst of the cancer experience. This article will examine the complex concept of body image and discuss why female adolescent patients are at such high risk for negative body image. Assessment and care strategies are needed to foster a positive body image, resiliency, and overall well-being. Although survivorship studies may offer insightful information about the effects of the cancer journey on long-term body image, focus should be on prevention and holistic care as part of the treatment itself. The health care team, especially nursing professionals, should acknowledge, recognize, and address this vital issue as a critical part of oncology care.
Choi, HyeJeong; Van Ouytsel, Joris; Temple, Jeff R
This study aims to investigate whether experiences of offline sexual coercion are associated with adolescent females' involvement in different types of sexting behaviors. It draws on data from 450 ethnically diverse female adolescents with an average age of 19.02 years (SD = 0.74) who were originally recruited in southeast Texas. The participants were asked about their experiences with sexual coercion, and their engagement in sexting behavior (i.e., sending, requesting, and being asked for a sext, and receiving a sext without giving permission). Logistic regressions were used to analyze these relationships, while controlling for age, ethnicity, education level, living situation, and sexting behaviors in the year prior of the study. Offline sexual coercion was significantly associated with sending and being asked for a naked image, as well as receiving a naked image without giving permission. The results suggest that sexting could function as an online extension of offline forms of sexual coercion.
de Carvalho, Filipe Ricardo Pires; Figueira Martins, Ana Teresa da Conceição; Teixeira, Ana Maria Miranda Botelho
In spite of the advances in knowledge on the multi-factorial nature of obesity, many questions related to the consequences of the disease continue to be unanswered. Several studies have reported biomechanic and kinematic adaptation and alterations in walking and in tasks of every day life, motivated by the additional load of fat mass in children and adults. The main objective of this study was to understand the effect of obesity in the electromyographic activity of four lower extremity muscles during three speeds of walking and during a countermovement jump (CMJ) in twenty two (9 obese and 13 normal weight) female adolescents aged 13. Although electromyographic differences were not observed between groups for normal, slow and fast speeds, data suggests that the preferred pace of the obese is less efficient than that of the normal weight group. In CMJ task, differences in the after-fall jump phase were observed. More studies are needed to explain if the few differences observed between groups are caused by the bigger amount of fat mass.
Gong, Juan-Fen; Xie, Hong-Li; Mao, Xin-Jie; Zhu, Xue-Bo; Xie, Zuo-Kai; Yang, Hai-Hong; Gao, Yang; Jin, Xiao-Feng; Pan, Yu; Zhou, Fen
Background: Gender is one of the risk factors accounting for the high prevalence of adolescent myopia. Considerable research results have shown that myopia incidence of female is higher than that of male. This study aimed to analyze the correlation between ocular parameters and serum estrogen level and to investigate the vision changes along with estrogen change in menstrual cycle of adolescent females. Methods: A total of 120 young females aged between 15 and 16 years, diagnosed with myopia were recruited. Spherical lens, cylindrical lens, axis, interpupillary distance (IPD), and vision in each tested eye of the same subject were measured by automatic optometry and comprehensive optometry, with repetition of all measurements in the menstrual cycle of the 2nd or 3rd days, 14th days, and 28th days, respectively. Serum estradiol (E2) levels were assayed by chemiluminescence immunoassay at the same three times points of the menstrual cycle mentioned above. Results: In young females with myopia, the spherical lens showed a statistically significant difference among all different time in menstrual cycle (all P < 0.0001). The cylindrical lens, axis, and IPD were changed significantly during the menstrual cycle (P < 0.05). The vision of the three different time points in menstrual cycle had a significant difference (χ2 = 6.35, P = 0.042). The vision during the 14th and 28th day was higher compared to that on the 2nd or 3rd days (P = 0.021). Serum E2 levels were significantly different at different time points in menstrual cycle (P < 0.05). E2 levels reached its maximum value on the 14th day and the minimum value on the 2nd or 3rd day. Conclusions: In adolescent females, the spherical lens and other related ocular parameters vary sensitively with different levels of E2 in menstrual cycle. Vision in late menstrual stage is significantly higher than that in premenstrual stage. PMID:25698200
Greydanus, Donald E; Omar, Hatim; Pratt, Helen D
The adolescent female athlete has become a common part of the sports environment at all levels from childhood play to professional adult sports. This article considers various issues common to this athlete to help clinicians care for their patients. Basic sports physiology is reviewed and then specific conditions are considered, including iron deficiency anemia, stress urinary incontinence, breast issues (ie, pain, asymmetry, galactorrhea, injury), the female athlete triad (ie, menstrual dysfunction, abnormal eating patterns, and osteopenia or osteoporosis), and injuries. Clinical conundrums are considered including the difficulty in caring for a dedicated athlete whose intense love of her sport may lead to menstrual and bone loss complications. The knowledgeable clinician in the twenty-first century can be of considerable help to the female athlete who is at and beyond puberty.
de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo C.; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G.; Priore, Silvia Eloiza
OBJECTIVE: To study anthropometrical and body composition variables as predictors of risk for metabolic alterations and metabolic syndrome in female adolescents. METHODS: Biochemical, clinical and corporal composition data of 100 adolescents from 14 to 17 years old, who attended public schools in Viçosa, Southeastern Brazil, were collected. RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, 83, 11 and 6% showed eutrophia, overweight/obesity and low weight, respectively, and 61% presented high body fat percent. Total cholesterol presented the highest percentage of inadequacy (57%), followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL - 50%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL - 47%) and triacylglycerol (22%). Inadequacy was observed in 11, 9, 3 and 4% in relation to insulin resistance, fasting insulin, blood pressure and glycemia, respectively. The highest values of the fasting insulin and the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were verified at the highest quartiles of body mass index (BMI), waist perimeter, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percent. Body mass index, waist perimeter, and waist-to-height ratio were the better predictors for high levels of HOMA-IR, blood glucose and fasting insulin. Waist-to-hip ratio was associated to arterial hypertension diagnosis. All body composition variables were effective in metabolic syndrome diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Waist perimeter, BMI and waist-to-height ratio showed to be good predictors for metabolic alterations in female adolescents and then should be used together for the nutritional assessment in this age range. PMID:25119752
Meltzer, Lisa J; Logan, Deirdre E; Mindell, Jodi A
This study examined sleep patterns in female adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Twenty-six participants with chronic musculoskeletal pain completed questionnaires during their clinic visit, and three 24-Hour Sleep Patterns Interviews during the following 2 weeks. Compared to normative data (Acebo & Carskadon, 2002), adolescents with chronic pain reported similar total sleep time (TST) and bedtimes. However, study participants reported significantly longer sleep onset latency, more night wakings, a later morning wake time, and more symptoms of daytime sleepiness. Pain improved after sleep for 27% of the study sample, and was associated with longer TST. Finally, depression and anxiety were related to daytime sleepiness, but not total sleep time or sleep onset latency. Female adolescents with chronic pain either may be more sensitive to the chronic sleep debt that is common in this age group, or they may experience underlying physiological sleep disrupters (e.g., periodic limb movement disorder) or sleep abnormalities (e.g., alpha-delta intrusions) not measured in this study. Additional research is needed to examine the complex relation between sleep and chronic musculoskeletal pain.
Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Almeida, Sebastião de Sousa; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Ferreira, Maria Elisa C.
Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB) of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months). The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001) and T3 (p=0.001). The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04). The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year. PMID:24676195
Foy, David W.; Ritchie, Iya K.; Conway, Alison H.
Background While males constitute the majority, female adolescent offenders are a sizeable minority of the overall delinquent population. Further, those females who become involved in delinquent activities appear to be doing so at a younger age, and they are involved in a wide range of criminal activities, including violent offenses. Objective The goal of this article is to consolidate an empirical base for our current knowledge about female juvenile offenders’ trauma-related mental health and rehabilitation issues. Method We searched for studies using PILOTS, PsycLIT, PsycINFO, and EBSCOhost electronic databases. Results Accordingly, we present a review of findings from 33 recent studies showing consistently high rates of trauma exposure, PTSD, and common comorbidities among female adolescent offenders. We also examined recent literature on risk and protective factors for female delinquency, as well as treatments for offenders, and found that there was some early representation of trauma and PTSD as important variables to be considered in etiology and treatment. Conclusion Future plans for addressing the mental health needs of female offenders should be better informed by these recent findings about widespread trauma exposure and related psychological consequences. PMID:22893830
Khuwaja, Salma A; Selwyn, Beatrice J; Mgbere, Osaro; Khuwaja, Alam; Kapadia, Asha; McCurdy, Sheryl; Hsu, Chiehwen E
This study explored post-migration experiences of recently migrated Pakistani Muslim adolescent females residing in the United States. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with thirty Pakistani Muslim adolescent females between the ages of 15 and 18 years living with their families in Houston, Texas. Data obtained from the interviews were evaluated using discourse analysis to identify major reoccurring themes. Participants discussed factors associated with the process of adaptation to the American culture. The results revealed that the main factors associated with adaptation process included positive motivation for migration, family bonding, social support networks, inter-familial communication, aspiration of adolescents to learn other cultures, availability of English-as-second-language programs, participation in community rebuilding activities, and faith practices, English proficiency, peer pressure, and inter-generational conflicts. This study provided much needed information on factors associated with adaptation process of Pakistani Muslim adolescent females in the United States. The results have important implications for improving the adaptation process of this group and offer potential directions for intervention and counseling services.
YANG, GUOQING; DOU, JINGTAO; ZHANG, XIAOLIN; GU, WEIJUN; LV, ZHAOHUI; DU, JIN; BA, JIANMING; MU, YIMING; LU, JUMING
In the present study, the case of a female patient with pseudo-hermaphrodism caused by an androgen-producing adrenocortical tumor is presented, and the possible mechanism is investigated. The expression of the luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotrophin (LH/hCG) receptor in tumor tissues and normal adrenal tissues was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the activities of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (HSD2), cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase (CYP17) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 (HSD3) enzymes were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the expression levels of 3β-HSD2, 17β-HSD3, CYP17 and LH/hCG receptor mRNA were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Immunohistochemical staining for the LH/hCG receptor was negative in the tumor tissue and positive in the normal adrenal tissue. The activities of 3β-HSD2 and CYP17 in the tumor tissue were higher than those in the normal tissue (P<0.01), whereas the activity of 17β-HSD3 was lower (P<0.01). The mRNA levels of 3β-HSD2 and CYP17 were higher (P<0.01) and the levels of 17β-HSD3 and LH/hCG receptor were lower (P<0.01) in the tumor tissue compared with those of the normal tissue. In conclusion, in the present study, a rare case of virilization by an androgen-producing adrenocortical tumor is present. The results indicate that it may be associated with increased activities of 3β-HSD2 and CYP17 but not with the expression of the LH/hCG receptor. PMID:26893641
Odeyemi, Kofoworola; Onajole, Adebayo; Ogunowo, Babatunde
High rates of adolescent pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and unsafe abortions in Nigeria indicate the need for a greater understanding of factors that affect adolescent sexuality. The sexual health needs of adolescents remain poorly known and addressed particularly among vulnerable subpopulations like out-of-school adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the sexual behavior of female out-of-school adolescents and to identify factors that influence their sexual behavior. This cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of unmarried, out-of-school female adolescents (n = 332, mean age 17 y), selected using cluster sampling, who were working in a major market (Mushin) in Lagos, Nigeria. Data were collected using interviewer administered questionnaires. Many girls (43.7%) have had sexual intercourse. The mean age at initiation was 16 years. The main reason for initiation was curiosity. Risky sexual behavior and transactional sex was common. Nonconsensual sex was also reported. Sexual health knowledge was poor, and friends served as their main source of information on sexual health issues. Factors associated with the initiation of sexual activity were friends sexual behavior, the person adolescents reside with, parents marital status, availability of funds to meet basic needs, and watching pornography (p < .05). Out-of-school female adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior are exposed to sexual abuse, lack skills to resist pressure, and have limited access to credible reproductive health information. Appropriate interventions including provision of sexuality education and a supportive environment must be instituted to address their needs.
Lynn, Debra A; Brown, Gillian R
During adolescence, rats gain independence from their mothers and disperse from the natal burrow, with males typically dispersing further than females. We predicted that, if dispersal patterns are associated with responsiveness to novelty, exploratory behavior in novel environments would increase across adolescence, and males would explore more than females. Alternatively, females might explore more than males, if females are more motivated than males to learn about the immediate environment or if females have poorer spatial abilities than males. Twenty-five male and 21 female rats were exposed to two novel environments (open field and elevated plus-maze) during early, mid-, or late adolescence. Total locomotion and amount of exploration directed towards aversive areas increased across adolescence, even when body weight was included as a covariate. Female adolescents locomoted more and spent more time exploring aversive areas than males. Developmental changes in neural function potentially underlie age and sex differences in exploratory behavior.
Huda, N.; Pant, Ajay; Jameel, Tariq
Osteochondroma or osteocartolaginous exostosis is by far the most common benign bone tumour, which accounts for 35% to 50% of benign bone neoplasms and 10% to 15% of all primary bone tumours. Osteochondroma represents a developmental enchondromatous hyperplasia which leads to formation of cartilage capped bony protrusions on bony surfaces. We present a case report of a 14-year- old female, who presented to us with a hard, gradually progressing, large painless swelling, over the left side of her neck. Swelling was nontender, extending from dorsal to ventral aspect, measuring 6 x 8 cm. Therefore, we are interested in introducing our case to medical fraternity, in which a giant lower cervical spine osteochondroma was seen in an adolescent female patient. PMID:24995199
McCauley, Elizabeth; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Schloredt, Kelly; Martell, Christopher; Rhew, Isaac; Hubley, Samuel; Dimidjian, Sona
This study aimed to examine implementation feasibility and initial treatment outcomes of a behavioral activation (BA) based treatment for adolescent depression, the Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program (A-BAP). A randomized, controlled trial was conducted with 60 clinically referred adolescents with a depressive disorder who were randomized to receive either 14 sessions of A-BAP or uncontrolled evidenced-based practice for depression. The urban sample was 64% female, predominantly Non-Hispanic White (67%), and had an average age of 14.9 years. Measures of depression, global functioning, activation, and avoidance were obtained through clinical interviews and/or through parent and adolescent self-report at preintervention and end of intervention. Intent-to-treat linear mixed effects modeling and logistic regression analysis revealed that both conditions produced statistically significant improvement from pretreatment to end of treatment in depression, global functioning, and activation and avoidance. There were no significant differences across treatment conditions. These findings provide the first step in establishing the efficacy of BA as a treatment for adolescent depression and support the need for ongoing research on BA as a way to enhance the strategies available for treatment of depression in this population.
King, S J; de Sales Turner
This phenomenological study was undertaken to explore in depth the experiences of registered nurses caring for adolescent anorexic females within paediatric wards of general hospitals in Victoria, Australia. A qualitative design underpinned by the philosophy of Edmund Husserl was employed for this study. Audio taped in-depth interviews with five registered nurses working within the public health care system were conducted. Using Colaizzi's procedural steps of analysis, six themes of meaning were explicated. They were: (a) personal core values of nurses; (b) core values challenged; (c) emotional turmoil; (d) frustration; (e) turning points; and (f) resolution. These themes, when taken together, described the essence of the journey undertaken by registered nurses who cared for adolescent anorexic females. The findings of this study indicated that there is a need for extensive registered nurse preparation, on-going support, and development of education programmes to enable registered nurses to care for these patients with greater understanding. Further, the participants identified the need for new care regimes and protocols to be developed that incorporated new ways of thinking. They also expressed a desire to be have greater involvement in the planned care of their patients.
Gunst, Noëlle; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Vasey, Paul L
We explored the role that sexual and social partners play in the expression of female homosexual behavior among adolescent female Japanese macaques at Arashiyama, Japan. Our data fully or partially supported all the predictions related to four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses, namely the "adult male disinterest in adolescent females" hypothesis, the "numerous homosexual adult females" hypothesis, the "safer homosexual interactions" hypothesis and the "same-sex sexual interactions" hypothesis. Our results show that both sexual context (e.g., lack of adolescent female attractivity toward adult males, presence of motivated same-sex sexual partners), and social context (e.g., risk of aggression) help explain the high frequency and prevalence of homosexual behavior in adolescent females in the Arashiyama group of Japanese macaques. As with adult females, whose homosexual consortships do not reflect generalized patterns of social affiliation or kinship, we found that adolescent females' same-sex sexual partners were neither kin, nor were they non-kin individuals with whom adolescent females were closely affiliated outside of a consortship context. Our study furthers the growing database of female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques and provides additional evidence that homosexual behavior as expressed by adolescent female Japanese macaques is, like heterosexual behavior, sexual in nature. We discuss the relevance of our findings to a broader comparative approach that may shed light upon the development and evolution of human homosexuality.
Johnson, Nicole L.; Carini, Lindsay; Schenk, Marian E.; Stewart, Michelle; Byrnes, Elizabeth M.
The non-medical use of prescription opiates, such as Vicodin® and MSContin®, has increased dramatically over the past decade. Of particular concern is the rising popularity of these drugs in adolescent female populations. Use during this critical developmental period could have significant long-term consequences for both the female user as well as potential effects on her future offspring. To address this issue, we have begun modeling adolescent opiate exposure in female rats and have observed significant transgenerational effects despite the fact that all drugs are withdrawn several weeks prior to pregnancy. The purpose of the current set of studies was to determine whether adolescent morphine exposure modifies postpartum care. In addition, we also examined juvenile play behavior in both male and female offspring. The choice of the social play paradigm was based on previous findings demonstrating effects of both postpartum care and opioid activity on play behavior. The findings revealed subtle modifications in the maternal behavior of adolescent morphine-exposed females, primarily related to the amount of time females’ spend nursing and in non-nursing contact with their young. In addition, male offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed mothers (MOR-F1) demonstrate decreased rough and tumble play behaviors, with no significant differences in general social behaviors (i.e., social grooming and social exploration). Moreover, there was a tendency toward increased rough and tumble play in MOR-F1 females, demonstrating the sex-specific nature of these effects. Given the importance of the postpartum environment on neurodevelopment, it is possible that modifications in maternal–offspring interactions, related to a history of adolescent opiate exposure, plays a role in the observed transgenerational effects. Overall, these studies indicate that the long-term consequences of adolescent opiate exposure can impact both the female and her future offspring. PMID:21713113
Buran, Constance F; Sawin, Kathleen J; Brei, Timothy J; Fastenau, Philip S
The Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, USA has identified activities, beliefs, and perceptions critical for healthy development. The aim of this study was to measure the activities, beliefs and expectations, and perceived outcomes of adolescents with myelomeningocele. In this descriptive study, 66 adolescents with myelomeningocele, aged 12 to 21 years and functioning at grade level, completed a structured interview. Thirty-eight (58%) of the participants were female. The level of lesion was distributed as follows: 30% had thoracic level lesions, 32% had lumbar level lesions, 15% had lumbosacral level lesions, and 23% of the sample had sacral level lesions. Instruments used had both established reliability and validity (WeeFIM, Harter's Self-Perception Profile, Austin's Child Attitude Toward Illness Scale, and Snyder's Hope Scale, Adolescent Decision-Making Inventory, Adolescent Coping Scale) or were scales developed for this study (Adolescent Activities Inventory, Future Expectations Scale, Communication Efficacy, and Adolescent Self-Management and Independence Scale). Scale reliabilities ranged from 0.70 to 0.88. These participants, though hopeful and positive in their attitudes toward myelomeningocele and generally able to perform activities of daily living independently, are not engaging in the full range of adolescent activities (decision making, friendship activities, and household responsibilities) and achieving positive outcomes (self-management and job) necessary to make a successful transition to adulthood. This might explain why so many individuals with myelomeningocele are underemployed and are not living independently as young adults.
Meurer, Elisea M; Garcez, Vera; von Eye Corleta, Helena; Capp, Edison
The objective of this study is to characterize voice intensity and stability of fundamental frequency, formants and diadochokinesis, vocal modulations, rhythms, and speed of speech in adolescents during follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Twenty-three adolescent females who were nonusers of oral contraceptives participated in a cross-sectional study of menstrual cycle influences on voicing and speaking tasks. Acoustic analyses were performed during both phases of the menstrual cycle using the Kay Elemetrics Computer Speech Lab Software Package. Data were analyzed using Student's paired sample t test. Phono-articulatory parameters were similar in both phases of the menstrual cycle (fundamental frequency: 192.6+/-23.9 Hz; minimum formant 891.7+/-110.3 Hz; and maximum formant: 2471.5+/-203.6 Hz). In diadochokinesis, they had a speed of 5.6+/-0.6 seg/s and vocal intensity was 61.5+/-2.6 dB. The mean values for the variations in voice modulations were as follows: anger (21.7+/-8.7 Hz)
Zweig, Janine M.; Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; McGinley, Karen Alexander
Examines the interrelationships among adolescent health risk behaviors using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health for 12,955 adolescents. Findings show distinct differences for males and females in risk profile, but few distinctions between profiles based on socioeconomic characteristics. (SLD)
Schnall, Rebecca; Stockwell, Melissa S; Castaño, Paula M; Higgins, Tracy; Westhoff, Carolyn; Santelli, John; Dayan, Peter S
Background Over 15 million adolescents use the emergency department (ED) each year in the United States. Adolescent females who use the ED for medical care have been found to be at high risk for unintended pregnancy. Given that adolescents represent the largest users of text messaging and are receptive to receiving text messages related to their sexual health, the ED visit represents an opportunity for intervention. Objective The aim of this qualitative study was to explore interest in and preferences for the content, frequency, and timing of an ED-based text message intervention to prevent pregnancy for adolescent females. Methods We conducted semistructured, open-ended interviews in one urban ED in the United States with adolescent females aged 14-19 years. Eligible subjects were adolescents who were sexually active in the past 3 months, presented to the ED for a reproductive health complaint, owned a mobile phone, and did not use effective contraception. Using an interview guide, enrollment continued until saturation of key themes. The investigators designed sample text messages using the Health Beliefs Model and participants viewed these on a mobile phone. The team recorded, transcribed, and coded interviews based on thematic analysis using the qualitative analysis software NVivo and Excel. Results Participants (n=14) were predominantly Hispanic (13/14; 93%), insured (13/14; 93%), ED users in the past year (12/14; 86%), and frequent text users (10/14; 71% had sent or received >30 texts per day). All were interested in receiving text messages from the ED about pregnancy prevention, favoring messages that were “brief,” “professional,” and “nonaccusatory.” Respondents favored texts with links to websites, repeated information regarding places to receive “confidential” care, and focused information on contraception options and misconceptions. Preferences for text message frequency varied from daily to monthly, with random hours of delivery to
Henje Blom, E; Olsson, EM; Serlachius, E; Ericson, M; Ingvar, M
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate heart rate variability (HRV) in a clinical sample of female adolescents with anxiety disorders (AD) and/or major depressive disorder (MDD) compared with healthy controls and to assess the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) on HRV. Methods: Heart rate variability was measured in adolescent female psychiatric patients with AD and/or MDD (n = 69), mean age 16.8 years (range: 14.5–18.4), from 13 out-patient clinics and in healthy controls (n = 65), mean age 16.5 years (range: 15.9–17.7). HRV was registered in the sitting position during 4 min with no interventions. Results: Logarithmically transformed high frequency HRV (HF), low frequency HRV (LF) and standard deviation of inter beat intervals (SDNN) were lower in the clinical sample compared with the controls (Cohen’s d for HF = 0.57, LF = 0.55, SDNN = 0.60). This was not explained by body mass index, blood pressure or physical activity. Medication with SSRI explained 15.5% of the total variance of HF, 3.0% of LF and 6.5% of SDNN. Conclusions: Adolescent female psychiatric patients with AD and/or MDD show reduced HRV compared with healthy controls. Medication with SSRI explained a part of this difference. PMID:20121706
There has been a scarcity of research studies addressing the dilemmas of peer relationships confronting gifted adolescent females. In this study, the peer relationships of nine mathematically gifted adolescent females living in Taiwan are explored using a qualitative multicase study. Data analysis revealed six compelling themes: a proclivity for…
Coleman, Katherine; Mills, Bethany
This psychoeducational counselling group is designed to explore the many facets of the emerging female adolescent identity and foster a high level of self-esteem. According to Powell (2004) adolescence is a time, and even more so for females, which can be marked by many identity conflicts and low levels of self-esteem. As such, this 14 week…
Pergadia, Michele L.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Lessov, Christina N.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Heath, Andrew C.
Background: The objective was to determine whether the pattern of environmental and genetic influences on deviant personality scores differs from that observed for the normative range of personality, comparing results in adolescent and adult female twins. Methods: A sample of 2,796 female adolescent twins ascertained from birth records provided…
Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela
The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…
Schneider, A S; Mayer, H M; Geißler, U; Rumpf, M C; Schneider, C
This study addresses the epidemiology of injuries in adolescent male and female soccer players in Germany. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to analyse the injuries in male and female youth soccer players in Germany. This study was designed as a cross-sectional web-based survey. From March until December 2011 we investigated 1110 soccer players (male n = 841; female n = 269) aged 12 - 19 years (15.0 ± 2.0 years) from 60 clubs in Southern Germany. A total of 664 (79 %) of the 841 boys and 67 (25 %) of the 269 girls reported being injured due to soccer. The total number of injuries was 2373. Respectively the frequency of injury was 2.85 in boys and 7.10 in girls. The lower extremities were affected in 70 % of all reported cases. Strains were the most common injuries in the lower and upper extremities (35 %). The boys reported in 51.5 % of all injuries that the injury was non-contact in nature. In contrast, 52.1 % of the injuries in girls were reported as contact injuries. Similar amounts of injuries were observed in training versus games for both genders. Prevention procedures, such as a thorough warm-up, should be implemented before every game and training to reduce the risk of injury.
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R
This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection.
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T.; Quinn, Camille R.; Cryer, Qiana R.
This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/ or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman’s life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. PMID:25475102
by female rats during agonistic interactions : Effects of morphine and naltrexone. Psychopharmacology. 114, 441-448. Hardy, J.B., & Mellits, ED...Rakic and colleagues in primates. Particularly of interest in spatial working memory is the connection of the hippocampus with the prefrontal cortex...Early work of Olton and others have identified the key role that the hippocampus plays in spatial memory processing (Olton, 1983; Olton et aI., 1979a
Lardenoije, Céline; Aardenburg, Robert; Mertens, Helen
A 16-year-old girl presented with primary amenorrhea and had had cyclical abdominal pain for almost a year. At examination we observed a painful mass in the lower abdomen and normal secondary sex characteristics. Perineal examination showed a bluish bulging hymen. Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed a dense mass in the pelvis measuring about 12×11 cm. We diagnosed an imperforate hymen with haematocolpos and haematometra. The hymen was opened surgically and a large quantity of menstrual blood was drained from the vagina and uterus. Postoperative recovery was normal without any pain. The patient now menstruates regularly. An imperforate hymen occurs in 0.05% of women. It is important to be aware of this while examining a female adolescent presenting with cyclical abdominal pain and primary amenorrhea. Late discovery of an imperforate hymen may lead to pain, infections, hydronephrosis and endometriosis with subfertility as a possible consequence. PMID:21686660
Fehlandt, A; Micheli, L
Acute compartment syndromes usually occur as a complication of major trauma. While the chronic exertional anterior tibial compartment syndrome is well described in the sports medicine literature, reports of acute tibial compartment syndromes due to physical exertion, or repetitive microtrauma, are rare. The case of an adolescent female who developed an acute anterior compartment syndrome from running in a soccer game is described in this report. Failure to recognize the onset of an acute exertional compartment syndrome may lead to treatment delay and serious complications. Whereas the chronic exertional anterior compartment syndrome is characterized by pain that diminishes with the cessation of exercise, the onset of the acute exertional anterior compartment syndrome is heralded by pain that continues, or increases, after exercise has stopped. Compartment pressure measurement confirms the clinical diagnosis and helps guide treatment. True compartment syndromes require urgent fasciotomy.
Barth, H; Döbler, T; Galletzki, R; Amon, K
A questionnaire survey on sex knowledge of 930 female vocational students (17-18 year olds) was done to assess future needs in sex education. Main points in the questionnaire were sex upbringing and education received; peer groups, couple and contraceptive behavior; and attitude to family and family planning. Socioeconomic factors, parents' occupation, and size of residence were considered. Results showed: 70.4% had some kind of sex upbringing before age 12; 24.5% after age 12. Whereas up to 80% wanted sex education from parents, only about 55% actually received this (mothers mostly); 80% of actual sex information came from books and TV. Peers proved closer to the girls in confidence than parents. Although teachers were 3rd in line to provide actual sex education they were last as persons desired by the girls to provide this. Nearly 60% of the subjects desired more information in the areas of love and marriage, sex in adolescence, effects and side effects of the pill, general contraceptive methods and sex behavior. Conclusions from the survey point to the need to start sex education at an early age and extend it into adolescence and beyond; it should be direct, continuous and goal-oriented. Teenagers desire interpersonal dialogue with concerned adults. There should be cooperation in sex education between parents, teachers, and youth organizations. Teachers are insufficiently prepared to assume the role as sex educator. Teenagers need more factual information on conscious family planning and contraceptive methods.
Hong, Suzie; Flashner, Bess; Chiu, Melissa; Hoeve, Elizabeth ver; Luz, Sandra; Bhatnagar, Seema
Social interactions in rodents are rewarding and motivating and social isolation is aversive. Accumulating evidence suggests that disruption of the social environment in adolescence has long-term effects on social interactions, on anxiety-like behavior and on stress reactivity. In previous work we showed that adolescent isolation produced increased reactivity to acute and to repeated stress in female rats, whereas lower corticosterone responses to acute stress and decreased anxiety-related behavior were noted in isolated males. These results indicate a sex specific impact on the effects of social stress in adolescence. However, little is known about whether social isolation impacts behaviors related to affect and whether it does so differently in male and female rats. The present study investigated the impact of adolescent social isolation from day 30-50 of age in male and female Sprague Dawley rats on behavior in the forced swim test at the end of adolescence and in adulthood and on behavior in the sucrose preference test in adulthood. Adult female rats that were isolated in adolescence exhibited increased climbing on the first and second day of the forced swim test and showed an increased preference for sucrose compared to adult females that were group-housed in adolescence. There were no effects in male rats. The results indicate that social isolation in adolescence produces a stable and active behavioral phenotype in adult female rats. PMID:21907226
Tschann, J M; Adler, N E
A longitudinal study examined the emotional and interpersonal processes involved in contraceptive behavior among 201 sexually active female adolescents 14-19 years of age recruited from adolescent medicine clinics in San Francisco, California (US). At study entry, adolescents completed questionnaires regarding sociodemographics, sexual and reproductive history, sexual self-acceptance, sexual communication with partners, and current contraceptive use. At a 6-month follow-up interview, participants reported on all sexual activity and contraceptive use since study enrollment. Path analysis indicated greater sexual self-acceptance was significantly related to more sexual communication and more contraceptive communication. Contraceptive communication, in turn, was associated with more frequent and more effective contraceptive use. Higher levels of contraceptive communication predicted both more frequent and more effective contraceptive use at the 6-month follow-up even when the effects of baseline contraceptive use were controlled. When the association between sexual self-acceptance and subsequent contraceptive behavior was examined apart from communication about sexuality and contraception, sexual self-acceptance directly predicted contraceptive effectiveness but not frequency. These findings underscore the importance of interpersonal processes in sexual and contraceptive behavior and suggest the utility of interventions that provide adolescents with skills for discussing contraception.
Gold, Melanie A.; Bost, James E.; Adimora, Ada A.; Orr, Donald P.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis
Purpose Little is known about how adolescent sexual behaviors develop and the influence of personal or perceived social attitudes. We sought to describe how personal, perceived peer and perceived family attitudes towards adolescent sexual activity influences adolescent females’ sexual behaviors over time. Methods Between 1999–2006, 358 English-speaking females, aged 14–17 were recruited from three urban adolescent clinics. Participants completed quarterly and annual questionnaires over 4 years. Primary outcomes were engagement in eight sexual behaviors: kissing, having breasts or genitals touched, touching partners’ genitals, and oral (giving or receiving), anal, or vaginal sex. Three attitudinal scales assessed personal importance of abstinence, perceived peer beliefs about when to have sex and perceived family beliefs that adolescent sex is negative.. We used generalized estimating equations to identify predictors of each sexual behavior and compared whether personal, perceived peer or perceived family attitudes predicted sexual behaviors over time. Results The odds of reporting each sexual behavior increased with age but were lower among those whose personal or perceived family attitudes were less positive. Participants’ personal attitudes towards adolescent sex were the strongest predictor of engagement in all eight sexual behaviors even after controlling for perceived peer and perceived family attitudes. Conclusions Female adolescent’s personal attitudes towards abstinence appear to be the strongest predictor of engagement in a variety of sexual behaviors. Efforts to influence adolescent attitudes towards abstinence may be an important approach to reducing sexual behaviors that increase the risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. PMID:21185529
Ciairano, Silvia; Bonino, Silvia; Kliewer, Wendy; Miceli, Renato; Jackson, Sandy
Associations among dating, sexual activity, gender, and adjustment were investigated in 2,273 Italian adolescents (54% female, ages 14 to 19 years) attending public high schools. After controlling for age and type of school attended, both being in a dating relationship and being male were associated with less alienation, more positive views of the…
Lee, Min J; Yang, Pamela B; Wilcox, Victor T; Burau, Keith D; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum
Methylphenidate (MPD), or Ritalin, is a psychostimulant that is prescribed for an extended period of time to children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Adolescence is a time of critical brain maturation and development, and the drug exposure during this time could lead to lasting changes in the brain that endure into the adulthood. Circadian rhythms are 24 h rhythms of physiological processes that are synchronized by the master-clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, to keep the body stable in a changing environment. The aim of present study is to observe the effect of repeated MPD exposure on the locomotor diurnal rhythm activity patterns of female adolescent Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats using the open field assay. 31 female adolescent SD rats were divided into four groups: control, 0.6 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg MPD group. On experimental day 1, all groups were given an injection of saline. On experimental days 2-7, animals were injected once a day with either saline, 0.6 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg, or 10 mg/kg MPD, and experimental days 8-10 were the washout period. A re-challenge injection was given to each animal on experimental day 11 with the similar dose as the experimental days 2-7. The locomotor movements were counted by the computerized animal activity monitoring system. The data were analyzed statistically to find out whether the diurnal rhythm activity patterns were altered. The obtained data showed that repeated administrations of 2.5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg MPD were able to change the locomotor diurnal rhythm patterns, which suggests that these MPD doses exerts long-term effects.
Johnson, Sharon A.; Green, Vicki
Findings from 60 sexually active, unmarried females, ages 14 through 18, revealed that cognitive capacity and cognitive egocentrism variables as well as age, grade, and ethnic status significantly predicted 6 of 7 decision-making variables in contraceptive use model. One cognitive capacity variable and one sexual contraceptive behavior variable…
Nindl, B C; Mahar, M T; Harman, E A; Patton, J F
Little data exist for upper and lower body mechanical power capability of adolescent athletes. This study compared arm (A) and leg (L) anaerobic peak and mean power (PP and MP) of 20 male and 20 female adolescent athletes after normalization for body mass (BM), fat-free mass (FFM), and lean A and L cross-sectional area (CSA). Power outputs were assessed by the Wingate anaerobic test. FFM and CSA were estimated via anthropometry. No significant (P > 0.05) differences existed between the sexes in Tanner sexual maturity, chronological age, or overall training activity. Males had higher (P < 0.001) absolute PP (W) (L 694 vs 442; A 494 vs 309) and MP (L 548 vs 307; A 337 vs 214). Ratio normalization and ANCOVA were used to remove the influence of body size differences. Ratio normalization showed that males had greater leg PP/BM, MP/BM, MP/FFM, MP/CSA, as well as arm PP/BM and MP/BM, whereas all leg and arm PP and MP ANCOVA adjusted means for BM, FFM, and CSA, except arm MP adjusted for FFM, were significantly (P < 0.01) higher for males than females. We conclude that factors other than muscle mass, possibly qualitative in nature, are responsible for the sex difference in anaerobic performance of adolescent athletes.
Krauss, Ramona C; Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy
This paper investigated weight misperceptions as determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in body mass index (BMI) among adolescent females using data from the National Survey of Youth 1997. Compared to their white counterparts, higher proportions of black and Hispanic adolescent females underperceived their weight status; that is, they misperceived themselves to have lower weight status compared to their clinically defined weight status. Compared to their black counterparts, higher proportions of white and Hispanic adolescent females misperceived themselves to be heavier than their clinical weight status. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis showed that accounting for weight misperceptions, in addition to individual and contextual factors, increased the total explained portion of the black-white female BMI gap from 44.7% to 54.3% but only slightly increased the total explained portion of the Hispanic-white gap from 62.8% to 63.1%. Weight misperceptions explained 13.0% of the black-white female BMI gap and 3.3% of the Hispanic-white female BMI gap. The regression estimates showed that weight underperceptions were important determinants of adolescent female BMI, particularly among black and Hispanic adolescents. Education regarding identification and interpretation of weight status may play an important role to help reduce the incidence and racial disparity of female adolescent obesity.
This study investigates factors influencing participation of Afro-American female adolescents in sports. Following a review of the literature, two topics are addressed. The first of these, "Behavior in Sport," discusses benefits of sports to youth; stereotypes of Afro-American female sports participants; behaviors of female athletes; and…
Castillo Mezzich, A; Tarter, R E; Giancola, P R; Lu, S; Kirisci, L; Parks, S
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the etiological pathways towards substance use and risky sexual behavior in female adolescent substance abusers. The study had three aims: (1) to determine the relations between behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, and childhood victimization with substance use and risky sexual behavior, (2) to determine whether these relations are mediated by internalizing symptomatology, antisocial behavior, and affiliating with an adult boyfriend; and (3) to determine whether age of menarche moderates the relation between the mediating variables and substance use and risky sexual behavior. Multiple behavioral, psychiatric interview, and self-report measures were used to index behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, childhood victimization, internalizing symptomatology, antisocial behavior, affiliation with adult boyfriends, substance use, and risky sexual behavior in 125 substance abusing female adolescents and 78 controls between the ages of 14-18 years. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the etiological pathways. Results indicated that behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, and childhood victimization were related to substance use and risky sexual behavior. Age of menarche was significantly correlated with affiliation with an older boyfriend and risky sexual behavior. Antisocial behavior mediated the associations between behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity and childhood victimization with substance use and risky sexual behavior. Affiliation with an adult boyfriend was directly associated with substance use involvement and accounted for the relationship between chronological age and risky sexual behavior. Finally, late menarche enhanced the association between internalizing symptomatology and substance use involvement. The results highlight the importance of behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, and childhood victimization in predicting substance use and risky sexual
Buković, D; Lakusić, N; Kopjar, M; Maricić, I; Fures, R; Mahović, D; Marjan, D; Juresa, V; Zadro, M; Grah, J J; Simić, M
The aim of this study was to estimate the level of knowledge about sexuality, attitudes and sexual behaviour of female adolescents. The study included 194 female students, 117 from Medical High School (MHS) and 77 from General High School (GHS) in Zagreb. Data was collected using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. In addition to items on personal data (age, parental education etc.), the participants were asked to define terms about sexuality (e.g. menstruation, puberty) the definitions of which are found in biology textbooks for the fifth and eighth grade of primary school. The aim of the third part of the survey was to collect information about attitudes and behaviour of female adolescents. The results showed a low level of knowledge in students of both schools. General High School students showed a higher level of knowledge than their Medical High School peers. One fifth of General High School students and 1/3 of Medical High School students were unable to define the term "menstruation". The majority of adolescents talk about sexuality with their friends, 92.1% of General High School and 81.2% of Medical High School students. Almost 50% of students of both schools would like to talk about sexuality with their school doctor. 6.9% of Medical High School students had at least one sexual intercourse while none of the General High School students had been sexually active at the time of the survey. As the majority of students were not sexually active and results showed a rather low level of knowledge, this seems to be the ideal period for the implementation of educational programs aimed at increasing the level of knowledge, and thus preventing unwanted consequences (STD, pregnancy, abortion, infertility).
Wu, Tsu-Yin; Pender, Nola; Yang, Ke-Ping
The purpose of this paper is to present a comparative analysis of the determinants of physical activity among adolescents in Taiwan and in the United States. Pender's Health Promotion Model (HPM) served as the theoretical framework for both studies (Pender, 1996). The major determinants of health behavior in the HPM are perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, activity-related affect, interpersonal influences, situational influences, commitment to a plan of action, and immediate competing demands. In Taiwan, 969 middle school students (55% males; 45% females) from Taipei provided data for the study. In the United States, the sample was collected from 286 late elementary and middle school students (48% males; 52% females). Results showed the gender differences in activity levels were apparent in the youths from both countries. In both Taiwanese and American youths, boys were more active than girls. Cross-cultural differences in the importance of barriers to physical activity emerged. Among Taiwanese adolescents, barriers did not emerge as a significant direct predictor of physical activity as they did among US adolescents. Perceived efficacy directly predicted physical activity among Taiwanese youths while it indirectly predicted physical activity and appeared to be mediated by beliefs regarding exercise benefits and barriers among American youths. In addition, the paths of effect for interpersonal influences were different when Taiwanese and US youths were compared. The findings from this paper have important and culturally-relevant information that can inform future physical activity intervention studies with diverse adolescents.
Wojtys, Edward M.; Jannausch, Mary L.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Sowers, MaryFran R.
Context: Physical activity may affect the concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones in female athletes. Understanding the relationship between athletic and physical activity and circulating female hormone concentrations is critical. Objective: To test the hypotheses that (1) the estradiol-progesterone profile of high school adolescent girls participating in training, conditioning, and competition would differ from that of physically inactive, age-matched adolescent girls throughout a 3-month period; and (2) athletic training and conditioning would alter body composition (muscle, bone), leading to an increasingly greater lean–body-mass to fat–body-mass ratio with accompanying hormonal changes. Design: Cohort study. Settings: Laboratory and participants' homes. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 106 adolescent girls, ages 14–18 years, who had experienced at least 3 menstrual cycles in their lifetime. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants were prospectively monitored throughout a 13-week period, with weekly physical activity assessments and 15 urine samples for estrogen, luteinizing hormone, creatinine, and progesterone concentrations. Each girl underwent body-composition measurements before and after the study period. Results: Seventy-four of the 98 girls (76%) who completed the study classified themselves as athletes. Body mass index, body mass, and fat measures remained stable, and 17 teenagers had no complete menstrual cycle during the observation period. Mean concentrations of log(estrogen/creatinine) were slightly greater in nonathletes who had cycles of <24 or >35 days. Mean log(progesterone/creatinine) concentrations in nonathletes were less in the first half and greater in the second half of the cycle, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: A moderate level of athletic or physical activity did not influence urine concentrations of estrogen, progesterone, or luteinizing hormones. However, none of the
Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md
Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Results: Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. Conclusion: The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents’ risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia. PMID:24762359
van Eck, Mirjam; Dallmeijer, Annet J; Beckerman, Heleen; van den Hoven, Petronella A M; Voorman, Jeanine M; Becher, Jules G
The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity level of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and to investigate the associated factors. The physical activity level was measured by means of a questionnaire filled in by the parents of 72 adolescents with CP (12-16 years of age) and expressed in METs. Older age, female gender, and hip dysplasia were significantly associated with a lower level of physical activity. Eighty-nine percent were not physically active enough according to the Dutch norm. Physical activity needs to be promoted, especially among older adolescents with CP (age 14-16 years), girls, and adolescents with hip dysplasia.
