Science.gov

Sample records for active fire counts

  1. Modelling of fire count data: fire disaster risk in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boadi, Caleb; Harvey, Simon K; Gyeke-Dako, Agyapomaa

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic dynamics involved in ecological count data require distribution fitting procedures to model and make informed judgments. The study provides empirical research, focused on the provision of an early warning system and a spatial graph that can detect societal fire risks. It offers an opportunity for communities, organizations, risk managers, actuaries and governments to be aware of, and understand fire risks, so that they will increase the direct tackling of the threats posed by fire. Statistical distribution fitting method that best helps identify the stochastic dynamics of fire count data is used. The aim is to provide a fire-prediction model and fire spatial graph for observed fire count data. An empirical probability distribution model is fitted to the fire count data and compared to the theoretical probability distribution of the stochastic process of fire count data. The distribution fitted to the fire frequency count data helps identify the class of models that are exhibited by the fire and provides time leading decisions. The research suggests that fire frequency and loss (fire fatalities) count data in Ghana are best modelled with a Negative Binomial Distribution. The spatial map of observed fire frequency and fatality measured over 5 years (2007-2011) offers in this study a first regional assessment of fire frequency and fire fatality in Ghana.

  2. School Fire Protection: Contents Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The heart of a fire protection system is the sprinkler system. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) statistics show that automatic sprinklers dramatically reduce fire damage and loss of life. (Author)

  3. REFINING FIRE EMISSIONS FOR AIR QUALITY MODELING WITH REMOTELY-SENSED FIRE COUNTS: A WILDFIRE CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper examines the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observed active fire data (pixel counts) to refine the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) fire emission estimates for major wildfire events. This study was motivated by the extremely limited info...

  4. Active Fire Mapping Program

    MedlinePlus

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  5. Separating Spike Count Correlation from Firing Rate Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Vinci, Giuseppe; Ventura, Valérie; Smith, Matthew A.; Kass, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Populations of cortical neurons exhibit shared fluctuations in spiking activity over time. When measured for a pair of neurons over multiple repetitions of an identical stimulus, this phenomenon emerges as correlated trial-to-trial response variability via spike count correlation (SCC). However, spike counts can be viewed as noisy versions of firing rates, which can vary from trial to trial. From this perspective, the SCC for a pair of neurons becomes a noisy version of the corresponding firing-rate correlation (FRC). Furthermore, the magnitude of the SCC is generally smaller than that of the FRC, and is likely to be less sensitive to experimental manipulation. We provide statistical methods for disambiguating time-averaged drive from within-trial noise, thereby separating FRC from SCC. We study these methods to document their reliability, and we apply them to neurons recorded in vivo from area V4, in an alert animal. We show how the various effects we describe are reflected in the data: within-trial effects are largely negligible, while attenuation due to trial-to-trial variation dominates, and frequently produces comparisons in SCC that, because of noise, do not accurately reflect those based on the underlying FRC. PMID:26942746

  6. Relationship between MODIS fire counts and GOME-2 tropospheric NO2 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, S. F.; Richter, A.; Schönhardt, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass burning has an ongoing role in determining the composition of Earth's surface and atmosphere. The term biomass burning comprises prescribed and wild fires (vegetation fires), as well as biofuel use, such as wood or peat for heating and cooking. Biomass burning represents an important source of aerosol particles and greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O, but also chemically active gases such as CO and NO2 are observed in the plumes. Even though vegetation fire emission inventories have improved considerably in recent years, large uncertainties remain in the temporally and spatially highly variable biomass burning emissions, especially due to uncertainties in input parameters. While satellite observed CO emissions from biomass burning have been investigated in great detail in the last years, NO2 has received much less attention. This can be explained by difficulties posed by the short atmospheric lifetime of NO2 and its photochemical equilibrium with NO but also the complicated retrieval of NO2 due to the presence of smoke and aerosols in the biomass burning plumes. Here, we present the relationship between observed fire counts and NO2 tropospheric vertical column densities from MODIS and GOME-2 measurements, respectively. The MOZART model for 1997 was used to determine monthly averaged air-mass factors and cloud fraction was derived by the FRESCO algorithm from SCIAMACHY measurements. The results show good correlation values (> 0.7) in many parts of the world, especially in the Subtropics. Future work will be further improvement of the retrieval for specific biomass burning situations in order to estimate total emissions from biomass burning for representative biomass burning regions by the use of appropriate models.

  7. Controls on fire activity over the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloster, S.; Brücher, T.; Brovkin, V.; Wilkenskjeld, S.

    2014-11-01

    Changes in fire activity over the last 8000 years are simulated with a global fire model driven by changes in climate and vegetation cover. The changes were separated into those caused through variations in fuel availability, fuel moisture or wind speed which react differently to changes in climate. Disentangling these controlling factors helps to understand the overall climate control on fire activity over the Holocene. Globally the burned area is simulated to increase by 2.5% between 8000 and 200 cal yr BP with larger regional changes compensating on a global scale. Despite the absence of anthropogenic fire ignitions, the simulated trends in fire activity agree reasonably well with continental scale reconstructions from charcoal records, with the exception of Europe. For some regions the change in fire activity is predominantly controlled through changes in fuel availability (Australia-Monsoon, American Tropics/Subtropics). For other regions changes in fuel moisture are more important for the overall trend in fire activity (North America, Sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, Asia-Monsoon). In Sub-Saharan Africa, for example, changes in fuel moisture alone lead to an increase in fire activity between 8000 and 200 cal yr BP, while changes in fuel availability lead to a decrease. Overall, the fuel moisture control is dominating the simulated fire activity for Sub-Saharan Africa. The simulations clearly demonstrate that both changes in fuel availability and changes in fuel moisture are important drivers for the fire activity over the Holocene. Fuel availability and fuel moisture do, however, have different climate controls. As such observed changes in fire activity can not be related to single climate parameters such as precipitation or temperature alone. Fire models, as applied in this study, in combination with observational records can help to understand the climate control on fire activity, which is essential to project future fire activity.

  8. Controls on fire activity over the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloster, S.; Brucher, T.; Brovkin, V.; Wilkenskjeld, S.

    2015-05-01

    Changes in fire activity over the last 8000 years are simulated with a global fire model driven by changes in climate and vegetation cover. The changes were separated into those caused through variations in fuel availability, fuel moisture or wind speed, which react differently to changes in climate. Disentangling these controlling factors helps in understanding the overall climate control on fire activity over the Holocene. Globally the burned area is simulated to increase by 2.5% between 8000 and 200 cal yr BP, with larger regional changes compensating nearly evening out on a global scale. Despite the absence of anthropogenic fire ignitions, the simulated trends in fire activity agree reasonably well with continental-scale reconstructions from charcoal records, with the exception of Europe. For some regions the change in fire activity is predominantly controlled through changes in fuel availability (Australia monsoon, Central America tropics/subtropics). For other regions changes in fuel moisture are more important for the overall trend in fire activity (North America, Sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, Asia monsoon). In Sub-Saharan Africa, for example, changes in fuel moisture alone lead to an increase in fire activity between 8000 and 200 cal yr BP, while changes in fuel availability lead to a decrease. Overall, the fuel moisture control is dominating the simulated fire activity for Sub-Saharan Africa. The simulations clearly demonstrate that both changes in fuel availability and changes in fuel moisture are important drivers for the fire activity over the Holocene. Fuel availability and fuel moisture do, however, have different climate controls. As such, observed changes in fire activity cannot be related to single climate parameters such as precipitation or temperature alone. Fire models, as applied in this study, in combination with observational records can help in understanding the climate control on fire activity, which is essential to project future fire

  9. Modeling forest fire occurrences using count-data mixed models in Qiannan autonomous prefecture of Guizhou province in China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yundan; Zhang, Xiongqing; Ji, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires can cause catastrophic damage on natural resources. In the meantime, it can also bring serious economic and social impacts. Meteorological factors play a critical role in establishing conditions favorable for a forest fire. Effective prediction of forest fire occurrences could prevent or minimize losses. This paper uses count data models to analyze fire occurrence data which is likely to be dispersed and frequently contain an excess of zero counts (no fire occurrence). Such data have commonly been analyzed using count data models such as a Poisson model, negative binomial model (NB), zero-inflated models, and hurdle models. Data we used in this paper is collected from Qiannan autonomous prefecture of Guizhou province in China. Using the fire occurrence data from January to April (spring fire season) for the years 1996 through 2007, we introduced random effects to the count data models. In this study, the results indicated that the prediction achieved through NB model provided a more compelling and credible inferential basis for fitting actual forest fire occurrence, and mixed-effects model performed better than corresponding fixed-effects model in forest fire forecasting. Besides, among all meteorological factors, we found that relative humidity and wind speed is highly correlated with fire occurrence.

  10. Modeling Forest Fire Occurrences Using Count-Data Mixed Models in Qiannan Autonomous Prefecture of Guizhou Province in China

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires can cause catastrophic damage on natural resources. In the meantime, it can also bring serious economic and social impacts. Meteorological factors play a critical role in establishing conditions favorable for a forest fire. Effective prediction of forest fire occurrences could prevent or minimize losses. This paper uses count data models to analyze fire occurrence data which is likely to be dispersed and frequently contain an excess of zero counts (no fire occurrence). Such data have commonly been analyzed using count data models such as a Poisson model, negative binomial model (NB), zero-inflated models, and hurdle models. Data we used in this paper is collected from Qiannan autonomous prefecture of Guizhou province in China. Using the fire occurrence data from January to April (spring fire season) for the years 1996 through 2007, we introduced random effects to the count data models. In this study, the results indicated that the prediction achieved through NB model provided a more compelling and credible inferential basis for fitting actual forest fire occurrence, and mixed-effects model performed better than corresponding fixed-effects model in forest fire forecasting. Besides, among all meteorological factors, we found that relative humidity and wind speed is highly correlated with fire occurrence. PMID:25790309

  11. Modeling the Effect of Climate Change on Large Fire Size, Counts, and Intensities Using the Large Fire Simulator (FSim)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, K. L.; Haas, J. R.; Finney, M.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in climate can be expected to cause changes in wildfire activity due to a combination of shifts in weather (temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, wind speed and direction) and vegetation. Changes in vegetation could include type conversions, altered forest structure, and shifts in species composition, the effects of which could be mitigated or exacerbated by management activities. Further, changes in suppression response and effectiveness may alter potential wildfire activity, as well as the consequences of wildfire. Feedbacks among these factors are extremely complex and uncertain. The ability to anticipate changes driven by fire weather (largely outside of human control) can lead to development of fire and fuel management strategies aimed at mitigating current and future risk. Therefore, in this study we focus on isolating the effects of climate-induced changes in weather on wildfire activity. Specifically, we investigated the effect of changes in weather on fire activity in the Canadian Rockies ecoregion, which encompasses Glacier National Park and several large wilderness areas to the south. To model the ignition, growth, and containment of wildfires, we used the Large Fire Simulator (FSim), which we coupled with current and projected future climatic conditions. Weather streams were based on data from 14 downscaled Global Circulation Models (GCMs) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) using the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 45 and 85 for the years 2040-2060. While all GCMs indicate increases in temperature for this area, which would be expected to exacerbate fire activity, precipitation predictions for the summer wildfire season are more variable, ranging from a decrease of approximately 50 mm to an increase of approximately 50 mm. Windspeeds are generally predicted to decrease, which would reduce rates of spread and fire intensity. The net effect of these weather changes on the size, number, and intensity

  12. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, S.B.; Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T.

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further.

  13. Suomi NPP VIIRS active fire product status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellicott, E. A.; Csiszar, I. A.; Schroeder, W.; Giglio, L.; Wind, B.; Justice, C. O.

    2012-12-01

    We provide an overview of the evaluation and development of the Active Fires product derived from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite during the first year of on-orbit data. Results from the initial evaluation of the standard SNPP Active Fires product, generated by the SNPP Interface Data Processing System (IDPS), supported the stabilization of the VIIRS Sensor Data Record (SDR) product. This activity focused in particular on the processing of the dual-gain 4 micron VIIRS M13 radiometric measurements into 750m aggregated data, which are fundamental for active fire detection. Following the VIIRS SDR product's Beta maturity status in April 2012, correlative analysis between VIIRS and near-simultaneous fire detections from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the NASA Earth Observing System Aqua satellite confirmed the expected relative detection rates driven primarily by sensor differences. The VIIRS Active Fires Product Development and Validation Team also developed a science code that is based on the latest MODIS Collection 6 algorithm and provides a full spatially explicit fire mask to replace the sparse array output of fire locations from a MODIS Collection 4 equivalent algorithm in the current IDPS product. The Algorithm Development Library (ADL) was used to support the planning for the transition of the science code into IDPS operations in the future. Product evaluation and user outreach was facilitated by a product website that provided end user access to fire data in user-friendly format over North America as well as examples of VIIRS-MODIS comparisons. The VIIRS fire team also developed an experimental product based on 375m VIIRS Imagery band measurements and provided high quality imagery of major fire events in US. By August 2012 the IDPS product achieved Beta maturity, with some known and documented shortfalls related to the processing of

  14. Pinochle Poker: An Activity for Counting and Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wroughton, Jacqueline; Nolan, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Understanding counting rules is challenging for students; in particular, they struggle with determining when and how to implement combinations, permutations, and the multiplication rule as tools for counting large sets and computing probability. We present an activity--using ideas from the games of poker and pinochle--designed to help students…

  15. 29 CFR 553.210 - Fire protection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... charged with forest fire fighting responsibilities, and who direct or engage in (1) fire spotting or... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection activities. 553.210 Section 553.210 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and...

  16. Total pollen counts do not influence active surface measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Schinko, Herwig; Neuberger, Manfred

    We investigated the temporal association of various aerosol parameters with pollen counts in the pollen season (April 2001) in Linz, Austria. We were especially interested in the relationship between active surface (or Fuchs' surface) because we had shown previously (Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 1737-1744) that this parameter during the same observation period was a better predictor for acute respiratory symptoms in school children (like wheezing, shortness of breath, and cough) and reduced lung function on the same day than particle mass (PM 10). While active surface is most sensitive for fine particles with a diameter of less than 100 nm it has no strict upper cut-off regarding particle size and so could eventually be influenced also by larger particles if their numbers were high. All particle mass parameters tested (TSP, PM 10, PM 1) were weakly ( r approximately 0.2) though significantly correlated with pollen counts but neither was active surface nor total particle counts (CPC). The weak association of particle mass and pollen counts was due mainly to similar diurnal variations and a linear trend over time. Only the mass of the coarse fraction (TSP minus PM 10) remained associated with pollen counts significantly after controlling for these general temporal patterns.

  17. A trend analysis of global fire activity. Is it land use or climate the main driver?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistinas, Ioannis; Oom, Duarte; Silva, Joao M. N.; Lopez-Saldaña, Gerardo; Pereira, Jose M. C.

    2016-04-01

    We perform a global trend analysis of active fire counts at 0.5o spatial resolution, using 156 months (January 2001 - December 2013) of MODIS Climate Modelling Grid data (TERRA). We use the Contextual Mann-Kendall (CMK) test to assess the statistical significance at cell level and found that 13% of the global land area displays statistically significant active fire count trends, with a slight predominance of negative trends (50.63% of the total significant cells). We perform the same trend analysis with the unexplained variability (residuals) between active fires and the Fire Weather Index (FWI) that is used as a proxy for climate. There is agreement between the main patterns from the trend analysis coming from the residuals and the active fire trends, implying that the main contemporary fire trends are not climate driven. Spatially coherent patches with significant trends were found in all continents (with the obvious exception of Antarctica). The majority of significant trends occur in areas of high fire incidence, and both increasing and decreasing trends appear to be associated with land use change processes. The analysis reveals large negative trends at the Sahel and between Russia and Kazakhstan, whereas a massive and coherent positive trend appears in southeastern Asia. Smaller patches of positive trends appear in southeastern United States and in Mexico, as well as in Brazil and between Argentina and Paraguay, and in Asia in India. There are also negative trends in Brazil, Argentina and in Australia. The study highlights the land use activities as the main driver of these trends, but also the need for data driven analyses and longer time series for future studies in order to gain better knowledge on fire occurrence.

  18. Mapping the Daily Progression of Large Wildland Fires Using MODIS Active Fire Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veraverbeke, Sander; Sedano, Fernando; Hook, Simon J.; Randerson, James T.; Jin, Yufang; Rogers, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    High temporal resolution information on burned area is a prerequisite for incorporating bottom-up estimates of wildland fire emissions in regional air transport models and for improving models of fire behavior. We used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire product (MO(Y)D14) as input to a kriging interpolation to derive continuous maps of the evolution of nine large wildland fires. For each fire, local input parameters for the kriging model were defined using variogram analysis. The accuracy of the kriging model was assessed using high resolution daily fire perimeter data available from the U.S. Forest Service. We also assessed the temporal reporting accuracy of the MODIS burned area products (MCD45A1 and MCD64A1). Averaged over the nine fires, the kriging method correctly mapped 73% of the pixels within the accuracy of a single day, compared to 33% for MCD45A1 and 53% for MCD64A1.

  19. Automatic counting of microglial cell activation and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Beatriz I.; de Gracia, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by the damage and death of the retinal ganglion cells. This disease results in vision loss and blindness. Any vision loss resulting from the disease cannot be restored and nowadays there is no available cure for glaucoma; however an early detection and treatment, could offer neuronal protection and avoid later serious damages to the visual function. A full understanding of the etiology of the disease will still require the contribution of many scientific efforts. Glial activation has been observed in glaucoma, being microglial proliferation a hallmark in this neurodegenerative disease. A typical project studying these cellular changes involved in glaucoma often needs thousands of images - from several animals - covering different layers and regions of the retina. The gold standard to evaluate them is the manual count. This method requires a large amount of time from specialized personnel. It is a tedious process and prone to human error. We present here a new method to count microglial cells by using a computer algorithm. It counts in one hour the same number of images that a researcher counts in four weeks, with no loss of reliability. PMID:27651757

  20. Spatial and temporal dimensions of fire activity in the fire-prone eastern Canadian taiga.

    PubMed

    Erni, Sandy; Arseneault, Dominique; Parisien, Marc-André; Bégin, Yves

    2017-03-01

    The forest age mosaic is a fundamental attribute of the North American boreal forest. Given that fires are generally lethal to trees, the time since last fire largely determines the composition and structure of forest stands and landscapes. Although the spatiotemporal dynamics of such mosaics has long been assumed to be random under the overwhelming influence of severe fire weather, no long-term reconstruction of mosaic dynamics has been performed from direct field evidence. In this study, we use fire length as a proxy for fire extent across the fire-prone eastern Canadian taiga and systematically reconstruct the spatiotemporal variability of fire extent and fire intervals, as well as the resulting forest age along a 340-km transect for the 1840-2013 time period. Our results indicate an extremely active fire regime over the last two centuries, with an overall burn rate of 2.1% of the land area yr(-1) , mainly triggered by seasonal anomalies of high temperature and severe drought. However, the rejuvenation of the age mosaic was strongly patterned in space and time due to the intrinsically lower burn rates in wetland-dominated areas and, more importantly, to the much-reduced likelihood of burning of stands up to 50 years postfire. An extremely high burn rate of ~5% yr(-1) would have characterized our study region during the last century in the absence of such fuel age effect. Although recent burn rates and fire sizes are within their range of variability of the last 175 years, a particularly severe weather event allowed a 2013 fire to spread across a large fire refuge, thus shifting the abundance of mature and old forest to a historic low. These results provide reference conditions to evaluate the significance and predict the spatiotemporal dynamics and impacts of the currently strengthening fire activity in the North American boreal forest.

  1. VIIRS active fire detection in Siberian boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvetsov, Eugene; Ponomarev, Evgenii

    2015-04-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite provides 12h global coverage at spatial resolutions of 375 m and 750 m. Current operational VIIRS Active Fire Product builds on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 4 fire algorithm applying the similar combination of tests to the corresponding VIIRS 750 m data. This study investigates the application of VIIRS fire detection approaches based on 750m and 375m data in boreal forests of Siberia. VIIRS active fire detection product is compared to current Terra/ Aqua MODIS 1 km active fire product (MOD14/ MYD14) and Landsat-8 images are used for visual interpretation of areas containing active biomass burning. We utilize two VIIRS active fire products: based on MODIS Collection 6 algorithm for 750m data, and based on fire algorithm for 375 m data proposed by Schroeder et al. (2014). Both day and night fire detections are used for the analysis. In the present study we consider large fires complexes in the Eastern Siberia which burned for several weeks in July and August of 2014. We perform the comparison using 0.25 x 0.25 degree grid on a daily basis. Another objective of this study is to investigate the consistency of fire radiative power (FRP) retrievals between MODIS active fire product and VIIRS active fire product and to include VIIRS data into fire radiative energy (FRE) calculation which is related linearly to the total biomass consumption and pyrogenic emissions.

  2. You can count on the motor cortex: Finger counting habits modulate motor cortex activation evoked by numbers

    PubMed Central

    Tschentscher, Nadja; Hauk, Olaf; Fischer, Martin H.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2012-01-01

    The embodied cognition framework suggests that neural systems for perception and action are engaged during higher cognitive processes. In an event-related fMRI study, we tested this claim for the abstract domain of numerical symbol processing: is the human cortical motor system part of the representation of numbers, and is organization of numerical knowledge influenced by individual finger counting habits? Developmental studies suggest a link between numerals and finger counting habits due to the acquisition of numerical skills through finger counting in childhood. In the present study, digits 1 to 9 and the corresponding number words were presented visually to adults with different finger counting habits, i.e. left- and right-starters who reported that they usually start counting small numbers with their left and right hand, respectively. Despite the absence of overt hand movements, the hemisphere contralateral to the hand used for counting small numbers was activated when small numbers were presented. The correspondence between finger counting habits and hemispheric motor activation is consistent with an intrinsic functional link between finger counting and number processing. PMID:22133748

  3. Projecting climate-driven increases in North American fire activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate regulates fire activity through controls on vegetation productivity (fuels), lightning ignitions, and conditions governing fire spread. In many regions of the world, human management also influences the timing, duration, and extent of fire activity. These coupled interactions between human and natural systems make fire a complex component of the Earth system. Satellite data provide valuable information on the spatial and temporal dynamics of recent fire activity, as active fires, burned area, and land cover information can be combined to separate wildfires from intentional burning for agriculture and forestry. Here, we combined satellite-derived burned area data with land cover and climate data to assess fire-climate relationships in North America between 2000-2012. We used the latest versions of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) burned area product and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) climate data to develop regional relationships between burned area and potential evaporation (PE), an integrated dryness metric. Logistic regression models were developed to link burned area with PE and individual climate variables during and preceding the fire season, and optimal models were selected based on Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Overall, our model explained 85% of the variance in burned area since 2000 across North America. Fire-climate relationships from the era of satellite observations provide a blueprint for potential changes in fire activity under scenarios of climate change. We used that blueprint to evaluate potential changes in fire activity over the next 50 years based on twenty models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). All models suggest an increase of PE under low and high emissions scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5, respectively), with largest increases in projected burned area across the western US and central Canada. Overall, near

  4. Recent Extreme Forest Fire Activity in Western Russia: Fire Danger Conditions, Fire Behavior and Smoke Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocks, B. J.; Fromm, M.; Goldammer, J.; Carr, R.; Sukhinin, A. I.

    2010-12-01

    During the summer of 2010, widespread forest and peatland fires in western Russia burned over hundreds of thousands of hectares, burning over croplands, destroying hundreds of homes, and directly causing the death of more than 50 people. Unprecedented drought conditions, combined with an extended heat wave, resulted in extreme fire danger conditions and explosive fire behavior in a region of Russia not noted for large fires. Several fires exhibited pyroconvection, injecting smoke directly into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, while deep-burning fires created major regional smoke problems. This smoke persisted in the heavily-populated areas around Moscow, exposing millions to high levels of ozone and particulate matter, and creating both immediate and longer-term health risks. This presentation will explore the drought conditions leading to the catastrophic fire behavior experienced in western Russia, and analyze fire behavior in terms of fuel consumption, smoke production, fire intensity levels, and pyroconvection. Impacts of regional and long-range smoke transport will also be discussed.

  5. Active Well Counting Using New PSD Plastic Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hausladen, Paul; Newby, Jason; McElroy, Robert Dennis

    2015-11-01

    This report presents results and analysis from a series of proof-of-concept measurements to assess the suitability of segmented detectors constructed from Eljen EJ-299-34 PSD-plastic scintillator with pulse-shape discrimination capability for the purposes of quantifying uranium via active neutron coincidence counting. Present quantification of bulk uranium materials for international safeguards and domestic materials control and accounting relies on active neutron coincidence counting systems, such as the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) and the Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (UNCL), that use moderated He-3 proportional counters along with necessarily low-intensity 241Am(Li) neutron sources. Scintillation-based fast-neutron detectors are a potentially superior technology to the existing AWCC and UNCL designs due to their spectroscopic capability and their inherently short neutron coincidence times that largely eliminate random coincidences and enable interrogation by stronger sources. One of the past impediments to the investigation and adoption of scintillation counters for the purpose of quantifying bulk uranium was the commercial availability of scintillators having the necessary neutron-gamma pulse-shape discrimination properties only as flammable liquids. Recently, Eljen EJ-299-34 PSD-plastic scintillator became commercially available. The present work is the first assessment of an array of PSD-plastic detectors for the purposes of quantifying bulk uranium. The detector panel used in the present work was originally built as the focal plane for a fast-neutron imager, but it was repurposed for the present investigation by construction of a stand to support the inner well of an AWCC immediately in front of the detector panel. The detector panel and data acquisition of this system are particularly well suited for performing active-well fast-neutron counting of LEU and HEU samples because the active detector volume is solid, the 241Am(Li) interrogating

  6. ENSO controls interannual fire activity in southeast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, M.; Fletcher, M.-S.; Holz, A.; Nyman, P.

    2016-10-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the main mode controlling the variability in the ocean-atmosphere system in the South Pacific. While the ENSO influence on rainfall regimes in the South Pacific is well documented, its role in driving spatiotemporal trends in fire activity in this region has not been rigorously investigated. This is particularly the case for the highly flammable and densely populated southeast Australian sector, where ENSO is a major control over climatic variability. Here we conduct the first region-wide analysis of how ENSO controls fire activity in southeast Australia. We identify a significant relationship between ENSO and both fire frequency and area burnt. Critically, wavelet analyses reveal that despite substantial temporal variability in the ENSO system, ENSO exerts a persistent and significant influence on southeast Australian fire activity. Our analysis has direct application for developing robust predictive capacity for the increasingly important efforts at fire management.

  7. Burned area, active fires and biomass burning - approaches to account for emissions from fires in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruecker, Gernot; Hoffmann, Anja; Leimbach, David; Tiemann, Joachim; Ng'atigwa, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Eleven years of data from the globally available MODIS burned area and the MODS Active Fire Product have been analysed for Tanzania in conjunction with GIS data on land use and cover to provide a baseline for fire activity in this East African country. The total radiated energy (FRE) emitted by fires that were picked up by the burned area and active fire product is estimated based on a spatio-temporal clustering algorithm over the burned areas, and integration of the fire radiative power from the MODIS Active Fires product over the time of burning and the area of each burned area cluster. Resulting biomass combusted by unit area based on Woosteŕs scaling factor for FRE to biomass combusted is compared to values found in the literature, and to values found in the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Pyrogenic emissions are then estimated using emission factors. According to our analysis, an average of 11 million ha burn annually (ranging between 8.5 and 12.9 million ha) in Tanzania corresponding to between 10 and 14 % of Tanzaniás land area. Most burned area is recorded in the months from May to October. The land cover types most affected are woodland and shrubland cover types: they comprise almost 70 % of Tanzania's average annual burned area or 6.8 million ha. Most burning occurs in gazetted land, with an annual average of 3.7 million ha in forest reserves, 3.3 million ha in game reserves and 1.46 million ha in national parks, totalling close to 8.5 million ha or 77 % of the annual average burned area of Tanzania. Annual variability of burned area is moderate for most of the analysed classes, and in most cases there is no clear trend to be detected in burned area, except for the Lindi region were annual burned area appears to be increasing. Preliminary results regarding emissions from fires show that for larger fires that burn over a longer time, biomass burned derived through the FRP method compares well to literature values, while the integration over

  8. Early warning of active fire hotspots through NASA FIRMS fire information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Murphy, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires and wildfires can threaten ecosystems, wildlife, property, and often, large swaths of populations. Early warning of active fire hotspots plays a crucial role in planning, managing, and mitigating the damaging effects of wildfires. The NASA Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) has been providing active fire location information to users in easy-to-use formats for the better part of last decade, with a view to improving the alerting mechanisms and response times to fight forest and wildfires. FIRMS utilizes fires flagged as hotspots by the MODIS instrument flying aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites and sends early warning of detected hotspots via email in near real-time or as daily and weekly summaries. The email alerts can also be customized to send alerts for a particular region of interest, a country, or a specific protected area or park. In addition, a web mapping component, named "Web Fire Mapper" helps query and visualize hotspots. A newer version of Web Fire Mapper is being developed to enhance the existing visualization and alerting capabilities. Plans include supporting near real-time imagery from Aqua and Terra satellites to provide a more helpful context while viewing fires. Plans are also underway to upgrade the email alerts system to provide mobile-formatted messages and short text messages (SMS). The newer version of FIRMS will also allow users to obtain geo-located image snapshots, which can be imported into local GIS software by stakeholders to help further analyses. This talk will discuss the FIRMS system, its enhancements and its role in helping map, alert, and monitor fire hotspots by providing quick data visualization, querying, and download capabilities.

  9. Fire!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1996-01-01

    The number of school fires is up nationwide. This article describes unsafe school conditions, problems with new fire codes, and the factors that contribute to school fires. Installation of sprinkler systems is recommended. A fire-safety checklist is included. (LMI)

  10. New Model Predicts Fire Activity in South America

    NASA Video Gallery

    UC Irvine scientist Jim Randerson discusses a new model that is able to predict fire activity in South America using sea surface temperature observations of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. The find...

  11. FIRE

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-16

    Projects:  FIRE Definition/Description:  The F irst I SCCP R egional E xperiments (FIRE) have been designed to improve data products and cloud/radiation ... circulation models (GCMs). Specifically, the goals of FIRE are (1) to improve basic understanding of the interaction of physical ...

  12. 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility closure activities evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, J.G.

    1996-04-11

    This report evaluates the closure activities at the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility. The evaluation compares these activities to the regulatory requirements and closure plan requirements. The report concludes that the areas identified in the closure plan can be clean closed. This report summarizes and evaluates the closure activities performed in support of partial closure of the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF). This evaluation will be used in assessing the condition of the 105-DR LSFF for the purpose of meeting the partial clean closure conditions described in the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan (DOE-RL 1995). Based on the evaluation of the decontamination activities, sampling activities, and sample data, it is has been determined that the partial clean closure conditions for the 105-DR LSFF have been met.

  13. Impacts of changing fire weather conditions on reconstructed trends in U.S. wildland fire activity from 1979 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeborn, Patrick H.; Jolly, W. Matt; Cochrane, Mark A.

    2016-11-01

    One component of climate-fire interactions is the relationship between weather conditions concurrent with burning (i.e., fire danger) and the magnitude of fire activity. Here daily environmental conditions are associated with daily observations of fire activity within ecoregions across the continental United States (CONUS) by aligning the latter 12 years of a 36 year gridded fire danger climatology with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer fire products. Results reveal that although modern relationships (2003-2014) vary regionally, fires across the majority of CONUS are more likely to be present and burning more vigorously as fire danger increases. Applying modern relationships to the entire climatology (1979-2014) indicates that in the absence of other influences, changes in fire danger have significantly increased the number of days per year that fires are burning across 42-49% of CONUS (by area) while also significantly increasing daily fire growth and daily heat release across 37-45% of CONUS. Increases in the fire activity season length coupled with an intensification of daily burning characteristics resulted in a CONUS-wide +0.02 Mha yr-1 trend in burned area, a 10.6 g m-2 yr-1 trend in the amount of fuel consumed per unit burned area, and ultimately a +0.51 Tg yr-1 trend in dry matter consumption. Overall, the results demonstrate regional variations in the response of fires to changes in fire danger and that weather conditions concurrent with burning have a three-pronged impact on the magnitude of fire activity by affecting the seasonal duration, spatial extent, and combustion intensity.

  14. Attention during active visual tasks: counting, pointing, or simply looking

    PubMed Central

    Wilder, John D.; Schnitzer, Brian S.; Gersch, Timothy M.; Dosher, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    Visual attention and saccades are typically studied in artificial situations, with stimuli presented to the steadily fixating eye, or saccades made along specified paths. By contrast, in the real world saccadic patterns are constrained only by the demands of the motivating task. We studied attention during pauses between saccades made to perform 3 free-viewing tasks: counting dots, pointing to the same dots with a visible cursor, or simply looking at the dots using a freely-chosen path. Attention was assessed by the ability to identify the orientation of a briefly-presented Gabor probe. All primary tasks produced losses in identification performance, with counting producing the largest losses, followed by pointing and then looking-only. Looking-only resulted in a 37% increase in contrast thresholds in the orientation task. Counting produced more severe losses that were not overcome by increasing Gabor contrast. Detection or localization of the Gabor, unlike identification, were largely unaffected by any of the primary tasks. Taken together, these results show that attention is required to control saccades, even with freely-chosen paths, but the attentional demands of saccades are less than those attached to tasks such as counting, which have a significant cognitive load. Counting proved to be a highly demanding task that either exhausted momentary processing capacity (e.g., working memory or executive functions), or, alternatively, encouraged a strategy of filtering out all signals irrelevant to counting itself. The fact that the attentional demands of saccades (as well as those of detection/localization) are relatively modest makes it possible to continually adjust both the spatial and temporal pattern of saccades so as to re-allocate attentional resources as needed to handle the complex and multifaceted demands of real-world environments. PMID:18649913

  15. Plans for the Sentinel-3 SLSTR Active Fire Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, Martin; Xu, Weidong

    2010-05-01

    The Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) will fly on the ESA Sentinel-3 satellites as a follow-on to the highly successful ERS/ENVISAR (A)ATSR series of imaging radiometers. SLSTR has been designed to offer a series of new capabilities over and above those of the forunner instruments (including an increased number of spectral channels, a much wider swath width, and an increased revisit frequency) whist still maintaining the key characteristics of dual-view, high accuracy and high precision radiometry. Included in the SLSTR-design are two dedicated "fire channels" that will allow unsaturated thermal spectral radiance observations over even high intensity and/or large open vegetation fires. Data from these and the other spectral channels will be used to generate an operational near real-time SLSTR active fire detection and fire radiative power product, to be used for both scientific studies on wildfire causes, behaviour and effects, and also operational applications involved with forecasting the short-term atmospheric impact of wildfire smoke. This work will present the plans for the SLSTR fire product, including details of the algorithm design and performance analysis, and an evaluation of the ver1 algorithm using MODIS data of global fire events.

  16. Vegetation stress and summer fire activity in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, DaCamara; Sílvia, Nunes

    2013-04-01

    Fire activity in Mediterranean Europe is closely related to the climatological background where the occurrence of rainy and mild winters, followed by warm and dry summers, may induce high levels of vegetation stress over the different regions making them prone to the occurrence of fire events. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether years of very high or very low levels of fire activity over forests in Portugal are linked to contrasting vegetation cycles associated to high and low degrees of vegetation stress during the summer season. The present study relies on time series of yearly amounts of burned areas provided by Instituto de Conservação da Natureza e das Florestas (ICNF), the national authority for forests as well as on monthly values of NDVI and of brightness temperature as obtained from the Mediterranean Extended Daily One Km AVHRR Data Set (MEDOKADS) product provided by the Free University of Berlin. Both datasets cover the 16-year period from 1990 to 2005. The area of forest is first identified by means of a k-means cluster analysis that is performed on climatological yearly means of NDVI and brightness temperature. Monthly means of NDVI and of brightness temperature are then evaluated over the area of forest and composites are made for severe and mild years of fire activity defined as those with yearly burned areas respectively above the third quartile and below the first quartile. The composite of severe years presents a brightness temperature cycle with values above average during spring and summer together with values of NDVI below average during summer, the behavior of both parameters providing an indication of vegetation stress. In contrast, the composite of mild years of fire activity presents an NDVI cycle with values well below average during spring, an indication of lack of biomass, and a brightness temperature cycle with values below average during spring and summer, an indication that vegetation is not under stress. Results

  17. Global fire activity patterns (1996-2006) and climatic influence: an analysis using the World Fire Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Page, Y.; Pereira, J. M. C.; Trigo, R.; da Camara, C.; Oom, D.; Mota, B.

    2008-04-01

    Vegetation fires have been acknowledged as an environmental process of global scale, which affects the chemical composition of the troposphere, and has profound ecological and climatic impacts. However, considerable uncertainty remains, especially concerning intra and inter-annual variability of fire incidence. The main goals of our global-scale study were to characterise spatial-temporal patterns of fire activity, to identify broad geographical areas with similar vegetation fire dynamics, and to analyse the relationship between fire activity and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. This study relies on 10 years (mid 1996-mid 2006) of screened European Space Agency World Fire Atlas (WFA) data, obtained from Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) and Advanced ATSR (AATSR) imagery. Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis was used to reduce the dimensionality of the dataset. Regions of homogeneous fire dynamics were identified with cluster analysis, and interpreted based on their eco-climatic characteristics. The impact of 1997-1998 El Niño is clearly dominant over the study period, causing increased fire activity in a variety of regions and ecosystems, with variable timing. Overall, this study provides the first global decadal assessment of spatial-temporal fire variability and confirms the usefulness of the screened WFA for global fire ecoclimatology research.

  18. Incorporating anthropogenic influences into fire probability models: Effects of development and climate change on fire activity in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, M.; Moritz, M.; Batllori, E.; Waller, E.; Krawchuk, M.; Berck, P.

    2014-12-01

    The costly interactions between humans and natural fire regimes throughout California demonstrate the need to understand the uncertainties surrounding wildfire, especially in the face of a changing climate and expanding human communities. Although a number of statistical and process-based wildfire models exist for California, there is enormous uncertainty about the location and number of future fires. Models estimate an increase in fire occurrence between nine and fifty-three percent by the end of the century. Our goal is to assess the role of uncertainty in climate and anthropogenic influences on the state's fire regime from 2000-2050. We develop an empirical model that integrates novel information about the distribution and characteristics of future plant communities without assuming a particular distribution, and improve on previous efforts by integrating dynamic estimates of population density at each forecast time step. Historically, we find that anthropogenic influences account for up to fifty percent of the total fire count, and that further housing development will incite or suppress additional fires according to their intensity. We also find that the total area burned is likely to increase but at a slower than historical rate. Previous findings of substantially increased numbers of fires may be tied to the assumption of static fuel loadings, and the use of proxy variables not relevant to plant community distributions. We also find considerable agreement between GFDL and PCM model A2 runs, with decreasing fire counts expected only in areas of coastal influence below San Francisco and above Los Angeles. Due to potential shifts in rainfall patterns, substantial uncertainty remains for the semiarid deserts of the inland south. The broad shifts of wildfire between California's climatic regions forecast in this study point to dramatic shifts in the pressures plant and human communities will face by midcentury. The information provided by this study reduces the

  19. Determination of platinum and palladium in geological materials by neutron-activation analysis after fire-assay preconcentration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, J.J.; Simon, F.O.

    1971-01-01

    Fire-asay preconcentration followed by neutron-activation analysis permits the determination of as little as 0.5 ppM of platinum and 0.5 ppM of palladium on a 20-g sample. Platinum and palladium are separated with carriers and beta-counted. Results for the platinum and palladium content of seven U.S.G.S. standard rocks are presented. ?? 1971.

  20. Management and climate contributions to satellite-derived active fire trends in the contiguous United States

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; McCarty, Jessica L; Wang, Dongdong; Rogers, Brendan M; Morton, Douglas C; Collatz, G James; Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T

    2014-01-01

    Fires in croplands, plantations, and rangelands contribute significantly to fire emissions in the United States, yet are often overshadowed by wildland fires in efforts to develop inventories or estimate responses to climate change. Here we quantified decadal trends, interannual variability, and seasonality of Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations of active fires (thermal anomalies) as a function of management type in the contiguous U.S. during 2001–2010. We used the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity database to identify active fires within the perimeter of large wildland fires and land cover maps to identify active fires in croplands. A third class of fires defined as prescribed/other included all residual satellite active fire detections. Large wildland fires were the most variable of all three fire types and had no significant annual trend in the contiguous U.S. during 2001–2010. Active fires in croplands, in contrast, increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Cropland and prescribed/other fire types combined were responsible for 77% of the total active fire detections within the U.S and were most abundant in the south and southeast. In the west, cropland active fires decreased at a rate of 5.9% per year, likely in response to intensive air quality policies. Potential evaporation was a dominant regulator of the interannual variability of large wildland fires, but had a weaker influence on the other two fire types. Our analysis suggests it may be possible to modify landscape fire emissions within the U.S. by influencing the way fires are used in managed ecosystems. Key Points Wildland, cropland, and prescribed fires had different trends and patterns Sensitivity to climate varied with fire type Intensity of air quality regulation influenced cropland burning trends PMID:26213662

  1. Exercise Counts: How Many Calories Will Your Activity Burn?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Eat Healthy and Get Active Get Active Exercise Activity Calculator How many calories will your activity ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News and Stories Glossary For Health Care Professionals ...

  2. First principle active neutron coincidence counting measurements of uranium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Braden; Charlton, William; Peerani, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    Uranium is present in most nuclear fuel cycle facilities ranging from uranium mines, enrichment plants, fuel fabrication facilities, nuclear reactors, and reprocessing plants. The isotopic, chemical, and geometric composition of uranium can vary significantly between these facilities, depending on the application and type of facility. Examples of this variation are: enrichments varying from depleted (~0.2 wt% 235U) to high enriched (>20 wt% 235U); compositions consisting of U3O8, UO2, UF6, metallic, and ceramic forms; geometries ranging from plates, cans, and rods; and masses which can range from a 500 kg fuel assembly down to a few grams fuel pellet. Since 235U is a fissile material, it is routinely safeguarded in these facilities. Current techniques for quantifying the 235U mass in a sample include neutron coincidence counting. One of the main disadvantages of this technique is that it requires a known standard of representative geometry and composition for calibration, which opens up a pathway for potential erroneous declarations by the State and reduces the effectiveness of safeguards. In order to address this weakness, the authors have developed a neutron coincidence counting technique which uses the first principle point-model developed by Boehnel instead of the "known standard" method. This technique was primarily tested through simulations of 1000 g U3O8 samples using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The results of these simulations showed good agreement between the simulated and exact 235U sample masses.

  3. Constraints on global fire activity vary across a resource gradient.

    PubMed

    Krawchuk, Meg A; Moritz, Max A

    2011-01-01

    We provide an empirical, global test of the varying constraints hypothesis, which predicts systematic heterogeneity in the relative importance of biomass resources to burn and atmospheric conditions suitable to burning (weather/climate) across a spatial gradient of long-term resource availability. Analyses were based on relationships between monthly global wildfire activity, soil moisture, and mid-tropospheric circulation data from 2001 to 2007, synthesized across a gradient of long-term averages in resources (net primary productivity), annual temperature, and terrestrial biome. We demonstrate support for the varying constraints hypothesis, showing that, while key biophysical factors must coincide for wildfires to occur, the relative influence of resources to burn and moisture/weather conditions on fire activity shows predictable spatial patterns. In areas where resources are always available for burning during the fire season, such as subtropical/tropical biomes with mid-high annual long-term net primary productivity, fuel moisture conditions exert their strongest constraint on fire activity. In areas where resources are more limiting or variable, such as deserts, xeric shrublands, or grasslands/savannas, fuel moisture has a diminished constraint on wildfire, and metrics indicating availability of burnable fuels produced during the antecedent wet growing seasons reflect a more pronounced constraint on wildfire. This macro-scaled evidence for spatially varying constraints provides a synthesis with studies performed at local and regional scales, enhances our understanding of fire as a global process, and indicates how sensitivity to future changes in temperature and precipitation may differ across the world.

  4. Force Protection for Fire Fighters: Warm Zone Operations at Paramilitary Style Active Shooter Incidents in a Multi-Hazard Environment as a Fire Service Core Competency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Radiological, Nuclear, Explosive CFD Charlotte Fire Department EMS Emergency Medical Services FDNY Fire Department of New York FEMA...that not only the CFD [Charlotte Fire Department] but the fire service in general is not prepared to respond to ASI’s [Active Shooter Incidents] and...cooperatively. Police officers used their bullet resistant shields to protect fire fighters engaged in fire suppression until heat and smoke conditions forced

  5. Management and climate contributions to satellite-derived active fire trends in the contiguous United States.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; McCarty, Jessica L; Wang, Dongdong; Rogers, Brendan M; Morton, Douglas C; Collatz, G James; Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T

    2014-04-01

    Fires in croplands, plantations, and rangelands contribute significantly to fire emissions in the United States, yet are often overshadowed by wildland fires in efforts to develop inventories or estimate responses to climate change. Here we quantified decadal trends, interannual variability, and seasonality of Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations of active fires (thermal anomalies) as a function of management type in the contiguous U.S. during 2001-2010. We used the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity database to identify active fires within the perimeter of large wildland fires and land cover maps to identify active fires in croplands. A third class of fires defined as prescribed/other included all residual satellite active fire detections. Large wildland fires were the most variable of all three fire types and had no significant annual trend in the contiguous U.S. during 2001-2010. Active fires in croplands, in contrast, increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Cropland and prescribed/other fire types combined were responsible for 77% of the total active fire detections within the U.S and were most abundant in the south and southeast. In the west, cropland active fires decreased at a rate of 5.9% per year, likely in response to intensive air quality policies. Potential evaporation was a dominant regulator of the interannual variability of large wildland fires, but had a weaker influence on the other two fire types. Our analysis suggests it may be possible to modify landscape fire emissions within the U.S. by influencing the way fires are used in managed ecosystems.

  6. Authentic active learning activities demonstrating the use of serial dilutions and plate counts.

    PubMed

    March, Jordon K; Jensen, Kyle C; Porter, Nathan T; Breakwell, Donald P

    2011-01-01

    Serial dilution and plate counting is often taught in courses for both microbiology and allied health students. Lecture examples and examination questions addressing how the method is used can sometimes be contrived: artificial data sets may have little or no meaning other than to have students perform a calculation. Here we provide a set of activities employing data sets acquired from the primary literature. Our objective was to have the students think critically about a real scenario in which serial dilution and plate count was used. Each activity requires students to read a paragraph describing the study, predict the results, perform the appropriate calculations, and then evaluate the results in light of their predictions. To test the efficacy of these activities, a pretest quiz was given to approximately 100 students in an allied health/general microbiology course. After a lecture on how microbes are enumerated, students were given a different quiz. The class was then divided randomly into groups of three or four students and assigned one of the activities. A postactivity quiz was also administered. Approximately two weeks later, a serial dilution/plate count question was used on an examination and served as a final posttest. Standardized learning gains were calculated for the quiz administered after each learning activity. Even though learning gains were significantly higher after the lecture, there was also a significant improvement between the lecture and the activity. Using an exercise based on an authentic set of data significantly improved student learning gains, and is a useful practice for teaching microbiology.

  7. Authentic Active Learning Activities Demonstrating the Use of Serial Dilutions and Plate Counts

    PubMed Central

    March, Jordon K.; Jensen, Kyle C.; Porter, Nathan T.; Breakwell, Donald P.

    2011-01-01

    Serial dilution and plate counting is often taught in courses for both microbiology and allied health students. Lecture examples and examination questions addressing how the method is used can sometimes be contrived: artificial data sets may have little or no meaning other than to have students perform a calculation. Here we provide a set of activities employing data sets acquired from the primary literature. Our objective was to have the students think critically about a real scenario in which serial dilution and plate count was used. Each activity requires students to read a paragraph describing the study, predict the results, perform the appropriate calculations, and then evaluate the results in light of their predictions. To test the efficacy of these activities, a pretest quiz was given to approximately 100 students in an allied health/general microbiology course. After a lecture on how microbes are enumerated, students were given a different quiz. The class was then divided randomly into groups of three or four students and assigned one of the activities. A postactivity quiz was also administered. Approximately two weeks later, a serial dilution/plate count question was used on an examination and served as a final posttest. Standardized learning gains were calculated for the quiz administered after each learning activity. Even though learning gains were significantly higher after the lecture, there was also a significant improvement between the lecture and the activity. Using an exercise based on an authentic set of data significantly improved student learning gains, and is a useful practice for teaching microbiology. PMID:23653759

  8. Late Holocene fire activity recorded in a Greenland ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zennaro, P.; Barbante, C.; Kehrwald, N.; Zangrando, R.; Gambaro, A.; Gabrieli, J.

    2012-04-01

    The pyrolysis compounds from the thermal decomposition of cellulose during burning events are the dominant smoke tracers in continental airsheds. Important compounds from biomass burning include monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs). Levoglucosan is a MA produced by combusing cellulose at a temperatures of 300°C or greater. Ice cores contain these specific molecular markers and other pyrochemical evidence that provides much-needed information on the role of fire in regions with no existing data of past fire activity. Here, we use atmospheric and snow levoglucosan concentrations to trace fire emissions from a boreal forest fire source in the Canadian Shield through transport and deposition at Summit, Greenland (72°35'N 38°25' W, 3048 masl). Atmospheric and surface samples suggest that levoglucosan in snow can record biomass burning events up to 1000s of kilometers away. Levoglucosan does degrade by interacting with hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere, but it is emitted in large quantities, allowing the use as a biomass burning tracer. These quantified atmospheric biomass burning emissions and associated parallel oxalate and levoglucosan peaks in snow pit samples validates levoglucosan as a proxy for past biomass burning in snow records and by extension in ice cores. The temporal and spatial resolution of chemical markers in ice cores matches the core in which they are measured. The spatial resolution of chemical markers in ice cores depends on the core location where low-latitude ice cores primarily reflect regional climate parameters, and polar ice cores integrate hemispheric signals. We present levoglucosan flux, and hence past fire activity, measured during the late Holocene in the NEEM, Greenland (77°27' N; 51°3'W, 2454 masl) ice core. We compare the NEEM results with multiple major Northern Hemisphere climate and cultural parameters.

  9. Sampling frequency affects the processing of Actigraph raw acceleration data to activity counts.

    PubMed

    Brønd, Jan Christian; Arvidsson, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    ActiGraph acceleration data are processed through several steps (including band-pass filtering to attenuate unwanted signal frequencies) to generate the activity counts commonly used in physical activity research. We performed three experiments to investigate the effect of sampling frequency on the generation of activity counts. Ideal acceleration signals were produced in the MATLAB software. Thereafter, ActiGraph GT3X+ monitors were spun in a mechanical setup. Finally, 20 subjects performed walking and running wearing GT3X+ monitors. Acceleration data from all experiments were collected with different sampling frequencies, and activity counts were generated with the ActiLife software. With the default 30-Hz (or 60-Hz, 90-Hz) sampling frequency, the generation of activity counts was performed as intended with 50% attenuation of acceleration signals with a frequency of 2.5 Hz by the signal frequency band-pass filter. Frequencies above 5 Hz were eliminated totally. However, with other sampling frequencies, acceleration signals above 5 Hz escaped the band-pass filter to a varied degree and contributed to additional activity counts. Similar results were found for the spinning of the GT3X+ monitors, although the amount of activity counts generated was less, indicating that raw data stored in the GT3X+ monitor is processed. Between 600 and 1,600 more counts per minute were generated with the sampling frequencies 40 and 100 Hz compared with 30 Hz during running. Sampling frequency affects the processing of ActiGraph acceleration data to activity counts. Researchers need to be aware of this error when selecting sampling frequencies other than the default 30 Hz.

  10. Counting on People: Elementary Population and Environmental Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Pamela; Scullard, Anne

    This activity book serves as a primer on population dynamics and environmental impacts. It is designed to show young students their connections to other people, all living things, and the environment that surrounds them. While the kit is designed for use with students in grades 1-6, many of the activities are more appropriate for upper elementary…

  11. Application of MODIS-Derived Active Fire Radiative Energy to Fire Disaster and Smoke Pollution Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Hao, Wei Min; Habib, Shahid

    2004-01-01

    The radiative energy emitted by large fires and the corresponding smoke aerosol loading are simultaneously measured from the MODIS sensor from both the Terra and Aqua satellites. Quantitative relationships between the rates of emission of fire radiative energy and smoke are being developed for different fire-prone regions of the globe. Preliminary results are presented. When fully developed, the system will enable the use of MODIS direct broadcast fire data for near real-time monitoring of fire strength and smoke emission as well as forecasting of fire progression and smoke dispersion, several hours to a few days in advance.

  12. Comparison of two HPGe counting system used in activation studies for nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Szücs, T.; Kiss, G. G.; Fülöp, Zs.

    2014-05-09

    The activation method is a widely used technique to measure charged-particle induced cross sections for astrophys-ical applications. This two step technique is used for example to measure alpha-induced cross sections in γ-process related studies. The first step – in which a target is irradiated with a proton/alpha beam – is followed by the determination of the produced activity. Especially in p-process related studies in the heavier mass range, the produced radioactive nuclei decays mainly with electron-capture, resulting intense x-rays. The activity of the reaction products hence can be determine via the counting of these x-rays, and not only by counting the usually much weaker γ-rays. In this paper we compare the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of two High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors used for x- and γ-ray counting in activation experiments.

  13. Detection, evaluation, and analysis of global fire activity using MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglio, Louis

    Global biomass burning plays a significant role in regional and global climate change, and spaceborne sensors offer the only practical way to monitor fire activity at these scales. This dissertation primarily concerns the development, evaluation, and use of the NASA Terra and Aqua MODIS instruments for fire monitoring. MODIS is the first satellite sensor designed specifically for global monitoring of fires. An improved operational fire detection algorithm was developed for the MODIS instrument. This algorithm offers a sensitivity to small, cool fires and minimizes false alarm rates. To support the accuracy assessment of the MODIS global fire product, an operational fire detection algorithm was developed and evaluated for the ASTER instrument, which provides higher resolution observations coincident with the Terra MODIS. The unique data set of multi-year MODIS day and night fire observations was used to analyze the global distribution of biomass burning using five different temporal metrics which included, for the first time, mean fire radiative power, a measure of fire intensity. The metrics show the planetary extent, seasonality, and interannual variability of fire. Recognizing differences in fire activity between morning and afternoon overpasses, the impact of the diurnal cycle of fire activity was addressed using seven years of fire data from the VIRS sensor on-board the TRMM satellite. A strong diurnal cycle was found in all regions, with the time of peak burning varying between approximately 13:00 and 18:30 local time. Given interest in area burned among atmospheric chemical transport and carbon cycle modelers, a data set was developed utilizing the MODIS global fire and vegetation cover products to estimate monthly burned area at 1-degree spatial resolution. The methods, products and results presented in this thesis provide the global change research and fire management communities with products for global fire monitoring and are currently being used in the

  14. Active neutron coincidence counting for the assay of MTR fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Sher, R.

    1983-02-01

    The active well coincidence counter (AWCC) and the neutron coincidence collar (CC) were investigated for their suitability to assay materials testing reactor (MTR) fuel elements. The AWCC was used with its special insert to hold the fuel element and interrogation source. The CC was modified by the addition of polyethylene liners 2.5 cm (1 in.) thick on the sides. For a typical MTR element (approx. 220 g /sup 235/U) and 1000-s count times, statistical errors were approx. 1.6% for the CC and approx. 0.6% for AWCC. For either instrument, the change in count rate corresponding to the removal or addition of one fuel plate (with an 18-plate element) was approx. 3.8%; thus, either instrument can detect removal of one plate. The AWCC can also detect removal of one plate in count times that are considerably less than 1000 s. Various functions were investigated to fit the coincidence count rate vs /sup 235/U mass curve for the AWCC. Programs have been written for the Hewlett-Packard HP-97 calculator to calculate the calibration constants of these functions by a least-squares technique. Coincidence count rates in the AWCC depend on the orientation of the plates of the fuel elements because of the counting efficiency variation in the insert. To lessen this dependence, the MTR element should be counted with its plates positioned vertically, that is, parallel to the radius of the device. For the collar, the effect of plate orientation is much smaller.

  15. Synchronous fire activity in the tropical high Andes: an indication of regional climate forcing.

    PubMed

    Román-Cuesta, R M; Carmona-Moreno, C; Lizcano, G; New, M; Silman, M; Knoke, T; Malhi, Y; Oliveras, I; Asbjornsen, H; Vuille, M

    2014-06-01

    Global climate models suggest enhanced warming of the tropical mid and upper troposphere, with larger temperature rise rates at higher elevations. Changes in fire activity are amongst the most significant ecological consequences of rising temperatures and changing hydrological properties in mountainous ecosystems, and there is a global evidence of increased fire activity with elevation. Whilst fire research has become popular in the tropical lowlands, much less is known of the tropical high Andean region (>2000 masl, from Colombia to Bolivia). This study examines fire trends in the high Andes for three ecosystems, the Puna, the Paramo and the Yungas, for the period 1982-2006. We pose three questions: (i) is there an increased fire response with elevation? (ii) does the El Niño- Southern Oscillation control fire activity in this region? (iii) are the observed fire trends human driven (e.g., human practices and their effects on fuel build-up) or climate driven? We did not find evidence of increased fire activity with elevation but, instead, a quasicyclic and synchronous fire response in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, suggesting the influence of high-frequency climate forcing on fire responses on a subcontinental scale, in the high Andes. ENSO variability did not show a significant relation to fire activity for these three countries, partly because ENSO variability did not significantly relate to precipitation extremes, although it strongly did to temperature extremes. Whilst ENSO did not individually lead the observed regional fire trends, our results suggest a climate influence on fire activity, mainly through a sawtooth pattern of precipitation (increased rainfall before fire-peak seasons (t-1) followed by drought spells and unusual low temperatures (t0), which is particularly common where fire is carried by low fuel loads (e.g., grasslands and fine fuel). This climatic sawtooth appeared as the main driver of fire trends, above local human influences and fuel build

  16. Bootstrap testing for cross-correlation under low firing activity.

    PubMed

    González-Montoro, Aldana M; Cao, Ricardo; Espinosa, Nelson; Cudeiro, Javier; Mariño, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    A new cross-correlation synchrony index for neural activity is proposed. The index is based on the integration of the kernel estimation of the cross-correlation function. It is used to test for the dynamic synchronization levels of spontaneous neural activity under two induced brain states: sleep-like and awake-like. Two bootstrap resampling plans are proposed to approximate the distribution of the test statistics. The results of the first bootstrap method indicate that it is useful to discern significant differences in the synchronization dynamics of brain states characterized by a neural activity with low firing rate. The second bootstrap method is useful to unveil subtle differences in the synchronization levels of the awake-like state, depending on the activation pathway.

  17. Incorporating Anthropogenic Influences into Fire Probability Models: Effects of Human Activity and Climate Change on Fire Activity in California

    PubMed Central

    Batllori, Enric; Moritz, Max A.; Waller, Eric K.; Berck, Peter; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Dolfi, Emmalee

    2016-01-01

    The costly interactions between humans and wildfires throughout California demonstrate the need to understand the relationships between them, especially in the face of a changing climate and expanding human communities. Although a number of statistical and process-based wildfire models exist for California, there is enormous uncertainty about the location and number of future fires, with previously published estimates of increases ranging from nine to fifty-three percent by the end of the century. Our goal is to assess the role of climate and anthropogenic influences on the state’s fire regimes from 1975 to 2050. We develop an empirical model that integrates estimates of biophysical indicators relevant to plant communities and anthropogenic influences at each forecast time step. Historically, we find that anthropogenic influences account for up to fifty percent of explanatory power in the model. We also find that the total area burned is likely to increase, with burned area expected to increase by 2.2 and 5.0 percent by 2050 under climatic bookends (PCM and GFDL climate models, respectively). Our two climate models show considerable agreement, but due to potential shifts in rainfall patterns, substantial uncertainty remains for the semiarid inland deserts and coastal areas of the south. Given the strength of human-related variables in some regions, however, it is clear that comprehensive projections of future fire activity should include both anthropogenic and biophysical influences. Previous findings of substantially increased numbers of fires and burned area for California may be tied to omitted variable bias from the exclusion of human influences. The omission of anthropogenic variables in our model would overstate the importance of climatic ones by at least 24%. As such, the failure to include anthropogenic effects in many models likely overstates the response of wildfire to climatic change. PMID:27124597

  18. Incorporating Anthropogenic Influences into Fire Probability Models: Effects of Human Activity and Climate Change on Fire Activity in California.

