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Sample records for active fire protection

  1. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, S.B.; Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T.

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further.

  2. 29 CFR 553.210 - Fire protection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection activities. 553.210 Section 553.210 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Exemption Requirements § 553.210 Fire protection activities. (a)...

  3. 29 CFR 553.210 - Fire protection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... department of a municipality, county, fire district, or State; and (2) is engaged in the prevention, control... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire protection activities. 553.210 Section 553.210 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and...

  4. Fire Protection Program Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  5. NASA Fire Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Theodore

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on fire protection operations and administration at Stennis Space Center (SSC). The presentation also lists innovative practices and recent improvements.

  6. Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  7. 29 CFR 553.210 - Fire protection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activities” refers to “an employee, including a firefighter, paramedic, emergency medical technician, rescue... support activities as those performed by dispatchers, alarm operators, apparatus and equipment repair...

  8. 29 CFR 553.210 - Fire protection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activities” refers to “an employee, including a firefighter, paramedic, emergency medical technician, rescue... support activities as those performed by dispatchers, alarm operators, apparatus and equipment repair...

  9. 29 CFR 553.210 - Fire protection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activities” refers to “an employee, including a firefighter, paramedic, emergency medical technician, rescue... support activities as those performed by dispatchers, alarm operators, apparatus and equipment repair...

  10. Fire activity inside and outside protected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa: a continental analysis of fire and its implications for biodiversity and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Ilaria; Gregoire, Jean-Marie; Simonetti, Dario; Punga, Mihkel; Dubois, Gregoire

    2010-05-01

    Fire is an important ecological factor in many natural ecosystems. Without doubt one of the biomes with the highest fire activity in the world is the African savannah. Savannahs have evolved with fires since climate in these regions is characterized by definite dry and wet seasons that create the conditions for burning. During the wet months the herbaceous vegetation shows a quick growth, followed by a long dry period during which the abundant build-up of fine materials becomes highly flammable and most of fires occur. Animals and plants are adapted to these conditions and their lives depend on recurrent fires. In this context fire becomes an essential element to promote biodiversity and nature conservation. Park managers are using programmed fires as a tool to maintain the habitats and favorable conditions to the animal communities. Satellite products like burned areas and active fire maps are a valuable mean to analyze the fire activity and provide support to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. In the framework of the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA), the MONDE group (Monitoring Natural Resources for Development) of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission is using satellite products to analyze the fire occurrence and its effects on protected areas located in sub-Saharan Africa. Information on the fire activity was derived from the MODIS fire products (active fires and burned areas) and allows the DOPA to provide support to park managers as well as to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. We assessed 741 protected areas classified by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) with a level of protection between class I and IV. The MODIS datasets are available since the year 2000 and were used to characterize the spatio-temporal distribution of fires over a period of 10 years. Information on fire activity was extracted for the protected areas and a 25km buffer zone

  11. Fire activity inside and outside protected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa: a continental analysis of fire and its implications for biodiversity and land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Ilaria; Gregoire, Jean-Marie; Simonetti, Dario; Punga, Mihkel; Dubois, Gregoire

    2010-05-01

    Fire is an important ecological factor in many natural ecosystems. Without doubt one of the biomes with the highest fire activity in the world is the African savannah. Savannahs have evolved with fires since climate in these regions is characterized by definite dry and wet seasons that create the conditions for burning. During the wet months the herbaceous vegetation shows a quick growth, followed by a long dry period during which the abundant build-up of fine materials becomes highly flammable and most of fires occur. Animals and plants are adapted to these conditions and their lives depend on recurrent fires. In this context fire becomes an essential element to promote biodiversity and nature conservation. Park managers are using programmed fires as a tool to maintain the habitats and favorable conditions to the animal communities. Satellite products like burned areas and active fire maps are a valuable mean to analyze the fire activity and provide support to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. In the framework of the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA), the MONDE group (Monitoring Natural Resources for Development) of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission is using satellite products to analyze the fire occurrence and its effects on protected areas located in sub-Saharan Africa. Information on the fire activity was derived from the MODIS fire products (active fires and burned areas) and allows the DOPA to provide support to park managers as well as to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. We assessed 741 protected areas classified by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) with a level of protection between class I and IV. The MODIS datasets are available since the year 2000 and were used to characterize the spatio-temporal distribution of fires over a period of 10 years. Information on fire activity was extracted for the protected areas and a 25km buffer zone

  12. Fire Protection Jacket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NERAC, Inc., Tolland, CT, aided Paul Monroe Engineering, Orange, CA, in the development of their PC1200 Series Fire Protection Jacket that protects the oil conduit system on an offshore drilling platform from the intense hydrocarbon fires that cause buckling and could cause structural failure of the platform. The flame-proof jacketing, which can withstand temperatures of 2000 degrees Fahrenheit for four hours or more, was developed from a combination of ceramic cloth (similar to the ceramic in Space Shuttle tiles), and laminates used in space suits.

  13. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire... and is returned to service in a reasonable period of time. (b) Access routes for movement of...

  14. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire... and is returned to service in a reasonable period of time. (b) Access routes for movement of...

  15. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire... and is returned to service in a reasonable period of time. (b) Access routes for movement of...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire control equipment must be scheduled so that a minimum of equipment is taken out of service at any one...