Tolman, Deborah L.
This chapter challenges forthcoming research on adolescent female sexuality to take more seriously the role of dominant cultural ideologies regarding heterosexuality and to consider its theoretical and methodological implications.
Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang
This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.
Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang
This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.
Rahimi, Regina; Liston, Delores D.
When examining the experiences of adolescent girls, a study into the presumptions teachers have regarding female adolescent sexuality is a very important aspect to explore. This article presents the findings from a study we conducted with eleven middle- and high school teachers in a southeastern state from both rural and urban districts. In-depth…
Swank, Jacqueline M.; Lenes, Emi A.
A sandtray group experience is a creative intervention that counselors may want to incorporate into their work with adolescents. This qualitative inquiry explored the experiences of adolescent females who participated in a sandtray group while attending an alternative school. The researchers identified five themes that emerged from the data: (a)…
Miranda, Valter Paulo N.; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Priore, Silvia Eloiza
Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1), eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2), eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV). Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032). There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049). The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034) and percentage of central fat (p=0.039) compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751). Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess. PMID:24676194
Abrams, Laura S.; Stormer, Colleen Cook
Investigated the influences of ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and ethnic peer group composition on awareness and internalization of socially sanctioned standards of appearance using the Sociocultural Attitudes towards Adolescence Questionnaire. Findings for 208 adolescent females highlight the importance of multiple ecological factors in…
Storch, Eric A.; Masia-Warner, Carrie
This study examined the relationship of overt and relational victimization to social anxiety, loneliness, and prosocial behaviours in a sample of female adolescents. The Social Experience Questionnaire, Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 561 girls in the ninth, tenth, and eleventh grades of an…
Nelson, Christine Seipke; Keith, Joanne
Theory and research related to early adolescent sex role development needs to be addressed from both a life-span and an ecological perspective. A study was conducted to examine the development of female early adolescent sex role attitudes and behaviors in an ecological context as defined by Urie Bronfenbrenner. Data were the results of a…
Harrison, Kristen; Fredrickson, Barbara L.
Considers that sports media exposure may be linked to female adolescents' body perceptions. Tests this relationship from the perspective of objectification theory. Finds that self-objectification appears to be as problematic for adolescent girls as for college women, regardless of race or body mass. Focuses on self-objectification in adolescents…
Kosson, David S.; Neumann, Craig S.; Forth, Adelle E.; Salekin, Randall T.; Hare, Robert D.; Krischer, Maya K.; Sevecke, Kathrin
Despite substantial evidence for the fit of the 3- and 4-factor models of Psychopathy Checklist-based ratings of psychopathy in adult males and adolescents, evidence is less consistent in adolescent females. However, prior studies used samples much smaller than recommended for examining model fit. To address this issue, we conducted a confirmatory…
Brinson, Jesse A.
Examined African-American adolescents' use of alcohol and their perceptions of their family environments. Alcohol-using adolescents (n=71) completed Family Environment Scale (FES). Analyses of data revealed that females differed significantly from males on 4 of 10 FES subscales. Findings support view that alcohol affects perception of family…
Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Salerno, Jennifer
Adolescent participation in academic/extracurricular activities is related to fewer diagnoses of sexually transmitted infections during adolescence. The role parents play in motivating participation in such activities is unclear. This mixed-methods study explored parental influences on academic/extracurricular activity participation, and the…
Lo, Denise Swei; Shieh, Huei Hsin; Barreira, Eliane Roseli; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta; Gilio, Alfredo Elias
Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a rarely reported agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in the pediatric population. In our retrospective 3-year study, S. saprophyticus comprised 24.5% of 106 isolates of UTIs in female adolescents 12-15 years of age who attended an emergency department. Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of this etiology when empirically treating UTIs in female adolescents.
Ng, Junice Y. S.; Wong, Mee-Lian
Objectives We assessed the proportion of and socio-ecological factors associated with ever having had sex with female sex workers (FSWs) among heterosexual adolescents. We also described the characteristics of the adolescents who reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs. Methods This is a cross-sectional study (response rate: 73%) of 300 heterosexually active male adolescents of 16 to 19 years attending a national STI clinic in Singapore between 2009 and 2014. We assessed the ecological factors (individual, parental, peer, school and medial influences) and sexual risk behaviors using a self-reported questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and confidence intervals (CI). Results The proportion of heterosexual male adolescents who had ever had sex with FSWs was 39%. Multivariate analysis showed that significant factors associated with ever having had sex with FSWs were sex initiation before 16 years old (aPR 1.79 CI: 1.30–2.46), never had a sexually active girlfriend (aPR 1.75 CI 1.28–2.38), reported lower self-esteem score (aPR 0.96 CI: 0.93–0.98), higher rebelliousness score (aPR 1.03 CI: 1.00–1.07) and more frequent viewing of pornography (aPR 1.47 CI: 1.04–2.09). Lifetime inconsistent condom use with FSWs was 30%. Conclusions A significant proportion of heterosexual male adolescents attending the public STI clinic had ever had sex with FSWs. A targeted intervention that addresses different levels of influence to this behavior is needed. This is even more so because a considerable proportion of adolescents reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs, who may serve as a bridge of STI transmission to the community. National surveys on adolescent health should include the assessment of frequency of commercial sex visits and condom use with FSWs for long-term monitoring and surveillance. PMID:26808561
Lee, Kyu-Jin; Shin, Yun-A; Lee, Kyoung-Young; Jun, Tae-Won; Song, Wook
The purpose of this study was to assess differences in the levels of plasma visfatin among female adolescents and changes in plasma visfatin and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents after 12 wk of aerobic exercise training. Twenty normal-weight female students (body-mass index [BMI] < 22.9 kg/m² and body fat ≤ 29.9) and 18 obese female students (BMI ≥ 25 kg/ m² and body fat ≥ 30%) participated in this study. Eleven obese students were assigned to an exercise group and completed a 12-wk aerobic exercise-training program that included four 40- to 50-min sessions per wk with an energy expenditure of 300-400 kcal/d. Seven obese students were assigned to a control group that received no exercise sessions or dietary restriction. The plasma visfatin levels of obese female adolescents were significantly higher (p < .05) than those of the normal-weight female adolescents. The plasma visfatin levels (294.00 ± 124.74 ng/ml to 185.55 ± 67.30 ng/ml, p < .01) and insulin resistance (p < .05) were significantly reduced after 12 wk of aerobic exercise. The results suggest that aerobic exercise resulting in an energy expenditure of 1,200-1,600 kcal/wk for 12 wk decreases plasma visfatin and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents.
Kunz, Jennifer Hauser; Greenley, Rachel Neff; Mussatto, Kathleen A.; Roth-Wojcicki, Betsy; Miller, Tami; Freeman, Mary Ellen; Lerand, Sarah
Purpose To examine whether perceived peer/parent norms or personal beliefs about adolescent substance use influence substance use among female adolescents with chronic medical conditions. Methods 68 females reported on substance use, personal beliefs, and perceived peer/parent norms. Results Personal beliefs and perceived peer/parent norms were associated with adolescent’s current and future substance use. Although perceived peer norms accounted for variance in current substance use, only personal beliefs accounted for variance in future alcohol use. Conclusions Targeting perceived peer norms may be effective for intervention efforts among adolescents endorsing current substance use, whereas alcohol use prevention efforts should target personal beliefs. PMID:23524992
Wolfswinkel, Erik M.; Lemaine, Valerie; Weathers, William M.; Chike-Obi, Chuma J.; Xue, Amy S.; Heller, Lior
Macromastia in adolescents is multifactorial and usually idiopathic, associated with obesity or hormonal imbalances. Less commonly, it can result from virginal or juvenile breast hypertrophy, a rare condition of unknown etiology, where an alarmingly rapid breast enlargement occurs during puberty. Breast hypertrophy in the adolescent population can have significant long-term medical and psychological impacts. Although symptoms can be severe, many plastic surgeons, pediatricians, and parents are often reluctant to surgically treat adolescent macromastia. However, reduction mammoplasty is a safe and effective treatment and may be the only way to alleviate the increased social, psychological, and physical strain caused by macromastia in adolescents. PMID:24872740
Correia, Divanise S; Cavalcante, Jairo C; Maia, Eulália M C
The purpose of this study was to analyze risk factors for abortion among female teenagers from 12 to 19 years of age in the city of Maceió, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted in ten schools. The sample was calculated by considering the number of admissions for postabortion curettage, obtained from the Information System of Hospitalization. Data were obtained through a semi-structured questionnaire divided into three basic blocks of data: sociodemographic, sexual life, and pregnancy/abortion. To analyze the data, the logistic regression model was used. The Forward Method was chosen to set the final model that minimizes the number of variables and maximizes the accuracy of the model. The significant analysis between the dichotomous variables provided eight significant variables. Two of them are protective for abortion: the ages 12-14 years and talking with parents about sex. After the logistic regression, the receipt of support for abortion was the most significant variable of all. The adolescent with an active sexual life, a previous pregnancy, who is married, and has received support for an abortion has a 99.74% probability for an abortion. The results of this study, demonstrating the importance of the group in adolescence, and the statistical significance of having a partner to support and approve the pregnancy appears as a preventive factor for abortion. It shows the importance of support and companionship for adolescent women.
McCormick, C M; Mongillo, D L; Simone, J J
We previously observed that social instability stress (SS: daily 1 h isolation and change of cage partners for 16 days) in adolescence, but not in adulthood, decreased context and cue memory after fear conditioning in male rats. Effects of stress are typically sex-specific, and so here we investigated adolescent and adult SS effects in females on the strength of acquired contextual and cued fear conditioning, as well as extinction learning, beginning either the day after the stress procedure or four weeks later. For SS in adolescence, SS females spent more time freezing (fear measure) during extinction than did controls, whereas SS in adulthood had no effect on any measure of fear conditioning. The results also indicated an effect of age: females in late adolescence show more rapid extinction of cue and better memory of extinction of context compared to adult females, which may indicate resilience to acute footshock in adolescence. Thus fear circuitry continues to mature into late adolescence, which may underlie the heightened plasticity in response to chronic stressors of adolescents compared to adults.
Sharps, Maxine; Higgs, Suzanne; Blissett, Jackie; Nouwen, Arie; Chechlacz, Magdalena; Allen, Harriet A; Robinson, Eric
Behavioural mimicry is a potential mechanism explaining why adolescents appear to be influenced by their parents' eating behaviour. In the current study we examined whether there is evidence that adolescent females mimic their parents when eating. Videos of thirty-eight parent and female adolescent dyads eating a lunchtime meal together were examined. We tested whether a parent placing a food item into their mouth was associated with an increased likelihood that their adolescent child would place any food item (non-specific mimicry) or the same item (specific mimicry) in their mouth at three different time frames, namely, during the same second or within the next fifteen seconds (+15), five seconds (+5) or two second (+2) period. Parents and adolescents' overall food intake was positively correlated, whereby a parent eating a larger amount of food was associated with the adolescent eating a larger meal. Across all of the three time frames adolescents were more likely to place a food item in their mouth if their parent had recently placed that same food item in their mouth (specific food item mimicry); however, there was no evidence of non-specific mimicry. This observational study suggests that when eating in a social context there is evidence that adolescent females may mimic their parental eating behaviour, selecting and eating more of a food item if their parent has just started to eat that food.
Robbins, Lorraine B; Pis, Monika B; Pender, Nola J; Kazanis, Anamaria S
Since research involving adults indicates that physical activity (PA) self-definition influences PA participation, understanding PA self-definition and related factors, such as PA frequency and enjoyment, in youth is essential for designing interventions to reverse the decline in PA that occurs from childhood through adolescence. The objective of this study was to explore correlates of PA self-definition and assess differences in PA self-definition among African American and European American boys and girls in early, middle, and late puberty. A 3 (developmental stage) x 2 (gender) design was used. African American and European American boys and girls, ages 9 to 17, participated. A total of 168 adolescents completed demographic data, developmental stage, and current and future PA self-definition questionnaires. Peak VO2 was obtained as a measure of physical fitness. Current PA self-definition was positively correlated with peak VO2 (p < .01) and future PA self-definition (p <.01). Males had higher current (p = .032) and future (p = .021) PA self-definition than females. The finding that boys have stronger current and future PA self-definitions than girls highlights the challenge for health professionals to enact immediate and effective measures to alter girls' perceptions of themselves in terms of PA participation. Since current PA self-definition is also significantly correlated with future PA participation, strategies to assist girls in developing a strong PA self-definition may contribute to increased PA in their adult years.
van der Put, Claudia; van Vugt, Eveline S; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Hendriks, Jan
The present study aimed to examine differences in psychosocial and developmental characteristics between Adolescent Females who have committed Sexual Offenses (AFSOs; n = 40), Adolescent Females who have committed nonsexual Violent Offenses (AFVOs; n = 533), and Adolescent Males who have committed Sexual Offenses (AMSO, n = 743). Results showed that AFSOs and AMSOs were remarkably similar, whereas AFSOs and AFVOs were remarkably different on the measured variables. Compared to AFVOs, AFSOs less often had antisocial friends and problems in the domains of school (truancy, behavior problems, dropping out of school) and family (e.g., parental problems, poor authority and control, and run away from home). Victimization of sexual abuse outside the family and social isolation were found to be more common in AFSOs than in AFVOs. Victimization of sexual abuse outside the family was the only specific characteristic of female adolescent sexual offending, as this was more common in AFSOs than in both AMSOs and AFVOs.
Wright, Marcie S.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Griffin, Sarah; Evans, Alexandra
This study obtained qualitative data to assess how parental role modeling and parental social support influence physical activity in underserved (minority, low-income) adolescents. Fifty-two adolescents (22 males, 30 females; ages 10-14 years, 85% African-American) participated in a focus group (6-10 per group, same gender). Focus groups were…
Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Piacentini, John; Van Rossem, Ronan; Graae, Flemming; Cantwell, Coleen; Castro-Blanco, David; Feldman, Julie
Disenfranchised Latina adolescents (N=140) and their mothers presenting at a large urban emergency room after a suicide attempt by the adolescent were assessed to examine treatment adherence. Predictor variables for treatment adherence were established. Results are discussed in relation to treatment session attendance. Implications for the…
Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee E.; Garwick, Ann W.
Background: Initiation of sexual intercourse during early adolescence is a known risk factor for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Purpose: To examine young women's stories describing peer in?uences on their romantic and sexual decisions and behavior during early adolescence. Methods: Semistructured ethnographic interviews were…
van der Molen, E.; Vermeiren, R. R. J. M.; Krabbendam, A. A.; Beekman, A. T. F.; Doreleijers, T. A. H.; Jansen, L. M. C.
Background: Although prior studies have shown that detained females are marked by significant adverse circumstances, little is known about their adult outcomes. Method: Prospective follow-up study of 184 (80.4% of original sample of 229) detained adolescent females who were reassessed 4.5 SD = 0.6) years later in young adulthood (mean age = 20.0,…
Welch, Chiquitia L.; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Parker, Sharon
The rise in female delinquency has resulted in large numbers of girls being incarcerated in Youth Development Centers (YDC). However, there are few gender specific treatment programs for incarcerated female adolescent offenders, particularly for those with a history of substance dependency. In this article, we present a Multi-level Risk Model…
Pandey, Divya; Divedi, Pragati; Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Mishra, Pallav
Human myiasis refers to parasitic infestation of body tissues by larvae of several fly species. The entity has a simple management. Human myiasis is well-documented in the literature however genital myiasis in females is scarcely reported in the literature. We hereby report this entity in an adolescent female who presented with urinary retention and concomitant urinary tract infection.
Tschann, Jeanne M.; Adler, Nancy E.
Examined relationships among sexual self-acceptance, communication with sexual partners about sex and contraception, and contraceptive use in 201 adolescent females, ages 14 to 19. Found that females with greater sexual self-acceptance communicated more with partners about sex and contraception. Discussion about contraception, but not about sex,…
Bodiba, P; Madu, S N; Ezeokana, J O; Nnedum, O A U
The study investigated the relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students. The study used a mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative methods). Media images of handsome faces and beautiful bodies are used to sell almost everything, from clothes and cosmetic to luncheon, meats, and so on. These images reinforce the western cultural stereotype that women should be thin and shapely to be attractive. Thus, as some girls go through puberty they may become dissatisfied with their weight, and to a lesser extent, with their shape, thus, developing low self-concept or imae of themselves. It is in this context that the study was conceptualised. First year female students from three different Schools and Faculties at the University of Limpopo, Turfloop Campus, South Africa, participated in the study. Using the availability and convenient sampling method, 75 students were selected for this study. For the quantitative aspect of the study, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Measure was used to measure self-esteem. For the qualitative part, a topic guide was used for the focus group discussions. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Pearson's Product Moment Correlation were used to analyse the quantitative data, while the phenomenological principle of open coding used for the thematic analysis. Results showed that there is a relationship between body mass and self-concept and that overweight participants tend to have a low self-esteem. Low self-esteem was perceived to be aggravated by a number of factors, like the attitude of the media and the society. Participants who are overweight also indicated that they are limited in certain activities of daily living (e.g., sports) as a result of their body mass. They expressed mixed feelings and frustration when it comes to such activities. The above results did not differ from those reported from western cultures. Support groups, life-skills programmes and psychotherapy should be
Olivari, Maria Giulia; Santoro, Elena; Stagni Brenca, Elisa; Confalonieri, Emanuela; Di Blasio, Paola
Our aim was to explore health workers' perceptions of providing sexuality and contraception care for female adolescents within family health centers. We interviewed 26 volunteer health workers and analyzed the interviews using thematic analysis. We identified three main themes: (a) "adolescents and sexuality," with the subthemes "initiation rite," "me like the others," and "just for fun"; (b) "adolescents and contraception," with the subthemes "omnipotent adolescents," "aware adolescents," and "women's responsibility"; and
Lepusić, Dubravko; Radović-Radovcić, Sandra
Alcohol use has been linked to risky sexual practices among adolescents. However, limited research on alcohol use and risky sexual behavior has been conducted among female adolescents. This study examined a high quantity of alcohol as a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among female adolescents. Three hundred ninety-three adolescent females aged 15-21 were assessed for alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors. Participants also provided 2 swab specimens that were assayed for STDs. Use of high alcohol quantity was defined as > or = 3 drinks in 1 sitting. Binary generalized estimating equation models were conducted assessing the impact of alcohol use at baseline on risky sexual behavior and STDs over a 12-month period. Age, intervention group and baseline outcome measures were entered as covariates. The results indicated that use of high alcohol quantity predicted inconsistent condom use, high sexual sensation seeking, multiple sexual partners, sex while high on alcohol or drugs, and having anal sex during 12-month follow-up period. These findings suggest that STD-related behavioral interventions for adolescents should discuss the link between alcohol and STD-risk behavior. Deeper understanding of alcohol as a predictor of risky sexual behavior among female adolescents is of paramount importance for development of efficient prevention programs at individual and community levels. The risk of acquiring an STD is higher among teenagers than among adults.
Aronowitz, Teri; Rennells, Rachel E; Todd, Erin
African Americans make up the greater proportion of AIDS cases in adolescent girls but little is understood about the development of sexual risk behaviors during the early adolescent years. This article will explore ecological factors influencing adolescent sexual risk behaviors. In the focus groups, which were conducted using 28 African American mothers and their early adolescent daughters, 2 major themes emerged: exposure and support systems. Mothers described the impact community had on their daughters and how monitoring and support systems worked together to control exposure. The girls detailed the different ways they were impacted by the community. Attitudes the girls adopted from their exposures resulted in risk-taking behaviors or a determination to positively impact the community. Community was shown to be the context of the acquisition of sexual knowledge and attitudes. These findings support the development of interventions to address the impact of community on the participation of sexual risk behaviors.
Rubino, Tiziana; Prini, Pamela; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Zamberletti, Erica; Trusel, Massimo; Melis, Miriam; Sagheddu, Claudia; Ligresti, Alessia; Tonini, Raffaella; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Parolaro, Daniela
Current concepts suggest that exposure to THC during adolescence may act as a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. However, the molecular underpinnings of this vulnerability are still poorly understood. To analyze this, we investigated whether and how THC exposure in female rats interferes with different maturational events occurring in the prefrontal cortex during adolescence through biochemical, pharmacological and electrophysiological means. We found that the endocannabinoid system undergoes maturational processes during adolescence and that THC exposure disrupts them, leading to impairment of both endocannabinoid signaling and endocannabinoid-mediated LTD in the adult prefrontal cortex. THC also altered the maturational fluctuations of NMDA subunits, leading to larger amounts of gluN2B at adulthood. Adult animals exposed to THC during adolescence also showed increased AMPA gluA1 with no changes in gluA2 subunits. Finally, adolescent THC exposure altered cognition at adulthood. All these effects seem to be triggered by the disruption of the physiological role played by the endocannabinoid system during adolescence. Indeed, blockade of CB1 receptors from early to late adolescence seems to prevent the occurrence of pruning at glutamatergic synapses. These results suggest that vulnerability of adolescent female rats to long-lasting THC adverse effects might partly reside in disruption of the pivotal role played by the endocannabinoid system in the prefrontal cortex maturation.
Faje, Alexander T.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Miller, Karen K.; Katzman, Debra K.; Ebrahimi, Seda; Lee, Hang; Mendes, Nara; Snelgrove, Deirdre; Meenaghan, Erinne; Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne
Objective To (i) compare fracture prevalence in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa (AN) vs. normal-weight controls and (ii) examine whether reductions in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) predict fracture risk in females with AN. Methods 418 females (310 with active AN and 108 normal-weight controls) 12–22 years old were studied cross-sectionally. Lifetime fracture history was recorded by a physician during participant interviews. Body composition and aBMD measurements of the whole body, whole body less head, lumbar spine, and hip were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was calculated for the lumbar spine. Results Participants with AN and normal-weight controls did not differ for chronological age, sexual maturity, or height. The lifetime prevalence of prior fracture was 59.8% higher in those with AN compared to controls (31.0 % versus 19.4 %, p = 0.02), and the fracture incidence rate peaked in our cohort after the diagnosis of AN. Lower aBMD and lumbar BMAD were not associated with a higher prevalence of fracture in the AN or control group on univariate or multivariate analyses. Compared to controls, fracture prevalence was significantly higher in the subgroup of girls with AN who had normal aBMD or only modest reductions of aBMD (Z-scores > −1 or −1.5). Discussion This is the first study to show that the risk of fracture during childhood and adolescence is significantly higher in patients with AN than in normal-weight controls. Fracture prevalence is increased in this cohort of subjects with AN even without significant reductions in aBMD. PMID:24430890
Sargent, Roger C.; And Others
Results indicated that black females ingested more energy, protein, calcium, and iron than did white females. Significant percentages of both black and white females' intakes of energy, calcium, and iron fell below recommended allowances, suggesting that most of those surveyed possessed poor prepregnancy nutritional status. (RJM)
Sher-Censor, Efrat; Oppenheim, David
The study examined the associations between female adolescents' individuation during mid-adolescence and their adjustment two years later to leaving home for mandatory military service. Forty nine daughter-mother dyads participated. Individuality and connectedness during adolescent-mother interactions were observed at age 16. Two years later girls reported on their psychological distress and negative expectations regarding the upcoming conscription, and both daughters and mothers reported on maternal support of daughters' autonomy. Controlling for these concurrent perceptions, girls' higher connectedness was associated with less psychological distress and their higher individuality in the context of low to medium connectedness was related to more negative expectations. These findings contribute to the literature on home leaving by showing that early individuation may play a role in female adolescents' adjustment to this transition.
Background Elite adolescent female figure skaters compete in an aesthetic-based sport that values thin builds and lithe figures. To conform to the sport’s physical requirements, skaters may alter their eating patterns in unhealthful directions. This study assesses the eating attitudes and dietary intakes of elite adolescent female figure skaters to assess the potential nutritional risks among them. Methods Thirty-six elite competitive adolescent female figure skaters (mean age 16 ± 2.5 SD years) completed self-administered three-day records of dietary intake and simultaneous physical activity records during training season. Two months later, they attended a national training camp during which they completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), provided fasting blood samples, and had heights and weights measured. Results Participants’ mean body mass index (BMI) was 19.8 ± 2.1 SD. Their BMIs were within the normal range, and the majority (70%) did not report a history of recent weight loss. The mean EAT-40 score was normal (19.5 ± 13.5 SD) and below the cut-off score of 30 that indicates clinically significant eating pathology. However, one-quarter of the skaters had EAT-40 scores above 30. The skaters reported a mean energy intake of 1491 ± 471 SD kcal/day (31 ± 10 SD kcal/kg), with 61.6% of calories from carbohydrate, 14.6% from protein, and 23.7% from fat. Their reported dietary intakes were high in carbohydrates but low in total energy, fat, and bone-building nutrients. Conclusions Although these highly active young women compete in a sport that prizes leanness, they had appropriate weights. The athletes reported dietary intakes that were far below estimated energy needs and were at moderate risk of disordered eating. Anticipatory guidance is warranted to improve their dietary intakes, particularly of bone-building nutrients. PMID:23237333
Zamberletti, Erica; Gabaglio, Marina; Prini, Pamela; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela
Over 180 million people consume cannabis globally. Cannabis use peaks during adolescence with a trend for continued consumption by adults. Notably, several studies have shown that long-term and heavy cannabis use during adolescence can impair brain maturation and predispose to neurodevelopmental disorders, although the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this association remain largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated whether, in female rats, chronic administration of increasing doses of the psychotropic plant-derived cannabis constituent, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), during adolescence (PND 35-45) could affect microglia function in the long-term. Furthermore, we explored a possible contribution of microglia to the development of THC-induced alterations in mood and cognition in adult female rats. Present data indicate that adolescent THC administration induces a persistent neuroinflammatory state specifically localized within the adult prefrontal cortex (PFC), characterized by increased expression of the pro-inflammatory markers, TNF-α, iNOS and COX-2, and reduction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. This neuroinflammatory phenotype is associated with down-regulation of CB1 receptor on neuronal cells and up-regulation of CB2 on microglia cells, conversely. Interestingly, blocking microglia activation with ibudilast during THC treatment significantly attenuates short-term memory impairments in adulthood, simultaneously preventing the increases in TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2 levels as well as the up-regulation of CB2 receptors on microglia cells. In contrast, THC-induced depressive-like behaviors were unaffected by ibudilast treatment. Our findings demonstrate that adolescent THC administration is associated with persistent neuroinflammation within the PFC and provide evidence for a causal association between microglial activation and the development long-term cognitive deficits induced by adolescent THC treatment.
Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Dennison, Meg; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B
Adolescence is a crucial period for the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Despite the fact that structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex during adolescence is often assumed to underlie the maturation of emotion regulation strategies, no longitudinal studies have directly assessed this relationship. This study examined whether use of cognitive reappraisal strategies during late adolescence was predicted by (i) absolute prefrontal cortical thickness during early adolescence and (ii) structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex between early and mid-adolescence. Ninety-two adolescents underwent baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans when they were aged approximately 12 and 16 years, respectively. FreeSurfer software was used to obtain cortical thickness estimates for three prefrontal regions [anterior cingulate cortex; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC); ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)]. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire was completed when adolescents were aged approximately 19 years. Results showed that greater cortical thinning of the left dlPFC and left vlPFC during adolescence was significantly associated with greater use of cognitive reappraisal in females, though no such relationship was evident in males. Furthermore, baseline left dlPFC thickness predicted cognitive reappraisal at trend level. These findings suggest that cortical maturation may play a role in the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies during adolescence.
Cotter, Katie L; Smokowski, Paul R
Despite growing trends in adolescent female aggression, much adolescent aggression research has focused on males to the exclusion of their female counterparts. Using relational-cultural and social role theories, the current study identifies the risk and promotive factors associated with adolescent female aggression. Using data from the Rural Adaptation Project (a 5 year longitudinal panel study of youth from two rural, ethnically diverse, low income counties in North Carolina), a 2-level hierarchical linear model was estimated (N = 3580). Internalizing symptoms, association with delinquent friends, peer pressure, and parent-child conflict emerged as risk factors whereas teacher support was a significant promotive factor. Results suggest that interventions should focus on negative relationships in both the parent and peer domains and underscore the need for mental health services for aggressive girls.
Dalwani, Manish S.; McMahon, Mary Agnes; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Young, Susan E.; Regner, Michael F.; Raymond, Kristen M.; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Banich, Marie T.; Tanabe, Jody L.; Crowley, Thomas J; Sakai, Joseph T.
Objective Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages. Hypotheses: Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex), conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate), valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex) and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum). Methods We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years) with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8) toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons at whole-brain cluster-level threshold. Results Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls. Conclusions Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in
Murphy, Devin; Knapp, Caprice A.; Christie, Juliette; Phares, Vicky; Wells, Kristen J.
Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess the coping styles of female adolescent cancer patients regarding potential loss of fertility. Expectations and desires for the future, coping styles in typical adolescence, and coping styles when faced with potential loss of fertility due to cancer treatment are discussed. Methods Female adolescents diagnosed with cancer aged 12–18 years at study (N=14) were administered a 10-item values clarification tool to pilot test the readability and relevance of the items on reproductive concerns, followed by a cognitive debriefing interview asking participants how they would respond to each item. These qualitative responses were assessed for coping style type using the constant comparative approach. Results All adolescent participants reported having a strong desire for biological children in the future. Reactions to questions regarding the loss of fertility fell into two categories of coping styles: emotion-focused coping or problem-focused (engagement) coping. Within emotion-focused coping, there were three distinct styles: externalizing attribution style, internalizing attribution style, and repressive adaptation. Problem-focused coping adolescents displayed optimism. Conclusion Successful interventions aimed at promoting adaptive coping styles should seek to uncover adolescents' values about future parenthood and reproduction. Development of an age-appropriate assessment to stimulate dialogue regarding fertility and initiate an adolescent's cognitive processing of potential fertility loss is warranted. PMID:23781403
Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Gayles, Jochebed G
The current study tested a developmental-contextual model of depressive symptomatology among Mexican-origin, female early and middle adolescents and their mothers. The final sample comprised 271 dyads. We examined the interrelations among cultural (i.e., acculturation dissonance), developmental (i.e., pubertal development and autonomy expectation discrepancies), and interpersonal (i.e., mother-daughter conflict and maternal supportive parenting) factors in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms. For both early and middle adolescents, maternal support was negatively associated with mother-daughter conflict and depressive symptoms. Mother-daughter autonomy expectation discrepancies were positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but this association was found only among early adolescents. Further, mother-daughter acculturation dissonance was positively associated with mother-daughter conflict but only among middle adolescents. Findings call for concurrently examining the interface of developmental, relational, and cultural factors in predicting female adolescents' depressive symptomatology and the potential differences by developmental stage (e.g., early vs. middle adolescence).
Glover, Elbert D.; And Others
Negative views about the elderly held by adolescents can result in a negative outlook on aging. Physical, mental, and social aging experiential activities are given which can be done at home or at school. (JN)
Randall, Edin T; Bohnert, Amy M
The current cross-sectional study investigated the links between various dimensions of organized activity involvement and depressive symptoms, loneliness, and peer victimization in an ethnically and economically diverse sample of adolescents (N = 152; 58% female). Results indicate that adolescents who were involved in organized activities for more years also reported lower levels of loneliness. There was evidence of diminishing returns when adolescents were very highly involved in organized activities; those who were either under- or over-involved reported the highest levels of depressive symptoms. Conversely, findings indicate that adolescents who participated in a narrow or wide range of activity contexts reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms. In addition, results suggested that the relation between organized activity involvement and adjustment differs among adolescents from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Findings from the current study also underscore the importance of considering multiple indices of activity involvement when assessing its association with adjustment.
Stevens, Linda Marie Pettis
The development of a sense of self in adolescence has been shown to be influenced by the perceived level of warmth of the mother. Additionally, the nature of the home environment has been found to relate to an adolescent's level of self-esteem (Buri, 1990; Field, Lang, Yando, and Bendell, 1993). Hispanic adolescent females and their mothers in…
Proctor, Susan E.
Traditional pregnancy prevention strategies employed with older teens and adults do not recognize significant developmental differences between early adolescents and other age groups. Methods that compliment, reflect, and are consistent with the developmental needs of the young teen provide the best approaches to teen pregnancy prevention.…
Gold, Melanie A.; Chiappetta, Laurel; Young, Amanda J.; Zuckoff, Allan; DiClemente, Carlo C.
Purpose: To assess girls' reproductive educational choices, satisfaction with choice, and relationship between demographics, module choice, and satisfaction. Methods: We recruited 286 girls, aged 13 to 21 years, from a hospital-based adolescent clinic, from advertisements, and by word of mouth. At enrollment, participants completed a 60-minute…
Guarraci, Fay A; Holifield, Caroline; Morales-Valenzuela, Jessica; Greene, Kasera; Brown, Jeanette; Lopez, Rebecca; Crandall, Christina; Gibbs, Nicole; Vela, Rebekah; Delgado, Melissa Y; Frohardt, Russell J
The present study was designed to test the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) exposure on the maturation of endocrine functioning and sexual behavior. Female rat pups received either MPH (2.0mg/kg, i.p.) or saline twice daily between postnatal days 20-35. This period of exposure represents the time just prior to puberty as well as puberty onset. Approximately five weeks after the last injection of MPH or saline, female subjects were hormone-primed and tested during their first sexual experience. Subjects were given the choice to interact with a sexually active male or a sexually receptive female rat (i.e., the partner-preference test). The partner-preference paradigm allows us to assess multiple aspects of female sexual behavior. MPH exposure during peri-adolescence delayed puberty and, when mated for the first time, affected sexual behavior (e.g., increased time spent with the male stimulus and decreased the likelihood of leaving after mounts) during the test of partner preference. When monitoring estrous cyclicity, female subjects treated with MPH during peri-adolescence frequently experienced irregular estrous cycles. The results of the present study suggest that chronic exposure to a therapeutic dose of MPH around the onset of puberty alters long-term endocrine functioning, but with hormone priming, increases sensitivity to sexual stimuli.
Jacob, John; De Guzman, Rosalito G
Adolescent depression is a severe mental health problem. Philippines has the highest incidence of depression in South East Asia. Depressed female adolescents habitually seek and retain negative experiences. Aim of this research was to develop and to assess effectiveness of a Taking in the Good Based-Bibliotherapy Intervention Program for female adolescents. As an innovative type of psychotherapy treatment, program aimed to build up their inner strengths by experiencing, enriching and absorbing daily events with a positive attitude and installing them in brain. Program was conducted in two phases: 1. Development of taking in the good based-bibliotherapy intervention. 2. Implementation and assessment of pioneering treatment for alleviating depression and thereby increasing positive cognitive appraisal by employing true experimental research design particularly between subjects. Beck Depression Inventory-II, Asian Adolescent Depression Scale and Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale-11 were administered before and after implementation of the program. A total of 30 female adolescents, Filipino High School students, (mean age=13.9), were randomly assigned to experimental (n=15) and control (n=15) conditions. Data analysis was done by employing percentage and frequency distribution, mean scores, standard deviation, dependent t-test, independent t-test statistics and Cohen's d. The null hypothesis was tested at the 0.05 level of significance. Statistical analysis between the pre-test and post-test scores of the experimental group showed significant difference (p=0.000) and scores of control and experimental group showed significant difference (p=0.000) in all dependent variables in the post-test. These results revealed that "Taking in the Good based-Bibliotherapy Intervention" was effective in reducing depression in female adolescents.
Williams, Melinda; Jones, Sandra C.; Caputi, Peter; Iverson, Don
Objective: To determine differences in sun-protection behaviours, and incidence of sunburn, between Australian adolescent female fake tan users and non-users. Design: Cross sectional survey. Method: 398 adolescent females aged 12 to 18 years participated in a survey at public venues, schools, and online. The main outcome measures were…
Cope, Lora M.; Ermer, Elsa; Nyalakanti, Prashanth K.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.
Psychopathy-related paralimbic and limbic structural brain abnormalities have been implicated in incarcerated adult and adolescent male samples. However, there have been few neuroimaging studies of psychopathic traits in females in general and no studies from incarcerated female youth in particular. Here we present the first study to examine the relationship between brain gray matter volumes and psychopathic traits (assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version [PCL-YV]) in a sample of maximum-security incarcerated female adolescents (N = 39; mean age = 17.6 years). Consistent with male samples, regional gray matter volumes were negatively related to psychopathic traits in female youth offenders in limbic and paralimbic areas, including orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampal cortex, temporal poles, and left hippocampus. These results provide evidence that psychopathic traits manifest similar neural abnormalities across sex and age. PMID:24682609
Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A
This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12-17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.
Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.
This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993
Stanford, Jevetta; Webb, Fern J.; Lee, Jenny; Doldren, Michelle; Rathore, Mobeen
The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect ecological influences of teacher and friend social support on body weight and diet behaviors in African-American adolescent females. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional research design, a convenience sample of 182 urban African-American adolescent females (12–17 years old) completed a 39-item questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed perceived teacher social support, friend social support, nutrition self-efficacy, and diet behaviors (with internal reliability values of scale items: alpha=0.74, 0.81, 0.77, and 0.69 respectively). Anthropometric assessments were conducted to measure height and weight to compute BMI. Majority of the participants were in middle or early high school (65 %) and were overweight or obese (57.7 %). Both teacher social support and friend social support demonstrated a positive, indirect influence on child weight status through nutrition self-efficacy and diet behaviors following two different and specific paths of influence. Diet behaviors, in turn, demonstrated a positive, direct effect on child weight status. In the structural model, teacher social support had the greatest effect on diet behaviors, demonstrating a direct, positive influence on diet behaviors (B=0.421, p<0.05), but its direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy was not significant. Friend social support demonstrated a positive, direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy (B=0.227, p<0.05), but its direct effect on diet behaviors was not statistically significant. The study’s findings call for actively addressing the childhood obesity epidemic in the school environment by implementing health behavior change strategies at various social and ecological environmental levels. PMID:26863465
Stanford, Jevetta; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Webb, Fern J; Lee, Jenny; Doldren, Michelle; Rathore, Mobeen
The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect ecological influences of teacher and friend social support on body weight and diet behaviors in African-American adolescent females. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional research design, a convenience sample of 182 urban African-American adolescent females (12-17 years old) completed a 39-item questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed perceived teacher social support, friend social support, nutrition self-efficacy, and diet behaviors (with internal reliability values of scale items: alpha = 0.74, 0.81, 0.77, and 0.69 respectively). Anthropometric assessments were conducted to measure height and weight to compute BMI. Majority of the participants were in middle or early high school (65 %) and were overweight or obese (57.7 %). Both teacher social support and friend social support demonstrated a positive, indirect influence on child weight status through nutrition self-efficacy and diet behaviors following two different and specific paths of influence. Diet behaviors, in turn, demonstrated a positive, direct effect on child weight status. In the structural model, teacher social support had the greatest effect on diet behaviors, demonstrating a direct, positive influence on diet behaviors (B = 0.421, p < 0.05), but its direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy was not significant. Friend social support demonstrated a positive, direct effect on nutrition self-efficacy (B = 0.227, p < 0.05), but its direct effect on diet behaviors was not statistically significant. The study's findings call for actively addressing the childhood obesity epidemic in the school environment by implementing health behavior change strategies at various social and ecological environmental levels.
Patrice-Coy, Celestine; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan; Boodram, Cheryl Ann Sarita
Abstract This article explores information relating to female adolescents knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Carriacou. The authors aimed at finding out whether adolescent females in Carriacou receive adequate information about HIV and other STDs. Where did students receive most of their information about HIV/STDs and whether the knowledge has influenced their sexual behaviors? Furthermore, this study focused on how female adolescents feel toward people living with HIV/STDs. Focus group method was employed with 2 age groups of female adolescent students. Content analysis was carried out by the researcher to analyze the data. Themes were developed using coding and thematic analysis. The findings revealed that female adolescents were highly aware of HIV/STDs-related facts. They were knowledgeable and have received adequate information about HIV/STDs. PMID:27603390
Patrice-Coy, Celestine; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan; Boodram, Cheryl Ann Sarita
This article explores information relating to female adolescents knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Carriacou. The authors aimed at finding out whether adolescent females in Carriacou receive adequate information about HIV and other STDs. Where did students receive most of their information about HIV/STDs and whether the knowledge has influenced their sexual behaviors? Furthermore, this study focused on how female adolescents feel toward people living with HIV/STDs.Focus group method was employed with 2 age groups of female adolescent students. Content analysis was carried out by the researcher to analyze the data. Themes were developed using coding and thematic analysis.The findings revealed that female adolescents were highly aware of HIV/STDs-related facts. They were knowledgeable and have received adequate information about HIV/STDs.
Acevedo, María Belén; Fabio, Maria Carolina; Fernández, Macarena Soledad; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos
Anxiety disorders are more likely to occur in women than in men, usually emerge during adolescence and exhibit high comorbidity with alcohol use disorders (AUD). Adolescents with high levels of anxiety or heightened reactivity to stress may be at-risk for developing AUD. An approach to analyze if high levels of inborn anxiety predict greater ethanol drinking is to assess the latter variable in subjects classified as high- or low-anxiety responders. The present study assessed ethanol drinking in adolescent, female Wistar, rats classified as high-, low- or average-anxiety responders and exposed or not to restraint stress (RS, Exp. 1). Classification was made through a multivariate index derived from testing anxiety responses in an elevated plus maze and a light-dark box tests. RS was applied after animals had been initiated to ethanol drinking. Intake of sweetened ethanol was unaffected by level of anxiety response. Adolescents with high levels of inborn anxiety exhibited significantly higher intake of unsweetened ethanol than counterparts with standard levels of anxiety, yet this effect was inhibited by RS exposure. Experiment 2 assessed FOS immunoreactivity after RS. Stress induced a significant increase in FOS immunoreactivity at the paraventricular nucleus, yet this effect was unaffected by level of anxiety response. Female adolescents with high levels of basal anxiety may be at-risk for exhibiting increased predisposition for ethanol intake and preference. The study also indicates that stress may exert differential effects on adolescent ethanol intake as a function of the level of anxiety response.
Dévieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Frankel, Anne; Attonito, Jennifer; Saxena, Anshul; Rosenberg, Rhonda
This study examined the impact of individual, peer, family, school, and neighborhood level variables on sexual activity among 276 Haitian-American adolescents. Differences between those who were sexually active and those who were not were analyzed using Chi square and t tests. Significant factors at p ≤ 0.1 were entered into logistic regression for the full group and for girls-only. Half of males and 36.6 % of females were sexually active. The multivariable model revealed that adolescents were more likely to be sexually active if they reported delinquent behaviors; had sexually active friends; and were living with only one parent, friends or relatives. For girls, living with both parents was protective against sexual activity, while substance use and emotional distress were risk factors. No language or acculturation measures were associated with sexual activity. Haitian-American adolescents may benefit from interventions that focus on gender-specific, contextual and cultural factors to prevent early sexual activity.