    PubMed

    Mann, Michael L; Batllori, Enric; Moritz, Max A; Waller, Eric K; Berck, Peter; Flint, Alan L; Flint, Lorraine E; Dolfi, Emmalee

    2016-01-01

    The costly interactions between humans and wildfires throughout California demonstrate the need to understand the relationships between them, especially in the face of a changing climate and expanding human communities. Although a number of statistical and process-based wildfire models exist for California, there is enormous uncertainty about the location and number of future fires, with previously published estimates of increases ranging from nine to fifty-three percent by the end of the century. Our goal is to assess the role of climate and anthropogenic influences on the state's fire regimes from 1975 to 2050. We develop an empirical model that integrates estimates of biophysical indicators relevant to plant communities and anthropogenic influences at each forecast time step. Historically, we find that anthropogenic influences account for up to fifty percent of explanatory power in the model. We also find that the total area burned is likely to increase, with burned area expected to increase by 2.2 and 5.0 percent by 2050 under climatic bookends (PCM and GFDL climate models, respectively). Our two climate models show considerable agreement, but due to potential shifts in rainfall patterns, substantial uncertainty remains for the semiarid inland deserts and coastal areas of the south. Given the strength of human-related variables in some regions, however, it is clear that comprehensive projections of future fire activity should include both anthropogenic and biophysical influences. Previous findings of substantially increased numbers of fires and burned area for California may be tied to omitted variable bias from the exclusion of human influences. The omission of anthropogenic variables in our model would overstate the importance of climatic ones by at least 24%. As such, the failure to include anthropogenic effects in many models likely overstates the response of wildfire to climatic change.

  19. Methamphetamine Regulation of Firing Activity of Dopamine Neurons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Min; Sambo, Danielle; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2016-10-05

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a substrate for the dopamine transporter that increases extracellular dopamine levels by competing with dopamine uptake and increasing reverse transport of dopamine via the transporter. METH has also been shown to alter the excitability of dopamine neurons. The mechanism of METH regulation of the intrinsic firing behaviors of dopamine neurons is less understood. Here we identified an unexpected and unique property of METH on the regulation of firing activity of mouse dopamine neurons. METH produced a transient augmentation of spontaneous spike activity of midbrain dopamine neurons that was followed by a progressive reduction of spontaneous spike activity. Inspection of action potential morphology revealed that METH increased the half-width and produced larger coefficients of variation of the interspike interval, suggesting that METH exposure affected the activity of voltage-dependent potassium channels in these neurons. Since METH has been shown to affect Ca(2+) homeostasis, the unexpected findings that METH broadened the action potential and decreased the amplitude of afterhyperpolarization led us to ask whether METH alters the activity of Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels. First, we identified BK channels in dopamine neurons by their voltage dependence and their response to a BK channel blocker or opener. While METH suppressed the amplitude of BK channel-mediated unitary currents, the BK channel opener NS1619 attenuated the effects of METH on action potential broadening, afterhyperpolarization repression, and spontaneous spike activity reduction. Live-cell total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, electrophysiology, and biochemical analysis suggest METH exposure decreased the activity of BK channels by decreasing BK-α subunit levels at the plasma membrane.

  20. Canadian and Siberian Boreal Fire Activity during ARCTAS Spring and Summer Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocks, B. J.; Fromm, M. D.; Soja, A. J.; Servranckx, R.; Lindsey, D.; Hyer, E.

    2009-12-01

    The summer phase of ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites) was designed specifically around forest fire activity in the Canadian boreal forest, and located in areas of northern Canada where summer forest fires are ubiquitous. Lightning fires are most often allowed to burn naturally in these regions, and a number of large free-burning fires in northern Saskatchewan in late June/early July 2008 provided excellent targets during the summer phase of ARCTAS. Smoke generated by a large number of early spring fires in Kazakhstan and southern Siberia unexpectedly made a significant contribution to arctic haze during the Alaska-based spring phase of ARCTAS, Numerous smoke plumes were sampled during the spring phase of ARCTAS, creating interest in the origin and characteristics of the fires in the source regions of East Asia. This presentation is designed to connect aircraft and satellite smoke chemistry/transport measurements with ground-based measurements of fire activity during the spring and summer phases of ARCTAS. The Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) is used to determine forest fire danger conditions in regions of fire activity, and these measurements are in turn used to project fire behavior characteristics. Fuel consumption, spread rates, and frontal fire intensity are calculated using the CFFDRS. Energy release rates at ground level are related to convection/smoke column development and smoke injection heights.

  1. Corticothalamic Activation Modulates Thalamic Firing Through Glutamate "Metabotropic" Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, David A.; von Krosigk, Marcus

    1992-04-01

    The mammalian thalamus forms an obligatory relay for nearly all sensory information that reaches the cerebral cortex. The transmission of sensory information by the thalamus varies in a state-dependent manner, such that during slow wave sleep or drowsiness thalamic responsiveness is markedly reduced, whereas during the waking, attentive state transmission is enhanced. Although activation of brainstem inputs to thalamic neurons has long been assumed to underlie this gating of sensory transfer through the thalamus, numerically the largest input to thalamic relay neurons derives from layer VI cells of the cerebral cortex. Here we report that activation of corticothalamic fibers causes a prolonged excitatory postsynaptic potential in guinea pig dorsal lateral geniculate relay neurons resulting from the reduction of a potassium conductance, consistent with the activation of glutamatergic "metabotropic" receptors. This slow depolarization can switch firing of thalamic neurons from the burst firing mode, which is prevalent during slow wave sleep, to the single spike mode, which is prevalent during waking, thereby facilitating transmission of sensory information through the thalamus. This prolonged enhancement of thalamic transfer may allow the cerebral cortex to gate or control selective fields of sensory inputs in a manner that facilitates arousal, attention, and cognition.

  2. Physical activity, white blood cell count, and lung cancer risk in a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Brian L; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Lee, Kristine E; Hampton, John M

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that physical activity may lower lung cancer risk. The association of physical activity with reduced chronic inflammation provides a potential mechanism, yet few studies have directly related inflammatory markers to cancer incidence. The relation among physical activity, inflammation, and lung cancer risk was evaluated in a prospective cohort of 4,831 subjects, 43 to 86 years of age, in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. A total physical activity index was created by summing up kilocalories per week from sweat-inducing physical activities, city blocks walked, and flights of stairs climbed. Two inflammatory markers, WBC count and serum albumin, were measured at the baseline examination. During an average of 12.8 years of follow-up, 134 incident cases of lung cancer were diagnosed. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest tertile of total physical activity index had a 45% reduction in lung cancer risk compared with those in the lowest tertile (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.35-0.86). Participants with WBC counts in the upper tertile (>or=8 x 10(3)/microL) were 2.81 (95% confidence interval, 1.58-5.01) times as likely to develop lung cancer as those with counts in the lowest tertile (<6.4 x 10(3)/microL). Serum albumin was not related to lung cancer risk. There was no evidence that inflammation mediated the association between physical activity and lung cancer risk, as the physical activity risk estimates were essentially unchanged after adjustment for WBC count. Although the potential for residual confounding by smoking could not be eliminated, these data suggest that physical activity and WBC count are independent risk factors for lung cancer.

  3. Contrasting Spatial Patterns in Active-Fire and Fire-Suppressed Mediterranean Climate Old-Growth Mixed Conifer Forests

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Danny L.; Stephens, Scott L.; Collins, Brandon M.; North, Malcolm P.; Franco-Vizcaíno, Ernesto; Gill, Samantha J.

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean environments in western North America, historic fire regimes in frequent-fire conifer forests are highly variable both temporally and spatially. This complexity influenced forest structure and spatial patterns, but some of this diversity has been lost due to anthropogenic disruption of ecosystem processes, including fire. Information from reference forest sites can help management efforts to restore forests conditions that may be more resilient to future changes in disturbance regimes and climate. In this study, we characterize tree spatial patterns using four-ha stem maps from four old-growth, Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forests, two with active-fire regimes in northwestern Mexico and two that experienced fire exclusion in the southern Sierra Nevada. Most of the trees were in patches, averaging six to 11 trees per patch at 0.007 to 0.014 ha−1, and occupied 27–46% of the study areas. Average canopy gap sizes (0.04 ha) covering 11–20% of the area were not significantly different among sites. The putative main effects of fire exclusion were higher densities of single trees in smaller size classes, larger proportion of trees (≥56%) in large patches (≥10 trees), and decreases in spatial complexity. While a homogenization of forest structure has been a typical result from fire exclusion, some similarities in patch, single tree, and gap attributes were maintained at these sites. These within-stand descriptions provide spatially relevant benchmarks from which to manage for structural heterogeneity in frequent-fire forest types. PMID:24586472

  4. Contrasting spatial patterns in active-fire and fire-suppressed Mediterranean climate old-growth mixed conifer forests.

    PubMed

    Fry, Danny L; Stephens, Scott L; Collins, Brandon M; North, Malcolm P; Franco-Vizcaíno, Ernesto; Gill, Samantha J

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean environments in western North America, historic fire regimes in frequent-fire conifer forests are highly variable both temporally and spatially. This complexity influenced forest structure and spatial patterns, but some of this diversity has been lost due to anthropogenic disruption of ecosystem processes, including fire. Information from reference forest sites can help management efforts to restore forests conditions that may be more resilient to future changes in disturbance regimes and climate. In this study, we characterize tree spatial patterns using four-ha stem maps from four old-growth, Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forests, two with active-fire regimes in northwestern Mexico and two that experienced fire exclusion in the southern Sierra Nevada. Most of the trees were in patches, averaging six to 11 trees per patch at 0.007 to 0.014 ha(-1), and occupied 27-46% of the study areas. Average canopy gap sizes (0.04 ha) covering 11-20% of the area were not significantly different among sites. The putative main effects of fire exclusion were higher densities of single trees in smaller size classes, larger proportion of trees (≥ 56%) in large patches (≥ 10 trees), and decreases in spatial complexity. While a homogenization of forest structure has been a typical result from fire exclusion, some similarities in patch, single tree, and gap attributes were maintained at these sites. These within-stand descriptions provide spatially relevant benchmarks from which to manage for structural heterogeneity in frequent-fire forest types.

  5. Making Online Instruction Count: Statistical Reporting of Web-Based Library Instruction Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottorff, Tim; Todd, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Statistical reporting of library instruction (LI) activities has historically focused on measures relevant to face-to-face (F2F) settings. However, newer forms of LI conducted in the online realm may be difficult to count in traditional ways, leading to inaccurate reporting to both internal and external stakeholders. A thorough literature review…

  6. Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity of Adults with Intellectual Disability: Predicting Weekly Step Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Viviene A.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2009-01-01

    Pedometers are objective, inexpensive, valid, and reliable measures of physical activity. The minimum number of days of pedometer monitoring needed to estimate average weekly step counts was investigated. Seven days of pedometer data were collected from 154 ambulatory men and women ("ns" = 88 and 66, respectively) with intellectual disability.…

  7. Fire activity as a function of fire-weather seasonal severity and antecedent climate across spatial scales in southern Europe and Pacific western USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbieta, Itziar R.; Zavala, Gonzalo; Bedia, Joaquín; Gutiérrez, José M.; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús; Camia, Andrea; Keeley, Jon E.; Moreno, José M.

    2015-11-01

    Climate has a strong influence on fire activity, varying across time and space. We analyzed the relationships between fire-weather conditions during the main fire season and antecedent water-balance conditions and fires in two Mediterranean-type regions with contrasted management histories: five southern countries of the European Union (EUMED)(all fires); the Pacific western coast of the USA (California and Oregon, PWUSA)(national forest fires). Total number of fires (≥1 ha), number of large fires (≥100 ha) and area burned were related to mean seasonal fire weather index (FWI), number of days over the 90th percentile of the FWI, and to the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) from the preceding 3 (spring) or 8 (autumn through spring) months. Calculations were made at three spatial aggregations in each area, and models related first-difference (year-to-year change) of fires and FWI/climate variables to minimize autocorrelation. An increase in mean seasonal FWI resulted in increases in the three fire variables across spatial scales in both regions. SPEI contributed little to explain fires, with few exceptions. Negative water-balance (dry) conditions from autumn through spring (SPEI8) were generally more important than positive conditions (moist) in spring (SPEI3), both of which contributed positively to fires. The R2 of the models generally improved with increasing area of aggregation. For total number of fires and area burned, the R2 of the models tended to decrease with increasing mean seasonal FWI. Thus, fires were more susceptible to change with climate variability in areas with less amenable conditions for fires (lower FWI) than in areas with higher mean FWI values. The relationships were similar in both regions, albeit weaker in PWUSA, probably due to the wider latitudinal gradient covered in PWUSA than in EUMED. The large variance explained by some of the models indicates that large-scale seasonal forecast could help anticipating fire

  8. An improved liquid scintillation counting method for the determination of gross alpha activity in groundwater wells.

    PubMed

    Ruberu, Shiyamalie R; Liu, Yun-Gang; Perera, S Kusum

    2008-10-01

    A liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method having several advantages over the gas proportional counting (GPC) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 900.0 for the detection of gross alpha activity in drinking water was evaluated in this study. The improved method described here involves the use of nitromethane as the quench agent for establishing counting efficiencies and spillover factors, and it minimizes sample preparation. It has the advantage of achieving the regulatory detection limit of 111 mBq L(-1) with short count times (100 min) and small sample aliquot sizes. A thorough method validation study was performed by testing field samples ranging in total dissolved solids (TDS) from 0.3 mg L(-1) to 1,000 mg L(-1) and spiking each matrix from 194 mBq L(-1) to 11.6 Bq L(-1). Comparable method precision and accuracy was observed on the two types of LSC instruments tested, Perkin Elmer Quantulus 1220 and Packard 2550, with the former giving better performance. Data presented demonstrate that this efficient and high throughput LSC method is suitable for groundwater samples in excess of 1,000 mg L(-1) of TDS in contrast with the 500 mg L(-1) limit by the routine GPC method. Groundwater wells across the state of California were sampled, analyzed for gross alpha activity using the EPA- approved method and the improved LSC method, and the results were compared.

  9. Radioactivity of Potassium Solutions: A Comparison of Calculated Activity to Measured Activity from Gross Beta Counting and Gamma Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, R F

    2005-07-26

    In order to determine if the measured beta activity for a solution containing potassium was exactly as predicted, particularly since the CES gas counter is not calibrated specifically with K-40, an experiment was conducted to compare measured activities from two radioanalytical methods (gamma spectroscopy and gas proportional counting) to calculated activities across a range of potassium concentrations. Potassium, being ubiquitous and naturally radioactive, is a well-known and common interference in gross beta counting methods. By measuring the observed beta activity due to K-40 in potassium-containing solutions across a wide range of concentrations, it was found that the observed beta activity agrees well with the beta activity calculated from the potassium concentration measured by standard inorganic analytical techniques, such as ICP-OES, and that using the measured potassium concentration to calculate the expected beta activity, and comparing this to the observed beta activity to determine if potassium can account for all the observed activity in a sample, is a valid technique. It was also observed that gamma spectroscopy is not an effective means of measuring K-40 activity below approximately 700 pCi/L, which corresponds to a solution with approximately 833 mg/L total potassium. Gas proportional counting for gross beta activity has a much lower detection limit, typically 20-50 picoCi/L for a liquid low in total dissolved solids, which corresponds to a potassium concentration of approximately 30-70 ppm K.

  10. Development of an Absolute Gas-Counting Capability for Low to Medium Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Richard M.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Ely, James H.; Day, Anthony R.; Hayes, James C.; Hoppe, Eric W.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Mace, Emily K.; Merriman, Jason H.; Overman, Cory T.; Seifert, Allen

    2013-11-01

    ABSTRACT Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a capability to measure the absolute activity concentration of various gaseous radionuclides using length-compensated proportional-counting methods. This capability will enable the validation and use of low-level, gaseous radionuclide calibration standards for use in PNNL’s shallow underground laboratory. Two sets of unequal length proportional counters have been fabricated. These detector assemblies operate on a static gas-fill principle, in contrast to continuous, flow-through configurations. One set of three counters has been fabricated using ultra-low background (ULB) electroformed copper and low-background fabrication methods. Once fully operational, these ULB counters will be used in PNNL’s shallow underground counting laboratory for analysis of gases with low activity concentrations < 1 Bq/cc. A second set of four unequal length counters has been fabricated from Oxygen-Free High-Conductivity Copper (OFHC) using similar low-background cleaning and assembly methods. These OFHC counters will be operated above ground in the analysis of gases with activity concentrations in the range of 1-10 Bq/cc. A gas delivery system is being developed to actively mix the analyte gas with an appropriate amount of count-gas and uniformly deliver it to the counters with high accuracy and repeatability. A description of both detector assemblies and gas delivery system will be given along with a preliminary uncertainty analysis of a simulated 0.05 Bq/cm3 gas measurement.

  11. Atlantic SSTs control regime shifts in forest fire activity of Northern Scandinavia

    PubMed Central

    Drobyshev, Igor; Bergeron, Yves; Vernal, Anne de; Moberg, Anders; Ali, Adam A.; Niklasson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of the boreal forest fire activity is challenging due to the complexity of the interactions driving fire regimes. We analyzed drivers of forest fire activity in Northern Scandinavia (above 60 N) by combining modern and proxy data over the Holocene. The results suggest that the cold climate in northern Scandinavia was generally characterized by dry conditions favourable to periods of regionally increased fire activity. We propose that the cold conditions over the northern North Atlantic, associated with low SSTs, expansion of sea ice cover, and the southward shift in the position of the subpolar gyre, redirect southward the precipitation over Scandinavia, associated with the westerlies. This dynamics strengthens high pressure systems over Scandinavia and results in increased regional fire activity. Our study reveals a previously undocumented teleconnection between large scale climate and ocean dynamics over the North Atlantic and regional boreal forest fire activity in Northern Scandinavia. Consistency of the pattern observed annually through millennium scales suggests that a strong link between Atlantic SST and fire activity on multiple temporal scales over the entire Holocene is relevant for understanding future fire activity across the European boreal zone. PMID:26940995

  12. Atlantic SSTs control regime shifts in forest fire activity of Northern Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Drobyshev, Igor; Bergeron, Yves; Vernal, Anne de; Moberg, Anders; Ali, Adam A; Niklasson, Mats

    2016-03-04

    Understanding the drivers of the boreal forest fire activity is challenging due to the complexity of the interactions driving fire regimes. We analyzed drivers of forest fire activity in Northern Scandinavia (above 60 N) by combining modern and proxy data over the Holocene. The results suggest that the cold climate in northern Scandinavia was generally characterized by dry conditions favourable to periods of regionally increased fire activity. We propose that the cold conditions over the northern North Atlantic, associated with low SSTs, expansion of sea ice cover, and the southward shift in the position of the subpolar gyre, redirect southward the precipitation over Scandinavia, associated with the westerlies. This dynamics strengthens high pressure systems over Scandinavia and results in increased regional fire activity. Our study reveals a previously undocumented teleconnection between large scale climate and ocean dynamics over the North Atlantic and regional boreal forest fire activity in Northern Scandinavia. Consistency of the pattern observed annually through millennium scales suggests that a strong link between Atlantic SST and fire activity on multiple temporal scales over the entire Holocene is relevant for understanding future fire activity across the European boreal zone.

  13. Using Macroscopic Charcoal to Reconstruct the Holocene Fire Activity of the Willamette Valley, Oregon and Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, M. K.; Whitlock, C.; Bartlein, P. J.; Pearl, C. A.

    2006-12-01

    High-resolution macroscopic charcoal analysis of two lacustrine records has revealed the Holocene fire activity of the Willamette Valley, located between the Coast and Cascade ranges of southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. The Willamette Valley experienced major environmental and cultural changes during the Holocene, however, its long-term fire history is poorly known. Of particular interest are shifts in fire activity that occurred in response to (1) millennial- and centennial-scale climate and vegetation changes (e.g., the Early Holocene warm period, the Little Ice Age) and (2) major shifts in human activity and population size (e.g., Native American population decline, Euro-American settlement). Macroscopic charcoal analysis of contiguous core samples was used to reconstruct fire activity at each site. Charcoal source (i.e., herbaceous or woody) was also determined based on particle morphology. Charcoal influx was decomposed into a peak component (which indicates fire episodes) and a background component (which indicates changes in burnable biomass). Charcoal records from Battle Ground Lake and Beaver Lake reveal major shifts in fire activity that are consistent with known changes in regional climate on orbital time scales. The Battle Ground Lake charcoal data, for example, show a general increase in fire frequency from the beginning of the Holocene to a maximum of ~18 fire episodes/1000 years at 6500 cal yr BP, associated with the early Holocene insolation maximum and its influence on summer drought, followed by a decrease to ~5 fire episodes/1000 years at present. Similar trends are indicated by the Beaver Lake charcoal data. Both records also indicate shifts in fire activity that suggest the possibility of anthropogenic burning, but at different times at each site. Additional records are being analyzed to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of fire activity across the Willamette Valley as a whole.

  14. Holocene fire activity in the Carpathian region: regional climate vs. local controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florescu, Gabriela; Feurdean, Angelica

    2015-04-01

    Introduction. Fire drives significant changes in ecosystem structure and function, diversity, species evolution, biomass dynamics and atmospheric composition. Palaeodata and model-based studies have pointed towards a strong connection between fire activity, climate, vegetation and people. Nevertheless, the relative importance of these factors appears to be strongly variable and a better understanding of these factors and their interaction needs a thorough investigation over multiple spatial (local to global) and temporal (years to millennia) scales. In this respect, sedimentary charcoal, associated with other proxies of climate, vegetation and human impact, represents a powerful tool of investigating changes in past fire activity, especially in regions with scarce fire dataset such as the CE Europe. Aim. To increase the spatial and temporal coverage of charcoal records and facilitate a more critical examination of the patterns, drivers and consequences of biomass burning over multiple spatial and temporal scales in CE Europe, we have investigated 6 fossil sequences in the Carpathian region (northern Romania). These are located in different geographical settings, in terms of elevation, vegetation composition, topography and land-use. Specific questions are: i) determine trends in timing and magnitude of fire activity, as well as similarities and differences between elevations; ii) disentangle the importance of regional from local controls in fire activity; iii) evaluate ecological consequences of fire on landscape composition, structure and diversity. Methods. We first determine the recent trends in fire activity (the last 150 years) from charcoal data and compare them with instrumental records of temperature, precipitation, site history and topography for a better understanding of the relationship between sedimentary charcoal and historical fire activity. We then statistically quantify centennial to millennial trends in fire activity (frequency, magnitude) based on

  15. Fire activity inside and outside protected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa: a continental analysis of fire and its implications for biodiversity and land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Ilaria; Gregoire, Jean-Marie; Simonetti, Dario; Punga, Mihkel; Dubois, Gregoire

    2010-05-01

    Fire is an important ecological factor in many natural ecosystems. Without doubt one of the biomes with the highest fire activity in the world is the African savannah. Savannahs have evolved with fires since climate in these regions is characterized by definite dry and wet seasons that create the conditions for burning. During the wet months the herbaceous vegetation shows a quick growth, followed by a long dry period during which the abundant build-up of fine materials becomes highly flammable and most of fires occur. Animals and plants are adapted to these conditions and their lives depend on recurrent fires. In this context fire becomes an essential element to promote biodiversity and nature conservation. Park managers are using programmed fires as a tool to maintain the habitats and favorable conditions to the animal communities. Satellite products like burned areas and active fire maps are a valuable mean to analyze the fire activity and provide support to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. In the framework of the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA), the MONDE group (Monitoring Natural Resources for Development) of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission is using satellite products to analyze the fire occurrence and its effects on protected areas located in sub-Saharan Africa. Information on the fire activity was derived from the MODIS fire products (active fires and burned areas) and allows the DOPA to provide support to park managers as well as to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. We assessed 741 protected areas classified by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) with a level of protection between class I and IV. The MODIS datasets are available since the year 2000 and were used to characterize the spatio-temporal distribution of fires over a period of 10 years. Information on fire activity was extracted for the protected areas and a 25km buffer zone

  16. Fire activity inside and outside protected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa: a continental analysis of fire and its implications for biodiversity and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Ilaria; Gregoire, Jean-Marie; Simonetti, Dario; Punga, Mihkel; Dubois, Gregoire

    2010-05-01

    Fire is an important ecological factor in many natural ecosystems. Without doubt one of the biomes with the highest fire activity in the world is the African savannah. Savannahs have evolved with fires since climate in these regions is characterized by definite dry and wet seasons that create the conditions for burning. During the wet months the herbaceous vegetation shows a quick growth, followed by a long dry period during which the abundant build-up of fine materials becomes highly flammable and most of fires occur. Animals and plants are adapted to these conditions and their lives depend on recurrent fires. In this context fire becomes an essential element to promote biodiversity and nature conservation. Park managers are using programmed fires as a tool to maintain the habitats and favorable conditions to the animal communities. Satellite products like burned areas and active fire maps are a valuable mean to analyze the fire activity and provide support to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. In the framework of the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA), the MONDE group (Monitoring Natural Resources for Development) of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission is using satellite products to analyze the fire occurrence and its effects on protected areas located in sub-Saharan Africa. Information on the fire activity was derived from the MODIS fire products (active fires and burned areas) and allows the DOPA to provide support to park managers as well as to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. We assessed 741 protected areas classified by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) with a level of protection between class I and IV. The MODIS datasets are available since the year 2000 and were used to characterize the spatio-temporal distribution of fires over a period of 10 years. Information on fire activity was extracted for the protected areas and a 25km buffer zone

  17. Holocene fire activity and vegetation response in South-Eastern Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Romera, Graciela; Carrión, José S.; Pausas, Juli G.; Sevilla-Callejo, Miguel; Lamb, Henry F.; Fernández, Santiago; Burjachs, Francesc

    2010-05-01

    Since fire has been recognized as an essential disturbance in Mediterranean landscapes, the study of long-term fire ecology has developed rapidly. We have reconstructed a sequence of vegetation dynamics and fire changes across south-eastern Iberia by coupling records of climate, fire, vegetation and human activities. We calculated fire activity anomalies (FAAs) in relation to 3 ka cal BP for 10-8 ka cal BP, 6 ka cal BP, 4 ka cal BP and the present. For most of the Early to the Mid-Holocene uneven, but low fire events were the main vegetation driver at high altitudes where broadleaved and coniferous trees presented a highly dynamic post-fire response. At mid-altitudes in the mainland Segura Mountains, fire activity remained relatively stable, at similar levels to recent times. We hypothesize that coastal areas, both mountains and lowlands, were more fire-prone landscapes as biomass was more likely to have accumulated than in the inland regions, triggering regular fire events. The wet and warm phase towards the Mid-Holocene (between ca 8 and 6 ka cal BP) affected the whole region and promoted the spread of mesophytic forest co-existing with Pinus, as FAAs appear strongly negative at 6 ka cal BP, with a less important role of fire. Mid and Late Holocene landscapes were shaped by an increasing aridity trend and the rise of human occupation, especially in the coastal mountains where forest disappeared from ca 2 ka cal BP. Mediterranean-type vegetation (evergreen oaks and Pinus pinaster- halepensis types) showed the fastest post-fire vegetation dynamics over time.

  18. Effects of biotic feedback and harvest management on boreal forest fire activity under climate change.

    PubMed

    Krawchuk, Meg A; Cumming, Steve G

    2011-01-01

    Predictions of future fire activity over Canada's boreal forests have primarily been generated from climate data following assumptions that direct effects of weather will stand alone in contributing to changes in burning. However, this assumption needs explicit testing. First, areas recently burned can be less likely to burn again in the near term, and this endogenous regulation suggests the potential for self-limiting, negative biotic feedback to regional climate-driven increases in fire. Second, forest harvest is ongoing, and resulting changes in vegetation structure have been shown to affect fire activity. Consequently, we tested the assumption that fire activity will be driven by changes in fire weather without regulation by biotic feedback or regional harvest-driven changes in vegetation structure in the mixedwood boreal forest of Alberta, Canada, using a simulation experiment that includes the interaction of fire, stand dynamics, climate change, and clear cut harvest management. We found that climate change projected with fire weather indices calculated from the Canadian Regional Climate Model increased fire activity, as expected, and our simulations established evidence that the magnitude of regional increase in fire was sufficient to generate negative feedback to subsequent fire activity. We illustrate a 39% (1.39-fold) increase in fire initiation and 47% (1.47-fold) increase in area burned when climate and stand dynamics were included in simulations, yet 48% (1.48-fold) and 61% (1.61-fold) increases, respectively, when climate was considered alone. Thus, although biotic feedbacks reduced burned area estimates in important ways, they were secondary to the direct effect of climate on fire. We then show that ongoing harvest management in this region changed landscape composition in a way that led to reduced fire activity, even in the context of climate change. Although forest harvesting resulted in decreased regional fire activity when compared to unharvested

  19. Introduced annual grass increases regional fire activity across the arid western USA (1980-2009).

    PubMed

    Balch, Jennifer K; Bradley, Bethany A; D'Antonio, Carla M; Gómez-Dans, José

    2013-01-01

    Non-native, invasive grasses have been linked to altered grass-fire cycles worldwide. Although a few studies have quantified resulting changes in fire activity at local scales, and many have speculated about larger scales, regional alterations to fire regimes remain poorly documented. We assessed the influence of large-scale Bromus tectorum (hereafter cheatgrass) invasion on fire size, duration, spread rate, and interannual variability in comparison to other prominent land cover classes across the Great Basin, USA. We compared regional land cover maps to burned area measured using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2000-2009 and to fire extents recorded by the USGS registry of fires from 1980 to 2009. Cheatgrass dominates at least 6% of the central Great Basin (650 000 km(2) ). MODIS records show that 13% of these cheatgrass-dominated lands burned, resulting in a fire return interval of 78 years for any given location within cheatgrass. This proportion was more than double the amount burned across all other vegetation types (range: 0.5-6% burned). During the 1990s, this difference was even more extreme, with cheatgrass burning nearly four times more frequently than any native vegetation type (16% of cheatgrass burned compared to 1-5% of native vegetation). Cheatgrass was also disproportionately represented in the largest fires, comprising 24% of the land area of the 50 largest fires recorded by MODIS during the 2000s. Furthermore, multi-date fires that burned across multiple vegetation types were significantly more likely to have started in cheatgrass. Finally, cheatgrass fires showed a strong interannual response to wet years, a trend only weakly observed in native vegetation types. These results demonstrate that cheatgrass invasion has substantially altered the regional fire regime. Although this result has been suspected by managers for decades, this study is the first to document recent cheatgrass-driven fire regimes at a regional

  20. Primary activity measurements with 4pigamma NaI(Tl) counting and Monte Carlo calculated efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Nedjadi, Youcef; Spring, Philippe; Bailat, Claude; Decombaz, Marc; Triscone, Gilles; Gostely, Jean-Jacques; Laedermann, Jean-Pascal; Bochud, François O

    2007-05-01

    The radioactive concentrations of (18)F, (88)Y and (152)Eu solutions and the activity of (222)Rn gas ampoules are measured using a primary method involving 4pigamma NaI(Tl) integral counting with a well-type NaI(Tl) detector and efficiencies computed by Monte Carlo simulations. The simulations use the GEANT code coupled with a routine (sch2for), which generates randomly the decay paths and emissions depending on the decay scheme parameters. The resulting radioactive concentrations of (88)Y, (152)Eu and (18)F are found to agree with those measured with other primary measurement methods, such as 4pi (beta, e, X)-gamma coincidence counting or liquid scintillation counting. Results of the determination of the activity of (222)Rn gas ampoules by this method also match the results of an absolute standardisation technique in which radon is condensed onto a cold surface and its alpha-emissions are detected through an accurately specified solid angle.

  1. Controls on interannual variability in lightning-caused fire activity in the western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abatzoglou, John T.; Kolden, Crystal A.; Balch, Jennifer K.; Bradley, Bethany A.

    2016-04-01

    Lightning-caused wildfires account for a majority of burned area across the western United States (US), yet lightning remains among the more unpredictable spatiotemporal aspects of the fire environment and a challenge for both modeling and managing fire activity. A data synthesis of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes, climate and fire data across the western US from 1992 to 2013 was conducted to better understand geographic variability in lightning-caused wildfire and the factors that influence interannual variability in lightning-caused wildfire at regional scales. Distinct geographic variability occurred in the proportion of fires and area burned attributed to lightning, with a majority of fires in the interior western US attributed to lightning. Lightning ignition efficiency was highest across the western portion of the region due to the concomitance of peak lightning frequency and annual nadir in fuel moisture in mid-to-late summer. For most regions the number of total and dry lightning strikes exhibited strong interannual correlation with the number of lightning-caused fires, yet were a poor predictor of area burned at regional scales. Commonality in climate-fire relationships for regional annual area burned by lightning- versus human-ignited fires suggests climate conditions, rather than lightning activity, are the predominant control of interannual variability in area burned by lightning-caused fire across much of the western US.

  2. Fast determination of ⁹⁰Sr/⁹⁰Y activity in milk by Cherenkov counting.

    PubMed

    Tsroya, S; Dolgin, B; German, U; Pelled, O; Alfassi, Z B

    2013-12-01

    Cherenkov counting of the ⁹⁰Sr/⁹⁰Y pure beta emitters is an attractive method for ⁹⁰Sr activity determination, but the color quenching effect may be significant, especially for strongly colored or semi-opaque media. A quench correction method based on the external source of some liquid scintillation systems (named ESAR - external source area ratio) was proposed and checked for aqueous solutions and was proved to be effective also for urine samples. In the present work, the application of the ESAR method for fast determination of ⁹⁰Sr/⁹⁰Y activity in milk samples is described.

  3. Flow cytometric assessment of activation of peripheral blood platelets in dogs with normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Żmigrodzka, M; Guzera, M; Winnicka, A

    2016-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in hemostasis. Their activation has not yet been evaluated in healthy dogs with a normal and low platelet count. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of activators on platelet activation in dogs with a normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. 72 clinically healthy dogs were enrolled. Patients were allocated into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 30 dogs with a normal platelet count, group 2 included 22 dogs with a platelet count between 100 and 200×109/l and group 3 consisted of 20 dogs with a platelet count lower than 100×109/l. Platelet rich-plasma (PRP) was obtained from peripheral blood samples using tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K3-EDTA) as anticoagulant. Next, platelets were stimulated using phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate or thrombin, stabilized using procaine or left unstimulated. The expression of CD51 and CD41/CD61 was evaluated. Co-expression of CD41/CD61 and Annexin V served as a marker of platelet activation. The expression of CD41/CD61 and CD51 did not differ between the 3 groups. Thrombin-stimulated platelets had a significantly higher activity in dogs with a normal platelet count than in dogs with asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. Procaine inhibited platelet activity in all groups. In conclusion, activation of platelets of healthy dogs in vitro varied depending on the platelet count and platelet activator.

  4. Fire Activity and Severity in the Western US Vary along Proxy Gradients Representing Fuel Amount and Fuel Moisture

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Sean A.; Parisien, Marc-André; Miller, Carol; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous theoretical and empirical studies have shown that wildfire activity (e.g., area burned) at regional to global scales may be limited at the extremes of environmental gradients such as productivity or moisture. Fire activity, however, represents only one component of the fire regime, and no studies to date have characterized fire severity along such gradients. Given the importance of fire severity in dictating ecological response to fire, this is a considerable knowledge gap. For the western US, we quantify relationships between climate and the fire regime by empirically describing both fire activity and severity along two climatic water balance gradients, actual evapotranspiration (AET) and water deficit (WD), that can be considered proxies for fuel amount and fuel moisture, respectively. We also concurrently summarize fire activity and severity among ecoregions, providing an empirically based description of the geographic distribution of fire regimes. Our results show that fire activity in the western US increases with fuel amount (represented by AET) but has a unimodal (i.e., humped) relationship with fuel moisture (represented by WD); fire severity increases with fuel amount and fuel moisture. The explicit links between fire regime components and physical environmental gradients suggest that multivariable statistical models can be generated to produce an empirically based fire regime map for the western US. Such models will potentially enable researchers to anticipate climate-mediated changes in fire recurrence and its impacts based on gridded spatial data representing future climate scenarios. PMID:24941290

  5. Fire activity and severity in the western US vary along proxy gradients representing fuel amount and fuel moisture.

    PubMed

    Parks, Sean A; Parisien, Marc-André; Miller, Carol; Dobrowski, Solomon Z

    2014-01-01

    Numerous theoretical and empirical studies have shown that wildfire activity (e.g., area burned) at regional to global scales may be limited at the extremes of environmental gradients such as productivity or moisture. Fire activity, however, represents only one component of the fire regime, and no studies to date have characterized fire severity along such gradients. Given the importance of fire severity in dictating ecological response to fire, this is a considerable knowledge gap. For the western US, we quantify relationships between climate and the fire regime by empirically describing both fire activity and severity along two climatic water balance gradients, actual evapotranspiration (AET) and water deficit (WD), that can be considered proxies for fuel amount and fuel moisture, respectively. We also concurrently summarize fire activity and severity among ecoregions, providing an empirically based description of the geographic distribution of fire regimes. Our results show that fire activity in the western US increases with fuel amount (represented by AET) but has a unimodal (i.e., humped) relationship with fuel moisture (represented by WD); fire severity increases with fuel amount and fuel moisture. The explicit links between fire regime components and physical environmental gradients suggest that multivariable statistical models can be generated to produce an empirically based fire regime map for the western US. Such models will potentially enable researchers to anticipate climate-mediated changes in fire recurrence and its impacts based on gridded spatial data representing future climate scenarios.

  6. Increasing late winter-early spring fire activity in Northern Spain: climate change or human footprint?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carracedo Martín, Virginia; García Codron, Juan Carlos; Rasilla Álvarez, Domingo

    2016-04-01

    Most of the fire activity across Spain concentrates during the summer months, but a secondary peak appears also during late winter and early spring (February and March). This peak represents a tiny fraction of the burned surface but in northern Spain becomes the main fire season, representing up to 60 % of the total burned surface. Moreover, the impact of this "unseasonal" fire regime is becoming more relevant; an analysis of the temporal evolution of the burned surface since 2005 shows that the suppression efforts of summer forest fires have apparently succeeded, while the opposite has occurred with late winter-early spring forest fires. For example, during March 2012 more than 22,000 ha were burned in the Spanish provinces of Asturias and Cantabria, while about 14,000 suffers the effects of fires in Northern Portugal. Anthropogenic factor (mostly linked to an extensive cattle farming in the mountains) are the main cause of such fire activity, but atmospheric factors also play a relevant role in the spread of this fires. Consequently, the main aim of this poster is to explore if the recent evolution of forest fires in the study area are consequence of an aggravation of the atmospheric conditions driving to more fire risk conditions, or other factor could also explain the increase in fire activity. Burned surface data obtained from official statistics since 1971 were compared with atmospheric data at two temporal scales: daily fire risk values calculated from synoptic records and long term drought indices (SPI and SPEI). The results show a long term increase in both daily fire risk and drought conditions, but this trend can be related to the background warming of the area, rather to an increase in the frequency and magnitude of the extreme fire weather events. Thus, we consider that the regional atmospheric evolution cannot explain by itself the recent increase in late winter-early spring fire activity. Additional anthropogenic factors, such as recent changes in

  7. Detection of anomalous reactor activity using antineutrino count evolution over the course of a reactor cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bulaevskaya, Vera; Bernstein, Adam

    2011-06-01

    This paper analyzes the sensitivity of antineutrino count rate measurements to changes in the fissile content of civil power reactors. Such measurements may be useful in IAEA reactor safeguards applications. We introduce a hypothesis testing procedure to identify statistically significant differences between the antineutrino count rate evolution of a standard 'baseline' fuel cycle and that of an anomalous cycle, in which plutonium is removed and replaced with an equivalent fissile worth of uranium. The test would allow an inspector to detect anomalous reactor activity, or to positively confirm that the reactor is operating in a manner consistent with its declared fuel inventory and power level. We show that with a reasonable choice of detector parameters, the test can detect replacement of 82 kg of plutonium in 90 days with 95% probability, while controlling the false positive rate at 5%. We show that some improvement on this level of sensitivity may be obtained by various means, including use of the method in conjunction with existing reactor safeguards methods. We also identify a necessary and sufficient minimum daily antineutrino count rate and a maximum tolerable background rate to achieve the quoted sensitivity, and list examples of detectors in which such rates have been attained.

  8. Primary activity measurements with a 4πβ-4πγ coincidence counting system.

    PubMed

    Nedjadi, Youcef; Bailat, Claude J; Bochud, François O

    2012-01-01

    The radioactive concentrations of (166m)Ho, (134)Cs and (133)Ba solutions have been standardised using a 4πβ-4πγ coincidence counting system we have recently set up. The detection in the beta channel is performed using various geometries of a UPS-89 plastic scintillator optically coupled to a selected low-noise 1in. diameter photomultiplier tube. The light-tight thin capsule that encloses this beta detector is housed within the well of a 5in.×5in. NaI(Tl) monocrystal detector. The beta detection efficiency can be varied either by optical filtering or electronic discrimination when the electrons loose all their energy in the plastic scintillator. This 4πβ-4πγ coincidence system improves on our 4πβ(PC)-γ system in that its sample preparation is less labour intensive, it yields larger beta- and gamma-counting efficiencies thus enabling the standardisation of low activity sources with good statistics in reasonable time, and it makes standardising short-lived radionuclides easier. The resulting radioactive concentrations of (166m)Ho, (134)Cs and (133)Ba are found to agree with those measured with other primary measurement methods thus validating our 4πβ-4πγ coincidence counting system.

  9. Firing Behavior and Network Activity of Single Neurons in Human Epileptic Hypothalamic Hamartoma

    PubMed Central

    Steinmetz, Peter N.; Wait, Scott D.; Lekovic, Gregory P.; Rekate, Harold L.; Kerrigan, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Human hypothalamic hamartomas (HH) are intrinsically epileptogenic and are associated with treatment-resistant gelastic seizures. The basic cellular mechanisms responsible for seizure onset within HH are unknown. We used intra-operative microwire recordings of single neuron activity to measure the spontaneous firing rate of neurons and the degree of functional connection between neurons within the tumor. Technique: Fourteen patients underwent transventricular endoscopic resection of HH for treatment-resistant epilepsy. Prior to surgical resection, single neuron recordings from bundled microwires (total of nine contacts) were obtained from HH tissue. Spontaneous activity was recorded for two or three 5-min epochs under steady-state general anesthesia. Off-line analysis included cluster analysis of single unit activity and probability analysis of firing relationships between pairs of neurons. Results: Altogether, 222 neurons were identified (mean 6 neurons per recording epoch). Cluster analysis of single neuron firing utilizing a mixture of Gaussians model identified two distinct populations on the basis of firing rate (median firing frequency 0.6 versus 15.0 spikes per second; p < 10−5). Cluster analysis identified three populations determined by levels of burst firing (median burst indices of 0.015, 0.18, and 0.39; p < 10−15). Unbiased analysis of spontaneous single unit behavior showed that 51% of all possible neuron pairs within each recording epoch had a significant level of firing synchrony (p < 10−15). The subgroup of neurons with higher median firing frequencies was more likely to demonstrate synchronous firing (p < 10−7). Conclusion: Hypothalamic hamartoma tissue in vivo contains neurons which fire spontaneously. The activity of single neurons is diverse but distributes into at least two electrophysiological phenoytpes. Functional linkage between single neurons suggests that HH neurons exist within local networks that may

  10. Advanced fire-resistant forms of activated carbon and methods of adsorbing and separating gases using same

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Yongliang; Wang, Yifeng

    2016-04-19

    A method of removing a target gas from a gas stream is disclosed. The method uses advanced, fire-resistant activated carbon compositions having vastly improved fire resistance. Methods for synthesizing the compositions are also provided. The advanced compositions have high gas adsorption capacities and rapid adsorption kinetics (comparable to commercially-available activated carbon), without having any intrinsic fire hazard.

  11. Utilizing GIS Technology to Improve Fire Prevention Activities in an Urban Fire Department.

    PubMed

    Shields, Wendy C; Shields, Timothy M; McDonald, Eileen M; Perry, Elise C; Hanna, Peter; Gielen, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    The Baltimore City Fire Department (BCFD) has been installing smoke alarms city wide for more than three decades. Though data on each visit are entered into a database, no system existed for using these data for planning or evaluation. The objective of this study is to use Geographic Information System (GIS) technology and existing databases to 1) determine the number of residences in need of a home visit; 2) determine total visits, visits per household, and number of homes entered for eligible households; and 3) demonstrate integration of various data via GIS for use in prevention planning. The tax assessment database was queried to determine the number of eligible (as determined by BCFD policy) residences in need of a visit. Each attempted BCFD home visit was coded to identify, if the BCFD personnel interacted with residents ("pass door") and installed alarms. Home visits were geocoded and compared to the tax assessment database to determine city wide pass door rates. Frequency of visits was run by individual residences to measure efficiency. A total of 206,850 residences met BCFD eligibility for a home visit. In 2007, the BCFD attempted 181,757 home visits and 177,213 were successfully geocoded to 122,118 addresses. A total of 122,118 eligible residences (59%) received a home visit. A total of 35,317 residences (29%) received a repeat visit attempt. The pass door rate was 22% (46,429) of all residences. GIS technology offers a promising means for fire departments to plan and evaluate the fire prevention services they provide.

  12. Lysozyme activity and L(+)-lactic acid production in saliva in schoolchildren with high Lactobacillus counts.

    PubMed

    Twetman, S; Dahllöf, G; Wikner, S

    1987-04-01

    Out of 374 schoolchildren, aged 13-15 yr, 42 with high counts of salivary lactobacilli (greater than or equal to 10(5] were selected for this study. Lysozyme activity in saliva and L(+)-lactic acid (LA) production after addition of glucose were determined. The mean values of lysozyme activity and LA concentration were 19.4 micrograms/ml and 1.4 mmol/l respectively. The levels of LA produced without addition of glucose were less than 0.2 mmol/l. The results showed a statistically significant (P less than 0.05) negative correlation between lysozyme activity and the levels of LA produced. The findings of this study suggest that lysozyme may be of importance in limiting acid production in saliva.

  13. A comparison of remote sensing of active fires from MODIS and VIIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csiszar, I.; Schroeder, W.; Giglio, L.; Ellicott, E.; Justice, C. O.

    2012-04-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the NASA EOS Terra and Aqua satellites was the first sensor on medium-resolution polar orbiting missions with dedicated bands for the detection and characterization of high temperature objects, predominantly actively burning fires. The MODIS active fire data record now extends to over a decade and is a result of multiple re-processing of the data with improved algorithms resulting from extensive product validation. The active fire product from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite, launched on October 28, 2011, and on future JPSS (Joint Polar Satellite System) satellites, represents a continuation of the MODIS data record. VIIRS has capabilities for active fire detection and characterization for a broad range of fires, and observing and environmental conditions. While NPP and Aqua have similar orbital characteristics and compatible sampling of the diurnal cycle of fire activity, sensor differences result in inherent differences in the expected fire observations. The differences between the MODIS and VIIRS moderate resolution "M" band pixel sizes (nominally, 1km vs. 750m at nadir) lead to differences in the lower detection limits. The VIIRS along-scan aggregation scheme is aimed at reducing the increase of pixel size towards the edges of the swath and thus results in an overall improvement of performance for off-nadir conditions, but also in a more complex variation of detection limits with satellite view angle. In addition, spatial aggregation impacts within-pixel variation of contribution to the radiometric signal, which in turn impacts retrieval of the Fire Radiative Power. These issues can be analyzed by purely theoretical simulations and by a hybrid empirical-theoretical modeling framework that incorporates actual fire observations from higher spatial resolution sensors, such as the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and

  14. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  15. Urinary CD8+ T-cell counts discriminate between active and inactive lupus nephritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Lupus nephritis (LN) is a severe and frequent manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Early detection of initial renal manifestations and relapses during follow-up is pivotal to prevent loss of renal function. Apart from renal biopsies, current urinary and serological diagnostic tests fail to accurately demonstrate the presence of active LN. Previously, we demonstrated that effector memory T-cells (CD45RO+CCR7-;TEM) migrate into the urine during active LN. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of urinary T-cells in comparison with traditional markers of active LN. Methods T-cells in the urine during active LN and remission were investigated. Twenty-two, in most cases biopsy-proven, active LN patients and 24 SLE patients without active LN were enrolled and serial measurements were performed in 16 patients. Results Analysis of the urinary sediment in active renal disease showed an increased number of CD8+ T-cells and absence of these cells during remission. Enumerating T-cell counts in LN patients with a history of renal involvement was a superior marker of active LN in comparison to traditional markers, such as proteinuria and s-creatinine. Conclusions In conclusion, urinary T-cells, in particular CD8+ T cells, are a promising marker to assess renal activity in LN patients, in particular in those with prior renal involvement. PMID:23445537

  16. Radon-gas extraction and counting system for analyzing radon and radium in groundwater in seismically active areas

    SciTech Connect

    Knauss, K.

    1980-12-08

    A high concentration of radon in groundwater has attracted recent attention as a precursor of seismic activity. We have constructed a system that extracts and counts radon gas from solid, liquid, and gas samples. The radon is extracted in a closed system onto activated charcoal. The desorbed radon is then measured in a phosphored acrylic cell by scintillation counting of gross alpha radiation. The efficiency of the total system (extraction plus counting) is 90 +- 3% or better. Compact design and sturdy construction make the system completely portable and well suited to field operations in remote loations. Results are given for radon and radium in groundwaters in the Livermore area.

  17. Measurements in large pool fires with an actively cooled calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Wix, S.D.

    1995-12-31

    The pool fire thermal test described in Safety Series 6 published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10CFR71) in the United States is one of the most difficult tests that a container for larger ``Type B`` quantities of nuclear materials must pass. If retests of a container are required, costly redesign and project delays can result. Accurate measurements and modeling of the pool fire environment will ultimately lower container costs by assuring that containers past the pool fire test on the first attempt. Experiments indicate that the object size or surface temperature of the container can play a role in determining local heat fluxes that are beyond the effects predicted from the simple radiative heat transfer laws. An analytical model described by Nicolette and Larson 1990 can be used to understand many of these effects. In this model a gray gas represents soot particles present in the flame structure. Close to the container surface, these soot particles are convectively and radiatively cooled and interact with incident energy from the surrounding fire. This cooler soot cloud effectively prevents some thermal radiation from reaching the container surface, reducing the surface heat flux below the value predicted by a transparent medium model. With some empirical constants, the model suggested by Nicolette and Larson can be used to more accurately simulate the pool fire environment. Properly formulated, the gray gas approaches also fast enough to be used with standard commercial computer codes to analyze shipping containers. To calibrate this type of model, accurate experimental measurements of radiative absorption coefficients, flame temperatures, and other parameters are necessary. A goal of the calorimeter measurements described here is to obtain such parameters so that a fast, useful design tool for large pool fires can be constructed.

  18. Changes in Fire Activity and Geomorphic Processes During the Early Neoglacial in Southern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frechette, J. D.; Meyer, G. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Sacramento Mountains contain numerous small alluvial fans produced by low-order tributaries in ponderosa pine dominated mixed-conifer forests. Arroyos up to 12 m deep in the main valleys expose a 9000 year record of geomorphic change within these fans. Identification and dating of fire-related fan deposits allows us to examine the changing importance of fire-related geomorphic processes through time, and assess the role of climate change in modulating wildfire activity. Data from the middle Rio Peñasco valley show that prior to 4500 cal yr BP fans are dominated by poorly sorted facies containing large clasts and abundant charcoal, typical of fire-related debris-flow deposits. After 4500 BP, charcoal is less common and sediments are finer-grained with features indicative of gradual aggradation and cumulic soil development. Although tree-ring fire-scar studies indicate a low-severity surface- fire regime during the 400 yrs prior to Euro-American settlement, we have identified several fire-related debris- flow deposits dating to the late Holocene that indicate high-severity fires. Fire-related deposits, however, account for a much smaller volume of sediment than prior to 4500 BP. Although the early part of the record is less complete, decreased fire-related sedimentation prior to 6000 BP is also suggested. Increased fire-related sedimentation 6000-4500 BP indicates that fire regimes were significantly different during the middle Holocene, when many paleoclimate records from the region indicate a generally warmer climate. Most recently, deep arroyos, which predate recent severe fires, have formed along the main valley. The lack of comparable paleochannels in the stratigraphic record suggests that these arroyos are the unprecedented result of postsettlement land-use changes. The distinct decrease in fire-related sedimentation after 4500 BP corresponds to a shift towards cooler and wetter conditions at a number of sites in the southwestern USA and northern Mexico

  19. Patterns of fire activity over Indonesia and Malaysia from polar and geostationary satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyer, Edward J.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Prins, Elaine M.; Hoffman, Jay P.; Schmidt, Christopher C.; Miettinen, Jukka I.; Giglio, Louis

    2013-03-01

    Biomass burning patterns over the Maritime Continent of Southeast Asia are examined using a new active fire detection product based on application of the Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) to data from the imagers on the MTSAT geostationary satellites operated by the Japanese space agency JAXA. Data from MTSAT-1R and MTSAT-2 covering 34 months from September 2008 to July 2011 are examined for a study region consisting of Indonesia, Malaysia, and nearby environs. The spatial and temporal distributions of fires detected in the MTSAT WF_ABBA product are described and compared with active fire observations from MODIS MOD14 data. Land cover distributions for the two instruments are examined using a new 250 m land cover product from the National University of Singapore. The two products show broadly similar patterns of fire activity, land cover distribution of fires, and pixel fire radiative power (FRP). However, the MTSAT WF_ABBA data differ from MOD14 in important ways. Relative to MODIS, the MTSAT WF_ABBA product has lower overall detection efficiency, but more fires detected due to more frequent looks, a greater relative fraction of fires in forest and a lower relative fraction of fires in open areas, and significantly higher single-pixel retrieved FRP. The differences in land cover distribution and FRP between the MTSAT and MODIS products are shown to be qualitatively consistent with expectations based on pixel size and diurnal sampling. The MTSAT WF_ABBA data are used to calculate coverage-corrected diurnal cycles of fire for different regions within the study area. These diurnal cycles are preliminary but demonstrate that the fraction of diurnal fire activity sampled by the two MODIS sensors varies significantly by region and vegetation type. Based on the results from comparison of the two fire products, a series of steps is outlined to account for some of the systematic biases in each of these satellite products in order to produce a

  20. Metabolic activity of bacterial cell enumerated by direct viable count. [Escherichia coli; Salmonella enteritidis

    SciTech Connect

    Roszak, D.B.; Colwell, R.R.

    1987-12-01

    The direct viable count (DVC) method was modified by incorporation radiolabeled substrates in microautoradiographic analyses to assess bacterial survival in controlled laboratory microcosms. The DVC method, which permits enumeration of culturable and nonculturable cells, discriminates those cells that are responsive to added nutrients but in which division is inhibited by the addition of nalidixic acid. The resulting elongated cells represent all viable cells; this includes those that are culturable on routine media and those that are not. Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis were employed in the microcosm studies, and radiolabeled substrates included (methyl-/sup 3/H) thymidine or (U-/sup 14/C) glutamic acid. Samples taken at selected intervals during the survival experiments were examined by epifluorescence microscopy to enumerate cells by the DVC and acridine orange direct count methods, as well as by culture methods. Good correlation was obtained for cell-associated metabolic activity, measured by microautoradiography and substrate responsiveness (by the DVC method) at various stages of survival. Of the cells responsive to nutrients by the DVC method, ca. 90% were metabolically active by the microautoradiographic method. No significant difference was observed between DVC enumerations with or without added radiolabeled substrate.

  1. Optogenetic activation of septal GABAergic afferents entrains neuronal firing in the medial habenula

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyuhyun; Lee, Youngin; Lee, Changwoo; Hong, Seokheon; Lee, Soonje; Kang, Shin Jung; Shin, Ki Soon

    2016-01-01

    The medial habenula (MHb) plays an important role in nicotine-related behaviors such as nicotine aversion and withdrawal. The MHb receives GABAergic input from the medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MS/DB), yet the synaptic mechanism that regulates MHb activity is unclear. GABA (γ -aminobutyric acid) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter activating both GABAA receptors and GABAB receptors. Depending on intracellular chloride concentration, however, GABAA receptors also function in an excitatory manner. In the absence of various synaptic inputs, we found that MHb neurons displayed spontaneous tonic firing at a rate of about ~4.4 Hz. Optogenetic stimulation of MS/DB inputs to the MHb evoked GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic currents, which produced stimulus-locked neuronal firing. Subsequent delayed yet lasting activation of GABAB receptors attenuated the intrinsic tonic firing. Consequently, septal GABAergic input alone orchestrates both excitatory GABAA and inhibitory GABAB receptors, thereby entraining the firing of MHb neurons. PMID:27703268

  2. An Overview of Recent Geostationary Fire Monitoring Activities and Applications in the Western Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae, D. J.; Conard, S. G.; Ivanova, G. A.; Sukhinin, A. I.; Hao, W. M.; Koutzenogii, K. P.; Prins, E. M.; Schmidt, C. C.; Feltz, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    Over the past twenty years the international scientific research and environmental monitoring communities have recognized the vital role environmental satellites can play in detecting and monitoring active fires both regionally and around the globe for hazards applications and to better understand the extent and impact of biomass burning on the global environment. Both groups have stressed the importance of utilizing operational satellites to produce routine fire products and to ensure long-term stable records of fire activity for applications such as land-use/land cover change analyses and global climate change research. The current NOAA GOES system provides the unique opportunity to detect fires throughout the Western Hemisphere every half-hour from a series of nearly identical satellites for a period of 15+ years. This presentation will provide an overview of the GOES biomass burning monitoring program at UW-Madison Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) with an emphasis on recent applications of the new GOES Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA). For the past 8 years, CIMSS has utilized the GOES-8 imager to monitor biomass burning trends in South America. Since September 2000, CIMSS has been producing half-hourly fire products in real-time for most of the Western Hemisphere. The WF_ABBA half-hourly fire product is providing new insights into diurnal, spatial, seasonal and interannual fire dynamics in North, Central, and South America. In North America these products are utilized to detect and monitor wildfires in northerly and remote locations. In South America the diurnal GOES fire product is being used as an indicator of land-use and land-cover change and carbon dynamics along the borders between Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia. The Navy is assimilating the Wildfire ABBA fire product into the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) to analyze and predict aerosol loading and transport as part of the NASA

  3. An active drop counting device using condenser microphone for superheated emulsion detector

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Mala; Marick, C.; Kanjilal, D.; Saha, S.

    2008-11-15

    An active device for superheated emulsion detector is described. A capacitive diaphragm sensor or condenser microphone is used to convert the acoustic pulse of drop nucleation to electrical signal. An active peak detector is included in the circuit to avoid multiple triggering of the counter. The counts are finally recorded by a microprocessor based data acquisition system. Genuine triggers, missed by the sensor, were studied using a simulated clock pulse. The neutron energy spectrum of {sup 252}Cf fission neutron source was measured using the device with R114 as the sensitive liquid and compared with the calculated fission neutron energy spectrum of {sup 252}Cf. Frequency analysis of the detected signals was also carried out.

  4. The Southern Annular Mode determines interannual and centennial-scale fire activity in temperate southwest Tasmania, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Michela; Fletcher, Michael-Shawn

    2016-02-01

    Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is the primary mode of atmospheric variability in the Southern Hemisphere. While it is well established that the current anthropogenic-driven trend in SAM is responsible for decreased rainfall in southern Australia, its role in driving fire regimes in this region has not been explored. We examined the connection between fire activity and SAM in southwest Tasmania, which lies in the latitudinal band of strongest correlation between SAM and rainfall in the Southern Hemisphere. We reveal that fire activity during a fire season is significantly correlated with the phase of SAM in the preceding year using superposed epoch analysis. We then synthesized new 14 charcoal records from southwest Tasmania spanning the last 1000 years, revealing a tight coupling between fire activity and SAM at centennial timescales, observing a multicentury increase in fire activity over the last 500 years and a spike in fire activity in the 21st century in response to natural and anthropogenic SAM trends.

  5. The AVHRR component of a long-term global active fire data record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csiszar, I. A.; Giglio, L.; Schroeder, W.; Justice, C. O.