  17. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire control equipment must be scheduled so that a minimum of equipment is taken out of service at any one...

  18. Fire Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Avco has drawn upon its heat shield experience to develop a number of widely-accepted commercial fire protection materials. Originating from NASA's space shuttle thermal protection system, one such material is Chartek 59 fireproofing, an intumescent epoxy coating specifically designed for outdoor use by industrial facilities dealing with highly flammable products such as oil refineries and chemical plants. The coating is applied usually by spray gun to exterior structural steel conduits, pipes and valves, offshore platforms and liquefied petroleum gas tanks. Fireproofing provides two types of protection: ablation or dissipation of heat by burn-off and "intumescence" or swelling; the coating swells to about five times its original size, forming a protective blanket of char which retards transfer of heat to the metal structure preventing loss of structural strength and possible collapse which would compound the fire fighting problem.

  19. Fire Protection in Educational Occupancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervais, Romeo P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the origins of school fires and the components of the fire protection code called the Life Safety Code (LSC). Three of the following LSC requirements are described: means of egress; protection from hazards; and fire suppression and alarm systems. Information on who starts fires is highlighted along with preventive measures. (GR)

  20. NASA Fire Protection Coordinators' Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Theodore

    2001-01-01

    Fire prevention activities at NASA's Stennis Space Center are reviewed in this viewgraph presentation. The Fire Prevention Office of the Fire Department at NASA Stennis conducts inspections and issues small appliance permits, while the Operations Section responds to emergencies.

  1. Fire Protection for Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevig, William A.

    Fire protection in rural Alaskan communities depends on individual home fire prevention and protection rather than on the services offered by a centralized fire department. Even when help is summoned to extinguish a blaze, aid does not come in the form of a cadre of highly trained firefighters; it comes instead from whomever happens to be in the…

  2. Active Fire Mapping Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS ... Data Web Services Latest Detected Fire Activity Other MODIS Products Frequently Asked Questions About Active Fire Maps ...

  3. Fire Protection for Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  4. Fire Protection. Honeywell Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    A general discussion of fire alarms and protection is provided by a manufacturer of automated monitoring and control systems. Background information describes old and new fire alarm systems, comparing system components, wage savings, and cost analysis. Different kinds of automatic systems are listed, including--(1) local system, (2) auxiliary…

  5. Fire protection for relocatable structures

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This standard supersedes DOE/EV-0043, ``Standard on Fire Protection for Portable Structures.`` It was revised to address the numerous types of relocatable structures, such as trailers, tension-supported structures, and tents being used by DOE and contractors.

  6. National Fire Protection Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... and standards Welcome to the Jungle With the marijuana industry poised for a rapid expansion, Colorado — epicenter ... more. See where fire codes intersect with the marijuana industry. Hazards of the trade As with any ...

  7. Fire protection for launch facilities using machine vision fire detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Douglas B.

    1993-01-01

    Fire protection of critical space assets, including launch and fueling facilities and manned flight hardware, demands automatic sensors for continuous monitoring, and in certain high-threat areas, fast-reacting automatic suppression systems. Perhaps the most essential characteristic for these fire detection and suppression systems is high reliability; in other words, fire detectors should alarm only on actual fires and not be falsely activated by extraneous sources. Existing types of fire detectors have been greatly improved in the past decade; however, fundamental limitations of their method of operation leaves open a significant possibility of false alarms and restricts their usefulness. At the Civil Engineering Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida, a new type of fire detector is under development which 'sees' a fire visually, like a human being, and makes a reliable decision based on known visual characteristics of flames. Hardware prototypes of the Machine Vision (MV) Fire Detection System have undergone live fire tests and demonstrated extremely high accuracy in discriminating actual fires from false alarm sources. In fact, this technology promises to virtually eliminate false activations. This detector could be used to monitor fueling facilities, launch towers, clean rooms, and other high-value and high-risk areas. Applications can extend to space station and in-flight shuttle operations as well; fiber optics and remote camera heads enable the system to see around obstructed areas and crew compartments. The capability of the technology to distinguish fires means that fire detection can be provided even during maintenance operations, such as welding.

  8. Fire protection for launch facilities using machine vision fire detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Douglas B.

    1993-02-01

    Fire protection of critical space assets, including launch and fueling facilities and manned flight hardware, demands automatic sensors for continuous monitoring, and in certain high-threat areas, fast-reacting automatic suppression systems. Perhaps the most essential characteristic for these fire detection and suppression systems is high reliability; in other words, fire detectors should alarm only on actual fires and not be falsely activated by extraneous sources. Existing types of fire detectors have been greatly improved in the past decade; however, fundamental limitations of their method of operation leaves open a significant possibility of false alarms and restricts their usefulness. At the Civil Engineering Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida, a new type of fire detector is under development which 'sees' a fire visually, like a human being, and makes a reliable decision based on known visual characteristics of flames. Hardware prototypes of the Machine Vision (MV) Fire Detection System have undergone live fire tests and demonstrated extremely high accuracy in discriminating actual fires from false alarm sources. In fact, this technology promises to virtually eliminate false activations. This detector could be used to monitor fueling facilities, launch towers, clean rooms, and other high-value and high-risk areas. Applications can extend to space station and in-flight shuttle operations as well; fiber optics and remote camera heads enable the system to see around obstructed areas and crew compartments. The capability of the technology to distinguish fires means that fire detection can be provided even during maintenance operations, such as welding.