Crosby, Richard A; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Cobb, Brenda K; Harrington, Kathy; Davies, Susan L; Hook, Edward W; Oh, M Kim
This study of 522 African American female adolescents, ages 14 to 18, investigated associations between condom use and infrequently communicating with sex partners about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and pregnancy prevention. Correlates of infrequent communication were identified. Sexually active adolescents were recruited from schools and adolescent medicine clinics in low-income neighborhoods of Birmingham, Alabama. Adolescents completed a self-administered survey and face-to-face interview. Communication frequency was assessed using a five-item scale. Infrequent communication was significantly associated with lower odds of condom use. Multivariate correlates of infrequent communication were less frequent communication with parents about STD/pregnancy prevention, recent sex with a nonsteady partner, low perceived ability to negotiate condom use and fear of this negotiation, and low motivation to use condoms. Given the importance of partner communication in promoting safer sex behaviors, STD and pregnancy prevention programs may benefit adolescents by addressing the identified psychosocial correlates of infrequent communication with their partners.
Mason, Michael J; Schmidt, Christopher; Abraham, Anisha; Walker, Leslie; Tercyak, Kenneth
The present study examined components of adolescents' social environment (social network, extracurricular activities, and family relationships) in association with depression. A total of 332 adolescents presenting for a routine medical check-up were self-assessed for social network risk (i.e., smoking habits of best male and female friends), extracurricular activity level (i.e., participation in organized sports teams, clubs, etc.), family relationship quality (i.e., cohesion and conflict), and symptoms of depression (i.e., minimal, mild, moderate/severe). Results of a forward linear regression modeling indicate that social environment components were associated with a significant proportion of the variance in adolescent depression (Adjusted R (2) = .177, p < or = .05). Specifically, adolescent females (beta = .166, p < .01) and those having more smokers in their social network (beta = .107, p < .05) presented with significantly greater depression symptoms. Conversely, adolescents who engaged in more extracurricular activities (beta = -.118, p < .05) and experienced higher quality family relationships (beta = -.368, p < .001) presented with significantly lower depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the important role that the social environment plays in adolescent depression, as well as yields new insights into socially-based intervention targets that may ameliorate adolescent depression. These intervention targets may be gender-specific, include positive social network skills training, increase adolescents' engagement in organized activities, and attend to the quality of their family relationships.
Sanger, Dixie; Moore-Brown, Barbara J.; Montgomery, Judy; Rezac, Cynthia; Keller, Harold
Qualitative methodology was used to explore communication behaviors of 13 female adolescents with language problems residing in a correctional facility. Most participants expressed feeling dumb, disliked by friends, put down in school, and having trouble understanding jokes, and problems related to understanding the vocabulary in their texts used…
Edwards, Kemberly V.
The purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge base about female adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS). The findings will be useful in providing educators with an insight into the social world of Asperger syndrome in order to give them a better understanding of the syndrome, and to assist them in teaching students more effectively. The…
DeSilva Mousseau, Angela M.; Lund, Terese J.; Liang, Belle; Spencer, Renée; Walsh, Jill
This study examined the relationship between stress and sleep duration for adolescent females from affluent backgrounds. Participants were 218 students attending two independent single-sex secondary schools. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression models (cross-sectional and longitudinal) were run to examine the association between stress and…
Brown, Sherlon P.
Career and life planning, while a complex task for people of all races and ages, is often compounded for black adolescent females. Social and economic traditions such as racism, poverty, and oppression have often retarded their employment perceptions, aspirations, expectations, and realities. This article explores the relationship between black…
Halliburton, Amy L.; Weiss, Maureen R.
Assessed whether sources of competence information varied by skill level among adolescent female gymnasts, whether perceptions of motivational climate varied by skill level, and whether sources of competence information and perceived motivational climate were related. Survey data indicated that gymnasts competing at lower levels relied on…
Stone, Judy A.; Sias, Shari M.
The topic of self-injurious behavior (SIB), particularly among female adolescents, has been gaining widespread attention in mainstream culture. However, limited research has been generated examining effective treatment modalities. Given the lack of information concerning treatment models, this article presents a bi-modal treatment approach with a…
Stachowitz, Annie L.
Eating disorders, disordered eating, and body dissatisfaction prevalence rates are on the rise among adolescent females. The present study sought to examine a commonly used social-emotional instrument, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition, Self-Report of Personality (BASC-2, SRP), for the emergence of a common profile of…
Green, Julie; And Others
Female adolescents were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=29), which received nutrition instruction, and a no-treatment control group (n=20). In the experimental group, nutrition knowledge increased significantly, calcium and vitamin D intake increased, and mean intakes for calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus were closer to the…
Froeschle, Janet G.; Smith, Robert L.; Ricard, Richard
A school-based substance abuse prevention program based on the assumptions of the ASCA National Model[R] was designed to change adolescent females' drug-using behaviors. The program was designed to reduce substance abuse, increase negative attitudes toward drug use, and reduce negative behaviors while increasing positive behaviors, knowledge of…
Alley, Thomas R.; Hicks, Catherine M.
This study examined gender stereotypes in peer ratings of femininity and masculinity for adolescent participants in three sports. Following a preliminary study of gender stereotyping of several sports, high school students rated unfamiliar cohorts each of whom was described in a single paragraph as either a male or female dedicated participant in…
In this case study focusing on a gifted adolescent female who took her life at the age of 18 using a firearm, the researcher investigated the personal, environmental, and cultural variables that may have contributed to her suicide. Data were collected from interviews, documents, and other artifacts, including a videotape that was a compilation of…
Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri
This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…
Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas J.; McCreary, Michelle; Cote, Michelle; Faraone, Stephen V.
The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adult females is evaluated. Findings indicate that MD emerging in the context of ADHD is an impairing and severe comorbidity that needs to be considered further clinically and scientifically.
Linville, Deanna; O'Neil, Maya; Huebner, Angela
This study examined linkages between depression symptoms (DEP) and positive adult support (PAS) in female adolescents and the partially mediating influence of eating disturbances (ED). Structural equation modeling was used to establish measurement models for each of the latent constructs, determine the relationships among the latent constructs,…
Beevers, Christopher G.; Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
This study examined the psychosocial consequences of experiencing major depressive disorder (MDD). In a 7-year longitudinal study of 496 female adolescents, the authors identified 49 girls who experienced their first episode of MDD and then recovered. They were compared with a randomly selected group of 98 never depressed participants on 13…
Bamaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Lara, Rebecca
This study used a person-centered approach to examine patterns of adjustment along psychological (i.e., depression, self-esteem, anxiety) and academic (i.e., academic motivation) domains in a sample (N = 338) of Mexican-origin female adolescents. Four adjustment profiles were identified. A "High Functioning" (n = 173) group, which…
Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex
A major factor attributed to the problem and consequences of underage alcohol use is binge drinking. The objective of this study was to examine binge drinking and other alcohol-related problem behaviour among high-risk male and female adolescents who were from alternative schools and programs because of learning and/or behaviour problems.…
Brown, Danice L.; Jewell, Jeremy D.; Stevens, Amy L.; Crawford, Jessica D.; Thompson, Ronald
We investigated the relationship between gender and clinician diagnosis of a depressive disorder at intake on variables reflecting depression among adolescents in residential treatment. It was hypothesized that females diagnosed with a depressive disorder would have the highest scores on measures of suicide risk, the number of symptoms of a major…
Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.; Miller, Elizabeth
The authors used qualitative research methods to explore the context and sexual risk behavior associated with sexual intercourse involving multiple males and one female, commonly called "running a train." Participants were 20 adolescent males aged 14 to 22 years who were either perpetrators of dating violence or perceived by teachers to…
Hyder, Asma; Behrman, Jere R.
This study investigates economic activities and their determinants for women in households of rural Malawi, one of the poorest countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Three waves of household panel data for years 2006, 2008 and 2010 from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) are used to examine female labor market participation. This study includes certain important characteristics of Malawian households i.e., polygamy, ethnicity, religion and self reported health status. The study reports five different labor market outcomes for women's participation i.e., agriculture related work, market & sales activities, cottage industry, other economic activities and out of the labor market. The study finds significant relationships between these five different labor market outcomes and age cohorts, ethnicity and marriage (monogamous or polygamous). PMID:26120564
Beals, Katherine A
Nutritional status, eating behaviors and menstrual function was examined in 23 nationally ranked female adolescent volleyball players using a health/weight/ dieting/menstrual history questionnaire, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Nutrient and energy intakes (El) and energy expenditure (EE) were determined by 3-d weighed food records and activity logs. Iron (Fe), vitamins C, B12, and Folate status were assessed using serum and whole blood. Mean El (2248 +/- 414 kcal/d) was less than EE (2815 +/- 306 kcal/d). Mean carbohydrate (5.4 +/-1.0g/kg/d) and protein (1.1+/-0.3g/kg/d) intakes were below recommended levels for highly active women. Mean intakes for folate, Fe, Ca, Mg, and Zn were less than the respective RDAs/DRIs and almost 50% of the athletes were consuming less than the RDAs/DRIs for the B-complex vitamins and vitamin C. Three athletes presented with Fe deficiency anemia (Hb <12 mg/dL), while marginal vitamin B12 status (<200 pg/ml) and vitamin C status (<28 mmol/L) were found in 1 and 4 athletes, respectively. Approximately 1/2 of the athletes reported actively "dieting". Mean BSQ and EDI subscales scores were within the normal ranges; yet, elevated scores on these scales were reported by 26% and 35% of athletes, respectively. Past or present amenorrhea was reported by 17% of the athletes and 13% and 48%, reported past or present oligomenorrhea and "irregular" menstrual cycles, respectively. These results indicate that elite adolescent volleyball players are at risk for menstrual dysfunction and have energy and nutrient intakes that place them at risk for nutritional deficiencies and compromised performance.
Fox, Jeremy K; Halpern, Leslie F; Ryan, Julie L; Lowe, Kelly A
Although the tripartite model reliably distinguishes anxiety and depression in adolescents, it remains unclear how negative affectivity (NA) and positive affectivity (PA) influence developmental pathways to internalizing problems. Based on models which propose that affectivity shapes how youth react to stress, the present study attempted to investigate the relative roles of NA, PA, and stressful life events in characterizing and differentiating adolescent anxiety and depression. A sample of adolescent females (N=63), including a sub-sample of adolescent mothers, completed measures of NA, PA, negative life event (NLE) occurrence, anxiety, and depression. Findings supported the tripartite model as a "temperamental reactivity to stress" approach. Anxious and depressive symptoms were predicted by a combination of high NA and high NLE occurrence. However, a combination of low PA and high NLE occurrence was uniquely linked to greater depressive symptoms. Implications of these findings for early identification and prevention programs are discussed.
Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Koenig, Julian; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald
Research to elucidate early alterations of higher cognitive processes in adolescents with BPD is rare. This study investigated differences in dual-task performance in adolescents with BPD during stress and non-stress conditions. The study sample comprised 30 female adolescents with BPD and 34 healthy controls. The impact of stress on dual-task performance was measured using a standardized stressor. Self-reports of distress and measures of heart rate (HR) were obtained to measure stress reactivity. There were no group differences in task performance. Under stress conditions, the performance on the auditory task decreased in both groups but without significant group differences. Healthy controls showed an increase of mean HR after stress induction compared to no change in the BPD group. The finding of attenuated HR response to acute stress in adolescent patients with BPD may contradict current theories that the affective hyperresponsivity in BPD is based on a biologically determined mechanism.
Sung, Kyung Mi
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the coping strategies and self-concept of Korean female early adolescents. These adolescents (n = 351) were enrolled in a middle school in Seoul. The subjects completed the Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale and Coping Responses Inventory questionnaires. The subjects exhibited the greatest positivity with regard to family self-concept and the greatest negativity with regard to academic self-concept. The subjects most frequently used the seeking guidance strategy of approach coping and the seeking alternative rewards strategy of avoidance coping. Self-concept was positively or negatively related with various coping skills. Using content analysis, seven categories including discord in family relationships were identified. The results of this study provide information that will aid school nurses working with adolescents with regard to helping the adolescents develop a positive self-concept and more effective coping strategies.
Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs
“Metabolic Equivalent” (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46), women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667
Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wall, Melanie M.; Choo, Tse-Hwei J.; Larson, Nicole I.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Depression may be a risk factor for overweight status, but mechanisms involved in this relationship are unclear. This study explored behavioral factors involved in the relationship between adolescent depression symptoms and adult overweight status. A population-based cohort of female participants in Project EAT (n=1,035) was followed over 10 years and reported on psychological functioning, weight status, and eating and activity patterns in early/middle adolescence (1999=Time 1; T1), middle adolescence/early young adulthood (2004=Time 2; T2), and early/middle young adulthood (2009=Time 3; T3). Structural equation models were fit which included T1 depression scores predicting overweight status at T3, with T2 fruit and vegetable consumption, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and binge eating examined as mediators. There were small but significant effects of T1 depression scores predicting an increased likelihood of T3 overweight status (standardized estimate=0.038; p=.007), and of T2 binge eating mediating the relation between T1 depression and T3 overweight status (standardized indirect effect estimate=.036; p=.009). Binge eating may be one pathway to overweight among depressed females, suggesting that recognition and treatment of eating pathology in individuals with depression may help prevent overweight. Examination of other behavioral (and non-behavioral) factors explaining the relationship between depression and overweight is warranted. PMID:25640769
Wright, Marcie S; Wilson, Dawn K; Griffin, Sarah; Evans, Alexandra
This study obtained qualitative data to assess how parental role modeling and parental social support influence physical activity in underserved (minority, low-income) adolescents. Fifty-two adolescents (22 males, 30 females; ages 10-14 years, 85% African-American) participated in a focus group (6-10 per group, same gender). Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed and coded by independent raters. Inter-rater reliabilities indicated adequate agreement [inter-rater reliability (r) = 0.84]. Themes were identified for parental role modeling and parental social support. Regarding parental role modeling, adolescents reported that parents engaged in a variety of different types of physical activities with their children such as walking, cycling and playing basketball; however, activity was infrequent. Sex differences were noted in parental social support indicating that female adolescents reported receiving more emotional and negative support for physical activity (being required to play outside with a sibling), while boys reported receiving more tangible types of support for physical activity. Adolescents also generated ideas on how to increase parental social support and in particular tangible support was highlighted as important by both males and females. This study suggests that future interventions should focus on improving parental engagement and tangible support that involve direct participation from parents in physical activities with their adolescents.
Majcher-Maślanka, Iwona; Solarz, Anna; Wędzony, Krzysztof; Chocyk, Agnieszka
During adolescence, many neural systems, including the dopamine system, undergo essential remodeling and maturation. It is well known that early-life stress (ELS) increases the risk for many psychopathologies during adolescence and adulthood. It is hypothesized that ELS interferes with the maturation of the dopamine system. There is a sex bias in the prevalence of stress-related mental disorders. Information regarding the effects of ELS on brain functioning in females is very limited. In the current study, maternal separation (MS) procedures were carried out to study the effects of ELS on dopamine system functioning in adolescent female rats. Our study showed that MS increased the density of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive fibers in the prelimbic cortex (PLC) and nucleus accumbens (Acb). These changes were accompanied by a decrease in the level of D5 receptor mRNA and an increase in D2 receptor mRNA expression in the PLC of MS females. Conversely, D1 and D5 receptor mRNA levels were augmented in the caudate putamen (CPu), while the expression of the D3 dopamine receptor transcript was reduced in MS females. Additionally, in the Acb, MS elicited a decrease in D2 receptor mRNA expression. At the behavioral level, MS increased apomorphine-induced locomotion; however, it did not change locomotor responses to selective D1/D5 receptor agonist and attenuated D2/D3 receptor agonist-triggered locomotion. Moreover, MS decreased D1/D5 receptor agonist-induced grooming behavior. These results indicate that ELS disrupts dopamine receptor function in the PLC and basal ganglia during adolescence in females and may predispose them to psychopathologies during adolescence and adulthood.
Bloom, Erika Litvin; Abrantes, Ana M; Fokas, Kathryn F; Ramsey, Susan E; Brown, Richard A
Physical activity has been identified as a protective factor with regard to tobacco use, such that physically active adolescents are less likely to initiate smoking, and smokers are less physically active than non-smokers. These findings, along with the well-documented benefits of exercise on mood and well-being in adults, have stimulated interest in exercise-based smoking cessation interventions. However, little research has explored the relationship between physical activity and smoking characteristics within adolescent smokers. Also, gender differences in adolescents' motives for smoking and exercise may have implications for intervention development, especially in clinical populations. The current study explored the relationship between physical activity and smoking in a sample of adolescent smokers (N = 191) and non-smokers (N = 48) receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment (61% female, mean age 15.3 years). Results indicated that smokers were less likely to be physically active than non-smokers. Additionally, there was a consistent pattern of gender differences in the relationship between smoking and physical activity within smokers. Specifically, physically active male smokers were less nicotine dependent and less prone to withdrawal, and had a trend toward greater motivation to quit, than their non-active counterparts. In contrast, physically active female smokers did not differ in dependence or withdrawal and were less motivated to quit than non-active female smokers. Taken together, these results suggest that within clinical populations of adolescent females, smoking and exercise may be used jointly as weight control strategies. Exercise-based interventions for smoking cessation for adolescent females, especially clinical populations, should address weight and body image concerns.
German, Don-Nee E.; And Others
Forty female incest victims, ages 12-18, were administered personality and self-concept assessments. Subjects were found to be shy, expedient, guilt-prone, aggressive, realistic, and withdrawn and to have low overall self-concept. Subjects showed more confidence about physical appearance and intellectual and school status than other aspects of…
Cernkovich, Stephen A.; Lanctot, Nadine; Giordano, Peggy C.
Studies identifying the mechanisms underlying the causes and consequences of antisocial behavior among female delinquents as they transit to adulthood are scarce and have important limitations: Most are based on official statistics, they typically are restricted to normative samples, and rarely do they gather prospective data from samples of…
Chapman, Patricia; Toma, Ramses B.; Tuveson, Richard V.; Jacob, Mary
Evaluates the effectiveness of a sports nutrition education program in changing the nutrition behavior of females (N=72) on high school varsity softball teams. Pretests indicated no significant difference in nutrition knowledge between experimental and control groups. However, following nutrition education, significant differences in nutrition…
Ariga, Michio; Uehara, Toru; Takeuchi, Kazuo; Ishige, Yoko; Nakano, Reiko; Mikuni, Masahiko
Background: Although juveniles within the justice system have high psychiatric morbidity, few comprehensive investigations have shown posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female delinquents. Here, we aim to describe the nature and extent of PTSD and trauma exposure and to clarify the relationships among comorbidity and psychosocial factors in…
Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.
Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African…
D'Souza, Deepthi; Sadananda, Monika
Approaches for the development of preclinical models of depression extensively use adult and male animals owing to the discrepancies arising out of the hormonal flux in adult females and adolescents during attainment of puberty. Thus the increased vulnerability of females towards clinical depression and anxiety-related disorders remains incompletely understood. Development of clinical models of depression in adolescent females is essential in order to evolve effective treatment strategies for adolescent depression. In the present study, we have examined the anxiety and depressive-like profiles in a putative animal model of childhood depression, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat, during early adolescence (∼postnatal day 30) and mid-adolescence (∼postnatal day 40). Female adolescent WKY rats, tested on a series of behavioural tests modelling anxiety- and depressive-like behaviours with age-matched Wistars as controls, demonstrated marked differences during early adolescence in a strain- and age-specific manner. Anxiety indices were obtained from exposure to the elevated plus maze, where social communication vide 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations was also assessed, while immobility and other parameters in the forced swim test were screened for depressive-like profiles. Sucrose preference, used as a measure of anhedonia in animals, was lower in WKYs at both ages tested and decreased with age. Anxiety-related behaviours were prominent in WKY rats only during early adolescence. WKY female rats are anxious during early adolescence and exhibit anhedonia as a core symptom of depression during early- and mid-adolescence, thus indicating that inclusion of female animals in preclinical trials is essential and will contribute to gender-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment of adolescent depression in females.
Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gayles, Jochebed G.
The current study tested a developmental-contextual model of depressive symptomatology among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin females and their mothers. The final sample was comprised of 271 dyads. We examined the interrelations among cultural (i.e., acculturation dissonance), developmental (i.e., pubertal development and autonomy expectation discrepancies), and interpersonal (i.e., mother-daughter conflict and maternal supportive parenting) factors in predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms. For both early and middle adolescents, maternal support was negatively associated with mother-daughter conflict and depressive symptoms. Importantly, mother-daughter autonomy expectation discrepancies were positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but this association was found only among early adolescents. Further, mother-daughter acculturation dissonance was positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but only among middle adolescents. Findings call for concurrently examining the interface of developmental, relational, and cultural factors in predicting female adolescents’ depressive symptomatology and the potential differences by developmental stage (e.g., early vs. middle adolescence) PMID:21967564
Kottman, Terry T.; And Others
Discusses the benefits of activity therapy for preteens and adolescents, where the client is engaged in nonverbal modes of relationship--games, free play, movement, drama, music, art or other activities, as the chief therapeutic media in which conflicts are resolved and intellectual and emotional energies freed. Reviews the literature, describes…
Castrucci, Brian C; Clark, Jamie; Lewis, Kayan; Samsel, Rachel; Mirchandani, Gita
To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14-16 years having children fathered by males age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females aged 14-16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence of and adjusted odds of paternal age of 20 years or older were identified by paternal and maternal factors. The Results section Having both parents born outside of the U.S. was associated with a 5.29 (95% CI: 4.82, 5.80) times increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older as compared to having both parents born in the U.S. Parental place of birth was associated with greater odds of paternal age of 20 years or older in urban areas compared to rural or border areas. Compared to those with average or high educational attainment relative to age, low educational attainment relative to age was associated with an increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older. This association was present whether maternal or paternal educational attainment was low relative to age. Messages are needed to help adolescent females avoid pregnancy with adult males. In addressing this specific prevention challenge, it is important to consider maternal/paternal place of birth and its association with adolescent births with adult males.
Kosson, David S; Neumann, Craig S; Forth, Adelle E; Salekin, Randall T; Hare, Robert D; Krischer, Maya K; Sevecke, Kathrin
Despite substantial evidence for the fit of the 3- and 4-factor models of Psychopathy Checklist-based ratings of psychopathy in adult males and adolescents, evidence is less consistent in adolescent females. However, prior studies used samples much smaller than recommended for examining model fit. To address this issue, we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis of 646 adolescent females to test the fit of the 3- and 4-factor models. We also investigated the fit of these models in more homogeneous subsets of the full sample to examine whether fit was invariant across geographical region and setting. Analyses indicated adequate fit for both models in the full sample and was generally acceptable for both models in North American and European subsamples and for participants in less restrictive (probation/detention/clinic) settings. However, in the incarcerated subsample, the 4-factor model achieved acceptable fit on only two of four indices. Although model fit was not invariant across continent or setting, invariance could be achieved in most cases by simply allowing factor loadings on a single Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003) item to vary across groups. In summary, in contrast to prior studies with small samples, current findings show that both the 3- and 4-factor models fit adequately in a large sample of adolescent females, and the factor loadings are largely similar for North American and European samples and for long-term incarcerated and shorter-term incarcerated/probation/clinic samples.
Kosson, David S.; Neumann, Craig S.; Forth, Adelle E.; Salekin, Randall T.; Hare, Robert D.; Krischer, Maya K.; Sevecke, Kathrin
Despite substantial evidence for the fit of the three- and four-factor models of Psychopathy Checklist-based ratings of psychopathy in adult males and adolescents, evidence is less consistent in adolescent females. However, prior studies used samples much smaller than recommended for examining model fit. To address this issue, we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis of 646 adolescent females to test the fit of the three- and four-factor models. We also investigated the fit of these models in more homogeneous subsets of the full sample to examine whether fit was invariant across geographical region and setting. Analyses indicated adequate fit for both models in the full sample and was generally acceptable for both models in North American and European subsamples and for participants in less restrictive (probation/detention/clinic) settings. However, in the incarcerated subsample, the four-factor model achieved acceptable fit on only two of four indices. Although model fit was not invariant across continent or setting, invariance could be achieved in most cases by simply allowing factor loadings on one PCL: YV item to vary across groups. In summary, in contrast to prior studies with small samples, current findings show that both the three- and four-factor models fit adequately in a large sample of adolescent females, and the factor loadings are largely similar for North American and European samples and for long-term incarcerated and shorter-term incarcerated/probation/clinic samples. PMID:22731675
Proctor, S E
Traditional pregnancy prevention strategies employed with adults and older teens do not recognize significant developmental differences between early adolescents and other age groups. Methods that compliment, reflect, and are consistent with developmental needs of the young teen provide cogent approaches to teen pregnancy prevention. Particular emphasis should be placed on interpersonal relationships and their importance in the young woman's life, especially the relationship between the young teen and her parents. Developing and improving all relationships instrumental in positively affecting teen decision-making represent potent approaches to pregnancy prevention. The axioms of Piaget, Erikson, and Mercer are examined in regard to cognitive, social, emotional, and psychosexual development in the 12-14 year old. Young teens' responses to sex education as well as their use of contraception are reviewed in relation to developmental theory.
Swanson, Jonathan; Ong, Thida
Endobronchial carcinoid tumors are the most common intrabronchial tumors in children and adolescents. Common signs and symptoms include persistent cough and wheezing not responsive to bronchodilators, hemoptysis, and recurrent fever. Diagnosis is frequently made by imaging and direct visualization with flexible bronchoscopy; surgery remains the gold standard treatment, and lung-sparing resections should be performed whenever possible. Though carcinoid syndrome—characterized by flushing, palpitations, wheezing, shortness of breath, and diarrhea—has been found in association with adult bronchial carcinoid tumors, to our knowledge only one previous study has reported the presence of carcinoid syndrome in a pediatric patient with an endobronchial carcinoid. Here, we report a case of a 14-year-old girl with chronic cough found to have an endobronchial carcinoid tumor and signs and symptoms consistent with carcinoid syndrome. PMID:27895950
Kunz, Jennifer H; Greenley, Rachel N; Mussatto, Kathleen A; Roth-Wojcicki, Betsy; Miller, Tami; Freeman, Mary E; Lerand, Sarah
To examine whether perceived peer/parent norms or personal beliefs about adolescent substance use influence substance use among female adolescents with chronic medical conditions. Sixty-eight females reported on substance use, personal beliefs, and perceived peer/parent norms. Personal beliefs and perceived peer/parent norms were associated with adolescent's current and future substance use. Although perceived peer norms accounted for variance in current substance use, only personal beliefs accounted for variance in future alcohol use. Targeting perceived peer norms may be effective for intervention efforts among adolescents endorsing current substance use, whereas alcohol use prevention efforts should target personal beliefs.
Acevedo, María Belén; Molina, Juan Carlos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos
Adolescent initiation of ethanol consumption is associated with subsequent heightened probability of ethanol-use disorders. The present study examined the relationship between motivational sensitivity to ethanol initiation in adolescent rats and later ethanol intake. Experiment 1 determined that ethanol induces locomotor activation shortly after administration but not if tested at a later post-administration interval. In Experiment 2, adolescents were assessed for ethanol-induced locomotor activation on postnatal day 28. These animals were then evaluated for ethanol-mediated conditioned taste aversion and underwent a 16-day-long ethanol intake protocol. Ethanol-mediated aversive effects were unrelated to ethanol locomotor stimulation or subsequent ethanol consumption patterns. Ethanol intake during late adolescence was greatest in animals initiated to ethanol earliest at postnatal day 28. Females that were more sensitive to ethanol’s locomotor-activating effects showed a transient increase in ethanol self-administration. Blood ethanol concentrations during initiation were not related to ethanol-induced locomotor activation. Adolescent rats appeared sensitive to the locomotor-stimulatory effects of ethanol. Even brief ethanol exposure during adolescence may promote later ethanol intake. PMID:20373327
Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Javadnoori, Mojgan; Hasanpour, Marzieh; Hazavehei, Seyyed Mohammad Mehdi; Taghipour, Ali
Background: Despite clear reasons for necessity of sexual health education for adolescents, it is a contested issue and has faced challenges in most cultures. Providing sexual education for non-married adolescents is culturally unacceptable in most Muslim societies. Objective: This qualitative study addressed socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for female adolescents in Iran. Materials and Methods: Qualitative data from female adolescents (14-18 yr), mothers, teachers, authorities in health and education organizations, health care providers and clergies were collected in two large cities of Iran including Mashhad and Ahvaz through focus group discussions and individual in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional qualitative content analysis with MAXqda software. Results: Our results revealed that the main socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for adolescents in Iran are affected by taboos surrounding sexuality. The emergent categories were: denial of premarital sex, social concern about negative impacts of sexual education, perceived stigma and embarrassment, reluctance to discuss sexual issues in public, sexual discussion as a socio-cultural taboo, lack of advocacy and legal support, intergenerational gap, religious uncertainties, and imitating non-Islamic patterns of education. Conclusion: It seems that cultural resistances are more important than religious prohibitions, and affect more the nature and content of sexual health education. However, despite existence of salient socio-cultural doubtful issues about sexual health education for adolescents, the emerging challenges are manageable to some extent. It is hoped that the acceptability of sexual health education for adolescents could be promoted through overcoming the cultural taboos and barriers as major obstacles. PMID:24639734
Litalien, David; Morin, Alexandre J S; McInerney, Dennis M
Achievement goal theory has long been a dominant model in the study of student motivation. However, a relatively small number of researchers have investigated gender differences in achievement goals or have considered the possible role that social and extrinsic goals may play in student academic motivation. Adopting a person-centered multiple goals perspective based on personal investment theory, this longitudinal study investigated whether males and females shared similar goal profiles, and whether the predictors (facilitating conditions) and outcomes (learning processes, task perseverance, and future aspirations) of these profiles were equivalent across genders. Profiles were extracted from 8 types of academic goals, based on a large sample of Hong Kong high school students (N = 7,848). Findings revealed 5 distinctive profiles for both males and females. Although the relative size of these profiles differed across samples of male and female students, the results show that 4 of these profiles were mostly equivalent across genders. Predictors of membership into these profiles were also equivalent across genders, whereas their relative outcomes were specific to gender. (PsycINFO Database Record
Spriggs, Merle; Gillam, Lynn
Is Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder ever ethically justified? Cosmetic genital surgery (specifically labioplasty) for adolescent girls is one of the most ethically controversial forms of cosmetic surgery and Body Dysmorphic Disorder is typically seen as a contraindication for cosmetic surgery. Two key ethical concerns are (1) that Body Dysmorphic Disorder undermines whatever capacity for autonomy the adolescent has; and (2) even if there is valid parental consent, the presence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder means that cosmetic surgery will fail in its aims. In this article, we challenge, in an evidence-based way, the standard view that Body Dysmorphic Disorder is a contraindication for genital cosmetic surgery in adolescents. Our argument gathers together and unifies a substantial amount of disparate research in the context of an ethical argument. We focus on empirical questions about benefit and harm, because these are ethically significant. Answers to these questions affect the answer to the ethical question. We question the claim that there would be no benefit from surgery in this situation, and we consider possible harms that might be done if treatment is refused. For an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, the most important thing may be to avoid harm. We find ourselves arguing for the ethical justifiability of cosmetic labioplasty for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, even though we recognize that it is a counter intuitive position. We explain how we reached our conclusion.
Teitelman, Anne; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; McDonald, Catherine C.; Brawner, Bridgette M.; Sullivan, Cris M.
Background Little is known about intimate partner violence (IPV) and depression among low income, urban African American and Hispanic adolescent females. Method Interviews with 102 urban African American and Hispanic adolescent females examined physical abuse, emotional/verbal abuse, and threats, and their unique and combined associations with depression. Results One-quarter of the sample experienced all three types of abuse. Non-physical forms of IPV were significantly associated with depression. Conclusions Some urban adolescent females from lower income households experience high rates of IPV. Physical and non-physical forms of IPV are important in understanding and responding to depression in this population. PMID:21617762
Longo, Egmar; Badia, Marta; Orgaz, Begona M.
This study analyzed the patterns and predictors of participation in leisure activities outside of school of Spanish children and adolescents with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Children and adolescents with CP (n = 199; 113 males and 86 females) participated in this cross-sectional study. Their mean age was 12.11 years (SD = 3.02; range 8-18 years), and…
Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Garita-Arce, Carlos; Sanchez-Lopez, Marta; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoan
Objective: To assess the perceptions of rural and urban Costa Rican adolescents regarding which barriers and motivators affect their adoption of an active lifestyle. Design: Data were collected in focus group discussions. Participants: 108 male and female adolescents aged 12 to 18 from the 7th to 11th grades. Setting: Two urban and 1 rural high…
Sevecke, Kathrin; Pukrop, Ralf; Kosson, David S; Krischer, Maya K
Substantial evidence exists for 3- and 4-factor models of psychopathy underlying patterns of covariation among the items of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in diverse adult samples. Although initial studies conducted with the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) indicated reasonable fit for these models in incarcerated male adolescents in the United States and the United Kingdom, only one published study has addressed the factor structure of PCL:YV psychopathy in female adolescents, and no prior studies have addressed it outside of these countries. We used confirmatory factor analysis to investigate the factor structure underlying PCL:YV scores in 314 incarcerated (143 male, 171 female) and 193 in-school (99 male, 94 female) adolescents, ages 14 to 19 years. The 2-factor model provided adequate fit only for incarcerated male adolescents and the 4-factor model was problematic in all samples, but the 3-factor solution provided an adequate model in incarcerated and community male adolescents. None of the models provided consistently acceptable fit among female adolescents. Current findings provide evidence for the robustness of the 3-factor model of psychopathy in incarcerated and community male adolescent samples but raise doubts about the applicability of this model to female adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
Surís, Joan-Carles; Parera, Núria
The aim was to assess whether physical activity decreases during adolescence, whether this decrease depends on the gender, whether physical activity is related to personal, family, and school factors, and whether it is associated to healthy behaviors in a sample of adolescents. Data were drawn from a survey carried out in 2001 among in-school Catalan adolescents aged 14-19 years. Subjects were divided in two groups: physical activity (N=4,185, 43.5% females) and no-physical activity (N=2,743; 68.9% females). Personal, family, school and lifestyles' variables were compared. Chi-square and Odds Ratio were used to compare qualitative variables and Student's t to compare quantitative variables. For the multivariate analysis, all statistically significant variables in the univariate analysis in each of the four groups of variables (plus age) were introduced in a non-conditioned multiple regression. Analysis was performed separately by gender. Physical activity was significantly more frequent among males and decreased with age. Globally, physically active youth perceived themselves as healthier and happier with their body image, they showed a better relationship with their parents, were better connected to school, and exhibited healthier lifestyles. As physical activity has important benefits on health, health professionals dealing with adolescents should encourage adolescents to keep practicing. This message must be specially directed to females.
Hoffmann, John P.
This research investigates the effects of extracurricular activities on alcohol use among male (n = 4,495) and female (n = 5,398) adolescents who participated in the 1990-92 National Education Longitudinal Study. Previous studies have assessed the association between extracurricular activities and alcohol use, but none have explored whether the…
Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Biddlecom, Ann; Tanle, Augustine
This paper examines connectedness to, communication with and monitoring of unmarried adolescents in Ghana by parents, other adults, friends and key social institutions and the roles these groups play with respect to adolescent sexual activity. The paper draws on 2004 nationally-representative survey data and qualitative evidence from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with adolescents in 2003. Adolescents show high levels of connectedness to family, adults, friends, school and religious groups. High levels of adult monitoring are also observed, but communication with family about sex-related matters was not as high as with non-family members. The qualitative data highlight gender differences in communication. Multivariate analysis of survey data shows a strong negative relationship between parental monitoring and recent sexual activity for males and females, and limited effects of communication. Creating a supportive environment and showing interest in the welfare of adolescents appear to promote positive sexual and reproductive health outcomes.
Cumming, Sean P.; Sherar, Lauren B.; Smart, Joanna E. Hunter; Rodrigues, Aristides M. M.; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B.; Malina, Robert M.
In this study we tested for differences in physical activity (PA), physical self-concept, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) between the least and most biologically mature adolescent females within their respective chronological and academic year groups. A total of 222 British female adolescents aged 10 to 14 years (X[bar] age = 12.7…
HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.; MYER, GREGORY D.; KIEFER, ADAM W.; FORD, KEVIN R.
ABSTRACT Purpose Knee abduction moment (KAM) is an injury risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury that shows divergent incidence between males and females during adolescence. The objective of this study was to determine the relation between skeletal growth and increased KAM. The hypotheses tested were that females would demonstrate peak KAM during landing at peak height velocity (PHV) and that they would diverge from males at PHV. Methods The subject pool consisted of 674 females and 218 males (1387 female and 376 male assessments) who participated in a preseason testing session before their basketball or soccer seasons. They were tested longitudinally for multiple years (2 ± 1 yr) to capture maturation via estimates of percent (%) adult stature and biomechanical analysis during a drop vertical jump maneuver. Data were analyzed using three-dimensional motion analysis that used a 37 retroreflective marker body model and inverse dynamics to calculate segment joint centers and peak KAM. Results Mature females, as defined as 92% adult stature or greater, displayed increased peak KAM and knee abduction angles relative to growing (≤91% adult stature) adolescent females (P < 0.001). A significant sex–maturation (% adult stature) interaction (P < 0.001) in peak KAM was observed. Post hoc analyses showed consistent sex differences in groups greater than or equal to, but not less than, 92% adult stature, which is approximately at PHV. Hence, sex differences in peak KAM and PHV coincide. Conclusions Increases in peak KAM during and after PHV seem to coincide with increased risk of ACL injury in females. KAM peaked in females at PHV. Tracking longitudinal increases in peak KAM may be useful for the identification of females at increased risk of ACL injury. PMID:25970663
Pinto, Karina Alves de Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of abdominal obesity and investigate their association with parameters markers of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its risk factors in female adolescents. It is a cross-sectional study with 150 adolescents from 10 public schools in the Federal District, Brazil. The presence of abdominal obesity was considered by measuring waist circumference above the 80th percentile, according to Taylor et al. (2000). The associated factors included sociodemographic characteristics, health status of adolescents and their parents, physical activity, eating habits, blood pressure and biochemical profile. The abdominal obesity prevalence ratio (PR) was estimated by Poisson regression model, with 95% CI. Among the adolescents studied (age= 15.6 +/- 0.8 years; BMI = 21.0 +/- 3.0 kg/m2), prevalence of abdominal obesity was 20%, and this condition was not associated with sociodemographic variables, physical activity and diet. However, abdominal obesity was significantly associated with intake of less than 4 meals a day (PR = 2.27; IC95% 1.27-4.10), previous obesity (PR = 2.36; IC95% 1.31-4.01), history of parental chronic disease (PR = 3.55; IC 95% 1.63-7.75), fasting insulin = 15 uUi/mL (PR = 3.05; IC 95% 1.36-6.82) e HDL-c > 40 mg/dL (PR = 0.39; IC95% 0.23-0.67). In this population, modifiable factors, family history and determinants of MS, such as insulin and HDL-c were associated with abdominal obesity, which points to the need for effective health promotion among adolescents.
Sabiston, Catherine M; Crocker, Peter R E
This study examined adolescent leisure-time physical activity correlates using the expectancy-value (EV) model. Adolescents (N = 857) completed questionnaires to assess competence and value self-perceptions, social influences, and physical activity. Direct and indirect effects of self-perceptions and parent and best friend influences on physical activity were explored using structural equation modeling. Measurement models were a good fit to the data and gender invariance was supported. The structural mediation model was a reasonable fit to the data, whereby the indirect effects of parents and peers and the direct effects of competence beliefs and values together accounted for 49% of the variance in physical activity. In this model, the pattern of relationships was similar for adolescent males and females. Findings supporting the EV model provide theoretical and practical implications for understanding adolescent physical activity.
Ortega, Francisco B; Chillón, Palma; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Delgado, Manuel; Albers, Ulrike; Alvarez-Granda, Jesús L; Marcos, Ascensión; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J
We aimed to describe the sleep patterns in Spanish adolescents and to examine the relationships of sleep duration and morning tiredness with participation in leisure-time physical-sporting activities (LT-PA) and television (TV) watching. Sleep duration, morning tiredness, participation in LT-PA and time spent on watching TV were reported by 2,179 (1,139 females) Spanish adolescents (AVENA study). Data were analyzed by binary logistic regression. One-fifth of the adolescents reported insufficient night sleep (<8 h) on school days. The review of the literature (30 studies) showed that the Spanish adolescents sleep as long as adolescents from central Europe, and longer than those from other Mediterranean countries, South Africa, Asia and North America. Insufficient sleep duration doubled the odds of excessive TV watching (≥3 h/day) in males, regardless of morning tiredness (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.42-3.27). Morning tiredness reduced the odds of participating in any LT-PA in both males and females (0.49, 0.34-0.70 and 0.49, 0.35-0.69, respectively), and increased the odds of excessive TV watching in females, regardless of sleep duration (2.49, 1.64-3.79). We conclude that non-participation in LT-PA is associated with morning tiredness in male and female adolescents, while excessive TV watching is more associated with short sleep or morning tiredness depending on gender.
El Awa, F; Fouad, H; El Naga, R A; Emam, A H; Labib, S
Egypt assessed tobacco use among young people and adults through implementation in 2009 of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) among school students aged 13-15 years and the nationally representative Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) among adults aged 15+ years. Both surveys employed cluster sampling to produce nationally representative samples and used standard core questionnaires with optional, country-specific questions. The results indicated that a higher percentage of adolescent girls in Egypt used tobacco than did adult females. Overall, 3.8% of girls aged 13-15 years used some form of tobacco compared with 0.6% of women aged 15+ years. Adolescents were over 14 times more likely than adult women to currently smoke cigarettes and 11 times more likely to smoke waterpipes. Moreover, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among adolescent girls had increased from 1.4% in the 2005 GYTS to 2.8% in 2009, indicating that social and cultural norms may be changing.
Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Coelho, Fernanda Dias; Paes, Santiago Tavares; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo
Objective: To evaluate the influence of self-esteem on levels of body dissatisfaction among adolescent females. Methods: A group of 397 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were enrolled in the study. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was applied to assess body dissatisfaction. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to assess self-esteem. Weight, height, and skinfold thickness were also measured. These anthropometric data were controlled in the statistical analyses. Results: The multiple regression model indicated influence of "positive self-esteem" (R2=0.16; p=0.001) and "negative self-esteem" (R2=0.23; p=0.001) subscales on the BSQ scores. Univariate analysis of covariance demonstrated differences in BSQ scores (p=0.001) according to groups of self-esteem. Conclusion: It was concluded that self-esteem influenced body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls from Juiz de Fora, MG. PMID:25479855
Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Zimmerman, Marc A; Xue, Yange; Bauermeister, Jose A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Wang, Zhenhong; Hou, Yubo
Little is known about the stress and coping mechanisms on problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents, which might be quite different from their counterparts in Western cultures. We examined risk process of stress for internalizing outcomes (i.e., psychological distress, self-acceptance) and externalizing outcomes (i.e., substance use, delinquency, violent behavior) among Chinese adolescents. We also examined John Henryism Active Coping as a protective factor in a test of resilience from the negative effects of stress. A cross-sectional survey using self-reported questionnaires was conducted in 2 urban cities in China: Beijing and Xian. Participants included 1,356 students in Grades 7 to 12 (48% male, 52% female). Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test the conceptual model. The modifying (protective) effects of John Henryism were tested in multiple-group analysis. After controlling for demographics, we found that stress was associated with decreased self-acceptance and increased psychological distress among adolescents. Higher degree of psychological distress was then associated with increased delinquent behaviors and substance use. The results also indicated that individuals who scored higher in John Henryism reported more substance use as a result of psychological distress. Overall, our results support previous research with Western samples. Although John Henryism did not serve as a protective factor between stress and its negative outcomes, the findings underscore the relevance of addressing stress and possible coping strategies among Chinese adolescents. Further research that refines the active coping tailored for Chinese adolescents is necessary to more precisely test its protective effects.