    2010-12-01

    The increased thermal signal in the 3.7 µm channel, together with radiometric measurements in the longwave and shortwave channels, enable the detection of thermal anomalies from AVHRR for a wide range of environmental and observing conditions. The AVHRR has been used worldwide for operational fire monitoring and for research purposes since at least the early 1990s. The long data record of AVHRR makes it an essential part of a long-term, multisensor record of fire activity. Fire Disturbance is an Essential Climate Variable (ECV) defined by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). Within the Fire Disturbance ECV, active fire occurrence is one of the supplementary variables. General requirements for long-term satellite-based data records for ECVs are articulated in the GCOS Climate Monitoring Principles for satellite measurements, which specify requirements both for observing systems and for product generation and distribution. In this paper we provide an overview of the history of fire monitoring from AVHRR, and the potential and limitations for establishing a long-term data record in the context of the GCOS Climate Monitoring Principles. Major sensor-related challenges include the relatively low saturation level of the 3.7 µm channel, the orbital drift of the early NOAA satellites and pixel geolocation inaccuracies. Additionally, fire detection requires full resolution observations and therefore the globally and systematically available Global Area Coverage (GAC) data are inadequate for global active fire monitoring. The need for the compilation and reprocessing of full resolution measurements from on-board Local Area Coverage (LAC) data and direct-readout High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) receiving stations is articulated by the Fire Mapping and Monitoring Implementation Team of the Global Observation of Forest and Landcover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) program, in collaboration with the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites. As fire detection

  6. Frequency Count Attribute Oriented Induction of Corporate Network Data for Mapping Business Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanutama, Lukas

    2014-03-01

    Companies increasingly rely on Internet for effective and efficient business communication. As Information Technology infrastructure backbone for business activities, corporate network connects the company to Internet and enables its activities globally. It carries data packets generated by the activities of the users performing their business tasks. Traditionally, infrastructure operations mainly maintain data carrying capacity and network devices performance. It would be advantageous if a company knows what activities are running in its network. The research provides a simple method of mapping the business activity reflected by the network data. To map corporate users' activities, a slightly modified Attribute Oriented Induction (AOI) approach to mine the network data was applied. The frequency of each protocol invoked were counted to show what the user intended to do. The collected data was samples taken within a certain sampling period. Samples were taken due to the enormous data packets generated. Protocols of interest are only Internet related while intranet protocols are ignored. It can be concluded that the method could provide the management a general overview of the usage of its infrastructure and lead to efficient, effective and secure ICT infrastructure.

  7. Cross-Section Measurements via the Activation Technique at the Cologne Clover Counting Setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, Felix; Mayer, Jan; Netterdon, Lars; Scholz, Philipp; Zilges, Andreas

    The activation technique is a widely used method for the determination of cross-section values for charged-particle induced reactions at astrophysically relevant energies. Since network calculations of nucleosynthesis processes often depend on reaction rates calculated in the scope of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model, these cross-sections can be used to improve the nuclear-physics input-parameters like optical-model potentials (OMP), γ-ray strength functions, and nuclear level densities. In order to extend the available experimental database, the 108Cd(α, n)111Sn reaction cross section was investigated at ten energies between 10.2 and 13.5 MeV. As this reaction at these energies is almost only sensitive on the α-decay width, the results were compared to statistical model calculations using different models for the α-OMP. The irradiation as well as the consecutive γ-ray counting were performed at the Institute for Nuclear Physics of the University of Cologne using the 10 MV FN-Tandem accelerator and the Cologne Clover Counting Setup. This setup consists of two clover- type high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in a close face-to-face geometry to cover a solid angle of almost 4π.

  8. Sentinel-3 Satellite Applications In The Monitoring Of The Active Forest Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calle, A.; Gonzalez-Alonso, F.

    2013-12-01

    FRP (Fire Radiative Power) is the magnitude associated to the thermal radiance which explains the ecological effects of active fire; it is the component of the chemical power released from burning vegetation and emitted as radiation during the process of combustion. In this paper, a discussion of the procedures for active fire FRP is presented: The Dozier method, the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) fire detection algorithm and semi-empirical relation-ship based on previous studies of BIRD (Bi-spectral InfraRed Detection) satellite. These procedures, described above, are applied to simulated data by a radiative transfer model, based on Sentinel-3/SLSTR spectral characteristics in order to analyze the impact of atmospheric conditions on FRP estimations.

  9. Fire Effects on Microbial Enzyme Activities in Larch Forests of the Siberian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, S.; Alexander, H. D.; Bulygina, E. B.; Mann, P. J.; Natali, S.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic forest ecosystems are warming at an accelerated rate relative to lower latitudes, with global implications for C cycling within these regions. As climate continues to warm and dry, wildfire frequency and severity are predicted to increase, creating a positive feedback to climate warming. Increased fire activity will also influence the microenvironment experienced by soil microbes in disturbed soils. Because soil microbes regulate carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, it is important to understand microbial response to fires, particularly in the understudied larch forests in the Siberian Arctic. In this project, we created experimental burn plots in a mature larch forest in the Kolyma River watershed of Northeastern Siberia. Plots were burned at several treatments: control (no burn), low, moderate, and severe. After, 1 and 8 d post-fire, we measured soil organic layer depth, soil organic matter (SOM) content, soil moisture, and CO2 flux from the plots. Additionally, we leached soils and measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), NH4, NO3, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Furthermore, we measured extracellular activity of four enzymes involved in soil C and nutrient cycling (leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), β-glucosidase, phosphatase, and phenol oxidase). One day post-fire, LAP activity was similarly low in all treatments, but by 8 d post-fire, LAP activity was lower in burned plots compared to control plots, likely due to increased nitrogen content with increasing burn severity. Phosphatase activity decreased with burn severity 1 d post-fire, but after 8 d, moderate and severe burn plots exhibited increased phosphatase activity. Coupled with trends in LAP activity, this suggests a switch in nutrient limitation from N to phosphorus that is more pronounced with burn severity. β-glucosidase activity similarly decreased with burn

  10. Evaluating Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Systems for Agricultural Waste Burning Using MODIS Active Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Jin, Y.; Giglio, L.; Foley, J. A.; Randerson, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Fires in agricultural ecosystems emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that influence climate on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Annex 1 countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), many of which ratified the Kyoto Protocol, are required to report emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O from these fires annually. We evaluated several aspects of this reporting system, including the optimality of the crops targeted by the UNFCCC globally and within Annex 1 countries and the consistency of emissions reporting among countries. We also evaluated the success of the individual countries in capturing interannual variability and long-term trends in agricultural fire activity. We combined global crop maps with Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire detections. At a global scale, we recommend adding ground nuts, cocoa, cotton and oil palm, and removing potato, oats, pulse other and rye from the UNFCCC list of 14 crops. This leads to an overall increase of 6% of the active fires covered by the reporting system. Optimization led to a different recommended list for Annex 1 countries. Extending emissions reporting to all Annex 1 countries (from the current set of 19 countries) would increase the efficacy of the reporting system from 10% to 20%, and further including several non-Annex 1 countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Mexico and Nigeria) would capture over 58% of active fires in croplands worldwide. Analyses of interannual trends from the U.S. and Australia showed the importance of both intensity of fire use and crop production in controlling year-to-year variations in agricultural fire emissions. Remote sensing provides an efficient tool for an independent assessment of current UNFCCC emissions reporting system; and, if combined with census data, field experiments and expert opinion, has the potential for improving the robustness of the next generation inventory

  11. Note: Fully integrated active quenching circuit achieving 100 MHz count rate with custom technology single photon avalanche diodes.

    PubMed

    Acconcia, G; Labanca, I; Rech, I; Gulinatti, A; Ghioni, M

    2017-02-01

    The minimization of Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) dead time is a key factor to speed up photon counting and timing measurements. We present a fully integrated Active Quenching Circuit (AQC) able to provide a count rate as high as 100 MHz with custom technology SPAD detectors. The AQC can also operate the new red enhanced SPAD and provide the timing information with a timing jitter Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) as low as 160 ps.

  12. Note: Fully integrated active quenching circuit achieving 100 MHz count rate with custom technology single photon avalanche diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acconcia, G.; Labanca, I.; Rech, I.; Gulinatti, A.; Ghioni, M.

    2017-02-01

    The minimization of Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) dead time is a key factor to speed up photon counting and timing measurements. We present a fully integrated Active Quenching Circuit (AQC) able to provide a count rate as high as 100 MHz with custom technology SPAD detectors. The AQC can also operate the new red enhanced SPAD and provide the timing information with a timing jitter Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) as low as 160 ps.

  13. Nonlinear fractal dynamics of human colonic pressure activity based upon the box-counting method.

    PubMed

    Yan, Rongguo; Guo, Xudong

    2013-01-01

    The computational fractal dimension of human colonic pressure activity acquired by a telemetric capsule robot under normal physiological conditions was studied using the box-counting method. The fractal dimension is a numeric value that quantifies to measure how rough the signal is from nonlinear dynamics, rather than its amplitude or other linear statistical features. The colonic pressure activities from the healthy subject during three typical periods were analysed. The results showed that the activity might be fractal with a non-integer fractal dimension after it being integrated over time using the cumsum method, which was never revealed before. Moreover, the activity (after it being integrated) acquired soon after wakening up was the roughest (also the most complex one) with the largest fractal dimension, closely followed by that acquired during sleep with that acquired long time after awakening up (in the daytime) ranking third with the smallest fractal dimension. Fractal estimation might provide a new method to learn the nonlinear dynamics of human gastrointestinal pressure recordings.

  14. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  15. Activity Counts: The Effect of Swimming Activity on Quantity Discrimination in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Laplaza, Luis M.; Gerlai, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Human infants and non-human animals can discriminate the larger of two sets of discrete items. This quantity discrimination may be based upon the number of items, or upon non-numerical variables of the sets that co-vary with number. We have demonstrated that angelfish select the larger of two shoals of conspecifics without using inter-fish distance or space occupied by the stimuli as cues. However, density appeared to influence the choice between large shoals. Here, we examine the role of another non-numerical cue, swimming activity of the stimulus fish, in quantity discrimination by angelfish. To control this variable, we varied the water temperature of the stimulus aquaria or restricted the space occupied by each fish in the stimulus shoals. We used the previously successfully discriminated contrasts consisting of large (10 vs. 5) and small (3 vs. 2) shoals. We also studied whether more active or less active shoals are preferred in case of equally sized shoals (10 vs. 10, 5 vs. 5, and 3 vs. 3). When differences in stimulus fish activity were minimized by temperature manipulation we found angelfish to prefer the larger shoal in the 3 vs. 2 comparison, but not in the 10 vs. 5 comparison. When activity was controlled by space restriction, angelfish preferred the larger shoal in both numerical contrasts. These results imply that the overall activity level of the contrasted shoals is not a necessary condition for small shoals discrimination in angelfish. On the other hand, the results obtained for the large shoals, together with results obtained in the control treatments (equal numerical contrasts and differing activity levels), suggest that activity is a sufficient condition for discrimination when large shoals are involved. Further experiments are needed to evaluate the influence of other continuous variables, and to assess whether the mechanisms underlying performance are comparable to those suggested for other animals. PMID:23162518

  16. Estimating ROI activity concentration with photon-processing and photon-counting SPECT imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Frey, Eric C.

    2015-03-01

    Recently a new class of imaging systems, referred to as photon-processing (PP) systems, are being developed that uses real-time maximum-likelihood (ML) methods to estimate multiple attributes per detected photon and store these attributes in a list format. PP systems could have a number of potential advantages compared to systems that bin photons based on attributes such as energy, projection angle, and position, referred to as photon-counting (PC) systems. For example, PP systems do not suffer from binning-related information loss and provide the potential to extract information from attributes such as energy deposited by the detected photon. To quantify the effects of this advantage on task performance, objective evaluation studies are required. We performed this study in the context of quantitative 2-dimensional single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging with the end task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a region of interest (ROI). We first theoretically outline the effect of null space on estimating the mean activity concentration, and argue that due to this effect, PP systems could have better estimation performance compared to PC systems with noise-free data. To evaluate the performance of PP and PC systems with noisy data, we developed a singular value decomposition (SVD)-based analytic method to estimate the activity concentration from PP systems. Using simulations, we studied the accuracy and precision of this technique in estimating the activity concentration. We used this framework to objectively compare PP and PC systems on the activity concentration estimation task. We investigated the effects of varying the size of the ROI and varying the number of bins for the attribute corresponding to the angular orientation of the detector in a continuously rotating SPECT system. The results indicate that in several cases, PP systems offer improved estimation performance compared to PC systems.

  17. Validity and Reliability of Fitbit Flex for Step Count, Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity and Activity Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Sushames, Ashleigh; Edwards, Andrew; Thompson, Fintan; McDermott, Robyn; Gebel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the validity and reliability of the Fitbit Flex against direct observation for measuring steps in the laboratory and against the Actigraph for step counts in free-living conditions and for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) overall. Methods Twenty-five adults (12 females, 13 males) wore a Fitbit Flex and an Actigraph GT3X+ during a laboratory based protocol (including walking, incline walking, running and stepping) and free-living conditions during a single day period to examine measurement of steps, AEE and MVPA. Twenty-four of the participants attended a second session using the same protocol. Results Intraclass correlations (ICC) for test-retest reliability of the Fitbit Flex were strong for walking (ICC = 0.57), moderate for stair stepping (ICC = 0.34), and weak for incline walking (ICC = 0.22) and jogging (ICC = 0.26). The Fitbit significantly undercounted walking steps in the laboratory (absolute proportional difference: 21.2%, 95%CI 13.0–29.4%), but it was more accurate, despite slightly over counting, for both jogging (6.4%, 95%CI 3.7–9.0%) and stair stepping (15.5%, 95%CI 10.1–20.9%). The Fitbit had higher coefficients of variation (Cv) for step counts compared to direct observation and the Actigraph. In free-living conditions, the average MVPA minutes were lower in the Fitbit (35.4 minutes) compared to the Actigraph (54.6 minutes), but AEE was greater from the Fitbit (808.1 calories) versus the Actigraph (538.9 calories). The coefficients of variation were similar for AEE for the Actigraph (Cv = 36.0) and Fitbit (Cv = 35.0), but lower in the Actigraph (Cv = 25.5) for MVPA against the Fitbit (Cv = 32.7). Conclusion The Fitbit Flex has moderate validity for measuring physical activity relative to direct observation and the Actigraph. Test-rest reliability of the Fitbit was dependant on activity type and had greater variation between sessions compared to the Actigraph. Physical

  18. Dynamics of erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, and catalase activity in rat blood in hypokinesia, muscular activity and restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneyeva, G. V.; Potapovich, G. M.; Voloshko, N. A.; Uteshev, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted to prove that muscular exertion (in this instance swimming) of different duration and intensity, as well as hypodynamia, result in an increase of hemoglobin and number of red blood cells in peripheral blood rats. Catalase activity increased with an increase in the duration of swimming, but only up to 6 hr; with 7-9 hr of swimming as well as in hypodynamia, catalase activity decreased. It was also observed that under hypodynamia as well as in 3, 5 and 6 hr exertion (swimming) the color index of blood decreased. Pressure chamber treatment (for 8 min each day for one week), alternating a 2 min negative pressure up to 35 mm Hg with 1 min positive pressure, increased the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content.

  19. Combining Satellite Observations of Fire Activity and Numerical Weather Prediction to Improve the Prediction of Smoke Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D. A.; Wang, J.; Hyer, E. J.; Ichoku, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Smoke emissions estimates used in air quality and visibility forecasting applications are currently limited by the information content of satellite fire observations, and the lack of a skillful short-term forecast of changes in fire activity. This study explores the potential benefits of a recently developed sub-pixel-based calculation of fire radiative power (FRPf) from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), which provides more precise estimates of the radiant energy (over the retrieved fire area) that in turn, improves estimates of the thermal buoyancy of smoke plumes and may be helpful characterizing the meteorological effects on fire activity for large fire events. Results show that unlike the current FRP product, the incorporation of FRPf produces a statistically significant correlation (R = 0.42) with smoke plume height data provided by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and several meteorological variables, such as surface wind speed and temperature, which may be useful for discerning cases where smoke was injected above the boundary layer. Drawing from recent advances in numerical weather prediction (NWP), this study also examines the meteorological conditions characteristic of fire ignition, growth, decay, and extinction, which are used to develop an automated, 24-hour prediction of satellite fire activity. Satellite fire observations from MODIS and geostationary sensors show that the fire prediction model is an improvement (RMSE reduction of 13 - 20%) over the forecast of persistence commonly used by near-real-time fire emission inventories. The ultimate goal is to combine NWP data and satellite fire observations to improve both analysis and prediction of biomass-burning emissions, through improved understanding of the interactions between fire activity and weather at scales appropriate for operational modeling. This is a critical step toward producing a global fire prediction model and improving operational forecasts of

  20. Remotely-sensed active fire data for protected area management: eight-year patterns in the Manas National Park, India.

    PubMed

    Takahata, Chihiro; Amin, Rajan; Sarma, Pranjit; Banerjee, Gitanjali; Oliver, William; Fa, John E

    2010-02-01

    The Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands, which once extended along most of the Himalayan foothills, now only remain in a number of protected areas. Within these localities, grassland burning is a major issue, but data on frequency and distribution of fires are limited. Here, we analysed the incidence of active fires, which only occur during the dry season (Nov.-Mar.), within a significant area of Terai grasslands: the Manas National Park (MNP), India. We obtained locations of 781 fires during the 2000-2008 dry seasons, from the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) that delivers global MODIS hotspot/fire locations using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Annual number of fires rose significantly from around 20 at the start of the study period to over 90 after 2002, with most (85%) detected between December and January. Over half of the fires occurred in tall grasslands, but fire density was highest in wetland and riverine vegetation, dry at the time. Most burning took place near rivers, roads and the park boundary, suggesting anthropogenic origins. A kernel density map of all recorded fires indicated three heavily burnt areas in the MNP, all within the tall grasslands. Our study demonstrates, despite some technical caveats linked to fire detection technology, which is improving, that remote fire data can be a practical tool in understanding fire concentration and burning temporal patterns in highly vulnerable habitats, useful in guiding management.

  1. Remotely-Sensed Active Fire Data for Protected Area Management: Eight-Year Patterns in the Manas National Park, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahata, Chihiro; Amin, Rajan; Sarma, Pranjit; Banerjee, Gitanjali; Oliver, William; Fa, John E.

    2010-02-01

    The Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands, which once extended along most of the Himalayan foothills, now only remain in a number of protected areas. Within these localities, grassland burning is a major issue, but data on frequency and distribution of fires are limited. Here, we analysed the incidence of active fires, which only occur during the dry season (Nov.-Mar.), within a significant area of Terai grasslands: the Manas National Park (MNP), India. We obtained locations of 781 fires during the 2000-2008 dry seasons, from the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) that delivers global MODIS hotspot/fire locations using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Annual number of fires rose significantly from around 20 at the start of the study period to over 90 after 2002, with most (85%) detected between December and January. Over half of the fires occurred in tall grasslands, but fire density was highest in wetland and riverine vegetation, dry at the time. Most burning took place near rivers, roads and the park boundary, suggesting anthropogenic origins. A kernel density map of all recorded fires indicated three heavily burnt areas in the MNP, all within the tall grasslands. Our study demonstrates, despite some technical caveats linked to fire detection technology, which is improving, that remote fire data can be a practical tool in understanding fire concentration and burning temporal patterns in highly vulnerable habitats, useful in guiding management.

  2. Examining the utility of a bite-count-based measure of eating activity in free-living human beings.

    PubMed

    Scisco, Jenna L; Muth, Eric R; Hoover, Adam W

    2014-03-01

    The obesity epidemic has triggered a need for novel methods for measuring eating activity in free-living settings. Here, we introduce a bite-count method that has the potential to be used in long-term investigations of eating activity. The purpose of our observational study was to describe the relationship between bite count and energy intake and determine whether there are sex and body mass index group differences in kilocalories per bite in free-living human beings. From October 2011 to February 2012, 77 participants used a wrist-worn device for 2 weeks to measure bite count during 2,975 eating activities. An automated self-administered 24-hour recall was completed daily to provide kilocalorie estimates for each eating activity. Pearson's correlation indicated a moderate, positive correlation between bite count and kilocalories (r=0.44; P<0.001) across all 2,975 eating activities. The average per-individual correlation was 0.53. A 2 (sex)×3 (body mass index group: normal, overweight, obese) analysis of variance indicated that men consumed 6 kcal more per bite than women on average. However, there were no body mass index group differences in kilocalories per bite. This was the longest study of a body-worn sensor for monitoring eating activity of free-living human beings to date, which highlights the strong potential for this method to be used in future, long-term investigations.

  3. Effects of naltrexone on firing activity of rat cortex neurons and its interactions with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Kozhechkin, S N; Mednikova, Yu S; Kolik, L G

    2013-09-01

    Naltrexone dose-dependently decreased neuron firing rate in the rat frontal cortex after intravenous (1-20 mg/kg) and microelectrophoretic administration. Microelectrophoretic applications of naltrexone reduced the excitatory neuronal response of neurons to low doses of ethanol (electroosmotic application) and potentiated depression of firing activity induced by ethanol in high doses. We concluded that opioid peptides take part in generation of spontaneous neuronal activity in the frontal cortex and neuronal excitation caused by ethanol in low doses. Naltrexone acts as a synergist of ethanol in its depressive effect on cortical neurons.

  4. Validation of MODIS and SEVIRI Active Fire Monitoring products over Western Romania. Case study: Arad County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oanea, Lavinia; Alina Ristea, Mihaela

    2014-05-01

    At the national level, the issue of wildfire monitoring represents a long debated topic. However, in the present situation, fire management requires various improvements in terms of detection, monitoring and post-fire analysis. The objectives of this study are to validate the data provided by MODIS (Terra and Aqua) Active Fire Monitoring and SEVIRI (MSG) FIR (Active Fire Monitoring) satellite products, with wildfires field data from The Romanian General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations (IGSU) (1), to chart the efficiency of satellite products in locating fires and study their strengths and weaknesses using a SWOT analysis (2). This is the initial step of a larger project that aims to implement an online Geographic Information System for fire management that will ease wildfire data manipulation and facilitate the decision making process. In order to do so, the current study objectives must be achieved. Our general strategy is to determine the consistency of direct (field measurements) and indirect (satellite data) observations. Depending on the amount of field information, the fire characteristics (location, frequency, extension area, moment of occurrence, type of fire, and others) will be studied through a statistical analysis. The products show some peculiar restrictiveness like spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically, we will process and interpret satellite products to identify wildfires according to the data from IGSU using specialized software. The case study for the application of these procedures is a set of fire events from Arad county - Romania, that occurred between 2007 and 2013. In order to do so, it is important to compare results from different sensors with field information through various methods and to use only consistent results. The results will play an important role in achieving the above mentioned informational system, which will integrate field information, satellite data and values of parameters that influence the evolution of

  5. Measurement of inter- and intra-annual variability of landscape fire activity at a continental scale: the Australian case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Grant J.; Prior, Lynda D.; Jolly, W. Matt; Cochrane, Mark A.; Murphy, Brett P.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2016-03-01

    Climate dynamics at diurnal, seasonal and inter-annual scales shape global fire activity, although difficulties of assembling reliable fire and meteorological data with sufficient spatio-temporal resolution have frustrated quantification of this variability. Using Australia as a case study, we combine data from 4760 meteorological stations with 12 years of satellite-derived active fire detections to determine day and night time fire activity, fire season start and end dates, and inter-annual variability, across 61 objectively defined climate regions in three climate zones (monsoon tropics, arid and temperate). We show that geographic patterns of landscape burning (onset and duration) are related to fire weather, resulting in a latitudinal gradient from the monsoon tropics in winter, through the arid zone in all seasons except winter, and then to the temperate zone in summer and autumn. Peak fire activity precedes maximum lightning activity by several months in all regions, signalling the importance of human ignitions in shaping fire seasons. We determined median daily McArthur forest fire danger index (FFDI50) for days and nights when fires were detected: FFDI50 varied substantially between climate zones, reflecting effects of fire management in the temperate zone, fuel limitation in the arid zone and abundance of flammable grasses in the monsoon tropical zone. We found correlations between the proportion of days when FFDI exceeds FFDI50 and the Southern Oscillation index across the arid zone during spring and summer, and Indian Ocean dipole mode index across south-eastern Australia during summer. Our study demonstrates that Australia has a long fire weather season with high inter-annual variability relative to all other continents, making it difficult to detect long term trends. It also provides a way of establishing robust baselines to track changes to fire seasons, and supports a previous conceptual model highlighting multi-temporal scale effects of climate in

  6. Human and climate impacts on Holocene fire activity recorded in polar and mountain ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrwald, Natalie; Zennaro, Piero; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Li, Quanlian; Wang, Ninglian; Power, Mitchell; Zangrando, Roberta; Gabrielli, Paolo; Thompson, Lonnie; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Fire is one of the major influences of biogeochemical change on local to hemispheric scales through emitting greenhouse gases, altering atmospheric chemistry, and changing primary productivity. Levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose) is a specific molecular that can only be produced by cellulose burning at temperatures > 300°C, comprises a major component of smoke plumes, and can be transported across > 1000 km distances. Levoglucosan is deposited on and archived in glaciers over glacial interglacial cycles resulting in pyrochemical evidence for exploring interactions between fire, climate and human activity. Ice core records provide records of past biomass burning from regions of the world with limited paleofire data including polar and low-latitude, high-altitude regions. Here, we present Holocene fire activity records from the NEEM, Greenland (77° 27'N; 51° 3'W; 2454 masl), EPICA Dome C, Antarctica (75° 06'S; 123° 21'E; 3233 masl), Kilimanjaro, Tanzania (3° 05'S, 21.2° E, 5893 masl) and the Muztagh, China (87.17° E; 36.35° N; 5780 masl ice cores. The NEEM ice core reflects boreal fire activity from both North American and Eurasian sources. Temperature is the dominant control of NEEM levoglucosan flux over decadal to millennial time scales, while droughts influence fire activity over sub-decadal timescales. Our results demonstrate the prominence of Siberian fire sources during intense multiannual droughts. Unlike the NEEM core, which incorporates the largest land masses in the world as potential fire sources, EPICA Dome C is located far from any possible fire source. However, EPICA Dome C levoglucosan concentrations are consistently above detection limits and demonstrate a substantial 1000-fold increase in fire activity beginning approximately 800 years ago. This significant and sustained increase coincides with Maori arrival and dispersal in New Zealand augmented by later European arrival in Australia. The EPICA Dome C levoglucosan profile is

  7. WBC count

    MedlinePlus

    Leukocyte count; White blood cell count ... blood is 4,500 to 11,000 white blood cells per microliter (mcL) or 4.5 to 11. ... LOW WHITE BLOOD CELL (WBC) COUNT A low number of WBCs is called leukopenia. A WBC count below 4500 is below normal ...

  8. Activated systemic inflammatory response at diagnosis reduces lymph node count in colonic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kennelly, Rory P; Murphy, Brenda; Larkin, John O; Mehigan, Brian J; McCormick, Paul H

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate a link between lymph node yield and systemic inflammatory response in colon cancer. METHODS A prospectively maintained database was interrogated. All patients undergoing curative colonic resection were included. Neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and albumin were used as markers of SIR. In keeping with previously studies, NLR ≥ 4, albumin < 35 was used as cut off points for SIR. Statistical analysis was performed using 2 sample t-test and χ2 tests where appropriate. RESULTS Three hundred and two patients were included for analysis. One hundred and ninety-five patients had NLR < 4 and 107 had NLR ≥ 4. There was no difference in age or sex between groups. Patients with NLR of ≥ 4 had lower mean lymph node yields than patients with NLR < 4 [17.6 ± 7.1 vs 19.2 ± 7.9 (P = 0.036)]. More patients with an elevated NLR had node positive disease and an increased lymph node ratio (≥ 0.25, P = 0.044). CONCLUSION Prognosis in colon cancer is intimately linked to the patient’s immune response. Assuming standardised surgical technique and sub specialty pathology, lymph node count is reduced when systemic inflammatory response is activated. PMID:27574555

  9. Where's the Fire?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Dorothy

    1977-01-01

    National Fire Protection Week is a perfect time for launching a fire safety learning center. The activities described here are intended to help children recognize fire hazards in their homes, play areas and public buildings; learn how to act intelligently in fire emergencies; be able to share their knowledge of fire safety with others and…

  10. Understanding walking activity in multiple sclerosis: step count, walking intensity and uninterrupted walking activity duration related to degree of disability.

    PubMed

    Neven, An; Vanderstraeten, Annelien; Janssens, Davy; Wets, Geert; Feys, Peter

    2016-09-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), physical activity (PA) is most commonly measured as number of steps, while also walking intensity and walking activity duration are keys for a healthy lifestyle. The aim of this study was to investigate (1) the number of steps persons with MS (PwMS) take; (2) the number of steps they take at low and moderate intensity; and (3) their walking activity duration for 2, 3, 6, 10, 12 and 14 uninterrupted minutes; all related to the degree of disability. 64 PwMS participated, distinguished in a mild (n = 31) and moderate MS subgroup (n = 34) based on their ambulatory dysfunction (Disease Steps). Standardized clinical tests were performed, and step data from the StepWatch Activity Monitor were collected for seven consecutive days. The results showed that (1) step count in PwMS was lower than PA recommendations, and is negatively influenced by a higher disability degree. (2) No walking was registered during 77 % of the day. PwMS are making steps for 22 % at low and only 1 % at moderate intensity. (3) Both MS subgroups rarely walk for more than six uninterrupted minutes, especially not at moderate intensity. PwMS need to be encouraged to make steps at moderate intensity, and to make steps for longer periods of time (minimal ten uninterrupted minutes).

  11. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

    2012-06-01

    Fires in agricultural ecosystems emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that influence climate on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Annex 1 countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), many of which ratified the Kyoto Protocol, are required to report emissions of CH4 and N2O from these fires annually. In this study, we evaluated several aspects of this reporting system, including the optimality of the crops targeted by the UNFCCC globally and within Annex 1 countries, and the consistency of emissions inventories among different countries. We also evaluated the success of individual countries in capturing interannual variability and long-term trends in agricultural fire activity. In our approach, we combined global high-resolution maps of crop harvest area and production, derived from satellite maps and ground-based census data, with Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements of active fires. At a global scale, we found that adding ground nuts (e.g., peanuts), cocoa, cotton and oil palm, and removing potato, oats, rye, and pulse other from the list of 14 crops targeted by the UNFCCC increased the percentage of active fires covered by the reporting system by 9%. Optimization led to a different recommended list for Annex 1 countries, requiring the addition of sunflower, cotton, rapeseed, and alfalfa and the removal of beans, sugarcane, pulse others, and tuber-root others. Extending emissions reporting to all Annex 1 countries (from the current set of 19 countries) would increase the efficacy of the reporting system from 6% to 15%, and further including several non-Annex 1 countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Mexico, and Nigeria) would capture over 55% of active fires in croplands worldwide. Analyses of interannual trends from the United States and Australia showed the importance of both intensity of fire use and crop production in controlling year

  12. Functional activity of soil microbial communities in post-fire pine stands of Tolyatti, Samara oblast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimova, E. Yu.; Kudinova, A. G.; Abakumov, E. V.

    2017-02-01

    The state of microbial communities in gray-humus soils (Eutric Fluvic Arenosols (Ochric)) of pine stands in the city of Tolyatti after forest fires of 2010 is analyzed. It is shown that fires exert negative effects on the structure and metabolic activity of microbial communities in the postpyrogenic soils. The content of the carbon of microbial biomass and the intensity of microbial respiration in the upper organic horizons of the post-fire plots decrease by 6.5 and 3.4 times, respectively, in comparison with those in the soils of background plots. However, the fire has not affected the studied microbiological parameters of the soils at the depths of more than 10 cm. The maximum content of the carbon of microbial biomass carbon and the maximum intensity of microbial respiration have been found in the subsurface AY2 and AC horizons two-three years the fire. An increase in the microbial metabolic quotient (the ratio of soil respiration to microbial biomass) attests to the disturbance of the ecophysiological state of soil microbial communities after the pyrogenic impact.

  13. Total Lymphocyte Count and Haemoglobin Concentration Combined as a Surrogate Marker for Initiating Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in a Resource-limited Setting as against CD4 Cell Count

    PubMed Central

    Dhamangaonkar, AC; Mathew, A; Pazare, AR

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To find a sensitive and low-cost surrogate marker for CD4 count for initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) [CD4 < 200 /mm3], in the form of total lymphocyte count (TLC) < 1200 /mm3 combined with haemoglobin (Hb) with multiple Hb cut-offs. Method: Two hundred and three consecutive treatment-naïve adult HIV positive outpatients attending the virology clinic in World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage 1, 2 or 3 were enrolled in the study. Their complete blood counts and CD4 counts were done. Descriptive statistics was done by two methods correlating TLC alone with CD4 and the other using combined marker of TLC and Hb with CD4 count. Result: Total lymphocyte count alone did not correlate well with CD4 counts (r = 0.13; p = 0.065). Sensitivity of TLC < 1200 /mm3 to predict CD4 < 200 /mm3 was low (23.27%) and the sensitivity of the combined marker (TLC + Hb) increased with higher Hb cut-offs. Conclusion: Adding Hb to TLC markedly improved the sensitivity of the marker to predict CD4 count < 200/mm3. We also recommend a trade-off Hb cut-off of 10.5 g/dL for optimum sensitivity and specificity in this population subset. PMID:25781283

  14. Predicting fire activity in the US over the next 50 years using new IPCC climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.

    2012-12-01

    Fire is an integral part of the Earth system with both direct and indirect effects on terrestrial ecosystems, the atmosphere, and human societies (Bowman et al. 2009). Climate conditions regulate fire activities through a variety of ways, e.g., influencing the conditions for ignition and fire spread, changing vegetation growth and decay and thus the accumulation of fuels for combustion (Arora and Boer 2005). Our recent study disclosed the burned area (BA) in US is strongly correlated with potential evaporation (PE), a measurement of climatic dryness derived from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) climate data (Morton et al. 2012). The correlation varies spatially and temporally. With regard to fire of peak fire seasons, Northwestern US, Great Plains and Alaska have the strongest BA/PE relationship. Using the recently released the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) Version 3 (van der Werf et al. 2010), we showed increasing BA in the last decade in most of NCA regions. Longer time series of Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) (Eidenshink et al. 2007) data showed the increasing trends occurred in all NCA regions from 1984 to 2010. This relationship between BA and PE provides us the basis to predict the future fire activities in the projected climate conditions. In this study, we build spatially explicit predictors using the historic PE/BA relationship. PE from 2011 to 2060 is calculated from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) data and the historic PE/BA relationship is then used to estimate BA. This study examines the spatial pattern and temporal dynamics of the future US fires driven by new climate predictions for the next 50 years. Reference: Arora, V.K., & Boer, G.J. (2005). Fire as an interactive component of dynamic vegetation models. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 110 Bowman, D.M.J.S., Balch, J.K., Artaxo, P., Bond, W.J., Carlson, J.M., Cochrane, M.A., D

  15. Bayesian active learning of neural firing rate maps with transformed gaussian process priors.

    PubMed

    Park, Mijung; Weller, J Patrick; Horwitz, Gregory D; Pillow, Jonathan W

    2014-08-01

    A firing rate map, also known as a tuning curve, describes the nonlinear relationship between a neuron's spike rate and a low-dimensional stimulus (e.g., orientation, head direction, contrast, color). Here we investigate Bayesian active learning methods for estimating firing rate maps in closed-loop neurophysiology experiments. These methods can accelerate the characterization of such maps through the intelligent, adaptive selection of stimuli. Specifically, we explore the manner in which the prior and utility function used in Bayesian active learning affect stimulus selection and performance. Our approach relies on a flexible model that involves a nonlinearly transformed gaussian process (GP) prior over maps and conditionally Poisson spiking. We show that infomax learning, which selects stimuli to maximize the information gain about the firing rate map, exhibits strong dependence on the seemingly innocuous choice of nonlinear transformation function. We derive an alternate utility function that selects stimuli to minimize the average posterior variance of the firing rate map and analyze the surprising relationship between prior parameterization, stimulus selection, and active learning performance in GP-Poisson models. We apply these methods to color tuning measurements of neurons in macaque primary visual cortex.

  16. [Electrical activities of bursting-firing neurons in epileptic network reestablishment of rat hippocampus].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Ting; Qin, Xing-Kui; Yin, Shi-Jin; Han, Dan

    2003-12-25

    ipsilateral or contralateral anterior dorsal HPC were elicited by the ATPDH. The results obtained suggest that bursting-firing of single BFNs is produced by the ATPDH in the anterior dorsal HPC along the longitudinal axis of the ipsilateral HPC or across the hemisphere to the opposite HPC. Rhythmic activities of the BFN may be implicated in the epileptic network reestablishment of the HPC. On the other hand, synaptic modulation of the BFN temporal series might be responsible for pathophysiological information transmission in the HPC-epileptic network.

  17. High pre-industrial and modern Tibetan Plateau fire activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrwald, N. M.; Li, Q.; Wang, N.; Zennaro, P.; Zangrando, R.; Barbante, C.

    2013-12-01

    The South Asian brown cloud created from a mix of biomass burning and fossil fuel aerosols is warming the atmosphere between 5000 to 7000 meters above sea level (m asl) along the southern slope of the Himalaya. The extent to which this atmospheric brown cloud is transported up and over the 7000 to 8000 m asl ridge of the Himalaya and northward across the Tibetan Plateau is unknown. Intense Eastern Asian industry and associated coal burning may also export fossil fuel burning products to the Tibetan Plateau. In addition, local cooking, agricultural and natural fires emit combustion products that alter atmospheric chemistry and are deposited on glacier surfaces. It is essential to differentiate between the effects of fossil fuel and biomass burning across the Tibetan Plateau to determine if combustion products affect glacier surfaces and, by extension, glacier volume. The specific biomarker levoglucosan can only be produced by biomass burning at temperatures of 300°C or higher and is trapped and preserved in glaciers across the globe. This specificity may allow the possibility of differentiating between fossil fuel and biomass burning contributions when comparing levoglucosan concentrations with more general ice core combustion proxies such as black carbon. Here, we present a biomass burning record from the entire 164 m Muztag ice core (36.35°N; 87.17°E; 5780 m asl) and from a southwest to northeast transect of snow pits across the Tibetan Plateau. Multiple total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon surface samples demonstrate organic carbon concentrations at or near detection limits. However, these samples have high levoglucosan concentrations suggesting that the biomass burning recorded in these sites may be from a regional rather than local source. The Tibetan Plateau levoglucosan concentrations are surprisingly substantially greater than Kilimanjaro levoglucosan concentrations, where Kilimanjaro is located in a relatively similar low-latitude high

  18. Seven hundred years of human-driven and climate-influenced fire activity in a British Columbia coastal temperate rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Daniel G.; Starzomski, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    While wildland fire is globally most common at the savannah-grassland ecotone, there is little evidence of fire in coastal temperate rainforests. We reconstructed fire activity with a ca 700-year fire history derived from fire scars and stand establishment from 30 sites in a very wet (up to 4000 mm annual precipitation) temperate rainforest in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Drought and warmer temperatures in the year prior were positively associated with fire events though there was little coherence of climate indices on the years of fires. At the decadal scale, fires were more likely to occur after positive El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation phases and exhibited 30-year periods of synchrony with the negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation. Fire frequency was significantly inversely correlated with the distance from former Indigenous habitation sites and fires ceased following cultural disorganization caused by disease and other European impacts in the late nineteenth century. Indigenous people were likely to have been the primary ignition source in this and many coastal temperate rainforest settings. These data are directly relevant to contemporary forest management and discredit the myth of coastal temperate rainforests as pristine landscapes. PMID:27853581

  19. Beyond blow-up in excitatory integrate and fire neuronal networks: Refractory period and spontaneous activity.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, María J; Perthame, Benoît

    2014-06-07

    The Network Noisy Leaky Integrate and Fire equation is among the simplest model allowing for a self-consistent description of neural networks and gives a rule to determine the probability to find a neuron at the potential v. However, its mathematical structure is still poorly understood and, concerning its solutions, very few results are available. In the midst of them, a recent result shows blow-up in finite time for fully excitatory networks. The intuitive explanation is that each firing neuron induces a discharge of the others; thus increases the activity and consequently the discharge rate of the full network. In order to better understand the details of the phenomena and show that the equation is more complex and fruitful than expected, we analyze further the model. We extend the finite time blow-up result to the case when neurons, after firing, enter a refractory state for a given period of time. We also show that spontaneous activity may occur when, additionally, randomness is included on the firing potential VF in regimes where blow-up occurs for a fixed value of VF.

  20. The influence of lightning activity and anthropogenic factors on large-scale characteristics of natural fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, A. V.; Mokhov, I. I.; Chernokulsky, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    A module for simulating of natural fires (NFs) in the climate model of the A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS CM), is extended with respect to the influence of lightning activity and population density on the ignition frequency and fire suppression. The IAP RAS CM is used to perform numerical experiments in accordance with the conditions of the project that intercompares climate models, CMIP5 (Coupled Models Intercomparison Project, phase 5). The frequency of lightning flashes was assigned in accordance with the LIS/OTD satellite data. In the calculations performed, anthropogenic ignitions play an important role in NF occurrences, except for regions at subpolar latitudes and, to a lesser degree, tropical and subtropical regions. Taking into account the dependence of fire frequency on lightning activity and population density intensifies the influence of characteristics of natural fires on the climate changes in tropics and subtropics as compared to the version of the IAP RAS CM that does not take the influence of ignition sources on the large-scale characteristics of NFs into consideration.

  1. Fire effects on the Point Reyes Mountain Beaver at Point Reyes National Seashore, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellers, Gary M.; Pratt, David; Griffin, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    In October 1995, a wildlands fire burned 5,000 ha on the Point Reyes peninsula, California, USA. In most of the nonforested areas, the fire effectively cleared the ground of litter and vegetation and revealed thousands of Point Reyes mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa phaea) burrow openings. In the first 6 months after the fire, we surveyed burned coastal scrub and riparian habitat to (1) count the number of burrow openings that existed at the time of the fire, and (2) evaluate whether signs of post-fire mountain beaver activity were evident. We estimated that only 0.4–1.7% of mountain beavers within the burn area survived the fire and immediate post-fire period. We monitored mountain beaver activity for 5 years at 8 sites where mountain beavers survived, and found little or no recovery. We estimate that the mountain beaver population will take 15–20 years post-fire to recover.

  2. An algorithm to detect fire activity using Meteosat: fine tuning and quality assesment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amraoui, M.; DaCamara, C. C.; Ermida, S. L.

    2012-04-01

    Hot spot detection by means of sensors on-board geostationary satellites allows studying wildfire activity at hourly and even sub-hourly intervals, an advantage that cannot be met by polar orbiters. Since 1997, the Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Analysis has been running an operational procedure that allows detecting active fires based on information from Meteosat-8/SEVIRI. This is the so-called Fire Detection and Monitoring (FD&M) product and the procedure takes advantage of the temporal resolution of SEVIRI (one image every 15 min), and relies on information from SEVIRI channels (namely 0.6, 0.8, 3.9, 10.8 and 12.0 μm) together with information on illumination angles. The method is based on heritage from contextual algorithms designed for polar, sun-synchronous instruments, namely NOAA/AVHRR and MODIS/TERRAAQUA. A potential fire pixel is compared with the neighboring ones and the decision is made based on relative thresholds as derived from the pixels in the neighborhood. Generally speaking, the observed fire incidence compares well against hot spots extracted from the global daily active fire product developed by the MODIS Fire Team. However, values of probability of detection (POD) tend to be quite low, a result that may be partially expected by the finer resolution of MODIS. The aim of the present study is to make a systematic assessment of the impacts on POD and False Alarm Ratio (FAR) of the several parameters that are set in the algorithms. Such parameters range from the threshold values of brightness temperature in the IR3.9 and 10.8 channels that are used to select potential fire pixels up to the extent of the background grid and thresholds used to statistically characterize the radiometric departures of a potential pixel from the respective background. The impact of different criteria to identify pixels contaminated by clouds, smoke and sun glint is also evaluated. Finally, the advantages that may be brought to the algorithm by adding

  3. Mapping cyclist activity and injury risk in a network combining smartphone GPS data and bicycle counts.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Jillian; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Morency, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the modal share of cycling has been growing in North American cities. With the increase of cycling, the need of bicycle infrastructure and road safety concerns have also raised. Bicycle flows are an essential component in safety analysis. The main objective of this work is to propose a methodology to estimate and map bicycle volumes and cyclist injury risk throughout the entire network of road segments and intersections on the island of Montreal, achieved by combining smartphone GPS traces and count data. In recent years, methods have been proposed to estimate average annual daily bicycle (AADB) volume and injury risk estimates at both the intersection and segment levels using bicycle counts. However, these works have been limited to small samples of locations for which count data is available. In this work, a methodology is proposed to combine short- and long-term bicycle counts with GPS data to estimate AADB volumes along segments and intersections in the entire network. As part of the validation process, correlation is observed between AADB values obtained from GPS data and AADB values from count data, with R-squared values of 0.7 for signalized intersections, 0.58 for non-signalized intersections and between 0.48 and 0.76 for segments with and without bicycle infrastructure. The methodology is also validated through the calibration of safety performance functions using both sources of AADB estimates, from counts and from GPS data. Using the validated AADB estimates, the factors associated with injury risk were identified using data from the entire population of intersections and segments throughout Montreal. Bayesian injury risk maps are then generated and the concentrations of expected injuries and risk at signalized intersections are identified. Signalized intersections, which are often located at the intersection of major arterials, witness 4 times more injuries and 2.5 times greater risk than non-signalized intersections. A similar

  4. Electrophysiological characterization of Grueneberg ganglion olfactory neurons: spontaneous firing, sodium conductance, and hyperpolarization-activated currents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cambrian Y; Xiao, Cheng; Fraser, Scott E; Lester, Henry A; Koos, David S

    2012-09-01

    Mammals rely on their acute olfactory sense for their survival. The most anterior olfactory subsystem in the nose, the Grueneberg ganglion (GG), plays a role in detecting alarm pheromone, cold, and urinary compounds. GG neurons respond homogeneously to these stimuli with increases in intracellular [Ca(2+)] or transcription of immediate-early genes. In this electrophysiological study, we used patch-clamp techniques to characterize the membrane properties of GG neurons. Our results offer evidence of functional heterogeneity in the GG. GG neurons fire spontaneously and independently in several stable patterns, including phasic and repetitive single-spike modes of discharge. Whole cell recordings demonstrated two distinct voltage-gated fast-inactivating Na(+) currents with different steady-state voltage dependencies and different sensitivities to tetrodotoxin. Hodgkin-Huxley simulations showed that these Na(+) currents confer dual mechanisms of action potential generation and contribute to different firing patterns. Additionally, GG neurons exhibited hyperpolarization-activated inward currents that modulated spontaneous firing in vitro. Thus, in GG neurons, the heterogeneity of firing patterns is linked to the unusual repertoire of ionic currents. The membrane properties described here will aid the interpretation of chemosensory function in the GG.

  5. Minimum detectable activity concentration in direct alpha spectrometry from outdoor air samples: continuous monitoring versus separate sampling and counting.

    PubMed

    Pöllänen, R; Siiskonen, T

    2006-02-01

    Rapid method for identifying the presence of alpha particle emitting radionuclides in outdoor air is of paramount importance should a nuclear or radiological incident occur. Minimum detectable activity concentrations of U, U, Pu, and Pu in outdoor air are calculated for two direct alpha spectrometry methods: continuous air monitoring is compared with separate sampling and subsequent alpha particle counting in a vacuum chamber. The radon progeny activity concentration typical for outdoor air and the effects for the alpha particle spectra caused by the properties of the filter and the aerosol particles are taken into account using measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Continuous air monitoring is a faster method for identifying the presence of (trans)uranium elements when their activity concentration is considerably higher than the typical detection limit. Separate sampling and counting in a vacuum chamber is a more sensitive method when concentrations are close to the detection limit and when the duration of the sampling-counting cycle is greater than approximately 2 h. The method may serve as a tool for rapid field measurements.

  6. Modelling a response as a function of high-frequency count data: The association between physical activity and fat mass.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Nicole H; Mattocks, Calum; Faraway, Julian J; Greven, Sonja; Ness, Andy R

    2015-07-17

    Accelerometers are widely used in health sciences, ecology and other application areas. They quantify the intensity of physical activity as counts per epoch over a given period of time. Currently, health scientists use very lossy summaries of the accelerometer time series, some of which are based on coarse discretisation of activity levels, and make certain implicit assumptions, including linear or constant effects of physical activity. We propose the histogram as a functional summary for achieving a near lossless dimension reduction, comparability between individual time series and easy interpretability. Using the histogram as a functional summary avoids registration of accelerometer counts in time. In our novel method, a scalar response is regressed on additive multi-dimensional functional predictors, including the histogram of the high-frequency counts, and additive non-linear predictors for other continuous covariates. The method improves on the current state-of-the art, as it can deal with high-frequency time series of different lengths and missing values and yields a flexible way to model the physical activity effect with fewer assumptions. It also allows the commonly made modelling assumptions to be tested. We investigate the relationship between the response fat mass and physical activity measured by accelerometer, in data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Our method allows testing of whether the effect of physical activity varies over its intensity by gender, by time of day or by day of the week. We show that meaningful interpretation requires careful treatment of identifiability constraints in the light of the sum-to-one property of a histogram. We find that the (not necessarily causal) effect of physical activity on kg fat mass is not linear and not constant over the activity intensity.

  7. Effect of the selective noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor reboxetine on the firing activity of noradrenaline and serotonin neurons.

    PubMed

    Szabo, S T; Blier, P

    2001-06-01

    Reboxetine is a non-tricyclic antidepressant with selective noradrenergic (NA) reuptake-blocking effects. The effects of acute and sustained administration of reboxetine, on the firing activity of locus coeruleus NA neurons and dorsal raphe 5-HT neurons, were assessed using in vivo extracellular unitary recording in rats anaesthetized with chloral hydrate. Reboxetine (0.1-1.25 mg/kg, i.v.) dose-dependently decreased the firing activity of NA neurons (ED50 = 480 +/- 14 microg/kg). A 2-day treatment with reboxetine at 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg per day (using osmotic minipumps implanted subcutaneously) produced significant decreases of 52%, 68%, 81%, and 83%, respectively, of NA firing activity. When the reboxetine treatment (2.5 mg/kg per day) duration was prolonged to 7 days, a 66% decrease in NA firing activity was observed which further decreased to 80% after 21 days of treatment. In contrast, 5-HT neuron firing rate remained unaltered following short- and long-term reboxetine treatments. The suppressant effect of the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine on the firing activity of NA neurons was unchanged in long-term reboxetine-treated rats, but its effect on the firing activity of 5-HT neurons was blunted. The enhancement of NA firing activity by the 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT was abolished in long-term reboxetine-treated rats, whereas, the inhibitory effect of the 5-HT2 agonist DOI was attenuated by about three-fold. In conclusion, sustained NA reuptake blockade by reboxetine lead to profound alterations in the function of NA neurons and of 5-HT receptors modulating their firing activity.

  8. Composition, size and cloud condensation nuclei activity of biomass burning aerosol from northern Australian savannah fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallet, Marc D.; Cravigan, Luke T.; Milic, Andelija; Alroe, Joel; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Ward, Jason; Keywood, Melita; Williams, Leah R.; Selleck, Paul; Miljevic, Branka

    2017-03-01

    The vast majority of Australia's fires occur in the tropical north of the continent during the dry season. These fires are a significant source of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the region, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the biomass burning aerosol (BBA) in the absence of other sources. CCN concentrations at 0.5 % supersaturation and aerosol size and chemical properties were measured at the Australian Tropical Atmospheric Research Station (ATARS) during June 2014. CCN concentrations reached over 104 cm-3 when frequent and close fires were burning - up to 45 times higher than periods with no fires. Both the size distribution and composition of BBA appeared to significantly influence CCN concentrations. A distinct diurnal trend in the proportion of BBA activating to cloud droplets was observed, with an activation ratio of 40 ± 20 % during the night and 60 ± 20 % during the day. BBA was, on average, less hygroscopic during the night (κ = 0. 04 ± 0.03) than during the day (κ = 0.07 ± 0.05), with a maximum typically observed just before midday. Size-resolved composition of BBA showed that organics comprised a constant 90 % of the aerosol volume for aerodynamic diameters between 100 and 200 nm. While this suggests that the photochemical oxidation of organics led to an increase in the hygroscopic growth and an increase in daytime activation ratios, it does not explain the decrease in hygroscopicity after midday. Modelled CCN concentrations assuming typical continental hygroscopicities produced very large overestimations of up to 200 %. Smaller, but still significant, overpredictions up to ˜ 100 % were observed using aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS)- and hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (H-TDMA)-derived hygroscopicities as well as campaign night and day averages. The largest estimations in every case occurred during the night, when the small variations in very weakly hygroscopic species corresponded to large

  9. Regular theta-firing neurons in the nucleus incertus during sustained hippocampal activation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bellver, Sergio; Cervera-Ferri, Ana; Martínez-Ricós, Joana; Ruiz-Torner, Amparo; Luque-Garcia, Aina; Luque-Martinez, Aina; Blasco-Serra, Arantxa; Guerrero-Martínez, Juan; Bataller-Mompeán, Manuel; Teruel-Martí, Vicent

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the existence of theta-coupled neuronal activity in the nucleus incertus (NI). Theta rhythm is relevant for cognitive processes such as spatial navigation and memory processing, and can be recorded in a number of structures related to the hippocampal activation including the NI. Strong evidence supports the role of this tegmental nucleus in neural circuits integrating behavioural activation with the hippocampal theta rhythm. Theta oscillations have been recorded in the local field potential of the NI, highly coupled to the hippocampal waves, although no rhythmical activity has been reported in neurons of this nucleus. The present work analyses the neuronal activity in the NI in conditions leading to sustained hippocampal theta in the urethane-anaesthetised rat, in order to test whether such activation elicits a differential firing pattern. Wavelet analysis has been used to better define the neuronal activity already described in the nucleus, i.e., non-rhythmical neurons firing at theta frequency (type I neurons) and fast-firing rhythmical neurons (type II). However, the most remarkable finding was that sustained stimulation activated regular-theta neurons (type III), which were almost silent in baseline conditions and have not previously been reported. Thus, we describe the electrophysiological properties of type III neurons, focusing on their coupling to the hippocampal theta. Their spike rate, regularity and phase locking to the oscillations increased at the beginning of the stimulation, suggesting a role in the activation or reset of the oscillation. Further research is needed to address the specific contribution of these neurons to the entire circuit.

  10. Multiplatform inversion of the 2013 Rim Fire smoke emissions using regional-scale modeling: important nocturnal fire activity, air quality, and climate impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saide, P. E.; Peterson, D. A.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Ziemba, L. D.; Anderson, B.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Hair, J. W.; Butler, C. F.; Fenn, M. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Dibb, J. E.; Yokelson, R. J.; Toon, B.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    Large wildfire events are increasingly recognized for their adverse effects on air quality and visibility, thus providing motivation for improving smoke emission estimates. The Rim Fire, one of the largest events in California's history, produced a large smoke plume that was sampled by the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) DC-8 aircraft with a full suite of in-situ and remote sensing measurements on 26-27 August 2013. We developed an inversion methodology which uses the WRF-Chem modeling system to constrain hourly fire emissions, using as initial estimates the NASA Quick Fire Emissions Dataset (QFED). This method differs from the commonly performed top-down estimates that constrain daily (or longer time scale) emissions. The inversion method is able to simultaneously improve the model fit to various SEAC4RS airborne measurements (e.g., organic aerosol, carbon monoxide (CO), aerosol extinction), ground based measurements (e.g., AERONET aerosol optical depth (AOD), CO), and satellite data (MODIS AOD) by modifying fire emissions and utilizing the information content of all these measurements. Preliminary results show that constrained emissions for a 6 day period following the largest fire growth are a factor 2-4 higher than the initial top-down estimates. Moreover, there is a tendency to increase nocturnal emissions by factors sometimes larger than 20, indicating that vigorous fire activity continued during the night. This deviation from a typical diurnal cycle is confirmed using geostationary satellite data. The constrained emissions also have a larger day-to-day variability than the initial emissions and correlate better to daily area burned estimates as observed by airborne infrared measurements (NIROPS). Experiments with the assimilation system show that performing the inversion using only satellite AOD data produces much smaller correction factors than when using all available data

  11. Determination of 90Sr-90Y activity in urine samples by using Cherenkov counting.

    PubMed

    Tsroya, S; German, U; Pelled, O; Katorza, E; Alfassi, Z B

    2013-03-01

    Cherenkov counting of the (90)Sr-(90)Y pure beta emitters in aqueous samples is an attractive method; but color quenching correction is needed, this being especially significant for urine which is characterized by a strong coloration. A quench correction method based on the external source of some liquid scintillation systems (named ESAR-External Source Area Ratio) was proposed for aqueous solutions. In the present work, the application of the ESAR method for determination of (90)Sr-(90)Y in human urine samples is described.

  12. Vegetation Response to Holocene Variations in Climate and Fire Activity in Southwestern Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, A.; Briles, C.; Whitlock, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Past ecosystem responses to fire and climate change have been well studied in many parts of the Pacific Northwest, but forest history of the southern Cascades is poorly understood. Pollen and charcoal records from Hobart Lake (42.099°N, 122.482°W, 1458m) in southwestern Oregon were analyzed to reconstruct past changes in vegetation and fire activity. The watershed today supports mixed conifer forest of Abies, Pseudotsuga, Cupressaceae, and Pinus. From 8000 to 3500 cal yr BP, the forest had more xerophytic species, such as Pinus and Cupressaceae, and higher frequency of fires than at present, suggesting a climate that was warmer and drier than current conditions. The last 3500 cal years was characterized by increasing mesophytic taxa, such as Abies and Pseudotsuga, and decreasing fire activity; these trends are consistent with the establishment of cooler wetter conditions in the late Holocene. Changes in the abundance of Abies and Pseudotsuga pollen were compared at multiple sites to better understand their history in relation to long-term variations in climate and local disturbance. The pollen record suggests that Abies (i.e., Abies concolor, A. magnifica, A. amabilis or A. grandis) was abundant during the late-glacial period in a widespread subalpine forest that was present at all elevations. The genus declined in abundance during the early Holocene when it was best represented at higher elevations. Abies species gradually became more widespread and abundant during the mid- and late Holocene consistent with cooler conditions and expansion of closed mesic forest. Pseudotsuga was most abundant at low-elevation sites in the Coast and Cascade ranges during the early Holocene and then most abundant in more southern, mid-elevation sites in the Klamath and southern Cascade ranges in the late Holocene. Thus, the regional conifer history was strongly governed by variations in the summer insolation as they relate to changes in summer effective moisture.

  13. Integrated Active Fire Retrievals and Biomass Burning Emissions Using Complementary Near-Coincident Ground, Airborne and Spaceborne Sensor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Wilfrid; Ellicott, Evan; Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke; Dickinson, Matthew B.; Ottmar, Roger D.; Clements, Craig; Hall, Dianne; Ambrosia, Vincent; Kremens, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Ground, airborne and spaceborne data were collected for a 450 ha prescribed fire implemented on 18 October 2011 at the Henry W. Coe State Park in California. The integration of various data elements allowed near coincident active fire retrievals to be estimated. The Autonomous Modular Sensor-Wildfire (AMS) airborne multispectral imaging system was used as a bridge between ground and spaceborne data sets providing high quality reference information to support satellite fire retrieval error analyses and fire emissions estimates. We found excellent agreement between peak fire radiant heat flux data (less than 1% error) derived from near-coincident ground radiometers and AMS. Both MODIS and GOES imager active fire products were negatively influenced by the presence of thick smoke, which was misclassified as cloud by their algorithms, leading to the omission of fire pixels beneath the smoke, and resulting in the underestimation of their retrieved fire radiative power (FRP) values for the burn plot, compared to the reference airborne data. Agreement between airborne and spaceborne FRP data improved significantly after correction for omission errors and atmospheric attenuation, resulting in as low as 5 difference between AquaMODIS and AMS. Use of in situ fuel and fire energy estimates in combination with a collection of AMS, MODIS, and GOES FRP retrievals provided a fuel consumption factor of 0.261 kg per MJ, total energy release of 14.5 x 10(exp 6) MJ, and total fuel consumption of 3.8 x 10(exp 6) kg. Fire emissions were calculated using two separate techniques, resulting in as low as 15 difference for various species

  14. Circum-Mediterranean fire activity and climate changes during the mid Holocene environmental transition (8500-2500 cal yr BP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannière, Boris; Power, Mitch J.; Roberts, Neil; Tinner, Willy; Carrión, José; Magny, Michel; Bartlein, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    In this contribution I will present a synthesis of mid- to late-Holocene fire activity from the Mediterranean basin and explore the linkages among fire, climate variability and seasonality, and people through several climatic and ecological transitions. Regional fire histories were created from 36 radiocarbon-dated sedimentary charcoal records, available from the Global Charcoal Database. During the mid-Holocene "Thermal Maximum", charcoal records from the northern Mediterranean suggest the region was more fire prone while records from the southern Mediterranean indicate a decrease in fire activity associated with wetter-than-present summers. A North-South partition at 40-43°N is apparent in the central and western Mediterranean. In the context of orbitally-induced summer insolation decrease, South Mediterranean wet conditions could be linked to the Afro-Asian summer monsoon which weakened after ca. 8000-6000 cal yr BP. Relatively abrupt changes in fire regime observed at ca. 5500-5000 cal yr BP may be associated to a threshold in this weakening influence of the orbitally-driven Afro-Asian monsoon strength. Charcoal records of past fire activity appear sensitive to both orbitally-forced climate changes and shorter lived excursions which may be related to cold events apparent in the North Atlantic record of ice-rafted debris. These results contradict former notions of gradual aridification of the entire region due to climatic forcing and/or human activities. In contrast, they suggest: 1) Teleconnections between the Mediterranean area and other climatic regions, in particular the North Atlantic and the low-latitude monsoon areas, influenced past fire regimes; 2) Gradual forcing, such as changes in orbital parameters, may have triggered more abrupt shifts in fire regime, either directly or indirectly through these teleconnections.