  9. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA...

  10. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA...

  11. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA...

  12. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA...

  13. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA...

  14. Fire Protection for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortson-James, Judith

    1981-01-01

    This overview of preventive measures that can be taken to help minimize damage to library materials from fire discusses the advantages, disadvantages, dangers, and comparative costs of several types of sprinkler systems, including high-expansion foam, total-flooding, dry- and wet-pipe systems, and on-off sprinkler heads. Five references are…

  15. 30 CFR 77.306 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire protection. 77.306 Section 77.306 Mineral....306 Fire protection. Based on the need for fire protection measures in connection with the particular... prevent fire, installed inside the thermal dryer systems, and such sprays shall be designed to provide...

  16. 30 CFR 77.306 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection. 77.306 Section 77.306 Mineral....306 Fire protection. Based on the need for fire protection measures in connection with the particular... prevent fire, installed inside the thermal dryer systems, and such sprays shall be designed to provide...

  17. 30 CFR 77.306 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire protection. 77.306 Section 77.306 Mineral....306 Fire protection. Based on the need for fire protection measures in connection with the particular... prevent fire, installed inside the thermal dryer systems, and such sprays shall be designed to provide...

  18. 30 CFR 77.306 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire protection. 77.306 Section 77.306 Mineral....306 Fire protection. Based on the need for fire protection measures in connection with the particular... prevent fire, installed inside the thermal dryer systems, and such sprays shall be designed to provide...

  19. 30 CFR 77.306 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire protection. 77.306 Section 77.306 Mineral....306 Fire protection. Based on the need for fire protection measures in connection with the particular... prevent fire, installed inside the thermal dryer systems, and such sprays shall be designed to provide...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... exceed 100 feet. (ii) One 55-gallon open drum of water with two fire pails may be substituted for a fire...) Extinguishers and water drums, subject to freezing, shall be protected from freezing. (vi) A fire extinguisher... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire protection. 1926.150 Section 1926.150...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exceed 100 feet. (ii) One 55-gallon open drum of water with two fire pails may be substituted for a fire...) Extinguishers and water drums, subject to freezing, shall be protected from freezing. (vi) A fire extinguisher... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire protection. 1926.150 Section 1926.150...

  2. 14 CFR 33.17 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire protection. 33.17 Section 33.17... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.17 Fire protection. (a) The design and... fire during normal operation and failure conditions, and must minimize the effect of such a fire....

  3. 14 CFR 33.17 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire protection. 33.17 Section 33.17... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.17 Fire protection. (a) The design and... fire during normal operation and failure conditions, and must minimize the effect of such a fire....

  4. 14 CFR 33.17 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire protection. 33.17 Section 33.17... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.17 Fire protection. (a) The design and... fire during normal operation and failure conditions, and must minimize the effect of such a fire....

  5. 14 CFR 33.17 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection. 33.17 Section 33.17... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.17 Fire protection. (a) The design and... fire during normal operation and failure conditions, and must minimize the effect of such a fire....

  6. 14 CFR 33.17 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire protection. 33.17 Section 33.17... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.17 Fire protection. (a) The design and... fire during normal operation and failure conditions, and must minimize the effect of such a fire....

  7. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection. 1926.150 Section 1926.150 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Protection and Prevention § 1926.150 Fire protection. (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall be responsible for the development of a...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire protection. 1926.150 Section 1926.150 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Protection and Prevention § 1926.150 Fire protection. (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall be responsible for the development of a...

  9. 46 CFR 115.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: (1) For portable fire extinguishers, the inspections, maintenance procedures and hydrostatic pressure... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 115.810 Section 115.810 Shipping COAST... Inspections § 115.810 Fire protection. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification,...

  10. 10 CFR 36.27 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire protection. 36.27 Section 36.27 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.27 Fire protection. (a) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must... become fully shielded if a fire is detected. (b) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must...

  11. 10 CFR 36.27 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire protection. 36.27 Section 36.27 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.27 Fire protection. (a) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must... become fully shielded if a fire is detected. (b) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must...

  12. 10 CFR 36.27 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire protection. 36.27 Section 36.27 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.27 Fire protection. (a) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must... become fully shielded if a fire is detected. (b) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must...

  13. 46 CFR 115.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (7) Inspection and testing of smoke and fire detecting systems (including sensors and alarms) and... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 115.810 Section 115.810 Shipping COAST... Inspections § 115.810 Fire protection. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification,...

  14. 10 CFR 36.27 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire protection. 36.27 Section 36.27 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.27 Fire protection. (a) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must... become fully shielded if a fire is detected. (b) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must...

  15. 10 CFR 36.27 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection. 36.27 Section 36.27 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.27 Fire protection. (a) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must... become fully shielded if a fire is detected. (b) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must...