Del Río-Ospina, Luisa; Soto-De León, Sara Cecilia; Camargo, Milena; Sánchez, Ricardo; Mancilla, Cindy Lizeth; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin
This study reports six HR-HPV types’ infection prevalence discriminated by species and multiple infection in unvaccinated Colombian female adolescents, as well as some factors modulating the risk of infection. HPV DNA for six high-risk viral types was identified in cervical samples taken from 2,134 12–19 year-old females using conventional generic and type-specific PCR. Binomial logistical regression analysis was used for modelling HR-HPV infection and multiple infection risk. The interaction between variables in a stepwise model was also included in such analysis. Viral DNA was detected in 48.97% of the females; 28.52% of them had multiple infections, HPV-16 being the most frequently occurring type (37.44%). Cytological abnormality prevalence was 15.61%. Being over 16 years-old (1.66: 1.01–2.71 95%CI), white ethnicity (4.40: 1.16–16.73 95%CI), having had 3 or more sexual partners (1.77: 1.11–2.81 95%CI) and prior sexually-transmitted infections (STI) (1.65: 1.17–2.32 95%CI) were associated with a greater risk of HPV infection. Having given birth was related to a higher risk of infection by A7 species and antecedent of abortion to less risk of coinfection. Where the females in this study came from also influenced the risk of infection by A7 species as female adolescents from the Andean region had a lower risk of infection (0.42: 0.18–0.99 95%CI). The presence of factors related to risky sexual behaviour in the study population indicated that public health services should pay special attention to female adolescents to modify the risk of infection by high-risk HPV types and decrease their impact on this age group. PMID:27846258
Gensheimer, William G; Reddy, Sireesha Y; Mulconry, Marcy; Greves, Christine
Tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) is a common acute complication of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). It can also develop as a complication of pelvic or abdominal surgery, malignancy, and intra-abdominal processes such as appendicitis. In premenopausal women, PID is the most common cause of tubo-ovarian abscess. We report a case of tubo-ovarian abscess in a virginal adolescent female with no past surgical history and no known history of appendicitis, inflammatory bowel disease, or cancer. Cultures of the tubo-ovarian abscess drainage grew Abiotrophia/Granulicatella species. This case supports including TOA in the broad differential diagnosis for abdominal pain with fever in adolescent females regardless of sexual history.
Arnon, Sara; Shamai, Shmuel; Ilatov, Zinaida
Research examined the relative importance of peer groups for young adolescents as compared with diverse adult socialization agents--family, school, and community. The factors involved were teenagers' activities, preferences, feelings, and thoughts as to how they spend their leisure time, their preferences for help providers, and their sense of…
Reichelt, Amy C; Abbott, Kirsten N; Westbrook, R Fred; Morris, Margaret J
Adolescents are the highest consumers of sugar sweetened drinks. Excessive consumption of such drinks is a likely contributor to the development of obesity and may be associated with enduring changes in the systems involved in reward and motivation. We examined the impact of daily sucrose consumption in young male and female rats (N=12 per group) across the adolescent period on the motivation to perform instrumental responses to gain food rewards as adults. Rats were or were not exposed to a sucrose solution for 2 h each day for 28 days across adolescence [postnatal days (P) 28-56]. They were then trained as adults (P70 onward) to lever press for a palatable 15% cherry flavored sucrose reward and tested on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule to assess motivation to respond for reinforcement. Female rats exposed to sucrose had higher breakpoints on the PR schedule than controls, whereas male rats exposed to sucrose had lower breakpoints than controls. These results show that consumption of sucrose during adolescence produced sex-specific behavioral changes in responding for sucrose as adults.
Although adolescents with delinquency are known to have higher-than-average rates of depression or substance use disorder (SUD), research on the topic is inconsistent. It remains unclear weather depression or SUD leads to delinquency, whether delinquency leads to depression or SUD, or whether there is bi-directionality. Utilizing the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (Wave I: 2008–2009; Wave II: 18 months later: N = 5872), we used logistic regression to predict depression from delinquency (and vice versa), and SUD from delinquency (and vice versa). After inclusion of control variables, we found that females with minor theft in Wave I were more than 4 times as likely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.34; 95% CI: 1.10–17.16) as females without minor theft to be depressed in Wave II, and those with public disorder in Wave I were almost 3 times as likely (aOR = 2.74; 95% CI: 1.03–7.30) as those without public disorder to have SUD in Wave II. Overall delinquency also predicted depression or SUD, and SUD predicted delinquency. Practitioners could address risk for depression or SUD among child welfare-involved adolescent females by focusing on overall delinquency or on specific types of delinquency (minor theft for depression and public disorder for SUD) and by offering interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy) that have been shown to be effective in preventing depression or SUD. In addition, with respect to our finding that SUD predicts delinquency among adolescent females, practitioners can help prevent delinquency by offering interventions (e.g., intensive outpatient treatments) that have well documented effectiveness in addressing SUD. PMID:24060474
Lalayants, Marina; Prince, Jonathan D
Although adolescents with delinquency are known to have higher-than-average rates of depression or substance use disorder (SUD), research on the topic is inconsistent. It remains unclear weather depression or SUD leads to delinquency, whether delinquency leads to depression or SUD, or whether there is bi-directionality. Utilizing the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (Wave I: 2008-2009; Wave II: 18 months later: N=5872), we used logistic regression to predict depression from delinquency (and vice versa), and SUD from delinquency (and vice versa). After inclusion of control variables, we found that females with minor theft in Wave I were more than 4 times as likely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=4.34; 95% CI: 1.10-17.16) as females without minor theft to be depressed in Wave II, and those with public disorder in Wave I were almost 3 times as likely (aOR=2.74; 95% CI: 1.03-7.30) as those without public disorder to have SUD in Wave II. Overall delinquency also predicted depression or SUD, and SUD predicted delinquency. Practitioners could address risk for depression or SUD among child welfare-involved adolescent females by focusing on overall delinquency or on specific types of delinquency (minor theft for depression and public disorder for SUD) and by offering interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy) that have been shown to be effective in preventing depression or SUD. In addition, with respect to our finding that SUD predicts delinquency among adolescent females, practitioners can help prevent delinquency by offering interventions (e.g., intensive outpatient treatments) that have well documented effectiveness in addressing SUD.
Steglich, Raquel Bisacotti; Tonoli, Renata Elise; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Pinto, Giselle Martins; Riesgo, Rudimar dos Santos
Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated infective dermatitis (ID) is a chronic, severe and recurrent eczema occurring during childhood in patients vertically infected with HTLV-1. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesia (HAM/ TSP) is slow and progressive. We report the case of an adolescent female from a non-endemic area for HTLV-1 who presents ID and, most likely, associated HAM/TSP. PMID:26312674
Notter, Kathryn Betz
of role models, the need for parental support, social stigmatisms and peer pressure are still major factors that determine whether adolescent females seek out STEM activities. An interesting finding, which was an exception to previous findings, was these female adolescents enjoyed the challenge of the competition. The informal learning environments encouraged an atmosphere of social engagement and cooperative learning. Many volunteers that led the afterschool programs were women (role models) and a majority of parents showed support by accommodating an afterschool situation. The young women that were engaged in the competition noted it was a friendly competition, but they were all there to win. All who participated in the competition had a similar learning environment: competitive but cooperative. Further research is needed to determine if it is the learning environment that lures adolescent females to the program and entices them to continue in the STEM fields or if it is the competitive aspect of the culminating activity.
van der Put, Claudia E
To our knowledge, there are no former studies in which subgroups of female adolescent sexual offenders are studied. Therefore, we examined differences in risk factors for general recidivism between female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense against a younger child (CSO, n=25), female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense with a peer victim (PSO, n=15) and female adolescents who have committed a misdemeanor sexual offenses (MSO, n=31). Results showed that CSOs had considerably fewer problems in the domains of school (truancy, behavior problems, dropping out of school), family (e.g., parental alcohol problems, parental mental health problems, poor authority and control, out of home placements and run away from home) and friends (antisocial friends) than MSOs and/or PSOs. No differences were found in the prevalence of mental health problems, physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Tabatabaei, Mansooreh; Alavi, Mousa; Zolaktaf, Vahid
Introduction. Deprivation of parents might decrease self-esteem (SE) and result in affective and social incompatibility. In this randomized control trial, we examined the effect of aerobics exercise on SE among female adolescents living with no natural family. Materials and Methods. The sample consisted of all female adolescents aged 13 to 19 years (n: 72) who were covered by Isfahan Welfare organization. Participants were assigned into intervention and control groups by matched random sampling. Intervention included 8 weeks of aerobics exercise. Coppersmith SE inventory was administered before and after intervention as well as after one month follow-up. Results. No significant difference was seen between pre-SE scores of intervention (32.7 ± 8.4) and control (33.0 ± 6.7) groups (t = .16, P = .87). A significant difference was obtained in post-SE scores (40.2 ± 5.7 versus 34.7 ± 6.8, t = 3.58, P = .001) and in one month follow-up scores (36.4 ± 5.2 versus 33.0 ± 5.2, t = 2.25, P = .03). Discussion. The results demonstrated a low level of pre-SE in both groups. However, a significant improvement was seen in posttest of intervention group which persisted even one month after intervention. It supports the use of aerobics for female adolescents deprived from family life. PMID:25610905
Improvements in neuroimaging technologies, and greater access to their use, have generated a plethora of data regarding male/female differences in the developing brain. Examination of these differences may shed light on the pathophysiology of the many illnesses that differ between the sexes and ultimately lead to more effective interventions. In this review, we attempt to synthesize the anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) literature of male/female brain differences with emphasis on studies encompassing adolescence – a time of divergence in physical and behavioral characteristics. Across all ages total brain size is consistently reported to be about 10% larger in males. Structures commonly reported to be different between sexes include the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum – all noted to have a relatively high density of sex steroid receptors. The direction and magnitude of reported brain differences depends on the methodology of data acquisition and analysis, whether and how the subcomponents are adjusted for the total brain volume difference, and the age of the participants in the studies. Longitudinal studies indicate regional cortical gray matter volumes follow inverted U shaped developmental trajectories with peak size occurring one to three years earlier in females. Cortical gray matter differences are modulated by androgen receptor genotyope and by circulating levels of hormones. White matter volumes increase throughout childhood and adolescence in both sexes but more rapidly in adolescent males resulting in an expanding magnitude of sex differences from childhood to adulthood. PMID:22908911
Giedd, Jay N; Raznahan, Armin; Mills, Kathryn L; Lenroot, Rhoshel K
Improvements in neuroimaging technologies, and greater access to their use, have generated a plethora of data regarding male/female differences in the developing brain. Examination of these differences may shed light on the pathophysiology of the many illnesses that differ between the sexes and ultimately lead to more effective interventions. In this review, we attempt to synthesize the anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) literature of male/female brain differences with emphasis on studies encompassing adolescence - a time of divergence in physical and behavioral characteristics. Across all ages total brain size is consistently reported to be about 10% larger in males. Structures commonly reported to be different between sexes include the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum - all noted to have a relatively high density of sex steroid receptors. The direction and magnitude of reported brain differences depends on the methodology of data acquisition and analysis, whether and how the subcomponents are adjusted for the total brain volume difference, and the age of the participants in the studies. Longitudinal studies indicate regional cortical gray matter volumes follow inverted U shaped developmental trajectories with peak size occurring one to three years earlier in females. Cortical gray matter differences are modulated by androgen receptor genotyope and by circulating levels of hormones. White matter volumes increase throughout childhood and adolescence in both sexes but more rapidly in adolescent males resulting in an expanding magnitude of sex differences from childhood to adulthood.
Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.
The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…
Dentith, Audrey M.
In this article, data collected from an ethnographic study of adolescent girls growing up in the city of Las Vegas in the US is used to further our understanding of the role of mediated sex and consumer culture and in relationship to emerging adolescent female identities. Girls in this study articulated a clear sense of their abilities to make…
Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Spear, Linda P
Age-specific behavioral and neural characteristics may predispose adolescents to initiate and escalate use of alcohol and drugs. Adolescents may avidly seek novel experiences, including drugs of abuse, because of enhanced incentive motivation for drugs and natural rewards, perhaps especially when that incentive motivation is sensitized by prior drug exposure. Using a Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) procedure, sign-tracking (ST) and goal-tracking (GT) behavior was examined in amphetamine-sensitized and control adolescent and adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, with expression of elevated ST behavior used to index enhanced incentive motivation for reward-associated cues. Rats were first exposed to a sensitizing regimen of amphetamine injections (3.0 mg/kg/ml d-amphetamine per day) or given saline (0.9% wt/vol) once daily for 4 days. Expression of ST and GT was then examined over 8 days of PCA training consisting of 25 pairings of an 8-s presentation of an illuminated lever immediately followed by response-independent delivery of a banana-flavored food pellet. Results showed that adults clearly displayed more ST behavior than adolescents, reflected via both more contacts with, and shorter latencies to approach, the lever. Prior amphetamine sensitization increased ST (but not GT) behaviors regardless of age. Thus, when indexed via ST, incentive motivation was found to be greater in adults than adolescents, with a prior history of amphetamine exposure generally sensitizing incentive motivation for cues predicting a food reward regardless of age.
Chacko, M R; Lovchik, J C
The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection was studied in a sexually active urban Baltimore adolescent population. Possible risk factors such as age, past history of sexually transmitted disease, number of sexual partners, contact with sexually transmitted disease, oral contraceptive use, and concomitant gonococcal infection were also evaluated. The prevalence of chlamydial infection in the 280 adolescents studied was 26%: 35% in male adolescents, 27% in pregnant female adolescents, and 23% in nonpregnant female adolescents. Chlamydia was almost three times as prevalent as gonorrhea in the same population. Age, past history of sexually transmitted disease, oral contraceptive use, and concomitant gonorrhea were not significantly associated with chlamydial infection. However, multiple current sexual partners, contact with sexually transmitted disease, genitourinary symptoms, and cervical ectopy were significantly associated with chlamydial infection. Testing for chlamydial infection in sexually active urban teenagers is recommended for those with genitourinary symptoms, those with cervical ectopy, or those who are contacts of persons with sexually transmitted disease. Considering the reservoir of infection in the asymptomatic female adolescents, screening for chlamydial infections in family planning clinics warrants consideration.
Henderson, Karla A.
Explores how marketing recreation and physical activity programs for females might be undertaken based on the growing body of research about female involvement in recreation, sport, and leisure. The paper addresses product, place, price, and promotion, discussing females as people who represent a growing market segment with unique characteristics.…
Vilhjalmsson, R; Thorlindsson, T
Although the consequences of physical activity have been carefully documented, less is known about its correlates, particularly among children and youth. Based on a representative national survey of 1131 Icelandic adolescents, the study examined various physical, psychological, social and demographic factors related to physical activity. Male sex, significant others' involvement in physical activity (father, friend and older brother), sociability, perceived importance of sport and of health improvement and satisfaction with mandatory gym classes in school, were all related to more involvement, whereas hours of paid work and TV-viewing were related to less. Furthermore, the data suggested that the influence of friend's participation in physical activity depends on his or her emotional significance. Influential others appeared to affect males and females in the same way. The meaning of the results and their implications for future research are discussed.
Rashid, S F; Michaud, S
This paper explores the experiences of female adolescents during the 1998 floods in Bangladesh, focusing on the implications of socio-cultural norms related to notions of honour, shame, purity and pollution. These cultural notions are reinforced with greater emphasis as girls enter their adolescence, regulating their sexuality and gender relationships. In Bangladeshi society, adolescent girls are expected to maintain their virginity until marriage. Contact is limited to one's family and extended relations. Particularly among poorer families, adolescent girls tend to have limited mobility to safeguard their 'purity'. This is to ensure that the girl's reputation does not suffer, thus making it difficult for the girl to get married. For female adolescents in Bangladesh, a disaster situation is a uniquely vulnerable time. Exposure to the unfamiliar environment of flood shelters and relief camps, and unable to maintain their 'space' and privacy from male strangers, a number of the girls were vulnerable to sexual and mental harassment. With the floods, it became difficult for most of the girls to be appropriately 'secluded'. Many were unable to sleep, bathe or get access to latrines in privacy because so many houses and latrines were under the water. Some of the girls who had begun menstruation were distressed at not being able to keep themselves clean. Strong social taboos associated with menstruation and the dirty water that surrounded them made it difficult for the girls to wash their menstrual cloths or change them frequently enough. Many of them became separated from their social network of relations, which caused them a great deal of anxiety and stress. Their difficulty in trying to follow social norms have had far-reaching implications on their health, identity, family and community relations.
Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.
This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal (< = Tanner stage 2), and mid to post pubertal (Tanner stage > 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5%) of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001). There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be “unhappy” and “weak” and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the “best”. These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents. PMID:27171420
Beerendonk, C C M; Braat, D D M
Fertility and sexuality are important aspects in the quality of life of long-term survivors of cancer. Adolescents in particular are in a very vulnerable period of their lives with respect to future fertility and sexuality. Special attention should be paid to preserve their fertility whenever possible. The gonadotoxic effect of chemotherapy is largely drug- and dosedependent and is related to age. The effect of radiotherapy is also dependent on dose and age and on the radiation therapy field. The prepubertal ovary is the least susceptible to gonadotoxicity. Ablative regimens for stem cell transplantation have an extremely high risk of ovarian failure. Alternative chemotherapy protocols can reduce long-term gonadotoxicity. Alkylating agents impose the highest risk in causing ovarian failure and should be avoided whenever possible. Up to now, the results of gonadoprotective hormonal therapy have been disappointing and contradictory. Transposition of the ovaries should be considered in each case of planned pelvic or whole body irradiation, where ovarian involvement is unlikely and chemotherapy not necessary. Cryopreservation of preimplantation embryos will seldom be possible in female adolescents due to the lack of a stable relationship with a male partner. Cryopreservation of mature and immature oocytes (necessitating in vitro maturation) is still assumed not to be safe for the offspring. Cryopreservation and transplantation of ovarian tissue seems to be the most promising way of future fertility preservation in female adolescents. At present, it is in its early experimental stage. Its safety and possibilities for fertility preservation in humans are not proven as yet. Additionally, technical and ethical issues need to be addressed. The counseling of female adolescents who are facing the threat of cancer needs careful consideration with regards to the psychosocial impact of the treatment and its consequences. Special attention should be paid to aspects of future
Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Carlson, Jordan A.; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Saelens, Brian E.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Glanz, Karen; Roman, Caterina G.; Sallis, James F.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between adolescent and parental perceptions of neighborhood safety and adolescents' physical activity in multiple locations and to investigate the moderating effect of sex within this association. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 928 adolescents aged 12 to 16…
Williams, Susan Lee; Mummery, W. Kerry
Identification of the relationships between adolescent overweight and obesity and physical activity and a range of intrapersonal and interpersonal factors is necessary to develop relevant interventions which target the health needs of adolescents. This study examined adolescent body mass index (BMI) and participation in moderate and vigorous…
Kinzig, Kimberly P.; Hargrave, Sara L.
Activity-based anorexia is a paradigm that induces increased physical activity, reduced food intake, and heightened activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in adult rats. To investigate whether experience with activity-based anorexia produced enduring effects on brain and behavior, female adolescent rats experienced activity-based anorexia during adolescence and were tested in adulthood for anxiety-like behavior on an elevated plus maze and in an open field. Analysis of elevated plus maze and open field behavior in adulthood revealed that rats that experienced activity-based anorexia during adolescence, but not rats that were simply food restricted, displayed increased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. Plasma corticosterone and expression levels of corticotropin- releasing hormone mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and in the central nucleus of the amygdala were significantly elevated in adult rats that had undergone activity-based anorexia in adolescence in response to the open field exposure, as compared to control rats. These data demonstrate enduring effects of adolescent activity-based anorexia on anxiety-like behavior and neuroendocrine factors critical in stress responsivity in adulthood. Furthermore, we demonstrate that activity-based anorexia during adolescence serves as a model whereby prolonged anxiety is induced, allowing for evaluation of the behavioral and neural correlates of mediating anxiety-like behaviors in adulthood. PMID:20566408
Obeid, Nicole; Buchholz, Annick; Boerner, Katelynn E; Henderson, Katherine A; Norris, Mark
This study explored symptoms of social anxiety and multidimensional self-esteem in a clinical, adolescent female eating disorder population. Using self-report measures, data from 344 females revealed significant negative relationships between dimensions of self-esteem and social anxiety. A diagnostic difference emerged, with the restricting subgroup reporting significantly higher perceived physical appearance and global self-worth than those with binge/purge symptoms or bulimia nervosa. No significant age differences or age by diagnosis interaction effects emerged. These findings suggest that in clinical samples of adolescent eating disorders, self-esteem and social anxiety share a significant inverse relationship and seem to remain fairly constant across adolescence.
Hurdiel, Rémy; Watier, Timothée; Honn, Kimberly; Pezé, Thierry; Zunquin, Gautier; Theunynck, Denis
Lack of sleep is known to negatively affect adolescent's health and the links between regular physical activity and sleep are unclear.This pilot study investigated whether the regular practice of physical activities among sedentary female students would improve their sleep. Nineteen female students, identified as sedentary and having poor subjective sleep quality were assigned in two groups to a 12-week university physical activities programme in accordance with the recommendations of World Health Organisation (N = 10) or to a control condition (N = 9). Sleep was assessed with actigraphy before and after the study and with the Pittsburg Sleep Quality 15 Index (PSQI) at the beginning, middle, and end of the study. The intensity of physical activities was controlled by heart rate monitor. The analysis showed that sleep quality in the physical activities group improved, with the mean ± SD PSQI score decreasing from 9.1 ± 1.7 to 4.8 ± 2.0. Despite some limitations, these pilot data indicate that a physical activities programme is feasible to implement in students, and that participation in such a programme improves sleep in 18- 24 -year-old female adolescents. Further potential benefits remain to be investigated in follow-up research.
Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Bercovitz, Kim; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Karunamuni, Nandini
The purpose of this study was to test a conceptual model based on theoretical and empirically supported relationships related to the influences of weight perceptions, weight concerns, desires to change weight, friends, age and location in relation to physical activity (PA) and smoking in adolescents. A total of 1242 males and 1446 females (mean…
Hong, Eunsook; Peng, Yun; O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.
This study examined relationships between five personal traits and adolescents' creative activities and accomplishments in five domains--music, visual arts, creative writing, science, and technology. Participants were 439 tenth graders (220 males and 219 females) in China. The relationships were examined using confirmatory factor analysis.…
Acet, Mehmet; Karademir, Tamer; Gökçiçek, Sercan
This study was conducted to find out how the empathic tendency levels of adolescent high school students were shaped in terms of sport activities and some variables. The study group includes a total of 1868 students, 866 females and 1002 males, between the ages 14 and 18 who were studying in different high schools (science high school, vocational…
Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane
Despite the well-established association between adolescent sexual activity and delinquent behavior, little research has examined the potential importance of relationship contexts in moderating this association. The current study used longitudinal, behavioral genetic data on 519 same-sex twin pairs (48.6% female) divided into two age cohorts…
Ioannides, Kimon L H; Chapman, Jennifer; Marukutira, Tafireyi; Tshume, Ontibile; Anabwani, Gabriel; Gross, Robert; Lowenthal, Elizabeth D
We hypothesized that longer and more frequent dosing gaps among boys in Botswana taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection compared to girls could account for previously seen gender-specific differences in outcomes. We monitored 154 male and 134 female adolescents for 2 years with medication event monitoring systems (MEMS). Median adherence was 95.6 % for males and 95.7 % for females (p = 0.40). There were no significant gender differences in the number of ≥7 day (p = 0.55) and ≥14 day (p = 0.48) dosing gaps. The median maximal gap was 7.7 days for males and 8.0 days for females (p = 0.47). These findings are not consistent with clinically meaningful gender differences in adherence.
Wulsin, Aynara C.; Wick-Carlson, Dayna; Packard, Benjamin A.; Morano, Rachel; Herman, James P.
Adolescence is a period of substantial neuroplasticity in stress regulatory neurocircuits. Chronic stress exposure during this period leads to long-lasting changes in neuroendocrine function and emotional behaviors, suggesting adolescence may be a critical period for development of stress vulnerability. This study investigated the effects of exposure to 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS) in late-adolescent (pnd 45–58) female rats on neuroendocrine function, neuropeptide mRNA expression and depressive-like behavior in adolescence (pnd 59) and in adulthood (pnd 101). Adult females exposed to CVS in adolescence have a blunted hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to a novel stressor and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Blunted HPA axis responses were accompanied by reduced vasopressin mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), suggesting decreased central drive. Adolescent females tested immediately after CVS did not exhibit differences in stress reactivity or immobility in the forced swim test, despite evidence for enhanced central HPA axis drive (increased CRH mRNA expression in PVN). Overall, our study demonstrates that exposure to chronic stress in adolescence is sufficient to induce lasting changes in neuroendocrine drive and behavior, potentially altering the developmental trajectory of stress circuits as female rats age into adulthood. PMID:26751968
Wulsin, Aynara C; Wick-Carlson, Dayna; Packard, Benjamin A; Morano, Rachel; Herman, James P
Adolescence is a period of substantial neuroplasticity in stress regulatory neurocircuits. Chronic stress exposure during this period leads to long-lasting changes in neuroendocrine function and emotional behaviors, suggesting adolescence may be a critical period for development of stress vulnerability. This study investigated the effects of exposure to 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS) in late-adolescent (pnd 45-58) female rats on neuroendocrine function, neuropeptide mRNA expression and depressive-like behavior in adolescence (pnd 59) and in adulthood (pnd 101). Adult females exposed to CVS in adolescence have a blunted hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to a novel stressor and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Blunted HPA axis responses were accompanied by reduced vasopressin mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), suggesting decreased central drive. Adolescent females tested immediately after CVS did not exhibit differences in stress reactivity or immobility in the forced swim test, despite evidence for enhanced central HPA axis drive (increased CRH mRNA expression in PVN). Overall, our study demonstrates that exposure to chronic stress in adolescence is sufficient to induce lasting changes in neuroendocrine drive and behavior, potentially altering the developmental trajectory of stress circuits as female rats age into adulthood.
Sweeting, Helen N; West, Patrick B; Der, Geoff J
Background By mid adolescence there is an excess in female physical and/or psychosomatic, as well as psychological morbidity. This paper examines the contribution of a range of factors (self-esteem, body image, gender-role orientation, body mass index, smoking and physical activity) to explaining the female excess in three psychosomatic symptoms (headaches, stomach ache/sickness, and dizziness) and depressive mood at age 15. Methods A cohort of 2,196 school pupils (analyses restricted to 2,005 with complete data) surveyed at age 15. All measures were obtained via self-completion questionnaires, apart from body mass index, derived from measured height and weight. Analyses examined (a) sex differences in each potential explanatory factor; (b) their associations with the health measures; (c) the effect of adjustment for these factors on sex differences in the health measures; and (d) the existence of interactive effects between sex and the explanatory factors on the health measures Results Each potential explanatory factor was significantly differentiated by sex. Self-esteem, body image (represented by weight-related worries), smoking and physical activity were related to the health measures. These factors accounted for one third of the female excess in headaches and stomach problems, half the excess in dizziness and almost all that in respect of depressive mood. Self-esteem and body image were the factors most consistently related to health, and adjustment for these resulted in the largest reductions in the odds of a female excess in both the psychosomatic symptoms and depressive mood. Conclusion Adjustment for a range of potential psychosocial and behavioural factors largely explains (statistically) excess female depressive mood. These factors also partially explain the female excess in certain psychosomatic symptoms. PMID:17953744
Spitalnick, Joshua S; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Crosby, Richard A; Milhausen, Robin R; Sales, Jessica M; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N
The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a clinic-based sample of African-American adolescent females (N=715) enrolled in an STD/HIV prevention intervention. Participants (ages 15-21) endorsing higher levels of sexual sensation seeking reported higher levels of sexual risk-taking behaviours (e.g. frequency of vaginal intercourse, number of sexual partners, and poorer condom use). Results remained significant after controlling for known covariates associated with sexual risk-taking behaviours. Results are consistent with the adult literature and highlight the need for future investigations examining sexual sensation seeking among adolescents. These results, though preliminary, could be used to better inform prevention interventions and clinicians/health educators who provide direct services to adolescents.
Doré, E; Bedu, M; França, N M; Van Praagh, E
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the relationships between short-term power and body dimensions in young females were similar whatever the age of the individuals. A cohort of 189 prepubescent (mean age 9.5 years), adolescent (mean age 14.4 years) and young adult (mean age 18.2 years) females performed three all-out sprints on a friction-loaded cycle ergometer against three braking forces corresponding to applied loads of 25, 50 and 75 g.kg-1 body mass (BM). For each sprint, peak power including flywheel inertia was calculated. Results showed that a braking load of 75 g.kg-1 BM was too high for prepubescent and adolescent girls. Therefore, when measuring short-term cycling performance in heterogeneous female populations, a braking load of 50 g.kg-1 BM (0.495 N.kg-1 BM) is recommended. During growth, cycling peak power (CPP; defined as the highest peak power obtained during the three sprints) increased, as did total BM, fat-free mass (FFM) and lean leg volume (LLV) (P < 0.001). Analysis of covariance revealed that the slopes of the linear relationships between CPP and biometric characteristics were similar in the three groups (P > 0.7 for the CPP/BM and CPP/FFM relationships, and P > 0.2 for the CPP/LLV relationship). However, the adjusted means were always significantly higher in young women (P < 0.001) compared with both of the other groups. Although differences in performance during anaerobic cycling in growing females are primarily dependent upon body dimensions, other as yet undetermined factors may be involved during late adolescence.
Zayed, Mouchira; Ahmed, Dalia; Halawa, Eman Fawzy
Violence among female adolescents is a major public health problem. The objective of this study is to detect the pattern and predicting factors of interpersonal violence among adolescent female students in a nursing high school in Cairo. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the academic year 2011-2012 and included a total of 220 students using a self-administered questionnaire. Physical violence exposure at home, school and community among studied adolescents were 65.5, 30.4 and 25.9% respectively. Verbal violence was found in 55, 69 and 60% at home, school and community respectively. Finally 5 and 41.3% of studied students were exposed to sexual violence at home and community respectively. The highest violence exposure score was at school from teachers while the highest score of being violent was mainly towards the community. Multivariate regression analysis for violence scores revealed that younger students, students from urban residence and higher crowding index were significant predictors for total violence exposure and being violent scores. Prevention programmes should be given for all students especially high risk ones (young age, urban residence and high crowdness index families) and their families to address and overcome this problem.
Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Zohar, Gali
The study aimed to examine the role of dissociation (persistent versus peritraumatic) in self-injurious behavior among at-risk Israeli female adolescents. In addition, the relationship between childhood sexual abuse, depression, dissociation, and potency was investigated. A convenience sample of 93 female adolescents aged 12 years to 18 years were recruited from institutions for at-risk adolescent girls in Israel. Participants were administered an anonymous self-report questionnaire that included six measures: Demographics, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire, the Traumatic Events Questionnaire, and the Potency Scale. Results indicated that childhood sexual abuse increases the risk for self-injurious behavior more than threefold. Higher levels of persistent dissociation were found among girls who reported child sexual abuse compared to those who did not. Self-injurious behavior was predicted by persistent dissociation. Girls who engaged in self-injurious behavior had lower potency and higher depression levels, regardless of childhood sexual abuse history.
Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert
Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…
Connolly, Mary Kate; Quin, Edel; Redding, Emma
The purpose of this study was to assess the physiological and psychological impact of contemporary dance classes on adolescent females. Fifty-five females, aged 14 were recruited from secondary schools in the UK. The intervention constituted a program of contemporary dance classes with an emphasis on building muscular strength. Full ethics…
Grimes, Lee Edmondson; Haizlip, Breyan; Rogers, Tiffany; Brown, Kimberly D.
Adolescent African American females face multiple obstacles that hinder their educational success. High school completion and college attendance rates remain lower for African American females than those for other racial and gender groups, while pregnancy rates for African American teens are higher. Group work holds promise for meeting the…
Pace, Ugo; Cacioppo, Marco; Schimmenti, Adriano
The present study examined the association between quality of attachment, perception of the father's bond, and binge eating symptoms in a sample of female late adolescents. In total, 233 female students aged between 18 and 20 years completed measures on binge eating, quality of attachment and parent-child relationship. Data showed that respondents…
Toscano, Sharyl E
Background This paper describes the nature and characteristics of the dating relationships of adolescent females, including any of their experiences of abuse. Methods A grounded theory approach was used with 22 theoretically sampled female adolescents ages 15–18. Results Several important themes emerged: Seven stages of dating consistently described the relationships of female adolescents. A circle consisting of two interacting same sex peer groups provided structure for each teen as they navigated the dating course. The circle was the central factor affecting a female adolescent's potential for risk or harm in dating relationships. Teens defined abuse as an act where the intention is to hurt. Having once succumbed to sexual pressure, teens felt unable to refuse sex in subsequent situations. Conclusion An awareness of both the stages of dating and the dynamics of the circle will assist health care providers to plan and implement interventions in the female adolescent population. Study findings on factors and influences that support non-abusive versus abusive relationship might help identify female teens at risk and/or support interventions aimed at preventing dating violence. PMID:17883833
Uzturk, Belkis Gizem; Jin, Shan-xue; Rubin, Beverly; Bartolome, Christopher; Feig, Larry A.
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated in the induction and prolongation of a variety of psychiatric disorders. As such, much effort has been made to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in its control. However, the vast majority of the studies on the HPA axis have used adult animals, and among these the majority has used males. Here we show that in knockout mice lacking the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, RasGRF1, habituation to 30 minutes a day of restraint stress is markedly accelerated, such that these mice do not display elevated corticosterone levels or enhanced locomotion after 7 days of stress exposure, like WT mice do. Strikingly, this phenotype is present in early-adolescent female RasGRF1 knockout mice, but not in their early-adolescent male, mid-adolescent female, adult female or adult male counterparts. Moreover, not only is there a clear response to restraint stress in early-adolescent female RasGRF1 knockout mice, their response after 1, 3, and 5 exposures is magnified ~3-fold compared to WT mice. These findings imply that distinct mechanisms exist to regulate the HPA axis in early-adolescent females that involves RasGRF1. A full understanding of how RasGRF1 controls the HPA axis response to stress may be required to design effective strategies to combat stress-associated psychiatric disorders initiated in young females. PMID:26246084
Bluth, Karen; Blanton, Priscilla W.
Self-compassion has been associated with well-being in adult samples, but has rarely been assessed in adolescents. In this study, 90 students ages 11–18 completed an online survey assessing self-compassion, life satisfaction, perceived stress and positive and negative affect. Findings indicated that older female adolescents had lower self-compassion than either older male adolescents or early adolescents of either gender, and self-compassion was associated significantly with all dimensions of emotional well-being with the exception of positive affect. Additionally, phase of adolescence, but not gender, was found to moderate the relationship between self-compassion and dimensions of well-being; for older adolescents, the inverse relationship between self-compassion and negative affect was stronger. Lastly, the influence of the various components of self-compassion was investigated and discussed. PMID:25750655
Amaral, Marta Araújo; da Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa
This article discusses one of the emergent themes of a qualitative research carried out with female adolescents in the neighborhood of Acaba Mundo, in the city of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, and aims at understanding their social representations on sexual initiation concerning gender. The data was collected in four workshops and analyzed on the basis of the social representation theory by means of the discourse analysis technique. Two empirical categories and their consequences emerged from the discourse: leaving childhood behind and fear of pregnancy. The understanding of the social representations and of the gender relationships made the values, ideas and practices of the adolescents and their family clear. It also made clear that those values, ideas and practices were in frequent transformation in the social field.
Xie, Yiqiong; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Harville, Emily Wheeler
Background Recommendations for preconception care usually include optimal nutrition and physical activity, but these have not been tested extensively for their relationship with birth outcomes such as low birthweight and preterm birth. Methods Data from Waves I, II and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) contractual dataset were utilized. In Wave I in-home interview, participants were asked to recall their frequency of having five types of food on the previous day, including milk, fruit, vegetables, grains, and sweets. At Wave II, participants reported the previous day's intake of 55 items, and results were categorized into high-calorie sweet, high-calorie non-sweet, and low-calorie food. At Wave I in-home interview, participants were also asked how many times in a week or during the past week they were involved in types of physical activity. At Wave IV, female participants reported pregnancies and birth outcomes. Multivariable linear regression analysis with survey weighting was used to predict birthweight and gestational age. Results There were no associations between reported food intake and birth outcomes. Girls who engaged in more episodes of active behavior had higher birthweights (p<0.01), but hours of sedentary behavior was not associated with birthweight. Multivariable analysis also indicated a u-shaped association between BMI and birthweight (p for quadratic term=0.01). Conclusion Adolescents who are more physically active prior to pregnancy have more positive birth outcomes as represented by birthweight. PMID:26233291
Ambegaonkar, Jatin P.; Caswell, Shane V.; Winchester, Jason B.; Shimokochi, Yohei; Cortes, Nelson; Caswell, Amanda M.
Purpose: Female dancers have lower anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rates compared with physically active women. Enhanced balance can decrease musculoskeletal injury risk. Dancers are proposed to have superior balance compared with physically active nondancers, and this may reduce their risk for ACL injury. However, whether female dancers…
Byers, E Sandra; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Brotto, Lori A
Researchers have given significant attention to abstinence among adolescents, but far less is known about purposeful avoidance of sexual activity (and relationship involvement). Typically, it is assumed that, once adolescents have initiated sexual activity, they will thereafter engage in sexual activity if given the opportunity. However, it is unclear whether that is true as some research indicates that many adolescents engage in sexual activity intermittently. Sexually experienced adolescents may purposefully avoid engaging in sexual activity for a period of time and, if so, this has implications for understanding their sexual decision-making. We used a mixed methods approach to investigate sexually experienced adolescents' decisions to purposefully avoid further sexual activity and/or romantic relationships with a focus on how common these decisions are and factors influencing them. Participants were 411 (56 % female) adolescents (16-21 years old) who completed an on-line survey that assessed reasons for each type of avoidance, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs. Overall, 27 % of participants had engaged in sexual avoidance and 47 % had engaged in romantic avoidance. Significantly more female than male adolescents reported sexual and romantic avoidance. Adolescents' reasons for sexual avoidance included: lack of sexual pleasure or enjoyment, relationship reasons, negative emotions, values, fear of negative outcomes, negative physical experience, and other priorities. Reasons for romantic avoidance included: effects of previous relationship, not interested in commitment, wrong time, other priorities, negative emotions, no one was good enough, and sexual concerns. Logistical regressions were used to assess associations between age, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, experience of sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs and having engaged in romantic and/or sexual avoidance. The
Bowman, Rachel E; Luine, Victoria; Diaz Weinstein, Samantha; Khandaker, Hameda; DeWolf, Sarah; Frankfurt, Maya
We have previously demonstrated that adolescent exposure of rats to bisphenol-A (BPA), an environmental endocrine disrupter, increases anxiety, impairs spatial memory, and decreases dendritic spine density in the CA1 region of the hippocampus (CA1) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) when measured in adolescents in both sexes. The present study examined whether the behavioral and morphological alterations following BPA exposure during adolescent development are maintained into adulthood. Male and female, adolescent rats received BPA, 40μg/kg/bodyweight, or control treatments for one week. In adulthood, subjects were tested for anxiety and locomotor activity, spatial memory, non-spatial visual memory, and sucrose preference. Additionally, stress-induced serum corticosterone levels and dendritic spine density in the mPFC and CA1 were measured. BPA-treated males, but not females, had decreased arm visits on the elevated plus maze, but there was no effect on anxiety. Non-spatial memory, object recognition, was also decreased in BPA treated males, but not in females. BPA exposure did not alter spatial memory, object placement, but decreased exploration during the tasks in both sexes. No significant group differences in sucrose preference or serum corticosterone levels in response to a stress challenge were found. However, BPA exposure, regardless of sex, significantly decreased spine density of both apical and basal dendrites on pyramidal cells in CA1 but had no effect in the mPFC. Current data are discussed in relation to BPA dependent changes, which were present during adolescence and did, or did not, endure into adulthood. Overall, adolescent BPA exposure, below the current reference safe daily limit set by the U.S.E.P.A., leads to alterations in some behaviors and neuronal morphology that endure into adulthood.
Schreiber, Deborah A.
This paper: (1) briefly reviews the existing literature which supports that female adolescents possess significantly more negative attitudes toward middle school science than do males; (2) examines the process of gender socialization in the United States to establish the socio-cultural and social psychological framework within which an attitudinal…
Aniza, I; Fairuz, M R
Physical activity is the first line approach and one of the main factors in preventing chronic diseases. Currently there is the increasing percentage of sedentary life style or lack of exercise among adolescents. The main objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of inactivity and the factors influencing physical activity in adolescents. A cross sectional study was carried out among secondary school students aged 14 and 16 in Petaling District, Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 519 respondents participated in this study. Their physical activity level was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The active group was classified as those having levels of equal or more than 600 met-min per week while less than 600 met-min per week was considered inactive. Response rate in this study was 95.4%. The prevalence of inactive in adolescents was 20.8%. Female adolescents, non-working mother, time constraint, exercise only when having ample time and stretching before exercise are predictor factors for being inactive among adolescents. Steps need to be taken to persistently ensure that the physical activity among adolescents be increased continuously.