  15. Phenotypic plasticity of post-fire activity and thermal biology of a free-ranging small mammal.

    PubMed

    Stawski, Clare; Körtner, Gerhard; Nowack, Julia; Geiser, Fritz

    2016-05-15

    Ecosystems can change rapidly and sometimes irreversibly due to a number of anthropogenic and natural factors, such as deforestation and fire. How individual animals exposed to such changes respond behaviourally and physiologically is poorly understood. We quantified the phenotypic plasticity of activity patterns and torpor use - a highly efficient energy conservation mechanism - in brown antechinus (Antechinus stuartii), a small Australian marsupial mammal. We compared groups in densely vegetated forest areas (pre-fire and control) with a group in a burned, open habitat (post-fire). Activity and torpor patterns differed among groups and sexes. Females in the post-fire group spent significantly less time active than the other groups, both during the day and night. However, in males only daytime activity declined in the post-fire group, although overall activity was also reduced on cold days in males for all groups. The reduction in total or diurnal activity in the post-fire group was made energetically possible by a ~3.4-fold and ~2.2-fold increase in the proportion of time females and males, respectively, used torpor in comparison to that in the pre-fire and control groups. Overall, likely due to reproductive needs, torpor was more pronounced in females than in males, but low ambient temperatures increased torpor bout duration in both sexes. Importantly, for both male and female antechinus and likely other small mammals, predator avoidance and energy conservation - achieved by reduced activity and increased torpor use - appear to be vital for post-fire survival where ground cover and refuges have been obliterated.

  16. Transition in subicular burst firing neurons from epileptiform activity to suppressed state by feedforward inhibition.

    PubMed

    Sah, Nirnath; Sikdar, Sujit K

    2013-08-01

    The subiculum, a para-hippocampal structure positioned between the cornu ammonis 1 subfield and the entorhinal cortex, has been implicated in temporal lobe epilepsy in human patients and in animal models of epilepsy. The structure is characterized by the presence of a significant population of burst firing neurons that has been shown previously to lead epileptiform activity locally. Phase transitions in epileptiform activity in neurons following a prolonged challenge with an epileptogenic stimulus has been shown in other brain structures, but not in the subiculum. Considering the importance of the subicular burst firing neurons in the propagation of epileptiform activity to the entorhinal cortex, we have explored the phenomenon of phase transitions in the burst firing neurons of the subiculum in an in vitro rat brain slice model of epileptogenesis. Whole-cell patch-clamp and extracellular field recordings revealed a distinct phenomenon in the subiculum wherein an early hyperexcitable state was followed by a late suppressed state upon continuous perfusion with epileptogenic 4-aminopyridine and magnesium-free medium. The suppressed state was characterized by inhibitory post-synaptic potentials in pyramidal excitatory neurons and bursting activity in local fast-spiking interneurons at a frequency of 0.1-0.8 Hz. The inhibitory post-synaptic potentials were mediated by GABAA receptors that coincided with excitatory synaptic inputs to attenuate action potential discharge. These inhibitory post-synaptic potentials ceased following a cut between the cornu ammonis 1 and subiculum. The suppression of epileptiform activity in the subiculum thus represents a homeostatic response towards the induced hyperexcitability. Our results suggest the importance of feedforward inhibition in exerting this homeostatic control.

  17. 77 FR 1945 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, National Fire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ...; Comment Request, National Fire Department Census AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... collect data for the development and continuation of the National Fire Department Census. DATES: Comments..., Statistician, United States Fire Administration, National Fire Data Center, (301) 447-1154 for...

  18. PDF neuron firing phase-shifts key circadian activity neurons in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fang; Cerullo, Isadora; Chen, Xiao; Rosbash, Michael

    2014-06-17

    Our experiments address two long-standing models for the function of the Drosophila brain circadian network: a dual oscillator model, which emphasizes the primacy of PDF-containing neurons, and a cell-autonomous model for circadian phase adjustment. We identify five different circadian (E) neurons that are a major source of rhythmicity and locomotor activity. Brief firing of PDF cells at different times of day generates a phase response curve (PRC), which mimics a light-mediated PRC and requires PDF receptor expression in the five E neurons. Firing also resembles light by causing TIM degradation in downstream neurons. Unlike light however, firing-mediated phase-shifting is CRY-independent and exploits the E3 ligase component CUL-3 in the early night to degrade TIM. Our results suggest that PDF neurons integrate light information and then modulate the phase of E cell oscillations and behavioral rhythms. The results also explain how fly brain rhythms persist in constant darkness and without CRY.

  19. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  20. A Count Model to Study the Correlates of 60 Min of Daily Physical Activity in Portuguese Children

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Alessandra; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to present data on Portuguese children (aged 9–11 years) complying with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines, and to identify the importance of correlates from multiple domains associated with meeting the guidelines. Physical activity (PA) was objectively assessed by accelerometry throughout seven days on 777 children. A count model using Poisson regression was used to identify the best set of correlates that predicts the variability in meeting the guidelines. Only 3.1% of children met the recommended daily 60 min of MVPA for all seven days of the week. Further, the Cochrane–Armitage chi-square test indicated a linear and negative trend (p < 0.001) from none to all seven days of children complying with the guidelines. The count model explained 22% of the variance in meeting MVPA guidelines daily. Being a girl, having a higher BMI, belonging to families with higher income, sleeping more and taking greater time walking from home to a sporting venue significantly reduced the probability of meeting daily recommended MVPA across the seven days. Furthermore, compared to girls, increasing sleep time in boys increased their chances of compliance with the MVPA recommendations. These results reinforce the relevance of considering different covariates’ roles on PA compliance when designing efficient intervention strategies to promote healthy and active lifestyles in children. PMID:25730296

  1. RBC count

    MedlinePlus

    ... marrow disease that causes abnormal increase in RBCs ( polycythemia vera ) Your RBC count will increase for several ... Multiple myeloma Myelofibrosis Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) Peripheral Polycythemia vera Renal cell carcinoma Splenomegaly Transfusion reaction - hemolytic ...

  2. Reticulocyte count

    MedlinePlus

    Anemia - reticulocyte ... A higher than normal reticulocytes count may indicate: Anemia due to red blood cells being destroyed earlier than normal ( hemolytic anemia ) Bleeding Blood disorder in a fetus or newborn ( ...

  3. Tower counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woody, Carol Ann; Johnson, D.H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Counting towers provide an accurate, low-cost, low-maintenance, low-technology, and easily mobilized escapement estimation program compared to other methods (e.g., weirs, hydroacoustics, mark-recapture, and aerial surveys) (Thompson 1962; Siebel 1967; Cousens et al. 1982; Symons and Waldichuk 1984; Anderson 2000; Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2003). Counting tower data has been found to be consistent with that of digital video counts (Edwards 2005). Counting towers do not interfere with natural fish migration patterns, nor are fish handled or stressed; however, their use is generally limited to clear rivers that meet specific site selection criteria. The data provided by counting tower sampling allow fishery managers to determine reproductive population size, estimate total return (escapement + catch) and its uncertainty, evaluate population productivity and trends, set harvest rates, determine spawning escapement goals, and forecast future returns (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 1974-2000 and 1975-2004). The number of spawning fish is determined by subtracting subsistence, sport-caught fish, and prespawn mortality from the total estimated escapement. The methods outlined in this protocol for tower counts can be used to provide reasonable estimates ( plus or minus 6%-10%) of reproductive salmon population size and run timing in clear rivers. 

  4. Determination of specific activity of iron-55 by spectrophotometry and liquid scintillation counting with bathophenanthroline complex

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, C.; Hoshi, M.; Tachikawa, E.

    1985-12-01

    A method for determining the macroscopic amount of iron and its radioactivity (/sup 55/Fe) in radioactive corrosion products was established with a single chemical procedure. The iron was first extracted into a liquid scintillator (2,5-diphenyloxazole-xylene) as an ion associate of iron bathophenanthroline (BPT) complex and perchlorate at pH 3-8, followed by measurement of its radioactivity by a liquid scintillation counter and its absorbance by a spectrophotometer. The absorption maximum and molar absorptivity (epsilon) of the complex were 535 nm and 22,000, respectively. The system conforms to Beer's law at concentrations of up to 30 ..mu..g of iron in 10 mL of organic phase. The counting efficiency of the extracted /sup 55/Fe was found to be 60%. Although /sup 60/Co is extracted into the PPO-xylene together with /sup 5/)2%Fe, it is separated from /sup 55/Fe by back extraction with 0.005 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (pH 6.0) into the aqueous phase. The effects of other foreign elements and radionuclides were also examined. The proposed method was successfully applied to analysis of radioactive corrosion products. 21 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Contributions of microbial activity and ash deposition to post-fire nitrogen availability in a pine savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficken, Cari D.; Wright, Justin P.

    2017-01-01

    Many ecosystems experience drastic changes to soil nutrient availability associated with fire, but the magnitude and duration of these changes are highly variable among vegetation and fire types. In pyrogenic pine savannas across the southeastern United States, pulses of soil inorganic nitrogen (N) occur in tandem with ecosystem-scale nutrient losses from prescribed burns. Despite the importance of this management tool for restoring and maintaining fire-dependent plant communities, the contributions of different mechanisms underlying fire-associated changes to soil N availability remain unclear. Pulses of N availability following fire have been hypothesized to occur through (1) changes to microbial cycling rates and (2) direct ash deposition. Here, we document fire-associated changes to N availability across the growing season in a longleaf pine savanna in North Carolina. To differentiate between possible mechanisms driving soil N pulses, we measured net microbial cycling rates and changes to soil δ15N before and after a burn. Our findings refute both proposed mechanisms: we found no evidence for changes in microbial activity, and limited evidence that ash deposition could account for the increase in ammonium availability to more than 5-25 times background levels. Consequently, we propose a third mechanism to explain post-fire patterns of soil N availability, namely that (3) changes to plant sink strength may contribute to ephemeral increases in soil N availability, and encourage future studies to explicitly test this mechanism.

  6. Active books: the design of an implantable stimulator that minimizes cable count using integrated circuits very close to electrodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Demosthenous, Andreas; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne; Jiang, Dai; Donaldson, Nick

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an integrated stimulator that can be embedded in implantable electrode books for interfacing with nerve roots at the cauda equina. The Active Book overcomes the limitation of conventional nerve root stimulators which can only support a small number of stimulating electrodes due to cable count restriction through the dura. Instead, a distributed stimulation system with many tripole electrodes can be configured using several Active Books which are addressed sequentially. The stimulator was fabricated in a 0.6-μm high-voltage CMOS process and occupies a silicon area of 4.2 × 6.5 mm(2). The circuit was designed to deliver up to 8 mA stimulus current to tripole electrodes from an 18 V power supply. Input pad count is limited to five (two power and three control lines) hence requiring a specific procedure for downloading stimulation commands to the chip and extracting information from it. Supported commands include adjusting the amplitude of stimulus current, varying the current ratio at the two anodes in each channel, and measuring relative humidity inside the chip package. In addition to stimulation mode, the chip supports quiescent mode, dissipating less than 100 nA current from the power supply. The performance of the stimulator chip was verified with bench tests including measurements using tripoles in saline.

  7. Developing a Global, Short-Term Fire Weather Forecasting Tool Using NWP Input Meteorology and Satellite Fire Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D. A.; Hyer, E. J.; Wang, J.

    2011-12-01

    In order to meet the emerging need for better estimates of biomass burning emissions in air quality and climate models, a statistical model is developed to characterize the effect of a given set of meteorological conditions on the following day's fire activity, including ignition and spread potential. Preliminary tests are conducted within several spatial domains of the North American boreal forest by investigating a wide range of meteorological information, including operational fire weather forecasting indices, such as the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS). However, rather than using local noon surface station data, the six components of the CFFDRS are modified to use inputs from the North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and the Navy's Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System Model (NOGAPS). The Initial Spread Index (ISI) and the Fire Weather Index (FWI) are shown to be the most relevant components of the CFFDRS for short-term changes in fire activity. However, both components are found to be highly sensitive to variations in relative humidity and wind speed input data. Several variables related to fire ignition from dry lighting, such as instability and the synoptic pattern, are also incorporated. Cases of fire ignition, growth, decay, and extinction are stratified using satellite fire observations from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) and the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and compared to the available suite of meteorological information. These comparisons reveal that combinations of meteorological variables, such as the FWI, ISI, and additional indices developed for this study, produce the greatest separability between major fire growth and decay cases, which are defined by the observed change in fire counts and fire radiative power. This information is used to derive statistical relationships affecting the short-term changes in fire activity and subsequently applied to other

  8. Relationship of ethnicity and CD4 Count with glucose metabolism among HIV patients on Highly-Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV patients on HAART are prone to metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, lipodystrophy and diabetes. This study purports to investigate the relationship of ethnicity and CD4+ T cell count attained after stable highly-active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) with glucose metabolism in hyperrtriglyceridemic HIV patients without a history of diabetes. Methods Demographic, anthropometric, clinical, endocrinologic, energy expenditure and metabolic measures were obtained in 199 multiethnic, healthy but hypertriglyceridemic HIV-infected patients [46% Hispanic, 17% African-American, 37% Non-Hispanic White (NHW)] on stable HAART without a history of diabetes. The relationship of glucose and insulin responses to ethnicity, CD4 strata (low (<300/cc) or moderate-to-high (≥ 300/cc)), and their interaction was determined. Results African-Americans had significantly greater impairment of glucose tolerance (P < 0.05) and HbA1c levels (P < .001) than either Hispanics or NHWs. In multivariate models, after adjusting for confounders (age, sex, HIV/HAART duration, smoking, obesity, glucose, insulin and lipids), African-Americans and Hispanics had significantly higher HbA1c and 2-hour glucose levels than NHW’s. Demonstrating a significant interaction between ethnicity and CD4 count (P = 0.023), African Americans with CD4 <300/cc and Hispanics with CD4 ≥300/cc had the most impaired glucose response following oral glucose challenge. Conclusions Among hypertriglyceridemic HIV patients on HAART, African-Americans and Hispanics are at increased risk of developing diabetes. Ethnicity also interacts with CD4+ T cell count attained on stable HAART to affect post-challenge glycemic response. PMID:23607267

  9. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, Bedabrata; Norton, Timothy J.; Haas, J. Patrick; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest of by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  10. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, B.; Norton, T. J.; Haas, P.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution for the readout while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest or by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  11. Math Strategies You Can Count On: Tools & Activities to Build Math Appreciation, Understanding & Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsten, Char

    2005-01-01

    This book offers classroom-tested activities designed to make even the most reluctant learners crazy about math. Appealing to everyone from sports fans to readers, future fashion designers to budding musicians, the activities presented in this book offer ways to develop a deep-rooted love and appreciation of math in every student. Teachers are…

  12. Narrative increases step counts during active video game play among children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity (PA) level offer a novel alternative to child obesity. Unfortunately, children's motivation to play AVG decreases quickly, underscoring the need to find new methods to maintain their engagement. According to narrative transportation th...

  13. NASA Fire Protection Coordinators' Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Theodore

    2001-01-01

    Fire prevention activities at NASA's Stennis Space Center are reviewed in this viewgraph presentation. The Fire Prevention Office of the Fire Department at NASA Stennis conducts inspections and issues small appliance permits, while the Operations Section responds to emergencies.

  14. Motor activity in the isolated spinal cord of the chick embryo: synaptic drive and firing pattern of single motoneurons.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, M J

    1989-03-01

    The cellular mechanisms underlying embryonic motility were investigated using intracellular recording from motoneurons and electrotonic recording from muscle nerves during motor activity generated by an isolated spinal cord preparation of 12- to 15-d-old chick embryos. DC-coupled recordings from sartorius (a flexor) and femorotibialis (an extensor) muscle nerves revealed that both sets of motoneurons were depolarized at the same time in each cycle even when the motoneurons fired out of phase. Sartorius motoneurons fired briefly on the rising phase of the depolarization and then stopped firing before discharging a second burst of spikes as the depolarization decayed. By contrast, femorotibialis motoneurons fired at the peak of their depolarization, which was coincident with the interruption in sartorius activity. Intracellular recordings from antidromically identified motoneurons confirmed that flexor and extensor motoneurons were depolarized at the same time during each cycle of activity. The discharge of femorotibialis motoneurons, and others presumed to be extensors, followed changes in membrane potential so that maximal firing occurred during peak depolarization. The relationship between discharge and membrane potential was different in sartorius motoneurons (and in others presumed to be flexors) because they fired briefly on the rising phase of the depolarization and then stopped firing during peak depolarization. In some of these cells firing resumed as the membrane potential decayed back to rest. Intracellular injection of depolarizing current into sartorius motoneurons during motor activity reversed the direction of the membrane potential change from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing during the pause in sartorius discharge. In addition, the discharge evoked by the depolarizing current was blocked during the reversed part of the synaptic potential revealing its inhibitory nature. The occurrence of the IPSP was accompanied by a large reduction in motoneuronal

  15. Assessment of the Utility of the Advanced Himawari Imager to Detect Active Fire Over Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hally, B.; Wallace, L.; Reinke, K.; Jones, S.

    2016-06-01

    Wildfire detection and attribution is an issue of importance due to the socio-economic impact of fires in Australia. Early detection of fires allows emergency response agencies to make informed decisions in order to minimise loss of life and protect strategic resources in threatened areas. Until recently, the ability of land management authorities to accurately assess fire through satellite observations of Australia was limited to those made by polar orbiting satellites. The launch of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Himawari-8 satellite, with the 16-band Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI-8) onboard, in October 2014 presents a significant opportunity to improve the timeliness of satellite fire detection across Australia. The near real-time availability of images, at a ten minute frequency, may also provide contextual information (background temperature) leading to improvements in the assessment of fire characteristics. This paper investigates the application of the high frequency observation data supplied by this sensor for fire detection and attribution. As AHI-8 is a new sensor we have performed an analysis of the noise characteristics of the two spectral bands used for fire attribution across various land use types which occur in Australia. Using this information we have adapted existing algorithms, based upon least squares error minimisation and Kalman filtering, which utilise high frequency observations of surface temperature to detect and attribute fire. The fire detection and attribution information provided by these algorithms is then compared to existing satellite based fire products as well as in-situ information provided by land management agencies. These comparisons were made Australia-wide for an entire fire season - including many significant fire events (wildfires and prescribed burns). Preliminary detection results suggest that these methods for fire detection perform comparably to existing fire products and fire incident reporting from relevant

  16. A short-term predictor of satellite-observed fire activity in the North American boreal forest: Toward improving the prediction of smoke emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, David; Hyer, Edward; Wang, Jun

    2013-06-01

    A statistical model, based on numerical weather prediction (NWP), is developed to predict the subsequent day's satellite observations of fire activity in the North American boreal forest during the fire season (24-h forecast). In conjunction with the six components of the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System and other NWP outputs, fire data from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) are used to examine the meteorological separability between the largest fire growth and decay events, with a focus on central Alaska during the large fire season of 2004. This combined information is analyzed in three steps including a maximum likelihood classification, multiple regression, and empirical correction, from which the meteorological effects on fire growth and decay are statistically established to construct the fire prediction model. Both MODIS and GOES fire observations show that the NWP-based fire prediction model is an improvement over the forecast of persistence commonly used by near-real-time fire emission inventories. Results from an independent test (2005 fire season) show that the root-mean-square error (RMSE) of predicted MODIS fire observations is reduced by 5.2% compared with a persistence forecast. Improvements are strongest (RMSE reduction of 11.4%) for cases with observed decay or extinction of fires. Similar results are obtained from additional independent tests using the 2004 and 2005 GOES satellite fire observations. This study uniquely demonstrates the value and importance of combining NWP data and satellite fire observations to predict biomass-burning emissions, which is a critical step toward producing a global short-term fire prediction model and improving operational forecasts of smoke transport at large spatial scales.

  17. The Relationship between Particulate Pollution Levels in Australian Cities, Meteorology, and Landscape Fire Activity Detected from MODIS Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Price, Owen F.; Williamson, Grant J.; Henderson, Sarah B.; Johnston, Fay; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Smoke from bushfires is an emerging issue for fire managers because of increasing evidence for its public health effects. Development of forecasting models to predict future pollution levels based on the relationship between bushfire activity and current pollution levels would be a useful management tool. As a first step, we use daily thermal anomalies detected by the MODIS Active Fire Product (referred to as “hotspots”), pollution concentrations, and meteorological data for the years 2002 to 2008, to examine the statistical relationship between fire activity in the landscapes and pollution levels around Perth and Sydney, two large Australian cities. Resultant models were statistically significant, but differed in their goodness of fit and the distance at which the strength of the relationship was strongest. For Sydney, a univariate model for hotspot activity within 100 km explained 24% of variation in pollution levels, and the best model including atmospheric variables explained 56% of variation. For Perth, the best radius was 400 km, explaining only 7% of variation, while the model including atmospheric variables explained 31% of the variation. Pollution was higher when the atmosphere was more stable and in the presence of on-shore winds, whereas there was no effect of wind blowing from the fires toward the pollution monitors. Our analysis shows there is a good prospect for developing region-specific forecasting tools combining hotspot fire activity with meteorological data. PMID:23071788

  18. The relationship between particulate pollution levels in Australian cities, meteorology, and landscape fire activity detected from MODIS hotspots.

    PubMed

    Price, Owen F; Williamson, Grant J; Henderson, Sarah B; Johnston, Fay; Bowman, David M J S

    2012-01-01

    Smoke from bushfires is an emerging issue for fire managers because of increasing evidence for its public health effects. Development of forecasting models to predict future pollution levels based on the relationship between bushfire activity and current pollution levels would be a useful management tool. As a first step, we use daily thermal anomalies detected by the MODIS Active Fire Product (referred to as "hotspots"), pollution concentrations, and meteorological data for the years 2002 to 2008, to examine the statistical relationship between fire activity in the landscapes and pollution levels around Perth and Sydney, two large Australian cities. Resultant models were statistically significant, but differed in their goodness of fit and the distance at which the strength of the relationship was strongest. For Sydney, a univariate model for hotspot activity within 100 km explained 24% of variation in pollution levels, and the best model including atmospheric variables explained 56% of variation. For Perth, the best radius was 400 km, explaining only 7% of variation, while the model including atmospheric variables explained 31% of the variation. Pollution was higher when the atmosphere was more stable and in the presence of on-shore winds, whereas there was no effect of wind blowing from the fires toward the pollution monitors. Our analysis shows there is a good prospect for developing region-specific forecasting tools combining hotspot fire activity with meteorological data.

  19. Influence of agricultural activities, forest fires and agro-industries on air quality in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Phairuang, Worradorn; Hata, Mitsuhiko; Furuuchi, Masami

    2017-02-01

    Annual and monthly-based emission inventories in northern, central and north-eastern provinces in Thailand, where agriculture and related agro-industries are very intensive, were estimated to evaluate the contribution of agricultural activity, including crop residue burning, forest fires and related agro-industries on air quality monitored in corresponding provinces. The monthly-based emission inventories of air pollutants, or, particulate matter (PM), NOx and SO2, for various agricultural crops were estimated based on information on the level of production of typical crops: rice, corn, sugarcane, cassava, soybeans and potatoes using emission factors and other parameters related to country-specific values taking into account crop type and the local residue burning period. The estimated monthly emission inventory was compared with air monitoring data obtained at monitoring stations operated by the Pollution Control Department, Thailand (PCD) for validating the estimated emission inventory. The agro-industry that has the greatest impact on the regions being evaluated, is the sugar processing industry, which uses sugarcane as a raw material and its residue as fuel for the boiler. The backward trajectory analysis of the air mass arriving at the PCD station was calculated to confirm this influence. For the provinces being evaluated which are located in the upper northern, lower northern and northeast in Thailand, agricultural activities and forest fires were shown to be closely correlated to the ambient PM concentration while their contribution to the production of gaseous pollutants is much less.

  20. Fire activity as a function of fire–weather seasonal severity and antecedent climate across spatial scales in southern Europe and Pacific western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urbieta, Itziar R.; Zavala, Gonzalo; Bedia, Joaquin; Gutierrez, Jose M.; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Camia, Andrea; Keeley, Jon E.; Moreno, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate has a strong influence on fire activity, varying across time and space. We analyzed the relationships between fire–weather conditions during the main fire season and antecedent water-balance conditions and fires in two Mediterranean-type regions with contrasted management histories: five southern countries of the European Union (EUMED)(all fires); the Pacific western coast of the USA (California and Oregon, PWUSA)(national forest fires). Total number of fires (≥1 ha), number of large fires (≥100 ha) and area burned were related to mean seasonal fire weather index (FWI), number of days over the 90th percentile of the FWI, and to the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) from the preceding 3 (spring) or 8 (autumn through spring) months. Calculations were made at three spatial aggregations in each area, and models related first-difference (year-to-year change) of fires and FWI/climate variables to minimize autocorrelation. An increase in mean seasonal FWI resulted in increases in the three fire variables across spatial scales in both regions. SPEI contributed little to explain fires, with few exceptions. Negative water-balance (dry) conditions from autumn through spring (SPEI8) were generally more important than positive conditions (moist) in spring (SPEI3), both of which contributed positively to fires. The R2 of the models generally improved with increasing area of aggregation. For total number of fires and area burned, the R2 of the models tended to decrease with increasing mean seasonal FWI. Thus, fires were more susceptible to change with climate variability in areas with less amenable conditions for fires (lower FWI) than in areas with higher mean FWI values. The relationships were similar in both regions, albeit weaker in PWUSA, probably due to the wider latitudinal gradient covered in PWUSA than in EUMED. The large variance explained by some of the models indicates that large-scale seasonal forecast could help anticipating

  1. Potential release of fibers from burning carbon composites. [aircraft fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental carbon fiber source program was conducted to determine the potential for the release of conductive carbon fibers from burning composites. Laboratory testing determined the relative importance of several parameters influencing the amounts of single fibers released, while large-scale aviation jet fuel pool fires provided realistic confirmation of the laboratory data. The dimensions and size distributions of fire-released carbon fibers were determined, not only for those of concern in an electrical sense, but also for those of potential interest from a health and environmental standpoint. Fire plume and chemistry studies were performed with large pool fires to provide an experimental input into an analytical modelling of simulated aircraft crash fires. A study of a high voltage spark system resulted in a promising device for the detection, counting, and sizing of electrically conductive fibers, for both active and passive modes of operation.

  2. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  3. Defining global syndromes of fire and the relationship of these to biomes, climate and human activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, C.; Archibald, S.; Gomez-Dans, J.; Bradstock, R.

    2012-12-01

    Fire is a ubiquitous component of the Earth system that remains poorly understood. To date, global scale understanding of fire is limited largely to the annual extent of burning as detected by satellites. This is problematic because fire is multi-dimensional, and focus on individual metrics belies both the complexity and importance of fire within the Earth system. In an applied sense, the lack of a unified understanding of fire impedes estimation of GHG emissions or prediction of future fire regimes as a consequence of changing patterns of climate and land use. To address this we identified five key characteristics of fire regimes: size, frequency, intensity, season and extent. We combined new global datasets with existing datasets to examine cross-correlations among characteristics. We demonstrate that only certain combinations of fire characteristics are possible and this likely reflects fundamental energetic constraints derived from interactions between under-lying fuel types, climate and rates of re-growth post-fire. For example, very intense fires can only occur infrequently because a system requires a lengthy period to develop sufficient fuel to burn. Further, very cool fires only occur infrequently because fuels are not available to burn. Following, we applied a clustering algorithm to these data to determine whether we could identify syndromes of fire regimes. Pyromes, as global syndromes of fire are conceptually analogous to biomes (global syndromes of vegetation) where the extent of each pyrome is determined solely as a product of the fire characteristics themselves. A point of difference to biomes being that no one has previously attempted to quantify the global range of fire syndromes. We identified five pyromes, four of which we believe represent distinctions between crown, litter and grass-fuelled fires. The relationship of pyromes to biomes and climate are not deterministic as different biomes and climates may be represented within a single pyrome

  4. Size counts: evolutionary perspectives on physical activity and body size from early hominids to modern humans.

    PubMed

    Leonard, William R

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines the evolutionary origins of human dietary and activity patterns, and their implications for understanding modern health problems. Humans have evolved distinctive nutritional characteristics associated the high metabolic costs of our large brains. The evolution of larger hominid brain size necessitated the adoption of foraging strategies that both provided high quality foods, and required larger ranges and activity budgets. Over time, human subsistence strategies have become ever more efficient in obtaining energy with minimal time and effort. Today, populations of the industrialized world live in environments characterized by low levels of energy expenditure and abundant food supplies contributing to growing rates of obesity. Analyses of trends in dietary intake and body weight in the US over the last 50 years indicate that the dramatic rise in obesity cannot be explained solely by increased energy consumption. Rather, declines in activity are also important. Further, we find that recent recommendations on physical activity have the potential to bring daily energy expenditure levels of industrialized societies surprisingly close to those observed among subsistence-level populations. These findings highlight the importance of physical activity in promoting nutritional health and show the utility of evolutionary approaches for developing public health recommendations.

  5. Somatostatinergic modulation of firing pattern and calcium-activated potassium currents in medium spiny neostriatal neurons.

    PubMed

    Galarraga, E; Vilchis, C; Tkatch, T; Salgado, H; Tecuapetla, F; Perez-Rosello, T; Perez-Garci, E; Hernandez-Echeagaray, E; Surmeier, D J; Bargas, J

    2007-05-11

    Somatostatin is synthesized and released by aspiny GABAergic interneurons of the neostriatum, some of them identified as low threshold spike generating neurons (LTS-interneurons). These neurons make synaptic contacts with spiny neostriatal projection neurons. However, very few somatostatin actions on projection neurons have been described. The present work reports that somatostatin modulates the Ca(2+) activated K(+) currents (K(Ca) currents) expressed by projection cells. These actions contribute in designing the firing pattern of the spiny projection neuron; which is the output of the neostriatum. Small conductance (SK) and large conductance (BK) K(Ca) currents represent between 30% and 50% of the sustained outward current in spiny cells. Somatostatin reduces SK-type K(+) currents and at the same time enhances BK-type K(+) currents. This dual effect enhances the fast component of the after hyperpolarizing potential while reducing the slow component. Somatostatin then modifies the firing pattern of spiny neurons which changed from a tonic regular pattern to an interrupted "stuttering"-like pattern. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tissue expression analysis of dorsal striatal somatostatinergic receptors (SSTR) mRNA revealed that all five SSTR mRNAs are present. However, single cell RT-PCR profiling suggests that the most probable receptor in charge of this modulation is the SSTR2 receptor. Interestingly, aspiny interneurons may exhibit a "stuttering"-like firing pattern. Therefore, somatostatin actions appear to be the entrainment of projection neurons to the rhythms generated by some interneurons. Somatostatin is then capable of modifying the processing and output of the neostriatum.

  6. 77 FR 7171 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, National Fire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ...; Comment Request, National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) v5.0 AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management... National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) v5.0. The program provides a well established mechanism, using standardized reporting methods, to collect and analyze fire incident data at the Federal,...

  7. 76 FR 31364 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Fire Brigades

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ...; Fire Brigades ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is submitting the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Fire... INFORMATION: The Fire Brigade Standard codified at 29 CFR 1910.156 requires each covered employer...

  8. 78 FR 6133 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Fire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ...; Fire Protection in Underground Coal Mines ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is...) revision titled, ``Fire Protection in Underground Coal Mines,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... event of an emergency. In addition, various sections of part 75 require fire drills to be...

  9. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  10. What Counts as Student Voice in Active Citizenship Case Studies? Education for Citizenship in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Hamish; Munn, Pamela; Brown, Jane

    2007-01-01

    We analyse a teacher-to-teacher discourse (14 web-published case studies) concerning "participation as citizenship" in schools. Many different mechanisms through which pupils participate are reported (from school councils to paired-reading schemes and community links). The claimed outcomes of these activities are also varied: improving…

  11. A new cell counting method to evaluate anti-tumor compound activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Jian; Zhang, Xiu-Rong; Zhang, Lei; Li, Qing-Hua; Wang, Lin; Shi, Li-Hong; Fang, Chun-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Determining cell quantity is a common problem in cytology research and anti-tumor drug development. A simple and low-cost method was developed to determine monolayer and adherent-growth cell quantities. The cell nucleus is located in the cytoplasm, and is independent. Thus, the nucleus cannot make contact even if the cell density is heavy. This phenomenon is the foundation of accurate cell-nucleus recognition. The cell nucleus is easily recognizable in images after fluorescent staining because it is independent. A one-to-one relationship exists between the nucleus and the cell; therefore, this method can be used to determine the quantity of proliferating cells. Results indicated that the activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor Z1 was effective after this method was used. The nude-mouse xenograft model also revealed the potent anti-tumor activity of Z1. This research presents a new anti-tumor-drug evaluation method.

  12. Affective regulation of stereotype activation: It’s the (accessible) thought that counts

    PubMed Central

    Huntsinger, Jeffrey R.; Sinclair, Stacey; Dunn, Elizabeth; Clore, Gerald L.

    2010-01-01

    Extant research demonstrates that positive affect, compared to negative affect, increases stereotyping. In four experiments we explore whether the link between affect and stereotyping depends, critically, on the relative accessibility of stereotype-relevant thoughts and response tendencies. As well as manipulating mood, we measured or manipulated the accessibility of egalitarian response tendencies (Experiments 1-2) and counter-stereotypic thoughts (Experiments 3-4). In the absence of such response tendencies and thoughts, people in positive moods displayed greater stereotype activation —consistent with past research. By contrast, in the presence of accessible egalitarian response tendencies or counter-stereotypic thoughts, people in positive moods exhibited less stereotype activation than those in negative moods. PMID:20363909

  13. Cannabinoid Receptor Activation Reverses Kainate-Induced Synchronized Population Burst Firing in Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Rob; Cheer, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabinoids have been shown to possess anticonvulsant properties in whole animal models of epilepsy. The present investigation sought to examine the effects of cannabinoid receptor activation on kainic acid (KA)-induced epileptiform neuronal excitability. Under urethane anesthesia, acute KA treatment (10 mg kg−1, i.p.) entrained the spiking mode of simultaneously recorded neurons from random firing to synchronous bursting (% change in burst rate). Injection of the high-affinity cannabinoid agonist (-)-11-hydroxy-8-tetrahydrocannabinol-dimethyl-heptyl (HU210, 100 μg kg−1, i.p.) following KA markedly reduced the burst frequency (% decrease in burst frequency) and reversed synchronized firing patterns back to baseline levels. Pre-treatment with the central cannabinoid receptor (CB1) antagonist N-piperidino-5-(4-clorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-3-pyrazole-carboxamide (rimonabant, SR141716A 3 mg kg−1, i.p.) completely prevented the actions of HU210. The present results indicate that cannabinoids exert their antiepileptic effects by impeding pathological synchronization of neuronal networks in the hippocampus. PMID:19562087

  14. Effect of fire on soil microbial composition and activity in a Pinus canariensis forest and over time recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez Rojas, Irene; Fernández Lugo, Silvia; Arévalo Sierra, Jose Ramon; Pérez Fernández, María

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires are recurrent disturbances to forest ecosystems of Pinus canariensis, but their effects on soil microbial communities are not well characterized and have not previously been compared directly. Effects of fires on soil biotic properties are strongly dependent on the intensity of the fire, as well as on the type of soil and vegetation cover. This study aims at developing a comprehensive picture of the soil and vegetation dynamics to natural fries in an experiment comprising prescribed burning. The study was conducted at sites with similar soil, climatic, and other properties in a Canary pine forest in the Canary Islands, Spain. Soil microbial communities were assessed following four treatments: control, burnt soil the day after the fire, burnt soil three months after the fire and burnt soil six months after the. Burn treatments were conducted by the stuff from Cabildo de Canarias (Spain) on the 4th and 5th of June 2014. As a general rule, the organic carbon and the microbial biomass tend to decrease in the surface horizon after the fire, but the system responds increasing microbial activities and restoring soil variables in the subsequent months after the burning. Microbial biomass carbon significantly decreased in the burnt soils with their maximum negative effect immediately after the fire and during autumn, six months after the fire. Microbial biomass nitrogen also decreased in the burnt site immediately after the fire but increased in the following months, probably because of microbial assimilation of the increased amounts of available NH4+ and NO3- due to burning. Bacterial community composition was analyzed by metagenomics analyses Illumina showing strong variations amongst horizons and burning treatment both in total numbers and their composition. Changes in plant community were also monitored at the level of germination and plant recovery. Although fire negatively affects germination, seedling survival improves by increased growth rates of seedlings

  15. Both associative activation and thematic extraction count, but thematic false memories are more easily rejected.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Paula; Garcia-Marques, Leonel; Fernandez, Angel; Albuquerque, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to analyse the roles played by associative activation and thematic extraction in the explanation of false memories using the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Associative lists with two different types of critical items (CIs) were used: one, the associative CI, corresponded to the word most strongly primed by the associates in the list and another, the thematic CI, was the word that best described the theme of the list. Following three different types of encoding instructions (standard, warning or strategic), false recognition for these two types of CIs was analysed in either self-paced or speeded response recognition tests. The results showed considerable levels of false memories for both types of CIs. Even without the quality of being "good themes", associative CIs produced high levels of false recognition, which suggests that associative activation plays a prominent role in false memory formation. More interestingly, thematic CIs were more prone to be edited out, reinforcing the argument that thematic identifiability has a major role in the rejection of false memories.

  16. Effect of intramammary injection of rboGM-CSF on milk levels of chemiluminescence activity, somatic cell count, and Staphylococcus aureus count in Holstein cows with S. aureus subclinical mastitis

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The effect of intramammary injection of recombinant bovine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rboGM-CSF, 400 μg/10 mL) on quarter milk levels of chemiluminescence (CL) activity, and somatic cell count (SCC) and shedding pattern of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. Ten Holstein cows, naturally infected with S. aureus were used, with either early-stage or late-stage subclinical mastitis. Injection of rboGM-CSF caused a remarkable increase in milk CL activity with a peak at 6 h after the cytokine injection in the early- and late-stage groups. In the early-stage group, milk SCC stayed around preinjection level at 6 h, rose significantly on days 1 and 2, and was followed by a smooth and significant decline to an under preinjection level (below 200 000 cells/mL) on day 7 postinjection. Alternatively, in the late-stage group, milk SCC rose significantly at 6 h after the cytokine injection and maintained high levels thereafter. The milk S. aureus count decreased drastically by the cytokine injection in the early-stage group. The bacterial count was moderately decreased in the late-stage group, but increased back to preinoculation levels on day 7 after the cytokine injection. The results suggest that the rboGM-CSF has a potential as a therapeutic agent for S. aureus infection causing subclinical mastitis of dairy cows, if the cytokine is applied at the initial stage of infection. PMID:15352542

  17. [Accreditation of a hygiene hospital laboratory for sampling and analysis activities for the detection and counting of Legionella in water].

    PubMed

    Lecointe, Didier; Noël, Coralie; Beauvais, Raphaëlle; Descaves, Carole; Gouot, Armelle; Bourgeois, Sandrine; Koutcherenko, Stéphane; Kassidi, Noura

    2015-01-01

    Since January 1(st) 2012, detection and counting of Legionella bacteria have been obligatory in France and must be carried out by COFRAC-accredited laboratories. In our establishment, sampling and analysis were outsourced and our hospital was scheduled to move to a new site. We aimed to develop both these activities in-house and to obtain COFRAC accreditation, whilst organizing the move to the new site. We set up a quality assurance system bringing together staff from the hygiene laboratory and institutional resource managers. We set up sampling and analysis activities in-house 13 months before requesting accreditation. The initial evaluation took place before we moved and identified 17 areas of deficiency, six of which were considered critical. After we had moved, a subsequent evaluation considered 14 of these deficiencies to have been corrected, included the six initially identified as critical. We were therefore awarded accreditation. The quality assurance system established during the year before our request was submitted led to accreditation two and a half years after the transfer in-house of sampling and analysis activities, despite our hospital moving during this period.

  18. Counting the costs of accreditation in acute care: an activity-based costing approach

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Virginia; Greenfield, David; Hogden, Anne; Forde, Kevin; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the costs of hospital accreditation in Australia. Design Mixed methods design incorporating: stakeholder analysis; survey design and implementation; activity-based costs analysis; and expert panel review. Setting Acute care hospitals accredited by the Australian Council for Health Care Standards. Participants Six acute public hospitals across four States. Results Accreditation costs varied from 0.03% to 0.60% of total hospital operating costs per year, averaged across the 4-year accreditation cycle. Relatively higher costs were associated with the surveys years and with smaller facilities. At a national level these costs translate to $A36.83 million, equivalent to 0.1% of acute public hospital recurrent expenditure in the 2012 fiscal year. Conclusions This is the first time accreditation costs have been independently evaluated across a wide range of hospitals and highlights the additional cost burden for smaller facilities. A better understanding of the costs allows policymakers to assess alternative accreditation and other quality improvement strategies, and understand their impact across a range of facilities. This methodology can be adapted to assess international accreditation programmes. PMID:26351190

  19. Fire as Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  20. Do not hesitate to use Tversky-and other hints for successful active analogue searches with feature count descriptors.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Dragos; Marcou, Gilles; Varnek, Alexandre

    2013-07-22

    This study is an exhaustive analysis of the neighborhood behavior over a large coherent data set (ChEMBL target/ligand pairs of known Ki, for 165 targets with >50 associated ligands each). It focuses on similarity-based virtual screening (SVS) success defined by the ascertained optimality index. This is a weighted compromise between purity and retrieval rate of active hits in the neighborhood of an active query. One key issue addressed here is the impact of Tversky asymmetric weighing of query vs candidate features (represented as integer-value ISIDA colored fragment/pharmacophore triplet count descriptor vectors). The nearly a 3/4 million independent SVS runs showed that Tversky scores with a strong bias in favor of query-specific features are, by far, the most successful and the least failure-prone out of a set of nine other dissimilarity scores. These include classical Tanimoto, which failed to defend its privileged status in practical SVS applications. Tversky performance is not significantly conditioned by tuning of its bias parameter α. Both initial "guesses" of α = 0.9 and 0.7 were more successful than Tanimoto (at its turn, better than Euclid). Tversky was eventually tested in exhaustive similarity searching within the library of 1.6 M commercial + bioactive molecules at http://infochim.u-strasbg.fr/webserv/VSEngine.html , comparing favorably to Tanimoto in terms of "scaffold hopping" propensity. Therefore, it should be used at least as often as, perhaps in parallel to Tanimoto in SVS. Analysis with respect to query subclasses highlighted relationships of query complexity (simply expressed in terms of pharmacophore pattern counts) and/or target nature vs SVS success likelihood. SVS using more complex queries are more robust with respect to the choice of their operational premises (descriptors, metric). Yet, they are best handled by "pro-query" Tversky scores at α > 0.5. Among simpler queries, one may distinguish between "growable" (allowing for active

  1. Glial potassium channels activated by neuronal firing or intracellular cyclic AMP in Helix.

    PubMed

    Gommerat, I; Gola, M

    1996-09-15

    1. Cell-attached and whole cell patch clamp experiments were performed on satellite glial cells adhering to the cell body of neurones in situ within the nervous system of the snail Helix pomatia. The underlying neurone was under current or voltage-clamp control. 2. Neuronal firing induced a delayed (20-30 s) persistent (3-4 min) increase in the opening probability of glial K+ channels. The channels were also activated by perfusing the ganglion with a depolarizing high-K+ saline, except when the underlying neurone was prevented from depolarizing under voltage-clamp conditions. 3. Two K(+)-selective channels were detected in the glial membrane. The channel responding to neuronal firing was present in 95% of the patches (n = 393). It had a unitary conductance of 56 pS, a Na+ :K+ permeability ratio < 0.02 and displayed slight inward rectification in symmetrical [K+] conditions. It was sensitive to TEA, Ba2+ and Cs+. The following results refer to this channel as studied in the cell-attached configuration. 4. The glial K+ channel was activated by bath application of the membrane-permeant cyclic AMP derivatives 8-bromo-cAMP and dibutyryl-cAMP, the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin and the diesterase inhibitors IBMX, theophylline and caffeine. It was insensitive to cyclic GMP activators and to conditions that might alter the intracellular [Ca2+] (ionomycin, low-Ca2+ saline and Ca2+ channel blockers). 5. The forskolin-induced changes in channel behaviour (open and closed time distributions, burst duration, short and long gaps within bursts) could be accounted for by a four-state model (3 closed states, 1 open state) by simply changing one of the six rate parameters. 6. The present results suggest that the signal sent by an active neurone to satellite glial cells is confined to the glial cells round that neurone. The effect of this signal on the class of glial K+ channels studied can be mimicked by an increase in glial cAMP concentration. The subsequent delayed opening

  2. Glial potassium channels activated by neuronal firing or intracellular cyclic AMP in Helix.

    PubMed Central

    Gommerat, I; Gola, M

    1996-01-01

    1. Cell-attached and whole cell patch clamp experiments were performed on satellite glial cells adhering to the cell body of neurones in situ within the nervous system of the snail Helix pomatia. The underlying neurone was under current or voltage-clamp control. 2. Neuronal firing induced a delayed (20-30 s) persistent (3-4 min) increase in the opening probability of glial K+ channels. The channels were also activated by perfusing the ganglion with a depolarizing high-K+ saline, except when the underlying neurone was prevented from depolarizing under voltage-clamp conditions. 3. Two K(+)-selective channels were detected in the glial membrane. The channel responding to neuronal firing was present in 95% of the patches (n = 393). It had a unitary conductance of 56 pS, a Na+ :K+ permeability ratio < 0.02 and displayed slight inward rectification in symmetrical [K+] conditions. It was sensitive to TEA, Ba2+ and Cs+. The following results refer to this channel as studied in the cell-attached configuration. 4. The glial K+ channel was activated by bath application of the membrane-permeant cyclic AMP derivatives 8-bromo-cAMP and dibutyryl-cAMP, the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin and the diesterase inhibitors IBMX, theophylline and caffeine. It was insensitive to cyclic GMP activators and to conditions that might alter the intracellular [Ca2+] (ionomycin, low-Ca2+ saline and Ca2+ channel blockers). 5. The forskolin-induced changes in channel behaviour (open and closed time distributions, burst duration, short and long gaps within bursts) could be accounted for by a four-state model (3 closed states, 1 open state) by simply changing one of the six rate parameters. 6. The present results suggest that the signal sent by an active neurone to satellite glial cells is confined to the glial cells round that neurone. The effect of this signal on the class of glial K+ channels studied can be mimicked by an increase in glial cAMP concentration. The subsequent delayed opening

  3. [The "Mining Rescue System and Mine Fires" Working Group. Tasks, results, future activities].

    PubMed

    Coenders, A

    1983-01-01

    The president of the working party presents details of its principal tasks in the past and in the present time. These can be summed up in a study of the problems mentioned below and the subsequent elaboration of recommendations for the benefit of the governments, guidelines, information reports and research proposals. The principal problems that were or are still under study are: --prevention of fires: shaft equipment, hydraulic fluids, belt conveyors, . . .; --detection of mine fires and spontaneous combustion; --fighting of mine fires: shaft fires, construction of stoppings, openings and recovering of fire zones, . . .; --coordination and rescue equipment: escape and rescue breathing apparatus, flameproof clothing, rescue of trapped miners; --stabilization of ventilation in the event of fire, . . . The speaker stresses the importance of the information exchange and the atmosphere of fellowship and solidarity that prevails in the working party.

  4. Fire, drought and El Niño relationships on Borneo during the pre-MODIS era (1980-2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, M. J.; Perry, G. L. W.; Zoumas, A.

    2011-02-01

    Borneo (Indonesia) is Earth's third largest island, and the location of both extensive areas of rainforest and tropical peatlands. It is the site of both regular (seasonal) biomass burning associated with forest clearance and agricultural production preparations, and occasional, but much more severe, large fire episodes releasing enormous volumes of carbon from burning vegetation and peat. The latter's extreme magnitude is believed to be associated with the severity of El Niño related droughts. Over the last decade, data from the EOS MODIS satellite instruments have been used to study fire on Borneo, but earlier large fire events remain less well documented. Here we focus on the study of Borneo's large fire episodes in the "pre-MODIS" era, and specifically a 20 year period covering both the two strongest El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events on record (1997-1998 and 1982-1983) and an unprecedented series of more frequent, but weaker, El Niño's. For the five El Niño episodes occurring between 1980 and 2000, we develop quantitative measures of Borneo's fire activity based on active fire counts derived from NOAA AVHRR Global Area Coverage (CAC) satellite data. We use these metrics to investigate relationships between the strength and timing of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event, the associated drought, and the fire activity magnitude. Significant fires are identified across parts of South, Central, East and West Kalimantan, always occurring within two or three fire sub-seasons separated by monsoons. We find that the length, overall strength, and growth rate of individual El Niño episodes effects the extent and harshness of the drought, and the magnitude of fire activity. We confirm significant correlations between monthly ENSO index and rainfall deficit measures, and between rainfall deficit and fire. The two strongest El Niño episodes are accompanied by the most abundant fires, showing two and three times the active fire count seen in the next

  5. The development of the disease activity score (DAS) and the disease activity score using 28 joint counts (DAS28).

    PubMed

    van Riel, P L C M

    2014-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis, disease activity cannot be measured using a single variable. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) has been developed as a quantitative index to be able to measure, study and manage disease activity in RA in daily clinical practice, clinical trials, and long term observational studies. The DAS is a continuous measure of RA disease activity that combines information from swollen joints, tender joints, acute phase response and patient self-report of general health. Cut points were developed to classify patients in remission, as well as low, moderate, and severe disease activity in the 1990s. DAS-based EULAR response criteria were primarily developed to be used in clinical trials to classify individual patients as non-, moderate, or good responders, depending on the magnitude of change and absolute level of disease activity at the conclusion of the test.

  6. Work activities and the onset of first-time low back pain among New York City fire fighters.

    PubMed

    Nuwayhid, I A; Stewart, W; Johnson, J V

    1993-03-01

    In a prospective study of first-time low back pain among New York City fire fighters, a total of 115 cases and 109 randomly selected controls were interviewed by telephone between December 1988 and July 1989 to examine the role of recent work activities in the onset of first-time low back pain. After adjusting for known risk factors and off-duty activities, statistically significant high-risk work activities included operating a charged hose inside a building (odds ratio (OR) = 3.26), climbing ladders (OR = 3.18), breaking windows (OR = 4.45), cutting structures (OR = 6.47), looking for hidden fires (OR = 4.32), and lifting objects > or = 18 kg (OR = 3.07). Low-risk activities included connecting hydrants to pumpers (OR = 0.36), pulling booster hose (OR = 0.19), and participating in drills (OR = 0.09) or physical training (OR = 0.16). When further adjusted for exposure to smoke (OR = 13.59), a surrogate for severity of alarms, the ORs associated with high-risk activities were no longer significant. This, however, does not diminish the role of activities in the onset of low back pain. Instead, it suggests an inseparable role for activities and environmental hazards. To examine this, the risk of low back pain was measured within five work zones sequential in time relative to location and distance from a structural fire. The risk gradually increased as the fire fighter moved away from the firehouse (OR = 0.10) and closer to the site of fire (OR = 3.91).

  7. Reticulocyte Count Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reticulocyte Count Related tests: Red Blood Cell Count ; Hemoglobin ; Hematocrit ; Complete Blood Count ; Blood Smear ; Erythropoietin ; Vitamin ... on a complete blood count (CBC) , RBC count , hemoglobin or hematocrit , to help determine the cause To ...

  8. Long-term deforestation in NW Spain: linking the Holocene fire history to vegetation change and human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaal, Joeri; Carrión Marco, Yolanda; Asouti, Eleni; Martín Seijo, Maria; Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; Costa Casáis, Manuela; Criado Boado, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    The Holocene fire regime is thought to have had a key role in deforestation and shrubland expansion in Galicia (NW Spain) but the contribution of past societies to vegetation burning remains poorly understood. This may be, in part, due to the fact that detailed fire records from areas in close proximity to archaeological sites are scarce. To fill this gap, we performed charcoal analysis in five colluvial soils from an archaeological area (Campo Lameiro) and compared the results to earlier studies from this area and palaeo-ecological literature from NW Spain. This analysis allowed for the reconstruction of the vegetation and fire dynamics in the area during the last ca 11 000 yrs. In the Early Holocene, Fabaceae and Betula sp. were dominant in the charcoal record. Quercus sp. started to replace these species around 10 000 cal BP, forming a deciduous forest that prevailed during the Holocene Thermal Maximum until ˜5500 cal BP. Following that, several cycles of potentially fire-induced forest regression with subsequent incomplete recovery eventually led to the formation of an open landscape dominated by shrubs (Erica sp. and Fabaceae). Major episodes of forest regression were (1) ˜5500-5000 cal BP, which marks the mid-Holocene cooling after the Holocene Thermal Maximum, but also the period during which agropastoral activities in NW Spain became widespread, and (2) ˜2000-1500 cal BP, which corresponds roughly to the end of the Roman Warm Period and the transition from the Roman to the Germanic period. The low degree of chronological precision, which is inherent in fire history reconstructions from colluvial soils, made it impossible to distinguish climatic from human-induced fires. Nonetheless, the abundance of synanthropic pollen indicators (e.g. Plantago lanceolata and Urtica dioica) since at least ˜6000 cal BP strongly suggests that humans used fire to generate and maintain pasture.

  9. Analytically tractable studies of traveling waves of activity in integrate-and-fire neural networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Osan, Remus

    2016-05-01

    In contrast to other large-scale network models for propagation of electrical activity in neural tissue that have no analytical solutions for their dynamics, we show that for a specific class of integrate and fire neural networks the acceleration depends quadratically on the instantaneous speed of the activity propagation. We use this property to analytically compute the network spike dynamics and to highlight the emergence of a natural time scale for the evolution of the traveling waves. These results allow us to examine other applications of this model such as the effect that a nonconductive gap of tissue has on further activity propagation. Furthermore we show that activity propagation also depends on local conditions for other more general connectivity functions, by converting the evolution equations for network dynamics into a low-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations. This approach greatly enhances our intuition into the mechanisms of the traveling waves evolution and significantly reduces the simulation time for this class of models.

  10. Analytically tractable studies of traveling waves of activity in integrate-and-fire neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Osan, Remus

    2016-05-01

    In contrast to other large-scale network models for propagation of electrical activity in neural tissue that have no analytical solutions for their dynamics, we show that for a specific class of integrate and fire neural networks the acceleration depends quadratically on the instantaneous speed of the activity propagation. We use this property to analytically compute the network spike dynamics and to highlight the emergence of a natural time scale for the evolution of the traveling waves. These results allow us to examine other applications of this model such as the effect that a nonconductive gap of tissue has on further activity propagation. Furthermore we show that activity propagation also depends on local conditions for other more general connectivity functions, by converting the evolution equations for network dynamics into a low-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations. This approach greatly enhances our intuition into the mechanisms of the traveling waves evolution and significantly reduces the simulation time for this class of models.

  11. Activity patterns and parasitism rates of fire ant decapitating flies (Diptera:Phoridae:Pseudacteon spp.) in their native Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: This work describes the annual and daily activity patterns of two parasitoid fly communities of the fire ant S. invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in their native Argentina. Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae) flies were censused monthly for one year at two sites in northwestern Corr...

  12. Advanced fire-resistant forms of activated carbon and methods of adsorbing and separating gases using same

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Yongliang; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-02-03

    Advanced, fire-resistant activated carbon compositions useful in adsorbing gases; and having vastly improved fire resistance are provided, and methods for synthesizing the compositions are also provided. The advanced compositions have high gas adsorption capacities and rapid adsorption kinetics (comparable to commercially-available activated carbon), without having any intrinsic fire hazard. They also have superior performance to Mordenites in both adsorption capacities and kinetics. In addition, the advanced compositions do not pose the fibrous inhalation hazard that exists with use of Mordenites. The fire-resistant compositions combine activated carbon mixed with one or more hydrated and/or carbonate-containing minerals that release H.sub.2O and/or CO.sub.2 when heated. This effect raises the spontaneous ignition temperature to over 500.degree. C. in most examples, and over 800.degree. C. in some examples. Also provided are methods for removing and/or separating target gases, such as Krypton or Argon, from a gas stream by using such advanced activated carbons.

  13. High firing rate of neonatal hippocampal interneurons is caused by attenuation of afterhyperpolarizing potassium currents by tonically active kainate receptors.

    PubMed

    Segerstråle, Mikael; Juuri, Juuso; Lanore, Frédéric; Piepponen, Petteri; Lauri, Sari E; Mulle, Christophe; Taira, Tomi

    2010-05-12

    In the neonatal hippocampus, the activity of interneurons shapes early network bursts that are important for the establishment of neuronal connectivity. However, mechanisms controlling the firing of immature interneurons remain elusive. We now show that the spontaneous firing rate of CA3 stratum lucidum interneurons markedly decreases during early postnatal development because of changes in the properties of GluK1 (formerly known as GluR5) subunit-containing kainate receptors (KARs). In the neonate, activation of KARs by ambient glutamate exerts a tonic inhibition of the medium-duration afterhyperpolarization (mAHP) by a G-protein-dependent mechanism, permitting a high interneuronal firing rate. During development, the amplitude of the apamine-sensitive K+ currents responsible for the mAHP increases dramatically because of decoupling between KAR activation and mAHP modulation, leading to decreased interneuronal firing. The developmental shift in the KAR function and its consequences on interneuronal activity are likely to have a fundamental role in the maturation of the synchronous neuronal oscillations typical for adult hippocampal circuitry.

  14. Effects of image noise, respiratory motion, and motion compensation on 3D activity quantification in count-limited PET images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siman, W.; Mawlawi, O. R.; Mikell, J. K.; Mourtada, F.; Kappadath, S. C.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of noise, motion blur, and motion compensation using quiescent-period gating (QPG) on the activity concentration (AC) distribution—quantified using the cumulative AC volume histogram (ACVH)—in count-limited studies such as 90Y-PET/CT. An International Electrotechnical Commission phantom filled with low 18F activity was used to simulate clinical 90Y-PET images. PET data were acquired using a GE-D690 when the phantom was static and subject to 1-4 cm periodic 1D motion. The static data were down-sampled into shorter durations to determine the effect of noise on ACVH. Motion-degraded PET data were sorted into multiple gates to assess the effect of motion and QPG on ACVH. Errors in ACVH at AC90 (minimum AC that covers 90% of the volume of interest (VOI)), AC80, and ACmean (average AC in the VOI) were characterized as a function of noise and amplitude before and after QPG. Scan-time reduction increased the apparent non-uniformity of sphere doses and the dispersion of ACVH. These effects were more pronounced in smaller spheres. Noise-related errors in ACVH at AC20 to AC70 were smaller (<15%) compared to the errors between AC80 to AC90 (>15%). The accuracy of ACmean was largely independent of the total count. Motion decreased the observed AC and skewed the ACVH toward lower values; the severity of this effect depended on motion amplitude and tumor diameter. The errors in AC20 to AC80 for the 17 mm sphere were  -25% and  -55% for motion amplitudes of 2 cm and 4 cm, respectively. With QPG, the errors in AC20 to AC80 of the 17 mm sphere were reduced to  -15% for motion amplitudes  <4 cm. For spheres with motion amplitude to diameter ratio  >0.5, QPG was effective at reducing errors in ACVH despite increases in image non-uniformity due to increased noise. ACVH is believed to be more relevant than mean or maximum AC to calculate tumor control and normal tissue complication probability

  15. Indonesian fire activity and smoke pollution in 2015 show persistent nonlinear sensitivity to El Niño-induced drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Robert D.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Fanin, Thierry; Fetzer, Eric J.; Fuller, Ryan; Jethva, Hiren; Levy, Robert; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Luo, Ming; Torres, Omar; Worden, Helen M.