  16. DOE Standard: Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    The development of this Standard reflects the fact that national consensus standards and other design criteria do not comprehensively or, in some cases, adequately address fire protection issues at DOE facilities. This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard replaces certain mandatory fire protection requirements that were formerly in DOE 5480.7A, ``Fire Protection``, and DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria``. It also contains the fire protection guidelines from two (now canceled) draft standards: ``Glove Box Fire Protection`` and ``Filter Plenum Fire Protection``. (Note: This Standard does not supersede the requirements of DOE 5480.7A and DOE 6430.1A where these DOE Orders are currently applicable under existing contracts.) This Standard, along with the criteria delineated in Section 3, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  17. Remote monitoring of a Fire Protection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, Steven; Vermeulen, Tom; Roberts, Larry; Matsushige, Grant; Gajadhar, Sarah; Taroma, Ralph; Elizares, Casey; Arruda, Tyson; Potter, Sharon; Hoffman, James

    2011-03-01

    Some years ago CFHT proposed developing a Remote Observing Environment aimed at producing Science Observations at their Observatory Facility on Mauna Kea from their Headquarters facility in Waimea, HI. This Remote Observing Project commonly referred to as OAP (Observatory Automation Project) was completed at the end of January 2011 and has been providing the majority of Science Data since. My poster will discuss the upgrades to the existing fire alarm protection system. With no one at the summit during nightly operations, the observatory facility required automated monitoring of the facility for safety to personnel and equipment in the case of a fire. An addressable analog fire panel was installed which utilizes digital communication protocol (DCP), intelligent communication with other devices, and an RS-232 interface which provides feedback and real-time monitoring of the system. Using the interface capabilities of the panel, it provides notifications when heat detectors, smoke sensors, manual pull stations, or the main observatory computer room fire suppression system has been activated. The notifications are sent out as alerts to staff in the form of test massages and emails and the observing control GUI interface alerts the remote telescope operator with a map showing the location of the fire occurrence and type of device that has been triggered. And all of this was accomplished without the need for an outside vendor to monitor the system and facilitate warnings or notifications regarding the system.

  18. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the area. (iv) One or more fire extinguishers, rated not less than 2A, shall be provided on each floor... per minute, may be substituted for a fire extinguisher rated not more than 2A in the designated area... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire protection. 1926.150 Section 1926.150...

  19. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 23.859... Construction Fire Protection § 23.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire regions. The following combustion heater fire regions must be protected from fire in accordance with...

  20. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 23.859... Construction Fire Protection § 23.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire regions. The following combustion heater fire regions must be protected from fire in accordance with...

  1. 10 CFR 50.48 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire protection. 50.48 Section 50.48 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Standards for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals § 50.48 Fire protection. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license issued under this part or a...

  2. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the...

  3. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the...

  4. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the...

  5. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the...

  6. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the...

  7. Selection and maintenance key to fire protection

    SciTech Connect

    Briese, B.L.

    1996-11-01

    Petroleum product and chemical storage terminals, because of the combustible products they handle, face severe fire exposure potentials. A fire at a terminal can grow rapidly and release damaging and deadly heat, threatening personnel, facilities, the adjoining environment and revenue. To combat this danger, terminals employ several types of fire protection systems, both fixed and mobile. All adhere to consensus codes and standards. Following installation of automatic fire protection equipment, its acceptance (sometimes referred to as commissioning) testing, ongoing maintenance and periodic inspection is vitally important to assure that it reliably functions when required.

  8. 46 CFR 115.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: (1) For portable fire extinguishers, the inspections, maintenance procedures and hydrostatic pressure... fixed inert extinguishers must be tested or renewed as required by 46 CFR 147.60 and 147.66. Water mist... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 115.810 Section 115.810 Shipping...

  9. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....65 in subchapter N of this chapter; and (7) Inspection and testing of all smoke and fire detection... 10 (incorporated by reference, 46 CFR 175.600) with the frequency specified by NFPA 10. In addition... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 176.810 Section 176.810 Shipping...

  10. Fire protection for inactive contaminated structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.M.

    1994-02-01

    In general industry and construction, destruction of an inactive/surplus facility by fire may be considered a blessing. However, in a decommissioned contaminated structure, where radiological and other hazardous materials exist, such a fire could be a major catastrophe. The losses from this type of fire are not only property (i.e., structure and its contents) but also the resulting environmental damage, required cleanup, offsite releases, and public relations and reactions. The purpose of this presentation is to (1) promote an awareness among the waste management community of fire protection engineering aspects that must be considered for inactive/surplus contaminated structures, and (2) present to the fire protection community an opportunity to become involved in the decommissioning process while promoting the DOE objectives to manage the risks associated with these structures.

  11. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  12. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Bergman, W.; Ford, H.W.; Lipska, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect HEPA filters in exit ventilation ducts from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Several methods for partially mitigating the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified through testing and analysis. These independently involve controlling the fuel, controlling the fire, and intercepting the smoke aerosol prior to its sorption on the HEPA filter. Exit duct treatment of aerosols is not unusual in industrial applications and involves the use of scrubbers, prefilters, and inertial impaction, depending on the size, distribution, and concentration of the subject aerosol. However, when these unmodified techniques were applied to smoke aerosols from fires on materials, common to experimental laboratories of LLNL, it was found they offered minimal protection to the HEPA filters. Ultimately, a continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. This technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modificaton of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has a particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, we laminated rolling filter media with the desired properties. It is not true that the use of rolling prefilters solely to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols is cost effective in every type of containment system, especially if standard fire-protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  13. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection; training and organization. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1100 Fire protection; training and organization. Firefighting facilities and equipment shall be provided commensurate with the potential fire hazards at each...