Sales, Jessica M.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Swartzendruber, Andrea L.; Smearman, Erica L.; Brody, Gene H.; DiClemente, Ralph
Psychosocial stress, including stress resulting from racial discrimination (RD), has been associated with elevated depressive symptoms. However, individuals vary in their reactivity to stress, with some variability resulting from genetic differences. Specifically, genetic variation within the linked promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) is related to heightened reactivity to emotional environmental cues. Likewise, variations within this region may interact with stressful life events (e.g., discrimination) to influence depressive symptoms, but this has not been empirically examined in prior studies. The objective of this study was to examine whether variation in the 5-HTTLPR gene interacts with RD to predict depressive symptoms among a sample of African–American adolescent females. Participants were 304 African–American adolescent females enrolled in a sexually transmitted disease prevention trial. Participants completed a baseline survey assessing psychosocial factors including RD (low vs. high) and depressive symptomatology (low vs. high) and provided a saliva sample for genotyping the risk polymorphism 5-HTTLPR (s allele present vs. not present). In a logistic regression model adjusting for psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms, an interaction between RD and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with depressive symptomatology (AOR = 3.79, 95% CI: 1.20–11.98, p = 0.02). Follow-up tests found that high RD was significantly associated with greater odds of high depressive symptoms only for participants with the s allele. RD and 5-HTTLPR status interact to differentially impact depressive symptoms among African–American adolescent females. Efforts to decrease depression among minority youth should include interventions which address RD and strengthen factors (e.g., coping, emotion regulation, building support systems) which protect youth from the psychological costs of discrimination. PMID:26157407
Unlu, Gulsen; Cakaloz, Burcu
Purpose Child sexual abuse and sexual dating violence victimization are common problems that are known to have long-term negative consequences. This study aimed to compare the sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features of female adolescents who were sexually abused by different perpetrators, and identify the factors associated with suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in these cases. Patients and methods Data of 254 sexually abused female adolescents between the ages of 12–18 years were evaluated. The cases were classified into three groups, namely “sexual dating violence”, “incest”, and “other child sexual abuse”, according to the identity of the perpetrator. The three groups were compared in terms of sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features. Results Major depressive disorder was the most common psychiatric diagnosis, which was present in 44.9% of the cases. Among all victims, 25.6% had attempted suicide, 52.0% had suicidal ideation, and 23.6% had NSSI during the postabuse period. A logistic regression analysis revealed that attempted suicide was predicted by dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.053; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.473, 6.330) and depression (AOR =2.238; 95% CI =1.226, 4.086). Dating violence victimization was also the strongest predictor of subsequent suicidal ideation (AOR =3.500; 95% CI =1.817, 6.741). In addition, revictimization was determined to be an important risk factor for both suicidal ideation (AOR =2.897; 95% CI =1.276, 6.574) and NSSI (AOR =3.847; 95% CI =1.899, 7.794). Conclusion Perpetrator identity and revictimization are associated with negative mental health outcomes in sexually victimized female adolescents. Increased risk of suicidality and NSSI should be borne in mind while assessing cases with dating violence and revictimization histories, in particular. PMID:27382291
Thralls, Katie J; Nichols, Jeanne F; Barrack, Michelle T; Kern, Mark; Rauh, Mitchell J
Early detection of the female athlete triad is essential for the long-term health of adolescent female athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between common anthropometric markers (ideal body weight [IBW] via the Hamwi formula, youth-percentile body mass index [BMI], adult BMI categories, and body fat percentage [BF%]) and triad components, (low energy availability [EA], measured by dietary restraint [DR], menstrual dysfunction [MD], low bone mineral density [BMD]). In the sample (n = 320) of adolescent female athletes (age 15.9± 1.2 y), Spearman's rho correlations and multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated associations between anthropometric clinical cutoffs and triad components. All underweight categories for the anthropometric measures predicted greater likelihood of MD and low BMD. Athletes with an IBW >85% were nearly 4 times more likely to report MD (OR = 3.7, 95% CI [1.8, 7.9]) and had low BMD (OR = 4.1, 95% CI [1.2, 14.2]). Those in <5th percentile for their age-specific BMI were 9 times more likely to report MD (OR 9.1, 95% CI [1.8, 46.9]) and had low BMD than those in the 50th to 85th percentile. Athletes with a high BF% were almost 3 times more likely to report DR (OR = 2.8, 95% CI [1.4, 6.1]). Our study indicates that low age-adjusted BMI and low IBW may serve as evidence-based clinical indicators that may be practically evaluated in the field, predicting MD and low BMD in adolescents. These measures should be tested for their ability as tools to minimize the risk for the triad.
Myrick, Jessica Gall; Noar, Seth M; Kelley, Dannielle; Zeitany, Alexandra E
Background Unlike other types of cancer, skin cancer incidence rates are on the rise and adolescent females are particularly likely to tan indoors, a major risk factor. However, little research has examined the role of media use in encouraging or discouraging this dangerous behavior in this population. Aims To empirically assess the links between media use, indoor tanning-related outcome expectations, and behavioral intentions. Method A survey of adolescent females (N = 510) ages 15 to 18 in the Southeastern United States assessed demographics, types of media use, and indoor tanning intentions. Results Significant correlations between media use and indoor tanning outcome expectations were found. Use of interpersonal and social media (i.e., talking on the phone, texting, and online social media) were positively associated with positive outcome expectations about indoor tanning and negatively associated with negative outcome expectations. A path analysis revealed that interpersonal/social media use had indirect associations with indoor tanning intentions via tanning outcome expectations. Mass media use (e.g., news media, entertainment media, and magazines) was not significantly associated with most indoor tanning outcome expectations but did have a direct negative association with behavioral intentions. Discussion There are important relationships between media use, indoor tanning outcome expectations, and behavioral intentions. Interpersonal and social media use may help cultivate outcome expectations that encourage indoor tanning, which in turn may increase intentions to tan, while news media consumption in particular may reduce intentions to tan. Conclusion These findings highlight the social nature of adolescent females and point to specific intervention channels for reducing indoor tanning among this population.
Ebrahiminejad, Shima; Poursharifi, Hamid; Bakhshiour Roodsari, Abbas; Zeinodini, Zahra; Noorbakhsh, Simasadat
Background Social anxiety is one of the most common psychological disorders that exists among children and adolescents, and it has profound effects on their psychological states and academic achievements. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on diminishing social anxiety disorder symptoms and improving the self-esteem of female adolescents suffering from social anxiety. Patients and Methods Semi-experimental research was conducted on 30 female students diagnosed with social anxiety. From the population of female students who were studying in Tehran’s high schools in the academic year of 2013 - 2014, 30 students fulfilling the DSM-5 criteria were selected using the convenience sampling method and were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. The experimental group received eight sessions of MBCT treatment. The control group received no treatment. All participants completed the social phobia inventory (SPIN) and Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES) twice as pre- and post-treatment tests. Results The results from the experimental group indicated a statistically reliable difference between the mean scores from SPIN (t (11) = 5.246, P = 0.000) and RSES (t (11) = -2.326, P = 0.040) pre-treatment and post-treatment. On the other hand, the results of the control group failed to reveal a statistically reliable difference between the mean scores from SPIN (t (12) = 1.089, P = 0.297) and RSES pre-treatment and post-treatment (t (12) = 1.089, P = 0.000). Conclusions The results indicate that MBCT is effective on both the improvement of self-esteem and the decrease of social anxiety. The results are in accordance with prior studies performed on adolescents. PMID:28191335
Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key Points South Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA. Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents. To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity. PMID:25435782
Oyinlade, O.A.; Lagunju, I.A.; Adebayo, B.E.
Background: Nemaline rod disease is a congenital myopathy, presentation of which may mimic myasthenia gravis. Method: We report a suspected case of nemaline rod disease in a female adolescent who presented with features similar to myasthenia gravis but failed to respond effectively to its conventional management. She had features of respiratory failure and cardiomyopathy. Results: Patient had a turbulent clinical course and finally succumbed to illness on the fifth day of admission. Conclusion: This report is meant to sensitize child neurologists and general paediatricians on the need to have a broad spectrum of considerations in the management of suspected myasthenia gravis, especially when response to anticholinesterase is poor.
Fraser, J J; Rettig, P J; Kaplan, D W
The prevalence of cervical infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae was examined in 125 girls receiving primary gynecologic care in a general adolescent clinic. C trachomatis was isolated in 8% of the patients using a microtiter tissue-culture method, and N gonorrhoeae was found in 12%. A significant association was found between the use of oral contraceptives and positive chlamydial cultures. Patients with Chlamydia-positive cultures were frequently asymptomatic and exhibited no positive findings on physical examination. Three of ten women with cervical chlamydial infection developed pelvic inflammatory disease. These results support the use of cervical screening for both of these pathogens in sexually active adolescents.
Okamoto, Shinichi; Arai, Yuji; Hara, Kunio; Tsuzihara, Takashi; Kubo, Toshikazu
This report presents a case of a displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with amenorrhea. Both reduction and internal fixation were performed early after the injury. At 24 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy showed no positive signs of femoral head necrosis and bone union was confirmed on plain X-ray. A medical examination for the presence of the signs of the female athlete triad by checking weight, calorie intake and menstrual cycles is most important to prevent such stress fractures. Athletes as well as their coaches or parents therefore need to understand female athlete triad.
Sirard, J R; Pate, R R
Chronic disease risk factors, including a sedentary lifestyle, may be present even in young children, suggesting that early prevention programmes may be critical to reducing the rates of chronic disease. Accurate assessment of physical activity in children is necessary to identify current levels of activity and to assess the effectiveness of intervention programmes designed to increase physical activity. This article summarises the strengths and limitations of the methods used to evaluate physical activity in children and adolescents. MEDLINE searches and journal article citations were used to locate 59 articles that validated physical activity measurement methods in children and adolescents. Only those methods that were validated against a more stringent measure were included in the review. Based on the definition of physical activity as any bodily movement resulting in energy expenditure (EE), direct observation of the individual's movement should be used as the gold standard for physical activity research. The doubly labelled water technique and indirect calorimetry can also be considered criterion measures for physical activity research, because they measure EE, a physiologic consequence closely associated with physical activity. Devices such as heart rate monitors, pedometers and accelerometers have become increasingly popular as measurement tools for physical activity. These devices reduce the subjectivity inherent in survey methods and can be used with large groups of individuals. Heart rate monitoring is sufficiently valid to use in creating broad physical activity categories (e.g. highly active, somewhat active, sedentary) but lacks the specificity needed to estimate physical activity in individuals. Laboratory and field validations of pedometers and accelerometers yield relatively high correlations using oxygen consumption (r = 0.62 to 0.93) or direct observation (r = 0.80 to 0.97) as criterion measures, although, they may not be able to capture all
Rubley, Mack D; Haase, Amaris C; Holcomb, William R; Girouard, Tedd J; Tandy, Richard D
The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of low-frequency, low-impact plyometric training on vertical jump (VJ) and kicking distance in female adolescent soccer players. Sixteen adolescent soccer players were studied (age 13.4 ± 0.5 years) across 14 weeks. The control group (general soccer training only) had 6 subjects, and the plyometric training (general soccer training plus plyometric exercise) group had 10 subjects. All subjects were tested for VJ and kicking distance on 3 occasions: pre-test, 7 weeks, and 14 weeks. Data were analyzed using a 2 (Training) × 3 (Test) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on the factor test. No significant difference in kicking distance was found between groups at pre-test (p = 0.688) or 7 weeks (p = 0.117). The plyometric group had significantly greater kicking distance after 14 weeks (p < 0.001). No significant difference in VJ height was found between groups at pre-test (p = 0.837) or 7 weeks (p = 0.108). The plyometric group had a significantly higher VJ after 14 weeks (p = 0.014). These results provide strength coaches with a safe and effective alternative to high-intensity plyometric training. Based on these findings, to increase lower-body power resulting in increased VJ and kicking distance, strength coaches should implement once-weekly, low-impact plyometric training programs with their adolescent athletes.
Mendonça, Gerfeson; Júnior, José Cazuza de Farias
Little is known about the influence of different types and sources of social support on physical activity in adolescents. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between physical activity and different types and sources of social support in adolescents. The sample consisted of 2,859 adolescents between 14-19 years of age in the city of João Pessoa, in Northeastern Brazil. Physical activity was measured with a questionnaire and social support from parents and friends using a 10-item scale five for each group (type of support: encouragement, joint participation, watching, inviting, positive comments and transportation). Multivariable analysis showed that the types of support provided by parents associated with physical activity in adolescents were encouragement for females (P < 0.001) and adolescents between 14-16 years of age (P = 0.003), and transportation (P = 0.014) and comments (P = 0.037) for males. The types of social support provided by friends were: joint participation in male adolescents (P < 0.001) and in these 17-19-year-olds (P < 0.001), and comments in both genders (males: P = 0.009; females: P < 0.001) and 14-16-year-olds (P < 0.001). We conclude that the type of social support associated with physical activity varies according to its source, as well as the gender and age of the adolescents.
Enlargement of Axo-Somatic Contacts Formed by GAD-Immunoreactive Axon Terminals onto Layer V Pyramidal Neurons in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex of Adolescent Female Mice Is Associated with Suppression of Food Restriction-Evoked Hyperactivity and Resilience to Activity-Based Anorexia.
Chen, Yi-Wen; Wable, Gauri Satish; Chowdhury, Tara Gunkali; Aoki, Chiye
Many, but not all, adolescent female mice that are exposed to a running wheel while food restricted (FR) become excessive wheel runners, choosing to run even during the hours of food availability, to the point of death. This phenomenon is called activity-based anorexia (ABA). We used electron microscopic immunocytochemistry to ask whether individual differences in ABA resilience may correlate with the lengths of axo-somatic contacts made by GABAergic axon terminals onto layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5P) in the prefrontal cortex. Contact lengths were, on average, 40% greater for the ABA-induced mice, relative to controls. Correspondingly, the proportion of L5P perikaryal plasma membrane contacted by GABAergic terminals was 45% greater for the ABA mice. Contact lengths in the anterior cingulate cortex correlated negatively and strongly with the overall wheel activity after FR (R = -0.87, P < 0.01), whereas those in the prelimbic cortex correlated negatively with wheel running specifically during the hours of food availability of the FR days (R = -0.84, P < 0.05). These negative correlations support the idea that increases in the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) terminal contact lengths onto L5P contribute toward ABA resilience through suppression of wheel running, a behavior that is intrinsically rewarding and helpful for foraging but maladaptive within a cage.
Paone, Tina R.; Malott, Krista M.; Maldonado, Jose M.
Group activity therapy has been promoted as an effective means of providing growth opportunities for adolescents through the use of structured, developmentally appropriate activities in a group setting. This article qualitatively explores outcomes of 12 sessions of group activity therapy with ethnically diverse adolescents in a school setting. The…
Wekerle, Christine; Goldstein, Abby L; Tanaka, Masako; Tonmyr, Lil
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with multiple negative outcomes, including increased risky sexual behavior. To date, the majority of research on the relationship between CSA and risky sex in adolescence has been limited, with a lack of focus on males and youth receiving child welfare services. Participants in the current study were 297 youth (mean age=15.98; SD=1.01, 57.6% female) from the child welfare system who reported being sexually active at the time of the survey. CSA was associated with severity of other types of maltreatment for both genders, and exposure to intimate partner violence for females only. In general, males engaged in more sexual risk behaviors than females. Males with CSA had stronger motives to have sex for: (1) coping, (2) peer approval and (3) partner approval, as compared to non-CSA males; as well as (4) greater motives for partner and peer approval compared to females with CSA. Males with no CSA had stronger sexual motives for enhancement (e.g., feeling pleasure) compared to females with no CSA. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect effect for coping motives for males: CSA was associated with increased motives to use sex for coping which was associated with increased sexual risk-taking. These findings provide important information regarding the relationship between CSA and sexual risk-taking for child welfare sample and highlight coping with negative affect as a potential mechanism that underlies the CSA-risky sex relationship. It also encourages further consideration of motives for risk and resilience behaviors among youth.
Abate, Anna; Marshall, Kaisa; Sharp, Carla; Venta, Amanda
High rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and elevated levels of aggression are common among youth in inpatient psychiatric settings. Several models link trauma exposure to aggression through anomalous mental state reasoning. Some theoretical frameworks linking trauma to aggression specify that the over-attribution of hostile mental states contributes to the development of aggressive behavior whereas other theories suggest that an inhibition of mental state reasoning leads to aggressive behavior. Using a sample of inpatient adolescents, the current study examined relations between PTSD symptoms and four forms of aggression, exploring the role of both over- and under-mentalizing (i.e., hypo- and hypermentalizing) as mediators and gender as a moderator. The results suggest that hypermentalizing, but not hypomentalizing, mediates the relation between trauma and aggression, extending prior research related to inpatient adolescents for the first time. Evidence of moderated mediation was noted, such that this mediational relation was evident for females but not males. The current study offers support for differential underlying causes of aggression among males and females with PTSD symptoms.
Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Jeong-Il; Song, MiKyung; Lee, Donghun; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Soo Young; Park, Juyeon; Choi, Ho-Young; Kim, Hocheol
Eucommia ulmoides is one of the popular tonic herbs for the treatment of low back pain and bone fracture and is used in Korean medicine to reinforce muscles and bones. This study was performed to investigate the effects of E. ulmoides extract on longitudinal bone growth rate, growth plate height, and the expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in adolescent female rats. In two groups, we administered a twice-daily dosage of E. ulmoides extract (at 30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively) per os over 4 days, and in a control group, we administered vehicle only under the same conditions. Longitudinal bone growth rate in newly synthesized bone was observed using tetracycline labeling. Chondrocyte proliferation in the growth plate was observed using cresyl violet dye. In addition, we analyzed the expressions of BMP-2 and IGF-1 using immunohistochemistry. Eucommia ulmoides extract significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate and growth plate height in adolescent female rats. In the immunohistochemical study, E. ulmoides markedly increased BMP-2 and IGF-1 expressions in the proliferative and hypertrophic zones. In conclusion, E. ulmoides increased longitudinal bone growth rate by promoting chondrogenesis in the growth plate and the levels of BMP-2 and IGF-1. Eucommia ulmoides could be helpful for increasing bone growth in children who have growth retardation.
This study was an investigation of female adolescents' perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and reading science-related texts. Three surveys were used to collect data from 253 middle school students in Grade 7 and Grade 8 and six interviews were conducted with students. The interviews allowed a deeper analysis of the value students placed on science and on reading science-related texts. The quantitative data were collected through the following surveys: Test of Science Related Attitudes, Motivation for Reading Informational Books in School adapted, and Metacognitive Awareness Reading Strategies Inventory adapted. The purpose of the surveys was to provide a comprehensive picture of students' self-reported perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and the motivation to engage. Literacy processes and practices make engagement and learning in science possible; however, intrinsic motivation and cognitive strategies are critical influential components that educators cannot overlook. The female adolescents in this study expressed greater competence when involved in learning science through inquiry experimentation integrated with literacy presented in different formats.
Dhaher, Ronnie; McConnell, Kathleen K; Rodd, Zachary A; McBride, William J; Bell, Richard L
The rationale for our study was to determine the pattern of ethanol drinking by the high alcohol-drinking (HAD) replicate lines of rats during adolescence and adulthood in both male and female rats. Rats were given 30 days of 24 h free-choice access to ethanol (15%, v/v) and water, with ad lib access to food, starting at the beginning of adolescence (PND 30) or adulthood (PND 90). Water and alcohol drinking patterns were monitored 22 h/day with a "lickometer" set-up. The results indicated that adolescent HAD-1 and HAD-2 males consumed the greatest levels of ethanol and had the most well defined ethanol licking binges among the age and sex groups with increasing levels of ethanol consumption throughout adolescence. In addition, following the first week of adolescence, male and female HAD-1 and HAD-2 rats differed in both ethanol consumption levels and ethanol licking behavior. Adult HAD-1 male and female rats did not differ from one another and their ethanol intake or licking behaviors did not change significantly over weeks. Adult HAD-2 male rats maintained a relatively constant level of ethanol consumption across weeks, whereas adult HAD-2 female rats increased ethanol consumption levels over weeks, peaking during the third week when they consumed more than their adult male counterparts. The results indicate that the HAD rat lines could be used as an effective animal model to examine the development of ethanol consumption and binge drinking in adolescent male and female rats providing information on the long-range consequences of adolescent alcohol drinking.
Rizzo, Christie J; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Swenson, Lance; Hower, Heather M; Wolff, Jennifer; Spirito, Anthony
The objective of the current study was to characterize the association between dating violence victimization and dispositional aggression in predicting nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among psychiatrically hospitalized male and female adolescents. One hundred fifty-five adolescents (ages 13-17) and their parents completed the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children clinical interview to assess NSSI and child abuse; adolescents completed self-report measures of aggression and dating violence victimization (verbal, physical, and sexual). Dating violence victimization and NSSI were found to be highly prevalent among both males and females in this psychiatric inpatient sample. Two moderational models were supported, wherein dating violence was associated with NSSI in the context of elevated trait anger in males and indirect aggression in females. Findings suggest that helping victims of dating violence acquire skills to address certain forms of dispositional aggression may attenuate NSSI.
Chadi, Nicholas; McMahon, Audrey; Vadnais, Majorie; Malboeuf-Hurtubise, Catherine; Djemli, Anissa; Dobkin, Patricia L.; Lacroix, Jacques; Luu, Thuy Mai; Haley, Nancy
Objective To test the feasibility of a randomized-controlled trial measuring the impact of an adapted mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) in female adolescents with chronic pain. Methods This was a single center, single-blind, prospective, experimental, longitudinal trial conducted in a pediatric tertiary care center. Participants had a history of chronic pain during at least three months. They were randomized into an intervention group or a wait-list control group. Both groups successively followed an adapted eight-week MBI designed specifically for adolescents with chronic pain. Pre-determined criteria were established to assess the feasibility, validity and acceptability of the study model. Data evaluating changes in quality of life, depression, anxiety, pain perception, psychological distress and salivary cortisol were collected throughout the 4-month study period. Results Nineteen female participants completed the study and had a mean age of 15.8 years (range 13.9 -17.8). Attrition rate was low (17%). Attendance to mindfulness sessions (84%) and compliance to study protocol (100%) were high. All participants reported a positive change in the way they coped with pain. No changes in quality of life, depression, anxiety, pain perception, and psychological distress were detected. Significant reductions in pre-and post-mindfulness session salivary cortisol levels were observed (p<0.001). Conclusions Mindfulness is a promising therapeutic approach for which limited data exist in adolescents with chronic pain. Our study indicates the feasibility of conducting such interventions in teenage girls. A large trial is needed to demonstrate the efficacy and bio-physiological impacts of MBIs in teenagers with chronic pain. PMID:27924146
Stevens, Victor J.; Perrin, Nancy; Wu, Philip; Pearson, John; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo; Dickerson, John; Lynch, Frances
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Most clinic-based weight control treatments for youth have been designed for preadolescent children by using family-based care. However, as adolescents become more autonomous and less motivated by parental influence, this strategy may be less appropriate. This study evaluated a primary care–based, multicomponent lifestyle intervention specifically tailored for overweight adolescent females. METHODS: Adolescent girls (N = 208) 12 to 17 years of age (mean ± SD: 14.1 ± 1.4 years), with a mean ± SD BMI percentile of 97.09 ± 2.27, were assigned randomly to the intervention or usual care control group. The gender and developmentally tailored intervention included a focus on adoptable healthy lifestyle behaviors and was reinforced by ongoing feedback from the teen’s primary care physician. Of those randomized, 195 (94%) completed the 6-month posttreatment assessment, and 173 (83%) completed the 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome was reduction in BMI z score. RESULTS: The decrease in BMI z score over time was significantly greater for intervention participants compared with usual care participants (−0.15 in BMI z score among intervention participants compared with −0.08 among usual care participants; P = .012). The 2 groups did not differ in secondary metabolic or psychosocial outcomes. Compared with usual care, intervention participants reported less reduction in frequency of family meals and less fast-food intake. CONCLUSIONS: A 5-month, medium-intensity, primary care–based, multicomponent behavioral intervention was associated with significant and sustained decreases in BMI z scores among obese adolescent girls compared with those receiving usual care. PMID:22331335
Shirzadi, Shayesteh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Nadrian, Haidar; Mahmoodi, Hassan
Background: Adolescence is a critical stage of growth and development. That is associated with changes in body shape and appearance. Issues such as irregular menstrual periods, amenorrhea, and menstrual cycle are major issues in women's health. The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of physical puberty health based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among female adolescents. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study was conducted in welfare boarding centers in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected in 2011 by a structured and valid questionnaire. Total 61 female adolescents (age range: 12-19 yrs) participated in this study from welfare boarding centers in Iran, Tehran, by using convenience sampling method. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, health belief model constructs and physical puberty health behaviors gathered by using interview. A series of univariate general linear models were used to assess the relationship between puberty health and health belief model constructs. Results: According to the results of this study there were positive significant relationships between perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action and increased puberty health in female adolescents (p<0.05). Perceived benefits, perceived barriers and cues to action were predictors of physical puberty health behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study to improve the physical Puberty health behaviors of female adolescents should make them aware of the benefits of health behaviors, and remove or reform the perceived barriers of health behaviors. Also, the appropriate information resources should be introduced for obtaining information about puberty health. PMID:28210597
Shirzadi, Shayesteh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Nadrian, Haidar; Mahmoodi, Hassan
Background: Adolescence is a critical stage of growth and development. That is associated with changes in body shape and appearance. Issues such as irregular menstrual periods, amenorrhea, and menstrual cycle are major issues in women's health. The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of physical puberty health based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among female adolescents. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study was conducted in welfare boarding centers in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected in 2011 by a structured and valid questionnaire. Total 61 female adolescents (age range: 12-19 yrs) participated in this study from welfare boarding centers in Iran, Tehran, by using convenience sampling method. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, health belief model constructs and physical puberty health behaviors gathered by using interview. A series of univariate general linear models were used to assess the relationship between puberty health and health belief model constructs. Results: According to the results of this study there were positive significant relationships between perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action and increased puberty health in female adolescents (p<0.05). Perceived benefits, perceived barriers and cues to action were predictors of physical puberty health behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study to improve the physical Puberty health behaviors of female adolescents should make them aware of the benefits of health behaviors, and remove or reform the perceived barriers of health behaviors. Also, the appropriate information resources should be introduced for obtaining information about puberty health.
Vassoler, Fair M; Johnson-Collins, Nicole L; Carini, Lindsay M; Byrnes, Elizabeth M
Prescription opiate use by adolescent girls has increased significantly in the past decade. Preclinical studies using rats report alterations in morphine sensitivity in the adult offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed females (MOR-F1) when compared with the offspring of adolescent saline-exposed females (SAL-F1). To begin to elucidate the development of these next generation modifications, the present study examined the effects of acute morphine administration on sedation and corticosterone secretion in prepubescent SAL-F1 and MOR-F1 male and female rats. In addition, alterations in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression in the arcuate nucleus, as well as in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene expressions in the ventral tegmental area, were analyzed using quantitative PCR, to determine whether differential regulation of these genes was correlated with the observed behavioral and/or endocrine effects. Increased morphine-induced sedation, coupled with an attenuation of morphine-induced corticosterone secretion, was observed in MOR-F1 males. Significant alterations in both POMC and OPRM1 gene expressions were also observed in MOR-F1 males, with no change in TH mRNA expression. Overall, these data suggest that the transgenerational effects of adolescent morphine exposure can be discerned before pubertal development and are more pronounced in males, and suggest dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed females.
Gordia, Alex Pinheiro; de Quadros, Teresa Maria Bianchini; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues; dos Santos, Gilton Marques
Objective: To investigate the knowledge and guidance given by pediatricians regarding physical activity in childhood and adolescence. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of pediatricians (n=210) who participated in a national pediatrics congress in 2013. Sociodemographic and professional data and data regarding habitual physical activity and pediatricians’ knowledge and instructions for young people regarding physical activity were collected using a questionnaire. Absolute and relative frequencies and means and standard deviations were calculated. Results: Most pediatricians were females, had graduated from medical school more than 15 years ago, and had residency in pediatrics. More than 70% of the participants reported to include physical activity guidance in their prescriptions. On the other hand, approximately two-thirds of the pediatricians incorrectly reported that children should not work out and less than 15% answered the question about physical activity barriers correctly. With respect to the two questions about physical activity to tackle obesity, incorrect answers were marked by more than 50% of the pediatricians. Most participants incorrectly reported that 30 min should be the minimum daily time of physical activity in young people. Less than 40% of the pediatricians correctly indicated the maximum time young people should spend in front of a screen. Conclusions: In general, the pediatricians reported that they recommend physical activity to their young patients, but specific knowledge of this topic was limited. Programs providing adequate information are needed. PMID:26298654
α4βδ-GABAA receptors in dorsal hippocampal CA1 of adolescent female rats traffic to the plasma membrane of dendritic spines following voluntary exercise and contribute to protection of animals from activity-based anorexia through localization at excitatory synapses.
Aoki, Chiye; Chen, Yi-Wen; Chowdhury, Tara Gunkali; Piper, Walter
In hippocampal CA1 of adolescent female rodents, α4βδ-GABAA receptors (α4βδ-GABAA Rs) suppress excitability of pyramidal neurons through shunting inhibition at excitatory synapses. This contributes to anxiolysis of stressed animals. Socially isolated adolescent female rats with 8 days of wheel access, the last 4 days of which entail restricted food access, have been shown to exhibit excessive exercise, choosing to run instead of eat (activity-based anorexia [ABA]). Upregulation of α4βδ-GABAA Rs in the dorsal hippocampal CA1 (DH), seen among some ABA animals, correlates with suppression of excessive exercise. We used electron microscopic immunocytochemistry to show that exercise alone (EX), but not food restriction alone (FR), also augments α4βδ-GABAA R expression at axospinous excitatory synapses of the DH (67%, P = 0.027), relative to socially isolated controls without exercise or food restriction (CON). Relative to CON, ABA animals' synaptic α4βδ-GABAA R elevation was modestly elevated (37%), but this level correlated strongly and negatively with individual differences in ABA vulnerability-i.e., food restriction-evoked hyperactivity (Pearson R = -0.902, P = 0.002) and weight changes (R = 0.822, P = 0.012). These correlations were absent from FR and EX brains or ventral hippocampus of ABA brains. Comparison to CON of α4βδ-GABAA R location in the DH indicated that ABA induces trafficking of α4βδ-GABAA R from reserve pools in spine cytoplasm to excitatory synapses. Pair-housing CON animals reduced cytoplasmic α4βδ-GABAA R without reducing synaptic α4βδ-GABAA R. Thus, exercise induces trafficking of α4βδ-GABAA Rs to excitatory synapses, while individual differences in ABA vulnerability are linked most strongly to trafficking of α4βδ-GABAA Rs in the reverse direction-from excitatory synapses to the reserve pool during co-occurring food restriction. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cheong, Ji In; Lee, Chang Hun; Park, Jae Hong; Ye, Byeong Jin; Kwon, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Young Seok
Purpose This study examined the relationships between early menarche and sexual behaviors among Korean female adolescents. Methods We analyzed data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based survey that was conducted on female high school students in grades 10-12. The survey included 17,867 students, and 974 students were assigned to the early menarche group because they had experienced menarche when they were in grade four or below, and 16,893 students were assigned to the normal menarche group because they had experienced menarche during or after grade five. The characteristics of the sexual behaviors in the early menarche and normal menarche group were analyzed. Results The early menarche group was at a higher risk of intersexual kissing or petting (odds ratio [OR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-1.87), intersexual intercourse (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.65-3.36), homosexual kissing or petting (OR, 3.53; 95% CI, 2.22-5.59), homosexual intercourse (OR, 7.70; 95% CI, 4.04-14.66), being the victim (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.98-4.22) or the assailant (OR, 13.55; 95% CI, 6.61-27.78) of sexual assaults, intercourse without any contraception (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.06-3.46), and pregnancy (OR, 5.72; 95% CI, 2.31-14.15) than the normal menarche group. Conclusion Early menarche is associated with risky sexual behaviors among adolescent females; therefore, developing comprehensive sexual health education programs and tools for early intervention are required for children who are expected to experience early menarche. PMID:26512348
Pollock, Norman K; Laing, Emma M; Taylor, Ruth G; Baile, Clifton A; Hamrick, Mark W; Hall, Daniel B; Lewis, Richard D
Few childhood studies have investigated racial differences in volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone geometry, and bone strength indices measured by three-dimensional bone imaging. The purpose of this study was to compare trabecular and cortical bone parameters at the radius and tibia between late adolescent white and black females using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (QCT). White (n = 25) and black females (n = 25), 18-19 years of age, were pair-matched for age, height, and fat-free soft tissue mass. Peripheral QCT scans were obtained at the 4% (trabecular bone), 20% (cortical bone), and 66% [muscle cross-sectional area (CSA)] sites from the distal metaphyses. Bone strength was determined from vBMD and bone geometry to calculate bone strength index (BSI; trabecular site) and polar strength-strain index (SSI; cortical site). Radial SSI was not different between groups; however, blacks had greater radial BSI (P = 0.02) than whites. After adjustment for the longer forearm in blacks, the greater radial BSI in blacks no longer remained. At the tibia, blacks versus whites had greater bone strength at the trabecular and cortical bone sites (BSI, P = 0.03; SSI, P = 0.04, respectively). When controlling for differences in tibial length and muscle CSA, the higher estimates of bone strength persisted in blacks versus whites (BSI, P = 0.01; SSI, P = 0.02). Our data suggest that when differences in body size are considered, late adolescent black versus white females have a stronger bone profile, due to greater bone geometry and vBMD, at the trabecular and cortical regions of the tibia but not at the radius.
Boulos, Peter K.; Dalwani, Manish S.; Tanabe, Jody; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Banich, Marie T.; Crowley, Thomas J.; Sakai, Joseph T.
Some youths develop multiple substance use disorders early in adolescence and have severe, persistent courses. Such youths often exhibit impulsivity, risk-taking, and problems of inhibition. However, relatively little is known about the possible brain bases of these behavioral traits, especially among females. Methods We recruited right-handed female patients, 14–19 years of age, from a university-based treatment program for youths with substance use disorders and community controls similar for age, race and zip code of residence. We obtained 43 T1-weighted structural brain images (22 patients and 21 controls) to examine group differences in cortical thickness across the entire brain as well as six a priori regions-of-interest: 1) medial orbitofrontal cortex; 2) rostral anterior cingulate cortex; and 3) middle frontal cortex, in each hemisphere. Age and IQ were entered as nuisance factors for all analyses. Results A priori region-of-interest analyses yielded no significant differences. However, whole-brain group comparisons revealed that the left pregenual rostral anterior cingulate cortex extending into the left medial orbitofrontal region (355.84 mm2 in size), a subset of two of our a priori regions-of-interest, was significantly thinner in patients compared to controls (vertex-level threshold p = 0.005 and cluster-level family wise error corrected threshold p = 0.05). The whole-brain group differences did not survive after adjusting for depression or externalizing scores. Whole-brain within-patient analyses demonstrated a positive association between cortical thickness in the left precuneus and behavioral disinhibition scores (458.23 mm2 in size). Conclusions Adolescent females with substance use disorders have significant differences in brain cortical thickness in regions engaged by the default mode network and that have been associated with problems of emotional dysregulation, inhibition, and behavioral control in past studies. PMID:27049765
Lin, Jen-Jia; Ting, Tzu-Cheng
This study examined the relationship of built environments to physical activity among adolescents aged 12 to 14 years old. The study sample included 269 junior high school students studying in Nangang District, Taipei, Taiwan. Sample physical activity data were obtained by surveying adolescents using a self-administered short version of the…
Biastro, Leslie; Frank, Heather; Larwin, Karen H.
Adolescents with identified orthopedic impairments are often less likely to participate in social activities outside of the school setting. However, the adolescents who are able to participate in activities have higher social skills, more academic successes, and show more satisfaction in their roles as family member or friend. The aim of this…
Tan, Kok Eng; Ng, Melissa L. Y.; Saw, Kim Guan
Among a number of urban adolescents in Malaysia, going online is a much valued practice. They are regularly drawn to the Internet to engage in activities across school, nonschool, mainstream and alternative domains. The aim of this study is to know more about what these adolescents do online. Data on the online activities were collected from 535…
Armitage, Roseanne; Hoffmann, Robert; Emslie, Graham; Rintelman, Jeanne; Moore, Jarrette; Lewis, Kelly
Objective: To quantify circadian rhythms in rest-activity cycles in depressed children and adolescents. Method: Restactivity cycles were evaluated by actigraphy over five consecutive 24-hour periods in 100 children and adolescents, including 59 outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 41 healthy normal controls. Total activity, total…
Eklund, Robert C.; Bianco, Theresa
This article examines the potential impact of adolescent social physique anxiety on behavior and physical activity settings. Offers that an awareness and consideration of the self-presentational sensitivities that adolescents may experience in physical activity settings provide important avenues for understanding and addressing certain types of…
Monahan, Kathryn C.; Lee, Joanna M.
Little is known about the impact of the relational context of adolescent sexual activity on depressive symptoms. The present study examined trajectories of depressive symptoms among 6,602 adolescents (44% male, 60% White) taken from a nationally representative study (Add Health). Sexually active youth in romantic and casual relationships were…
Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H
The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16-19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors.
Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H
The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16–19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors. PMID:26635492
Harper, Gary W.; Bangi, Audrey K.; Sanchez, Bernadette; Doll, Mimi; Pedraza, Ana
This article describes a quasi-experimental evaluation of a community-based, culturally and ecologically tailored HIV prevention intervention for Mexican American female adolescents grounded in the AIDS risk reduction model. A total of 378 Mexican American female adolescents (mean age = 15.2) participated in either the nine-session SHERO's (a…
Mhaidat, Fatin; ALharbi, Bassam H. M.
This study aimed at identifying the level of depression and sense of insecurity among a sample of female refugee adolescents, and the impact of an indicative program for reducing cognitive distortions in reducing depression and their sense of insecurity. The study sample consisted of 220 female refugee adolescents, 7th to 1st secondary stage, at…
The author holds that the crisis of adolescence is in fact one of psychic reality, its elements being loss of boundaries, externalisation and the involvement of a third party. In this view, it is essential to conceive of adolescence differently from adulthood, in that, for example, an adolescent's acting out may not be solely a matter of regression but to a considerable extent a consequence of his or her physical development. It is noted that the boundaries between psychic and material reality are fluid throughout life and that adolescents crave identificatory models. The author stresses the importance of the psychic reality of the other in the adolescent's crisis. After considering various views, including those of Freud, on psychic reality and the crises of adolescence, he illustrates his thesis by the clinical example of two adolescent episodes of perversion forming part of an adult female patient's material. In the author's view, these instances of acting out had helped the patient to regain her auto-erotic capacity in the pleasure of fantasy life. He considers that a mutative interpretation must touch upon the primal fantasy and therefore involve the entire person of the analyst in the transference.
Svaldi, Jennifer; Bender, Caroline; Caffier, Detlef; Ivanova, Viliana; Mies, Nina; Fleischhaker, Christian; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna
Objective Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN), especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation. Method In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12) and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12) were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded. Results After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants’ attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive) mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG. Discussion The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients’ body image disturbance. PMID:27123587
Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika
This study aimed to investigate the effects of both past and current physical activity and media use on women's body image. A sample of 144 female undergraduate students completed measures of current physical activity, media use and body image, as well as providing retrospective reports of their physical activity participation and media usage during childhood and adolescence. Regression analyses showed that childhood experiences of physical activity and media use predicted adult body-image concerns more strongly than current activities. It was concluded that early experiences of both physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence play an important role in the development of adult women's body image.
Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p < 0.05) more sedentary, much less physically active, especially with vigorous physical activity, and there were fewer days per week when they consumed breakfast, fruit, milk and diary products, sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods and energy drinks than did males. However, the females' intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the males'. Screen time was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated inversely with the intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p < 0.05) positive relationship with fruit and vegetable intake but not with sedentary behaviors. Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and
Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.
This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…
Ito, Kristin E; Kalyanaraman, Sri; Ford, Carol A; Brown, Jane D; Miller, William C
The purpose of this study was to develop and pilot-test an interactive CD-ROM aimed at the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in female adolescents. The CD-ROM includes prevention information, models skills for negotiating abstinence and consistent condom use, teaches media literacy, and allows the user to choose a culturally appropriate host to guide them through the CD-ROM. Forty-seven female adolescents attending a health department clinic were randomized to receive the CD-ROM plus an educator-led didactic session versus the didactic session alone. The CD-ROM was highly acceptable and feasible for use among female adolescents in the clinic setting. Hispanic and African American adolescents were more likely to choose hosts of the same race/ethnicity to guide them through the CD-ROM. HIV/STI knowledge increased significantly and nearly all adolescents intended to use condoms at next intercourse after viewing the CD-ROM. However, there were no significant differences measured between CD-ROM and comparison groups.
Seth, Puja; Patel, Shilpa N; Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Rose, Eve S
Adolescents, particularly African American adolescents, are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association between psychosocial factors and risky sexual behavior has been well established. However, only a small number of studies have examined the relationship between depressive symptomatology among African American female adolescents, specifically over time. The present study examined depressive symptoms as a predictor of risky sexual behavior, sexual communication, and STIs longitudinally among African American female adolescents between the ages 15 and 21. Binary generalized estimating equation models were conducted assessing the impact of depressive symptoms at baseline on risky sexual behavior and STIs over six- and 12-months follow-up. Age, intervention group, and baseline outcome measures were entered as covariates. The results indicated that high levels of depressive symptoms predicted no condom use during last sexual encounter and multiple sexual partners over six-months follow-up. Depressive symptoms also predicted having a main partner with concurrent partners, high fear of communication about condoms, and sex while high on alcohol or drugs over six- and 12-months follow-up. These findings could be used to inform HIV/STI prevention intervention programs and clinicians providing regular health care maintenance to African American female adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior.
Blomfield, Corey J; Barber, Bonnie L
The relationship between Australian adolescents' participation in extracurricular activities and their self-concepts was investigated. A total of 1489 adolescents (56% female; mean age 13.8 years) completed measures of social self-concept, academic self-concept, and general self-worth, and reported on their extracurricular activity participation. In general, participation in any type of extracurricular activity was associated with a higher social and academic self-concept, and general self-worth, compared to no participation. Adolescents who participated in both sports and non-sports also reported a more positive social self-concept and general self-worth, compared to those who only participated in one of the activity types. This research provides support for extracurricular activities as a context facilitative of positive self-concept, and demonstrates the importance of a mixed participation profile for an adolescent's self-concept.
Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; Chabrol, Henri
This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and the media. Both girls and boys displaying high levels of depressive symptoms perceived stronger media and peer influences on appearance. Among girls, eating disorder symptoms were directly affected by sociocultural influences, in particular media influences, as well as by depression. However, depression played only a limited role as a moderator of these relationships. Among boys, sociocultural influences and depression revealed fewer direct effects on eating disorder symptoms. However, depression had a greater moderating effect on these relationships. Future research into the role of depression may increase the understanding of gender differences in body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness and bulimic symptoms.
Barlow, Christopher; Lovetri, Jeannette
Although quantifiable assessment of the singing voice is now commonplace, research on young (child and adolescent) voices is still in its infancy. There is still insufficient data on young people's voices based on which, "norms" in behavior could be modeled, particularly for contemporary commercial music (CCM), such as musical theater (MT). The objective of this study was to assess if quantifiable differences in vocal production and acoustic output of young singers exist between "classical" and "MT" styles. The study was a prospective cohort study of 20 adolescent female singers aged 12-17 years training their voices using a system, which includes both "classical" and "MT" styles. The study examined laryngographically derived closed quotient (CQ), average vowel spectra (AVS) and long-term average spectra (LTAS) measures of the sung voices of singers in "classical" and "MT" styles. The spectral slope was shallower for the MT voice, and the mean CQ was significantly higher across the pitch range when singing in an MT style than in a "classical" style. The second to fifth harmonics were stronger in the MT style than in classical, with a significant difference between the two styles. The increase in relative intensity in the first five harmonics was disproportionately higher than the increase in CQ. Results, therefore, suggested that MT singing primarily uses change in resonance strategy rather than raised vocal tension to achieve the tonal changes associated with the genre.