    2016-08-01

    The 2015 fire season and related smoke pollution in Indonesia was more severe than the major 2006 episode, making it the most severe season observed by the NASA Earth Observing System satellites that go back to the early 2000s, namely active fire detections from the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS), MODIS aerosol optical depth, Terra Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) carbon monoxide (CO), Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO, Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index, and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) CO. The MLS CO in the upper troposphere showed a plume of pollution stretching from East Africa to the western Pacific Ocean that persisted for 2 mo. Longer-term records of airport visibility in Sumatra and Kalimantan show that 2015 ranked after 1997 and alongside 1991 and 1994 as among the worst episodes on record. Analysis of yearly dry season rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and rain gauges shows that, due to the continued use of fire to clear and prepare land on degraded peat, the Indonesian fire environment continues to have nonlinear sensitivity to dry conditions during prolonged periods with less than 4 mm/d of precipitation, and this sensitivity appears to have increased over Kalimantan. Without significant reforms in land use and the adoption of early warning triggers tied to precipitation forecasts, these intense fire episodes will reoccur during future droughts, usually associated with El Niño events.

  16. Indonesian fire activity and smoke pollution in 2015 show persistent nonlinear sensitivity to El Niño-induced drought.

    PubMed

    Field, Robert D; van der Werf, Guido R; Fanin, Thierry; Fetzer, Eric J; Fuller, Ryan; Jethva, Hiren; Levy, Robert; Livesey, Nathaniel J; Luo, Ming; Torres, Omar; Worden, Helen M

    2016-08-16

    The 2015 fire season and related smoke pollution in Indonesia was more severe than the major 2006 episode, making it the most severe season observed by the NASA Earth Observing System satellites that go back to the early 2000s, namely active fire detections from the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS), MODIS aerosol optical depth, Terra Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) carbon monoxide (CO), Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO, Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index, and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) CO. The MLS CO in the upper troposphere showed a plume of pollution stretching from East Africa to the western Pacific Ocean that persisted for 2 mo. Longer-term records of airport visibility in Sumatra and Kalimantan show that 2015 ranked after 1997 and alongside 1991 and 1994 as among the worst episodes on record. Analysis of yearly dry season rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and rain gauges shows that, due to the continued use of fire to clear and prepare land on degraded peat, the Indonesian fire environment continues to have nonlinear sensitivity to dry conditions during prolonged periods with less than 4 mm/d of precipitation, and this sensitivity appears to have increased over Kalimantan. Without significant reforms in land use and the adoption of early warning triggers tied to precipitation forecasts, these intense fire episodes will reoccur during future droughts, usually associated with El Niño events.

  17. Indonesian fire activity and smoke pollution in 2015 show persistent nonlinear sensitivity to El Niño-induced drought

    PubMed Central

    Field, Robert D.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Fanin, Thierry; Fetzer, Eric J.; Fuller, Ryan; Jethva, Hiren; Levy, Robert; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Luo, Ming; Torres, Omar; Worden, Helen M.

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 fire season and related smoke pollution in Indonesia was more severe than the major 2006 episode, making it the most severe season observed by the NASA Earth Observing System satellites that go back to the early 2000s, namely active fire detections from the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS), MODIS aerosol optical depth, Terra Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) carbon monoxide (CO), Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO, Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index, and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) CO. The MLS CO in the upper troposphere showed a plume of pollution stretching from East Africa to the western Pacific Ocean that persisted for 2 mo. Longer-term records of airport visibility in Sumatra and Kalimantan show that 2015 ranked after 1997 and alongside 1991 and 1994 as among the worst episodes on record. Analysis of yearly dry season rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and rain gauges shows that, due to the continued use of fire to clear and prepare land on degraded peat, the Indonesian fire environment continues to have nonlinear sensitivity to dry conditions during prolonged periods with less than 4 mm/d of precipitation, and this sensitivity appears to have increased over Kalimantan. Without significant reforms in land use and the adoption of early warning triggers tied to precipitation forecasts, these intense fire episodes will reoccur during future droughts, usually associated with El Niño events. PMID:27482096

  18. A novel active fire protection approach for structural steel members using NiTi shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiq, H.; Wong, M. B.; Al-Mahaidi, R.; Zhao, X. L.

    2013-02-01

    A novel active fire protection approach, based on integrating a shape memory alloy, NiTi, with a steel structure, was proposed to satisfy the fire resistance requirements in structural design. To demonstrate the principles of this approach, a simple structure in the form of a simply supported steel beam was used. The internal action of the beam due to a transverse applied load was reduced by utilizing the shape memory effect in the NiTi alloy at rising temperatures. As a result, the net internal action from the load design was kept below the deteriorated load capacity of the beam during the fire scenario for period of time that was longer than that of the original beam without the NiTi alloy. By integrating the NiTi alloy into the beam system, the structure remained stable even though the steel temperature exceeded the critical temperature which may have caused the original beam structure to collapse. Prior to testing the composite NiTi-steel beam under simulated fire conditions, the NiTi alloy specimens were characterized at high temperatures. At 300 °C, the stiffness of the specimens increased by three times and its strength by four times over that at room temperature. The results obtained from the high-temperature characterization highlighted the great potential of the alloy being used in fire engineering applications.

  19. Evaluation of activated carbon for control of mercury from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.; Laudal, D.; Dunham, G.

    1995-11-01

    The ability to remove mercury from power plant flue gas may become important because of the Clean Air Act amendments` requirement that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks associated with these emissions. One approach for mercury removal, which may be relatively simple to retrofit, is the injection of sorbents, such as activated carbon, upstream of existing particulate control devices. Activated carbon has been reported to capture mercury when injected into flue gas upstream of a spray dryer baghouse system applied to waste incinerators or coal-fired boilers. However, the mercury capture ability of activated carbon injected upstream of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or baghouse operated at temperatures between 200{degrees} and 400{degrees}F is not well known. A study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric power Research Institute is being conducted at the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to evaluate whether mercury control with sorbents can be a cost-effective approach for large power plants. Initial results from the study were reported last year. This paper presents some of the recent project results. Variables of interest include coal type, sorbent type, sorbent addition rate, collection media, and temperature.

  20. Activity of bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam against red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Wiltz, B A; Suiter, D R; Gardner, W A

    2010-06-01

    Bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam were evaluated for activity against the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Mobility impairment and lethal times were determined after topical treatments. Both immobilization and mortality occurred most quickly with bifenthrin, followed by thiamethoxam, chlorfenapyr, and fipronil. Mortality due to horizontal exposure was evaluated at 10, 20, or 30 degrees C, with three ratios of topically treated donor ant corpses to live recipients (5, 10, or 20% donors). Bifenthrin had the greatest horizontal activity of the chemicals tested. For chlorfenapyr, the only treatments having higher mortality than controls were the highest percentage donors at either 10 or 30 degrees C. Horizontal activity of fipronil was temperature dependent only with the highest proportion of donors and was lower than that ofbifenthrin but higher than that of chlorfenapyr or thiamethoxam. Mean mortality due to thiamethoxam was similar to that with chlorfenapyr. Significant mortality occurred in all of the 20 and 30 degrees C thiamethoxam treatments, but none of the 10 degrees C treatments. Effectiveness as a barrier was evaluated by providing a choice between bridges treated with insecticide or water. Although bifenthrin did not provide an impenetrable barrier, it was the only treatment having fewer ants than its paired control bridge. Mortality data suggest that a reduction in recruitment rather than repellency account for this result.

  1. Role of melatonin, serotonin 2B, and serotonin 2C receptors in modulating the firing activity of rat dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Chenu, Franck; Shim, Stacey; El Mansari, Mostafa; Blier, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    Melatonin has been widely used for the management of insomnia, but is devoid of antidepressant effect in the clinic. In contrast, agomelatine which is a potent melatonin receptor agonist is an effective antidepressant. It is, however, a potent serotonin 2B (5-HT(2B)) and serotonin 2C (5-HT(2C)) receptor antagonist as well. The present study was aimed at investigating the in vivo effects of repeated administration of melatonin (40 mg/kg/day), the 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB 242084 (0.5 mg/kg/day), the selective 5-HT(2B) receptor antagonist LY 266097 (0.6 mg/kg/day) and their combination on ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA), locus coeruleus (LC) norepinephrine (NE), and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) serotonin (5-HT) firing activity. Administration of melatonin twice daily increased the number of spontaneously active DA neurons but left the firing of NE neurons unaltered. Long-term administration of melatonin and SB 242084, by themselves, had no effect on the firing rate and burst parameters of 5-HT and DA neurons. Their combination, however, enhanced only the number of spontaneously active DA neurons, while leaving the firing of 5-HT neurons unchanged. The addition of LY 266097, which by itself is devoid of effect, to the previous regimen increased for DA neurons the number of bursts per minute and the percentage of spikes occurring in bursts. In conclusion, the combination of melatonin receptor activation as well as 5-HT(2C) receptor blockade resulted in a disinhibition of DA neurons. When 5-HT(2B) receptors were also blocked, the firing and the bursting activity of DA neurons were both enhanced, thus reproducing the effect of agomelatine.

  2. Excellent c-Si surface passivation by thermal atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide after industrial firing activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, B.; Stangl, R.; Ma, F.; Mueller, T.; Lin, F.; Aberle, A. G.; Bhatia, C. S.; Hoex, B.

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate that by using a water (H2O)-based thermal atomic layer deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) film, excellent surface passivation can be attained on planar low-resistivity silicon wafers. Effective carrier lifetime values of up to 12 ms and surface recombination velocities as low as 0.33 cm s-1 are achieved on float-zone wafers after a post-deposition thermal activation of the Al2O3 passivation layer. This post-deposition activation is achieved using an industrial high-temperature firing process which is commonly used for contact formation of standard screen-printed silicon solar cells. Neither a low-temperature post-deposition anneal nor a silicon nitride capping layer is required in this case. Deposition temperatures in the 100-400 °C range and peak firing temperatures of about 800 °C (set temperature) are investigated. Photoluminescence imaging shows that the surface passivation is laterally uniform. Corona charging and capacitance-voltage measurements reveal that the negative fixed charge density near the AlOx/c-Si interface increases from 1.4 × 1012 to 3.3 × 1012 cm-2 due to firing, while the midgap interface defect density reduces from 3.3 × 1011 to 0.8 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1. This work demonstrates that direct firing activation of thermal ALD Al2O3 is feasible, which could be beneficial for solar cell manufacturing.

  3. DETERMINATION OF PERFLUOROCARBOXYLATES IN GROUNDWATER IMPACTED BY FIRE-FIGHTING ACTIVITY. (R821195)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated surfactants are used in aqueous film forming foam (AFFF)
    formulations, which are used to extinguish hydrocarbon-fuel fires. Virtually
    nothing is known about the occurrence of perfluorinated surfactants in the
    environment, in particular, at fire-train...

  4. Fire and nitrogen alter axillary bud number and activity in purple threeawn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Belowground accumulation of vegetative buds provides a reservoir of meristems that can be utilized following disturbance. Perennial grass bud banks are the primary source of nearly all tiller growth, yet understanding of fire and nitrogen effects on bud banks is limited. We tested effects of fire ...

  5. Esterase in imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicata and S. richteri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): activity, kinetics and variation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black imported fire ant, Solenopsis richteri, is closely related to the notorious red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Despite being very similar in biology and behavior, S. invicta is a much more successful invader. In contrast to S. invicta that has invaded numberous countries and regions,...

  6. 76 FR 29011 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Fire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...; Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is... (ICR) titled, ``Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... not a toll-free number) or by e-mail at DOL_PRA_PUBLIC@dol.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The...

  7. The Heavens on Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littmann, Mark

    1998-10-01

    Meteor succeeded meteor in such rapid succession that it was impossible to count them; at times the sky seemed full of them, and the earth was illuminated as with a morning light. Eye-witness accounts such as this, and every spectacular detail of the Leonids, the greatest meteor showers of all, can be found in the acclaimed The Heavens on Fire. In this volume, author Mark Littmann vividly tells the history of meteors, and especially the Leonids, whose terrifying beauty established meteor science. He traces the history and mythology of meteors, profiles the fascinating figures whose discoveries advanced the field, and explores how meteors have changed the course of life on Earth. Crisp illustrations capture the excitement of past meteor showers and help elucidate important concepts. The returning Leonids are now reaching their peak with great activity expected in 1999 and 2000. For all those who wish to take part in this rare experience, Littmann offers advice on how and where to find the best view. Filled with practical tips, clear explanations, and descriptions of a sight that more than one observer has called "brilliant beyond conception," The Heavens on Fire will delight every reader. Mark Littmann teaches astronomy at the University of Tennessee. His previous books include Comet Halley: Once in a Lifetime and Planets Beyond: Discovering the Outer Solar System. Both books were chosen by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific as Astronomy Books of the Year.

  8. Measurement of whole body cellular and collagen nitrogen, potassium, and other elements by neutron activation and whole body counting

    SciTech Connect

    James, H.M.; Fabricius, P.J.; Dykes, P.W.

    1987-09-01

    Whole body nitrogen can be measured by neutron activation analysis with an acceptable radiation dose; it is an index of body protein which, in normal subjects, is 65% cellular protein and 35% extracellular connective collagen. Whole body potassium can be measured by whole body counting without irradiating the subject; it is an index of body cell mass. We measured whole body nitrogen, potassium, extracellular water, intracellular water, and fat-folds. The differences between 37 malnourished patients and five normal subjects suggested that the patients had 9 kg less cell mass than normal, but no difference in extracellular mass. Measurements were made on eight patients before and after 14 days of total parenteral nutrition; balance of nitrogen intake and excretion also was measured. The changes were consistent with mean increases of 3 kg of cellular mass and 3 kg of fat with no change of extracellular mass. The accuracy and sensitivity of the whole body measurements need further confirmation for use in patients with changing body composition. Where tissue wasting is largely from the cellular compartment, potassium could be a more sensitive index of wasting than nitrogen. Multielement analysis of nitrogen, potassium, chlorine, and carbon will probably be valuable in elucidating body composition in malnutrition.

  9. Spectroscopic performance of DEPFET active pixel sensor prototypes suitable for the high count rate Athena WFI detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Seidlitz, Johannes; Andritschke, Robert; Bähr, Alexander; Meidinger, Norbert; Ott, Sabine; Richter, Rainer H.; Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Treis, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    The focal plane of the WFI of Athena consists of two sensors. One features a large field of view of 40' X 40' and one is forseen to be used for bright point like sources. Both parts base on DEPFET active pixel sensors. To fulfil the count rate requirement for the smaller sensor of less than 1% pile-up for a one Crab source it has to have a sufficient high frame rate. Since therefore the readout becomes a large fraction of the total photon integration time, the probability of measurements with incomplete signals increases. A shutter would solve the problem of these so called misfits but is not in agreement with the required high throughput of more than 80%. The Infinipix design has implemented a storage in addition to separate the collection and the readout of the charges without discarding them. Its working principle was successfully shown by Bähr et al.1 on single pixel level. For the further development three layout variants were tested on a 32 X 32 pixel array scale. The measurements of the spectroscopic performance show very promising results even for the intended readout speed for the Athena WFI of 2:5 μs per sensor row. Although, there are still layout and technology improvements necessary to ensure the reliability needed for space missions. In this paper we present the measurement results on the comparison of the three prototype layout variants.

  10. Fire ants actively control spacing and orientation within self-assemblages.

    PubMed

    Foster, Paul C; Mlot, Nathan J; Lin, Angela; Hu, David L

    2014-06-15

    To overcome obstacles and survive harsh environments, fire ants link their bodies together to form self-assemblages such as rafts, bridges and bivouacs. Such structures are examples of self-assembling and self-healing materials, as ants can quickly create and break links with one another in response to changes in their environment. Because ants are opaque, the arrangement of the ants within these three-dimensional networks was previously unknown. In this experimental study, we applied micro-scale computed tomography, or micro-CT, to visualize the connectivity, arrangement and orientation of ants within an assemblage. We identified active and geometric mechanisms that ants use to obtain favorable packing properties with respect to well-studied packing of inert objects such as cylinders. Ants use their legs to push against their neighbors, doubling their spacing relative to random packing of cylinders. These legs also permit active control of their orientation, an ability ants use to arrange themselves perpendicularly rather than in parallel. Lastly, we found an important role of ant polymorphism in promoting self-aggregation: a large distribution of ant sizes permits small ants to fit between the legs of larger ants, a phenomenon that increases the number of average connections per ant. These combined mechanisms lead to low packing fraction and high connectivity, which increase raft buoyancy and strength during flash floods.

  11. Counting Active Sites on Titanium Oxide-Silica Catalysts for Hydrogen Peroxide Activation through In Situ Poisoning with Phenylphosphonic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, Todd R.; Boston, Andrew M.; Thompson, Anthony B.; Gray, Kimberly A.; Notestein, Justin M.

    2015-06-04

    Quantifying specific active sites in supported catalysts improves our understanding and assists in rational design. Supported oxides can undergo significant structural changes as surface densities increase from site-isolated cations to monolayers and crystallites, which changes the number of kinetically relevant sites. Herein, TiOx domains are titrated on TiOx–SiO2 selectively with phenylphosphonic acid (PPA). An ex situ method quantifies all fluid-accessible TiOx, whereas an in situ titration during cis-cyclooctene epoxidation provides previously unavailable values for the number of tetrahedral Ti sites on which H2O2 activation occurs. We use this method to determine the active site densities of 22 different catalysts with different synthesis methods, loadings, and characteristic spectra and find a single intrinsic turnover frequency for cis-cyclooctene epoxidation of (40±7) h-1. This simple method gives molecular-level insight into catalyst structure that is otherwise hidden when bulk techniques are used.

  12. Phase space representation of neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field in relation to solar activity in cycles 21 and 22.

    PubMed

    Silva, H G; Lopes, I

    Heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays links solar cycle activity with neutron monitor count rate on earth. A less direct relation holds between neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field because different atmospheric processes, including fluctuations in the ionosphere, are involved. Although a full quantitative model is still lacking, this link is supported by solid statistical evidence. Thus, a connection between the solar cycle activity and atmospheric electric field is expected. To gain a deeper insight into these relations, sunspot area (NOAA, USA), neutron monitor count rate (Climax, Colorado, USA), and atmospheric electric field (Lisbon, Portugal) are presented here in a phase space representation. The period considered covers two solar cycles (21, 22) and extends from 1978 to 1990. Two solar maxima were observed in this dataset, one in 1979 and another in 1989, as well as one solar minimum in 1986. Two main observations of the present study were: (1) similar short-term topological features of the phase space representations of the three variables, (2) a long-term phase space radius synchronization between the solar cycle activity, neutron monitor count rate, and potential gradient (confirmed by absolute correlation values above ~0.8). Finally, the methodology proposed here can be used for obtaining the relations between other atmospheric parameters (e.g., solar radiation) and solar cycle activity.

  13. Phase space representation of neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field in relation to solar activity in cycles 21 and 22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, H. G.; Lopes, I.

    2016-07-01

    Heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays links solar cycle activity with neutron monitor count rate on earth. A less direct relation holds between neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field because different atmospheric processes, including fluctuations in the ionosphere, are involved. Although a full quantitative model is still lacking, this link is supported by solid statistical evidence. Thus, a connection between the solar cycle activity and atmospheric electric field is expected. To gain a deeper insight into these relations, sunspot area (NOAA, USA), neutron monitor count rate (Climax, Colorado, USA), and atmospheric electric field (Lisbon, Portugal) are presented here in a phase space representation. The period considered covers two solar cycles (21, 22) and extends from 1978 to 1990. Two solar maxima were observed in this dataset, one in 1979 and another in 1989, as well as one solar minimum in 1986. Two main observations of the present study were: (1) similar short-term topological features of the phase space representations of the three variables, (2) a long-term phase space radius synchronization between the solar cycle activity, neutron monitor count rate, and potential gradient (confirmed by absolute correlation values above ~0.8). Finally, the methodology proposed here can be used for obtaining the relations between other atmospheric parameters (e.g., solar radiation) and solar cycle activity.

  14. Impact of fire on active layer and permafrost microbial communities and metagenomes in an upland Alaskan boreal forest

    PubMed Central

    Taş, Neslihan; Prestat, Emmanuel; McFarland, Jack W; Wickland, Kimberley P; Knight, Rob; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Jorgenson, Torre; Waldrop, Mark P; Jansson, Janet K

    2014-01-01

    Permafrost soils are large reservoirs of potentially labile carbon (C). Understanding the dynamics of C release from these soils requires us to account for the impact of wildfires, which are increasing in frequency as the climate changes. Boreal wildfires contribute to global emission of greenhouse gases (GHG—CO2, CH4 and N2O) and indirectly result in the thawing of near-surface permafrost. In this study, we aimed to define the impact of fire on soil microbial communities and metabolic potential for GHG fluxes in samples collected up to 1 m depth from an upland black spruce forest near Nome Creek, Alaska. We measured geochemistry, GHG fluxes, potential soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure via 16SrRNA gene and metagenome sequencing. We found that soil moisture, C content and the potential for respiration were reduced by fire, as were microbial community diversity and metabolic potential. There were shifts in dominance of several microbial community members, including a higher abundance of candidate phylum AD3 after fire. The metagenome data showed that fire had a pervasive impact on genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, methanogenesis and the nitrogen cycle. Although fire resulted in an immediate release of CO2 from surface soils, our results suggest that the potential for emission of GHG was ultimately reduced at all soil depths over the longer term. Because of the size of the permafrost C reservoir, these results are crucial for understanding whether fire produces a positive or negative feedback loop contributing to the global C cycle. PMID:24722629

  15. Impact of fire on active layer and permafrost microbial communities and metagenomes in an upland Alaskan boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Taş, Neslihan; Prestat, Emmanuel; McFarland, Jack W; Wickland, Kimberley P; Knight, Rob; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Jorgenson, Torre; Waldrop, Mark P; Jansson, Janet K

    2014-09-01

    Permafrost soils are large reservoirs of potentially labile carbon (C). Understanding the dynamics of C release from these soils requires us to account for the impact of wildfires, which are increasing in frequency as the climate changes. Boreal wildfires contribute to global emission of greenhouse gases (GHG-CO2, CH4 and N2O) and indirectly result in the thawing of near-surface permafrost. In this study, we aimed to define the impact of fire on soil microbial communities and metabolic potential for GHG fluxes in samples collected up to 1 m depth from an upland black spruce forest near Nome Creek, Alaska. We measured geochemistry, GHG fluxes, potential soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure via 16SrRNA gene and metagenome sequencing. We found that soil moisture, C content and the potential for respiration were reduced by fire, as were microbial community diversity and metabolic potential. There were shifts in dominance of several microbial community members, including a higher abundance of candidate phylum AD3 after fire. The metagenome data showed that fire had a pervasive impact on genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, methanogenesis and the nitrogen cycle. Although fire resulted in an immediate release of CO2 from surface soils, our results suggest that the potential for emission of GHG was ultimately reduced at all soil depths over the longer term. Because of the size of the permafrost C reservoir, these results are crucial for understanding whether fire produces a positive or negative feedback loop contributing to the global C cycle.

  16. Modeling the effects of fire severity and climate warming on active layer and soil carbon dynamics of black spruce forests across the landscape in interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Genet, H.; McGuire, Anthony David; Barrett, K.; Breen, A.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Johnstone, J.F.; Kasischke, E.S.; Melvin, A.M.; Bennett, A.; Mack, M.C.; Rupp, T.S.; Schuur, A.E.G.; Turetsky, M.R.; Yuan, F.

    2013-01-01

    There is a substantial amount of carbon stored in the permafrost soils of boreal forest ecosystems, where it is currently protected from decomposition. The surface organic horizons insulate the deeper soil from variations in atmospheric temperature. The removal of these insulating horizons through consumption by fire increases the vulnerability of permafrost to thaw, and the carbon stored in permafrost to decomposition. In this study we ask how warming and fire regime may influence spatial and temporal changes in active layer and carbon dynamics across a boreal forest landscape in interior Alaska. To address this question, we (1) developed and tested a predictive model of the effect of fire severity on soil organic horizons that depends on landscape-level conditions and (2) used this model to evaluate the long-term consequences of warming and changes in fire regime on active layer and soil carbon dynamics of black spruce forests across interior Alaska. The predictive model of fire severity, designed from the analysis of field observations, reproduces the effect of local topography (landform category, the slope angle and aspect and flow accumulation), weather conditions (drought index, soil moisture) and fire characteristics (day of year and size of the fire) on the reduction of the organic layer caused by fire. The integration of the fire severity model into an ecosystem process-based model allowed us to document the relative importance and interactions among local topography, fire regime and climate warming on active layer and soil carbon dynamics. Lowlands were more resistant to severe fires and climate warming, showing smaller increases in active layer thickness and soil carbon loss compared to drier flat uplands and slopes. In simulations that included the effects of both warming and fire at the regional scale, fire was primarily responsible for a reduction in organic layer thickness of 0.06 m on average by 2100 that led to an increase in active layer thickness

  17. Modeling the effects of fire severity and climate warming on active layer thickness and soil carbon storage of black spruce forests across the landscape in interior Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Genet, Helene; McGuire, A. David; Barrett, K.; Breen, Amy; Euskirchen, Eugenie S; Johnstone, J. F.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Melvin, A. M.; Bennett, A.; Mack, M. C.; Rupp, Scott T.; Schuur, Edward; Turetsky, M. R.; Yuan, Fengming

    2013-01-01

    There is a substantial amount of carbon stored in the permafrost soils of boreal forest ecosystems, where it is currently protected from decomposition. The surface organic horizons insulate the deeper soil from variations in atmospheric temperature. The removal of these insulating horizons through consumption by fire increases the vulnerability of permafrost to thaw, and the carbon stored in permafrost to decomposition. In this study we ask how warming and fire regime may influence spatial and temporal changes in active layer and carbon dynamics across a boreal forest landscape in interior Alaska. To address this question, we (1) developed and tested a predictive model of the effect of fire severity on soil organic horizons that depends on landscape-level conditions and (2) used this model to evaluate the long-term consequences of warming and changes in fire regime on active layer and soil carbon dynamics of black spruce forests across interior Alaska. The predictive model of fire severity, designed from the analysis of field observations, reproduces the effect of local topography (landform category, the slope angle and aspect and flow accumulation), weather conditions (drought index, soil moisture) and fire characteristics (day of year and size of the fire) on the reduction of the organic layercaused by fire. The integration of the fire severity model into an ecosystem process-based model allowed us to document the relative importance and interactions among local topography, fire regime and climate warming on active layer and soil carbon dynamics. Lowlands were more resistant to severe fires and climate warming, showing smaller increases in active layer thickness and soil carbon loss compared to drier flat uplands and slopes. In simulations that included the effects of both warming and fire at the regional scale, fire was primarily responsible for a reduction in organic layer thickness of 0.06 m on average by 2100 that led to an increase in active layer thickness

  18. Depopulation of rural landscapes exacerbates fire activity in the western Amazon.

    PubMed

    Uriarte, María; Pinedo-Vasquez, Miquel; DeFries, Ruth S; Fernandes, Katia; Gutierrez-Velez, Victor; Baethgen, Walter E; Padoch, Christine

    2012-12-26

    Destructive fires in Amazonia have occurred in the past decade, leading to forest degradation, carbon emissions, impaired air quality, and property damage. Here, we couple climate, geospatial, and province-level census data, with farmer surveys to examine the climatic, demographic, and land use factors associated with fire frequency in the Peruvian Amazon from 2000 to 2010. Although our results corroborate previous findings elsewhere that drought and proximity to roads increase fire frequency, the province-scale analysis further identifies decreases in rural populations as an additional factor. Farmer survey data suggest that increased burn scar frequency and size reflect increased flammability of emptying rural landscapes and reduced capacity to control fire. With rural populations projected to decline, more frequent drought, and expansion of road infrastructure, fire risk is likely to increase in western Amazonia. Damage from fire can be reduced through warning systems that target high-risk locations, coordinated fire fighting efforts, and initiatives that provide options for people to remain in rural landscapes.

  19. Depopulation of rural landscapes exacerbates fire activity in the western Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Uriarte, María; Pinedo-Vasquez, Miquel; DeFries, Ruth S.; Fernandes, Katia; Gutierrez-Velez, Victor; Baethgen, Walter E.; Padoch, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Destructive fires in Amazonia have occurred in the past decade, leading to forest degradation, carbon emissions, impaired air quality, and property damage. Here, we couple climate, geospatial, and province-level census data, with farmer surveys to examine the climatic, demographic, and land use factors associated with fire frequency in the Peruvian Amazon from 2000 to 2010. Although our results corroborate previous findings elsewhere that drought and proximity to roads increase fire frequency, the province-scale analysis further identifies decreases in rural populations as an additional factor. Farmer survey data suggest that increased burn scar frequency and size reflect increased flammability of emptying rural landscapes and reduced capacity to control fire. With rural populations projected to decline, more frequent drought, and expansion of road infrastructure, fire risk is likely to increase in western Amazonia. Damage from fire can be reduced through warning systems that target high-risk locations, coordinated fire fighting efforts, and initiatives that provide options for people to remain in rural landscapes. PMID:23236144

  20. Fatigue-related firing of distal muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of proximal muscles of the same limb.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David S; McNeil, Chris J; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2014-02-15

    With fatiguing exercise, firing of group III/IV muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation and force of the exercised muscles. These afferents can also act across agonist/antagonist pairs, reducing voluntary activation and force in nonfatigued muscles. We hypothesized that maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents after a fatiguing adductor pollicis (AP) contraction would decrease voluntary activation and force of AP and ipsilateral elbow flexors. In two experiments (n = 10) we examined voluntary activation of AP and elbow flexors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by ulnar nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex, respectively. Inflation of a sphygmomanometer cuff after a 2-min AP maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) blocked circulation of the hand for 2 min and maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min AP MVC, maximal AP voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (56.2 ± 17.7% vs. 76.3 ± 14.6%; mean ± SD; P < 0.05) as was force (40.3 ± 12.8% vs. 57.1 ± 13.8% peak MVC; P < 0.05). Likewise, after a 2-min AP MVC, elbow flexion voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (88.3 ± 7.5% vs. 93.6 ± 3.9%; P < 0.05) as was torque (80.2 ± 4.6% vs. 86.6 ± 1.0% peak MVC; P < 0.05). Pain during ischemia was reported as Moderate to Very Strong. Postfatigue firing of group III/IV muscle afferents from the hand decreased voluntary drive and force of AP. Moreover, this effect decreased voluntary drive and torque of proximal unfatigued muscles, the elbow flexors. Fatigue-sensitive group III/IV muscle nociceptors act to limit voluntary drive not only to fatigued muscles but also to unfatigued muscles within the same limb.

  1. Idaho Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version

    This full-frame ASTER image, acquired August 30, 2000, covers an area of 60 by 60 km in the Salmon River Mountains, Idaho. In this color infrared composite, vegetation is red, clouds are white, and smoke from forest fires is blue. An enlargement (Figure 1) covers an area of 12 x 15 km. A thermal infrared band is displayed in red, a short wave infrared band is displayed in green, and a visible band is displayed in blue. In this combination, fires larger than about 50 m appear yellow because they are bright in both infrared bands. Smaller fires appear green because they are too small to be seen by the 90 m thermal pixels, but large enough to be detected in the 30 m short wave infrared pixels. We are able to see through the smoke in the infrared bands, whereas in the visible bands, the smoke obscures detection of the active fires. This image is located at 44.8 degrees north latitude and 114.8 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. High-voltage integrated active quenching circuit for single photon count rate up to 80 Mcounts/s.

    PubMed

    Acconcia, Giulia; Rech, Ivan; Gulinatti, Angelo; Ghioni, Massimo

    2016-08-08

    Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) have been subject to a fast improvement in recent years. In particular, custom technologies specifically developed to fabricate SPAD devices give the designer the freedom to pursue the best detector performance required by applications. A significant breakthrough in this field is represented by the recent introduction of a red enhanced SPAD (RE-SPAD) technology, capable of attaining a good photon detection efficiency in the near infrared range (e.g. 40% at a wavelength of 800 nm) while maintaining a remarkable timing resolution of about 100ps full width at half maximum. Being planar, the RE-SPAD custom technology opened the way to the development of SPAD arrays particularly suited for demanding applications in the field of life sciences. However, to achieve such excellent performance custom SPAD detectors must be operated with an external active quenching circuit (AQC) designed on purpose. Next steps toward the development of compact and practical multichannel systems will require a new generation of monolithically integrated AQC arrays. In this paper we present a new, fully integrated AQC fabricated in a high-voltage 0.18 µm CMOS technology able to provide quenching pulses up to 50 Volts with fast leading and trailing edges. Although specifically designed for optimal operation of RE-SPAD devices, the new AQC is quite versatile: it can be used with any SPAD detector, regardless its fabrication technology, reaching remarkable count rates up to 80 Mcounts/s and generating a photon detection pulse with a timing jitter as low as 119 ps full width at half maximum. The compact design of our circuit has been specifically laid out to make this IC a suitable building block for monolithically integrated AQC arrays.

  3. The 4 Ms CHANDRA Deep Field-South Number Counts Apportioned by Source Class: Pervasive Active Galactic Nuclei and the Ascent of Normal Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmer, Bret D.; Xue, Y. Q.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Luo, B.; Paolillo, M.; Ptak, A.; Shemmer, O.; Schneider, D. P.; Tozzi, P.; Vignali, C.

    2012-01-01

    We present 0.5-2 keV, 2-8 keV, 4-8 keV, and 0.5-8 keV (hereafter soft, hard, ultra-hard, and full bands, respectively) cumulative and differential number-count (log N-log S ) measurements for the recently completed approx. equal to 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey, the deepest X-ray survey to date. We implement a new Bayesian approach, which allows reliable calculation of number counts down to flux limits that are factors of approx. equal to 1.9-4.3 times fainter than the previously deepest number-count investigations. In the soft band (SB), the most sensitive bandpass in our analysis, the approx. equal to 4 Ms CDF-S reaches a maximum source density of approx. equal to 27,800 deg(sup -2). By virtue of the exquisite X-ray and multiwavelength data available in the CDF-S, we are able to measure the number counts from a variety of source populations (active galactic nuclei (AGNs), normal galaxies, and Galactic stars) and subpopulations (as a function of redshift, AGN absorption, luminosity, and galaxy morphology) and test models that describe their evolution. We find that AGNs still dominate the X-ray number counts down to the faintest flux levels for all bands and reach a limiting SB source density of approx. equal to 14,900 deg(sup -2), the highest reliable AGN source density measured at any wavelength. We find that the normal-galaxy counts rise rapidly near the flux limits and, at the limiting SB flux, reach source densities of approx. equal to 12,700 deg(sup -2) and make up 46% plus or minus 5% of the total number counts. The rapid rise of the galaxy counts toward faint fluxes, as well as significant normal-galaxy contributions to the overall number counts, indicates that normal galaxies will overtake AGNs just below the approx. equal to 4 Ms SB flux limit and will provide a numerically significant new X-ray source population in future surveys that reach below the approx. equal to 4 Ms sensitivity limit. We show that a future approx. equal to 10 Ms CDF

  4. Small Fire Detection Algorithm Development using VIIRS 375m Imagery: Application to Agricultural Fires in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianran; Wooster, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Until recently, crop residues have been the second largest industrial waste product produced in China and field-based burning of crop residues is considered to remain extremely widespread, with impacts on air quality and potential negative effects on health, public transportation. However, due to the small size and perhaps short-lived nature of the individual burns, the extent of the activity and its spatial variability remains somewhat unclear. Satellite EO data has been used to gauge the timing and magnitude of Chinese crop burning, but current approaches very likely miss significant amounts of the activity because the individual burned areas are either too small to detect with frequently acquired moderate spatial resolution data such as MODIS. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on-board Suomi-NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership) satellite launched on October, 2011 has one set of multi-spectral channels providing full global coverage at 375 m nadir spatial resolutions. It is expected that the 375 m spatial resolution "I-band" imagery provided by VIIRS will allow active fires to be detected that are ~ 10× smaller than those that can be detected by MODIS. In this study the new small fire detection algorithm is built based on VIIRS-I band global fire detection algorithm and hot spot detection algorithm for the BIRD satellite mission. VIIRS-I band imagery data will be used to identify agricultural fire activity across Eastern China. A 30 m spatial resolution global land cover data map is used for false alarm masking. The ground-based validation is performed using images taken from UAV. The fire detection result is been compared with active fire product from the long-standing MODIS sensor onboard the TERRA and AQUA satellites, which shows small fires missed from traditional MODIS fire product may count for over 1/3 of total fire energy in Eastern China.

  5. Modeling of the thermal influence of fires on the physicochemical properties and microbial activity of litter in cryogenic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masyagina, O. V.; Tokareva, I. V.; Prokushkin, A. S.

    2014-08-01

    Periodic surface fires in the cryolithozone (the northern taiga subzone) are the main factor determining the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the soil organic matter. The specific features of the changes in the physicochemical parameters and microbial activity of the organic horizons in the cryogenic soils under larch forests of the northern taiga after the impact of high temperatures were revealed. The temperatures of fires of different intensity were simulated in laboratory conditions. The thermal impact on the litter organic matter during the surface fires may increase the CO2 emission from the surface of the soil in the postfire communities due to the destruction of organic compounds only for a short time. After fires of high intensity with strong mineralization of the litters, during a period of more than 1 month, the pyrogenic effect on the organic horizons of the soils under the larch forests of the cryolithozone determined the reduction of the CO2 emissions in the freshly burned areas as compared to the intact stands.

  6. Ring magnet firing angle control

    DOEpatents

    Knott, M.J.; Lewis, L.G.; Rabe, H.H.

    1975-10-21

    A device is provided for controlling the firing angles of thyratrons (rectifiers) in a ring magnet power supply. A phase lock loop develops a smooth ac signal of frequency equal to and in phase with the frequency of the voltage wave developed by the main generator of the power supply. A counter that counts from zero to a particular number each cycle of the main generator voltage wave is synchronized with the smooth AC signal of the phase lock loop. Gates compare the number in the counter with predetermined desired firing angles for each thyratron and with coincidence the proper thyratron is fired at the predetermined firing angle.

  7. Young Children Counting at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Rose

    2007-01-01

    Learning to count is something that most children start to do by the time they are about two, and parents know from first-hand experience that family members play a big part in helping with this complex process. In this article, the author describes a project involving families sharing effective counting activities. The project called…

  8. Potassium Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gipps, John

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity to determine whether the radioactivity of a pure potassium salt is directly proportional to the amount of potassium in it and whether this could be used as a method of analysis for potassium in a solid. (MKR)

  9. Use of MODIS-Derived Fire Radiative Energy to Estimate Smoke Aerosol Emissions over Different Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Kaufman, Yoram J.

    2003-01-01

    Biomass burning is the main source of smoke aerosols and certain trace gases in the atmosphere. However, estimates of the rates of biomass consumption and emission of aerosols and trace gases from fires have not attained adequate reliability thus far. Traditional methods for deriving emission rates employ the use of emission factors e(sub x), (in g of species x per kg of biomass burned), which are difficult to measure from satellites. In this era of environmental monitoring from space, fire characterization was not a major consideration in the design of the early satellite-borne remote sensing instruments, such as AVHRR. Therefore, although they are able to provide fire location information, they were not adequately sensitive to variations in fire strength or size, because their thermal bands used for fire detection saturated at the lower end of fire radiative temperature range. As such, hitherto, satellite-based emission estimates employ proxy techniques using satellite derived fire pixel counts (which do not express the fire strength or rate of biomass consumption) or burned areas (which can only be obtained after the fire is over). The MODIS sensor, recently launched into orbit aboard EOS Terra (1999) and Aqua (2002) satellites, have a much higher saturation level and can, not only detect the fire locations 4 times daily, but also measures the at-satellite fire radiative energy (which is a measure of the fire strength) based on its 4 micron channel temperature. Also, MODIS measures the optical thickness of smoke and other aerosols. Preliminary analysis shows appreciable correlation between the MODIS-derived rates of emission of fire radiative energy and smoke over different regions across the globe. These relationships hold great promise for deriving emission coefficients, which can be used for estimating smoke aerosol emissions from MODIS active fire products. This procedure has the potential to provide more accurate emission estimates in near real

  10. Soil microbiological properties and enzymatic activities of long-term post-fire recovery in dry and semiarid Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedo, J.; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Wic, C.; Andrés Abellán, M.; de Las Heras, J.

    2014-10-01

    Wildfires affecting forest ecosystems and post-fire silvicultural treatments may cause considerable changes in soil properties. The capacity of different microbial groups to recolonize soil after disturbances is crucial for proper soil functioning. The aim of this work was to investigate some microbial soil properties and enzyme activities in semiarid and dry Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands. Different plots affected by a wildfire event 17 years ago without or with post-fire silvicultural treatments five years after the fire event were selected. A mature Aleppo pine stand unaffected by wildfire and not thinned was used as a control. Physicochemical soil properties (soil texture, pH, carbonates, organic matter, electrical conductivity, total N and P), soil enzymes (urease, phosphatase, β-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities), soil respiration and soil microbial biomass carbon were analysed in the selected forests areas and plots. The main finding was that long time after this fire event produces no differences in the microbiological soil properties and enzyme activities of soil after comparing burned and thinned, burned and not thinned, and mature plots. Thus, the long-term consequences and post-fire silvicultural management in the form of thinning have a significant effect on the site recovery after fire. Moreover, significant site variation was generally seen in soil enzyme activities and microbiological parameters. We conclude that total vegetation restoration normalises microbial parameters, and that wildfire and post-fire silvicultural treatments are not significant factors of soil properties after 17 years.

  11. Fires in Southern Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Several large fires were burning in southern Georgia on April 29, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead and captured this image. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. The Roundabout Fire sprang up on April 27, according to the U.S. Southern Area Coordination Center, and was about 3,500 acres as of April 30. That fire was threatening homes in the community of Kirkland. Meanwhile, south of Waycross, two large blazes were burning next to each other in the northern part of Okefenokee Swamp. The Sweat Farm Road Fire threatened the town of Waycross in previous weeks, but at the end of April, activity had moved to the southeastern perimeter. The fire had affected more than 50,000 acres of timber (including pine tree plantations) and swamps. Scores of residences scattered throughout the rural area are threatened. The Big Turnaround Complex is burning to the east. The 26,000-acre fire was extremely active over the weekend, with flame lengths more than 60 feet (just over 18 meters) in places. The two blazes appeared to overlap in fire perimeter maps available from the U.S. Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Team. According to the Southern Area Coordination Center morning report on April 30, the Sweat Farm Road Fire 'will be a long term fire. Containment and control will depend on significant rainfall, due to the inaccessible swamp terrain.' No expected containment date was available for the Big Turnaround Complex Fire, either. Describing that fire, the report stated, 'Heavy fuel loading, high fire danger, and difficulty of access continue to hamper suppression efforts.' The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions. They also provide a version of the image that shows smoke plumes stretching out across the Atlantic Ocean.

  12. Using Global Geo-information for Disaster Risk Reduction Following the UN Sendai Framework: Climate Change and Disruptions to Global Fire Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganz, D.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the knowledge that climate induced fire activity will threaten ecosystems and human well-being throughout the world, there are few fire projections at global scales and almost none from a broad range of global climate models (GCMs). The following study presents global fire datasets and environmental variables used to build spatial statistical baseline models of fire probability and examine the environmental controls on fire activity. As the UN Sendai Framework requires an update of hazard databases and an integration additional manmade hazards in the calculation of risks, this global fire study examines the magnitude and direction of change over two projection periods, 2010-2039 and 2070-2099. From the GCM ensemble results, the study identified areas of consensus for increases or decreases in fires. This type of information may inform policies and strategies of fire-prone nations to better utilize baseline and projection geo-information for enhancing disaster preparedness for what the Sendai Framework is calling an effective response, and to "Build Back Better" in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction. Certain biomes are sensitive to constraints on biomass productivity while others to atmospheric conditions promoting combustion. Substantial and rapid shifts are projected for future fire activity across vast portions of the globe. In the near term, the most consistent increases in fire activity occur in biomes with already somewhat warm climates; decreases are less pronounced and concentrated primarily in a few tropical and subtropical biomes. However, models do not agree on the direction of near-term changes across more than 50% of terrestrial lands. Although these models demonstrated that long-term environmental norms captured chronic fire probability patterns, future work is needed to assess how annual variation in climate variables could add more explanatory power. This study provides an examination of global disruptions to fire activity using a

  13. Fatigue-related firing of muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of ipsilateral but not contralateral lower limb muscles.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David S; Fitzpatrick, Siobhan C; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2015-02-15

    During fatiguing upper limb exercise, maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents can limit voluntary drive to muscles within the same limb. It is not known if this effect occurs in the lower limb. We investigated the effects of group III/IV muscle afferent firing from fatigued ipsilateral and contralateral extensor muscles and ipsilateral flexor muscles of the knee on voluntary activation of the knee extensors. In three experiments, we examined voluntary activation of the knee extensors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by femoral nerve stimulation. Subjects attended on 2 days for each experiment. On one day a sphygmomanometer cuff occluded blood flow of the fatigued muscles to maintain firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min extensor contraction (experiment 1; n = 9), mean voluntary activation was lower with than without maintained ischemia (47 ± 19% vs. 87 ± 8%, respectively; P < 0.001). After a 2-min knee flexor maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) (experiment 2; n = 8), mean voluntary activation was also lower with than without ischemia (59 ± 21% vs. 79 ± 9%; P < 0.01). After the contralateral (left) MVC (experiment 3; n = 8), mean voluntary activation of the right leg was similar with or without ischemia (92 ± 6% vs. 93 ± 4%; P = 0.65). After fatiguing exercise, activity in group III/IV muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation of the fatigued muscle and nonfatigued antagonist muscles in the same leg. However, group III/IV muscle afferents from the fatigued left leg had no effect on the unfatigued right leg. This suggests that any "crossover" of central fatigue in the lower limbs is not mediated by group III/IV muscle afferents.

  14. Remote optical observations of actively burning biomass fires using potassium line spectral emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magidimisha, Edwin; Griffith, Derek J.

    2016-02-01

    Wildland fires are a widespread, seasonal and largely man-made hazard which have a broad range of negative effects. These wildfires cause not only the destruction of homes, infrastructure, cultivated forests and natural habitats but also contribute to climate change through greenhouse gas emissions and aerosol particle production. Global satellite-based monitoring of biomass burning using thermal infrared sensors is currently a powerful tool to assist in finding ways to establish suppression strategies and to understand the role that fires play in global climate change. Advances in silicon-based camera technology present opportunities to resolve the challenge of ubiquitous wildfire early detection in a cost-effective manner. This study investigated several feasibility aspects of detecting wildland fires using near-infrared (NIR) spectral line emissions from electronically excited potassium (K) atoms at wavelengths of 766.5 and 769.9 nm, during biomass burning.

  15. Calcium influx through N-type channels and activation of SK and TRP-like channels regulates tonic firing of neurons in rat paraventricular thalamus.

    PubMed

    Wong, Adrian Y C; Borduas, Jean-Francois; Clarke, Stephen; Lee, Kevin F H; Béïque, Jean-Claude; Bergeron, Richard

    2013-11-01

    The thalamus is a major relay and integration station in the central nervous system. While there is a large body of information on the firing and network properties of neurons contained within sensory thalamic nuclei, less is known about the neurons located in midline thalamic nuclei, which are thought to modulate arousal and homeostasis. One midline nucleus that has been implicated in mediating stress responses is the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT). Like other thalamic neurons, these neurons display two distinct firing modes, burst and tonic. In contrast to burst firing, little is known about the ionic mechanisms modulating tonic firing in these cells. Here we performed a series of whole cell recordings to characterize tonic firing in PVT neurons in acute rat brain slices. We found that PVT neurons are able to fire sustained, low-frequency, weakly accommodating trains of action potentials in response to a depolarizing stimulus. Unexpectedly, PVT neurons displayed a very high propensity to enter depolarization block, occurring at stimulus intensities that would elicit tonic firing in other thalamic neurons. The tonic firing behavior of these cells is modulated by a functional interplay between N-type Ca(2+) channels and downstream activation of small-conductance Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) (SK) channels and a transient receptor potential (TRP)-like conductance. Thus these ionic conductances endow PVT neurons with a narrow dynamic range, which may have fundamental implications for the integrative properties of this nucleus.

  16. Evaluation of nitroxynil and closantel activity using ELISA and egg counts against Fasciola hepatica in experimentally and naturally infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Boulard, C; Carreras, F; Van Gool, F

    1995-01-01

    The responses of cattle infected with Fasciola hepatica to treatment with nitroxynil or closantel were monitored by faecal egg counts and by ELISA assay of anti-fluke antibodies. A first trial with experimentally infected heifers showed an increase in anti-fluke antibody titre as early as 2 weeks post-infection. Eggs were first detected in the faeces 10 weeks after infection. Egg output increased steadily over the next 8 weeks and then rapidly decreased. Treatment of a 20-week infection with nitroxynil was followed by a slow decrease in antibody titre 4 weeks later. This decrease continued over the next 40 weeks, but returned to pre-infection levels in only 2 out of 4 animals. The faecal egg count fell to zero 2 weeks after treatment and remained so for the following 30 weeks, although 1 animal produced a few eggs 32 and 34 weeks post-treatment. Within this period, neither diagnostic technique discriminated between this persistently infected animal and the others. In a second trial, 45 cattle from a naturally infected herd were treated with nitroxynil or closantel. The faecal egg counts of the treated cattle were zero within the following 2 months, whereas there were eggs in the faeces of the control (untreated) group. Nevertheless, the treated cattle showed a small, non-significant drop in anti-fluke antibody titre. These results demonstrate the need for new tools to monitor and evaluate accurately the efficacy of anthelmintic treatment.

  17. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. H.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.; Sawko, P. M.

    1970-01-01

    Fire-retardant paint, when activated by the heat of fire, reacts to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction.

  18. A relationship between CD4 count and oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy in urban population

    PubMed Central

    Satyakiran, Gadavalli Vera Venkata; Bavle, Radhika Manoj; Alexander, Glory; Rao, Saritha; Venugopal, Reshma; Hosthor, Sreelatha S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection gradually destroys the body's immune system, which makes it harder for the body to fight infections. HIV infection causes a quantitative and qualitative depletion of CD4 lymphocyte count, which increases the risk of opportunistic infections. Thus, CD4 count is one of the key factors in determining both the urgency of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation and the need of prophylaxis for opportunistic infections. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and variations in the oral manifestations of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients on HAART therapy in urban population and their association with CD4 count. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted by screening eighty patients who were HIV positive in an urban location. Both adult and pediatric patients were screened for oral manifestations and simultaneously CD4 count was also evaluated. Patients with HIV infection for variable time period who are under HAART were considered. Statistical Analysis: Measures of central tendency were used to analyse the data. Results: HIV infection destroys the immune system of an individual, making the patient susceptible to various infections and malignancies. With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, the scenario has changed drastically. We have observed that patients with CD4 counts between 164 and 1286 show relatively few oral manifestations. Long-term HAART therapy causes pigmentation, xerostomia and angular cheilitis but is taken up quite well by the patients. Conclusion: In this study, eighty patients with HAART from urban population showed very minimal oral findings because of good accessibility for treatment and awareness about HIV infections. The patients who were on long-standing HAART treatment also showed minimal oral manifestation such as pigmentation and xerostomia. Hence, we conclude that recognition, significance and treatment of these lesions in patients with HIV

  19. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Surveys: The Number Counts of Active Galactic Nuclei and the Resolved Fraction of the Cosmic X-Ray Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, F. A.; Aird, J.; Civano, F.; Lansbury, G.; Mullaney, J. R.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Alexander, D. M.; Stern, D.; Ajello, M.; Barret, D.; Bauer, F. E.; Baloković, M.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Del Moro, A.; Forster, K.; Gandhi, P.; Giommi, P.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Hickox, R. C.; Hornstrup, A.; Kitaguchi, T.; Koglin, J.; Luo, B.; Madsen, K. K.; Mao, P. H.; Miyasaka, H.; Mori, K.; Perri, M.; Pivovaroff, M.; Puccetti, S.; Rana, V.; Treister, E.; Walton, D.; Westergaard, N. J.; Wik, D.; Zappacosta, L.; Zhang, W. W.; Zoglauer, A.

    2016-11-01

    We present the 3-8 keV and 8-24 keV number counts of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) identified in the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) extragalactic surveys. NuSTAR has now resolved 33%-39% of the X-ray background in the 8-24 keV band, directly identifying AGNs with obscuring columns up to ˜ {10}25 {{cm}}-2. In the softer 3-8 keV band the number counts are in general agreement with those measured by XMM-Newton and Chandra over the flux range 5× {10}-15 ≲ S(3-8 keV)/{erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2 ≲ {10}-12 probed by NuSTAR. In the hard 8-24 keV band NuSTAR probes fluxes over the range 2× {10}-14 ≲ S(8-24 keV)/{erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2 ≲ {10}-12, a factor ˜100 fainter than previous measurements. The 8-24 keV number counts match predictions from AGN population synthesis models, directly confirming the existence of a population of obscured and/or hard X-ray sources inferred from the shape of the integrated cosmic X-ray background. The measured NuSTAR counts lie significantly above simple extrapolation with a Euclidian slope to low flux of the Swift/BAT 15-55 keV number counts measured at higher fluxes (S(15-55 keV) ≳ 10-11 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2), reflecting the evolution of the AGN population between the Swift/BAT local (z\\lt 0.1) sample and NuSTAR’s z˜ 1 sample. CXB synthesis models, which account for AGN evolution, lie above the Swift/BAT measurements, suggesting that they do not fully capture the evolution of obscured AGNs at low redshifts.

  20. Pantoea applied genomics to understand and improve biocontrol activity against fire blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea agglomerans and P. vagans (ex. Erwinia herbicola) are common epiphytes of pome fruit flowers and three strains (E325, P10c, C9-1) have been commercially developed as effective biocontrol products for managing fire blight (Erwinia amylovora). Antibiotics as a standard, reliable chemical optio...

  1. Green leaf volatiles, fire and nonanoic acid activate MAPkinases in the model grass species Lolium temulentum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage and turf related grasses are utilized in diverse environments where they are routinely subjected to herbicides and exposed to fire and volatiles after cutting, however very little is known concerning the perception or molecular responses to these different stresses or compounds. In the model ...

  2. Design of an actively cooled plate calorimeter for the investigation of pool fire heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J. A.; Keltner, N. R.; Nicolette, V. F.; Wix, S. D.

    1992-01-01

    For final qualification of shipping containers for transport of hazardous materials, thermal testing in accordance with regulations such as 10CFR71 must be completed. Such tests typically consist of 30 minute exposures with the container fully engulfed in flames from a large, open pool of JP4 jet engine fuel. Despite careful engineering analyses of the container, testing often reveals design problems that must be solved by modification and expensive retesting of the container. One source of this problem is the wide variation in surface heat flux to the container that occurs in pool fires. Average heat fluxes of 50 to 60 kW/m{sup 2} are typical and close the values implied by the radiation model in 10CFR71, but peak fluxes up to 150 kW/m{sup 2} are routinely observed in fires. Heat fluxes in pool fires have been shown to be a function of surface temperature of the container, height above the pool, surface orientation, wind, and other variables. If local variations in the surface heat flux to the container could be better predicted, design analyses would become more accurate, and fewer problems will be uncovered during testing. The objective of the calorimeter design described in this paper is to measure accurately pool fire heat fluxes under controlled conditions, and to provide data for calibration of improved analytical models of local flame-surface interactions.

  3. Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millard, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

  4. Changes on permafrost and active layer characteristics after the tundra fire in summer 2002 in Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Y.; Harada, K.; Fukuda, M.; Narita, K.

    2006-12-01

    Thermal, water and electrical conditions of permafrost after the tundra fire occurred in summer 2002 were studied in Seward Peninsula, southwest Alaska, in order to evaluate the effect of tundra fire on the arctic permafrost terrains. Field observations were made in summer 2005 and 2006. Four sites were established where the slope direction and surface disturbance condition are different; south- or north-facing, and burned or unburned. At each site ground temperature, water content, thermal conductivity and EC were measured by pit survey, and the seasonal thawed depth measurements were also conducted by using the steel rod from the ground surface. Transient electromagnetic soundings for deeper part and 1D and 2D DC resistivity soundings for shallow part were carried out in the four sites. We compared these field data among the four sites, highlighting in significant differences between burned and unburned sites. Burned sites have deeper thawing depths, and it may correspond with the thin organic soil in the burned sites. Due to the removal of litter and organic soil by the fire, thermal and hydrological regimes of active layer have drastically changed in the burned sites.

  5. Forest fire danger index based on modifying Nesterov Index, fuel, and anthropogenic activities using MODIS TERRA, AQUA and TRMM satellite datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh Babu, K. V.; Roy, Arijit; Ramachandra Prasad, P.

    2016-05-01

    Forest fire has been regarded as one of the major causes of degradation of Himalayan forests in Uttarakhand. Forest fires occur annually in more than 50% of forests in Uttarakhand state, mostly due to anthropogenic activities and spreads due to moisture conditions and type of forest fuels. Empirical drought indices such as Keetch-Byram drought index, the Nesterov index, Modified Nesterov index, the Zhdanko index which belongs to the cumulative type and the Angstrom Index which belongs to the daily type have been used throughout the world to assess the potential fire danger. In this study, the forest fire danger index has been developed from slightly modified Nesterov index, fuel and anthropogenic activities. Datasets such as MODIS TERRA Land Surface Temperature and emissivity (MOD11A1), MODIS AQUA Atmospheric profile product (MYD07) have been used to determine the dew point temperature and land surface temperature. Precipitation coefficient has been computed from Tropical Rainfall measuring Mission (TRMM) product (3B42RT). Nesterov index has been slightly modified according to the Indian context and computed using land surface temperature, dew point temperature and precipitation coefficient. Fuel type danger index has been derived from forest type map of ISRO based on historical fire location information and disturbance danger index has been derived from disturbance map of ISRO. Finally, forest fire danger index has been developed from the above mentioned indices and MODIS Thermal anomaly product (MOD14) has been used for validating the forest fire danger index.

  6. Contribution of peat fires to the 2015 Indonesian fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Johannes W.; Heil, Angelika; Wooster, Martin J.; van der Werf, Guido R.

    2016-04-01

    Indonesia experienced widespread fires and severe air quality degradation due to smoke during September and October 2015. The fires are thought to have originated from the combination of El-Niño-induced drought and human activities. Fires ignited for land clearing escaped into drained peatlands and burned until the onset of the monsoonal rain. In addition to the health impact, these fires are thought to have emitted large amounts of greenhouse gases, e.g. more than Japan over the entire year. The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) has detected and quantified the fires with the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) and the smoke dispersion with the Chemistry-Integrated Forecasting System (C-IFS) in near real time. GFAS and C-IFS are constrained by satellite-based observations of fire and smoke constituents, respectively. The distinction between peat and above-ground fires is a crucial and difficult step in fire emission estimation as it introduces errors of up to one order of magnitude. Here, we quantify the contribution of peat fires to the total emission flux of the 2015 Indonesian fires by (1) using an improved peat map in GFAS and (2) analysing the observed diurnal cycle of the fire activity as represented in a new development for GFAS. Furthermore, we link the fires occurrence to economic activity by analysing the coincidence with concessions for palm oil plantations and other industrial forest uses.

  7. Fighting Fire with Fire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoor, Dana L.

    1996-01-01

    School districts are integrating security and life-safety systems into school buildings to protect students and property. This proactive approach includes sprinkler systems, fire alarms, and security systems that monitor door movement. Some school districts that are incorporating the latest life-safety technology are in Missouri, Ohio, California,…

  8. Fire, drought and El Niño relationships on Borneo (Southeast Asia) in the pre-MODIS era (1980-2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, M. J.; Perry, G. L. W.; Zoumas, A.