  14. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 25.859... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following...

  15. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 29.859... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following...

  16. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 29.859... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following...

  17. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 25.859... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following...

  18. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire Protection A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 1910..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Pt. 1910, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 1910—Fire Protection § 1910.156Fire brigades. 1. Scope. This section...

  19. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

    1980-08-25

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  20. Resistance after firing protected electric match

    DOEpatents

    Montoya, Arsenio P.

    1981-11-10

    An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flame-producing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.

  1. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Bigbee

    2000-06-21

    The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status.

  2. NASA safety manual. Volume 9: Fire protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Requirements are identified and guidelines are provided for implementing a comprehensive fire protection program. These requirements and guidelines are applicable to NASA headquarters and field installations. Portions also can be applied to NASA contractor operations within the scope of the contract.

  3. Audit Report, "Fire Protection Deficiencies at Los Alamos National Laboratory"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-01

    The Department of Energy's Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) maintains some of the Nation's most important national security assets, including nuclear materials. Many of Los Alamos' facilities are located in close proximity to one another, are occupied by large numbers of contract and Federal employees, and support activities ranging from nuclear weapons design to science-related activities. Safeguarding against fires, regardless of origin, is essential to protecting employees, surrounding communities, and national security assets. On June 1, 2006, Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS), became the managing and operating contractor for Los Alamos, under contract with the Department's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In preparation for assuming its management responsibilities at Los Alamos, LANS conducted walk-downs of the Laboratory's facilities to identify pre-existing deficiencies that could give rise to liability, obligation, loss or damage. The walk-downs, which identified 812 pre-existing fire protection deficiencies, were conducted by subject matter professionals, including fire protection experts. While the Los Alamos Site Office has overall responsibility for the effectiveness of the fire protection program, LANS, as the Laboratory's operating contractor, has a major, day-to-day role in minimizing fire-related risks. The issue of fire protection at Los Alamos is more than theoretical. In May 2000, the 'Cerro Grande' fire burned about 43,000 acres, including 7,700 acres of Laboratory property. Due to the risk posed by fire to the Laboratory's facilities, workforce, and surrounding communities, we initiated this audit to determine whether pre-existing fire protection deficiencies had been addressed. Our review disclosed that LANS had not resolved many of the fire protection deficiencies that had been identified in early 2006: (1) Of the 296 pre-existing deficiencies we selected for audit, 174 (59 percent) had not been corrected

  4. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fire Protection Program is delineated in a number of source documents including; the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), DOE Policy Statements and Orders, DOE and national consensus standards (such as those promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association), and supplementary guidance, This Handbook is intended to bring together in one location as much of this material as possible to facilitate understanding and ease of use. The applicability of any of these directives to individual Maintenance and Operating Contractors or to given facilities and operations is governed by existing contracts. Questions regarding applicability should be directed to the DOE Authority Having Jurisdiction for fire safety. The information provided within includes copies of those DOE directives that are directly applicable to the implementation of a comprehensive fire protection program. They are delineated in the Table of Contents. The items marked with an asterisk (*) are included on the disks in WordPerfect 5.1 format, with the filename noted below. The items marked with double asterisks are provided as hard copies as well as on the disk. For those using MAC disks, the files are in Wordperfect 2.1 for MAC.

  5. Guidelines for the seismic design of fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Benda, B.; Cushing, R.; Driesen, G.E.

    1991-12-31

    The engineering knowledge gained from earthquake experience data surveys of fire protection system components is combined with analytical evaluation results to develop guidelines for the design of seismically rugged fire protection distribution piping. The seismic design guidelines of the National Fire Protection Association Standard NFPA-13 are reviewed, augmented, and summarized to define an efficient method for the seismic design of fire protection piping systems. 8 refs.

  6. Guidelines for the seismic design of fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Benda, B. ); Cushing, R. ); Driesen, G.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The engineering knowledge gained from earthquake experience data surveys of fire protection system components is combined with analytical evaluation results to develop guidelines for the design of seismically rugged fire protection distribution piping. The seismic design guidelines of the National Fire Protection Association Standard NFPA-13 are reviewed, augmented, and summarized to define an efficient method for the seismic design of fire protection piping systems. 8 refs.

  7. 29 CFR 1926.24 - Fire protection and prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire protection and prevention. 1926.24 Section 1926.24... Provisions § 1926.24 Fire protection and prevention. The employer shall be responsible for the development and maintenance of an effective fire protection and prevention program at the job site throughout...

  8. 46 CFR 72.15-5 - Structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Structural fire protection. 72.15-5 Section 72.15-5... ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-5 Structural fire protection. See § 72.05-50 for ventilation requirements pertaining to structural fire protection....

  9. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  10. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  11. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  12. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  13. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  14. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water systems for fire protection... systems for fire protection. (a) Each waterfront facility handling LHG must have a supply of water and a..., all fixed fire-protection systems, including monitor nozzles, at their designed flow and pressure...

  15. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water systems for fire protection... systems for fire protection. (a) Each waterfront facility handling LHG must have a supply of water and a..., all fixed fire-protection systems, including monitor nozzles, at their designed flow and pressure...

  16. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water systems for fire protection... systems for fire protection. (a) Each waterfront facility handling LHG must have a supply of water and a..., all fixed fire-protection systems, including monitor nozzles, at their designed flow and pressure...