Johnson, Carolyn; Lunney, Margaret
PURPOSE. This case study was written to demonstrate the usefulness of standardized nursing diagnoses, outcomes, and interventions in nurse anesthetist care of an adolescent trauma patient. DATA SOURCES. Literature reviews using Academic Premier, Google Scholar, and CINAHL databases were done to find current, relevant articles concerning evaluation and support of female African-American adolescents living in socially vulnerable and economically exploited environments. DATA SYNTHESIS. A case is presented and evidence from current publications is analyzed to support the diagnosis, outcomes, and interventions. CONCLUSION. The investment in extra time, care, and effort sometimes required for the full development of a treatment plan for teenagers who live where they are at high risk for violence and other consequences of stressful environments is a worthwhile one, even if results may require contact over an extended time period. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. Nurses of all specialty backgrounds need to be concerned with the progress of their patients. Sometimes nurses can best serve their patients by stepping away from the physiological event and focusing instead on responses in the domain of coping and stress tolerance as the root of difficulties.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine associations among lactose maldigestion status, perceived milk intolerance (PMI), dietary calcium intake and bone mineral content in early adolescent females. Methodology: Subjects were 291 girls who participated in a sub-study of the multiple-...
Bartlett, Jacqueline A.; Peterson, Jane Anthony
A comprehensive review of literature was conducted to identify the barriers and facilitators, from the parents'/guardians' and primary care providers' (PCPs) perspective, that are associated with the uptake of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among adolescent females. Findings from 14 peer-reviewed articles indicate that 37% of adolescent…
Woodson, Kamilah M.; Hives, Courtney C.; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy
Juvenile crime and violent victimization continue to be significant social problems, in that adolescents, females in particular, are likely to participate in health-related risk behaviors as a result of having been victimized or exposed to a violent environment. Specifically, abuse, neglect, sexual molestation, poverty, and witnessing violence are…
Bhalla, Jennifer A.; Weiss, Maureen R.
Little is known about parental socialization processes for youth participants from different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to examine parental influence on self-perceptions, task values, and achievement behaviors among female adolescents from two cultures using Eccles' expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983). Twelve…
Mayer, Birgit; Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Zimmermann-van Beuningen, Ritine
This study explored correlations between risk factors and eating behavior problems in late adolescent, non-clinical females (N = 301). Participants completed questionnaires for assessing eating problems, the closely associated factors of Body Mass Index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction, and a number of other risk variables that are thought to be…
Perkins, Daniel F.; Luster, Tom
Reviews of the pertinent literature reveal a lack of consensus as to whether there is an association between sexual abuse history and eating disorders. Therefore, an examination of the relationship between sexual abuse and a bulimic behavior (purging) in a large sample of female adolescents was undertaken. Answers taken from a sample of 8,680…
Stachowitz, Annie L.; Choi, Hee-Sook; Schweinle, Amy
Eating disorders, disordered eating, and body dissatisfaction prevalence rates are on the rise among adolescent females. The present study examined the potential use of a commonly used social--emotional instrument, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2), for detecting the presence of possible eating disorders in…
Ito, Kristin E.; Kalyanaraman, Sri; Ford, Carol A.; Brown, Jane D.; Miller, William C.
The purpose of this study was to develop and pilot-test an interactive CD-ROM aimed at the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in female adolescents. The CD-ROM includes prevention information, models skills for negotiating abstinence and consistent condom use, teaches media literacy, and allows the user to choose a culturally…
Hovsepian, S. Lory; Blais, Martin; Manseau, Helene; Otis, Joanne; Girard, Marie-Eve
Adolescent females under Child Protective Services care in Quebec, Canada (n = 328) completed a questionnaire designed to explore associations between prior victimization (childhood sexual abuse and four forms of dating violence) and four dimensions of sexual and contraceptive self-efficacy. Five MANCOVAs were performed. In each model, a…
Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.; Armstrong, Kay; Rossi, Joseph S.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Sun, Xiaowu; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Yin, Hui-Qing; Coviello, Donna; Evers, Kerry; Velicer, Wayne F.
Smoking and sexual risk behaviors in urban adolescent females are prevalent and problematic. Family planning clinics reach those who are at most risk. This randomized effectiveness trial evaluated a transtheoretical model (TTM)-tailored intervention to increase condom use and decrease smoking. At baseline, a total of 828 14- to 17-year-old females…
Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Lescano, Celia M.; Brown, Larry K.; Harrington, Kathy; Davies, Susan
Theories of health behavior posit that change is accomplished by modifying factors deemed as mediators. A set of mediators from several theoretical models used in sexual risk reduction programs was assessed among a sample of 522 African American female adolescents. The goal was to determine whether self-esteem was associated with sexually…
Mellin, Elizabeth A.; Fang, Hong-Ning
This study found that lack of involvement in prosocial institutions, affiliation with other troubled youth, and indifference regarding personal safety partially mediate the relationship between depression and delinquency among justice-involved female adolescents. The results suggest that depression may not be the primary conduit to delinquency.…
Staller, Karen M.; Nelson-Gardell, Debra
Objectives: To enhance understanding of the sexual abuse disclosure process from the perspective of preteen and teenage survivors. To reconsider prominent models of the disclosure process in light of our findings. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from four focus groups in which 34 preadolescent and adolescent female survivors of…
Dixon, Angela Coleman; Schoonmaker, Christopher T.; Philliber, William W.
Compares past participants (n=33) in an Afrocentric pregnancy prevention program for adolescent females with nonparticipants (n=32). Results suggest that A Journey Toward Womanhood had a positive impact, delaying the initiation of sexual intercourse, increasing contraceptive use among those who were having intercourse, and reducing the incidence…
Liao, Zhaohui; Smith, Peter G.
ABSTRACT Provoked vestibulodynia, a female pelvic pain syndrome affecting substantial numbers of women, is characterized by genital hypersensitivity and sensory hyperinnervation. Previous studies have shown that the risk of developing provoked vestibulodynia is markedly elevated following adolescent use of oral contraceptives with high progesterone content. We hypothesized that progesterone, a steroid hormone with known neurotropic properties, may alter genital innervation through direct or indirect actions. Female Sprague Dawley rats received progesterone (20 mg/kg subcutaneously) from Days 20–27; tissue was removed for analysis in some rats on Day 28, while others were ovariectomized on Day 43 and infused for 7 days with vehicle or 17beta estradiol. Progesterone resulted in overall increases in vaginal innervation at both Day 28 and 50 due to proliferation of peptidergic sensory and sympathetic (but not parasympathetic) axons. Estradiol reduced innervation in progesterone-treated and untreated groups. To assess the mechanisms of sensory hyperinnervation, we cultured dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons and found that progesterone increases neurite outgrowth by small unmyelinated (but not myelinated) sensory neurons, it was receptor mediated, and it was nonadditive with NGF. Pretreatment of ganglion with progesterone also increased neurite outgrowth in response to vaginal target explants. However, pretreatment of vaginal target with progesterone did not improve outgrowth. We conclude that adolescent progesterone exposure may contribute to provoked vestibulodynia by eliciting persistent genital hyperinnervation via a direct effect on unmyelinated sensory nociceptor neurons and that estradiol, a well-documented therapeutic, may alleviate symptoms in part by reducing progesterone-induced sensory hyperinnervation. PMID:25359899
Moretto, M.R; Silva, C.C; Kurokawa, C.S; Fortes, C.M; Capela, R.C; Teixeira, A.S; Dalmas, J.C; Goldberg, T.B
Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Methods: Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner’s criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe’s test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. Results: BMD (g·cm-2) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Conclusion: Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry. PMID:21966336
Parsons, Joanne L; Alexander, Marion J L
Landing awkwardly from a jump is a common mechanism of injury for the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee. Augmented feedback, such as verbal or visual instruction, has been shown to cause an immediate, positive change in landing biomechanics in a laboratory setting. No data exist on the longer term effects of feedback on jump landing biomechanics in a sports-specific setting. The purpose of this study was to explore whether providing video and verbal feedback to adolescent (12-14 years old) female volleyball athletes would improve their landing technique. Trunk and lower extremity kinematic variables were measured in 19 participants before a feedback session was provided to the intervention group (IG). Follow-up kinematic measurements of the IG were taken immediately postintervention, and again after 2 and 4 weeks. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the IG with a control group (CG), who received no feedback. The IG (n = 10) demonstrated increased maximal hip and trunk flexion compared with the CG (n = 9) at week 4 (p ≤ 0.05). One-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine if changes were evident within the IG over time. Ankle dorsiflexion, right knee and hip flexion, and trunk flexion changed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) over the 4-week period. Augmented feedback appeared to produce a positive change in landing biomechanics in adolescent female volleyball athletes performing a sports-specific skill. Courtside video and verbal feedback may present a relatively simple, cost-effective method of introducing one component of a comprehensive ACL injury prevention program at a young age.
Tahmasebi, Kobra; Amani, Reza; Nazari, Zahra; Ahmadi, Kambiz; Moazzen, Sara; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali
Among various factors influencing mood disorders, the impact of micronutrient deficiencies has attracted a great attention. Zinc deficiency is considered to play a crucial role in the onset and progression of mood disorders in different stages of life. The main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between serum zinc levels and mood disorders in high school female students. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 100 representative high school female students. The participants completed 24-h food recall questionnaires to assess the daily zinc intakes. Serum zinc status was assessed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and zinc deficiency was defined accordingly. Mood disorders were estimated by calculating the sum of two test scores including Beck's depression inventory (BDI) and hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS) tests. General linear model (GLM) and Pearson's regression test were applied to show the correlation of serum zinc levels and mood disorder scores and the correlation between zinc serum levels and BDI scores, respectively. Dietary zinc intake was higher in subjects with normal zinc concentrations than that of zinc-deficient group (p = 0.001). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with BDI and HADS scores (p < 0.05). Each 10 μg/dL increment in serum zinc levels led to 0.3 and 0.01 decrease in depression and anxiety scores, respectively (p < 0.05). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with mood disorders including depression and anxiety in adolescent female students. Increasing serum levels of zinc in female students could improve their mood disorders.
Miskovic, Vladimir; Schmidt, Louis A; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael; MacMillan, Harriet L
The experience of child maltreatment is a known risk factor for the development of psychopathology. Structural and functional modifications of neural systems implicated in stress and emotion regulation may provide one mechanism linking early adversity with later outcome. The authors examined two well-documented biological markers of stress vulnerability [resting frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry and cardiac vagal tone] in a group of adolescent females exposed to child maltreatment (n = 38; M age = 14.47) and their age-matched non-maltreated (n = 25; M age = 14.00) peers. Maltreated females exhibited greater relative right frontal EEG activity and lower cardiac vagal tone than controls over a 6-month period. In addition, frontal EEG asymmetry and cardiac vagal tone remained stable in the maltreated group across the 6 months, suggesting that the neurobiological correlates of maltreatment may not simply reflect dynamic, short-term changes but more long lasting alterations. The present findings appear to be the first to demonstrate stability of two biologically based stress-vulnerability measures in a maltreated population. Findings are discussed in terms of plasticity within the neural circuits of emotion regulation during the early childhood period and alternative causal models of developmental psychopathology.
Beck, Kathryn L; Mitchell, Sarah; Foskett, Andrew; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R
Ballet dancing is a multifaceted activity requiring muscular power, strength, endurance, flexibility, and agility; necessitating demanding training schedules. Furthermore dancers may be under aesthetic pressure to maintain a lean physique, and adolescent dancers require extra nutrients for growth and development. This cross-sectional study investigated the nutritional status of 47 female adolescent ballet dancers (13-18 years) living in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants who danced at least 1 hr per day 5 days per week completed a 4-day estimated food record, anthropometric measurements (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry) and hematological analysis (iron and vitamin D). Mean BMI was 19.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2 and percentage body fat, 23.5 ± 4.1%. The majority (89.4%) of dancers had a healthy weight (5th-85th percentile) using BMI-for-age growth charts. Food records showed a mean energy intake of 8097.3 ± 2155.6 kJ/day (48.9% carbohydrate, 16.9% protein, 33.8% fat, 14.0% saturated fat). Mean carbohydrate and protein intakes were 4.8 ± 1.4 and 1.6 ± 0.5 g/kg/day respectively. Over half (54.8%) of dancers consumed less than 5 g carbohydrate/kg/day, and 10 (23.8%) less than 1.2 g protein/kg/day. Over 60% consumed less than the estimated average requirement for calcium, folate, magnesium and selenium. Thirteen (28.3%) dancers had suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin (SF) < 20 μg/L). Of these, four had iron deficiency (SF < 12 μg/L, hemoglobin (Hb) ≥ 120 g/L) and one iron deficiency anemia (SF < 12 μg/L, Hb < 120 g/L). Mean serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D was 75.1 ± 18.6 nmol/L, 41 (91.1%) had concentrations above 50 nmol/L. Female adolescent ballet dancers are at risk for iron deficiency, and possibly inadequate nutrient intakes.
Schwieger, Traci; Campo, Shelly; Weinstein, Stuart L.; Dolan, Lori A.; Ashida, Sato; Steuber, Keli R.
Study Design. The Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial (BrAIST) included skeletally immature high-risk patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with moderate curve sizes (20°– 40°). BrAIST was a multicenter, controlled trial using both randomized and preference treatment arms into either an observation group or a brace treatment group. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare body image and quality-of-life (QOL) in female AIS patients who were observed or treated with a brace. Summary of Background Data. Brace treatment is an effective means for controlling progressive scoliosis and preventing the need for surgery, but there is no consensus regarding the effect of brace treatment on body image or on QOL in adolescents with AIS. Methods. Data from female BrAIST patients in the randomized (n = 132) or preference (n = 187) arms and were observed (n = 120) or brace treated (n = 199) were analyzed. Patients completed the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQOL) 4.0 Generic Scales at baseline and 6 month follow-up visits up to 2 years. Items on the SAQ measured three body image constructs (self, ideal, and overall). The PedsQOL measured health, activities, feelings, social factors, and school. Results. . In general, there were no significant differences within or between study arms or treatments regarding body image or QOL through 2 years of follow-up. Poorer body image was significantly correlated with poorer QOL during the first 2 years of follow-up regardless of study arm or treatment. Patients who crossed-over to a different treatment and patients with largest Cobb angles ≥ 40 degrees had significantly poorer body image, in particular self-body image, compared with those that did not. Conclusion. This study does not support findings from previous research indicating that wearing a brace has a negative impact on or is negatively impacted by body image or
Yang, Tony T.; Simmons, Alan N.; Matthews, Scott C.; Tapert, Susan F.; Frank, Guido K.; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Lansing, Amy E.; Wu, Jing; Brown, Gregory G.; Paulus, Martin P.
Neuroimaging studies implicate the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) as a critical brain region in adult depression. However, unlike adult depression, little is known about the underlying neural substrates of adolescent depression, and there are no published data examining differences in sgACC activation between depressed and healthy adolescents. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine sgACC activity in twenty-six depressed and normal 13- to 17-year olds during the performance of a stop-signal task. Significantly greater sgACC activation was found in the depressed adolescents relative to controls. These results establish for the first time abnormal functioning of the sgACC in depressed adolescents and have important implications for understanding the underlying neural correlates and potential treatments of adolescent depression. PMID:19218875
Yang, Tony T.; Simmons, Alan N.; Matthews, Scott C.; Tapert, Susan F.; Frank, Guido K.; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Lansing, Amy E.; Wu, Jing; Paulus, Martin P.
Recent adult studies suggest that the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) is involved in fundamental mental operations such as affective processing and inhibitory control. However, little is known about inhibition-associated sgACC function in adolescents, and there are no published data regarding whether personality characteristics are related to inhibition-associated sgACC brain activity in adolescents. This study examined the relationship between personality and inhibition-associated sgACC response in healthy adolescents. Seventeen adolescents of 13–17 years of age underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a parametric stop-signal task. Greater harm avoidance levels were significantly associated with increased inhibition-related sgACC activity. These results establish, for the first time, a link between personality and differential sgACC activation in adolescents. PMID:19034055
Martin, P D; Martin, D; Martin, M
Societal trends indicate ambivalent attitudes about marriage. Specifically, there is greater acceptance of divorce and nontraditional living arrangements such as cohabitation, as well as acceptance and prevalence of premarital sex, than in the past. The authors examine adolescent attitudes toward marriage and their association with premarital sexual activity and cohabitation. Recommendations for helping adolescents understand the realities of marriage and family life are shared.
Martin, Paige D.; Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie
Societal trends indicate ambivalent attitudes about marriage, specifically a greater acceptance of divorce and nontraditional living arrangements. This paper examines adolescent attitudes toward marriage and their association with premarital sexual activity and cohabitation. Recommendations for helping adolescents understand the realities of…
Mason, Michael J.; Korpela, Kalevi
This study analyzed routine locations (activity spaces) of urban adolescents enrolled in a substance abuse treatment program to understand the relationship between their spatial lives and health outcomes such as substance use and mental health. Sixty-eight adolescents were interviewed and produced a list of 199 locations identified as most…
Mathews, Iva Z; Wilton, Aleena; Styles, Amy; McCormick, Cheryl M
We previously reported that males undergoing chronic social stress (SS) (daily 1h isolation and new cage partner on days 30-45 of age) in adolescence habituated (decreased corticosterone release) to the homotypic stressor, but females did not. Here, we report that adolescent males exposed to chronic social stress had potentiated corticosterone release to a heterotypic stressor (15 min of swim stress) compared to acutely stressed and control males. The three groups of males did not differ in depressive-like behaviour (time spent immobile) during the swim stress. Corticosterone release in socially stressed females was elevated 45 min after the swim stress compared to acutely stressed and control females, and socially stressed females exhibited more depressive behaviour (longer durations of immobility and shorter durations of climbing) than the other females during the swim stress. Separate groups of rats were tested as adults several weeks after the social stress, and there were no group differences in corticosterone release after the swim stress. The only group difference in behaviour among the adults was more time spent climbing in socially stressed males than in controls. Thus, there are sex-specific effects of social stress in adolescence on endocrine responses and depressive behaviour to a heterotypic stressor, but, unlike for anxiety, substantial recovery is evident in adulthood in the absence of intervening stress exposures.
Obunge, O. K.; Brabin, L.; Dollimore, N.; Kemp, J.; Ikokwu-Wonodi, C.; Babatunde, S.; White, S.; Briggs, N. D.; Hart, C. A.
OBJECTIVE: To devise a flowchart suitable for assessing risk of trichomoniasis, chlamydia and gonorrhoea in an adolescent population, not all of whom will be sexually experienced or currently in a relationship. METHODS: The data used to derive the flowchart were generated from cross-sectional microbiological surveys of girls aged 14-19 years in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The flowchart screened on the basis of: (i) sexual experience; (ii) recent sexual activity; (iii) a positive urine leukocyte esterase (LE) test; and (iv) among LE negatives, a history of malodorous/pruritic discharge. FINDINGS: Using this flowchart, we found that 26.2% of all adolescents screened would receive treatment for cervicitis and vaginitis. Chlamydial, gonococcal, and trichomonal infections were correctly diagnosed in 37.5%, 66.7%, and 50% of the cases, respectively. CONCLUSION: Although the flowchart is more suitable for an adolescent population than the vaginal discharge algorithm used in syndromic management protocols, it still lacks precision and needs adapting to local settings. PMID:11357208
Schoenfelder, Erin; Moreno, Megan; Wilner, Molly; Whitlock, Kathryn B; Mendoza, Jason A
Physical activity (PA) reduces symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); interventions to increase PA may improve functioning and health for adolescents with ADHD. Mobile health (mHealth) technology and social media constitute promising interactive modalities for engaging adolescents-who are at highest risk for ADHD treatment drop-out-in interventions to increase PA. The current pilot study evaluated feasibility and acceptability of an innovative intervention incorporating an mHealth-linked wearable activity tracker (Fitbit Flex) and a Facebook group to increase PA among adolescents with ADHD. 11 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (age 14-18, m = 15.5; 54% female) participated in a 4-week trial utilizing the Fitbit Flex in conjunction with (1) weekly personalized step count goals (2) social support through a Facebook group and (3) daily text messages about PA. The study took place in the greater Seattle, Washington area in the fall of 2015. Adolescents completed online surveys twice per week to rate their ADHD symptoms and positive and negative mood states, and parents rated adolescent ADHD symptoms weekly. Participants were adherent to the study protocol and acceptability of the intervention was high. Linear mixed models indicated that participants significantly increased their average weekly steps over the course of the study and demonstrated improvements in both adolescent and parent-reported ADHD Inattentive symptoms. Results indicate that this mHealth intervention is engaging and promising for increasing PA among adolescents with ADHD, and warrant further study. Implications for improving ADHD symptoms and overall functioning for this undertreated population are discussed.
El Gamal, Yehia Mohamad; Elmasry, Ola Abd Elaziz; El Hadidi, Iman Saleh; Soliman, Ola Kamel
Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are prone to premature atherosclerosis and are at risk for the development of cardiovascular disease. Increased arterial stiffness is emerging as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Purpose. To measure proximal aortic stiffness in children and adolescents with SLE. Methods. We studied 16 patients with SLE in activity (mean age 15 ± 2.42 years; 16 females), 14 patients with SLE not in activity (mean age 15.7 ± 1.89 years; 4 males, 10 females), and 16 age- and sex-comparable healthy children and adolescents (15.5 ± 1.71 years; 4 males, 12 females). Disease activity was determined by the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI). All subjects underwent echocardiography for assessment of proximal aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) [Ao distance/Ao wave transit time in the aortic arch]. Venous blood samples were collected for ESR. Results. Patients in activity had significantly higher PWV values than controls (P < 0.05), while no significant difference was found between patients not in activity and controls. Conclusions. SLE patients with disease activity demonstrate increased PWV and arterial stiffness of the proximal aorta, while patients without disease activity do not. This suggests that inflammation secondary to SLE activity, and not subclinical atherosclerosis, is the major underlying cause for increased arterial stiffness in this age group.
Bojorquez, Ietza; Saucedo-Molina, Teresita de Jesús; Juárez-García, Francisco; Unikel-Santoncini, Claudia
The objectives of the current study were to explore: (1) the association between the social environment at the city and family levels and risky eating behaviors in adolescent females and (2) the interaction between the social and cultural environment and body mass index (BMI). The data were obtained from a representative survey of female high school students in Mexico State, Mexico (15-19 years). A questionnaire was applied on risky eating behaviors and socio-demographic data. The municipal social and cultural environment was evaluated using the municipal marginalization index. Data analysis used multivariate regression. Prevalence of risky eating behaviors was 4.23%. BMI and family socioeconomic status were directly associated with risky eating behaviors. The municipal marginalization index was not associated with risky eating behaviors. Possible explanations for the latter are that the relevant components of the social and cultural environment were not measured, or that the municipal level does not exert a contextual effect on risky eating behaviors. The effect of BMI on risky eating behaviors was greater in more marginalized municipalities.
Robertson, Angela A; Morse, David T; Baird-Thomas, Connie
Exposure to multiple traumatic events and high rates of mental health problems are common among juvenile offenders. This study draws on Conservation of Resources (COR) stress theory to examine the impact of a specific trauma, Hurricane Katrina, relative to other adverse life events, on the mental health of female adolescent offenders in Mississippi. Teenage girls (N=258, 69% African American) were recruited from four juvenile detention centers and the state training school. Participants were interviewed about the occurrence and timing of adverse life events and hurricane-related experiences and completed a self-administered mental health assessment. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to identify predictors of anxiety and depression. Pre-hurricane family stressors, pre-hurricane traumatic events, hurricane-related property damage, and receipt of hurricane-related financial assistance significantly predicted symptoms of anxiety and depression. Findings support COR theory. Family stressors had the greatest influence on symptoms of anxiety and depression, highlighting the need for family based services that address the multiple, inter-related problems and challenges in the lives of female juvenile offenders.
Mandal, Soumendra Nath; Kamal, Mir Reza; Mukherjee, Satyadip; Das, Ranjit Kumar; Karmakar, Dilip
A 16-year-old female presented with dribbling of urine along with voluntary voiding since birth. Renal imaging revealed hydroureteronephrosis on the right side; the uterus and ovary were normal. A radionuclide scan showed a left nonfunctional kidney. On cystovaginoscopy, the urethra was shown to be normal and the urinary bladder was tubular with small capacity and an absent trigone. Although the vagina was capacious, no ureteric orifices were found. Computed tomography corroborated the diagnosis of bilateral, single ectopic ureters draining into a grossly dilated vagina. This case is unique because it is a bilateral single-system ureteral ectopia in a completely differentiated female genital tract that presented late in adolescence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second such ureteral abnormality reported in the literature so far. The patient underwent ileocystoplasty with right ureteric reimplantation and nephroureterectomy for the left nonfunctional kidney, which histopathology showed to be tuberculosis. The patient is continent with cystometric capacity of more than 300 mL. PMID:23878693
Javdani, Shabnam; Sadeh, Naomi; Verona, Edelyn
Women and girls' engagement in antisocial behavior represents a psychological issue of great concern given the radiating impact that women's antisociality can have on individuals, families, and communities. Despite its importance and relevance for psychological science, this topic has received limited attention to date and no systematic review of risk factors exists. The present paper aims to systematically review the empirical literature informing risk factors relevant to women's antisocial behavior, with a focus on adolescence and adulthood. Primary aims are to 1) review empirical literatures on risk factors for female antisocial behavior across multiple levels of influence (e.g., person-level characteristics, risky family factors, and gender-salient contexts) and fields of study (e.g., psychology, sociology); 2) evaluate the relevance of each factor for female antisocial behavior; and 3) incorporate an analysis of how gender at both the individual and ecological levels shapes pathways to antisocial behavior in women and girls. We conclude that women's antisocial behavior is best-understood as being influenced by person-level or individual vulnerabilities, risky family factors, and exposure to gender-salient interpersonal contexts, and underscore the importance of examining women's antisocial behavior through an expanded lens that views gender as an individual level attribute as well as a social category that organizes the social context in ways that may promote engagement in antisocial behavior. Based on the present systematic review, an integrative pathway model is proposed toward the goal of synthesizing current knowledge and generating testable hypotheses for future research.
Hammerslag, Lindsey R.; Waldman, Alex J.; Gulley, Joshua M.
Heightened impulsivity is a feature of some psychiatric disorders, including addiction, that also have sex-specific patterns of expression. The relationship between addiction and impulsivity may be driven by drug-induced changes in behavior caused by long term adaptations in signaling within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Here, we used a response inhibition task that is sensitive to changes in mPFC function to examine the effects of sex and exposure to amphetamine (AMPH) on impulsive action and vigilance. We also examined drug-induced alterations in glutamatergic and dopaminergic signaling through challenge injections with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine) and AMPH. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were injected (i.p.) with saline or 3 mg/kg AMPH every other day during adolescence (postnatal day (P) 27–45) or adulthood (P85–103). Starting on P125–135, rats were tested for their ability to lever press for a food reward during periods of signaled availability and withhold responding during a “premature response” phase. In experiment 1, rats received challenge injections (i.p.) of MK-801 and AMPH followed by tests of task performance and locomotor activity. In experiment 2, rats received intra-mPFC infusion of MK-801. We found that females had better inhibitory control and poorer vigilance than males and that AMPH exposure had both sex- and age-of-exposure dependent effects on impulsivity. Systemic drug challenges disrupted task performance, particularly in females, and increased impulsivity while intra-mPFC infusions had modest effects. AMPH exposure did not affect responses to drug challenges. Together, these results suggest that sex mediates both trait and drug-induced impulsivity. PMID:24462963
Purpose The reproductive health needs of unmarried adolescents in Bangladesh are largely unmet. This study aimed to explore treatment-seeking behaviour of unmarried female adolescents for selected reproductive health (RH) concerns in two low-performing areas of Bangladesh. Methods As part of a large community based-project, a cross-sectional survey was conducted from November 2006 to March 2007. From each of two select study areas, 800 unmarried female adolescents aged 12–19 years were selected for participation by simple random sampling through household listing and were recruited into the study. Trained interviewers administered a structured questionnaire to participating female adolescents. Descriptive and bivariate analytic methods were used compare RH conditions and healthcare seeking behaviour of adolescents across urban and rural settings. Results Approximately 50% of the sample reported experiencing menstrual problems in the last year. The predominant problems reported by participants included: lower abdominal pain, back pain, irregular menstruation, and excessive bleeding during menstruation. Irrespective of study area, only 40% of the female adolescents with menstrual problems sought treatment from qualified physicians. Otherwise, utilization of healthcare facilities and care providers for reported problems varied significantly by rural and urban areas. Higher proportions of adolescents in the urban setting (15%) also reported recent symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), compared to those in the rural setting (9%; p < 0.001). Across sites, however, self-treatment was the most commonly reported method of care for those who experienced any symptoms of STI. Conclusions In general, treatment-seeking behaviours by unmarried female adolescents was low for menstrual problems. A vast majority of unmarried female adolescents practiced self-care for symptoms of STIs while only small proportions sought treatment from qualified physicians. These
Dupéré, Véronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J Douglas; Leventhal, Tama; Tremblay, Richard E
This study examined how the link between neighborhood poverty and the timing of sexual initiation varies as a function of age, gender, and background characteristics. A sample of N = 2,596 predominately White Canadian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth was used. Sexual initiations occurring between 12 and 15 years old were considered. Results showed that younger adolescent females who lived in poor neighborhoods and who had a history of conduct problems were more likely to report early sexual activity. Peer characteristics partly accounted for this susceptibility. Among adolescent males, no direct neighborhood effects were found, but those who had combined risks at multiple levels appeared more vulnerable. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Dalaveri, Fatemeh; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Esmaeilpour, Khadijeh; Mahani, Saeed Esmaeili; Sheibani, Vahid
Adverse early life experiences can potentially increase risk for drug abuse later in life. However, little research has been conducted studying the effects of maternal separation (MS), an experimental model for early life stress, on the rewarding effects of nicotine. Cognitive function may be affected by MS. So, we also investigated whether nicotine administration affect spatial learning and memory in MS adolescent female rats. Rat pups were subjected to daily MS for 15min (MS15) or 180min (MS180) during the first 2 weeks of life or reared under normal animal facility rearing (AFR) conditions. The place preference test was performed with nicotine (0.6mg/kg,s.c.) or vehicle over a period of 6 conditioning trials during adolescence. Spatial learning and memory performance was evaluated by using Morris water maze (MWM). In our study, adolescent female rats exposed to MS180 shown a significantly greater preference for a nicotine-paired compartment during the testing phase than the MS15 group. Nicotine altered the MS-induced spatial learning defects in the MS180 group. These findings suggest that MS may increase sensitivity to the rewarding effects of nicotine and also it is possible to suggest that nicotine administration may influence learning dysfunction induced by MS in adolescent female rats.
Kuiper, H; Miller, S; Martinez, E; Loeb, L; Darney, P
Focus groups and in-depth interviews were used to explore the decline in popularity of the contraceptive implant in a clinic-based sample of 41 ethnically diverse, urban, sexually active adolescents. While these teenagers' socioeconomic status and patterns of inconsistent contraceptive use made them potentially ideal implant recipients, they were unlikely to select this method. Negative media reports about the method were less influential than social conditions such as peer perspectives and gender relations. Oral networks that propagated misinformation went unchallenged because of the silence of satisfied users. Personal factors such as future orientation, autonomous decision-making and value of control also influenced contraceptive decision-making.
Lippold, Melissa A.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Feinberg, Mark E.
Most studies that explore parental knowledge of youths' activities utilize parents' and youths' reports separately. Using a sample of 938 rural early adolescents (53% female; 84% White), we explore congruence between mothers' and youths' perceptions of maternal knowledge and its association with youth problem behaviors (delinquency, substance use,…
Andon, M B; Ilich, J Z; Tzagournis, M A; Matkovic, V
Increasing emphasis is being placed on optimizing calcium intake during growth as a way to enhance peak bone mass. Although some studies in adults have shown that high calcium intake may negatively affect magnesium utilization, few data are available regarding the interaction of calcium and magnesium in healthy children. The purpose of our study was to measure the effect of calcium intake on magnesium balance in 26 adolescent girls (mean age 11.3 y) during a 14-d period. Subjects ate a controlled basal diet containing 667 mg Ca and 176 mg Mg. In addition to the basal diet, subjects were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to consume 1000 mg elemental Ca/d as calcium citrate malate or a placebo. Magnesium use did not differ between the low-calcium and high-calcium groups as measured by absorption (50% compared with 55%), urinary excretion (70 compared with 74 mg/d), and fecal excretion (88 compared with 79 mg/d). Accordingly, magnesium balance was not different in subjects consuming 667 or 1667 mg Ca/d and averaged 21 mg Mg/d for the whole study group. Magnesium balance was significantly correlated with magnesium intake (r = 0.511, P = 0.008) and magnesium absorption (r = 0.723, P < 0.001). Prediction intervals from the regression of magnesium balance on intake indicated that the current recommended dietary allowance of magnesium would result in magnesium balance > or = 8.5 mg/d in 95% of the girls. This value appears consistent with long-term accretion rates needed to account for the expansion of the total-body magnesium pool during growth. In summary, our observations support the adequacy of the current recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and indicate that alterations in magnesium utilization should not be anticipated in adolescent females consuming a high-calcium diet.
Arikawa, Shino; Eboua, Tanoh; Kouakou, Kouadio; N'Gbeche, Marie-Sylvie; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Moh, Corinne; Amoussou-Bouah, Ursula Belinda; Coffie, Patrick Ahuatchi; Becquet, Renaud; Leroy, Valériane
Objective Adolescents living with HIV are sexually active and engaged in risky sexual behaviors. Knowledge on how and to what extent adolescents in HIV care are affected by pregnancy is needed so as to adopt better preventive services. We estimated 4-year pregnancy incidence and correlates among HIV-infected female adolescents in HIV care in urban Côte d'Ivoire. Design We conducted retrospective analysis of a pediatric prospective cohort of the International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) West Africa Collaboration. Female patients with confirmed HIV infection aged 10–19 years, having at least one clinical visit in 2009 to health facilities participating in the pediatric IeDEA West African cohort in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, were included. Data on incident pregnancies were obtained through medical records and interviews with health professionals. Pregnancy incidence rate was estimated per 100 person-years (PY). Poisson regression models were used to identify factors associated with the first pregnancy and provided incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results In 2009, 266 female adolescents were included, with a median age of 12.8 years (interquartile range, IQR: 10.0–15.0), CD4 cell counts of 506 cells/mm3 (IQR: 302–737), and 80% on antiretroviral treatment. At the 48th month, 17 new pregnancies were reported after 938 PY of follow-up: 13 girls had one pregnancy while 2 had two pregnancies. Overall incidence rate of pregnancy was 1.8/100 PY (95% CI: 1.1–2.9). High incidence was observed among those aged 15–19 years: 3.6/100 PY (95% CI: 2.2–5.9). Role of maternal death in the risk of pregnancy was at the limit of statistical significance (adjusted IRR: 3.1, 95% CI: 0.9–11.0; ref. non-maternal orphans). Conclusions Incidence of pregnancy among HIV-infected adolescents in care aged 15–19 years reached a level observed in adult cohorts in Sub-Saharan Africa. Health personnel in pediatric care have to
Chiou, Miin-Huey; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Yang, Yi-Hsin
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of systematic health education on female adolescents' knowledge of dysmenorrhea, menstrual attitudes, and dysmenorrhea-related self-care behaviors. Through the research process, a dysmenorrheal self-care pamphlet for female adolescents was developed. The study used a quasi-experimental intervention with a nonequivalent-control group design. Three vocational nursing schools were requested to participate in this study: one was assigned to the experimental group and two were assigned to the control group. Female students who had experienced dysmenorrheic cramps two or more times during the last 6 months since the interview were recruited for the study. There were 218 subjects randomly assigned to an experimental group, and 237 subjects to a control group. Intervention consisted of a three-session health education program in which the experimental group was split up into six smaller groups. Data were collected before, 2 weeks after, and 4 months after the intervention. Results revealed a significant increase in the experimental group members' dysmenorrhea-related knowledge and self-care behavior, but not in their attitudes. The findings of this study can serve as a guide to healthcare providers who want to design an effective systematic menstrual health education program for female adolescents.
Dworkin, Jodi B.; Larson, Reed; Hansen, David
Conducted 10 focus groups in which adolescents discussed their "growth experiences" in extracurricular and community-based activities. The 55 participants reported personal and interpersonal processes and generally described themselves as agents of their own development and change. (SLD)
Background Adequate levels of physical activity are part of a healthy lifestyle and in this way linked to better health outcomes. For children and adolescents, the physical activity guideline recommends at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity every day. However, many adolescents are not physically active enough and they spend a lot of their time on sedentary activities (such as video games). A new generation of video games that require body movements to play them, so-called "active games", could serve to increase physical activity in adolescents. The activity level while playing these games is comparable to light-to-moderate intensity physical activity. The current study aims to increase our understanding of 1) the demographic characteristics of adolescents who play active games regularly (≥ 1 hour per week) and non-regularly (<; 1 hour per week), 2) time spent on active games, 3) the contribution of active games to daily physical activity and 4) the type and amount of activities being replaced by active gaming. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a Dutch internet panel, questioning adolescents in conjunction with one of their parents. A random sample of 320 households (with stratification on gender of the parent and the adolescent, the age of the adolescent and the region of the household) was selected that owned a console or application for active video games and that had a child aged 12 through 16 years. 201 child–parent couples (63% response) completed an internet survey with questions about demographics, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and gaming behaviour. The questionnaire also contained questions designed to assess whether and how active gaming replaces other activities. Besides descriptive analyses, independent t-test, Pearson’s chi-square and Mann–Whitney test (when data were not normally distributed) were used for comparisons between regular and non-regular active gamers. Results Eleven
Cervantes, Carlos M; Porretta, David L
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an after school physical activity intervention on adolescents with visual impairments within the context of Social Cognitive Theory. Four adolescents with visual impairments (1 female, 3 males) between 14 and 19 years of age from a residential school for the blind served as participants. We used a range-bound changing criterion single-subject design. Physical activity was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on selected social cognitive theory constructs. Results show that the intervention exerted functional control over the target behaviors (e.g., leisure-time physical activity) during intervention phases. Similarly, changes in scores for selected social cognitive constructs, in particular for outcome expectancy value, suggest a positive relationship between those constructs and physical activity behavior. No maintenance effects were observed.
Harte-Hargrove, Lauren C; Dow-Edwards, Diana L
Research suggests that the use and abuse of marijuana can be especially harmful if it occurs during adolescence, a period of vast developmental changes throughout the brain. Due to the localization of cannabinoid receptors within the limbic system and the established effects of cannabinoids on emotional states and anxiety levels of rats and humans, we studied the sex- and dose-related effects of Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the main psychoactive component in marijuana) on behavior and anxiety during spontaneous withdrawal. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were administered 2, 7.5 or 15 mg/kg THC or vehicle from postnatal day 35-41 (approximating mid-adolescence in humans). Locomotor activity and anxiety-related behaviors were measured during drug administration and abstinence. THC caused significant dose-dependent locomotor depression during drug administration. Locomotor depression initially abated upon drug cessation, but re-emerged by the end of the abstinence period and was greater in female than male rats. We found sensitization to the locomotor-depressing effects of THC in middle- and high-dose rats and the subsequent development of tolerance in high-dose rats. The high dose of THC increased anxiety-like behaviors while the low dose decreased anxiety-like behaviors during drug administration, with females more sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of THC than males. During abstinence, females were again especially sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of THC. This study demonstrates sexually-dimorphic effects of THC on anxiety-related behaviors and locomotor activity during and after THC administration during adolescence. This information may be useful in the development of therapeutic approaches for the treatment of marijuana withdrawal in adolescents.
Li, Yongming; Niessen, Margot; Chen, Xiaoping; Hartmann, Ulrich
Purpose Different relative aerobic energy contribution (WAER%) has been reported for the two female Olympic kayaking disciplines (i.e. 200 and 500m). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the adopted method of energy calculation influenced the value of WAER% during the kayaking time trials. Methods Eleven adolescent female kayakers (age 14±1 yrs, height 172±4 cm, body mass 65.4±4.2 kg, VO2peak 42.6±4.9 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1), training experience 1.5±0.3 yrs) volunteered to participate in one incremental exercise test and two time trials (40s and 120s) on the kayak ergometer. A portable spirometric system was used to measure gas metabolism. Capillary blood was taken from the ear lobe during and after the tests, and analyzed for lactate afterwards. The method of modified maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (m-MAOD) and the method based on the fast component of oxygen uptake off-kinetics (PCr-La-O2) were utilized to calculate the energy contributions. Results The anaerobic energy portions from m-MAOD were lower than those from PCr-La-O2 in the 40s (41.9±8.8 vs. 52.8±4.0 kJ, p<0.05) and 120s (64.1±27.9 vs. 68.2±10.0 kJ, p>0.05) time trials, which induced differences of WAER% between m-MAOD and PCr-La-O2 (36.0 vs. 30.0% in 40s, p<0.05; 60.9 vs. 57.5% in 120s, p>0.05). Conclusions The reported different WAER% in the female Olympic kayaking could be partly attributed to the adopted method of energy calculation (i.e. m-MAOD vs. PCr-La-O2). A fixed method of energy calculation is recommended during the longitudinal assessment on the relative energy contribution in female Olympic kayaking.
Aibar, Alberto; Bois, Julien E; Zaragoza Casterad, Javier; Generelo, Eduardo; Paillard, Thierry; Fairclough, Stuart
Adolescents' objectively assessed physical activity (PA) patterns during specific segments of the day remain unclear. In order to develop a clearer understanding this study examined country and gender differences in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels during specific segments of weekdays and weekend days, and explored the contribution of each segment to PA guidelines. Morpho-demographic, socio-economic and PA data were collected from a sample of 829 French and Spanish adolescents (45.0% Spanish; 55.2% females; 14.33±.73 years). Actigraph GT3X accelerometers were worn for seven days to assess adolescents' MVPA for three segments of weekdays (school-travel-time, school-time, and non-school-time), and weekend days (morning-time, afternoon-time and night-time). Data were analysed using multilevel modelling. The most active segments were non-school-time (29.2±17.5 min) and school-time (25.8±14.2 min) during weekdays, and morning-time (28.2±25.8 min) on weekend days. Except for school-time, Spanish adolescents were more significantly active than French adolescents during all segments. Significant gender differences were found in all segments. Country differences highlight the need to recognise cultural contexts that influence adolescents' PA. Common European-wide strategies may be insufficient to increase MVPA levels if cultural variability is not considered. Spanish and French PA intervention programmes should target girls and low-active boys during non-school-time and weekends.
Infurna, Maria Rita; Brunner, Romuald; Holz, Birger; Parzer, Peter; Giannone, Francesca; Reichl, Corinna; Fischer, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael
This study examined a broad variety of adverse childhood experiences in a consecutive sample of female adolescent inpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD; n = 44) compared with a clinical control (CC; n = 47) group with mixed psychiatric diagnoses. BPD was diagnosed using a structured clinical interview; different dimensions of childhood adversity were assessed using the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Family Assessment Device. A history of childhood adversity was significantly more common in patients with BPD than in the CC group. Using a multivariate model, sexual abuse (OR = 13.8), general family functioning (OR = 8.9), and low maternal care (OR = 7.6) were specific and independent predictors of adolescent BPD. The results increase our knowledge of the specific role of different dimensions of childhood adversity in adolescent BPD. They have important implications for prevention and early intervention as they highlight the need for specific strategies for involving the family.