    2012-01-01

    Borneo (Indonesia) is Earth's third largest island, and the location of both extensive areas of rainforest and tropical peatlands. It is the site of both regular (seasonal) biomass burning associated with deforestation, land cover change and agricultural production preparations, and occasional, but much more severe, extreme fire episodes releasing enormous volumes of carbon from burning vegetation and peat. These extreme fire episodes are believed to result from anthropogenic practices related to (the still ongoing) forest degradation and clearance activities, whose impact with regard to fire is magnified by the effects of El Niño related drought. Since 2000, data from the MODIS Earth Observation satellite instruments have been used to study fire on Borneo, but earlier large fire events remain less well documented. Here we focus on a series of large fire episodes prior to the MODIS era, and specifically a 20 yr period covering both the two strongest El Niño events on record (1997-1998 and 1982-1983), along with an unprecedented series of more frequent, but weaker, El Niños. For the five El Niños occurring between 1980 and 2000, we develop quantitative measures of the fire activity across Borneo based on active fire counts derived from NOAA AVHRR Global Area Coverage (GAC) Earth Observation satellite data. We use these metrics to investigate relationships between the strength and timing of the El Niño event, the associated drought, and the fire activity. During each El Niño, we find areas of major fire activity confined within two or three fire sub-seasons (separated by monsoons) and focused in parts of South and Central Kalimantan, and sometimes also in East and/or West Kalimantan. For each El Niño we investigate various lag correlations, and find relationships of similar strength between monthly rainfall deficit and fire, but of more variable strength between indices of El Niño strength (ENSO indices) and rainfall deficit. The two strongest El Ni

  9. Impacts of tundra fire on active layer condition and estimation of true resistivity value of soil in Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, K.; Sawada, Y.; Narita, K.; Fukuda, M.

    2007-12-01

    In Seward Peninsula, southwest Alaska, large tundra fires were occurred in 1997 and 2002, and a discontinuous permafrost area burned widely near the Kougarok River. After fires, a vegetation condition was destroyed and a ground surface thermal condition was changed. Then, field observations were conducted at burned and unburned sites in summer 2005, 2006 and 2007, in order to clarify impacts of the tundra fire on thermal and water conditions of active layer. From pit surveys, ground temperatures at burned sites showed 4-5 °C higher values than those at unburned sites. Soil water contents at burned sites showed relative high values in 2005, but low in 2006. Active layer thicknesses were significantly different between burned and unburned sites, about 60cm and 40cm, respectively. There is no significant increasing of the thickness between 2005 and 2006, however, the thickness in 2007 at north-facing sites increased to 80cm at the burned site and 50cm at the unburned site, respectively. Apparent electrical resistivity values up to 1m deep were obtained from electrical soundings in 2006, and values at burned sites were lower than those at unburned sites due to the thick active layer whose resistivity value is relatively low. As an apparent resistivity value is generally produced from the combination of a true resistivity value and a thickness of a layer, a simple calculation was carried out in order to estimate a true resistivity value of unfrozen mineral soil in the active layer. The calculated results showed that the true resistivity at burned sites was higher than that at unburned sites, which was seemed to correspond to a relative low water condition. This result is in agreement with the measured result of water content in 2006. Using this method, the apparent resistivity may show a soil water condition.

  10. Donor lymphocyte count and thymic activity predict lymphocyte recovery and outcomes after matched-sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    McIver, Zachariah; Melenhorst, Jan Joseph; Wu, Colin; Grim, Andrew; Ito, Sawa; Cho, Irene; Hensel, Nancy; Battiwalla, Minoo; Barrett, Austin John

    2013-03-01

    Delayed immune recovery is a characteristic feature of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adult recipients. Although recipient thymic T-cell neogenesis contributes to T-cell regeneration after transplantation, thymic recovery in the transplant recipient decreases with increasing age, and is diminished by intensive preconditioning regimens and graft-versus-host disease. In adult recipients, most events that determine transplant success or failure occur during the period when the majority of circulating T cells is derived from the donor's post thymic T-cell repertoire. As a result, the make-up of the donor lymphocyte compartment may strongly influence immune recovery and transplant outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine donor lymphocyte counts in a series of patients undergoing an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant to identify the potential contribution of donor regulatory and conventional T lymphocyte populations to immune recovery and transplant outcomes. We examined donor lymphocyte subset counts in relation to post-transplant lymphocyte recovery and transplant events in 220 consecutive myeloablative, T-cell-depleted, HLA-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with hematologic malignancies. In a multivariate analysis, absolute numbers of donor CD4(+) recent thymic emigrants were associated with overall survival (P=0.032). The donors' absolute lymphocyte count and thymic production of regulatory T cells were both associated with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (P=0.002 and P=0.022, respectively). In conclusion, these results identify donor immune characteristics that are associated with lymphocyte recovery, extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease, and survival in the recipient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The study reported here was performed using peripheral blood samples drawn from donors and patients enrolled in the ClinicalTrials.gov-registered trials

  11. Soil microbiological properties and enzymatic activities of long-term post-fire recovery in dry and semiarid Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedo, J.; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Wic, C.; Andrés-Abellán, M.; de Las Heras, J.

    2015-02-01

    Wildfires affecting forest ecosystems and post-fire silvicultural treatments may cause considerable changes in soil properties. The capacity of different microbial groups to recolonise soil after disturbances is crucial for proper soil functioning. The aim of this work was to investigate some microbial soil properties and enzyme activities in semiarid and dry Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands. Different plots affected by a wildfire event 17 years ago without or with post-fire silvicultural treatments 5 years after the fire event were selected. A mature Aleppo pine stand, unaffected by wildfire and not thinned was used as a control. Physicochemical soil properties (soil texture, pH, carbonates, organic matter, electrical conductivity, total N and P), soil enzymes (urease, phosphatase, β-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities), soil respiration and soil microbial biomass carbon were analysed in the selected forests areas and plots. The main finding was that long time after this fire event produces no differences in the microbiological soil properties and enzyme activities of soil after comparing burned and thinned, burned and not thinned, and mature plots. Moreover, significant site variation was generally seen in soil enzyme activities and microbiological parameters. We conclude that total vegetation recovery normalises post-fire soil microbial parameters, and that wildfire and post-fire silvicultural treatments are not significant factors affecting soil properties after 17 years.

  12. Zaca Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On August 7, 2007, the Zaca fire continued to burn in the Los Padres National Forest near Santa Barbara, California. The fire started more than a month ago, on July 4, and has burned 69,800 acres. The fire remains in steep, rocky terrain with poor access. The continued poor access makes containment difficult in the wilderness area on the eastern flank. So far only one outbuilding has been destroyed; but over 450 homes are currently threatened. Over 2300 fire personnel, aided by four air tankers and 15 helicopters, are working to contain this massive fire. Full containment is expected on September 1.

    The image covers 45.2 x 46.1 km, and is centered near 34.6 degrees north latitude, 119.7 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission

  13. Satellite Investigations of Fire, Smoke, and Carbon Monoxide during April 1994 MAPS Mission: Case Studies over Tropical Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopher, Sundar A.; Chou, Joyce; Welch, Ronald M.; Kliche, Donna V.; Connors, Vickie S.

    1998-01-01

    During April 9-19, 1994, the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) measured free tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations on a near-global basis. For these eleven days the global lkm advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) Pathfinder data are used to detect fires and smoke over the Indo-Burma region (85 degrees E - 110 degrees E; 10 degrees N -30 degrees N). The fire activities are categorized for four major ecosystems that include (1) cropland/natural vegetation mosaic (CNVM), (2) evergreen broadleaf forest (EBF), (3) mixed forest (MFD), and (4) grassland (GL). Using published emission rates between particulate matter and carbon monoxide concentrations from temperate areas, the fire counts along with other information are used to obtain estimates of CO concentrations from the AVERR data. More than 7000 fires are detected during the study period with 23%, 43%, 24%, and 10% fires in the CNVM, EBF, MFD, and GL ecosystems, respectively. The enhanced CO concentrations over the area of study are either over or downwind of the fires detected by the AVHRR. The preliminary AVHRR estimates of CO concentrations are smaller than the MAPS-measured values by a factor of 4 to 5 for fire counts areater than 200. The differences are attributed to the lack of transport mechanisms and other assumptions in the current model. However, these results show a good potential for usino the AVHRR measurements to detect fires and smoke and also to estimate CO concentrations.

  14. Talking Fire Alarms Calm Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Educator, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The new microprocessor-based fire alarm systems can help to control smoke movement throughout school buildings by opening vents and doors, identify the burning section, activate voice alarms, provide firefighters with telephone systems during the fire, and release fire-preventing gas. (KS)

  15. ACUTE CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF FIREFIGHTING AND ACTIVE COOLING DURING REHABILITATION

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Jefferey L.; Duncan, Michael D.; Hu, Chengcheng; Littau, Sally R.; Caseman, Delayne; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Davis-Gorman, Grace; McDonagh, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the cardiovascular and hemostatic effects of fire suppression and post-exposure active cooling. Methods Forty-four firefighters were evaluated prior to and after a 12 minute live-fire drill. Next, 50 firefighters undergoing the same drill were randomized to post-fire forearm immersion in 10°C water or standard rehabilitation. Results In the first study, heart rate and core body temperature increased and serum C-reactive protein decreased but there were no significant changes in fibrinogen, sE-selectin or sL-selectin. The second study demonstrated an increase in blood coagulability, leukocyte count, factors VIII and X, cortisol and glucose, and a decrease in plasminogen and sP-selectin. Active cooling reduced mean core temperature, heart rate and leukocyte count. Conclusions Live-fire exposure increased core temperature, heart rate, coagulability and leukocyte count; all except coagulability were reduced by active cooling. PMID:23090161

  16. Sources of variability of estimates of malaria case counts, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Each January, the Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR) estimates numbers of malaria infections among U.S. service members using a surveillance case definition to identify "malaria cases". These cases include individuals with a hospital discharge diagnosis of malaria and those who were reported with malaria through military notifiable event reporting systems. This report compares the MSMR surveillance case definition with other proposed case definitions to demonstrate the degree to which estimates of numbers of malaria cases are dependent upon clinical settings, data sources and case-defining rules used to produce such estimates. For example, including outpatient diagnoses as malaria cases would more than double the 2010 case count. As compared with cases defined using other proposed case definitions, many more MSMR-defined cases had records of a specific Plasmodium species, a laboratory test for malaria and recent travel to a malaria-endemic country. Interpretations of the results of MSMR reports should consider how "cases" are defined.

  17. All about Carbohydrate Counting

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 14 All About Carbohydrate Counting What is carbohydrate counting? Carbohydrate counting is a way to plan your meals. It can help ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About Carbohydrate Counting continued The chart at the ...

  18. Fire investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, A.

    There was considerable progress made on several fronts of fire investigation in the United States in recent years. Progress was made in increasing the quantity of fire investigation and reporting, through efforts to develop the National Fire Incident Reporting System. Improving overall quality of fire investigation is the objective of efforts such as the Fire Investigation Handbook, which was developed and published by the National Bureau of Standards, and the upgrading and expanding of the ""dictionary'' of fire investigation and reporting, the NFPA 901, Uniform Coding for Fire Protection, system. The science of fire investigation as furthered also by new approaches to post fire interviews being developed at the University of Washington, and by in-depth research into factors involved in several large loss fires, including the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas. Finally, the use of special study fire investigations - in-depth investigations concentrating on specific fire problems - is producing new glimpses into the nature of the national fire problem. A brief description of the status of efforts in each of these areas is discussed.

  19. Variation in soil enzyme activity as a function of vegetation amount, type, and spatial structure in fire-prone Mediterranean shrublands.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Ángeles G; Goirán, Silvana B; Vallejo, V Ramón; Bautista, Susana

    2016-12-15

    Fire-prone Mediterranean shrublands may be seriously threatened by land degradation due to progressive opening of the vegetation cover driven by increasing drought and fire recurrence. However, information about the consequences of this opening process for critical ecosystem functions is scant. In this work, we studied the influence of vegetation amount, type, and spatial pattern in the variation of extracellular soil enzyme activity (acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase, and urease) in fire-prone shrublands in eastern Spain. Soil was sampled in vegetation-patch and open-interpatch microsites in 15 shrubland sites affected by large wildfires in 1991. On average, the activities of the three enzymes were 1.5 (β-glucosidase and urease) to 1.7 (acid phosphatase) times higher in soils under vegetation patches than in adjacent interpatches. In addition, phosphatase activity for both microsites significantly decreased with the fragmentation of the vegetation. This result was attributed to a lower influence of roots -the main source of acid phosphatase- in the bigger interpatches of the sites with lower patch cover, and to feedbacks between vegetation pattern, redistribution of resources, and soil quality during post-fire vegetation dynamics. Phosphatase activity was also 1.2 times higher in patches of resprouter plants than in patches of non-resprouters, probably due to the faster post-fire recovery and older age of resprouter patches in these fire-prone ecosystems. The influence on the studied enzymes of topographic and climatic factors acting at the landscape scale was insignificant. According to our results, variations in the cover, pattern, and composition of vegetation patches may have profound impacts on soil enzyme activity and associated nutrient cycling processes in fire-prone Mediterranean shrublands, particularly in those related to phosphorus.

  20. Fire ants

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. Fire ants are red-colored insects. A sting from a fire ant delivers a ... poison control. Those who have an allergy to insect bites or stings should carry a bee sting ...

  1. Understory Fires

    NASA Video Gallery

    The flames of understory fires in the southern Amazon reach on average only a few feet tall, but the fire type can claim anywhere from 10 to 50 percent of a burn area's trees. Credit: NASA/Doug Morton

  2. Less wiring, more firing: low-performing older adults compensate for impaired white matter with greater neural activity.

    PubMed

    Daselaar, Sander M; Iyengar, Vijeth; Davis, Simon W; Eklund, Karl; Hayes, Scott M; Cabeza, Roberto E

    2015-04-01

    The reliable neuroimaging finding that older adults often show greater activity (over-recruitment) than younger adults is typically attributed to compensation. Yet, the neural mechanisms of over-recruitment in older adults (OAs) are largely unknown. Rodent electrophysiology studies have shown that as number of afferent fibers within a circuit decreases with age, the fibers that remain show higher synaptic field potentials (less wiring, more firing). Extrapolating to system-level measures in humans, we proposed and tested the hypothesis that greater activity in OAs compensates for impaired white-matter connectivity. Using a neuropsychological test battery, we measured individual differences in executive functions associated with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and memory functions associated with the medial temporal lobes (MTLs). Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared activity for successful versus unsuccessful trials during a source memory task. Finally, we measured white-matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging. The study yielded 3 main findings. First, low-executive OAs showed greater success-related activity in the PFC, whereas low-memory OAs showed greater success-related activity in the MTLs. Second, low-executive OAs displayed white-matter deficits in the PFC, whereas low-memory OAs displayed white-matter deficits in the MTLs. Finally, in both prefrontal and MTL regions, white-matter decline and success-related activations occurred in close proximity and were negatively correlated. This finding supports the less-wiring-more-firing hypothesis, which provides a testable account of compensatory over-recruitment in OAs.

  3. Research in fire prevention.

    PubMed

    Pearce, N

    1985-10-01

    This paper describes in broad terms, the fire testing programme we carried out on whole bed assemblies in 1984. It should be clear that the tests were carried out in a thoroughly rigorous scientific manner. As always there is more to be done. The immediate task of finding the so called 'safe' bed assembly is proceeding with the search this year for safer pillows. Softer barrier foams are now being produced and it may be that the NHS could use full depth foam mattresses rather than a barrier foam wrap. On the engineering side I have explained the false alarm problem, and I have reviewed some of the research we are doing to see that new technology is used to give us better systems in future. Life safety sprinkler systems give the possibility of truly active fire protection in patient areas. They will enhance fire safety but at the moment no trade-offs can be offered in other areas of fire protection--either active or passive. My final point is that although I have considered the Department's fire research by looking separately at specific projects, the fire safety of a hospital must always be considered as a total package. To be effective, individual components of fire safety must not be considered in isolation but as part of the overall fire safety system.

  4. Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting.

    PubMed

    Balpardo, C; Capoulat, M E; Rodrigues, D; Arenillas, P

    2010-01-01

    The nuclide (241)Am decays by alpha emission to (237)Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of (237)Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of (241)Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

  5. A seizure-induced gain-of-function in BK channels is associated with elevated firing activity in neocortical pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Shruti, Sonal; Clem, Roger L.; Barth, Alison L.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY A heritable gain-of-function in BK channel activity has been associated with spontaneous seizures in both rodents and humans. We find that chemoconvulsant-induced seizures induce a gain-of-function in BK channel current that is associated with abnormal, elevated network excitability. Action potential half-width, evoked firing rate, and spontaneous network activity in vitro were all altered 24 hrs following picrotoxin-induced seizures in layer 2/3 pyramidal cells in the neocortex of young mice (P13-P16). Action potential half-width and firing output could be normalized to control values by application of BK channel antagonists in vitro. Thus, both inherited and acquired BK channel gain-of-functions are linked to abnormal excitability. Because BK channel antagonists can reduce elevated firing activity in neocortical neurons, BK channels might serve as a new target for anticonvulsant therapy. PMID:18387812

  6. Effects of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) reuptake inhibition plus 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonism on the firing activity of norepinephrine neurons.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Steven T; Blier, Pierre

    2002-09-01

    YM992 [(S)-2-[[(7-fluoro-4-indanyl)oxy]methyl]morpholine monohydrochloride] is a selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and a potent 5-HT(2A) antagonist. The aim of the present study was to assess, using in vivo extracellular unitary recordings, the effect of acute and sustained administration of YM992 (40 mg kg(-1) day(-1) s.c., using osmotic minipumps) on the spontaneous firing activity of locus coeruleus (LC) norepinephrine (NE) neurons. Acute intravenous injection of YM992 (4 mg kg(-1)) significantly decreased NE neuron firing activity by 29% and blocked the inhibitory effect of a subsequent injection of the 5-HT(2) agonist DOI [1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride]. A 2-day treatment with YM992 decreased the firing rate of NE neurons by 66%, whereas a partial recovery was observed after a 7-day treatment and a complete one after a 21-day treatment. Following the injection of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan (1 mg kg(-1) i.v.), NE neuron firing was equalized in controls and 2-day YM992-treated rats. This put into evidence an increased degree of activation of alpha(2)-adrenergic autoreceptors in the treated rats. The suppressant effect of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine was significantly decreased in long-term YM992-treated rats. The recovery of LC firing activity after long-term YM992 administration could thus be explained by a decreased sensitivity of alpha(2)-adrenergic autoreceptors. Sustained SSRI administration leads to a gradual reduction of the firing activity of NE neurons during long-term administration, whereas YM992 produced opposite effects. The exact basis for the increased synaptic availability of NE by YM992 remains to be elucidated. This NE activity, resulting from 5-HT reuptake inhibition plus 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonism, might confer additional benefits in affective and anxiety disorders.

  7. Burst-firing activity of presumed 5-HT neurones of the rat dorsal raphe nucleus: electrophysiological analysis by antidromic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hajós, M; Sharp, T

    1996-11-18

    We recently reported raphe neurones which frequently fired spikes in short bursts. However, the action potentials were broad and the neurones fired in a slow and regular pattern, suggesting they were an unusual type of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurone. In the present study, we investigated whether these putative burst-firing 5-HT neurones project to the forebrain and whether all spikes fired in bursts propagate along the axon. In anaesthetised rats, electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle evoked antidromic spikes in both burst-firing neurones and in single-spiking, classical 5-HT neurones recorded in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Although the antidromic spike latency of the single-spiking and burst-firing neurones showed a clear overlap, burst-firing neurones had a significantly shorter latency than single-spiking neurones. For both burst-firing neurones and classical 5-HT neurones, antidromic spikes made collisions with spontaneously occurring spikes. Furthermore, in all burst-firing neurones tested, first, second and third order spikes in a burst could be made to collide with antidromic spike. Interestingly, in a small number of burst-firing neurones, antidromic stimulation evoked spike doublets, similar to those recorded spontaneously. From these data we conclude that burst-firing neurones in the dorsal raphe nucleus project to the forebrain, and each spike generated by the burst propagates along the axon and could thereby release transmitter (5-HT).

  8. Comparison of the genotoxic activities of extracts from ambient and forest fire polluted air. [Humans

    SciTech Connect

    Viau, C.J.; Lockard, J.M.; Enoch, H.G.; Sabharwal, P.S.

    1982-01-01

    The genotoxicity of airborne organic particles from forest fire smoke was compared to that from nonsmoky (ambient) urban air using the Salmonella reversion assay and the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay in cultured human lymphocytes. Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100 were used with and without the addition of Aroclor-induced rat liver homogenate (S9). Each sample induced dose-related increases in mutagenicity and SCE. However, on the basis of the volume of air sampled, the smoke-filled air induced 12 to 14 times more bacterial reversions in TA 100 and 16-38 times more reversion in TA98 than ambient air. Similarly, on a volume basis smoky air induced 43 times more SCE in human lymphocytes than did ambient air. The results indicate that the increased mutagenicity was due not only to the heavier particulate load of the air, but also to the increased specific mutagenicity of the particles.

  9. 45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When do educational expenditures count? 263.4... do educational expenditures count? (a) Expenditures for educational activities or services count if... educational services or activities provided through the public education system do not count unless they...

  10. Counting to 20: Online Implementation of a Face-to-Face, Elementary Mathematics Methods Problem-Solving Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Catherine Stein

    2012-01-01

    This study describes implementation of the same problem-solving activity in both online and face-to-face environments. The activity, done in the first class period or first module of a K-2 mathematics methods course, was initially used in a face-to-face class and then adapted later for use in an online class. While the task was originally designed…

  11. Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels regulate firing properties and excitability in parasympathetic cardiac motoneurons in the nucleus ambiguus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Min; Hatcher, Jeff T; Chen, Qin-Hui; Wurster, Robert D; Cheng, Zixi Jack

    2010-12-01

    Small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (SK) regulate action potential (AP) firing properties and excitability in many central neurons. However, the functional roles of SK channels of parasympathetic cardiac motoneurons (PCMNs) in the nucleus ambiguus have not yet been well characterized. In this study, the tracer X-rhodamine-5 (and 6)-isothiocyanate (XRITC) was injected into the pericardial sac to retrogradely label PCMNs in FVB mice at postnatal days 7-9. Two days later, XRITC-labeled PCMNs in brain stem slices were identified. With the use of whole cell current clamp, single APs and spike trains of different frequencies were evoked by current injections. We found that 1) PCMNs have two different firing patterns: the majority of PCMNs (90%) exhibited spike frequency adaptation (SFA) and the rest (10%) showed less or no adaptation; 2) application of the specific SK channel blocker apamin significantly increased spike half-width in single APs and trains and reduced the spike frequency-dependent AP broadening in trains; 3) SK channel blockade suppressed afterhyperpolarization (AHP) amplitude following single APs and trains and abolished spike-frequency dependence of AHP in trains; and 4) SK channel blockade increased the spike frequency but did not alter the pattern of SFA. Using whole cell voltage clamp, we measured outward currents and afterhyperpolarization current (I(AHP)). SK channel blockade revealed that SK-mediated outward currents had both transient and persistent components. After bath application of apamin and Ca(2+)-free solution, we found that apamin-sensitive and Ca(2+)-sensitive I(AHP) were comparable, confirming that SK channels may contribute to a major portion of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel-mediated I(AHP). These results suggest that PCMNs have SK channels that significantly regulate AP repolarization, AHP, and spike frequency but do not affect SFA. We conclude that activation of SK channels underlies one of the mechanisms for negative

  12. Fires in Myanmar (2007)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, fires are common and widespread throughout the dry season, which roughly spans the northern hemisphere winter months. People set fires to clear crop stubble and brush and to prepare grazing land for a new flush of growth when the rainy season arrives. These intentional fires are too frequently accompanied by accidental fires that invade nearby forests and woodlands. The combination of fires produces a thick haze that alternately lingers and disperses, depending on the weather. This image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite shows fire activity on March 19, 2007, across eastern India, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and China. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are marked in red on the image. The darker green areas are generally more wooded areas or forests, while the paler green and tan areas are agricultural land. Smoke pools over low-lying areas of the hilly terrain in gray pockets. The green tops of rolling hills in Thailand emerge from a cloud of low-lying smoke. According to news reports from Thailand, the smoke blanket created air quality conditions that were considered unhealthy for all groups, and it prompted the Thai Air Force to undertake cloud-seeding attempts in an effort to cleanse the skies with rain. Commercial air traffic was halted due to poor visibility.

  13. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Small-World Connections to Induce Firing Activity and Phase Synchronization in Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Ying-Hua; Luo, Xiao-Shu

    2009-07-01

    We investigate how the firing activity and the subsequent phase synchronization of neural networks with small-world topological connections depend on the probability p of adding-links. Network elements are described by two-dimensional map neurons (2DMNs) in a quiescent original state. Neurons burst for a given coupling strength when the topological randomness p increases, which is absent in a regular-lattice neural network. The bursting activity becomes frequent and synchronization of neurons emerges as topological randomness further increases. The maximal firing frequency and phase synchronization appear at a particular value of p. However, if the randomness p further increases, the firing frequency decreases and synchronization is apparently destroyed.

  14. Neural networks counting chimes.

    PubMed Central

    Amit, D J

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the ideas that led to neural networks capable of recalling associatively and asynchronously temporal sequences of patterns can be extended to produce a neural network that automatically counts the cardinal number in a sequence of identical external stimuli. The network is explicitly constructed, analyzed, and simulated. Such a network may account for the cognitive effect of the automatic counting of chimes to tell the hour. A more general implication is that different electrophysiological responses to identical stimuli, at certain stages of cortical processing, do not necessarily imply synaptic modification, a la Hebb. Such differences may arise from the fact that consecutive identical inputs find the network in different stages of an active temporal sequence of cognitive states. These types of networks are then situated within a program for the study of cognition, which assigns the detection of meaning as the primary role of attractor neural networks rather than computation, in contrast to the parallel distributed processing attitude to the connectionist project. This interpretation is free of homunculus, as well as from the criticism raised against the cognitive model of symbol manipulation. Computation is then identified as the syntax of temporal sequences of quasi-attractors. PMID:3353371

  15. Brain activity modeling in general anesthesia: Enhancing local mean-field models using a slow adaptive firing rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaee-Ardekani, B.; Senhadji, L.; Shamsollahi, M. B.; Vosoughi-Vahdat, B.; Wodey, E.

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, an enhanced local mean-field model that is suitable for simulating the electroencephalogram (EEG) in different depths of anesthesia is presented. The main building elements of the model (e.g., excitatory and inhibitory populations) are taken from Steyn-Ross [M. L. Steyn-Ross , Phys. Rev. E 64, 011917 (2001), D. A. Steyn-Ross , Phys. Rev. E 64, 011918 (2001)] and Bojak and Liley [I. Bojak and D. T. Liley, Phys. Rev. E 71, 041902 (2005)] mean-field models and a new slow ionic mechanism is included in the main model. Generally, in mean-field models, some sigmoid-shape functions determine firing rates of neural populations according to their mean membrane potentials. In the enhanced model, the sigmoid function corresponding to excitatory population is redefined to be also a function of the slow ionic mechanism. This modification adapts the firing rate of neural populations to slow ionic activities of the brain. When an anesthetic drug is administered, the slow mechanism may induce neural cells to alternate between two levels of activity referred to as up and down states. Basically, the frequency of up-down switching is in the delta band (0-4Hz) and this is the main reason behind high amplitude, low frequency fluctuations of EEG signals in anesthesia. Our analyses show that the enhanced model may have different working states driven by anesthetic drug concentration. The model is settled in the up state in the waking period, it may switch to up and down states in moderate anesthesia while in deep anesthesia it remains in the down state.

  16. Fire and smoke retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  17. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the fire clay industry, particularly in the U.S., as of June 2011. It claims that the leading fire clay producer in the U.S. is the state of Missouri. The other major producers include California, Texas and Washington. It reports that the use of heavy clay products made of fire clay like brick, cement and lightweight aggregate has increased slightly in 2010.

  18. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, six companies mined fire clay in Missouri, Ohio and South Carolina. Production was estimate to be 300 kt with a value of $8.3 million. Missouri was the leading producer state followed by Ohio and South Carolina. For the third consecutive year, sales and use of fire clays have been relatively unchanged. For the next few years, sales of fire clay is forecasted to remain around 300 kt/a.

  19. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Four companies mined fire clay in three states in 2012. Production, based on a preliminary survey of the fire clay industry, was estimated to be 230 kt (254,000 st) valued at $6.98 million, an increase from 215 kt (237,000 st) valued at $6.15 million in 2011. Missouri was the leading producing state, followed by Colorado and Texas, in decreasing order by quantity. The number of companies mining fire clay declined in 2012 because several common clay producers that occasionally mine fire clay indicated that they did not do so in 2012.

  20. Effects of periplocoside X on midgut cells and digestive enzymes activity of the soldiers of red imported fire ant.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zeng, Xin-Nian

    2013-07-01

    The pathological effects of ingested periplocoside X, an insecticidal component isolated from the root of Periploca sepium Bunge, on the midgut epithelial cells of the soldiers of red imported fire ant were studied and the symptom was described. The results showed that periplocoside X could induce a severe, time-dependent cytotoxicity in the midgut epithelial cells. An optical microscopy showed that epithelial cells swelled firstly and then lysed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that numerous swollen lysosomes were appeared, microvilli were disrupted and sloughed off, and the numbers of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria decreased sharply in earlier stage. Numerous vacuoles were observed in the later stage. Finally, periplocoside X resulted in cell death by cytolysis. Assay of main three digestive enzymes activity indicated that amylase activity was significantly inhibited, but no significant changes were seen for lipase activity and total protease activity. So it is suggested that periplocoside X induced mainly to organic damage of midgut epithelium cells of insect. In all, insect midgut is one of targets for periplocoside X.

  1. How fire history, fire suppression practices and climate change affect wildfire regimes in Mediterranean landscapes.

    PubMed

    Brotons, Lluís; Aquilué, Núria; de Cáceres, Miquel; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Fall, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Available data show that future changes in global change drivers may lead to an increasing impact of fires on terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Yet, fire regime changes in highly humanised fire-prone regions are difficult to predict because fire effects may be heavily mediated by human activities We investigated the role of fire suppression strategies in synergy with climate change on the resulting fire regimes in Catalonia (north-eastern Spain). We used a spatially-explicit fire-succession model at the landscape level to test whether the use of different firefighting opportunities related to observed reductions in fire spread rates and effective fire sizes, and hence changes in the fire regime. We calibrated this model with data from a period with weak firefighting and later assess the potential for suppression strategies to modify fire regimes expected under different levels of climate change. When comparing simulations with observed fire statistics from an eleven-year period with firefighting strategies in place, our results showed that, at least in two of the three sub-regions analysed, the observed fire regime could not be reproduced unless taking into account the effects of fire suppression. Fire regime descriptors were highly dependent on climate change scenarios, with a general trend, under baseline scenarios without fire suppression, to large-scale increases in area burnt. Fire suppression strategies had a strong capacity to compensate for climate change effects. However, strong active fire suppression was necessary to accomplish such compensation, while more opportunistic fire suppression strategies derived from recent fire history only had a variable, but generally weak, potential for compensation of enhanced fire impacts under climate change. The concept of fire regime in the Mediterranean is probably better interpreted as a highly dynamic process in which the main determinants of fire are rapidly modified by changes in landscape, climate and

  2. Determination of sulfur in fly ash and fuel oil standard reference materials by radiochemical neutron activation analysis and liquid scintillation counting

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Filby, R.H.

    1983-12-01

    Sulfur was determined in NBS Coal Fly Ash (SRM 1633) and Residual Fuel Oils (SRM's 1619, 1620a, 1634a) by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (NAA) using the /sup 34/S(n,..gamma..)/sup 35/S reaction. The /sup 35/S was separated from solutions of the standards by either cation-anion exchange on Dowex 50W-X8/Dowex 1-X8 or by adsorption on Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Liquid scintillation counting of aqueous solutions was used for /sup 35/S measurement. The /sup 35/Cl(n,p)/sup 35/S interference was corrected for by measurement of chlorine by instrumental NAA. The method may be applied to very small samples of fly ash or air particulates (<10/sup -3/ g). 1 figure, 5 tables.

  3. The action of prostaglandin E2 and triamcinolone acetonide on the firing activity of lumbar nerve roots.

    PubMed

    Muramoto, T; Atsuta, Y; Iwahara, T; Sato, M; Takemitsu, Y

    1997-01-01

    Sciatica, due to lumbar disc herniation, is understood electrophysiogically to be an ectopic firing originating from a nerve root. The recent concept of chemical radiculitis implies the involvement, not only of mechanical compression, but also of chemical mediators which contribute to the generation of ectopic firing. The present study demonstrates that prostaglandin E2, a chemical mediator of inflammation, provoked the ectopic firing of nerve roots in a canine in vitro model which indicates that it may play a part in the irritation of nerve roots. In contrast, triamcinolone acetonide suppressed the firing induced by prostaglandin suggesting that steroids may be effective in the treatment of root symptoms.

  4. Ca(2+)-activated ion currents triggered by ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release control firing of inhibitory neurons in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yasuhiko; Yanagawa, Yuchio

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous miniature outward currents (SMOCs) are known to exist in smooth muscles and peripheral neurons, and evidence for the presence of SMOCs in central neurons has been accumulating. SMOCs in central neurons are induced through Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (K(Ca)) channels, which are activated through Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum via ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Previously, we found that some neurons in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus (PHN) showed spontaneous outward currents (SOCs). In the present study, we used whole cell recordings in slice preparations of the rat brain stem to investigate the following: 1) the ionic mechanisms of SOCs, 2) the types of neurons exhibiting frequent SOCs, and 3) the effect of Ca(2+)-activated conductance on neuronal firing. Pharmacological analyses revealed that SOCs were induced via the activation of small-conductance-type K(Ca) (SK) channels and RyRs, indicating that SOCs correspond to SMOCs. An analysis of the voltage responses to current pulses of the fluorescence-expressing inhibitory neurons of transgenic rats revealed that inhibitory neurons frequently exhibited SOCs. Abolition of SOCs via blockade of SK channels enhanced the frequency of spontaneous firing of inhibitory PHN neurons. However, abolition of SOCs via blockade of RyRs reduced the firing frequency and hyperpolarized the membrane potential. Similar reductions in firing frequency and hyperpolarization were also observed when Ca(2+)-activated nonselective cation (CAN) channels were blocked. These results suggest that, in inhibitory neurons in the PHN, Ca(2+) release via RyRs activates SK and CAN channels, and these channels regulate spontaneous firing in a complementary manner.

  5. Facility Activation and Characterization for IPD Workhorse Preburner and Oxidizer Turbopump Hot-Fire Testing at NASA Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sass, J. P.; Raines, N. G.; Ryan, H. M.

    2004-01-01

    The Integrated Powerhead Demonstrator (IPD) is a 250K lbf (1.1 MN) thrust cryogenic hydrogen/oxygen engine technology demonstrator that utilizes a full flow staged combustion engine cycle. The Integrated Powerhead Demonstrator (IPD) is part of NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program, which seeks to provide safe, dependable, cost-cutting technologies for future space launch systems. The project also is part of the Department of Defense's Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) program, which seeks to increase the performance and capability of today s state-of-the-art rocket propulsion systems while decreasing costs associated with military and commercial access to space. The primary industry participants include Boeing-Rocketdyne and GenCorp Aerojet. The intended full flow engine cycle is a key component in achieving all of the aforementioned goals. The IPD Program recently achieved a major milestone with the successful completion of the IPD Oxidizer Turbopump (OTP) hot-fire test project at the NASA John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) E-1 test facility in June 2003. A total of nine IPD Workhorse Preburner tests were completed, and subsequently 12 IPD OTP hot-fire tests were completed. The next phase of development involves IPD integrated engine system testing also at the NASA SSC E-1 test facility scheduled to begin in late 2004. Following an overview of the NASA SSC E-1 test facility, this paper addresses the facility aspects pertaining to the activation and testing of the IPD Workhorse Preburner and the IPD Oxidizer Turbopump. In addition, some of the facility challenges encountered during the test project shall be addressed.

  6. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  7. Fire Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  8. Returning Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Jon B.

    2007-01-01

    Last December saw another predictable report from the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE), a self-described watchdog group, highlighting how higher education is supposedly under siege from a politically correct plague of so-called hate-speech codes. In that report, FIRE declared that as many as 96 percent of top-ranked colleges…

  9. Arizona Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... and is currently the second largest fire in Arizona history. More than 2,000 people are working to contain the fire, which is being ... bright desert background. The areas with no data (shown in black and present at the oblique angles) are locations where the variable ...

  10. California Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Smoke Blankets Northern California     View Larger Image ... strikes sparked more than a thousand fires in northern California. This image was captured by the Multi-angle Imaging ... June 27, 2008 - Smoke from fires in northern California. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  11. Calcium-Activated SK Channels Influence Voltage-Gated Ion Channels to Determine the Precision of Firing in Globus Pallidus Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Deister, Christopher A.; Chan, C. Savio; Surmeier, D. James; Wilson, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    Globus pallidus (GP) neurons fire rhythmically in the absence of synaptic input, suggesting that they may encode their inputs as changes in the phase of their rhythmic firing. Action potential afterhyperpolarization (AHP) enhances precision of firing by ensuring that the ion channels recover from inactivation by the same amount on each cycle. Voltage-clamp experiments in slices showed that the longest component of the GP neuron’s AHP is blocked by apamin, a selective antagonist of calcium-activated SK channels. Application of 100 nm apamin also disrupted the precision of firing in perforated-patch and cell-attached recordings. SK channel blockade caused a small depolarization in spike threshold and made it more variable, but there was no reduction in the maximal rate of rise during an action potential. Thus, the firing irregularity was not caused solely by a reduction in voltage-gated Na+ channel availability. Subthreshold voltage ramps triggered a large outward current that was sensitive to the initial holding potential and had properties similar to the A-type K+ current in GP neurons. In numerical simulations, the availability of both Na+ and A-type K+ channels during autonomous firing were reduced when SK channels were removed, and a nearly equal reduction in Na+ and K+ subthreshold-activated ion channel availability produced a large decrease in the neuron’s slope conductance near threshold. This change made the neuron more sensitive to intrinsically generated noise. In vivo, this change would also enhance the sensitivity of GP neurons to small synaptic inputs. PMID:19571136

  12. Directory of workers in the fire field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuvshinoff, B. W.; Mcleod, S. B.; Katz, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    A directory was compiled to provide a list of workers engaged in fire research, their addresses and affiliations, and their principal fields of activity. The initial criteria for the selection of names for the directory are recent contributions to fire literature, teaching of subjects relevant to fire science, or participation in or support of fire research programs. With some exceptions, fire service personnel and fire protection engineers were excluded because directories already exist for these professionals. Also excluded are investigators engaged principally in studies of propulsion, combustion, and explosion phenomena, because these areas of study are somewhat aside from the main focus of fire research. For purposes of the directory, fire science is taken to be the body of knowledge, art, and skill related to the investigation, analysis, and interpretation of the phenomena of unwanted fires and the evaluation of materials methods, systems, and equipment related to fire safety, prevention, detection, and suppression.

  13. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length...

  14. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length...

  15. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    . Finally, coal fire geomorphology helps to explain landscape features whose occurrence would otherwise not be understood. Although coal fire-induced thermal anomalies and gas release are also indications of coal fire activity, as addressed by many investigators, no assessment is complete without sound geomorphologic mapping of the fire-induced geomorphologic features.

  16. Oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and their correlation to cluster of differentiation lymphocyte count in population of North-East India in highly active antiretroviral therapy era

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Sarat Kumar; Das, Bijay Kumar; Das, Surya Narayan; Mohapatra, Namita; Nayak, Suryakanti; Bhuyan, Lipsa

    2016-01-01

    Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection which manifests as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease involving the defects of the T-lymphocyte arm of the immune system. Certain laboratory parameters such as the cluster of differentiation (CD4) count and clinical parameters have long been used as markers of disease progression. In industrialized countries, many studies show a highly correlation between the incidence of oral lesions and immunosuppression and hence, can be used as a marker of immunosuppression. This might not be applicable to a developing country like India. In this study, efforts have been made to supplement the present knowledge on various aspects of oral manifestations in HIV patients in the Indian subcontinent. Aims: To correlate the oral manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients to the level of circulating CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and their effect in anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Subjects and Methods: A total of 104 HIV positive patients were examined for oral lesions. The CD4 count estimated on the same day by fluorescent activated cell sort count machine was then correlated with various oral lesions. Results: Oral manifestations appeared when CD4 count decreased below 500 cells/mm3. Moreover, oral lesions found at different stages showed very strong correlation to their respective CD4 count. Furthermore, there was considerable decline in the incidence of oral manifestations in patients undergoing highly active ART. Conclusions: Oral manifestations are highly predictive markers of severe immune deterioration and disease progression in HIV patients. PMID:27994425

  17. High-Moisture Diet for Laboratory Rats: Complete Blood Counts, Serum Biochemical Values, and Intestinal Enzyme Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battles, August H.; Knapka, Joseph T.; Stevens, Bruce R.; Lewis, Laura; Lang, Marie T.; Gruendel, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    Rats were fed an irradiated high-moisture diet (KSC-25) with or without access to a water bottle. Physiologic values were compared between these two groups and a group of rats fed a purified diet. Hematologic and serum biochemical values, urine specific gravity, and intestinal enzyme activities were determined from samples collected from the three groups of rats. Sprague Dawley rats (n=32) fed the irradiated high-moisture diet with or without a water bottle were the test animals. Rats (n=16) fed an irradiated purified diet and water provided via a water bottle were the control group. The purified diet formulation, modified AIN-76A, is a commonly used purified diet for laboratory rodents. All rats remained alert and healthy throughout the study. A comparison of the physiologic values of rats in this study with reported normal values indicated that all of the rats in the study were in good health. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) of the physiologic values from each rat group are reported.

  18. Comparative analysis of dose rates in bricks determined by neutron activation analysis, alpha counting and X-ray fluorescence analysis for the thermoluminescence fine grain dating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bártová, H.; Kučera, J.; Musílek, L.; Trojek, T.

    2014-11-01

    In order to evaluate the age from the equivalent dose and to obtain an optimized and efficient procedure for thermoluminescence (TL) dating, it is necessary to obtain the values of both the internal and the external dose rates from dated samples and from their environment. The measurements described and compared in this paper refer to bricks from historic buildings and a fine-grain dating method. The external doses are therefore negligible, if the samples are taken from a sufficient depth in the wall. However, both the alpha dose rate and the beta and gamma dose rates must be taken into account in the internal dose. The internal dose rate to fine-grain samples is caused by the concentrations of natural radionuclides 238U, 235U, 232Th and members of their decay chains, and by 40K concentrations. Various methods can be used for determining trace concentrations of these natural radionuclides and their contributions to the dose rate. The dose rate fraction from 238U and 232Th can be calculated, e.g., from the alpha count rate, or from the concentrations of 238U and 232Th, measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The dose rate fraction from 40K can be calculated from the concentration of potassium measured, e.g., by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) or by NAA. Alpha counting and XRF are relatively simple and are accessible for an ordinary laboratory. NAA can be considered as a more accurate method, but it is more demanding regarding time and costs, since it needs a nuclear reactor as a neutron source. A comparison of these methods allows us to decide whether the time- and cost-saving simpler techniques introduce uncertainty that is still acceptable.

  19. Fire and climate in Mongolia (1532-2010 Common Era)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessl, Amy E.; Brown, Peter; Byambasuren, Oyunsanaa; Cockrell, Shawn; Leland, Caroline; Cook, Ed; Nachin, Baatarbileg; Pederson, Neil; Saladyga, Thomas; Suran, Byambagerel

    2016-06-01

    Recent increases in wildland fire, warming temperatures, and land use change have coincided in many forested regions, making it difficult to parse causes of elevated fire activity. Here we use 20 multicentury fire scar chronologies (464 fire scar samples) from Mongolia to evaluate the role of climate forcing of fire in the context of livestock grazing and minimal fire suppression. We observe no change in fire return intervals post-1900; however, since the 1500s, periods of drought are coincident with more fire and shorter fire return intervals. We observe same year and some antecedent year effects of drought on fire, a pattern typical of semiarid forests elsewhere. During the instrumental period, drought remains an important driver of fire; however, limited fire activity in recent decades may be due to the coincidence of drought and intensive grazing that have synergized to reduce fuel continuity and fire spread.

  20. Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margle, Janice M. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Fire detection, fire standards and testing, fire extinguishment, inerting and atmospheres, fire-related medical science, aircraft fire safety, Space Station safety concerns, microgravity combustion, spacecraft material flammability testing, and metal combustion are among the topics considered.

  1. Decoupling of ENSO and fires in insular Southeast Asia from 2001-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, D. O.

    2010-12-01

    Eight-day active fire time series (2001-May 2010) in western, insular Southeast Asia were analyzed to evaluate whether the relationship between the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and fires has changed through time consistent with the hypothesis that fires and climate forcings are becoming decoupled as deforestation has continued in the region. The study period was marked by three major fire peaks in 2002, 2006 and 2009-2010 coinciding with three El Niño events. Maximum cross correlation coefficients (MCC) between lagged ENSO sea-surface temperature indices and fire counts (raw and seasonally detrended) were modest (≤ 0.50) and showed a general decrease for most land cover types from 2001-2006 to 2007-May 2010. A notable exception was peat swamp forest where the MCC increased slightly between the two periods for all indices except Niño3. A measure of annual seasonality also revealed that fires in peat swamp forest, lowland forest and secondary formations from 2007-May 2010 were more seasonal than fires during 2001-2006. Overall, the evidence suggests that fires and ENSO are becoming decoupled in the region and that forest types such as peat swamp and lowland forest may be experiencing more seasonal fires. We hypothesize that the decoupling occurs because of a stabilization in land use and establishment of permanent crops. We thus expect that fires will diminish in these areas as permanent plantations (primarily oil palm) are established and incentives to protect valuable crops outweigh incentives to convert land for cultivation.

  2. Esterase in Imported Fire Ants, Solenopsis invicta and S. richteri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Activity, Kinetics and Variation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Rashid, T.; Feng, G.

    2014-01-01

    Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri are two closely related invasive ants native to South America. Despite their similarity in biology and behavior, S. invicta is a more successful invasive species. Toxic tolerance has been found to be important to the success of some invasive species. Esterases play a crucial role in toxic tolerance of insects. Hence, we hypothesized that the more invasive S. invicta would have a higher esterase activity than S. richteri. Esterase activities were measured for workers and male and female alates of both ant species using α-naphthyl acetate and β-naphthyl acetate as substrates. Esterase activities in S. invicta were always significantly higher than those in S. richteri supporting our hypothesis. In S. invicta, male alates had the highest esterase activities followed by workers then female alates for both substrates. In S. richetri, for α-naphthyl acetate, male alates had the highest activity followed by female alates then workers, while for β-naphthyl acetate, female alates had the highest activity followed by male alates then workers. For workers, S. richteri showed significantly higher levels of variation about the mean esterase activity than S. invicta. However, S. invicta showed significantly higher levels of variation in both female and male alates. PMID:25408118

  3. Activity of Bifenthrin, Chlorfenapyr, Fipronil, and Thiamethoxam against Red Imported Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam were evaluated for activity against the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr). Mobility impairment and lethal times were determined following topical treatments. Ants were immobilized most quickly by bifenthrin, followed by chlorfenapyr and thi...

  4. Landscape dynamics and fire activity since 6740 cal yr BP in the Cantabrian region (La Molina peat bog, Puente Viesgo, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Obiol, R.; García-Codron, J. C.; Pèlachs, A.; Pérez-Haase, A.; Soriano, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    A lack of paleobotanic studies with adequate resolution and multiproxy approaches has limited proper discussion of vegetation dynamics in Cantabria and of the role of fires in the configuration of the plant landscape during the Holocene in the northwest part of the Iberian peninsula. The pollen diagram of La Molina peat bog in Puente Viesgo (43°15‧38″ N-3°58‧37″ W; ETRS89), located at 484 m.a.s.l., and the study of its sedimentary charcoals allowed the acquisition of a continuous and thorough fire sequence for the last 6700 cal yr BP and an understanding of its relationship to the forest. The results show the importance of human influence on the incidence and characteristics of fire activity during the different phases studied: the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman period, and Middle Ages. A synergy seems to exist between dry climate periods (especially during Bond events 3 and 4) and a greater presence of biomass. As the Holocene advances, vegetation coverage clearly tends to decrease. This study provides key elements for understanding the role of fire activity in the forest dynamics of deciduous and evergreen Quercus, Corylus, Pinus, Fagus, and Alnus and demonstrates the strongly artificialized character of the present landscape.

  5. Pre- and postsynaptic activation of M-channels by a novel opener dampens neuronal firing and transmitter release.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Asher; Sheinin, Anton; Yue, Cuiyong; Degani-Katzav, Nurit; Gibor, Gilad; Nachman, Rachel; Gopin, Anna; Tam, Eyal; Shabat, Doron; Yaari, Yoel; Attali, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    The M-type K(+) current (M-current), encoded by Kv7.2/3 (KCNQ2/3) K(+) channels, plays a critical role in regulating neuronal excitability because it counteracts subthreshold depolarizations. Here we have characterized the functions of pre- and postsynaptic M-channels using a novel Kv7.2/3 channel opener, NH6, which we synthesized as a new derivative of N-phenylanthranilic acid. NH6 exhibits a good selectivity as it does not affect Kv7.1 and I(KS) K(+) currents as well as NR1/NR2B, AMPA, and GABA(A) receptor-mediated currents. Superfusion of NH6 increased recombinant Kv7.2/3 current amplitude (EC(50) = 18 muM) by causing a hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage activation curve and by markedly slowing the deactivation kinetics. Activation of native M-currents by NH6 robustly reduced the number of evoked and spontaneous action potentials in cultured cortical, hippocampal and dorsal root ganglion neurons. In hippocampal slices, NH6 decreased somatically evoked spike after depolarization of CA1 pyramidal neurons and induced regular firing in bursting neurons. Activation of M-channels by NH6, potently reduced the frequency of spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Activation of M-channels also decreased the frequency of miniature excitatory (mEPSC) and inhibitory (mIPSC) postsynaptic currents without affecting their amplitude and waveform, thus suggesting that M-channels presynaptically inhibit glutamate and GABA release. Our results suggest a role of presynaptic M-channels in the release of glutamate and GABA. They also indicate that M-channels act pre- and postsynaptically to dampen neuronal excitability.

  6. Greater excitability and firing irregularity of tufted cells underlies distinct afferent-evoked activity of olfactory bulb mitral and tufted cells

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Shawn D; Urban, Nathaniel N

    2014-01-01

    Mitral and tufted cells, the two classes of principal neurons in the mammalian main olfactory bulb, exhibit morphological differences but remain widely viewed as functionally equivalent. Results from several recent studies, however, suggest that these two cell classes may encode complementary olfactory information in their distinct patterns of afferent-evoked activity. To understand how these differences in activity arise, we have performed the first systematic comparison of synaptic and intrinsic properties between mitral and tufted cells. Consistent with previous studies, we found that tufted cells fire with higher probability and rates and shorter latencies than mitral cells in response to physiological afferent stimulation. This stronger response of tufted cells could be partially attributed to synaptic differences, as tufted cells received stronger afferent-evoked excitation than mitral cells. However, differences in intrinsic excitability also contributed to the differences between mitral and tufted cell activity. Compared to mitral cells, tufted cells exhibited twofold greater excitability and peak instantaneous firing rates. These differences in excitability probably arise from differential expression of voltage-gated potassium currents, as tufted cells exhibited faster action potential repolarization and afterhyperpolarizations than mitral cells. Surprisingly, mitral and tufted cells also showed firing mode differences. While both cell classes exhibited regular firing and irregular stuttering of action potential clusters, tufted cells demonstrated a greater propensity to stutter than mitral cells. Collectively, stronger afferent-evoked excitation, greater intrinsic excitability and more irregular firing in tufted cells can combine to drive distinct responses of mitral and tufted cells to afferent-evoked input. PMID:24614745

  7. Averaging of TNTC counts.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, C N; Heller, B

    1988-01-01

    When plate count methods are used for microbial enumeration, if too-numerous-to-count results occur, they are commonly discarded. In this paper, a method for consideration of such results in computation of an average microbial density is developed, and its use is illustrated by example. PMID:3178211

  8. Anarthria impairs subvocal counting.

    PubMed

    Cubelli, R; Nichelli, P; Pentore, R

    1993-12-01

    We studied subvocal counting in two pure anarthric patients. Analysis showed that they performed definitively worse than normal subjects free to articulate subvocally and their scores were in the lower bounds of the performances of subjects suppressing articulation. These results suggest that subvocal counting is impaired after anarthria.

  9. Complexities of Counting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Bernadine Evans

    This document focuses on one child's skip counting methods. The pupil, a second grade student at Steuben School, in Kankakee, Illinois, was interviewed as she made several attempts at counting twenty-five poker chips on a circular piece of paper. The interview was part of a larger study of "Children's Conceptions of Number and Numeral,"…

  10. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  11. Fire history reconstruction in grassland ecosystems: amount of charcoal reflects local area burned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leys, Bérangère; Brewer, Simon C.; McConaghy, Scott; Mueller, Joshua; McLauchlan, Kendra K.

    2015-11-01

    Fire is one of the most prevalent disturbances in the Earth system, and its past characteristics can be reconstructed using charcoal particles preserved in depositional environments. Although researchers know that fires produce charcoal particles, interpretation of the quantity or composition of charcoal particles in terms of fire source remains poorly understood. In this study, we used a unique four-year dataset of charcoal deposited in traps from a native tallgrass prairie in mid-North America to test which environmental factors were linked to charcoal measurements on three spatial scales. We investigated small and large charcoal particles commonly used as a proxy of fire activity at different spatial scales, and charcoal morphotypes representing different types of fuel. We found that small (125-250 μm) and large (250 μm-1 mm) particles of charcoal are well-correlated (Spearman correlation = 0.88) and likely reflect the same spatial scale of fire activity in a system with both herbaceous and woody fuels. There was no significant relationship between charcoal pieces and fire parameters <500 m from the traps. Moreover, local area burned (<5 km distance radius from traps) explained the total charcoal amount, and regional burning (200 km radius distance from traps) explained the ratio of non arboreal to total charcoal (NA/T ratio). Charcoal variables, including total charcoal count and NA/T ratio, did not correlate with other fire parameters, vegetation cover, landscape, or climate variables. Thus, in long-term studies that involve fire history reconstructions, total charcoal particles, even of a small size (125-250 μm), could be an indicator of local area burned. Further studies may determine relationships among amount of charcoal recorded, fire intensity, vegetation cover, and climatic parameters.

  12. Fires in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In what seemed like the blink of an eye, wildfires ignited in the paper-dry, drought-stricken vegetation of Southern California over the weekend of October 20, 2007, and exploded into massive infernos that forced hundreds of thousands of people to evacuate their communities. Driven by Santa Ana winds, fires grew thousands of acres in just one to two days. The fires sped down from the mountains into the outskirts of coastal cities, including San Diego. Dozens of homes have burned to the ground, and at least one person has died, according to local news reports. Several of the fires were burning completely out of control as of October 22. This image of the fires in California was captured at 1:55 p.m. U.S. Pacific Daylight Time on October 22, 2007. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. Thick streamers of smoke unfurl over the Pacific Ocean. The brownish plumes are clouds of dust. Fires northwest of Los Angeles seemed calmer at the time of this image than they were the previous day.

  13. Emissions from an automobile fire.

    PubMed

    Lönnermark, Anders; Blomqvist, Per

    2006-02-01

    The emissions from automobile fires have been investigated. The main gas phase components were analysed in small-scale tests with representative material from an automobile. A more detailed investigation of full-scale simulated automobile fires was also conducted, including the characterisation of gas phase components, particulates and run-off water from extinguishing activities. Three separate full scale fire tests have been characterised: a fire ignited and developed in the engine compartment; a fire ignited inside the coupé, that was extinguished in the early stages; and a similar fire ignited inside the coupé that was allowed to spread until the entire vehicle was involved in the fire. The quantitative analysis of the smoke gases from the full-scale fires showed that emissions with a potentially negative impact on the environment, or chronic toxic effect on humans, were produced in significant quantities. These emissions included HCl, SO2, VOCs (e.g. benzene), PAHs, and PCDDs/PCDFs. Analysis of run-off water indicated that it was severely contaminated, containing elevated levels of both organic compounds and metals. Comparison with data from other vehicle fires found in the literature shows that contamination by lead, copper, zinc, and antimony appears to be significant in water run-off from these types of fires.

  14. Developmental Changes in Hippocampal CA1 Single Neuron Firing and Theta Activity during Associative Learning

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jangjin; Goldsberry, Mary E.; Harmon, Thomas C.; Freeman, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal development is thought to play a crucial role in the emergence of many forms of learning and memory, but ontogenetic changes in hippocampal activity during learning have not been examined thoroughly. We examined the ontogeny of hippocampal function by recording theta and single neuron activity from the dorsal hippocampal CA1 area while rat pups were trained in associative learning. Three different age groups [postnatal days (P)17-19, P21-23, and P24-26] were trained over six sessions using a tone conditioned stimulus (CS) and a periorbital stimulation unconditioned stimulus (US). Learning increased as a function of age, with the P21-23 and P24-26 groups learning faster than the P17-19 group. Age- and learning-related changes in both theta and single neuron activity were observed. CA1 pyramidal cells in the older age groups showed greater task-related activity than the P17-19 group during CS-US paired sessions. The proportion of trials with a significant theta (4–10 Hz) power change, the theta/delta ratio, and theta peak frequency also increased in an age-dependent manner. Finally, spike/theta phase-locking during the CS showed an age-related increase. The findings indicate substantial developmental changes in dorsal hippocampal function that may play a role in the ontogeny of learning and memory. PMID:27764172

  15. Montana Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... fires raging in Montana and Hurricane Hector swirling in the Pacific. These two unrelated, large-scale examples of nature's fury were ... location:  United States Pacific Ocean region:  Western United States Order:  55 ...

  16. Texas Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Wind-Whipped Fires in East Texas     View Larger Image ... one-year drought on record and the warmest month in Texas history. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on ...

  17. Fire protection for launch facilities using machine vision fire detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Douglas B.

    1993-02-01

    Fire protection of critical space assets, including launch and fueling facilities and manned flight hardware, demands automatic sensors for continuous monitoring, and in certain high-threat areas, fast-reacting automatic suppression systems. Perhaps the most essential characteristic for these fire detection and suppression systems is high reliability; in other words, fire detectors should alarm only on actual fires and not be falsely activated by extraneous sources. Existing types of fire detectors have been greatly improved in the past decade; however, fundamental limitations of their method of operation leaves open a significant possibility of false alarms and restricts their usefulness. At the Civil Engineering Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida, a new type of fire detector is under development which 'sees' a fire visually, like a human being, and makes a reliable decision based on known visual characteristics of flames. Hardware prototypes of the Machine Vision (MV) Fire Detection System have undergone live fire tests and demonstrated extremely high accuracy in discriminating actual fires from false alarm sources. In fact, this technology promises to virtually eliminate false activations. This detector could be used to monitor fueling facilities, launch towers, clean rooms, and other high-value and high-risk areas. Applications can extend to space station and in-flight shuttle operations as well; fiber optics and remote camera heads enable the system to see around obstructed areas and crew compartments. The capability of the technology to distinguish fires means that fire detection can be provided even during maintenance operations, such as welding.

  18. Fire protection for launch facilities using machine vision fire detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Douglas B.

    1993-01-01

    Fire protection of critical space assets, including launch and fueling facilities and manned flight hardware, demands automatic sensors for continuous monitoring, and in certain high-threat areas, fast-reacting automatic suppression systems. Perhaps the most essential characteristic for these fire detection and suppression systems is high reliability; in other words, fire detectors should alarm only on actual fires and not be falsely activated by extraneous sources. Existing types of fire detectors have been greatly improved in the past decade; however, fundamental limitations of their method of operation leaves open a significant possibility of false alarms and restricts their usefulness. At the Civil Engineering Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida, a new type of fire detector is under development which 'sees' a fire visually, like a human being, and makes a reliable decision based on known visual characteristics of flames. Hardware prototypes of the Machine Vision (MV) Fire Detection System have undergone live fire tests and demonstrated extremely high accuracy in discriminating actual fires from false alarm sources. In fact, this technology promises to virtually eliminate false activations. This detector could be used to monitor fueling facilities, launch towers, clean rooms, and other high-value and high-risk areas. Applications can extend to space station and in-flight shuttle operations as well; fiber optics and remote camera heads enable the system to see around obstructed areas and crew compartments. The capability of the technology to distinguish fires means that fire detection can be provided even during maintenance operations, such as welding.

  19. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Five companies mined fire clay in four states in 2011. Production, based on a preliminary survey of the fire clay industry, was estimated to be 240 kt (265,000 st), valued at $7.68 million, an increase from 216 kt (238,000 st), valued at $6.12 million in 2010. Missouri was the leading producing state, followed by Texas, Washington and Ohio, in decreasing order by quantity.