  17. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water systems for fire protection... systems for fire protection. (a) Each waterfront facility handling LHG must have a supply of water and a..., all fixed fire-protection systems, including monitor nozzles, at their designed flow and pressure...

  18. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 29.859 Section 29.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.859 Combustion heater fire protection....

  19. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 25.859 Section 25.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.859 Combustion heater fire protection....

  20. 29 CFR 1926.24 - Fire protection and prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection and prevention. 1926.24 Section 1926.24... Provisions § 1926.24 Fire protection and prevention. The employer shall be responsible for the development and maintenance of an effective fire protection and prevention program at the job site throughout...

  1. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... with 46 CFR subpart 193.15. (b) Portable fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table 193... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping... Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom must be protected by a fixed automatic...

  2. 14 CFR 25.854 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.854 Lavatory fire protection. For airplanes with a passenger capacity of 20 or more: (a) Each lavatory must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lavatory fire protection. 25.854 Section...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.24 - Fire protection and prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire protection and prevention. 1926.24 Section 1926.24... Provisions § 1926.24 Fire protection and prevention. The employer shall be responsible for the development and maintenance of an effective fire protection and prevention program at the job site throughout...

  4. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with 46 CFR subpart 193.15. (b) Portable fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table 193... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping... Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom must be protected by a fixed automatic...

  5. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with 46 CFR subpart 193.15. (b) Portable fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table 193... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping... Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom must be protected by a fixed automatic...

  6. 46 CFR 72.15-5 - Structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Structural fire protection. 72.15-5 Section 72.15-5... ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-5 Structural fire protection. See § 72.05-50 for ventilation requirements pertaining to structural fire protection....

  7. 46 CFR 72.15-5 - Structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Structural fire protection. 72.15-5 Section 72.15-5... ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-5 Structural fire protection. See § 72.05-50 for ventilation requirements pertaining to structural fire protection....

  8. 46 CFR 153.460 - Fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Commandant (CG-ENG) approves the substitution of a dry chemical (D) type fire protection system for an A or B... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection systems. 153.460 Section 153.460... Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.460 Fire protection systems. Each self-propelled...

  9. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 23.863... Construction Fire Protection § 23.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the...

  10. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 23.863... Construction Fire Protection § 23.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the...

  11. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 23.863... Construction Fire Protection § 23.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the...

  12. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 23.863... Construction Fire Protection § 23.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the...

  13. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 23.863... Construction Fire Protection § 23.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the...

  14. 14 CFR 25.854 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lavatory fire protection. 25.854 Section 25.854 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.854 Lavatory fire protection. For airplanes with...

  15. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface fire protection system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  16. Modeling thermal protection outfits for fire exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Guowen

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed that successfully predicts heat transfer through thermally protective clothing materials and garments exposed to intense heat. The model considers the effect of fire exposure to the thermophysical properties of materials as well as the air layers between the clothing material and skin surface. These experiments involved characterizing the flash fire surrounding the manikin by measuring the temperature of the flame above each thermal sensor in the manikin surface. An estimation method is used to calculate the heat transfer coefficient for each thermal sensor in a 4 second exposure to an average heat flux of 2.00cal/cm2sec. A parameter estimation method was used to estimate heat induced change in fabric thermophysical properties. The skin-clothe air gap distribution of different garments was determined using three-dimensional body scanning technology. Multi-layer skin model and a burn prediction method were used to predict second and third degree burns. The integrated generalized model developed was validated using the "Pyroman" Thermal Protective Clothing Analysis System with Kevlar/PBIRTM and NomexRTMIIIA coverall garments with different configuration and exposure time. A parametric study conducted using this numerical model indicated the influencing parameters on garment thermal protective performance in terms of skin burn damage subjected to 4 second flash fire exposure. The importance of these parameters is analyzed and distinguished. These parameters includes fabric thermophysical properties, PyromanRTM chamber flash fire characteristics, garment shrinkage and fit factors, as well as garment initial and test ambient temperature. Different skin models and their influence on burn prediction were also investigated using this model.

  17. 14 CFR 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... components in designated fire zones must be at least fire resistant. (c) Oxygen equipment and lines must— (1... escape from, any designated fire zone, and (3) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot cause ignition... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection: systems. 25.869 Section...

  18. 14 CFR 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... components in designated fire zones must be at least fire resistant. (c) Oxygen equipment and lines must— (1... escape from, any designated fire zone, and (3) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot cause ignition... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire protection: systems. 25.869 Section...

  19. 14 CFR 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... components in designated fire zones must be at least fire resistant. (c) Oxygen equipment and lines must— (1... escape from, any designated fire zone, and (3) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot cause ignition... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire protection: systems. 25.869 Section...

  20. 14 CFR 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... components in designated fire zones must be at least fire resistant. (c) Oxygen equipment and lines must— (1... escape from, any designated fire zone, and (3) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot cause ignition... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire protection: systems. 25.869 Section...

  1. 14 CFR 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... components in designated fire zones must be at least fire resistant. (c) Oxygen equipment and lines must— (1... escape from, any designated fire zone, and (3) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot cause ignition... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire protection: systems. 25.869 Section...