Javdani, Shabnam; Sadeh, Naomi; Verona, Edelyn
Women and girls’ engagement in antisocial behavior represents a psychological issue of great concern given the radiating impact that women’s antisociality can have on individuals, families, and communities. Despite its importance and relevance for psychological science, this topic has received limited attention to date and no systematic review of risk factors exists. The present paper aims to systematically review the empirical literature informing risk factors relevant to women’s antisocial behavior, with a focus on adolescence and adulthood. Primary aims are to 1) review empirical literatures on risk factors for female antisocial behavior across multiple levels of influence (e.g., person-level characteristics, risky family factors, and gender-salient contexts) and fields of study (e.g., psychology, sociology); 2) evaluate the relevance of each factor for female antisocial behavior; and 3) incorporate an analysis of how gender at both the individual and ecological level shapes pathways to antisocial behavior in women and girls. We conclude that women’s antisocial behavior is best-understood as being influenced by person-level or individual vulnerabilities, risky family factors, and exposure to gender-salient interpersonal contexts, and underscore the importance of examining women’s antisocial behavior through an expanded lens that views gender as an individual level attribute as well as a social category that organizes the social context in ways that may promote engagement in antisocial behavior. Based on the present systematic review, an integrative pathway model is proposed toward the goal of synthesizing current knowledge and generating testable hypotheses for future research. PMID:22001339
Ziemann, Ewa; Sledziewska, Ewelina; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Gibson, Ann L; Wierzba, Tomasz H
The study was performed to evaluate relationships among the major anthropological parameters: (body mass - BM, height, body mass index - BMI, lean body mass - FFM, proportion of fat mass -Fat%), physical capacity, and the tennis federations ranking position as an index of the temporal sport success. Seventeen elite female tennis players, divided into three age-matched groups (15, 16, and 17 yr) participated in this study. All the players had a national singles ranking (positions between 1st-80th) and in International Tennis Federation's Junior Circuit ranking (ITFJC; 21st to 990th position of ITF). Body composition was assessed via bioelectrical impedance. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was calculated from the distance covered in 12-min run test via Cooper's formula. Wingate test with lactate assay was used as an index of anaerobic capacity. There was a significant age-related trend for an increase in BM, height, FFT, and Fat%, associated with impressive shift of the anthropological indexes of body weight and height, assessed by the percentile chart analysis. The unexpected body growth spurt evidently observed between aged 15 and 17 is supposed to reflect a delay in somatic development, related to extensive exercise load. Body composition did not correlate to the ranking positions. All tested tennis players revealed excellent aerobic capacity associated with poor indices of anaerobic fitness. The position in the tennis federations rankings correlated to VO2max but not with maximal power or maximal work output assessed by Wingate test. In the whole group the maximal power and work output were proportional to BMI and FFM, but not to Fat%. In conclusion, in light of the contradictory reports concerning a possible link between strenuous regular exercise performed by young children and adolescent elite sportsmen our data indicate a delayed growth spurt in the elite female tennis players to occur between ages 15 and 17. The other important finding in terms of
Nichols, Jeanne F; Aralis, Hilary; Merino, Sonia Garcia; Barrack, Michelle T; Stalker-Fader, Lindsay; Rauh, Mitchell J
There is a growing need to accurately assess exercise energy expenditure (EEE) in athletic populations that may be at risk for health disorders because of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. The Actiheart combines heart rate and uniaxial accelerometry to estimate energy expenditure above rest. The authors' purpose was to determine the utility of the Actiheart for predicting EEE in female adolescent runners (N = 39, age 15.7 ± 1.1 yr). EEE was measured by indirect calorimetry and predicted by the Actiheart during three 8-min stages of treadmill running at individualized velocities corresponding to each runner's training, including recovery, tempo, and 5-km-race pace. Repeated-measures ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc comparisons across the 3 running stages indicated that the Actiheart was sensitive to changes in intensity (p < .01), but accelerometer output tended to plateau at race pace. Pairwise comparisons of the mean difference between Actiheart- and criterion-measured EEE yielded values of 0.0436, 0.0539, and 0.0753 kcal × kg-1 × min-1 during recovery, tempo, and race pace, respectively (p < .0001). Bland-Altman plots indicated that the Actiheart consistently underestimated EEE except in 1 runner's recovery bout. A linear mixed-model regression analysis with height as a covariate provided an improved EEE prediction model, with the overall standard error of the estimate for the 3 speeds reduced to 0.0101 kcal × kg-1 × min-1. Using the manufacturer's equation that combines heart rate and uniaxial motion, the Actiheart may have limited use in accurately assessing EEE, and therefore energy availability, in young, female competitive runners.
Background: Adolescents who suffer from depression early in life, have an increase in suicidal tendency, anxiety, conduct disorders, substance abuse, and continue to be depressed, later on in life. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescent girls in Riyadh city in order to carry out early intervention. Methods: A cross-sectional, school-based survey was conducted among 1028 adolescent girls aged 15–19 years in secondary schools of Riyadh city. Riyadh was divided into clusters and within each cluster, both public and private schools were enrolled. From the selected schools students from grade 10–12 were surveyed. Survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire including the beck depression inventory-II, and questions exploring the correlates of depression. Results: About 30% of participants were found to be depressed. Depression was more prevalent among female adolescents whose household income was <12,000 Saudi Riyal/month (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, confidence interval [CI] 0.97–6.84), did not have a good relationship with peers and family members (OR 4.63, CI 2.56–8.41), lived with single parent or alone (OR 1.77, CI 0.97–3.23), been emotionally abused (OR 3.45, CI 2.56–8.41), and those who had been subjected to physical violence, at least once (OR 3.34, CI 1.89–5.91). Conclusions: Strategies need to be developed to identify early signs and symptoms of depression among Saudi female adolescents. Training can be given to groups of students to help their peers, and also to the teachers to identify, and help students identify early signs of depression and provide them with better-coping strategies to combat progression of depression and anxiety among such adolescents. PMID:26445637
Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Casanova, Kathleen; Richardson, Andrea S.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny
Objective To estimate behavior-specific effects of several objectively-measured outdoor spaces on different types of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a large, diverse sample of U.S. adolescents. Methods Using data from Wave I (1994–95) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (U.S., n=10,359) and a linked geographic information system, we calculated percent greenspace coverage and distance to the nearest neighborhood and major parks. Using sex-stratified multivariable logistic regression, we modeled reported participation in wheel-based activities, active sports, exercise, and ≥5 MVPA bouts/week as a function of each outdoor space variable, controlling for individual- and neighborhood-level sociodemographics. Results Availability of major or neighborhood parks was associated with higher participation in active sports and, in females, wheel-based activity and reporting ≥5 MVPA bouts/week [OR (95% CI): up to 1.71 (1.29. 2.27)]. Greater greenspace coverage was associated with reporting ≥5 MVPA bouts/week in males and females [OR (95% CI): up to 1.62 (1.10, 2.39) for 10.1 to 20% versus ≤10% greenspace] and exercise participation in females [OR (95% CI): up to 1.73 (1.21, 2.49)]. Conclusions Provision of outdoor spaces may promote different types of physical activities, with potentially greater benefits in female adolescents, who have particularly low physical activity levels. PMID:20655948
Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Park, Young-Min; Nyhoff, Lauryn M; Winn, Nathan C; Kanaley, Jill A
Background: Adolescents consume more sugar-sweetened beverages than do individuals in any other age group, but it is unknown how the type of sugar-sweetened beverage affects metabolic health in this population. Objective: The objective was to compare the metabolic health effects of short-term (2-wk) consumption of high-fructose (HF) and high-glucose (HG)–sweetened beverages in adolescents (15–20 y of age). Design: In a counterbalanced, single-blind fashion, 40 male and female adolescents completed two 2-wk trials that included 1) an HF trial in which they consumed 710 mL of a sugar-sweetened beverage/d (equivalent to 50 g fructose/d and 15 g glucose/d) for 2 wk and 2) an HG trial in which they consumed 710 mL of a sugar-sweetened beverage/d (equivalent to 50 g glucose/d and 15 g fructose/d) for 2 wk in addition to their normal ad libitum diet. In addition, the participants maintained similar physical activity levels during each trial. The day after each trial, insulin sensitivity and resistance [assessed via Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index] and fasting and postprandial glucose, lactate, lipid, cholesterol, insulin, C-peptide, insulin secretion, and clearance responses to HF or HG mixed meals were assessed. Results: Body weight, QUICKI (whole-body insulin sensitivity), HOMA-IR (hepatic insulin resistance), and fasting lipids, cholesterol, glucose, lactate, and insulin secretion or clearance were not different between trials. Fasting HDL- and HDL3-cholesterol concentrations were ∼10–31% greater (P < 0.05) in female adolescents than in male adolescents. Postprandial triacylglycerol, HDL-cholesterol, HDL3-cholesterol, and glucose concentrations were not different between HF and HG trials. The lactate incremental area under the curve was ∼3.7-fold greater during the HF trial (P < 0.05), whereas insulin secretion was 19% greater during the HG trial (P < 0
Benser, Jasmin; Valtueña, Jara; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Breidenassel, Christina; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Ferrari, Marika; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yannis; Sjöström, Michael; Molnar, Denes; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Kafatos, Antony; Palacios, Gonzalo; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J; Stehle, Peter; González-Gross, Marcela
We examined the association of physical activity (PA), cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and fatness with total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in European adolescents. The present study comprised 713 European adolescents aged 14.8 ± 1.2 y (females 55.3%) from the multicenter HELENA cross-sectional study. PA was assessed through accelerometry, CVF by the 20-m shuttle run test, and body fat by skinfold thicknesses with the Slaughter equation. Plasma folate, cobalamin, and tHcy concentrations were measured. To examine the association of tHcy with PA, CVF, and fatness after controlling for a set of confounders including age, maturity, folate, cobalamin, creatinine, smoking, supplement use, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 genotype (CC 47%, CT 43%, TT 10%), bivariate correlations followed by multiple regression models were performed. In the bivariate correlation analysis, tHcy concentrations were slightly negatively correlated (p<0.05) with CVF in females (measured both by stages: r=-0.118 and by VO2max: r=-0.102) and positively with body mass index (r=0.100). However, daily time spent with moderate and vigorous PA showed a weak positive association with tHcy in females (p<0.05). tHcy concentrations showed a tendency to decrease with increasing CVF and increase with increasing BMI in female European adolescents. However, tHcy concentrations were positively associated with moderate and vigorous PA in female European adolescents.
Cecil, Heather; Matson, Steven C
Adolescent females are disproportionately represented among reported cases of sexual victimization. Because sexual victimization is associated with an array of negative sequelae (e.g., depression, alcohol abuse), psychometrically sound instruments are urgently needed to assess sexual victimization or coercion. The investigation conducts a preliminary analysis of the reliability and validity of the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES) for a sample drawn from a high-risk population-African American adolescent females. Our analyses indicate good internal consistency for the SES with this sample. Convergent validity is demonstrated. Specifically, scores on the SES are associated with significantly lower levels of self-esteem and mastery, higher levels of depression, lower levels of family cohesion, higher levels of family conflict, and higher levels of using alcohol and being a smoker. Preliminary support for discriminant validity is also obtained. This study is a stepping stone for future investigations into the psychometric evaluation of the SES.
García-Cantó, Eliseo; Rodríguez García, Pedro Luis; Pérez-Soto, Juan José; López Villalba, Francisco José; Rosa-Guillamón, Andrés
This study looks at the relationship between tobacco consumption and the physical activity and fitness levels of adolescents. In a sample of 533 adolescents, both a questionnaire to obtain information regarding tobacco consumption and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for information on physical activity were implemented; a battery of tests to assess physical fitness were also applied. Tobacco consumption was significantly higher in females (32.5%) than in males (25.7%). Levels of physical activity in both males and females were significantly associated with tobacco consumption (p<0.0005). Moreover, subjects who consumed tobacco showed lower overall averages in physical fitness tests than those who did not (4.26 vs. 5.77 in males and 4.54 vs. 6.71 in females). Tobacco consumption is therefore shown to be related to lower levels of physical activity and physical fitness in adolescents.
Maldonado-Devincci, Antoniette M.; Alipour, Kent K.; Michael, Laura A.; Kirstein, Cheryl L.
Binge alcohol consumption is a rising concern in the United States, especially among adolescents. During this developmental period alcohol use is usually initiated and has been shown to cause detrimental effects on brain structure and function as well as cognitive/behavioral impairments in rats. Binge models, where animals are repeatedly administered high doses of ethanol typically over a period of three or four days cause these effects. There has been little work conducted aimed at investigating the long-term behavioral consequences of repeated binge administration during adolescence on later ethanol-induced behavior in young adulthood and adulthood. The repeated four-day binge model may serve as a good approximate for patterns of human adolescent alcohol consumption as this is similar to a “bender” in human alcoholics. The present set of experiments examined the dose-response and sex-related differences induced by repeated binge ethanol administration during adolescence on sweetened ethanol (Experiment 1) or saccharin (Experiment 2) intake in young adulthood. In both experiments, on postnatal days (PND) 28–31, PND 35–38 and PND 42–45, ethanol (1.5, 3.0 or 5.0 g/kg) or water was administered intragastrically to adolescent rats. Rats underwent abstinence from PND 46–59. Subsequently, in young adulthood, ethanol and saccharin intake were assessed. Exposure to any dose of ethanol during adolescence significantly enhanced ethanol intake in adulthood. However, while female rats had higher overall g/kg intake, males appear to be more vulnerable to the impact of adolescent ethanol exposure on subsequently increased ethanol intake in young adulthood. Exposure to ethanol during adolescence did not alter saccharin consumption in young adulthood in male or female rats. Considering that adolescence is the developmental period in which ethanol experimentation and consumption is usually initiated, the present set of experiments demonstrate the importance of
Lee, Donghun; Kim, Young-Sik; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Guo, Hailing; Kim, Hocheol
This study aimed to investigate the effects of Phlomis umbrosa root on bone growth and growth mediators in rats. Female adolescent rats were administered P. umbrosa extract, recombinant human growth hormone or vehicle for 10 days. Tetracycline was injected intraperitoneally to produce a glowing fluorescence band on the newly formed bone on day 8, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was injected to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 8-10. To assess possible endocrine or autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, we evaluated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in response to P. umbrosa administration in either growth plate or serum. Oral administration of P. umbrosa significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate, height of hypertrophic zone and chondrocyte proliferation of the proximal tibial growth plate. P. umbrosa also increased serum IGFBP-3 levels and upregulated the expressions of IGF-1 and BMP-2 in growth plate. In conclusion, P. umbrosa increases longitudinal bone growth rate by stimulating proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocyte with the increment of circulating IGFBP-3. Regarding the immunohistochemical study, the effect of P. umbrosa may also be attributable to upregulation of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expressions in the growth plate, which can be considered as a GH dependent autocrine/paracrine pathway.
Gutierrez, Gregory M; Conte, Catherine; Lightbourne, Kristian
Head impacts are common in contact sports, but only recently has there been a rising awareness of the effects of subconcussive impacts in adolescent athletes. A better understanding of how to attenuate head impacts is needed and therefore, this study investigated the relationship between neck strength, impact, and neurocognitive function in an acute bout of soccer heading in a sample of female high school varsity soccer players. Seventeen participants completed the ImPACT neurocognitive test and had their isometric neck strength tested (flexion, extension, and bilateral flexion) before heading drills. Each participant was outfitted with custom headgear with timing switches and a three-dimensional accelerometer affixed to the back of the head, which allowed for measurement of impact during heading. Participants performed a series of 15 directional headers, including 5 forward, 5 left and 5 right headers in a random order, then completed the ImPACT test again. Neurocognitive tests revealed no significant changes following heading. However, there were statistically significant, moderate, negative correlations (r = -0.500:-0.757, p < .05) between neck strength and resultant header acceleration, indicating that those with weaker necks sustained greater impacts. This suggests neck strengthening may be an important component of any head injury prevention/reduction program.
Hartinger-Saunders, Robin M; Trouteaud, Alex R; Matos Johnson, Jodien
This is the first study to explore whether mandated reporters who work with adolescent females, ages 10 to 17, recognize domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) and associated risk factors. Because mandated reporters are required by law to report child abuse, neglect, and child exploitation, lack of specific DMST training or not believing DMST exists in communities continues to place young females at risk for revictimization. Results indicate that 60% of mandated reporters in the sample (N = 577) had no specific training on DMST. Furthermore, almost 25% of respondents did not believe DMST existed in their communities. Implications for practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
McCormick, Cheryl M; Cameron, Nicole M; Thompson, Madison A; Cumming, Mark J; Hodges, Travis E; Langett, Marissa
Ongoing development of brain systems for social behaviour renders these systems susceptible to the influence of stressors in adolescence. We previously found that adult male rats that underwent social instability stress (SS) in mid-adolescence had decreased sexual performance compared with control males (CTL). Here, we test the hypotheses that SS in adolescence decreases the "attractiveness" of male rats as sexual partners compared with CTL rats and that dominance status is a protective factor against the effects of SS. The main prediction was that females would spend more time with CTL males than SS males, and that this bias would be greater for submissive than for dominant rats. Among dominant pairs (n=16), females preferred SS males, spending more time with and visiting more often SS than CTL males (each pair tested 5×), and SS males had shorter latencies to ejaculation, shorter inter-ejaculation intervals, and made more ejaculations compared with CTL males. Among submissive pairs (n=16), females spent more time with, visited more often, and displayed more paracopulatory behaviour with CTL than with SS males, and differences in sexual performance between SS and CTL males were modest and in the opposite direction from that in dominant pairs. The heightened motivation of SS males relative to CTL males for natural rewards may have attenuated differences in sexual performance in a paced mating context. In sum, the experience of stress in adolescence leads to long-lasting changes in males that are perceptible to females, are moderated by social status, and influence sexual behaviour.
Blomfield, Corey J; Barber, Bonnie L
Extracurricular activities provide adolescents with a number of positive personal and interpersonal developmental experiences. This study investigated whether developmental experiences that occurred during extracurricular activities were linked to a more positive self-concept for Australian adolescents, and whether this link was particularly salient for youth from disadvantaged schools. Adolescents (N = 1,504, 56% Female) from 26 diverse high schools across Western Australia were surveyed. The findings revealed that adolescents from low socio-economic status schools who participated in extracurricular activities had a more positive general self-worth and social self-concept than adolescents from similar socio-economic schools who did not participate in any extracurricular activities. Furthermore, the positive developmental experiences that occurred during extracurricular activities predicted a more positive general self-worth and social and academic self-concept, and this link was stronger for youth from low SES schools. These findings suggest that the developmental experiences afforded by extracurricular activities may foster positive adolescent development.
Time perspective is a cultural behavioral concept that reflects individuals' orientations or attitudes toward the past, present, or future. Individuals' time perspectives influence their choices regarding daily activities. Time perspective is an important consideration when teaching adolescents about the importance of being physically active. However, little is known about the relationship between time perspective and physical activity among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the time perspective of central Appalachian adolescents and explore the relationship between time perspective and physical activity. This study was guided by The theory of planned behavior (TPB). One hundred and ninety-three students completed surveys to examine time perspective and physical activity behaviors. Data were collected in one school. Results of this study can inform school nurses and high school guidance counselors about the importance of promoting a future-oriented time perspective to improve physical activity and educational outcomes.
Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L.
Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952
Araki, Kaori; Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L
Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed.
Carta, Gaspare; Artini, Paolo Giovanni
Reproductive functions may be altered by the exposure to a multitude of endogenous and exogenous agents, drug or environmental pollutants, which are known to affect gene transcription through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) activation. PPARs act as ligand activated transcription factors and regulate metabolic processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, inflammation, and cell proliferation and differentiation. All PPARs isotypes are expressed along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are strictly involved in reproductive functions. Since female fertility and energy metabolism are tightly interconnected, the research on female infertility points towards the exploration of potential PPARs activating/antagonizing compounds, mainly belonging to the class of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and fibrates, as useful agents for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in women with ovarian dysfunctions. In the present review, we discuss the recent evidence about PPARs expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and their involvement in female reproduction. Finally, the therapeutic potential of their manipulation through several drugs is also discussed. PMID:27559343
Plener, Paul L; Bubalo, Nikola; Fladung, Anne K; Ludolph, Andrea G; Lulé, Dorothée
Emotion-regulation difficulties have been identified as one of the core components in Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), a behaviour often beginning in adolescence. This pilot study evaluated differences in emotion processing between 18 female adolescents with and without NSSI by using verbal responses and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Responses to pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System and slides with reference to NSSI were recorded both by verbal rating of valence and arousal and by fMRI. The NSSI group rated pictures with self-injurious reference as significantly more arousing than controls. For emotional pictures, the NSSI group showed a significantly stronger brain response in the amygdala, hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally. Depression explained differences between groups in the limbic area. Furthermore, the NSSI group also showed increased activity in the middle orbitofrontal cortex, and inferior and middle frontal cortex when viewing NSSI picture material. Participants with NSSI showed decreased activity in correlation to arousal in the occipital cortex and to valence in inferior frontal cortex when watching emotional pictures. The fMRI data support the notion that individuals with NSSI show an altered neural pattern for emotional and NSSI pictures. Behavioural data highlight proneness to excitement regarding NSSI topics. This fMRI study provides evidence for emotion-regulation deficits in the developing brain of adolescents with NSSI.
Culvenor, A.G.; Boeth, H.; Diederichs, G.; Wirth, W.; Duda, G.; Eckstein, F.
Objectives: To explore changes in bone, muscle and adipose tissue composition in athletes with high physical activity levels at different stages of life. Methods: Thigh MRIs were acquired at baseline and 2-year follow-up for 20 young (16±1 years) and 20 mature (46±5 years) athletes (10 males, 10 females, respectively). Longitudinal changes in cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of femoral bone, quadriceps muscle, and thigh subcutaneous (SCF) and intermuscular (IMF) adipose tissue were evaluated. Results: Adolescent males displayed significant muscle (+5.0%, 95%CI: 0.8, 9.2) and bone growth (+2.9%, 95%CI: 1.3, 4.5), whereas adolescent females did not (muscle: +0.8%, 95%CI: -2.2, 3.8; bone: +1.9%, 95%CI: -2.1, 5.6). Adolescent and mature females showed significant SCF increases (+11.0%, 95%CI: 0.9, 21.1 and +6.0%, 95%CI: 0.6, 11.4, respectively), whereas adolescent and mature males did not (+7.2%, 95%CI: -8.0, 22.5 and +1.5%, 95%CI: -9.7, 11.8, respectively). Muscle and bone changes were highly correlated in adolescent males (r=0.66), mature males (r=0.75) and mature females (r=0.68) but not in adolescent females (r=-0.11). Conclusions: The results suggest sex-specific patterns of age-related change in bone, muscle and adipose tissue, and tight coupling of bone and muscle growth. Sex-specific bone-muscle-adipose tissue relationships may have implications for understanding sex differences in fracture risk. PMID:27609038
Prochaska, Judith J.; Rodgers, Miki W.; Sallis, James F.
Investigated the association between social support and adolescent physical activity when assessing physical activity using different methods and when separating social support into parent and peer support. Self-report and accelerometer data indicated that parent and peer support significantly correlated with physical activity. Perceived social…
Watson, Doris L.; Poczwaradowski, Artur; Eisenman, Pat
Describes adolescent girls' responses to an after-school physical activity program, examining how it functioned as a listening tool within a social marketing approach to promoting physical activity. Focus groups and interviews indicated that girls enjoyed and valued the program. Though the program did not increase girls' physical activity levels,…
Barros, Mauro V G; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Honda Barros, Simone Storino; Mota, Jorge; Andersen, Lars Bo
Studies show that both low physical activity (PA) and adiposity are associated with a higher risk of hypertension. However, the relationship between PA and blood pressure in adolescents is controversial and other studies have reported that no association was observed. Of particular interest is the evaluation of whether the association between PA and high blood pressure is independent of adiposity. A sample of 3764 Brazilian adolescents who attend high schools was selected using random cluster sampling. Data were collected using the Global School-based Student Health Survey, anthropometry, and blood pressure readings. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 14.6% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 13.5-15.7), higher amongst males (20.0%; 95%CI 18.0-22.1) compared with females (10.9%; 95%CI 9.7-12.3). Sixty-six per cent of the adolescents were reported to be insufficiently active. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 12.8% (95%CI 11.0-14.7) amongst active compared with 15.4% (95%CI 14.0-16.9) amongst insufficiently active adolescents. The association between PA and high blood pressure was observed only amongst females after adjusting for waist circumference (odds ratio (OR) 1.67; 95%CI 1.21-2.31) and body mass index (OR 1.71; 95%CI 1.23-2.37). Notwithstanding levels of adiposity, higher PA levels are associated with a lower prevalence of high blood pressure amongst females, although not amongst males.
Wall, Melanie; Choo, Tse; Larson, Nicole; Van Riper, David; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Purpose Inadequate physical activity and obesity during adolescence are areas of public health concern. Questions exist about the role of neighborhoods in the etiology of these problems. This research addressed the relationships of perceived and objective reports of neighborhood crime to adolescent physical activity, screen media use, and BMI. Methods Socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (N=2,455, 53.4% female) from 20 urban, public middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota responded to a classroom survey in the EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) study. Body mass index (BMI) was measured by research staff. Participants’ mean age was 14.6 (SD=2.0); 82.7% represented racial/ethnic groups other than non-Hispanic white. Linear regressions examined associations between crime perceived by adolescents and crime reported to police and the outcomes of interest (BMI z-scores, physical activity, and screen time). Models were stratified by gender and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school. Results BMI was positively associated with perceived crime among girls and boys and with reported crime in girls. For girls, there was an association between higher perceived crime and increased screen time; for boys, between higher reported property crime and reduced physical activity. Perceived crime was associated with reported crime, both property and personal, in both genders. Conclusions Few prior studies of adolescents have studied the association between both perceived and reported crime and BMI. Community-based programs for youth should consider addressing adolescents’ safety concerns along with other perceived barriers to physical activity. Interventions targeting actual crime rates are also important. PMID:26206444
Background Sex trafficking has been a long-standing concern in Nepal. Very little has been achieved, however, in terms of actual reduction in the number of victims despite numerous anti-sex trafficking programs. This situation may be attributable to a lack of empirical evidence upon which to formulate anti-sexual trafficking interventions. This study aimed to assess sex trafficking-related knowledge, awareness and attitudes, and factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns among adolescent female students in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between August–September 2013 among 292 adolescent female students (>10 years old) using systematic random sampling from three high schools in Sindhupalchowk district, Nepal. As an initial step, descriptive analyses were employed to characterize the data and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and related attitudes. Results Seventy-six percent of sampled students reported that they were aware of sex trafficking and 94.6% indicated media (i.e., radio or television) as the primary sources of their knowledge. Fifty-one percent mentioned relatives/friends as mediators of sex trafficking, 60.4% reported promise for better jobs as the primary attraction behind sex trafficking, and 48.6% mentioned adolescent females as the most vulnerable group for sex trafficking. Over half (56.8%) of the respondents had positive attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns. Age (OR = 3.38, 95% CI:2.51–4.55), parents’ occupation (OR = 3.89, 95% CI:1.58–9.58), and having a radio/TV at home (OR = 6.67, 95% CI:3.99–9.54) were significantly associated with awareness, whereas being younger (OR = 0.67, 95% CI:0.55–0.79) and having joint-family (OR = 2.67, 95% CI:1.49–4.80) were significantly associated with
Tayyem, R F; Al-Hazzaa, H M; Abu-Mweis, S S; Bawadi, H A; Hammad, S S; Musaiger, A O
The present study examined differences in dietary habits and physical activity levels between students attending private and public high schools in Jordan. A total of 386 secondary-school males and 349 females aged 14-18 years were randomly recruited using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling technique. Dietary habits and physical activity level were self-reported in a validated questionnaire. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among adolescents in private (26.0%) than in public schools (16.7%). The frequency of breakfast intake was significantly higher among adolescents in private schools, whereas French fries and sweets intake was significantly higher in public schools. Television viewing showed a significant interaction with school type by sex. A higher rate of inactivity was found among students attending private schools. Despite a slightly better overall dietary profile for students in private schools, they had a higher rate of overweight and obesity compared with those in public schools.
Woodson, Kamilah M; Hives, Courtney; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy
Juvenile crime and violent victimization continue to be significant social problems (Fitzpatrick, Piko, Wright, & LaGory, 2005); in that, adolescents, females in particular, are likely to participate in health related risk behaviors as result of having been victimized or exposed to a violent environment. Specifically, abuse, neglect, sexual molestation, poverty, and witnessing violence are well known risk factors for the development of trauma-related psychopathology and poor outcomes relative to delinquency, drug and alcohol abuse, and HIV risk behaviors (Steiner, Garcia, & Matthews, 1997). HIV infection is a common public health concern disproportionally affecting adolescent African American female detainees. This unique population has a serious history of violence exposure, which subsequently tends to lead to engaging in risky sexual behaviors, mental health problems, and abusing substances. Also, as a result of little to no intervention, this population is recidivating at an alarming rate, a problem that may further exacerbate the expression of health-related risk behaviors among African American adolescent female detainees. The authors briefly describe a pilot program to be implemented in the juvenile justice system that is based on the Model of Accumulated Risk (Garbarino, 1996), Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model (1994), and the Positive Youth Justice Model (Butts, Bazemore, & Meroe, 2009). The program proposes to reduce risky sexual behaviors, teach alternatives to abusing substances, treat mental health concerns, and reduce the rate of recidivism through "positive youth development", PYD (Butts, Bazemore, & Meroe, 2009). Tying elements of wraparound services and reeducation together, this program addresses salient concerns that may have an impact on an adolescent detainees' success following their release from prison in a holistic manner.
Robinson, Alyssa I.; Carnes, Fei
Adolescents do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Crime is believed to be a barrier to physical activity among youth, but findings are inconsistent. This study compares the spatial distribution of crime incidences and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among adolescents in Massachusetts between 2011 and 2012, and examines the correlation between crime and MVPA. Eighty adolescents provided objective physical activity (accelerometer) and location (Global Positioning Systems) data. Crime report data were obtained from the city police department. Data were mapped using geographic information systems, and crime and MVPA densities were calculated using kernel density estimations. Spearman’s correlation tested for associations between crime and MVPA. Overall, 1,694 reported crimes and 16,702 minutes of MVPA were included in analyses. A strong positive correlation was present between crime and adolescent MVPA (ρ=0.72, p<0.0001). Crime remained positively associated with MVPA in locations falling within the lowest quartile (ρ=0.43, p<0.0001) and highest quartile (ρ=0.32, p<0.0001) of crime density. This study found a strong positive association between crime and adolescent MVPA, despite research suggesting the opposite relationship. This counterintuitive finding may be explained by the logic of a common destination: neighborhood spaces which are desirable destinations and promote physical activity may likewise attract crime. PMID:26820115
Negriff, Sonya; Elizabeth, J. Susman; Trickett, Penelope K.
There is strong evidence that early pubertal timing is associated with adolescent problem behaviors. However, there has been limited investigation of the mechanisms or developmental relationships. The present study examined longitudinal models incorporating pubertal timing, delinquency, and sexual activity in a sample of 454 adolescents (9–13 years old at enrollment; 47% females). Participants were seen for three assessments approximately 1 year apart. Characteristics of friendship networks (older friends, male friends, older male friends) were examined as mediators. Structural equation modeling was used to test these associations as well as temporal relationships between sexual activity and delinquency. Results showed that early pubertal timing at Time 1 was related to more sexual activity at Time 2, which was related to higher delinquency at Time 3, a trend mediation effect. None of the friendship variables mediated these associations. Gender or maltreatment status did not moderate the meditational pathways. The results also supported the temporal sequence of sexual activity preceding increases in delinquency. These findings reveal that early maturing adolescents may actively seek out opportunities to engage in sexual activity which appears to be risk for subsequent delinquency. PMID:21191640
McCabe, Kira O; Modecki, Kathryn L; Barber, Bonnie L
Adolescents are at a significant risk for binge drinking and illicit drug use. One way to protect against these behaviors is through participation in extracurricular activities. However, there is a debate about whether highly conscientious adolescents are more likely to participate in activities, which raises the concern of a confound. To disentangle these relationships, we tested the latent trajectories of substance use and personality across 3 years, with participation in activities and sports as time-varying predictors. We surveyed 687 adolescents (55 % female, 85.4 % Caucasian) in Western Australia schools across 3 years. At Time 1, the students were in Year 10 1 (mean age 15 years). The results showed that participation in activities and conscientiousness are related, but each uniquely predicts slower growth in substance use. Across waves, participation in activities predicted less risky substance use a year later, over and above conscientiousness development. These results suggest that there may be unique benefits of participation in activities that protect against risky substance use.
da Silva, Jaqueline Aragoni; da Silva, Kelly Samara; Lopes, Adair da Silva; Nahas, Markus Vinícius
Abstract Objective: Verify the prevalence and sociodemographic and economic factors associated with behavior change stages for habitual physical activity practice in adolescents from Santa Catarina. Methods: Secondary analysis of a study on the Behavior of Adolescents from Santa Catarina (CompAC 2). Cross-sectional school-based study of 6,529 high-school students (males, n=2,903) from the state of Santa Catarina public education system in 2011, aged 15 to 19 years. Multinomial logistic regression (crude and adjusted) was used to measure the association. Results: The highest and lowest prevalence rates were found in the maintenance (43.9%) and precontemplation stages (7.0%), respectively. The stages of action, preparation and contemplation showed similar results: 16.2%; 17.0% and 15.6%; respectively. Male adolescents show higher prevalence in the maintenance stage in relation to females and these show a higher prevalence in preparation, contemplation and precontemplation. All the assessed variables (gender, age, area of residence, employment status, family income, maternal education and school grade), with the exception of school shift, were associated with at least one of the stages. Conclusions: A large proportion of adolescents are in the pre-adoption stages and most of these have the intention to start regular physical activity. With the exception of school shift, the assessed variables were associated with stages in different ways, showing different profiles in relation to sociodemographic and economic characteristics in each subgroup. PMID:27181341
Berger, David F; Lombardo, John P; Peck, Joshua A; Faraone, Stephen V; Middleton, Frank A; Youngetob, Steven L
Two studies of variables affecting voluntary ethanol consumption by adolescent male and female rats are reported. Sprague-Dawley (SD) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were compared in Experiment 1. Starting on postnatal day 30 all had 24-h access to 2%, then 4%, and then 6% ethanol, followed by 1-h access to the 6% until intake stabilized. During the 1-h access SHR females consumed more ethanol than all other groups. In Experiment 2, the same procedure was used to compare SD groups prenatally exposed to nicotine, with controls. Nicotine-exposed females consumed more ethanol during 1-h access than both nicotine-exposed and control males; but after using water intake as a covariate, the differences were not significant. These data show that deprivation conditions need to be considered when generalizing the results of voluntary consumption studies, and that estrogens may be a modulator of addictive behavior.
Oliveira, Ana Ca; Pereira, Maria Cs; Santana, Luana N da Silva; Fernandes, Rafael M; Teixeira, Francisco B; Oliveira, Gedeão B; Fernandes, Luanna Mp; Fontes-Júnior, Enéas A; Prediger, Rui D; Crespo-López, Maria E; Gomes-Leal, Walace; Lima, Rafael R; Maia, Cristiane do Socorro Ferraz
There is increasing evidence that heavy ethanol exposure in early life may produce long-lasting neurobehavioral consequences, since brain structural maturation continues until adolescence. It is well established that females are more susceptible to alcohol-induced neurotoxicity and that ethanol consumption is increasing among women, especially during adolescence. In the present study, we investigated whether chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats may induce hippocampal histological damage and neurobehavioral impairments. Female rats were treated with distilled water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) by gavage from the 35(th)-90(th) day of life. Ethanol-exposed animals displayed reduced exploration of the central area and increased number of fecal boluses in the open field test indicative of anxiogenic responses. Moreover, chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence induced marked impairments on short-term memory of female rats addressed on social recognition and step-down inhibitory avoidance tasks. These neurobehavioral deficits induced by ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood were accompanied by the reduction of hippocampal formation volume as well as the loss of neurons, astrocytes and microglia cells in the hippocampus. These results indicate that chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats induces long-lasting emotional and memory deficits associated with morphological and molecular alterations in the hippocampus.
Starkoff, Brooke E.; Petosa, Rick L.; Balk, Elizabeth K.; Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Bonny, Andrea E.; Hoffman, Robert P.; Devor, Steven T.
Background: The independent association between sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) is such that, regardless of accumulated PA, high amounts of SB are detrimental to health, even in adolescents. Purpose: Our aim was to profile activity patterns in free-living environments and to measure levels of SB and light (LT) and moderate (MOD)…
Despite the high prevalence of childhood obesity among U.S. Hispanic children and adolescents, quantitative, objective data on their patterns and levels of physical activity are scarce. Our objectives were: 1) To describe qualitatively the types of physical activities in which nonoverweight and over...
Kirby, Joanna; Levin, Kate A.; Inchley, Jo
This paper explores school sports facility provision, physical education allocation and opportunities for physical activity and their association with the number of days adolescent girls participate in at least 60 min of moderate-vigorous physical activity per week (MVPAdays). Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires from…
Time perspective is a cultural behavioral concept that reflects individuals' orientations or attitudes toward the past, present, or future. Individuals' time perspectives influence their choices regarding daily activities. Time perspective is an important consideration when teaching adolescents about the importance of being physically active.…
Maher, Carol A.; Williams, Marie T.; Olds, Tim; Lane, Alison E.
Participation in regular physical activity (PA) provides health, psychological, and physiological benefits for people with and without a physical disability. This study investigated the physical and sedentary activity patterns of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). A cross-sectional, descriptive, postal survey was used, consisting of the…
Moeller, James L.; Rifat, Sami F.
Spondylolysis is a common cause of back pain in active adolescents. For prolonged pain, an aggressive workup and specific diagnosis are needed. History and physical exam findings are not diagnostic. Tests beyond radiographs (computed tomography, bone scans, and magnetic resonance imaging) are necessary to determine metabolic activity and full…
Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.; McArthur, Sherell A.
Identity formation is a critical process shaping the lives of adolescents and can present distinct challenges for Black adolescent girls who are positioned in society to negotiate ideals of self when presented with false and incomplete images representing Black girlhood. Researchers have found distorted images of Black femininity derived from…
Hays, Danica G.; Forman, Julia; Sikes, April
Approximately 75% of young people report being involved in dating relationships by the eighth grade (Centers for Disease Control [CDC], 2005). This indicates a significant need to understand how adolescents conceptualize dating relationships. More specifically, there is minimal literature on how adolescents define healthy and unhealthy…
Wherry, Jeffrey N.; And Others
Differences in family trauma, stressors, and dysfunction among adolescent psychiatric inpatients grouped by sexual abuse self-reports were investigated. Family trauma/dysfunction was determined from a composite score derived from the Traumatic Antecedents Scale. The results indicated that sexually abused adolescents reported more family…
Smith, Chad E.; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn; Lieberth, Ann
Adolescent health and health literacy are critical health topics recognized in Healthy People 2020. Evidence indicates that adolescents who are d/Deaf have unique health-related needs, yet health communication efforts have not reached them. Despite the Internet's exponential growth and the growth of online health information-seeking behavior among…
Dubb, Christina Rose
This article compares the first-person narratives of two adolescent girls in the novels "The Rain Catchers" and "The House on Mango Street". I propose that adolescent girls can use literacy to read the world around them as a text and therefore help them to form their own identities enough to ultimately find authority in telling their own stories.…
Huh, David; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Boutelle, Kerri
Despite substantial increases in the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity documented in recent decades, few studies have prospectively tracked their development during the entire adolescent period. The aims of this study were to characterize developmental trends in prevalence, incidence, and remission of overweight and obesity using…
McCoy, Stephanie M.; Jakicic, John M.; Barone Gibbs, Bethany
Body mass index classification, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behaviors were compared in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to typically developing adolescents. Participants included 42,747 adolescents (ASD, n = 915) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. After controlling for covariates, adolescents were…
Jeffries, Renee M.; Inge, Thomas H.; Jenkins, Todd M; King, Wendy; Oruc, Vedran; Douglas, Andrew D.
Background The accuracy of physical activity (PA) monitors to discriminate between PA, sedentary behavior, and non-wear in extremely obese (EO) adolescents is unknown. Methods Twenty-five subjects (9 male/16 female; age=16.5±2.0 y; BMI=51±8 kg/m2) wore three activity monitors (StepWatch [SAM], Actical [AC], Actiheart [AH]) during a 400 meter walk test (400MWT), two standardized PA bouts of varying duration, and one sedentary bout. Results For the 400MWT, percent error between observed and monitor recorded steps was 5.5±7.1% and 82.1±38.6% for the SAM and AC steps, respectively (observed vs. SAM steps: −17.2±22.2 steps; observed vs. AC steps: −264.5±124.8 steps). All activity monitors were able to differentiate between PA and sedentary bouts but only SAM steps and AH heart rate were significantly different between sedentary behavior and non-wear (p<0.001). For all monitors, sedentary behavior was characterized by bouts of zero steps/counts punctuated by intermittent activity steps/counts; non-wear was represented almost exclusively by zero steps/counts. Conclusion Of all monitors tested, the SAM was most accurate in terms of counting steps and differentiating levels of PA, and thus, most appropriate for EO adolescents. The ability to accurately characterize PA intensity in EO adolescents critically depends on activity monitor selection. PMID:25205688
Jamison, T. Rene; Schuttler, Jessica Oeth
A majority of social skills research in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and interventions target school age males and no published studies target adolescent females with ASD or related disabilities. Females with ASD are at risk for internalizing symptoms, and experience greater challenges in socialization and communication as social demands become…
Chen-Yu, Jessie H.; Seock, Yoo-Kyoung
Male (n=69) and female (n=68) adolescents spent similar amounts on clothing with similar conformity, sexual attractiveness, and recognition motivations. Females shopped significantly more often and were more influenced by friends and magazines. There were significant differences between impulse buyers and others in shopping frequency, expenditure,…
Tercier, Stéphane; Gojanovic, Boris; Depallens, Sarah; Vust, Sophie; Ambresin, Emmanuelle
Benefits of physical activity during adolescence have widely been demonstrated. Yet, raising awareness among young athletes and their surrounding about risks associated with too early specialization or energy deficit--with or without eating disorder--is of outmost importance. Such behaviours can affect adolescents' physical or psychological development as well as compromise their athletic career not to mention the potential negative impact on their athletic performance. Primary care practitioners play an important role in early detection and prevention of overuse injuries as well as psychological distress associated with intense physical activity. Such situations need the intervention of an interdisciplinary team in order to prevent long-term complications.