  20. Satellites monitor Los Alamos fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalluri, Satya; White, Benjamin

    A man-made fire that was intended to be a “controlled burn” for clearing brush and wilderness at the Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico, became an inferno that devastated significant portions of Los Alamos during the first week of May 2000. Now known as the Cerro Grande fire, it was not confined to Los Alamos alone. The fire spread to 15% of the Santa Clara Indian Reservation and a substantial area of the surrounding national parks and U.S. forests.The National Weather Service estimates that more than 100,000 fires occur in the natural environment each year within the United States alone, of which about 90% are manmade. Remote sensing images from satellites could be used to detect and monitor these active fires and biomass burning. Forest fires have a significant environmental and economic impact, and timely information about their location and magnitude is essential to contain them.

  1. Impact of fire, landscape position, aspect, and soil depth on microbial extracellular enzyme activities in the Jemez River Basin Critical Zone Observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbanks, D.; Murphy, M. A.; Frost, G.; Chorover, J.; Gallery, R. E.; Rich, V. I.

    2014-12-01

    Fire frequency and severity are increasing across the western US, and post-fire recovery and effects on critical zone structure are not fully understood. Resident microbiota (bacteria and fungi) transform the majority of carbon in ecosystems, and the structure of these communities influence seedling establishment and the trajectory of vegetative recovery as well as biogeochemical cycling. We surveyed changes in microbial composition and activity after wildfire to better understand soil microbial resilience and fire ecology. Specifically, we assessed potential extracellular enzyme activities in response to fire severity across landscape position and aspect. We sampled 18 days after containment of the June 2013 Thompson Ridge Fire in the Jemez River Basin Critical Zone Observatory, across a gradient of burn severities in a mixed-conifer zero order basin. We subsampled six depths through the surface soil profile and measured potential activities of seven hydrolytic enzymes using established fluorometric techniques. Four of these enzymes hydrolyze C-rich substrates (β-glucosidase [BG], β-D-cellubiosidase [CB], xylosidase [XYL], and α-glucosidase [AG], two hydrolyze N-rich substrates N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase [NAG] and leucine aminopeptidase [LAP]), and one hydrolyzes a P-rich substrate (acid phosphatase [PHOS]). Results showed decreased activities with depth for BG, CB, and LAP. Significantly higher potential enzyme activity was observed for convergent sites relative to planar or divergent sites across all depths sampled. Additionally, we looked at shifts in enzyme nutrient acquisition ratios that correspond with resource limitations relative to microbial stoichiometric demands. Higher acquisition potential is interpreted as greater resource allocation towards nutrient acquisition. Results showed a variance in resource acquisition potential with depth for C relative to N, with greater resources being allocated towards acquiring C at shallower depth. Conversely

  2. When conditioned responses "fire back": bidirectional cross-activation creates learning opportunities in synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Meier, B; Rothen, N

    2007-07-13

    In grapheme-color synesthesia, the letter "c" printed in black may be experienced as red, but typically the color red does not trigger the experience of the letter "c." Therefore, at the level of subjective experience, cross-activation is usually unidirectional. However, recent evidence from digit-color synesthesia suggests that at an implicit level bidirectional cross-activation can occur. Here we demonstrate that this finding is not restricted to this specific type of synesthesia. We introduce a new method that enables the investigation of bidirectionality in other types of synesthesia. We found that a group of grapheme-color synesthetes, but not a control group, showed a startle in response to a color-inducing grapheme after a startle response was conditioned to the specific corresponding color. These results implicate that when the startle response was associated with the real color an association between shock and the grapheme was also established. By this mechanism (i.e. implicit cross-activation) the conditioned response to the real color generalized to the synesthetic color. We suggest that parietal brain areas are responsible for this neural backfiring.

  3. ESA Fire CCI product assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, Angelika; Yue, Chao; Mouillot, Florent; Storm, Thomas; Chuvieco, Emilio; Kaiser, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation fires are a major disturbance in the Earth System. Fires change the biophysical properties and dynamics of ecosystems and alter terrestrial carbon pools. By altering the atmosphere's composition, fire emissions exert a significant climate forcing. To realistically model past and future changes of the Earth System, fire disturbances must be taken into account. Related modelling efforts require consistent global burned area observations covering at least 10 to 20 years. Guided by the specific requirements of a wide range of end users, the ESA fire_cci project is currently computing a new global burned area dataset. It applies a newly developed spectral change detection algorithm upon the full ENVISAT-MERIS archive (2002 to 2012). The algorithm relies on MODIS active fire information as "seed". A first, formally validated version has been released for the period 2006 to 2008. It comprises a pixel burned area product (spatial resolution of 333 m) with date detection information and a biweekly grid product at 0.5 degree spatial resolution. We compare fire_cci burned area with other global burned area products (MCD64, GFED4(s), GEOLAND) and a set of active fires data (hotspots from MODIS, TRMM, AATSR and fire radiative power from GFAS). Output from the ongoing processing of the full MERIS timeseries will be incorporated into the study, as far as available. The analysis of patterns of agreement and disagreement between fire_cci and other products provides a better understanding of product characteristics and uncertainties. The intercomparison of the 2006-2008 fire_cci time series shows a close agreement with GFED4 data in terms of global burned area and the general spatial and temporal patterns. Pronounced differences, however, emerge for specific regions or fire events. Burned area mapped by fire_cci tends to be notably higher in regions where small agricultural fires predominate. The improved detection of small agricultural fires by fire_cci can be related to

  4. Role of low-voltage-activated calcium current and extracellular calcium in controlling the firing pattern of developing CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Aguilera, Alberto; Sánchez-Alonso, José Luis; Vicente-Torres, María Ángeles; Colino, Asunción

    2017-03-06

    The firing pattern of individual neurons is an important element for information processing and storing. During the first weeks of development, there is a transitional period during which CA1 pyramidal neurons display burst-spiking behavior in contrast to the adult regular-firing pattern. Spike after-depolarizations (ADPs) constitute a major factor underlying burst-spiking behavior. Using current-clamp recordings, we studied ADP waveforms and firing patterns in CA1 pyramidal neurons of Wistar rats from 9 to 19 postnatal days (P9-19). The percentage of burst-spiking neurons increased up to P16, in correlation with the emergence of an active component in the ADP. The application of low-voltage-activated (LVA) calcium channel blockers such as nickel or mibefradil suppressed the generation of the active ADP component and burst-spiking behavior. In agreement with the development of the ADP waveform and burst-spiking behavior, voltage-clamp experiments in dissociated pyramidal neurons showed an increase in the LVA calcium current in P16-19 vs P9-12. Finally, we found that a reduction of extracellular calcium levels decreases the percentage of burst-spiking cells due to a reduction in the active component of the ADP. We conclude that a major contribution of LVA calcium channels to ADP determines the bursting capability of CA1 pyramidal neurons during a transitional postnatal period in contrast to adulthood.

  5. AUTOMATIC COUNTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Howell, W.D.

    1957-08-20

    An apparatus for automatically recording the results of counting operations on trains of electrical pulses is described. The disadvantages of prior devices utilizing the two common methods of obtaining the count rate are overcome by this apparatus; in the case of time controlled operation, the disclosed system automatically records amy information stored by the scaler but not transferred to the printer at the end of the predetermined time controlled operations and, in the case of count controlled operation, provision is made to prevent a weak sample from occupying the apparatus for an excessively long period of time.

  6. Investigation of Biomass Combustion Rate of Fire Radiative Energy Using Multiple-Satellite-observed Active Fires and Landsat TM Burn Severities across the Continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Zhang, X.; Kondragunta, S.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of atmospheric aerosol and greenhouse gases that substantially influence climate and regional air quality. However, the accuracy of biomass burning emissions estimated using traditional method is limited by large uncertainties in burned area and fuel loading. Alternatively, fire radiative energy (FRE) has recently been demonstrated to be linearly related to biomass combustion, which potentially improves the estimation of biomass burning emissions. The FRE-based combustion rate is 0.368-0.453 kg/MJ according to field controlled experiments while it varies from 1.37-4.5 kg/MJ derived from satellite-based bottom-up and top-down aerosol optical thickness estimates. Here we investigate the FRE combustion rate in over 1000 burn scars from 2011 to 2012 across the Continental United States (CONUS). Specifically, FRE was calculated by combining the high spatial observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the high temporal observations from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). Biomass consumption in burn scars was modeled using Landsat TM 30m burn severities, 30m fuel loading from Fuel Characteristic Classification System, and combustion completeness compiled from recent literatures. The combustion rate was then investigated by correlating FRE to biomass consumption across CONUS and Bailey's ecoregions. Our results show that the combustion rate can be extracted from the linear relationship between biomass consumption and FRE. The combustion rate is 0.415±10% kg/MJ across CONUS, which is similar to the rate derived from field experiments. However, it varies from 0.18-1.9 kg/MJ among ecoregions. This implies that a single combustion rate could produce large uncertainty in the estimation of biomass consumption at large scales. We suggest that ecoregion specified combustion rates should help to improve the accuracy of quantifying biomass burning emissions regionally and globally.

  7. Co-emergence of multi-scale cortical activities of irregular firing, oscillations and avalanches achieves cost-efficient information capacity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Hai-Jun; Zhou, Changsong

    2017-02-01

    The brain is highly energy consuming, therefore is under strong selective pressure to achieve cost-efficiency in both cortical connectivities and activities. However, cost-efficiency as a design principle for cortical activities has been rarely studied. Especially it is not clear how cost-efficiency is related to ubiquitously observed multi-scale properties: irregular firing, oscillations and neuronal avalanches. Here we demonstrate that these prominent properties can be simultaneously observed in a generic, biologically plausible neural circuit model that captures excitation-inhibition balance and realistic dynamics of synaptic conductance. Their co-emergence achieves minimal energy cost as well as maximal energy efficiency on information capacity, when neuronal firing are coordinated and shaped by moderate synchrony to reduce otherwise redundant spikes, and the dynamical clusterings are maintained in the form of neuronal avalanches. Such cost-efficient neural dynamics can be employed as a foundation for further efficient information processing under energy constraint.

  8. Co-emergence of multi-scale cortical activities of irregular firing, oscillations and avalanches achieves cost-efficient information capacity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hai-Jun; Zhou, Changsong

    2017-01-01

    The brain is highly energy consuming, therefore is under strong selective pressure to achieve cost-efficiency in both cortical connectivities and activities. However, cost-efficiency as a design principle for cortical activities has been rarely studied. Especially it is not clear how cost-efficiency is related to ubiquitously observed multi-scale properties: irregular firing, oscillations and neuronal avalanches. Here we demonstrate that these prominent properties can be simultaneously observed in a generic, biologically plausible neural circuit model that captures excitation-inhibition balance and realistic dynamics of synaptic conductance. Their co-emergence achieves minimal energy cost as well as maximal energy efficiency on information capacity, when neuronal firing are coordinated and shaped by moderate synchrony to reduce otherwise redundant spikes, and the dynamical clusterings are maintained in the form of neuronal avalanches. Such cost-efficient neural dynamics can be employed as a foundation for further efficient information processing under energy constraint. PMID:28192429

  9. A novel function for Wnt signaling modulating neuronal firing activity and the temporal structure of spontaneous oscillation in the entorhinal-hippocampal circuit.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Carolina A; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-07-01

    During early and late postnatal developments, the establishment of functional neuronal connectivity depends on molecules like Wnt that help the recently formed synapses to establish and consolidate their new cellular interactions. However, unlike other molecules, whether Wnt can modulate the firing properties of cells is unknown. Here, for the first time we explore the physiological effect of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways on a circuit that is currently generating oscillatory activity, the entorhinal cortex-hippocampal circuit. Our results indicate that Wnt pathways have strong influence in the circuital and cellular properties depending on the Wnt protein isoforms, concentration, and type of neuronal circuit. Antibodies against canonical and non-canonical ligands, as well as WASP-1 and sFRP-2, demonstrate that constitutive release of Wnts contributes to the maintenance of the network and intrinsic properties of the circuit. Furthermore, we found that the excess of Wnt3a or the permanent intracellular activation of the pathway with BIO-6 accelerates the period of the oscillation by disrupting the oscillatory units (Up states) in short units, presumably by affecting the synaptic mechanisms that couples neurons into the oscillatory cycle, but without affecting the spike generation. Instead, low doses of Wnt5a increase the period of the oscillation in EC by incorporating new cells into the network activity, probably modifying firing activity in other places of the circuit. Moreover, we found that Wnt signaling operates under different principles in the hippocampus. Using pyrvinium pamoate, a Wnt/β-catenin dependent pathway inhibitor, we demonstrated that this pathway is essential to keep the firing activity in the circuit CA3, and in less degree of CA1 circuit. However, CA1 circuit possesses homeostatic mechanisms to up-regulate the firing activity when it has been suppressed in CA3, and to down-modulate the cellular excitability when exacerbated

  10. Fires Scorch Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In southwest Oregon, the Biscuit Fire continues to grow. This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image from August 14, 2002, shows the burn scar associated with the enormous blaze. The visualization uses ASTER's 30-meter-resolution, short-wave infrared bands to minimize smoke contamination and enhance the burn scar, which appears purple amid green vegetation. Actively burning areas of the fire appear very light purple. More than 6,000 fire personnel are assigned to the Biscuit Fire, which was 390, 276 acres as of Friday morning, August 15, and only 26 percent contained. Among the resources threatened are thousands of homes, three nationally designated wild and scenic rivers, and habitat for several categories of plants and animals at risk of extinction. Firefighters currently have no estimate as to when the fire might be contained. Credit: This image was acquired on an expedited basis as part of NASA Wildfire Response Team activities. Image courtesy Mike Abrams, Simon Hook, and the ASTER team at EROS Data Center DAAC.

  11. Detection and Characterization of Low Temperature Peat Fires during the 2015 Fire Catastrophe in Indonesia Using a New High-Sensitivity Fire Monitoring Satellite Sensor (FireBird)

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Elizabeth C.; Englhart, Sandra; Lorenz, Eckehard; Halle, Winfried; Wiedemann, Werner; Siegert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Vast and disastrous fires occurred on Borneo during the 2015 dry season, pushing Indonesia into the top five carbon emitting countries. The region was affected by a very strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomenon, on par with the last severe event in 1997/98. Fire dynamics in Central Kalimantan were investigated using an innovative sensor offering higher sensitivity to a wider range of fire intensities at a finer spatial resolution (160 m) than heretofore available. The sensor is onboard the TET-1 satellite, part of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) FireBird mission. TET-1 images (acquired every 2–3 days) from the middle infrared were used to detect fires continuously burning for almost three weeks in the protected peatlands of Sebangau National Park as well as surrounding areas with active logging and oil palm concessions. TET-1 detection capabilities were compared with MODIS active fire detection and Landsat burned area algorithms. Fire dynamics, including fire front propagation speed and area burned, were investigated. We show that TET-1 has improved detection capabilities over MODIS in monitoring low-intensity peatland fire fronts through thick smoke and haze. Analysis of fire dynamics revealed that the largest burned areas resulted from fire front lines started from multiple locations, and the highest propagation speeds were in excess of 500 m/day (all over peat > 2m deep). Fires were found to occur most often in concessions that contained drainage infrastructure but were not cleared prior to the fire season. Benefits of implementing this sensor system to improve current fire management techniques are discussed. Near real-time fire detection together with enhanced fire behavior monitoring capabilities would not only improve firefighting efforts, but also benefit analysis of fire impact on tropical peatlands, greenhouse gas emission estimations as well as mitigation measures to reduce severe fire events in the future. PMID:27486664

  12. Detection and Characterization of Low Temperature Peat Fires during the 2015 Fire Catastrophe in Indonesia Using a New High-Sensitivity Fire Monitoring Satellite Sensor (FireBird).

    PubMed

    Atwood, Elizabeth C; Englhart, Sandra; Lorenz, Eckehard; Halle, Winfried; Wiedemann, Werner; Siegert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Vast and disastrous fires occurred on Borneo during the 2015 dry season, pushing Indonesia into the top five carbon emitting countries. The region was affected by a very strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomenon, on par with the last severe event in 1997/98. Fire dynamics in Central Kalimantan were investigated using an innovative sensor offering higher sensitivity to a wider range of fire intensities at a finer spatial resolution (160 m) than heretofore available. The sensor is onboard the TET-1 satellite, part of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) FireBird mission. TET-1 images (acquired every 2-3 days) from the middle infrared were used to detect fires continuously burning for almost three weeks in the protected peatlands of Sebangau National Park as well as surrounding areas with active logging and oil palm concessions. TET-1 detection capabilities were compared with MODIS active fire detection and Landsat burned area algorithms. Fire dynamics, including fire front propagation speed and area burned, were investigated. We show that TET-1 has improved detection capabilities over MODIS in monitoring low-intensity peatland fire fronts through thick smoke and haze. Analysis of fire dynamics revealed that the largest burned areas resulted from fire front lines started from multiple locations, and the highest propagation speeds were in excess of 500 m/day (all over peat > 2m deep). Fires were found to occur most often in concessions that contained drainage infrastructure but were not cleared prior to the fire season. Benefits of implementing this sensor system to improve current fire management techniques are discussed. Near real-time fire detection together with enhanced fire behavior monitoring capabilities would not only improve firefighting efforts, but also benefit analysis of fire impact on tropical peatlands, greenhouse gas emission estimations as well as mitigation measures to reduce severe fire events in the future.

  13. A bullet fired in dry water: an investigative activity to learn hydrodynamics concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Leitão, Ulisses; dos Anjos Pinheiro da Silva, Antonio; Trindade do Nascimento, Natália Cristina; Mara Benedita da Cruz Gervásio, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we report an investigative activity on hydrodynamics, in the context of an inquiry-based learning project. The aim is to analyse the experiment of a bullet shot underwater. Using Tracker, a video analysing and modelling software, the displacement of the bullet was measured as function of time, processing a slow motion video from YouTube. It was found that the displacement of the bullet is well described in the first 20 ms by the inviscid flow regime, where the Newtonian drag force overcomes the viscous drag. This behaviour is discussed in the context of what Richard Feynman’s famous Lectures on Physics describes as ‘The Flow of Dry Water’.

  14. [Platelet count in the cat].

    PubMed

    Moritz, A; Hoffmann, C

    1997-11-01

    The technique of collecting blood samples is primarily responsible for the appearance of platelet-agglomeration in cats. Blood obtained by the conventional way ("one syringe technology", drips of blood) caused in 52% of the cases an activation of the large and therefore active thrombocytes however. Rejection of the first 2-5 ml blood for the platelet count ("two syringe technology") reduced the rate of platelet-agglomeration significantly. No big differences in platelet-agglomeration were found with regard to the place used for collecting blood (V. cephalica antebrachii/V. jugularis). Platelet-agglutination was observed with Li-Heparin, K-EDTA, Na-Citrat or ACD anticoagulated blood samples. Citrat (Na-Citrat, ACD) seemed to have a stabilizing effect on feline thrombocytes as has been described for human thrombocytes. The platelet count in cats should be performed within 30 minutes.

  15. Differential modulation of repetitive firing and synchronous network activity in neocortical interneurons by inhibition of A-type K+ channels and Ih

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sidney B.; Hablitz, John J.

    2015-01-01

    GABAergic interneurons provide the main source of inhibition in the neocortex and are important in regulating neocortical network activity. In the presence 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), CNQX, and D-APV, large amplitude GABAA-receptor mediated depolarizing responses were observed in the neocortex. GABAergic networks are comprised of several types of interneurons, each with its own protein expression pattern, firing properties, and inhibitory role in network activity. Voltage-gated ion channels, especially A-type K+ channels, differentially regulate passive membrane properties, action potential (AP) waveform, and repetitive firing properties in interneurons depending on their composition and localization. HCN channels are known modulators of pyramidal cell intrinsic excitability and excitatory network activity. Little information is available regarding how HCN channels functionally modulate excitability of individual interneurons and inhibitory networks. In this study, we examined the effect of 4-AP on intrinsic excitability of fast-spiking basket cells (FS-BCs) and Martinotti cells (MCs). 4-AP increased the duration of APs in both FS-BCs and MCs. The repetitive firing properties of MCs were differentially affected compared to FS-BCs. We also examined the effect of Ih inhibition on synchronous GABAergic depolarizations and synaptic integration of depolarizing IPSPs. ZD 7288 enhanced the amplitude and area of evoked GABAergic responses in both cell types. Similarly, the frequency and area of spontaneous GABAergic depolarizations in both FS-BCs and MCs were increased in presence of ZD 7288. Synaptic integration of IPSPs in MCs was significantly enhanced, but remained unaltered in FS-BCs. These results indicate that 4-AP differentially alters the firing properties of interneurons, suggesting MCs and FS-BCs may have unique roles in GABAergic network synchronization. Enhancement of GABAergic network synchronization by ZD 7288 suggests that HCN channels attenuate inhibitory

  16. Understanding Blood Counts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart, Kidneys, Liver and Lung Function Infections Iron Overload Low Blood Counts Pain Disease- and Treatment-Related ... cancer research around the world and provides free information and support services. Privacy Policy Security Copyright Link ...

  17. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...

  18. Calorie count - Fast food

    MedlinePlus

    ... count - fast food FOOD ITEM SERVING SIZE CALORIES Breakfast Foods Dunkin Donuts Egg White Veggie Wrap 1 ... Cheese Biscuit Sandwich 1 sandwich 510 BK Ultimate Breakfast Platter 1 platter 1190 McDonalds Fruit 'n Yogurt ...

  19. Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the other main nutrients. Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and fiber. Carbohydrate counting can help you control ... called starchy vegetables because they are high in starch. These vegetables have more carbohydrates per serving than ...

  20. Inventory count strategies.

    PubMed

    Springer, W H

    1996-02-01

    An important principle of accounting is that asset inventory needs to be correctly valued to ensure that the financial statements of the institution are accurate. Errors is recording the value of ending inventory in one fiscal year result in errors to published financial statements for that year as well as the subsequent fiscal year. Therefore, it is important that accurate physical counts be periodically taken. It is equally important that any system being used to generate inventory valuation, reordering or management reports be based on consistently accurate on-hand balances. At the foundation of conducting an accurate physical count of an inventory is a comprehensive understanding of the process coupled with a written plan. This article presents a guideline of the physical count processes involved in a traditional double-count approach.

  1. Fungal role in post-fire ecosystem recovery in Sierra Nevada National Park (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bárcenas-Moreno, Gema; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Mataix-Beneyto, Jorge; Martín Sánchez, Ines

    2016-04-01

    Fire effect on soil microorganisms has been studies for decades in several ecosystems and different microbial response can be found in the bibliography depending on numerous intrinsic and extrinsic soil factors. These factors will determine preliminary soil microbial community composition, subsequent pos-fire initial colonizers and even post-fire growth media characteristics that microbial community will find to start recolonisation. Fire-induced soil bacterial proliferation is a common pattern found after fire, usually related to pH and C availability increased. But when original soil pH is not altered by fire in acid soils, microbial response can be different and fungal response can be crucial to ecosystem recovery. In this study we have compile data related to high mountain soil from Sierra Nevada National park which was affected by a wildfire in 2006 and data obtained by laboratory heating experiment, trying to elucidate the ecological role of fungi in this fragile ecosystem. On the one hand we can observe fire-induced fungal abundance proliferation estimated by plate count method 8 and 32 months after wildfire and even in a short-term (21 d) after laboratory heating at 300 °C. Six years after fire, fungal abundance was similar between samples collected in burnt and unburnt-control area but we found higher proportion of species capable to degrade PAHs (lacase activity) in burnt soil than I the unburnt one. This finding evidences the crucial role of fungal enzymatic capacities to detoxify burnt soils when fire-induced recalcitrant and even toxic carbon compounds could be partially limiting total ecosystem recovery.

  2. Patterned activity in stratum lacunosum moleculare inhibits CA1 pyramidal neuron firing.

    PubMed

    Dvorak-Carbone, H; Schuman, E M

    1999-12-01

    CA1 pyramidal cells are the primary output neurons of the hippocampus, carrying information about the result of hippocampal network processing to the subiculum and entorhinal cortex (EC) and thence out to the rest of the brain. The primary excitatory drive to the CA1 pyramidal cells comes via the Schaffer collateral (SC) projection from area CA3. There is also a direct projection from EC to stratum lacunosum-moleculare (SLM) of CA1, an input well positioned to modulate information flow through the hippocampus. High-frequency stimulation in SLM evokes an inhibition sufficiently strong to prevent CA1 pyramidal cells from spiking in response to SC input, a phenomenon we refer to as spike-blocking. We characterized the spike-blocking efficacy of burst stimulation (10 stimuli at 100 Hz) in SLM and found that it is greatest at approximately 300-600 ms after the burst, consistent with the time course of the slow GABA(B) signaling pathway. Spike-blocking efficacy increases in potency with the number of SLM stimuli in a burst, but also decreases with repeated presentations of SLM bursts. Spike-blocking was eliminated in the presence of GABA(B) antagonists. We have identified a candidate population of interneurons in SLM and distal stratum radiatum (SR) that may mediate this spike-blocking effect. We conclude that the output of CA1 pyramidal cells, and hence the hippocampus, is modulated in an input pattern-dependent manner by activation of the direct pathway from EC.

  3. Catastrophic Fires in Russian Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhinin, A. I.; McRae, D. J.; Stocks, B. J.; Conard, S. G.; Hao, W.; Soja, A. J.; Cahoon, D.

    2010-12-01

    We evaluated the contribution of catastrophic fires to the total burned area and the amount of tree mortality in Russia since the 1970’s. Such fires occurred in the central regions of European Russia (1972, 1976, 1989, 2002, 2010), Khabarovsk krai (1976, 1988, 1998), Amur region (1997-2002), Republics of Yakutia and Tuva (2002), Magadan and Kamchatka oblast (1984, 2001, 2010), and Irkutsk, Chita, Amur regions, Buryat, Agin national districts (2003, 2007-08). We define a catastrophic fire as a single high-severity fire that covers more than 10,000 ha and results in total consumption of the litter and humus layers and in high tree mortality, or the simultaneous occurrence of several high-severity fires in a given region with a total area exceeding 10,000 km2. Fires on this scale can cause substantial economic, social and environmental effects, with regional to global impacts. We hypothesize that there is a positive feedback between anticyclone growth and energy release from wildfires burning over large areas. Usually the first blocking anticyclone appears in June in Russia, bringing with it dry weather that increases fire hazard. The anticyclonic pattern has maximum activity in the end of July and disappears around the middle of August. When high fire activity occurs, the anticyclone may strengthen and develop a blocking character that prevents cyclonic patterns from moving into anticyclone-dominated areas, where the fire danger index may be more than six times the average maximum. The likelihood of uncontrolled fire situations developing increases greatly when the fire number and burned area exceed critical values as a function of conditions that favor high intensity fires. In such situations fire suppression by regional forest protection services becomes impossible and federal resources are required. If the appearance of a blocking anticyclone is forecast, active fire prevention and suppression of small fires (most of which appear to be human caused) is critical

  4. Counting Attribute Blocks: Constructing Meaning for the Multiplication Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Elliott

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity in which attribute blocks help middle school students understand the fundamental counting principle and the multiplication rule. Demonstrates how these materials can aid students in building a conceptual understanding of multiplication and the counting principle. (ASK)

  5. Neutron counting with cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Van Esch, Patrick; Crisanti, Marta; Mutti, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    A research project is presented in which we aim at counting individual neutrons with CCD-like cameras. We explore theoretically a technique that allows us to use imaging detectors as counting detectors at lower counting rates, and transits smoothly to continuous imaging at higher counting rates. As such, the hope is to combine the good background rejection properties of standard neutron counting detectors with the absence of dead time of integrating neutron imaging cameras as well as their very good spatial resolution. Compared to Xray detection, the essence of thermal neutron detection is the nuclear conversion reaction. The released energies involved are of the order of a few MeV, while X-ray detection releases energies of the order of the photon energy, which is in the 10 KeV range. Thanks to advances in camera technology which have resulted in increased quantum efficiency, lower noise, as well as increased frame rate up to 100 fps for CMOS-type cameras, this more than 100-fold higher available detection energy implies that the individual neutron detection light signal can be significantly above the noise level, as such allowing for discrimination and individual counting, which is hard to achieve with X-rays. The time scale of CMOS-type cameras doesn't allow one to consider time-of-flight measurements, but kinetic experiments in the 10 ms range are possible. The theory is next confronted to the first experimental results. (authors)

  6. Post-fire vegetation and fuel development influences fire severity patterns in reburns.

    PubMed

    Coppoletta, Michelle; Merriam, Kyle E; Collins, Brandon M

    2016-04-01

    In areas where fire regimes and forest structure have been dramatically altered, there is increasing concern that contemporary fires have the potential to set forests on a positive feedback trajectory with successive reburns, one in which extensive stand-replacing fire could promote more stand-replacing fire. Our study utilized an extensive set of field plots established following four fires that occurred between 2000 and 2010 in the northern Sierra Nevada, California, USA that were subsequently reburned in 2012. The information obtained from these field plots allowed for a unique set of analyses investigating the effect of vegetation, fuels, topography, fire weather, and forest management on reburn severity. We also examined the influence of initial fire severity and time since initial fire on influential predictors of reburn severity. Our results suggest that high- to moderate-severity fire in the initial fires led to an increase in standing snags and shrub vegetation, which in combination with severe fire weather promoted high-severity fire effects in the subsequent reburn. Although fire behavior is largely driven by weather, our study demonstrates that post-fire vegetation composition and structure are also important drivers of reburn severity. In the face of changing climatic regimes and increases in extreme fire weather, these results may provide managers with options to create more fire-resilient ecosystems. In areas where frequent high-severity fire is undesirable, management activities such as thinning, prescribed fire, or managed wildland fire can be used to moderate fire behavior not only prior to initial fires, but also before subsequent reburns.

  7. Mercury Removal with Activated Carbon in Coal-Fired Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapperport, J.; Sasmaz, E.; Wilcox, J.

    2010-12-01

    Coal is both the most abundant and the dirtiest combustible energy source on earth. In the United States, about half of the country’s electricity comes from coal combustion and the industry is rapidly expanding all over the world. Among many of coal’s flaws, its combustion annually produces roughly 50 tones in the U.S. and 5000 tons worldwide of mercury, a carcinogen and highly toxic pollutant. Certain sorbents and processes are used to try to limit the amount of mercury that reaches the atmosphere, a key aspect of reducing the energy source’s harmful environmental impact. This experiment’s goal is to discover what process occurs on a sorbent surface during mercury’s capture while also determining sorbent effectiveness. Bench-scale experiments are difficult to carry out since the focus of the experiment is to simulate mercury capture in a power plant flue gas stream, where mercury is in its elemental form. The process involves injecting air, elemental mercury and other components to simulate a coal exhaust environment, and then running the stream through a packed-bed reactor with an in-tact sorbent. While carrying out the reactor tests, the gas-phase is monitored for changes in mercury oxidation and following these gas-phase studies, the mercury-laden sorbent is analyzed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Conclusions that can be drawn thus far are that brominated activated carbon shows very high mercury capture and that mercury is found in its oxidized form on the surface of the sorbent. The speciation, or conclusions drawn on the process and bonding sites on the surface, cannot be determined at this point simply using the current spectroscopic analysis.

  8. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire... and is returned to service in a reasonable period of time. (b) Access routes for movement of...

  9. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire... and is returned to service in a reasonable period of time. (b) Access routes for movement of...

  10. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire... and is returned to service in a reasonable period of time. (b) Access routes for movement of...

  11. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire... and is returned to service in a reasonable period of time. (b) Access routes for movement of...

  12. The largest forest fires in Portugal: the constraints of burned area size on the comprehension of fire severity.

    PubMed

    Tedim, Fantina; Remelgado, Ruben; Martins, João; Carvalho, Salete

    2015-01-01

    Portugal is a European country with highest forest fires density and burned area. Since beginning of official forest fires database in 1980, an increase in number of fires and burned area as well as appearance of large and catastrophic fires have characterized fire activity in Portugal. In 1980s, the largest fires were just a little bit over 10,000 ha. However, in the beginning of 21st century several fires occurred with a burned area over 20,000 ha. Some of these events can be classified as mega-fires due to their ecological and socioeconomic severity. The present study aimed to discuss the characterization of large forest fires trend, in order to understand if the largest fires that occurred in Portugal were exceptional events or evidences of a new trend, and the constraints of fire size to characterize fire effects because, usually, it is assumed that larger the fire higher the damages. Using Portuguese forest fire database and satellite imagery, the present study showed that the largest fires could be seen at the same time as exceptional events and as evidence of a new fire regime. It highlighted the importance of size and patterns of unburned patches within fire perimeter as well as heterogeneity of fire ecological severity, usually not included in fire regime description, which are critical to fire management and research. The findings of this research can be used in forest risk reduction and suppression planning.

  13. Activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors enhances a slow calcium-dependent potassium conductance and reduces the firing of stratum oriens interneurons.

    PubMed

    Griguoli, Marilena; Scuri, Rossana; Ragozzino, Davide; Cherubini, Enrico

    2009-09-01

    A large variety of distinct locally connected GABAergic cells are present in the hippocampus. By releasing GABA into principal cells and interneurons, they exert a powerful control on neuronal excitability and are responsible for network oscillations crucial for information processing in the brain. Here, whole-cell patch clamp recordings in current and voltage clamp mode were used to study the functional role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on the firing properties of stratum oriens interneurons in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in a subpopulation of GABAergic cells containing somatostatin (GIN mice). Unexpectedly, activation of nAChRs by nicotine or endogenously released acetylcholine strongly enhanced spike frequency adaptation. This effect was blocked by apamin, suggesting the involvement of small calcium-dependent potassium channels (SK channels). Nicotine-induced reduction in firing frequency was dependent on intracellular calcium rise through calcium-permeable nAChRs and voltage-dependent calcium channels activated by the depolarizing action of nicotine. Calcium imaging experiments directly showed that nicotine effects on firing rate were correlated with large increases in intracellular calcium. Furthermore, blocking ryanodine receptors with ryanodine or sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase with thapsygargin or cyclopiazonic acid fully prevented the effects of nicotine, suggesting that mobilization of calcium from the internal stores contributed to the observed effects. By regulating cell firing, cholinergic signalling through nAChRs would be instrumental for fine-tuning the output of stratum oriens interneurons and correlated activity at the network level.

  14. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) and the Disease Activity Score using 28 joint counts (DAS28) in the management of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    van Riel, Piet L C M; Renskers, Lisanne

    2016-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), disease activity cannot be measured in all individual patients according to a single variable. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) and the DAS28 have been developed to measure disease activity in RA both in daily clinical practice as well as in clinical trials on a group as well as individual level. The DAS/DAS28 is a continuous measure of RA disease activity that combines information from swollen joints, tender joints, acute phase response and general health. The DAS-based EULAR response criteria were primarily developed to be used in clinical trials. The EULAR response criteria classify individual patients as non-, moderate, or good responders, dependent on the magnitude of change and level of disease activity reached. In addition, already in the early nineties, cut points were developed to categorise patients in remission. The DAS28 is incorporated in several electronic patient records and web-based systems for monitoring purposes in daily clinical practice. In addition to this, it is being used in combination with patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) to facilitate self-monitoring.

  15. Holocene climate change evidence from high-resolution loess/paleosol records and the linkage to fire-climate change-human activities in the Horqin dunefield in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Yan; Qin, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Bing

    2016-05-01

    The combination of high-resolution sedimentary paleoclimate proxies of total organic carbon and magnetic susceptibility of a loess/paleosol section with black carbon (BC) records provides us with information about climate change and the linkage of fire-climate change-vegetation-human activities in the Horqin dunefield over the past 11,600 cal yr BP. We found that during 11,600-8000 cal yr BP (the early Holocene), the area was dominated by a dry climate. The vegetation coverage was low, which limited the extent of fire. The Holocene optimum can be placed between 8000 and 3200 cal yr BP, and during this period, anthropogenic fire was a key component of total fire occurrence as the intensity of human activity increased. The development of agricultural activities and the growing population during this period increased the use of fire for cooking food and burning for cultivation and land fertilization purposes. During 2800-2600 cal yr BP, a warm/moister climate prevailed and was associated with a high degree of pedogenesis and vegetation cover density, evident at 2700 cal yr BP. Fires may have contributed to human survival by enabling the cooking of food in the warm and wet climate. In the period since 2000 cal yr BP, fires linked to agriculture may have led to increased biomass burning associated with agricultural activity.

  16. Cyber Warfare as an Operational Fire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-03

    This paper explores cyber warfare as an option for creating operational fires effects. Initially, cyberspace is defined and explained from the...fires are defined and the advantages of their use are explained. From there, discussion focuses on how cyber warfare fulfills the purposes of...operational fires. Finally, the paper draws conclusions about the viability of cyber warfare as an operational fire and makes recommendations about how to prioritize the activities of the newly approved U.S. Cyber Command.

  17. Activation of Ih and TTX-sensitive sodium current at subthreshold voltages during CA1 pyramidal neuron firing.

    PubMed

    Yamada-Hanff, Jason; Bean, Bruce P

    2015-10-01

    We used dynamic clamp and action potential clamp techniques to explore how currents carried by tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels and HCN channels (Ih) regulate the behavior of CA1 pyramidal neurons at resting and subthreshold voltages. Recording from rat CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices, we found that the apparent input resistance and membrane time constant were strongly affected by both conductances, with Ih acting to decrease apparent input resistance and time constant and sodium current acting to increase both. We found that both Ih and sodium current were active during subthreshold summation of artificial excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) generated by dynamic clamp, with Ih dominating at less depolarized voltages and sodium current at more depolarized voltages. Subthreshold sodium current-which amplifies EPSPs-was most effectively recruited by rapid voltage changes, while Ih-which blunts EPSPs-was maximal for slow voltage changes. The combined effect is to selectively amplify rapid EPSPs. We did similar experiments in mouse CA1 pyramidal neurons, doing voltage-clamp experiments using experimental records of action potential firing of CA1 neurons previously recorded in awake, behaving animals as command voltages to quantify flow of Ih and sodium current at subthreshold voltages. Subthreshold sodium current was larger and subthreshold Ih was smaller in mouse neurons than in rat neurons. Overall, the results show opposing effects of subthreshold sodium current and Ih in regulating subthreshold behavior of CA1 neurons, with subthreshold sodium current prominent in both rat and mouse CA1 pyramidal neurons and additional regulation by Ih in rat neurons.

  18. Activation of Ih and TTX-sensitive sodium current at subthreshold voltages during CA1 pyramidal neuron firing

    PubMed Central

    Yamada-Hanff, Jason

    2015-01-01

    We used dynamic clamp and action potential clamp techniques to explore how currents carried by tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels and HCN channels (Ih) regulate the behavior of CA1 pyramidal neurons at resting and subthreshold voltages. Recording from rat CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices, we found that the apparent input resistance and membrane time constant were strongly affected by both conductances, with Ih acting to decrease apparent input resistance and time constant and sodium current acting to increase both. We found that both Ih and sodium current were active during subthreshold summation of artificial excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) generated by dynamic clamp, with Ih dominating at less depolarized voltages and sodium current at more depolarized voltages. Subthreshold sodium current—which amplifies EPSPs—was most effectively recruited by rapid voltage changes, while Ih—which blunts EPSPs—was maximal for slow voltage changes. The combined effect is to selectively amplify rapid EPSPs. We did similar experiments in mouse CA1 pyramidal neurons, doing voltage-clamp experiments using experimental records of action potential firing of CA1 neurons previously recorded in awake, behaving animals as command voltages to quantify flow of Ih and sodium current at subthreshold voltages. Subthreshold sodium current was larger and subthreshold Ih was smaller in mouse neurons than in rat neurons. Overall, the results show opposing effects of subthreshold sodium current and Ih in regulating subthreshold behavior of CA1 neurons, with subthreshold sodium current prominent in both rat and mouse CA1 pyramidal neurons and additional regulation by Ih in rat neurons. PMID:26289465

  19. Insecticidal activity of Piper essential oils from the Amazon against the fire ant Solenopsis saevissima (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Souto, R N P; Harada, A Y; Andrade, E H A; Maia, J G S

    2012-12-01

    Pepper plants in the genus Piper (Piperales: Piperaceae) are common in the Brazilian Amazon and many produce compounds with biological activity against insect pests. We evaluated the insecticidal effect of essential oils from Piper aduncum, Piper marginatum (chemotypes A and B), Piper divaricatum and Piper callosum against workers of the fire ant Solenopsis saevissima (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), as well as their chemical composition by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The lowest median lethal concentration (LC50) in 48 h was obtained with the oil of P. aduncum (58.4 mg/L), followed by the oils of P. marginatum types A (122.4 mg/L) and B (167.0 mg/L), P. divaricatum (301.7 mg/L), and P. callosum (312.6 mg/L). The major chemical constituents were dillapiole (64.4%) in the oil of P. aduncum; p-mentha-1(7),8-diene (39.0%), 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone (19.0%), and (E)-β-ocimene (9.8%) in P. marginatum chemotype A and (E)-isoosmorhizole (32.2%), (E)-anethole (26.4%), isoosmorhizole (11.2%), and (Z)-anethole (6.0%) in P. marginatum chemotype B; methyleugenol (69.2%) and eugenol (16.2%) in P. divaricatum; and safrole (69.2%), methyleugenol (8.6%), and β-pinene (6.2%) in P. callosum. These chemical constituents have been previously known to possess insecticidal properties.

  20. Characterization of fire regime in Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacciu, V. M.; Salis, M.; Mastinu, S.; Masala, F.; Sirca, C.; Spano, D.

    2012-12-01

    a set of parametric and not parametric statistical tests were used to analyze the fire-weather relationships. Results showed a high inter- and intra-annual variability, also considering the different type of affected vegetation. As for other Mediterranean areas, a smaller number of large fires caused a high proportion of burned area. Land cover greatly influenced fire occurrence and fire size distribution across the landscape. Furthermore, fire activity (number of fires and area burned) showed significant correlations with weather variables, especially summer precipitation and wind, which seemed to drive the fire seasons and the fire propagation, respectively.

  1. Halon fire extinguishants

    SciTech Connect

    Tapscott, R.

    1991-12-31

    Concerns about depletion of stratospheric ozone has forced restrictions on the production and use of some of our most important chemicals -- the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halon. Halons, the subject of this paper, are used for fire extinguishment, inertion, and explosion suppression. Assessment of business opportunities with halon replacement agents must take into account three uncertainties: (1) future regulatory activities, (2) a decreasing market due to conversion to alternative fire protection approaches, and (3) the unsettle technologies. The alternative approaches that will reduce the market for halons and halon-like agents include new procedures, equipment, engineering, and alternative agents (carbon dioxide, water, foam, dry chemical).

  2. Alterations in hepatic mixed-function oxidase activity of rainbow trout after acute treatment with polybrominated biphenyl isomers and FireMaster BP-6.

    PubMed

    Franklin, R B; Vodicnik, M J; Elcombe, C R; Lech, J J

    1981-05-01

    The effects of FireMaster BP-6 and several pure isomers on hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase (MFO) activity in rainbow trout have been investigated. After one parenteral injection of these agents at 150 mg/kg and sacrifice 5 d later, there was no elevation of hepatic cytochrome P-450. The noncoplanar isomers 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexa and 2,3,4,5,2',4',5'-heptabromobiphenyl did not increase any MFO activity generally associated with an increase in cytochrome P-450 levels, including the dealkylations of ethoxycoumarin and benzphetamine. The coplanar isomer 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl produced an increase in O-deethylation of both ethoxycoumarin and ethoxyresorufin, suggesting enhancement of cytochrome P-448 associated activity, but produced no increase in benzphetamine N-dealkylation. The "mixed inducer" 2,4,5,3',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl, produced a small but insignificant elevation of cytochrome P-448 associated MFO activities and no increase in cytochrome P-450 associated activities. At both 150 and 500 mg/kg, the commercial mixture of polybrominated biphenyls FireMaster BP-6 produced marked elevations of both ethoxycoumarin and ethoxy-resorufin dealkylations but had no effect on demethylation of benzphetamine. When microsomes from rainbow trout treated with FireMaster BP-6 were examined electrophoretically, A coomassie Blue-staining band at 57,000 daltons was intensified, as seen after treatment of fish with the cytochrome P-448 inducer beta-naphthoflavone. It is concluded that coplanar polybrominated isomers produce an induction of hepatic cytochrome P-448 associated activity, while noncoplanar isomers are ineffective as inducers of cytochrome P-450 related MFO activities in rainbow trout.

  3. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, James E.

    1987-01-01

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  4. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, J.E.

    1985-03-05

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  5. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains... pump connected to a fixed piping system. This pump must be capable of delivering an effective stream...

  6. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps... be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire pump connected to a fixed piping system. (1)...

  7. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fire pump on a vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be capable of delivering water... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire...

  8. Oregon Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... (MISR). When the data were acquired, the Booth and Bear Butte Fires had been underway for 16 days and had consumed about 70,000 ... or other factors precluded a retrieval the map is colored black. The  animation  depicts a "multi-angle fly-over" of the plumes, ...

  9. Dalhousie Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Fred W.

    1986-01-01

    Describes steps taken by the Weldon Law Library at Dalhousie University in salvaging books damaged in a major fire, including procedures and processes used in packing, sorting, drying, and cleaning the books. The need for a disaster plan for specific libraries is emphasized, and some suggestions are made. (CDD)

  10. California Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... began August 26, 2009, in La Canada/Flintridge, not far from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The fire reportedly burned 105,000 acres (164 ... D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA ...

  11. Interpretation of galaxy counts

    SciTech Connect

    Tinsely, B.M.

    1980-10-01

    New models are presented for the interpretation of recent counts of galaxies to 24th magnitude, and predictions are shown to 28th magnitude for future comparison with data from the Space Telescope. The results supersede earlier, more schematic models by the author. Tyson and Jarvis found in their counts a ''local'' density enhancement at 17th magnitude, on comparison with the earlier models; the excess is no longer significant when a more realistic mixture of galaxy colors is used. Bruzual and Kron's conclusion that Kron's counts show evidence for evolution at faint magnitudes is confirmed, and it is predicted that some 23d magnitude galaxies have redshifts greater than unity. These may include spheroidal systems, elliptical galaxies, and the bulges of early-type spirals and S0's, seen during their primeval rapid star formation.

  12. Whose interests count?

    PubMed

    Brudney, Daniel; Lantos, John D

    2014-10-01

    Whose interests should count and how should various interests be balanced at the pediatric patient's bedside? The interests of the child patient clearly count. Recently, however, many authors have argued that the family's interests also count. But how should we think about the interests of others? What does it mean to talk about "the family" in this context? Does it really just mean the interests of each individual family member? Or is the family itself a moral entity that has interests of its own independent of the interests of each of its members? Are such interests important only as they affect the patient's interest or also for their own sake? In this special supplement to Pediatrics, a group of pediatricians, philosophers, and lawyers grapple with these questions. They examine these issues from different angles and reach different conclusions. Jointly, they demonstrate the ethical importance and, above all, the ethical complexity of the family's role at the bedside.

  13. New fire diurnal cycle characterizations to improve fire radiative energy assessments made from MODIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andela, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; van der Werf, G. R.; Wooster, M. J.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate near real time fire emissions estimates are required for air quality forecasts. To date, most approaches are based on satellite-derived estimates of fire radiative power (FRP), which can be converted to fire radiative energy (FRE) which is directly related to fire emissions. Uncertainties in these FRE estimates are often substantial. This is for a large part because the most often used low-Earth orbit satellite-based instruments such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have a relatively poor sampling of the usually pronounced fire diurnal cycle. In this paper we explore the spatial variation of this fire diurnal cycle and its drivers using data from the geostationary Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI). In addition, we sampled data from the SEVIRI instrument at MODIS detection opportunities to develop two approaches to estimate hourly FRE based on MODIS active fire detections. The first approach ignored the fire diurnal cycle, assuming persistent fire activity between two MODIS observations, while the second approach combined knowledge on the climatology of the fire diurnal cycle with active fire detections to estimate hourly FRE. The full SEVIRI time series, providing full coverage of the fire diurnal cycle, were used to evaluate the results. Our study period comprised of 3 years (2010-2012), and we focused on Africa and the Mediterranean basin to avoid the use of potentially lower quality SEVIRI data obtained at very far off-nadir view angles. We found that the fire diurnal cycle varies substantially over the study region, and depends on both fuel and weather conditions. For example, more "intense" fires characterized by a fire diurnal cycle with high peak fire activity, long duration over the day, and with nighttime fire activity are most common in areas of large fire size (i.e., large burned area per fire event). These areas are most prevalent in relatively arid regions. Ignoring the fire diurnal

  14. 5 CFR 551.215 - Fire protection activities and 7(k) coverage for FLSA pay and exemption determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., emergency medical technician, rescue worker, ambulance personnel, or hazardous materials worker) is... prevention, control, and extinguishment of fires or response to emergency situations where life, property, or the environment is at risk. (2) Subject to the requirements of paragraph (c)(1) of this section,...

  15. MODIS derived fire characteristics and aerosol optical depth variations during the agricultural residue burning season, north India.

    PubMed

    Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Ellicott, Evan; Badarinath, K V S; Vermote, Eric

    2011-06-01

    Agricultural residue burning is one of the major causes of greenhouse gas emissions and aerosols in the Indo-Ganges region. In this study, we characterize the fire intensity, seasonality, variability, fire radiative energy (FRE) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) variations during the agricultural residue burning season using MODIS data. Fire counts exhibited significant bi-modal activity, with peak occurrences during April-May and October-November corresponding to wheat and rice residue burning episodes. The FRE variations coincided with the amount of residues burnt. The mean AOD (2003-2008) was 0.60 with 0.87 (+1σ) and 0.32 (-1σ). The increased AOD during the winter coincided well with the fire counts during rice residue burning season. In contrast, the AOD-fire signal was weak during the summer wheat residue burning and attributed to dust and fossil fuel combustion. Our results highlight the need for 'full accounting of GHG's and aerosols', for addressing the air quality in the study area.

  16. Fire safety applications for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Olson, Sandra L.

    1989-01-01

    Fire safety for spacecraft is reviewed by first describing current practices, many of which are adapted directly from aircraft. Then, current analyses and experimental knowledge in low-gravity combustion, with implications for fire safety are discussed. In orbiting spacecraft, the detection and suppression of flames are strongly affected by the large reduction in buoyant flows under low gravity. Generally, combustion intensity is reduced in low gravity. There are some notable exceptions, however, one example being the strong enhancement of flames by low-velocity ventilation flows in space. Finally, the future requirements in fire safety, particularly the needs of long-duration space stations in fire prevention, detection, extinguishment, and atmospheric control are examined. The goal of spacecraft fire-safety investigations is the establishment of trade-offs that promote maximum safety without hampering the useful human and scientific activities in space.

  17. Seasonal forecasting of fire over Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spessa, A. C.; Field, R. D.; Pappenberger, F.; Langner, A.; Englhart, S.; Weber, U.; Stockdale, T.; Siegert, F.; Kaiser, J. W.; Moore, J.

    2015-03-01

    Large-scale fires occur frequently across Indonesia, particularly in the southern region of Kalimantan and eastern Sumatra. They have considerable impacts on carbon emissions, haze production, biodiversity, health, and economic activities. In this study, we demonstrate that severe fire and haze events in Indonesia can generally be predicted months in advance using predictions of seasonal rainfall from the ECMWF System 4 coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Based on analyses of long, up-to-date series observations on burnt area, rainfall, and tree cover, we demonstrate that fire activity is negatively correlated with rainfall and is positively associated with deforestation in Indonesia. There is a contrast between the southern region of Kalimantan (high fire activity, high tree cover loss, and strong non-linear correlation between observed rainfall and fire) and the central region of Kalimantan (low fire activity, low tree cover loss, and weak, non-linear correlation between observed rainfall and fire). The ECMWF seasonal forecast provides skilled forecasts of burnt and fire-affected area with several months lead time explaining at least 70% of the variance between rainfall and burnt and fire-affected area. Results are strongly influenced by El Niño years which show a consistent positive bias. Overall, our findings point to a high potential for using a more physical-based method for predicting fires with several months lead time in the tropics rather than one based on indexes only. We argue that seasonal precipitation forecasts should be central to Indonesia's evolving fire management policy.

  18. Fire Characterization and Fire-Related Land Cover Classification Using Hyperion Data over Selected Alaskan Boreal Forest Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waigl, C. F.; Prakash, A.; Stuefer, M.; Dennison, P. E.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, NIR and SWIR EO-1 Hyperion data acquired over two large Alaskan forest fires are used to detect active fires, map their immediate vicinity, and retrieve fire temperatures. The study sites are located in black spruce stands within the 2004 Boundary fire (215,000 ha total affected area) and the 2009 Wood River 1 fire (50,000 ha). Even though fires in the North American boreal forest ecosystem contribute greatly to global carbon cycling and large-scale air pollution, they have been less studied so far using satellite-borne imaging spectroscopy. We adapted the Hyperspectral Fire Detection Index (HFDI) so that it worked well for the high-latitude Hyperion data. This involved selecting suitable bands which best separated fire from non-fire pixels and averaging them to further improve the detection signal. Resulting fire detection maps compare favorably to uniform radiance thresholding of the Hyperion data and are consistent with fires detected on near-simultaneous Landsat 7 ETM+ data. Unsupervised classification of the vicinity of the active fire zones served to delineate 5 to 6 well separated classes: high- and low-intensity fire, various unburnt vegetation classes, recent fire scar, and a transitional zone ahead of the active fire front that shows evidence of fire impact but no emitted radiance component. Furthermore, MODTRAN5 was used for atmospheric correction to retrieve fire temperatures by modeling a mixture of emitted and reflected radiance signatures of the fire and background areas, respectively. As most of the carbon consumption and subsequent emissions in boreal forest fires stem from the combustion of dead plant material on the forest floor, estimates on fire intensities and high/low intensity burn areas provide valuable insight into the amount of carbon cycling in the system. Imaging spectroscopy can therefore contribute an important step forward in quantitative studies of boreal fires and their impacts. These techniques are set to advance

  19. High-resolution inventory of technologies, activities, and emissions of coal-fired power plants in China from 1990 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Zhang, Q.; Tong, D.; Zheng, B.; Li, M.; Huo, H.; He, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    This paper, which focuses on emissions from China's coal-fired power plants during 1990-2010, is the second in a series of papers that aims to develop a high-resolution emission inventory for China. This is the first time that emissions from China's coal-fired power plants were estimated at unit level for a 20-year period. This inventory is constructed from a unit-based database compiled in this study, named the China coal-fired Power plant Emissions Database (CPED), which includes detailed information on the technologies, activity data, operation situation, emission factors, and locations of individual units and supplements with aggregated data where unit-based information is not available. Between 1990 and 2010, compared to a 479 % growth in coal consumption, emissions from China's coal-fired power plants increased by 56, 335, and 442 % for SO2, NOx, and CO2, respectively, and decreased by 23 and 27 % for PM2.5 and PM10 respectively. Driven by the accelerated economic growth, large power plants were constructed throughout the country after 2000, resulting in a dramatic growth in emissions. The growth trend of emissions has been effectively curbed since 2005 due to strengthened emission control measures including the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems and the optimization of the generation fleet mix by promoting large units and decommissioning small ones. Compared to previous emission inventories, CPED significantly improved the spatial resolution and temporal profile of the power plant emission inventory in China by extensive use of underlying data at unit level. The new inventory developed in this study will enable a close examination of temporal and spatial variations of power plant emissions in China and will help to improve the performances of chemical transport models by providing more accurate emission data.

  20. High-resolution inventory of technologies, activities, and emissions of coal-fired power plants in China from 1990 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Zhang, Q.; Tong, D.; Zheng, B.; Li, M.; Huo, H.; He, K. B.

    2015-07-01

    This paper, which focuses on emissions from China's coal-fired power plants during 1990-2010, is the second in a series of papers that aims to develop high-resolution emission inventory for China. This is the first time that emissions from China's coal-fired power plants were estimated at unit level for a 20 year period. This inventory is constructed from a unit-based database compiled in this study, named the China coal-fired Power plant Emissions Database (CPED), which includes detailed information on the technologies, activity data, operation situation, emission factors, and locations of individual units and supplements with aggregated data where unit-based information is not available. Between 1990 and 2010, compared to a 479 % growth in coal consumption, emissions from China's coal-fired power plants increased by 56, 335 and 442 % for SO2, NOx and CO2, respectively, and decreased by 23 % for PM2.5. Driven by the accelerated economy growth, large power plants were constructed throughout the country after 2000, resulting in dramatic growth in emissions. Growth trend of emissions has been effective curbed since 2005 due to strengthened emission control measures including the installation of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems and the optimization of the generation fleet mix by promoting large units and decommissioning small ones. Compared to previous emission inventories, CPED significantly improved the spatial resolution and temporal profile of power plant emission inventory in China by extensive use of underlying data at unit level. The new inventory developed in this study will enable a close examination for temporal and spatial variations of power plant emissions in China and will help to improve the performances of chemical transport models by providing more accurate emission data.

  1. 45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When do educational expenditures count? 263.4... EXPENDITURES OF STATE AND FEDERAL TANF FUNDS What Rules Apply to a State's Maintenance of Effort? § 263.4 When do educational expenditures count? (a) Expenditures for educational activities or services count...

  2. Control of spontaneous firing patterns by the selective coupling of calcium currents to calcium-activated potassium currents in striatal cholinergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Joshua A; Wilson, Charles J

    2005-11-02

    The spontaneous firing patterns of striatal cholinergic interneurons are sculpted by potassium currents that give rise to prominent afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs). Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel currents contribute to action potential (AP) repolarization; small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel currents generate an apamin-sensitive medium AHP (mAHP) after each AP; and bursts of APs generate long-lasting slow AHPs (sAHPs) attributable to apamin-insensitive currents. Because all these currents are calcium dependent, we conducted voltage- and current-clamp whole-cell recordings while pharmacologically manipulating calcium channels of the plasma membrane and intracellular stores to determine what sources of calcium activate the currents underlying AP repolarization and the AHPs. The Cav2.2 (N-type) blocker omega-conotoxin GVIA (1 microM) was the only blocker that significantly reduced the mAHP, and it induced a transition to rhythmic bursting in one-third of the cells tested. Cav1 (L-type) blockers (10 microM dihydropyridines) were the only ones that significantly reduced the sAHP. When applied to cells induced to burst with apamin, dihydropyridines reduced the sAHPs and abolished bursting. Depletion of intracellular stores with 10 mM caffeine also significantly reduced the sAHP current and reversibly regularized firing. Application of 1 microM omega-conotoxin MVIIC (a Cav2.1/2.2 blocker) broadened APs but had a negligible effect on APs in cells in which BK channels were already blocked by submillimolar tetraethylammonium chloride, indicating that Cav2.1 (Q-type) channels provide the calcium to activate BK channels that repolarize the AP. Thus, calcium currents are selectively coupled to the calcium-dependent potassium currents underlying the AHPs, thereby creating mechanisms for control of the spontaneous firing patterns of these neurons.

  3. LOW ENERGY COUNTING CHAMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Hayes, P.M.

    1960-02-16

    A beta particle counter adapted to use an end window made of polyethylene terephthalate was designed. The extreme thinness of the film results in a correspondingly high transmission of incident low-energy beta particles by the window. As a consequence, the counting efficiency of the present counter is over 40% greater than counters using conventional mica end windows.

  4. WY Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

    This WY Kids Count brochure uses the metaphor of children's building blocks to present information on the current well-being of Wyoming children and to advocate enhancing the lives of young children. Each block (i.e., each develop the brochure) presents concerns in a separate area: (1) poverty, highlighting the number of children living in…

  5. What Counts as Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  6. Point counts of birds: what are we estimating?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    Point counts of birds are made for many reasons, including estimating local densities, determining population trends, assessing habitat preferences, and exploiting the activities of recreational birdwatchers. Problems arise unless there is a clear understanding of what point counts mean in terms of actual populations of birds. Criteria for conducting point counts depend strongly on the purposes to which they will be put. This paper provides a simple mathematical conceptualization of point counts and illustrates graphically some of the influences on them.

  7. FIRE Science Results 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdougal, David S. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    FIRE (First ISCCP Regional Experiment) is a U.S. cloud-radiation research program formed in 1984 to increase the basic understanding of cirrus and marine stratocumulus cloud systems, to develop realistic parameterizations for these systems, and to validate and improve ISCCP cloud product retrievals. Presentations of results culminating the first 5 years of FIRE research activities were highlighted. The 1986 Cirrus Intensive Field Observations (IFO), the 1987 Marine Stratocumulus IFO, the Extended Time Observations (ETO), and modeling activities are described. Collaborative efforts involving the comparison of multiple data sets, incorporation of data measurements into modeling activities, validation of ISCCP cloud parameters, and development of parameterization schemes for General Circulation Models (GCMs) are described.