  2. 46 CFR 185.612 - Fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection equipment. 185.612 Section 185.612... TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.612 Fire protection equipment. (a) Complete but simple instructions for the operation of a fixed gas fire extinguishing system must be located in a conspicuous...

  3. 46 CFR 122.612 - Fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection equipment. 122.612 Section 122.612... Required § 122.612 Fire protection equipment. (a) Complete but simple instructions for the operation of a fixed gas fire extinguishing system must be located in a conspicuous place at or near each pull box...

  4. 46 CFR 185.612 - Fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection equipment. 185.612 Section 185.612... TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.612 Fire protection equipment. (a) Complete but simple instructions for the operation of a fixed gas fire extinguishing system must be located in a conspicuous...

  5. 46 CFR 122.612 - Fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection equipment. 122.612 Section 122.612... Required § 122.612 Fire protection equipment. (a) Complete but simple instructions for the operation of a fixed gas fire extinguishing system must be located in a conspicuous place at or near each pull box...

  6. 46 CFR 185.612 - Fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection equipment. 185.612 Section 185.612... TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.612 Fire protection equipment. (a) Complete but simple instructions for the operation of a fixed gas fire extinguishing system must be located in a conspicuous...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  12. Comparison of active cooling devices to passive cooling for rehabilitation of firefighters performing exercise in thermal protective clothing: A report from the Fireground Rehab Evaluation (FIRE) trial

    PubMed Central

    Hostler, David; Reis, Steven E; Bednez, James C; Kerin, Sarah; Suyama, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Background Thermal protective clothing (TPC) worn by firefighters provides considerable protection from the external environment during structural fire suppression. However, TPC is associated with physiological derangements that may have adverse cardiovascular consequences. These derangements should be treated during on-scene rehabilitation periods. Objective The present study examined heart rate and core temperature responses during the application of four active cooling devices, currently being marketed to the fire service for on-scene rehab, and compared them to passive cooling in a moderate temperature (approximately 24°C) and to an infusion of cold (4°C) saline. Methods Subjects exercised in TPC in a heated room. Following an initial exercise period (BOUT 1) the subjects exited the room, removed TPC, and for 20 minutes cooled passively at room temperature, received an infusion of cold normal saline, or were cooled by one of four devices (fan, forearm immersion in water, hand cooling, water perfused cooling vest). After cooling, subjects donned TPC and entered the heated room for another 50-minute exercise period (BOUT 2). Results Subjects were not able to fully recover core temperature during a 20-minute rehab period when provided rehydration and the opportunity to completely remove TPC. Exercise duration was shorter during BOUT 2 when compared to BOUT 1 but did not differ by cooling intervention. The overall magnitude and rate of cooling and heart rate recovery did not differ by intervention. Conclusions No clear advantage was identified when active cooling devices and cold intravenous saline were compared to passive cooling in a moderate temperature after treadmill exercise in TPC. PMID:20397868

  13. Terrestrial EVA Suit = Fire Fighter's Protective Clothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, Tico; Brown, Robert G.; Burrell, Eddie; DelRosso, Dominic; Krishen, Kumar; Moffitt, Harold; Orndoff, Evelyne; Santos, Beatrice; Butzer, Melissa; Dasgupta, Rajib

    1999-01-01

    Firefighters want to go to work, do their job well, and go home alive and uninjured. For their most important job, saving lives, firefighters want protective equipment that will allow more extended and effective time at fire scenes in order to perform victim search and rescue. A team, including engineers at NASA JSC and firefighters from Houston, has developed a list of problem areas for which NASA technology and know-how can recommend improvements for firefighter suits and gear. Prototypes for solutions have been developed and are being evaluated. This effort will spin back to NASA as improvements for lunar and planetary suits.

  14. 75 FR 66725 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Proposes To Revise Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Proposes To...: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) proposes to revise some of its safety... INFORMATION: Background The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) develops building, fire,...

  15. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-7 Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom shall be protected by a fixed automatic carbon...

  16. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-7 Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom shall be protected by a fixed automatic carbon...

  17. GLOVEBOX WINDOWS, FIRE PROTECTION AND VOICES FROM THE PAST

    SciTech Connect

    Till, W

    2009-04-15

    'Study the past--what is past is prologue'. These words appear as the motto on a pair of statues at the National Archives Building in Washington DC. They are also the opening sentence in the preface of a document written in August of 1956 entitled 'A Summary of Accidents and Incidents Involving Radiation in Atomic Energy Activities--June 1945 thru December 1955'. This document, one of several written by D.F. Hayes of the Safety and Fire Protection Branch, Division of Organization and Personnel, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in Washington DC, and many others are often forgotten even though they contain valuable glovebox fire protection lessons for us today.

  18. Factors Controlling Vegetation Fires in Protected and Non-Protected Areas of Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Sumalika; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lwin, Zin Mar; Lasko, Kristofer; Justice, Christopher O.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas) and woody savannas (non-protected areas). The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar. PMID:25909632

  19. 49 CFR 176.315 - Fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and water spray nozzle. (c) The pressure must be maintained in the vessel's fire mains during the... CFR 95.50), dry chemical (45.4 kg (100 pounds) minimum capacity) or equivalent fire extinguisher, or a... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection requirements. 176.315 Section...

  20. 49 CFR 176.315 - Fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and water spray nozzle. (c) The pressure must be maintained in the vessel's fire mains during the... CFR 95.50), dry chemical (45.4 kg (100 pounds) minimum capacity) or equivalent fire extinguisher, or a... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection requirements. 176.315 Section...