Background Adolescent participation in leisure activities is developmentally beneficial, but certain activities may increase health compromising behaviours, such as tobacco smoking. A limited range of leisure activities has been studied, with little research on out-of-school settings where parental supervision is a potential protective factor. Tobacco smoking is an important, potentially modifiable health determinant, so understanding associations between adolescent leisure activities, parental monitoring, demographic factors and daily smoking may inform preventive strategies. These associations are reported for a New Zealand adolescent sample. Methods Randomly selected schools (n = 145) participated in the 2006 Youth In-depth Survey, a national, biennial study of Year 10 students (predominantly 14-15 years). School classes were randomly selected and students completed a self-report questionnaire in class time. Adjustment for clustering at the school level was included in all analyses. Since parental monitoring and demographic variables potentially confound relations between adolescent leisure activities and smoking, variables were screened before multivariable modelling. Given prior indications of demographic differences, gender and ethnic specific regression models were built. Results and Discussion Overall, 8.5% of the 3,161 students were daily smokers, including more females (10.5%) than males (6.5%). In gender and ethnic specific multivariate analysis of associations with daily smoking (adjusted for age, school socioeconomic decile rating, leisure activities and ethnicity or gender, respectively), parental monitoring exhibited a consistently protective, dose response effect, although less strongly among Māori. Attending a place of worship and going to the movies were protective for non-Māori, as was watching sports, whereas playing team sport was protective for all, except males. Attending a skate park was a risk factor for females and Māori which
Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.; Armstrong, Kay; Rossi, Joseph S.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Sun, Xiaowu; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Yin, Hui-Qing; Coviello, Donna; Evers, Kerry; Velicer, Wayne F.
Smoking and sexual risk behaviors in urban adolescent females are prevalent and problematic. Family planning clinics reach those who are at most risk. This randomized effectiveness trial evaluated a transtheoretical model (TTM)-tailored intervention to increase condom use and decrease smoking. At baseline, a total of 828 14- to 17-year-old females were recruited and randomized within four urban family planning clinics. Participants received TTM or standard care (SC) computerized feedback and stage-targeted or SC counseling at baseline, 3, 6 and 9 months. Blinded follow-up telephone surveys were conducted at 12 and 18 months. Analyses revealed significantly more consistent condom use in the TTM compared with the SC group at 6 and 12, but not at 18 months. In baseline consistent condom users (40%), significantly less relapse was found in the TTM compared with the SC group at 6 and 12, but not at 18 months. No significant effects for smoking prevention or cessation were found, although cessation rates matched those found previously. This TTM-tailored intervention demonstrated effectiveness for increasing consistent condom use at 6 and 12 months, but not at 18 months, in urban adolescent females. This intervention, if replicated, could be disseminated to promote consistent condom use and additional health behaviors in youth at risk. PMID:24794584
Chan, Kara; Ng, Yu-Leung; Prendergast, Gerard
A study was conducted to examine how interpersonal norms, media norms, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy had an influence on healthy eating intention among adolescents. A probability sample of 544 adolescents aged 12 to 18 was conducted. Results indicated that girls had a more favorable attitude and intention toward healthy eating than boys. Healthy eating intention among boys was predicted by attitude, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy, and among girls was predicted by perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Different marketing strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescent boys and girls should be adopted.
Linares, Lourdes Oriana; Shankar, Viswanathan; Diaz, Angela; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Strickler, Howard D.; Peake, Ken; Weiss, Jocelyn; Burk, Robert D.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.
Objective This study investigated the association of cervical Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection with cumulative psychosocial risk reflecting family disadvantage, psychological distress, and unhealthy life style. Methods The sample (N=745) was comprised of sexually-active female adolescent patients (12-19 years), primarily ethnic minorities, enrolled in a free HPV vaccination program. Subjects completed questionnaires and provided cervical swabs for HPV DNA testing. Unweighted and weighted Principal Component Analyses (PCA) for categorical data were used to derive multi-systemic psychosocial risk indices using nine indicators: low socioeconomic status, lack of adult involvement, not attending high-school/college, history of treatment for depression/anxiety, antisocial/delinquent behavior, number of recent sexual partners, use of alcohol, use of drugs, and dependency risk for alcohol/drugs. The association between cervical HPV (any-type, high risk-types, vaccine-types) assayed by polymerase chain reaction and self-reported number of psychosocial risk indicators was estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Results Subjects had a median of three psychosocial risk indicators. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed associations with unweighted and weighted number of psychosocial indicators for HPV any-type (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.2 ); with the strongest associations between weighted drug/alcohol use, drug/alcohol dependency risk, and antisocial/delinquent behavior and detection of HPV vaccine-types (aOR=1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.0) independent of number of recent sexual partners and vaccine dose (0-3). Conclusion Increased HPV infections including HPV vaccine-types were associated with greater number of psychosocial risk indicators even after controlling for demographics, sexual behavior, history of chlamydia, and vaccine dose. PMID:25985216
Doi, Suhail; Clavarino, Alexandra
Adolescent obesity and depression are increasingly prevalent and are currently recognised as major public health concerns worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the bi-directional associations between obesity and depression in adolescents using longitudinal studies. A systematic literature search was conducted using Pubmed (including Medline), PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL, BIOSIS Preview and the Cochrane Library databases. According to the inclusion criteria, 13 studies were found where seven studies evaluated depression leading to obesity and six other studies examined obesity leading to depression. Using a bias-adjusted quality effects model for the meta-analysis, we found that adolescents who were depressed had a 70% (RR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.40, 2.07) increased risk of being obese, conversely obese adolescents had an increased risk of 40% (RR 1.40, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.70) of being depressed. The risk difference (RD) of early adolescent depression leading to obesity is 3% higher risk than it is for obesity leading to depression. In sensitivity analysis, the association between depression leading to obesity was greater than that of obesity leading to depression for females in early adulthood compared with females in late adolescence. Overall, the findings of this study suggest a bi-directional association between depression and obesity that was stronger for female adolescents. However, this finding also underscores the importance of early detection and treatment strategies to inhibit the development of reciprocal disorders. PMID:27285386
Barha, Cindy K; Brummelte, Susanne; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M
Previous studies have shown a relationship between adversity in adolescence and health outcomes in adulthood in a sex-specific manner. Adolescence is characterized by major changes in stress-responsive regions of the brain, including the hippocampus, the site of ongoing neurogenesis throughout the lifespan. Prepubertal male and female rats exhibit different acute reactions to chronic stress compared to adults, but less is known about whether these stress-induced changes persist into adulthood. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of chronic, intermittent stress during adolescence on basal corticosterone levels, dentate gyrus (DG) volume, and neurogenesis in the hippocampus of adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Adolescent male and female rats were either restrained for 1 h every other day for 3 weeks from postnatal days (PDs) 30-52 at unpredictable times or left undisturbed. All rats received a single injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU; 200 mg/kg) in adulthood on PD70 and were perfused 3 weeks later. Brains were processed for Ki67 (endogenous marker of cell proliferation) and BrdU (to estimate effects on cell survival). In addition, blood samples were taken during the restraint stress period and in adulthood. Results show that males and females exhibit different corticosterone responses to chronic stress during adolescence and that only adult female rats exposed to stress during adolescence show higher basal corticosterone levels compared to nonstressed controls. Furthermore, stressed females showed a reduced number of proliferating and surviving cells in the DG in adulthood compared to nonstressed same-sex controls. The majority of BrdU-labeled cells were co-labeled with NeuN, an endogenous marker of mature neurons, indicating that neurogenesis was decreased in the DG of adult female rats that had undergone chronic restraint stress in adolescence. Although male rats were more responsive to the chronic stress as adolescents showing higher
Serrano-Sanchez, Jose A.; Martí-Trujillo, Sara; Lera-Navarro, Angela; Dorado-García, Cecilia; González-Henríquez, Juan J.; Sanchís-Moysi, Joaquín
Background Excessive time in front of a single or several screens could explain a displacement of physical activity. The present study aimed at determining whether screen-time is associated with a reduced level of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in Spanish adolescents living in favorable environmental conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was used to select 3503 adolescents (12–18 years old) from the school population of Gran Canaria, Spain. MVPA, screen-time in front of television, computer, video game console and portable console was assessed in the classroom by fulfilling a standardized questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted by a set of social-environmental variables were carried out. Forty-six percent of girls (95% CI±2.3%) and 26% of boys (95% CI±2.1%) did not meet the MVPA recommendations for adolescents. Major gender differences were observed in the time devoted to vigorous PA, video games and the total time spent on screen-based activities. Boys who reported 4 hours•week−1 or more to total screen-time showed a 64% (OR = 0.61, 95% CI, 0.44–0.86) increased risk of failing to achieve the recommended adolescent MVPA level. Participation in organized physical activities and sports competitions were more strongly associated with MVPA than screen-related behaviors. Conclusions/Significance No single screen-related behavior explained the reduction of MVPA in adolescents. However, the total time accumulated through several screen-related behaviors was negatively associated with MVPA level in boys. This association could be due to lower availability of time for exercise as the time devoted to sedentary screen-time activities increases. Participation in organized physical activities seems to counteract the negative impact of excessive time in front of screens on physical activity. PMID:21909435
Prisco, D; Fedi, S; Brunelli, T; Chiarugi, L; Lombardi, A; Gianni, R; Santoro, E; Cappelletti, C; Pepe, G; Gensini, G F; Abbate, R
The early onset of atherosclerosis and the involvement of physiological biochemical, and environmental factors in its pathogenesis is well documented. Few data are available on the role of risk factors related to hemostasis in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the young and, in particular, little information is available on adolescent populations. In the Study of Preventive Medicine and Education Program (Floren-teen Study), von Willebrand factor, a risk factor for cardiovascular disorder, was studied, together with classical cardiovascular risk factors, in apparently healthy students from two high schools in Florence. Familial and personal history, physical examination, and cardiovascular risk factors were evaluated in 144 students (aged 17-19 years). Blood was withdrawn to assess von Willebrand factor (ELISA) and lipid parameters. Levels of von Willebrand factor were significantly higher (P<0.044) in smokers than in nonsmokers and were correlated with the number of cigarettes per day in the whole group (P=0.01) and in females (P=0.006). In females a positive correlation was observed between von Willebrand factor and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.0365). There was no significant correlation between von Willebrand factor and blood pressure or between von Willebrand factor and physical activity. In conclusion, this study shows an association between levels of von Willebrand factor and smoking habits and is the first show that even a brief period of smoking affects levels of von Willebrand factor in healthy adolescent females independently of other risk factors. These results stress the relevance of extending prevention programs to reduce smoking in high school students.
Eime, R M; Payne, W R; Casey, M M; Harvey, J T
Physical activity (PA) is important for lifelong health; however, participation is lower in rural compared with metropolitan areas and declines during adolescence, particularly for girls. It is likely that this decline is related to the number of life transitions that occur during adolescence. This qualitative study examined the views of active rural living girls regarding the factors affecting their sport and PA participation, using the socioecological model. Twenty-seven girls aged 16-17 from four schools participated in semi-structured focus group discussions. Content and thematic analysis was conducted from verbatim transcripts using NVivo. The girls enjoyed involvement in community club sport with friends and they reported living in communities where participation in sport was a major form of social interaction. However, the desire to succeed educationally was a critical factor affecting their participation in sport and PA and influenced their movement from structured club sport to more flexible, but socially isolated individual activities. It is recommended that future longitudinal research should track rural living adolescent females as they complete secondary school, in order to better understand the influence of educational priorities upon sport and PA participation and to identify practical strategies for both schools and community organizations to foster continuing participation throughout this crucial period of life transition.
Perry, Cynthia K.; Garside, Hailey; Morones, Sandra; Hayman, Laura L.
Many factors contribute to the decline in physical activity (PA) observed during adolescence. We used an ecological framework to review 30 publications of PA interventions published between 1977 and 2009 targeting youth aged 12-18 years (19 PA interventions). We included studies that measured a primary outcome of PA and also examined intervening…
Bohnert, Amy M.; Garber, Judy
This longitudinal study examined psychopathology as a predictor and outcome of organized activity involvement during high school among 198 adolescents who varied in risk for psychopathology as a function of their mother's depression history. Higher levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in eighth grade significantly predicted lower…
Feasibility trials assess whether a behavior change program warrants a definite trial evaluation. This paper reports the feasibility of an intervention consisting of Self Determination Theory-informed text messages, pedometers, and goal prompts to increase adolescent physical activity. A 4-group ran...
Royer, Heather R.; Keller, Mary L.; Heidrich, Susan M.
The purpose of this article is to describe young adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationships, ratings of important romantic partner characteristics, and acceptability of sexual activity with romantic relationships. Fifty-seven eighth-grade participants (average age = 13.8 years) from one urban US public middle school completed an anonymous…
Case, Kathleen R.; Pérez, Adriana; Saxton, Debra L.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Springer, Andrew E.
This study examined the association between having been bullied at school during the past 6 months ("bullied status") and not meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations of 60 minutes of daily PA during the past week among 8th- and 11th-grade Texas adolescents. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine this…
Mendonça, Gerfeson; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Mélo, Edilânea Nunes; de Farias, José Cazuza, Jr.
The objective of this review was to systematically synthesize the results of original studies on the association between physical activity and social support in adolescents, published until April 2011. Searches were carried out in Adolec, ERIC, Lilacs, Medline, SciELO, Scopus, SportsDiscus and Web of Science electronic databases and the reference…
Trainor, Sarah; Delfabbro, Paul; Anderson, Sarah; Winefield, Anthony
We examined the validity of the reported link between well-being and leisure participation in adolescents. Nine hundred and forty-seven, Year 10 students from 19 schools in Adelaide, South Australia, were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning participation in social, non-social and unstructured leisure activities as well as…
Pace, Ugo; Cacioppo, Marco; Schimmenti, Adriano
The present study examined the association between quality of attachment, perception of the father's bond, and binge eating symptoms in a sample of female late adolescents. In total, 233 female students aged between 18 and 20 years completed measures on binge eating, quality of attachment and parent-child relationship. Data showed that respondents with binge symptoms reported lower scores on secure attachment and father's care, and higher scores on preoccupied and fearful attachment. Binge eating symptoms were associated with father's care, but not with father's overprotection. Also, binge symptoms were negatively associated with secure attachment styles, and positively with preoccupied and fearful attachment. The data, finally, provided evidence that at higher levels of preoccupied attachment, the impact of binge symptoms tended to be lower when father's care was high.
Lee, Nolan C.; Voss, Christine; Frazer, Amanda D.; Hirsch, Jana A.; McKay, Heather A.; Winters, Meghan
Background Physical activity (PA) is closely linked with child and youth health, and active travel may be a solution to enhancing PA levels. Activity spaces depict the geographic coverage of one's travel. Little is known about activity spaces and PA in adolescents. Objective To explore the relation between adolescent travel (using a spatial measure of activity space size) and daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), with a focus on school days. Methods We used Global Positioning Systems to manually identify trips and generate activity spaces for each person-day; quantified by area for 39 students (13.8 ± 0.6 years, 38% female) attending high school in urban Downtown Vancouver, Canada. We assessed the association between activity space area and MVPA using multi-level regression. We calculated total, school-day and trip-based MVPA for each valid person-day (accelerometry; ≥ 600 min wear time). Results On school days, students accrued 68.2 min/day (95% CI 60.4–76.0) of MVPA. Daily activity spaces averaged 2.2 km2 (95% CI 1.3–3.0). There was no association between activity space size and school-day MVPA. Students accrued 21.8 min/day (95% CI 19.2–24.4) of MVPA during school hours, 19.4 min/day (95% CI 15.1–23.7) during travel, and 28.3 min/day (95% CI 22.3–34.3) elsewhere. Conclusion School and school travel are important sources of PA in Vancouver adolescents, irrespective of activity space area covered. PMID:26807349
Ehrlich, David E.; Neigh, Gretchen N.; Bourke, Chase H.; Nemeth, Christina L.; Hazra, Rimi; Ryan, Steven J.; Rowson, Sydney; Jairam, Nesha; Sholar, Courtney; Rainnie, Donald G.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Owens, Michael J.
Depression during pregnancy has been linked to in utero stress and is associated with long-lasting symptoms in offspring, including anxiety, helplessness, attentional deficits, and social withdrawal. Depression is diagnosed in 10-20% of expectant mothers, but the impact of antidepressant treatment on offspring development is not well documented, particularly for females. Here, we used a prenatal stress model of maternal depression to test the hypothesis that in utero antidepressant treatment could mitigate the effects of prenatal stress. We also investigated the effects of prenatal stress and antidepressant treatment on gene expression related to GABAergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the amygdala, which may underlie behavioral effects of prenatal stress. Nulliparous female rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps delivering clinically-relevant concentrations of escitalopram and mated. Pregnant dams were exposed to 12 days of mixed-modality stressors, and offspring were behaviorally assessed in adolescence (postnatal day 28) and adulthood (beyond day 90) to determine the extent of behavioral change. We found that in utero stress exposure, regardless of escitalopram treatment, increased anxiety-like behavior in adolescent females and profoundly influenced amygdala expression of the chloride transporters KCC2 and NKCC1, which regulate GABAergic function. In contrast, prenatal escitalopram exposure alone elevated amygdala expression of 5-HT1A receptors. In adulthood, anxiety-like behavior returned to baseline and gene expression effects in the amygdala abated, whereas deficits emerged in novel object recognition for rats exposed to stress during gestation. These findings suggest prenatal stress causes age-dependent deficits in anxiety-like behavior and amygdala function in female offspring, regardless of antidepressant exposure. PMID:26032436
Graham, Dan J.; Schneider, Margaret; Cooper, Dan M.
Purpose To determine whether amount of TV watched by participants enrolled in a physical activity intervention mediates or moderates program effectiveness Design Nine-month controlled school-based physical activity intervention Setting Public high school Participants One hundred twenty two sedentary adolescent females (mean age = 15.04 ± 0.79 years) Intervention Supervised in-class exercise, health education, and internet-based self-monitoring Measures Physical Activity - 3 Day Physical Activity Recall; Television Viewing – self-report; Cardiovascular Fitness – Cycle Ergometer Analysis T-tests were conducted to examine between-group differences. Linear regression equations tested the mediating and/or moderating role of television watching relative to the intervention. Results TV viewing moderated the intervention’s effect on vigorous activity; the intervention significantly predicted physical activity among high (β = −.45; p <.001), but not low (p >.05), TV watchers. TV viewing did not mediate the intervention effect. Conclusions Consistent with displacement theory, adolescents who watched more television prior to the intervention showed post-intervention increases in vigorous physical activity and concomitant decreases in television viewing, whereas those who watched less TV showed no change in physical activity or television viewing. PMID:19004156
Bodson, Julia; Ding, Qian; Warner, Echo L; Hawkins, Amy J; Henry, Kevin A; Kepka, Deanna
Objectives We investigated the similarities and differences in the factors related to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of female adolescents in three sub-regions of the Intermountain West (IW). Methods We analyzed 2011-2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen data. Respondents (parents) who were living in the IW and who had daughters aged 13-17 years old with provider-verified immunization records were included in our analyses. East, Central, and West sub-regions were defined based on geographic contiguity and similarity in HPV vaccination rates and sociodemographic characteristics. Survey-weighted Chi square tests and multivariable Poisson regressions were performed. Results In all three sub-regions, older teen age and receipt of other recommended adolescent vaccinations were significantly associated with HPV vaccination. In the East sub-region, providers' facility type and source of vaccines were significantly related to HPV vaccination. In the Central sub-region, teens with married parents were significantly less likely to be vaccinated than were those with unmarried parents. In the West sub-region, non-Hispanic teens were significantly less likely to be vaccinated than were Hispanic teens. Conclusions for Practice In order to improve HPV vaccine coverage in the IW, region-wide efforts to target younger teens and to promote the HPV vaccine with other recommended adolescent vaccinations should be supplemented with sub-regional attention to the health care system (East sub-region), to married parents (Central sub-region), and to non-Hispanic teens (West sub-region).
Brawner, Bridgette M.; Volpe, Ellen M.; Stewart, Jennifer M.; Gomes, Melissa M.
Background Biobehavioural research methodology can be invasive and burdensome for participants—particularly adolescents with mental illnesses. Human biological researchers should consider how methodological impositions may hinder adolescent research participation. However, literature on adolescent’s voices and concerns toward biobehavioural research participation is virtually non-existent. Aim This study was designed to determine adolescents’ perceptions of participation in research involving the collection of biomarkers via blood, saliva and/or urine samples. Subjects and methods Urban adolescent females (aged 12–19) receiving outpatient mental health treatment (n = 37) participated in focus groups with concurrent survey administration to explore attitudes, beliefs and willingness/intentions toward biobehavioural research participation. Results Participants had favourable attitudes toward biobehavioural research and were amenable to provide each specimen type. Mistrust for research emerged, however, and concerns related to privacy and confidentiality were expressed. Conclusion Participant recruitment is a critical component in study design and implementation; this includes knowledge of population-specific recruitment barriers and facilitators. This innovative paper provides a context for the research participants’ decision-making process, strategies to allay fears and concerns and concrete areas to target in research-related interventions. Although the findings are from a specific, US-based sample, the implications warrant replication of the research in other geosocial settings. PMID:23822716
Faisal-Cury, Alexandre; Tabb, Karen M; Niciunovas, Guilherme; Cunningham, Carrie; Menezes, Paulo R; Huang, Hsiang
Adolescent pregnancy has social, economic, and educational consequences and is also linked to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, studies show a positive relationship between pregnancy and increased social status among low-income adolescents. This study aims to assess the association between planned pregnancy and years of schooling among low-income Brazilian adolescents. This is a secondary analysis of a cohort study conducted from May 2005 to March 2007 in public primary care clinics in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants (n=168) completed a detailed structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between years of schooling and planned pregnancy. After adjusting for the covariates income, wealth score, crowding, age, marital status, and race, planned pregnancy was independently associated with lower years of education (odds ratio: 1.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.02–3.23). Although this finding may be related to these adolescents having less access to information and health services, another possible explanation is that they have a greater desire to have children during adolescence. PMID:28176946
Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C.
Background: Exposure to environmental phenols (e.g., bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, and triclosan) and parabens is widespread in the population. Many of these chemicals have been shown to have anti-androgenic effects both in vitro and in vivo. Objective: We examined the association of bisphenol A (BPA), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), triclosan (TCS), and parabens with serum total testosterone (TT) levels in child and adolescent participants (ages 6–19 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2012. Methods: We performed multivariable linear regression to estimate associations between natural log–transformed serum TT and quartiles of urinary BPA, BP-3, TCS, and parabens in male and female children (ages 6–11 years) and adolescents (ages 12–19 years). Results: BP-3 and BPA were associated with significantly lower TT in male adolescents, and BPA was associated with significantly higher TT in female adolescents. TT was not consistently associated with TCS or total parabens in children or adolescents of either sex. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association of both BP-3 and BPA with serum TT in adolescents. Associations between BPA and TT differed according to sex in adolescents, with inverse associations in boys and positive associations in girls. BP-3 was associated with significantly lower TT in adolescent boys only. However, because of the limitations inherent to the cross-sectional study design, further studies are needed to confirm and elucidate on our findings. Citation: Scinicariello F, Buser MC. 2016. Serum testosterone concentrations and urinary bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, triclosan, and paraben levels in male and female children and adolescents: NHANES 2011–2012. Environ Health Perspect 124:1898–1904; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP150 PMID:27383665
Ansari, Hourieh; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Hajigholami, Ali; Paknahad, Zamzam
Background: Osteoporosis is a serious public health. Since the majority of bone mass occurs during adolescence, primary prevention is important. Probably mother's participation in health education interventions leads to promote health behaviors in children. Aims: To assess a lifestyle modification intervention focused on mothers and students has an impact on osteoporosis preventive behaviors in adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: It is a randomized field trial in female high schools. 210 girls aged between 11 and 15 were randomly selected. Students in groups A and C and mothers in group B were selected Through the sampling frame. Our lifestyle modification was based on group based education in the public girls’ high schools. Subjects in the intervention groups participated in three educational sessions. Students’ osteoporosis preventive behaviors were measured by using a lifestyle questionnaire consisting of items assessing nutrition, physical activity and sun exposure. Repeated measure ANOVA at baseline, 4 week, 2 months and 6 months and were used to analyze the data. Results: After 1 month, diet and sun exposure scores increased significantly (P < 0.001) but it was higher in group B compared with group A. (About diet P < 0.001 and sun exposure = 0. 001). After 6 months, diet and sun exposure status in the group A approximately decreased to baseline, while in group B, diet components were significantly different compared to baseline (P < 0.001). There was no change in physical activity. Conclusion: Osteoporosis prevention intervention of adolescent can be effective when parents or girls participate in training sessions, but education is associated with better outcomes when focused on mothers. PMID:25422660
Berenbaum, S A
The goal of this study was to examine the relation of early androgen exposure to sex-typed activities and interests in adolescence. Participants aged 9-19 years included 24 girls and 18 boys with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and 16 unaffected sisters and 24 unaffected brothers who served as controls. Using standardized questionnaires, adolescents reported on their participation in sex-typed activities and interest in sex-typed occupations, and parents reported on the adolescents' activities. As hypothesized, girls with CAH showed sex-atypical preferences: increased interest in male-typical activities and careers and reduced interest in female-typical activities and careers compared to the unexposed control girls. These results extend findings of sex-atypical play in young girls with CAH and suggest that the sex-atypical activities and interests of females with CAH reflect direct effects of androgens on the developing brain rather than social responses to virilized genitalia. These results also suggest that population sex differences in activities and interests arise in part from sex differences in early androgens.
Rhea, Deborah J; Thatcher, W Gregory
The purpose of this study was two-fold: to determine the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem as dimensions of one's self-concept; and to determine if differences exist among one's ethnicity, ethnic identity, and/or self-esteem when examining at-risk eating disordered behaviors. A total of 893 urban adolescent females completed three behavioral subscales: the Eating Disorder Inventory, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, and Phinney's Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. As hypothesized, ethnic identity was significantly associated with self-esteem to form one's self-concept. When compared to Mexican American and White females, only Black females who were in the higher ethnic identity and self-esteem categories had significantly lower at-risk eating disordered scores. Our findings suggest eating disorder status in Mexican American and White females may not be associated as much with ethnic identity as with other acculturation and self-concept factors. Further, this study demonstrated ethnicity, self-esteem, and ethnic identity play significant roles in eating disorder risks.
Kuo, Melissa H.; Orsmond, Gael I.; Cohn, Ellen S.; Coster, Wendy J.
This study compared perceptions of adolescents' friendships between adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents, examined factors associated with friendship qualities, and investigated the adolescents' reports on the activities they did with friends and how activity patterns differed by gender. Ninety-one…
Lamm, C; Benson, B E; Guyer, A E; Perez-Edgar, K; Fox, N A; Pine, D S; Ernst, M
Adolescent risk-taking behavior has been associated with age-related changes in striatal activation to incentives. Previous cross-sectional studies have shown both increased and decreased striatal activation to incentives for adolescents compared to adults. The monetary incentive delay (MID) task, designed to assess functional brain activation in anticipation of reward, has been used extensively to examine striatal activation in both adult and adolescent populations. The current study used this task with a longitudinal approach across mid-adolescence and late adolescence/early adulthood. Twenty-two participants (13 male) were studied using the MID task at two time-points, once in mid-adolescence (mean age=16.11; SD=1.44) and a second time in late adolescence/early adulthood (mean age=20.14; SD=.67). Results revealed greater striatal activation with increased age in high- compared to low-incentive contexts (incentive magnitude), for gain as well as for loss trials (incentive valence). Results extend cross-sectional findings and show reduced striatal engagement in adolescence compared to adulthood during preparation for action in an incentive context.
White, James; Halliwell, Emma
There is substantial evidence that sociocultural pressures and body image disturbances can lead to disordered eating, yet few studies have examined their impact on excessive exercise. The study adapted a sociocultural model for disordered eating to predict excessive exercise using data from boys and girls in early adolescence (N=421). Perceived sociocultural pressures to lose weight and build muscle, body image disturbance and appearance investment were associated with a compulsive need to exercise. Adolescents' investment in appearance and body image disturbance fully mediated the relationship between sociocultural pressures and a compulsive need for exercise. There was no support for the meditational model in predicting adolescents' frequency or duration of exercise. Results support the sociocultural model as an explanatory model for excessive exercise, but suggest appearance investment and body image disturbance are important mediators of sociocultural pressures.
Miller, Kathleen E; Hoffman, Joseph H; Barnes, Grace M; Sabo, Don; Melnick, Merrill J; Farrell, Michael P
To test the comparative value of strain theory and problem behavior theory as explanations of adolescent anabolic steroid use, this study examined gender-specific relationships among steroid use, physical activity, and other problem behaviors. Based on the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of over 16,000 U.S. public and private high school students, binge drinking, cocaine use, fighting, and sexual risk-taking were associated with higher odds of lifetime steroid use. In gender-specific analyses, steroid use was strongly associated with female fighting and smokeless tobacco use as well as male sexual risk. Neither athletic participation nor strength conditioning predicted odds of steroid use after controlling for problem behaviors, nor did steroid-using athletes report more frequent use than steroid-using nonathletes. The study's limitations and policy implications were noted. These data suggest that other problem behaviors such as substance use, fighting, and sexual risk are better predictors of adolescent steroid use than physical activity. Interventions to prevent steroid use should not be limited to male participants in organized sports programs, but should also target adolescents identified as at risk for other problem behaviors.
A one-week sleep monitoring by logs and actigraphs in preteens during summer camp was conducted. Campers aged 11-16 attended a two-week day camp that focused on the learning about science. Nine campers agreed to monitor their sleep and have their patterns explained (anonymously) to other campers during the expert lecture by the author. The aim of the study was to identify the sleep quality in an adolescent group. All nine of the sleep logs and actigraphs denoted severe sleep deprivation. The findings from the logs and actigraphs denoted sever sleep deprivation. The expert lecturer provided basic information about sleep per the science designation of the day camp. A follow up session provided strategies to address sleep deprivation.
Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo
Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a) the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b) the relationship between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF) and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year) and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year) players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min-1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), sit-and-reach test (SAR), handgrip strength test (HST) and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ). Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28) of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7) of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (χ2 = 4.90, P = 0.027). BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P < 0.001 in girls; r = 0.75, P < 0.001 in women). Normal participants had superior certain physical and physiological characteristics than those who were overweight. For instance, normal girls and women had higher mean power during WAnT than their overweight counterparts (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009 respectively). Except for flexibility, BMI and BF were inversely related with physical fitness (e.g., BMI vs. HST r = -0.39, P < 0.001 in girls; BF vs. CVJ r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women). Conclusion: The findings confirmed the negative effect of overweight and fatness on selected parameters of physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight in adolescent volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs. PMID:23900100
Hirth, Jacqueline M; Rahman, Mahbubur; Smith, Jennifer S; Berenson, Abbey B
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake among 18–26 y old women varies by geographic region in the US. However, little is known about regional variations in vaccination among girls who are in the vaccine's targeted age groups. Regional variation in HPV vaccination among female adolescents (9–17 y old) was examined using cross-sectional data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) between 2008 and 2010. Multivariable logistic regression estimated the association of region of residence (10 states included questions about adolescent HPV vaccination) with uptake and completion of the 3-shot HPV vaccine series. Among 7,849 adolescents, 26.9% initiated, and 55.2% of initiators completed the series. Adolescents from Northeast/Midwest/West states were 1.74 (95% CI: 1.45-2.10) times more likely to have initiated HPV vaccination compared to the South/Southwestern states. Among initiators, vaccine series completion did not vary significantly between the South/Southwestern and Northeast/Midwest/West states. Flu vaccination was associated with increased odds of initiation in both regions and completion of the HPV vaccine series in the South/Southwestern states only. Girls 9–10 and 11–12 y old were less likely to have initiated and 11–12 y olds were less likely to have completed the HPV vaccine series compared to 13–17 y olds. The observed regional variations in vaccination could cause rates of cervical cancer to remain higher in the South/Southwest and widen currently observed regional disparities in cervical cancer rates. PMID:25668660
Hendricks, Constance Smith; Cesario, Sandra K; Murdaugh, Carolyn; Gibbons, Mary E; Servonsky, E Jane; Bobadilla, Rodel V; Hendricks, Denisha L; Spencer-Morgan, Barbara; Tavakoli, Abbas
The absence of the father in the resident home is an increasing trend in the United States, and the belief that the absence of fathers is lined with a variety of social pathologies is gaining national momentum. This study explored the relationship of father absence on self-esteem and self-reported sexual activity among rural southern adolescents. A sample of 1,409 adolescents (558 males and 851 females) aged 11 to 18 years was surveyed, and the Miller Self-Esteem Questionnaire (MSQ) was used to measure self-esteem. Analysis revealed that increased sexual activity occurred by adolescents in homes where no father present in the residence. Although a statistical significance was noted in the relationship between father absence and lower self-esteem, the magnitude of the difference was not large. Further, no relationship between self-esteem and sexual activity was noted. Seemingly, the absence of the father has a potentially detrimental effect on adolescents' lifestyle choices. Consideration of the notion that the phenomena of fathering rather than the mere presence of a father may contribute to differences in adolescent's lifestyle choices should be studied.
Ntumba, Alexis; Igumbor, Ehimario
Abstract Background Namibia bears a large burden of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and the youth are disproportionately affected. Objectives To explore the current knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of female adolescents attending family planning to HIV prevention. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used on a sample 251 unmarried female adolescents aged from 13 years to 19 years accessing primary care services for contraception using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data were analysed using Epi Info 2002. Crude associations were assessed using cross-tabulations of knowledge, attitude and behaviour scores against demographic variables. Chi-square tests and odds ratios were used to assess associations from the cross-tabulations. All p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results A quarter of sexually active teenagers attending the family-planning services did not have adequate knowledge of HIV prevention strategies. Less than a quarter (23.9%) always used a condom. Most respondents (83.3%) started sexual intercourse when older than 16 years, but only 38.6% used a condom at their sexual debut. The older the girls were at sexual debut, the more likely they were to use a condom for the event (8% did so at age 13 years and 100% at age 19 years). Conclusions Knowledge of condom use as an HIV prevention strategy did not translate into consistent condom use. One alternate approach in family-planning facilities may be to encourage condom use as a dual protection method. Delayed onset of sexual activity and consistent use of condoms should be encouraged amongst schoolchildren, in the school setting.
Eastabrook, Suzette; Chang, Paul; Taylor, Myra F
Suntanning increases skin cancer risk and prematurely ages skin. Photoageing photography is an effective means of increasing adult ultraviolet radiation (UVR) awareness and skin-protection practices. While adults' largely positive suntanning-deterrence responses to photoageing photography are well-documented, comparatively little is known about the deterrence effectiveness of photoageing photography with adolescents. To help fill this knowledge gap, in-depth interviews were collected from 10 adolescent females and were subsequently subjected to interpretive phenomenological analysis. The emergent central theme - Having a tan and looking good in the short-term is okay, however, in the longer-term you can end up looking far worse… but still a tan is worth it - and its component subthemes reveal that the adolescent female's desire for a suntan is largely appearance driven. While photoaged photography is effective in increasing their awareness of the skin damage that UVR exposure causes, it does not alter their suntanning intentions. The analysis also revealed that one of the major barriers to adolescent females' adoption of skin-protective behaviours is their belief in their own invincibility. Hence, skin-protection interventions that lessen the aura of invincibility around adolescent females' understanding of their risk for developing skin cancers are vital to reducing the incidence of malignant melanoma.
Varley-Campbell, Joanna L; Fulford, Jonathan; Moore, Melanie S; Williams, Craig A
The study aimed to explore how both sex and dietary restraint impacts brain activation in response to visual food stimuli in young adolescents (12-13 years) under fed and fasted conditions. Food and non-food images were viewed by 15 boys and 14 girls, while functional magnetic resonance images were acquired. The adolescents were either fasted or in a satiated (fed) state following a randomized crossover study design. When satiation state was not considered, girls showed significantly greater brain activity than boys in regions associated with executive function and decision making, working memory, and self-awareness. In contrast, when either fasted or fed states were considered separately, boys showed significantly increased brain activity in regions linked to executive function, self-awareness, and decision making than the girls. When fasted, compared to unrestrained eaters, restrained individuals showed heightened activation in regions connected to executive function and decision making, with areas associated with self-assessment showing increased activity for unrestrained eaters relative to restrained under fed conditions. These findings highlight important differences in adolescent brain activity and support further investigations to gain greater insight into how these differences might evolve with age.
Yang, Chia-chen; Brown, B Bradford
Previous studies have confirmed that Facebook, the leading social networking site among young people, facilitates social connections among college students, but the specific activities and motives that foster social adjustment remain unclear. This study examined associations between patterns of Facebook activity, motives for using Facebook, and late adolescents' social adjustment to the college environment. Anonymous self-report survey data from 193 mostly European American students (M age = 20.32; 54 % female) attending a major Midwestern university indicated that motives and activity patterns were associated directly with social adjustment, but the association between one activity, status updating, and social adjustment also was moderated by the motive of relationship maintenance. Findings provide a more comprehensive portrait of how Facebook use may foster or inhibit social adjustment in college.
Dong, Yanbin; Pollock, Norman; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger Susanne; Gutin, Bernard; Lan, Ling; Chen, Tai C; Keeton, Daniel; Petty, Karen; Holick, Michael F; Zhu, Haidong
Objective The objectives were to characterize the vitamin D status of black and white adolescents residing in the southeastern United States (latitude: 33°N) and to investigate relationships with adiposity. Methods Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy for 559 adolescents 14 to 18 years of age (45% black and 49% female). Fat tissues, physical activity, and cardiovascular fitness also were measured. Results The overall prevalences of vitamin D insufficiency (<75nmol/L) and deficiency (≤50 nmol/L) were 56.4% and 28.8%, respectively. Black versus white subjects had significantly lower plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in every season (winter, 35.9±2.5 vs 77.4±2.7 nmol/L; spring, 46.4±3.5 vs 101.3±3.5 nmol/L; summer, 50.7±4.0 vs 104.3±4.0 nmol/L; autumn, 54.4± 4.0 vs 96.8±2.7 nmol/L). With adjustment for age, gender, race, season, height, and sexual maturation, there were significant inverse correlations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and all adiposity measurements, including BMI percentile (P=.02), waist circumference (P<.01), total fat mass (P<.01), percentage of body fat (P <.01), visceral adipose tissue (P <.015), and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (P<.039). There were significant positive associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and vigorous physical activity (P <.01) and cardiovascular fitness (P =.025). Conclusions Low vitamin D status is prevalent among adolescents living in a year-round sunny climate, particularly among black youths. The relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, adiposity, physical activity, and fitness seem to be present in adolescence. PMID:20439594
Cavanaugh, Courtenay E
While posttraumatic stress (PTS) has been positively associated with risky sexual behavior (RSB) among adult women, there is a paucity of research examining PTS in relation to RSB among adolescent girls and boys. This study aimed to replicate findings among adult women with sexually active adolescents (179 females and 106 males) involved in a national study of children in the United States child welfare system. After controlling for age and the complex study design, sexually active adolescent girls with clinically significant PTS symptoms were more than seven times more likely than those without such symptoms to report unprotected intercourse. In contrast, sexually active adolescent boys with clinically significant PTS symptoms were less likely than those without such symptoms to report unprotected intercourse. Research is needed to 1) understand the mechanisms linking PTS and RSB, 2) further explore gender differences reported here, and 3) inform RSB interventions in this high-risk population.
Fox, Jeremy K.; Halpern, Leslie F.; Ryan, Julie L.; Lowe, Kelly A.
Although the tripartite model reliably distinguishes anxiety and depression in adolescents, it remains unclear how negative affectivity (NA) and positive affectivity (PA) influence developmental pathways to internalizing problems. Based on models which propose that affectivity shapes how youth react to stress, the present study attempted to…
Hopwood, Christopher J.; Ansell, Emily B.; Fehon, Dwain C.; Grilo, Carlos M.
Objective This study examined evidence for personality variability in adolescents with eating disorder features based in light of previous evidence that personality variability in adult women with eating pathology carries important clinical implications. Method Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory personality data from adolescent girls with disturbed eating who were psychiatrically hospitalized were cluster analyzed and resulting groups were compared in terms of eating and comorbid pathology. Results Three sub-groups were identified among the 153 patients with eating disorder features: high-functioning, internalizing, and externalizing. The internalizing group was marked by eating-related and mood dysfunction, the externalizing group by elevated eating and mood pathology as well as impulsivity, aggression, and substance use, and the high-functioning group by lower levels of psychopathology and relatively high self-esteem. Conclusions These findings converge with previous research using different personality models in adult samples and highlight the clinical utility of considering personality heterogeneity among adolescent and adult women with disturbed eating. PMID:20965304
Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John
The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge of dating violence behaviors among adolescent victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), first, by determining the prevalence of psychological and physical dating violence and the reciprocity of violence, and second, by investigating the influence of certain CSA characteristics to dating violence.…
Stellefson, Michael; Chaney, J. Don
Indoor tanning continues to grow in popularity even though empirical investigations denounce the behavior. Various reports have illustrated the detrimental health effects of ultraviolet (UV) exposure including increased risk for skin cancer. According to some physicians, the risk may be especially high for adolescents whose skin cells are dividing…
Gifted individuals face many concerns when contemplating their futures. Often hindered by career indecision; perfectionism; and multiple personal, familial, and societal pressures, some gifted young people flounder when they have the ability to flourish. Many counselors and educators trust that a wealth of talents will propel these adolescents to…
Ledoux, Sylvie; And Others
Adolescents (n=3,287) completed questionnaire concerning eating behaviors. Found that binge eaters had disorderly eating habits (skipping meals, snacking, eating sweets, unbalanced diets), concern with body shape (feeling too fat), and depressive symptoms more often than nonbinge eaters did. Relationship between binging episodes and eating habits,…
Huebner, Angela J.; Shettler, Lauren; Matheson, Jennifer L.; Meszaros, Peggy S.; Piercy, Fred P.; Davis, Sean D.
We examined the salience of multiple ecological factors (individual, family, peer, school, and community) as differential predictors of smoking for adolescent African-Americans and Whites in a sample of 2,029 7th-12th grade girls from a Mid-Atlantic southeastern state. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that significant predictors of…
Inyang, Mfrekemfon P.
Most adolescents engage in indiscriminate sexual experimentations. This practice exposes them to the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndromes (AIDS) are among the deadly diseases that exist globally. Twice as many girls, compared to boys…
Stenzel, Lucia Marques; Saha, Lawrence J.; Guareschi, Pedrinho
The aims of this paper are (a) to investigate how adolescents perceive and represent the body form with respect to being fat or thin, and (b) to describe the process of how they constructed the social representations for these latter two body conditions. The data were collected by means of individual and focus group interviews with adolescent…
Miller, Brent C.; Bingham, C. Raymond
This study, based on a national probability sample of 15- to 19-year-old women, showed that adolescent women raised by a single parent were more likely to have nonmarital sexual intercourse than were young women from intact marriages. However, this effect was diminished by controlling for age and race, social class, and religion. (TE)
Smith-Jobski, Wendy M.
If counselors are to meet the needs of adolescent girls, they must understand the unique perspective and experiences of this population. Much research that claims to report on "young women," has, in fact, used only college women as subjects. Research that studies teen-age women, specifically, needs to be examined and understood by counseling…