  8. Wildland fire as a self-regulating mechanism: the role of previous burns and weather in limiting fire progression.

    PubMed

    Parks, Sean A; Holsinger, Lisa M; Miller, Carol; Nelson, Cara R

    2015-09-01

    Theory suggests that natural fire regimes can result in landscapes that are both self-regulating and resilient to fire. For example, because fires consume fuel, they may create barriers to the spread of future fires, thereby regulating fire size. Top-down controls such as weather, however, can weaken this effect. While empirical examples demonstrating this pattern-process feedback between vegetation and fire exist, they have been geographically limited or did not consider the influence of time between fires and weather. The availability of remotely sensed data identifying fire activity over the last four decades provides an opportunity to explicitly quantify-the ability of wildland fire to limit the progression of subsequent fire. Furthermore, advances in fire progression mapping now allow an evaluation of how daily weather as a top-down control modifies this effect. In this study, we evaluated the ability of wildland fire to create barriers that limit the spread of subsequent fire along a gradient representing time between fires in four large study areas in the western United States. Using fire progression maps in conjunction with weather station data, we also evaluated the influence of daily weather. Results indicate that wildland fire does limit subsequent fire spread in all four study areas, but this effect decays over time; wildland fire no longer limits subsequent fire spread 6-18 years after fire, depending on the study area. We also found that the ability of fire to regulate, subsequent fire progression was substantially reduced under extreme conditions compared to moderate weather conditions in all four study areas. This study increases understanding of the spatial feedbacks that can lead to self-regulating landscapes as well as the effects of top-down controls, such as weather, on these feedbacks. Our results will be useful to managers who seek to restore natural fire regimes or to exploit recent burns when managing fire.

  9. Atypical manifestation of progressive outer retinal necrosis in AIDS patient with CD4+ T-cell counts more than 100 cells/microL on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Vichitvejpaisal, Pornpattana; Reeponmahar, Somporn; Tantisiriwat, Woraphot

    2009-06-01

    Typical progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is an acute ocular infectious disease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with extremely low CD4+ T-cell counts. It is a form of the Varicella- zoster virus (VZV) infection. This destructive infection has an extremely rapid course that may lead to blindness in affected eyes within days or weeks. Attempts at its treatment have had limited success. We describe the case of a bilateral PORN in an AIDS patient with an initial CD4+ T-cell count >100 cells/microL that developed after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A 29-year-old Thai female initially diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1998, presented with bilaterally decreased visual acuity after initiating HAART two months earlier. Multiple yellowish spots appeared in the deep retina without evidence of intraocular inflammation or retinal vasculitis. Her CD4+ T-cell count was 127 cells/microL. She was diagnosed as having PORN based on clinical features and positive VZV in the aqueous humor and vitreous by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Despite combined treatment with intravenous acyclovir and intravitreous ganciclovir, the patient's visual acuity worsened with no light-perception in either eye. This case suggests that PORN should be included in the differential diagnosis of reduced visual acuity in AIDS patients initiating HAART with higher CD4+ T-cell counts. PORN may be a manifestation of the immune reconstitution syndrome.

  10. Unaltered Network Activity and Interneuronal Firing During Spontaneous Cortical Dynamics In Vivo in a Mouse Model of Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy of Infancy

    PubMed Central

    De Stasi, Angela Michela; Farisello, Pasqualina; Marcon, Iacopo; Cavallari, Stefano; Forli, Angelo; Vecchia, Dania; Losi, Gabriele; Mantegazza, Massimo; Panzeri, Stefano; Carmignoto, Giorgio; Bacci, Alberto; Fellin, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI) is associated with loss of function of the SCN1A gene encoding the NaV1.1 sodium channel isoform. Previous studies in Scn1a−/+ mice during the pre-epileptic period reported selective reduction in interneuron excitability and proposed this as the main pathological mechanism underlying SMEI. Yet, the functional consequences of this interneuronal dysfunction at the circuit level in vivo are unknown. Here, we investigated whether Scn1a−/+ mice showed alterations in cortical network function. We found that various forms of spontaneous network activity were similar in Scn1a−/+ during the pre-epileptic period compared with wild-type (WT) in vivo. Importantly, in brain slices from Scn1a−/+ mice, the excitability of parvalbumin (PV) and somatostatin (SST) interneurons was reduced, epileptiform activity propagated more rapidly, and complex synaptic changes were observed. However, in vivo, optogenetic reduction of firing in PV or SST cells in WT mice modified ongoing network activities, and juxtasomal recordings from identified PV and SST interneurons showed unaffected interneuronal firing during spontaneous cortical dynamics in Scn1a−/+ compared with WT. These results demonstrate that interneuronal hypoexcitability is not observed in Scn1a−/+ mice during spontaneous activities in vivo and suggest that additional mechanisms may contribute to homeostatic rearrangements and the pathogenesis of SMEI. PMID:26819275

  11. Fire Maintenance and Logistics Analysis (Fire Main)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    medical evacuation, (2) supply transportation, (3) fire / water bucket support, (4) troop movement, and (&) miscei~areojs. Tabi .1-1. shows the...operation. On average, for the 4-12 September fierce fire fighting period, 44 percent of the helicopters were used for fire / water bucket operations, 2P...the operation. As expected the largest percentage of the helicopters were used for fire / water bucket operations during both the fierce fire fighting

  12. Avian response to fire in pine–oak forests of Great Smoky Mountains National Park following decades of fire suppression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Eli T.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    Fire suppression in southern Appalachian pine–oak forests during the past century dramatically altered the bird community. Fire return intervals decreased, resulting in local extirpation or population declines of many bird species adapted to post-fire plant communities. Within Great Smoky Mountains National Park, declines have been strongest for birds inhabiting xeric pine–oak forests that depend on frequent fire. The buildup of fuels after decades of fire suppression led to changes in the 1996 Great Smoky Mountains Fire Management Plan. Although fire return intervals remain well below historic levels, management changes have helped increase the amount of fire within the park over the past 20 years, providing an opportunity to study patterns of fire severity, time since burn, and bird occurrence. We combined avian point counts in burned and unburned areas with remote sensing indices of fire severity to infer temporal changes in bird occurrence for up to 28 years following fire. Using hierarchical linear models that account for the possibility of a species presence at a site when no individuals are detected, we developed occurrence models for 24 species: 13 occurred more frequently in burned areas, 2 occurred less frequently, and 9 showed no significant difference between burned and unburned areas. Within burned areas, the top models for each species included fire severity, time since burn, or both, suggesting that fire influenced patterns of species occurrence for all 24 species. Our findings suggest that no single fire management strategy will suit all species. To capture peak occupancy for the entire bird community within xeric pine–oak forests, at least 3 fire regimes may be necessary; one applying frequent low severity fire, another using infrequent low severity fire, and a third using infrequently applied high severity fire.

  13. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment - April 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, J.S.

    2003-04-30

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  14. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, John S

    2003-04-01

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  15. Cool echidnas survive the fire.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Julia; Cooper, Christine Elizabeth; Geiser, Fritz

    2016-04-13

    Fires have occurred throughout history, including those associated with the meteoroid impact at the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K-Pg) boundary that eliminated many vertebrate species. To evaluate the recent hypothesis that the survival of the K-Pg fires by ancestral mammals was dependent on their ability to use energy-conserving torpor, we studied body temperature fluctuations and activity of an egg-laying mammal, the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), often considered to be a 'living fossil', before, during and after a prescribed burn. All but one study animal survived the fire in the prescribed burn area and echidnas remained inactive during the day(s) following the fire and substantially reduced body temperature during bouts of torpor. For weeks after the fire, all individuals remained in their original territories and compensated for changes in their habitat with a decrease in mean body temperature and activity. Our data suggest that heterothermy enables mammals to outlast the conditions during and after a fire by reducing energy expenditure, permitting periods of extended inactivity. Therefore, torpor facilitates survival in a fire-scorched landscape and consequently may have been of functional significance for mammalian survival at the K-Pg boundary.

  16. Effects of fire on major forest ecosystem processes: an overview.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong

    2006-09-01

    Fire and fire ecology are among the best-studied topics in contemporary ecosystem ecology. The large body of existing literature on fire and fire ecology indicates an urgent need to synthesize the information on the pattern of fire effects on ecosystem composition, structure, and functions for application in fire and ecosystem management. Understanding fire effects and underlying principles are critical to reduce the risk of uncharacteristic wildfires and for proper use of fire as an effective management tool toward management goals. This overview is a synthesis of current knowledge on major effects of fire on fire-prone ecosystems, particularly those in the boreal and temperate regions of the North America. Four closely related ecosystem processes in vegetation dynamics, nutrient cycling, soil and belowground process and water relations were discussed with emphases on fire as the driving force. Clearly, fire can shape ecosystem composition, structure and functions by selecting fire adapted species and removing other susceptible species, releasing nutrients from the biomass and improving nutrient cycling, affecting soil properties through changing soil microbial activities and water relations, and creating heterogeneous mosaics, which in turn, can further influence fire behavior and ecological processes. Fire as a destructive force can rapidly consume large amount of biomass and cause negative impacts such as post-fire soil erosion and water runoff, and air pollution; however, as a constructive force fire is also responsible for maintaining the health and perpetuity of certain fire-dependent ecosystems. Considering the unique ecological roles of fire in mediating and regulating ecosystems, fire should be incorporated as an integral component of ecosystems and management. However, the effects of fire on an ecosystem depend on the fire regime, vegetation type, climate, physical environments, and the scale of time and space of assessment. More ecosystem

  17. Vegetation fires and air pollution in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Thanh Ha; Thanh Nguyen, Thi Nhat; Lasko, Kristofer; Ilavajhala, Shriram; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Justice, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires are a significant source of air pollution in Asia. In this study, we integrate satellite remote sensing data and ground-based measurements to infer fire-air pollution relationships in selected regions of Vietnam. We first characterized the active fires and burnt areas at a regional scale from MODIS satellite data. We then used satellite-derived active fire data to correlate the resulting atmospheric pollution. Further, we analyzed the relationship between satellite atmospheric variables and ground-based air pollutant parameters. Our results show peak fire activity during March in Vietnam, with hotspots in the Northwest and Central Highlands. Active fires were significantly correlated with UV Aerosol Index (UVAI), aerosol extinction absorption optical depth (AAOD), and Carbon Monoxide. The use of satellite aerosol optical thickness improved the prediction of Particulate Matter (PM) concentration significantly.

  18. The Watt Count System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Watt Count System combines aerospace and computer technology, an engineering systems design approach and the environmental control expertise of a group of engineers who worked on Apollo. First step of the system is a computerized energy consumption analysis based on plans for a new home. Company calculates heating and cooling loads and customizes the most energy efficient system for the particular structure analyzed. A quality control engineer assures that insulation and ducting are installed to specifications. Analysis and design techniques are so accurate that company is able to give homeowner a two-year guarantee that the home's energy consumption will not exceed the kilowatt hour level determined by the computer in step one. In an annual energy performance comparison, a Watt Count home used 45 percent less energy than a conventionally equipped home.

  19. Prostaglandin E2 release from astrocytes triggers gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron firing via EP2 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Clasadonte, Jerome; Poulain, Pierre; Hanchate, Naresh K; Corfas, Gabriel; Ojeda, Sergio R; Prevot, Vincent

    2011-09-20

    Astrocytes in the hypothalamus release prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in response to cell-cell signaling initiated by neurons and glial cells. Upon release, PGE(2) stimulates the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the neuropeptide that controls reproduction, from hypothalamic neuroendocrine neurons. Whether this effect on GnRH secretion is accompanied by changes in the firing behavior of these neurons is unknown. Using patch-clamp recording we demonstrate that PGE(2) exerts a dose-dependent postsynaptic excitatory effect on GnRH neurons. These effects are mimicked by an EP2 receptor agonist and attenuated by protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors. The acute blockade of prostaglandin synthesis by indomethacin (INDO) or the selective inhibition of astrocyte metabolism by fluoroacetate (FA) suppresses the spontaneous firing activity of GnRH neurons in brain slices. Similarly, GnRH neuronal activity is reduced in mice with impaired astrocytic PGE(2) release due to defective erbB signaling in astrocytes. These results indicate that astrocyte-to-neuron communication in the hypothalamus is essential for the activity of GnRH neurons and suggest that PGE(2) acts as a gliotransmitter within the GnRH neurosecretory system.

  20. Controls on variations in MODIS fire radiative power in Alaskan boreal forests: implications for fire severity conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, Kirsten; Kasischke, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    Fire activity in the Alaskan boreal forest, though episodic at annual and intra-annual time scales, has experienced an increase over the last several decades. Increases in burned area and fire severity are not only releasing more carbon to the atmosphere, but likely shifting vegetation composition in the region towards greater deciduous dominance and a reduction in coniferous stands. While some recent studies have addressed qualitative differences between large and small fire years in the Alaskan boreal forest, the ecological effects of a greater proportion of burning occurring during large fire years and during late season fires have not yet been examined. Some characteristics of wildfires that can be detected remotely are related to fire severity and can provide new information on spatial and temporal patterns of burning. This analysis focused on boreal wildfire intensity (fire radiative power, or FRP) contained in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily active fire product from 2003 to 2010. We found that differences in FRP resulted from seasonality and intra-annual variability in fire activity levels, vegetation composition, latitudinal variation, and fire spread behavior. Our studies determined two general categories of active fire detections: new detections associated with the spread of the fire front and residual pixels in areas that had already experienced front burning. Residual pixels had a lower average FRP than front pixels, but represented a high percentage of all pixels during periods of high fire activity (large fire years, late season burning, and seasonal periods of high fire activity). As a result, the FRP from periods of high fire activity was less intense than those from periods of low fire activity. Differences related to latitude were greater than expected, with higher latitudes burning later in the season and at a higher intensity than lower latitudes. Differences in vegetation type indicate that coniferous vegetation

  1. Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires

    DOEpatents

    Buttrey, K.E.

    1980-12-19

    Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

  2. Fire Safety Training Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Dept. of Fire and Rescue Services, Rockville, MD. Div. of Fire Prevention.

    Designed for a community fire education effort, particularly in which local volunteers present general information on fire safety to their fellow citizens, this workbook contains nine lessons. Included are an overview of the household fire problem; instruction in basic chemistry and physics of fire, flammable liquids, portable fire extinguishers,…

  3. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

  4. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... water from a hose connected to the highest outlet. The minimum capacity of the power fire pump shall be 50 gallons per minute at a pressure of not less than 60 pounds per square inch at the pump outlet. (1... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire...

  5. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... water from a hose connected to the highest outlet. The minimum capacity of the power fire pump shall be 50 gallons per minute at a pressure of not less than 60 pounds per square inch at the pump outlet. (1... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire...

  6. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... water from a hose connected to the highest outlet. The minimum capacity of the power fire pump shall be 50 gallons per minute at a pressure of not less than 60 pounds per square inch at the pump outlet. (1... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire...

  7. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... water from a hose connected to the highest outlet. The minimum capacity of the power fire pump shall be 50 gallons per minute at a pressure of not less than 60 pounds per square inch at the pump outlet. (1... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire...

  8. Fire Protection for Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  9. Control of Spontaneous Firing Patterns by the Selective Coupling of Calcium Currents to Calcium Activated Potassium Currents in Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Joshua A.; Wilson, Charles J.

    2005-01-01

    The spontaneous firing patterns of striatal cholinergic interneurons are sculpted by potassium currents that give rise to prominent afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs): BK currents contribute to action potential (AP) repolarization; SK currents generate an apamin-sensitive medium AHP (mAHP) following each AP; and bursts of APs generate long-lasting slow AHPs (sAHPs) due to apamin-insensitive currents. As all these currents are calcium-dependent, we conducted voltage- and current-clamp whole-cell recordings while pharmacologically manipulating calcium channels of the plasma membrane and intracellular stores to determine what sources of calcium activate the currents underlying AP repolarization and the AHPs. The Cav2.2 (N type) blocker, omega-conotoxin GVIA (1 μM), was the only blocker that significantly reduced the mAHP, and it induced a transition to rhythmic bursting in a third of the cells tested. Cav1 (L type) blockers (10 μM dihydropyridines) were the only ones that significantly reduced the sAHP. When applied to cells induced to burst with apamin, dihydropyridines reduced the sAHPs and abolished bursting. Depletion of intracellular stores with 10 mM caffeine also significantly reduced the sAHP current, and reversibly regularized firing. Application of 1 μM omega-conotoxin MVIIC (a Cav2.1/2.2 blocker) broadened APs, but had a negligible effect on APs in cells whose BK channels were already blocked by submillimolar tetraethylammonium chloride, indicating that Cav2.1 (Q type) channels provide the calcium to activate BK channels that repolarize the AP. Thus, calcium currents are selectively coupled to the calcium-dependent potassium currents underlying the AHPs thereby creating mechanisms for control of these neurons’ spontaneous firing patterns. PMID:16267230

  10. Smoke Extracts and Nicotine, but not Tobacco Extracts, Potentiate Firing and Burst Activity of Ventral Tegmental Area Dopaminergic Neurons in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Fabio; Arib, Ouafa; Morel, Carole; Dufresne, Virginie; Maskos, Uwe; Corringer, Pierre-Jean; de Beaurepaire, Renaud; Faure, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Nicotine prominently mediates the behavioral effects of tobacco consumption, either through smoking or when taking tobacco by snuff or chew. However, many studies question the exclusive role of nicotine in these effects. The use of preparations containing all the components of tobacco, such as tobacco and smoke extracts, may be more suitable than nicotine alone to investigate the behavioral effects of smoking and tobacco intake. In the present study, the electrophysiological effects of tobacco and smoke on ventral tegmental area dopaminergic (DA) neurons were examined in vivo in anesthetized wild-type (WT), β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) knockout (β2−/−), α4−/−, and α6−/− mice and compared with those of nicotine alone. In WT mice, smoke and nicotine had similar potentiating effects on DA cell activity, but the action of tobacco on neuronal firing was weak and often inhibitory. In particular, nicotine triggered strong bursting activity, whereas no bursting activity was observed after tobacco extract (ToE) administration. In β2−/− mice, nicotine or extract elicited no modification of the firing patterns of DA cells, indicating that extract acts predominantly through nAChRs. The differences between DA cell activation profiles induced by tobacco and nicotine alone observed in WT persisted in α6−/− mice but not in α4−/− mice. These results would suggest that tobacco has lower addiction-generating properties compared with either nicotine alone or smoke. The weak activation and prominent inhibition obtained with ToEs suggest that tobacco contains compounds that counteract some of the activating effects of nicotine and promote inhibition on DA cell acting through α4β2*-nAChRs. The nature of these compounds remains to be elucidated. It nevertheless confirms that nicotine is the main substance involved in the tobacco addiction-related activation of mesolimbic DA neurons. PMID:21716264

  11. TRMM Fire Algorithm, Product and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ji, Yi-Min; Stocker, Erich

    2003-01-01

    Land fires are frequent menaces to human lives and property. They also change the state of the vegetation and contribute to the climate forcing by releasing large amount of aerosols and greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. This paper summarizes methodologies of detecting global land fires from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible Infrared Scanner FIRS) measurements. The TRMM Science Data and Information System (TSDIS) fire products include global images of daily hot spots and monthly fire counts at 0.5 deg. x 0.5 deg. resolution, as well as text fiies that details necessary information of all fire pixels. The information includes date, orbit number, pixel number, local time, solar zenith angle, latitude, longitude, reflectance of visible/near infrared channels, brightness temperatures of infrared channels, as well as background brightness temperatures of infrared channels. These products have been archived since January 1998. The TSDIS fire products are compared with the coincidental European Commission (EC) Joint Research Center (JRC) 1 km AVHRR fire products. Analyses of the TSDIS monthly fire products during the period from 1998 to 2003 manifested seasonal cycles of biomass fires over Southeast Asia, Africa, North America and South America. The data also showed interannual variations associated with the 98/99 ENS0 cycle in Central America and the Indonesian region. In order to understand the variability of global land fires and their effects on the distribution of atmospheric aerosols, statistical methods were applied to the TSDIS fire products as well as to the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index products for a period of five years from January 1998 to December 2002. The variability of global atmospheric aerosol is consistent with the fire variations over these regions during this period. The correlation between fire count and TOMS aerosol index is about 0.55 for fire pixels in Southeast Asia, Indonesia, and Africa. Parallel

  12. Combining satellite-based fire observations and ground-based lightning detections to identify lightning fires across the conterminous USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bar-Massada, A.; Hawbaker, T.J.; Stewart, S.I.; Radeloff, V.C.

    2012-01-01

    Lightning fires are a common natural disturbance in North America, and account for the largest proportion of the area burned by wildfires each year. Yet, the spatiotemporal patterns of lightning fires in the conterminous US are not well understood due to limitations of existing fire databases. Our goal here was to develop and test an algorithm that combined MODIS fire detections with lightning detections from the National Lightning Detection Network to identify lightning fires across the conterminous US from 2000 to 2008. The algorithm searches for spatiotemporal conjunctions of MODIS fire clusters and NLDN detected lightning strikes, given a spatiotemporal lag between lightning strike and fire ignition. The algorithm revealed distinctive spatial patterns of lightning fires in the conterminous US While a sensitivity analysis revealed that the algorithm is highly sensitive to the two thresholds that are used to determine conjunction, the density of fires it detected was moderately correlated with ground based fire records. When only fires larger than 0.4 km2 were considered, correlations were higher and the root-mean-square error between datasets was less than five fires per 625 km2 for the entire study period. Our algorithm is thus suitable for detecting broad scale spatial patterns of lightning fire occurrence, and especially lightning fire hotspots, but has limited detection capability of smaller fires because these cannot be consistently detected by MODIS. These results may enhance our understanding of large scale patterns of lightning fire activity, and can be used to identify the broad scale factors controlling fire occurrence.

  13. Climate change and forest fires.

    PubMed

    Flannigan, M D; Stocks, B J; Wotton, B M

    2000-11-15

    This paper addresses the impacts of climate change on forest fires and describes how this, in turn, will impact on the forests of the United States. In addition to reviewing existing studies on climate change and forest fires we have used two transient general circulation models (GCMs), namely the Hadley Centre and the Canadian GCMs, to estimate fire season severity in the middle of the next century. Ratios of 2 x CO2 seasonal severity rating (SSR) over present day SSR were calculated for the means and maximums for North America. The results suggest that the SSR will increase by 10-50% over most of North America; although, there are regions of little change or where the SSR may decrease by the middle of the next century. Increased SSRs should translate into increased forest fire activity. Thus, forest fires could be viewed as an agent of change for US forests as the fire regime will respond rapidly to climate warming. This change in the fire regime has the potential to overshadow the direct effects of climate change on species distribution and migration.

  14. Digital coincidence counting - initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, K. S. A.; Watt, G. C.; Alexiev, D.; van der Gaast, H.; Davies, J.; Mo, Li; Wyllie, H. A.; Keightley, J. D.; Smith, D.; Woods, M. J.

    2000-08-01

    Digital Coincidence Counting (DCC) is a new technique in radiation metrology, based on the older method of analogue coincidence counting. It has been developed by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), in collaboration with the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) of the United Kingdom, as a faster more reliable means of determining the activity of ionising radiation samples. The technique employs a dual channel analogue-to-digital converter acquisition system for collecting pulse information from a 4π beta detector and an NaI(Tl) gamma detector. The digitised pulse information is stored on a high-speed hard disk and timing information for both channels is also stored. The data may subsequently be recalled and analysed using software-based algorithms. In this letter we describe some recent results obtained with the new acquistion hardware being tested at ANSTO. The system is fully operational and is now in routine use. Results for 60Co and 22Na radiation activity calibrations are presented, initial results with 153Sm are also briefly mentioned.

  15. Increased dopamine D2 receptor activity in the striatum alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area

    PubMed Central

    Krabbe, Sabine; Duda, Johanna; Schiemann, Julia; Poetschke, Christina; Schneider, Gaby; Kandel, Eric R.; Liss, Birgit; Roeper, Jochen; Simpson, Eleanor H.

    2015-01-01

    There is strong evidence that the core deficits of schizophrenia result from dysfunction of the dopamine (DA) system, but details of this dysfunction remain unclear. We previously reported a model of transgenic mice that selectively and reversibly overexpress DA D2 receptors (D2Rs) in the striatum (D2R-OE mice). D2R-OE mice display deficits in cognition and motivation that are strikingly similar to the deficits in cognition and motivation observed in patients with schizophrenia. Here, we show that in vivo, both the firing rate (tonic activity) and burst firing (phasic activity) of identified midbrain DA neurons are impaired in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), but not in the substantia nigra (SN), of D2R-OE mice. Normalizing striatal D2R activity by switching off the transgene in adulthood recovered the reduction in tonic activity of VTA DA neurons, which is concordant with the rescue in motivation that we previously reported in our model. On the other hand, the reduction in burst activity was not rescued, which may be reflected in the observed persistence of cognitive deficits in D2R-OE mice. We have identified a potential molecular mechanism for the altered activity of DA VTA neurons in D2R-OE mice: a reduction in the expression of distinct NMDA receptor subunits selectively in identified mesolimbic DA VTA, but not nigrostriatal DA SN, neurons. These results suggest that functional deficits relevant for schizophrenia symptoms may involve differential regulation of selective DA pathways. PMID:25675529

  16. Holocene fire dynamics in Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clear, Jennifer; Seppa, Heikki; Kuosmanen, Niina; Molinari, Chiara; Lehsten, Veiko; Allen, Katherine; Bradshaw, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Prescribed burning is advocated in Fennoscandia to promote regeneration and to encourage biodiversity. This method of forest management is based on the perception that fire was much more frequent in the recent past and over a century of active fire suppression has created a boreal forest ecosystem almost free of natural fire. The absence of fire is thought to have contributed to the widespread dominance of Picea abies (Norway spruce) with the successive spruce dominated forest further reducing fire ignition potential. However, humans have altered the natural fire dynamics of Fennoscandia since the early- to mid-Holocene and disentangling the anthropogenic driven fire dynamics from the natural fire dynamics is challenging. Through palaeoecology and sedimentary charcoal deposits we are able to explore the Holocene spatial and temporal variability and changing drivers of fire and vegetation dynamics in Fennoscandia. At the local-scale, two forest hollow environments (<20km apart) were analysed for high resolution macroscopic charcoal and pollen analysis and their fire and vegetation history are compared to identify unique and mutual changes in disturbance history. Pollen derived quantitative reconstruction of vegetation at both the local- and regional-scale identifies local-scale disturbance dynamics and large-scale ecosystem response. Spatio-temporal heterogeneity and variability in biomass burning is explored throughout Fennoscandia and Denmark to identify the changing drives of fire dynamics throughout the Holocene. Palaeo-vegetation reconstructions are compared to process-based, climate driven dynamic vegetation model output to test the significance of fire frequency as a driver of vegetation composition and dynamics. Early-Holocene fire regimes in Fennoscandia are driven by natural climate variations and fuel availability. The establishment and spread of Norway spruce is driven by an increase in continentality of climate, but local natural and anthropogenic

  17. Fire safety at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... over the smoke alarm as needed. Using a fire extinguisher can put out a small fire to keep it from getting out of control. Tips for use include: Keep fire extinguishers in handy locations, at least one on ...

  18. FIRE Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-13

    ... a series of field missions which have collected cirrus and marine stratocumulus cloud parameters from aircraft, satellite and ... FIRE I - Cirrus Home Page FIRE I - Marine Stratocumulus Home Page FIRE I - Extended Time Observations ...

  19. Home Fires Involving Grills

    MedlinePlus

    ... fires were fueled by gas while 13% used charcoal or other solid fuel. Gas grills were involved ... structure fires and 4,300 outdoor fires annually. Charcoal or other solid-fueled grills were involved in ...

  20. Fire Patterns and Drivers of Fires in the West African Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwomoh, F. K.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The West African tropical forest (referred to as the Upper Guinean forest, UGF), is a global biodiversity hotspot providing vital ecosystem services for the region's socio-economic and environmental wellbeing. It is also one of the most fragmented and human-modified tropical forest ecosystems, with the only remaining large patches of original forests contained in protected areas. However, these remnant forests are susceptible to continued fire-mediated degradation and forest loss due to intense climatic, demographic and land use pressures. We analyzed human and climatic drivers of fire activity in the sub-region to better understand the spatial and temporal patterns of these risks. We utilized MODIS active fire and burned area products to identify fire activity within the sub-region. We measured climatic variability using TRMM rainfall data and derived indicators of human land use from a variety of geospatial datasets. We used a boosted regression trees model to determine the influences of predictor variables on fire activity. Our analyses indicated that the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation is a key driving factor of fire activity in the UGF. Anthropogenic effects on fire activity in the area were evident through the influences of agriculture and low-density populations. These human footprints in the landscape make forests more susceptible to fires through forest fragmentation, degradation, and fire spread from agricultural areas. Forested protected areas within the forest savanna mosaic experienced frequent fires, whereas the more humid forest areas located in the south and south-western portions of the study area had fewer fires as these rainforests tend to offer some buffering against fire encroachment. These results improve characterization of UGF fire regime and expand our understanding of the spatio-temporal dynamics of tropical forest fires in response to human and climatic pressures.

  1. Large fire emissions in summer over the southeastern US: Satellite measurements and modeling analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Tao; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Yuhang

    2016-02-01

    We apply satellite fire detection products and air quality modeling to study the contribution of fire emissions to ambient aerosol concentrations over the southeastern U.S. We find that satellite MODIS fire counts show more extensive summer burnings than suggested by the bottom-up fire inventory VISTAS in the summer of 2002. We develop a hybrid emission inventory that combines information from satellite fire counts and the bottom-up inventory by scaling the data of top-down fire count in the other months with its ratio to the bottom-up burned area data in March, the month of most prescribed burning in the Southeast in 2002. Such computed burned areas in summer are higher than the bottom-up inventory in summer; the increase of fire emissions is spatially allocated over satellite observed fire pixels based on the spatial distribution of fuel loading. We show that the updated fire emission inventory leads to notably improved CMAQ model performance of OC, EC and PM2.5, in the Southeast on a regional basis, with reduced model low bias in the summer and better agreement with the observed seasonality. Our study suggests that missing fire emissions in bottom-up inventories can partially explain the underestimated concentrations of PM2.5, OC and EC in the Southeast and demonstrates that satellite fire detection can help improve our understanding of fire emissions and their impact on air quality.

  2. Sweat Farm Road Fire in Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Dense plumes of blue-white smoke billowed from the Sweat Farm Road Fire in southern Georgia on April 19, 2007, when the Landsat 5 satellite captured this detailed image. The fire started on April 16, when a tree fell on a power line and, fanned by strong winds, quickly exploded into a major fire. By April 19, the fire had forced officials to close several roads, including U.S. Highway 1, and to evacuate hundreds of people from the perimeter of the city of Waycross, the silver cluster along the top edge of the image. The nearness of the fire is evident in the dark brown, charred land just south of the city. The active fire front is along the south edge of the burned area, where the flames are eating into the dark green hardwood forests, pine plantations, and shrubs in Okefenokee Swamp. Because of the difficult terrain, the fire and the adjoining Big Turnaround Complex fire are expected to burn until significant rain falls, said the morning report issued by the Southern Area Coordination Center on May 4. 'In the long term, the burning of the swamp will ultimately benefit the swamp wilderness habitat, which is a fire-dependent ecosystem,' said a press release issued from the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge on May 4. Such ecosystems require fire to remain healthy. In the case of southern pine forests, many pine species need fire to remove litter from the ground and release soil nutrients so that new seedlings can grow.

  3. High Red Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  4. Fire modeling of the Heiss Dampf Reaktor containment

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolette, V.F.; Yang, K.T.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes Sandia National Laboratories` participation in the fire modeling activities for the German Heiss Dampf Reaktor (HDR) containment building, under the sponsorship of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this report is twofold: (1) to summarize Sandia`s participation in the HDR fire modeling efforts and (2) to summarize the results of the international fire modeling community involved in modeling the HDR fire tests. Additional comments, on the state of fire modeling and trends in the international fire modeling community are also included. It is noted that, although the trend internationally in fire modeling is toward the development of the more complex fire field models, each type of fire model has something to contribute to the understanding of fires in nuclear power plants.

  5. Fatty Amines from Little Black Ants, Monomorium minimum, and Their Biological Activities Against Red Imported Fire Ants, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, are significant invasive pests. Certain native ant species can compete with S. invicta, such as the little black ant, Monomorium minimum. Defensive secretions may contribute to the competition capacity of native ants. The chemistry of ant defensive secretions in the genus Monomorium has been subjected to extensive research. The insecticidal alkaloids, 2,5-dialkyl-pyrrolidines and 2,5-dialkyl-pyrrolines have been reported to dominate the venom of M. minimum. In this study, analysis of defensive secretions of workers and queens of M. minimum revealed two primary amines, decylamine and dodecylamine. Neither amine has been reported previously from natural sources. Toxicity and digging suppression by these two amines against S. invicta were examined. Decylamine had higher toxicity to S. invicta workers than dodecylamine, a quicker knockdown effect, and suppressed the digging behavior of S. invicta workers at lower concentration. However, the amount of fatty amines in an individual ant was not enough to knockdown a fire ant or suppress its digging behavior. These amines most likely work in concert with other components in the chemical defense of M. minimum.

  6. Modeling CD4+ cell count increase over a six-year period in HIV-1-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy in Senegal.

    PubMed

    De Beaudrap, Pierre; Etard, Jean-François; Diouf, Assane; Ndiaye, Ibrahima; Guèye, Ndèye Fatou; Guèye, Pape Mandoumbé; Sow, Papa Salif; Mboup, Souleymane; Ndoye, Ibra; Ecochard, René; Eric, Delaporte

    2009-06-01

    To assess the extents and determinants of long-term CD4 cell increases after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), changes in CD4 cell counts were analyzed in a cohort of HIV-1-infected Senegalese using a mixed-effects model. After a median follow-up of 54 months, an average of 483 CD4 cells/mm3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 331; 680) was reached. The average asymptote level was approximately 421 cells/mm3 (95% CI = 390; 454) in patients with < 200 cells/mm3 at baseline and approximately 500 cells/mm3 in patients with > 200 cells/mm3. The independent predictors of long-term CD4 cell reconstitution were the baseline CD4 cell count and the monthly average viral load over the entire follow-up. This good long-term immune reconstitution, optimal in subjects with low average viral loads and > 200 CD4 cells/mm3 at baseline, argues in favor of the earliest possible access to ART and underlines the importance of strict compliance with the treatment.

  7. Biscuit Fire, OR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In southwest Oregon, the Biscuit Fire continues to grow. This image, acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on August 14, 2002, shows the pillars of smoke arising from the fires. Active fire areas are in red. More than 6,000 fire personnel are assigned to the Biscuit Fire alone, which was 390,276 acres as of Thursday morning, August 15, and only 26 percent contained. Among the resources threatened are thousands of homes, three nationally designated wild and scenic rivers, and habitat for several categories of plants and animals at risk of extinction. Firefighters currently have no estimate as to when the fire might be contained.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next six years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager

  8. The Frequency and Fate of Understory Forest Fires in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.; le page, Y.; Wang, D.; Chen, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Collatz, G. J.; Giglio, L.; Hurtt, G. C.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Fires for deforestation or agricultural management frequently escape their intended boundaries and burn standing Amazon forests. The extent and frequency of understory forest fires are critical to assess forest carbon emissions and the long-term legacy of understory fires in Amazonia. Patterns of understory fire activity under current climate conditions also offer a blueprint for potential changes in Amazon forests under scenarios of future climate and land use. Here, we estimated of the extent and frequency of understory forest fires for the entire arc of deforestation in southern Amazonia using a time series of annual Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Understory forest fires burned more than 80,000 km2 during 1999-2010. Fires were widespread along the southern and eastern extents of Amazon forests during the four years with highest fire activity (1999, 2005, 2007, 2010). The interannual variability in understory fires offered new insights into fire-climate dynamics in Amazonia over a range of temporal scales, based on the combination of burned area, MODIS active fire detections, and reanalysis climate data. Initial fire exposure reduces aboveground carbon stocks, and frequent fires are one possible mechanism for long-term changes the structure of Amazon forests. Repeated burning was concentrated in southeastern Amazonia, and >95% of all repeated fires occurred in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Forests that burned two or more times during this period accounted for 16% of understory fire activity. Finally, deforestation of burned forests was rare, suggesting that forest degradation from understory fires was an independent source of carbon emissions during this period. Modeling the time scales of carbon loss and recovery in burned forests is therefore critical to estimate the net carbon emissions from these fires. The results of this study suggest that understory fires operate as a large-scale edge effect in Amazonia, as

  9. Resolving vorticity-driven lateral fire spread using the WRF-Fire coupled atmosphere-fire numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, C. C.; Sharples, J. J.; Evans, J. P.

    2014-09-01

    Vorticity-driven lateral fire spread (VLS) is a form of dynamic fire behaviour, during which a wildland fire spreads rapidly across a steep leeward slope in a direction approximately transverse to the background winds. VLS is often accompanied by a downwind extension of the active flaming region and intense pyro-convection. In this study, the WRF-Fire (WRF stands for Weather Research and Forecasting) coupled atmosphere-fire model is used to examine the sensitivity of resolving VLS to both the horizontal and vertical grid spacing, and the fire-to-atmosphere coupling from within the model framework. The atmospheric horizontal and vertical grid spacing are varied between 25 and 90 m, and the fire-to-atmosphere coupling is either enabled or disabled. At high spatial resolutions, the inclusion of fire-to-atmosphere coupling increases the upslope and lateral rate of spread by factors of up to 2.7 and 9.5, respectively. This increase in the upslope and lateral rate of spread diminishes at coarser spatial resolutions, and VLS is not modelled for a horizontal and vertical grid spacing of 90 m. The lateral fire spread is driven by fire whirls formed due to an interaction between the background winds and the vertical circulation generated at the flank of the fire front as part of the pyro-convective updraft. The laterally advancing fire fronts become the dominant contributors to the extreme pyro-convection. The results presented in this study demonstrate that both high spatial resolution and two-way atmosphere-fire coupling are required to model VLS with WRF-Fire.

  10. Computational fire modeling for aircraft fire research

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolette, V.F.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Federal Aviation Administration. The technical issues involved in fire modeling for aircraft fire research are identified, as well as computational fire tools for addressing those issues, and the research which is needed to advance those tools in order to address long-range needs. Fire field models are briefly reviewed, and the VULCAN model is selected for further evaluation. Calculations are performed with VULCAN to demonstrate its applicability to aircraft fire problems, and also to gain insight into the complex problem of fires involving aircraft. Simulations are conducted to investigate the influence of fire on an aircraft in a cross-wind. The interaction of the fuselage, wind, fire, and ground plane is investigated. Calculations are also performed utilizing a large eddy simulation (LES) capability to describe the large- scale turbulence instead of the more common k-{epsilon} turbulence model. Additional simulations are performed to investigate the static pressure and velocity distributions around a fuselage in a cross-wind, with and without fire. The results of these simulations provide qualitative insight into the complex interaction of a fuselage, fire, wind, and ground plane. Reasonable quantitative agreement is obtained in the few cases for which data or other modeling results exist Finally, VULCAN is used to quantify the impact of simplifying assumptions inherent in a risk assessment compatible fire model developed for open pool fire environments. The assumptions are seen to be of minor importance for the particular problem analyzed. This work demonstrates the utility of using a fire field model for assessing the limitations of simplified fire models. In conclusion, the application of computational fire modeling tools herein provides both qualitative and quantitative insights into the complex problem of aircraft in fires.

  11. Counting RG flows

    SciTech Connect

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-05

    Here, interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts -- from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence -- will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerful enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the violation of the strong C-theorem happens and predicts "phase transitions" along the RG flow when the topological obstruction is non-trivial. Along the way, we also find new conformal manifolds in well-known 4d CFT's and point out connections with the superconformal index and classifying spaces of global symmetry groups.

  12. Counting RG flows

    DOE PAGES

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-05

    Here, interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts -- from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence -- will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerfulmore » enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the violation of the strong C-theorem happens and predicts "phase transitions" along the RG flow when the topological obstruction is non-trivial. Along the way, we also find new conformal manifolds in well-known 4d CFT's and point out connections with the superconformal index and classifying spaces of global symmetry groups.« less

  13. Coherence of neuronal firing of the entopeduncular nucleus with motor cortex oscillatory activity in the 6-OHDA rat model of Parkinson's disease with levodopa-induced dyskinesias.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xingxing; Schwabe, Kerstin; Krauss, Joachim K; Alam, Mesbah

    2016-04-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms leading to dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease (PD) after long-term treatment with levodopa remain unclear. This study investigates the neuronal firing characteristics of the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN), the rat equivalent of the human globus pallidus internus and output nucleus of the basal ganglia, and its coherence with the motor cortex (MCx) field potentials in the unilateral 6-OHDA rat model of PD with and without levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID). 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned hemiparkinsonian (HP) rats, 6-OHDA-lesioned HP rats with LID (HP-LID) rats, and naïve controls were used for recording of single-unit activity under urethane (1.4 g/kg, i.p) anesthesia in the EPN "on" and "off" levodopa. Over the MCx, the electrocorticogram output was recorded. Analysis of single-unit activity in the EPN showed enhanced firing rates, burst activity, and irregularity compared to naïve controls, which did not differ between drug-naïve HP and HP-LID rats. Analysis of EPN spike coherence and phase-locked ratio with MCx field potentials showed a shift of low (12-19 Hz) and high (19-30 Hz) beta oscillatory activity between HP and HP-LID groups. EPN theta phase-locked ratio was only enhanced in HP-LID compared to HP rats. Overall, levodopa injection had no stronger effect in HP-LID rats than in HP rats. Altered coherence and changes in the phase lock ratio of spike and local field potentials in the beta range may play a role for the development of LID.

  14. Fire Suppression and Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    This report is concerned with the following topics regarding fire suppression:What is the relative effectiveness of candidate suppressants to extinguish a representative fire in reduced gravity, including high-O2 mole fraction, low -pressure environments? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of physically acting and chemically-acting agents in spacecraft fire suppression? What are the O2 mole fraction and absolute pressure below which a fire cannot exist? What effect does gas-phase radiation play in the overall fire and post-fire environments? Are the candidate suppressants effective to extinguish fires on practical solid fuels? What is required to suppress non-flaming fires (smoldering and deep seated fires) in reduced gravity? How can idealized space experiment results be applied to a practical fire scenario? What is the optimal agent deployment strategy for space fire suppression?

  15. Kv3.1/Kv3.2 channel positive modulators enable faster activating kinetics and increase firing frequency in fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Boddum, Kim; Hougaard, Charlotte; Xiao-Ying Lin, Julie; von Schoubye, Nadia Lybøl; Jensen, Henrik Sindal; Grunnet, Morten; Jespersen, Thomas

    2017-02-24

    Due to their fast kinetic properties, Kv3.1 voltage gated potassium channels are important in setting and controlling firing frequency in neurons and pivotal in generating high frequency firing of interneurons. Pharmacological activation of Kv3.1 channels may possess therapeutic potential for treatment of epilepsy, hearing disorders, schizophrenia and cognitive impairments. Here we thoroughly investigate the selectivity and positive modulation of the two small molecules, EX15 and RE01, on Kv3 channels. Selectivity studies, conducted in Xenopus laevis oocytes confirmed a positive modulatory effect of the two compounds on Kv3.1 and to a minor extent on Kv3.2 channels. RE01 had no effect on the Kv3.3 and Kv3.4 channels, whereas EX15 had an inhibitory impact on the Kv3.4 mediated current. Voltage-clamp experiments in monoclonal hKv3.1b/HEK293 cells (34 °C) revealed that the two compounds indeed induced larger currents and faster activation kinetics. They also decrease the speed of deactivation and shifted the voltage dependence of activation, to a more negative activation threshold. Application of action potential clamping and repetitive stimulation protocols of hKv3.1b expressing HEK293 cells revealed that EX15 and RE01 significantly increased peak amplitude, half width and decay time of Kv3.1 mediated currents, even during high-frequency action potential clamping (250 Hz). In rat hippocampal slices, EX15 and RE01 increased neuronal excitability in fast-spiking interneurons in dentate gyrus. Action potential frequency was prominently increased at minor depolarizing steps, whereas more marginal effects of EX15 and RE01 were observed after stronger depolarizations. In conclusion, our results suggest that EX15 and RE01 positive modulation of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 currents facilitate increased firing frequency in fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons.

  16. Assessing fire risk in Portugal during the summer fire season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacamara, C. C.; Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Since 1998, Instituto de Meteorologia, the Portuguese Weather Service has relied on the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) System (van Wagner, 1987) to produce daily forecasts of fire risk. The FWI System consists of six components that account for the effects of fuel moisture and wind on fire behavior. The first three components, i.e. the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC), the Duff Moisture Code (DMC) and the Drought Code (DC) respectively rate the average moisture content of surface litter, decomposing litter, and organic (humus) layers of the soil. Wind effects are then added to FFMC leading to the Initial Spread Index (ISI) that rates fire spread. The remaining two fuel moisture codes (DMC and DC) are in turn combined to produce the Buildup Index (BUI) that is a rating of the total amount of fuel available for combustion. BUI is finally combined with ISI to produce the Fire Weather Index (FWI) that represents the rate of fire intensity. Classes of fire danger and levels of preparedness are commonly defined on an empirical way for a given region by calibrating the FWI System against wildfire activity as defined by the recorded number of events and by the observed burned area over a given period of time (Bovio and Camia, 1998). It is also a well established fact that distributions of burned areas are heavily skewed to the right and tend to follow distributions of the exponential-type (Cumming, 2001). Based on the described context, a new procedure is presented for calibrating the FWI System during the summer fire season in Portugal. Two datasets were used covering a 28-year period (1980-2007); i) the official Portuguese wildfire database which contains detailed information on fire events occurred in the 18 districts of Continental Portugal and ii) daily values of the six components of the FWI System as derived from reanalyses (Uppala et al., 2005) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Calibration of the FWI System is then performed in two

  17. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Seven companies mined fire clay in four states during 2003. From 1984 to 1992, production declined to 383 kt (422,000 st) from a high of 1.04 Mt (1.14 million st) as markets for clay-based refractories declined. Since 1992, production levels have been erratic, ranging from 383 kt (422,000 st) in 1992 and 2001 to 583 kt (642,000 st) in 1995. Production in 2003, based on preliminary data, was estimated to be around 450 kt (496,000 st) with a value of about $10.5 million. This was about the same as in 2002. Missouri remained the leading producer state, followed by South Carolina, Ohio and California.

  18. Many Ignore Fire Safety at Home, Survey Reveals

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162699.html Many Ignore Fire Safety at Home, Survey Reveals Holiday activities can ... dangerous time of year, but many families ignore fire and burn safety tips, a new survey finds. ...

  19. HESFIRE: a global fire model to explore the role of anthropogenic and weather drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Le Page, Yannick LB; Morton, Douglas; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Pereira, Jose M.; Hurtt, George C.

    2015-02-13

    Vegetation fires are a major driver of ecosystem dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions. Anticipating potential changes in fire activity and their impacts relies first on a realistic model of fire activity (e.g., fire incidence and interannual variability) and second on a model accounting for fire impacts (e.g., mortality and emissions). In this paper, we focus on our understanding of fire activity and describe a new fire model, HESFIRE (Human–Earth System FIRE), which integrates the influence of weather, vegetation characteristics, and human activities on fires in a stand-alone framework. It was developed with a particular emphasis on allowing fires to spread over consecutive days given their major contribution to burned areas in many ecosystems. A subset of the model parameters was calibrated through an optimization procedure using observation data to enhance our knowledge of regional drivers of fire activity and improve the performance of the model on a global scale. Modeled fire activity showed reasonable agreement with observations of burned area, fire seasonality, and interannual variability in many regions, including for spatial and temporal domains not included in the optimization procedure. Significant discrepancies are investigated, most notably regarding fires in boreal regions and in xeric ecosystems and also fire size distribution. The sensitivity of fire activity to model parameters is analyzed to explore the dominance of specific drivers across regions and ecosystems. The characteristics of HESFIRE and the outcome of its evaluation provide insights into the influence of anthropogenic activities and weather, and their interactions, on fire activity.

  20. Late Pleistocene and Holocene Fire History of the Swiftcurrent Lake basin, eastern Glacier National Park, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutvirt, J. C.; MacGregor, K. R.; Riihimaki, C. A.; Myrbo, A.

    2010-12-01

    abundance and accumulation rates appear to be tied to increased fire activity in basin. We anticipate correlation with climatic anomalies such as the Medieval Warm Period. Charcoal morphotypes, also identified and tallied in conducted charcoal counts, will be used to indicate the nature of the basin vegetation. These data will be compared to pollen data to consider changing vegetation regimes. The focus on the last few centuries will provide insight into the extent of anthropogenic effects on burn periodicity. This study will also be paired with other similar fire frequency records in the greater northern Rockies region. Finally, comparisons with total organic carbon in the core, which is tied to solar forcing over the last 7500 years, will further illuminate the environmental history of the basin over the Holocene.

  1. FIRE SERVICE TRAINING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERNDT, WILLIAM M.; AND OTHERS

    STUDENTS MAY USE THIS REVISED MANUAL IN FIRE STATION OR TRAINING CENTER EXTENSION PROGRAMS FOR IMPROVING THE COMPETENCIES AND SKILLS OF LOCAL FIRE PERSONNEL IN THE SPECIALIZED FIELD OF FIRE SERVICE. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A STATEWIDE COMMITTEE OF FIRE-FIGHTING CONSULTANTS AND ADVISORY GROUPS. THE 26 CHAPTERS PROVIDE BOTH BASIC AND ADVANCED TECHNICAL…

  2. Fire Safety Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Fire protection is one of the most important considerations in the construction and operation of industrial plants and commercial buildings. Fire insurance rates are determined by fire probability factors, such as the type of construction, ease of transporting personnel, and the quality and quantity of fire protection equipment available. Because…

  3. Children and Home Fires

    MedlinePlus

    CHILDREN AND HOME FIRES Fast Facts Children under the age of five are twice as likely to die in a home fire than the rest of the population, and child-playing fires are the leading cause of fire deaths among ...

  4. Fire severity influences the response of soil microbes to a boreal forest fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Sandra R.; Rogers, Brendan M.; Treseder, Kathleen K.; Randerson, James T.

    2016-03-01

    Wildfire activity is projected to increase in boreal forests as a result of climate warming. The consequences of increased wildfire activity for soil carbon (C) storage in boreal forests may depend on the sensitivity of soil microbes to fire severity, but microbial responses to boreal forest fire severity are not well known. Here, we combine remote sensing of fire severity and field sampling to characterize the response of soil microbial biomass per g soil, microbial respiration of CO2 per g soil, and fungal groups to fire severity in a boreal forest ecosystem. We used remote sensing measurements of differenced normalized burn ratio from Landsat as a measure of fire severity. Our results demonstrate that fire severity controls soil microbial responses to boreal forest fires. In comparison to unburned stands, burned stands had a 52% and 56% reduction in soil microbial biomass and basal respiration, respectively. Within burned stands, we found that microbial biomass and basal respiration significantly declined with increasing fire severity. In addition, mycorrhizal taxa and basidiomycetes displayed particularly low tolerances for severe fire. Although wildfires result in the immediate loss of soil C, our study provides evidence that decreases in microbial biomass and respiration following high severity fires may reduce the capacity of the soil microbial community to decompose soil C over longer time scales. Therefore, models of C cycle responses to climate warming may need to represent the sensitivity of microbial biomass and fungal community composition to fire severity in boreal forests.

  5. Spatial distribution of forest fires and controlling factors in Andhra Pradesh, India using SPOT satellite datasets.

    PubMed

    Vadrevu, Krishna P; Eaturu, Anuradha; Badarinath, K V S

    2006-12-01

    Fires are one of the major causes of forest disturbance and destruction in several dry deciduous forests of southern India. In this study, we use remote sensing data sets in conjunction with topographic, vegetation, climate and socioeconomic factors for determining the potential causes of forest fires in Andhra Pradesh, India. Spatial patterns in fire characteristics were analyzed using SPOT satellite remote sensing datasets. We then used nineteen different metrics in concurrence with fire count datasets in a robust statistical framework to arrive at a predictive model that best explained the variation in fire counts across diverse geographical and climatic gradients. Results suggested that, of all the states in India, fires in Andhra Pradesh constituted nearly 13.53% of total fires. District wise estimates of fire counts for Andhra Pradesh suggested that, Adilabad, Cuddapah, Kurnool, Prakasham and Mehbubnagar had relatively highest number of fires compared to others. Results from statistical analysis suggested that of the nineteen parameters, population density, demand of metabolic energy (DME), compound topographic index, slope, aspect, average temperature of the warmest quarter (ATWQ) along with literacy rate explained 61.1% of total variation in fire datasets. Among these, DME and literacy rate were found to be negative predictors of forest fires. In overall, this study represents the first statewide effort that evaluated the causative factors of fire at district level using biophysical and socioeconomic datasets. Results from this study identify important biophysical and socioeconomic factors for assessing 'forest fire danger' in the study area. Our results also identify potential 'hotspots' of fire risk, where fire protection measures can be taken in advance. Further this study also demonstrate the usefulness of best-subset regression approach integrated with GIS, as an effective method to assess 'where and when' forest fires will most likely occur.

  6. A process-based fire parameterization of intermediate complexity in a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Zeng, X. D.; Levis, S.

    2012-07-01

    A process-based fire parameterization of intermediate complexity has been developed for global simulations in the framework of a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) in an Earth System Model (ESM). Burned area in a grid cell is estimated by the product of fire counts and average burned area of a fire. The scheme comprises three parts: fire occurrence, fire spread, and fire impact. In the fire occurrence part, fire counts rather than fire occurrence probability are calculated in order to capture the observed high burned area fraction in areas of high fire frequency and realize parameter calibration based on MODIS fire counts product. In the fire spread part, post-fire region of a fire is assumed to be elliptical in shape. Mathematical properties of ellipses and some mathematical derivations are applied to improve the equation and assumptions of an existing fire spread parameterization. In the fire impact part, trace gas and aerosol emissions due to biomass burning are estimated, which offers an interface with atmospheric chemistry and aerosol models in ESMs. In addition, flexible time-step length makes the new fire parameterization easily applied to various DGVMs. Global performance of the new fire parameterization is assessed by using an improved version of the Community Land Model version 3 with the Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (CLM-DGVM). Simulations are compared against the latest satellite-based Global Fire Emission Database version 3 (GFED3) for 1997-2004. Results show that simulated global totals and spatial patterns of burned area and fire carbon emissions, regional totals and spreads of burned area, global annual burned area fractions for various vegetation types, and interannual variability of burned area are reasonable, and closer to GFED3 than CLM-DGVM simulations with the commonly used Glob-FIRM fire parameterization and the old fire module of CLM-DGVM. Furthermore, average error of simulated trace gas and aerosol emissions due to biomass burning

  7. Fire-Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  8. Numbers, Counting, and Infinity in Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meconi, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of middle-school students' natural understanding of large numbers to introduce the concept of infinity. Presents activities that investigate infinite sets by demonstrating a one-to-one correspondence between the counting numbers and the given set. Examples include prime numbers, Fibonacci numbers, fractions, even and odd numbers,…

  9. KidsCount in Colorado! 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly R.

    This 1994 Kids Count report focuses on risk-taking behaviors among Colorado adolescents and discusses how prevention and early intervention strategies can impact the lives of the state's children. Statistics and descriptions are given for: (1) alcohol, tobacco, and drug use; (2) teen sexuality, including sexual activity and teen pregnancy and…

  10. Ecology: human role in Russian wild fires.

    PubMed

    Mollicone, Danilo; Eva, Hugh D; Achard, Frédéric

    2006-03-23

    Anomalies in temperature and precipitation in northern Russia over the past few years have been viewed as manifestations of anthropogenic climate change, prompting suggestions that this may also account for exceptional forest fires in the region. Here we examine the number of forest-fire events across the boreal Russian Federation for the period 2002 to 2005 in 'intact' forests, where human influence is limited, and in 'non-intact' forests, which have been shaped by human activity. Our results show that there were more fires in years during which the weather was anomalous, but that more than 87% of fires in boreal Russia were started by people.

  11. Using satellite fire detection to calibrate components of the fire weather index system in Malaysia and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dymond, Caren C; Field, Robert D; Roswintiarti, Orbita; Guswanto

    2005-04-01

    Indonesia have two new sources of information to initiate fire prevention and suppression activities.

  12. Comparison of active cooling devices to passive cooling for rehabilitation of firefighters performing exercise in thermal protective clothing: A report from the Fireground Rehab Evaluation (FIRE) trial

    PubMed Central

    Hostler, David; Reis, Steven E; Bednez, James C; Kerin, Sarah; Suyama, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Background Thermal protective clothing (TPC) worn by firefighters provides considerable protection from the external environment during structural fire suppression. However, TPC is associated with physiological derangements that may have adverse cardiovascular consequences. These derangements should be treated during on-scene rehabilitation periods. Objective The present study examined heart rate and core temperature responses during the application of four active cooling devices, currently being marketed to the fire service for on-scene rehab, and compared them to passive cooling in a moderate temperature (approximately 24°C) and to an infusion of cold (4°C) saline. Methods Subjects exercised in TPC in a heated room. Following an initial exercise period (BOUT 1) the subjects exited the room, removed TPC, and for 20 minutes cooled passively at room temperature, received an infusion of cold normal saline, or were cooled by one of four devices (fan, forearm immersion in water, hand cooling, water perfused cooling vest). After cooling, subjects donned TPC and entered the heated room for another 50-minute exercise period (BOUT 2). Results Subjects were not able to fully recover core temperature during a 20-minute rehab period when provided rehydration and the opportunity to completely remove TPC. Exercise duration was shorter during BOUT 2 when compared to BOUT 1 but did not differ by cooling intervention. The overall magnitude and rate of cooling and heart rate recovery did not differ by intervention. Conclusions No clear advantage was identified when active cooling devices and cold intravenous saline were compared to passive cooling in a moderate temperature after treadmill exercise in TPC. PMID:20397868

  13. Cryogenic processes and fire activity in a high Atlantic mountain area in NW Iberia (Picos de Europa) during the Mid-Late Holocene.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Oliva, Marc; Lopes, Vera; Cruces, Anabela; Freitas, Maria Conceição; Janeiro, Ana I; López-Sáez, José Antonio

    2016-12-15

    Mid-Late Holocene environmental changes in the Cantabrian Mountains are a consequence of both climate variability and human activity. A 182cm-long sedimentary sequence was collected from Belbín depression, Western Massif of Picos de Europa (Cantabrian Mountains, NW Spain), in order to reconstruct Holocene environmental dynamics and the factors triggering landscape changes in the area. Using multi-proxy analysis of the uppermost 60cm of the sediments (texture, organic matter content, quartz grains microstructures, charcoal deposition) together with three (14)C AMS dates, a sequence of alternating warmer and colder phases has been inferred for the last ca. 6.7kycalBP. Warm stages are defined by low to moderate chemical weathering of the quartz grain particles with relative increases of the C/N ratio, while colder phases show a moderate to intense physical weathering of the quartz grains and lower C/N ratios. Warmer temperatures were recorded in Belbín area between: 6.7-5, 3.7-3, 2.6-1.1, 0.87-0.51 and since 0.01kycalBP. A colder regime occurred between 5-3.7, 3-2.6, 1.1-0.87 and 0.51 to 0.01kycalBP. The increasing organic matter content during the Late Holocene may be associated with increasing temperatures. The charcoal particles do not show a higher or lower concentration during prevailing colder or warmer conditions, and therefore may be linked to human-induced fire management of the landscape. The most intense period with fire activity occurred between 3.5 and 3kycalBP during the Bronze Age.

  14. Utilizing Multi-Sensor Fire Detections to Map Fires in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, S. M.; Picotte, J. J.; Coan, M. J.

    2014-11-01

    In 2006, the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project began a cooperative effort between the US Forest Service (USFS) and the U.S.Geological Survey (USGS) to map and assess burn severity all large fires that have occurred in the United States since 1984. Using Landsat imagery, MTBS is mandated to map wildfire and prescribed fire that meet specific size criteria: greater than 1000 acres in the west and 500 acres in the east, regardless of ownership. Relying mostly on federal and state fire occurrence records, over 15,300 individual fires have been mapped. While mapping recorded fires, an additional 2,700 "unknown" or undocumented fires were discovered and assessed. It has become apparent that there are perhaps thousands of undocumented fires in the US that are yet to be mapped. Fire occurrence records alone are inadequate if MTBS is to provide a comprehensive accounting of fire across the US. Additionally, the