  1. 49 CFR 176.315 - Fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and water spray nozzle. (c) The pressure must be maintained in the vessel's fire mains during the... CFR 95.50), dry chemical (45.4 kg (100 pounds) minimum capacity) or equivalent fire extinguisher, or a... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection requirements. 176.315 Section...

  2. 49 CFR 176.315 - Fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and water spray nozzle. (c) The pressure must be maintained in the vessel's fire mains during the... CFR 95.50), dry chemical (45.4 kg (100 pounds) minimum capacity) or equivalent fire extinguisher, or a... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection requirements. 176.315 Section...

  3. Fires: what plant locations should we really protect

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    A fire protection analysis technique was developed from earlier work involving the protection of nuclear power plants against acts of sabotage. Characteristics unique to fire phenomena were used to modify the sabotage analysis methodology. These characteristics include the effects of fuel loads, ventilation rates, heat loss areas, barrier ratings, and plant locations. The new fire analysis technique was applied to an example nuclear power plant having 85 different plant areas. It was found that some safety and nonsafety areas were both highly vulnerable to fire spread and important to overall safety, while other areas were found to be of marginal importance to fire safety.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE, NON-HALOGEN FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the phaseout of halon production, two alternative technologies - water misting and low-residue particulates - have come to the fire protection forefront. These technologies use water or dry chemicals in reduced quantities to provide acceptable fire protection. A review and a...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire protection; training and organization. 77.1100 Section 77.1100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection §...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire protection; training and organization. 77.1100 Section 77.1100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection §...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire protection; training and organization. 77.1100 Section 77.1100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection §...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire protection; training and organization. 77.1100 Section 77.1100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection §...

  9. 14 CFR 29.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 29.863... § 29.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of...

  10. 14 CFR 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 25.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  11. 14 CFR 27.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 27.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1723 - Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1723 Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. EWIS components located in each area where flammable fluid or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be considered a potential...

  13. 14 CFR 27.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 27.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1723 - Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1723 Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. EWIS components located in each area where flammable fluid or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be considered a potential...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1723 - Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1723 Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. EWIS components located in each area where flammable fluid or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be considered a potential...

  16. 14 CFR 29.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 29.863... § 29.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of...

  17. 14 CFR 27.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 27.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1723 - Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1723 Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. EWIS components located in each area where flammable fluid or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be considered a potential...

  19. 14 CFR 29.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 29.863... § 29.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of...

  20. 14 CFR 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 25.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  1. 14 CFR 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 25.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  2. 14 CFR 29.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 29.863... § 29.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of...

  3. 14 CFR 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 25.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  4. 14 CFR 27.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 27.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  5. 14 CFR 29.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 29.863... § 29.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1723 - Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1723 Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. EWIS components located in each area where flammable fluid or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be considered a potential...

  7. 14 CFR 27.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 27.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  8. 14 CFR 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 25.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  9. Fire protection program fiscal year 1997 site support program plan - Hanford fire department

    SciTech Connect

    Good, D.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fires Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford Site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. this includes response to surrounding fire department districts under mutual aids agreements and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site. the fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing, and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention and education.

  10. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; (3) Operation of the fire main system and checking of the pressure at the most remote and highest outlets; (4) Testing of each fire hose to a test pressure equivalent to its maximum service pressure; (5..., and hydrostatic pressure tests. Table 176.810(b)(2)—Semiportable and Fixed Fire Extinguishing...

  11. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; (3) Operation of the fire main system and checking of the pressure at the most remote and highest outlets; (4) Testing of each fire hose to a test pressure equivalent to its maximum service pressure; (5..., and hydrostatic pressure tests. Table 176.810(b)(2)—Semiportable and Fixed Fire Extinguishing...

  12. Cold Vacuum Drying facility fire protection system design description (SYS 24)

    SciTech Connect

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) fire protection system (FPS). The FPS provides fire detection, suppression, and loss limitation for the CVDF structure, personnel, and in-process spent nuclear fuel. The system provides, along with supporting interfacing systems, detection, alarm, and activation instrumentation and controls, distributive piping system, isolation valves, and materials and controls to limit combustibles and the associated fire loadings.

  13. Modelling Fire Frequency in a Cerrado Savanna Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C.; Oliveira, Sofia L. J.; Pereira, José M. C.; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world’s most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997–2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects. PMID:25054540

  14. Modelling fire frequency in a Cerrado savanna protected area.

    PubMed

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C; Oliveira, Sofia L J; Pereira, José M C; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world's most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997-2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects. PMID:25054540

  15. Controls on fire activity over the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloster, S.; Brucher, T.; Brovkin, V.; Wilkenskjeld, S.

    2015-05-01

    Changes in fire activity over the last 8000 years are simulated with a global fire model driven by changes in climate and vegetation cover. The changes were separated into those caused through variations in fuel availability, fuel moisture or wind speed, which react differently to changes in climate. Disentangling these controlling factors helps in understanding the overall climate control on fire activity over the Holocene. Globally the burned area is simulated to increase by 2.5% between 8000 and 200 cal yr BP, with larger regional changes compensating nearly evening out on a global scale. Despite the absence of anthropogenic fire ignitions, the simulated trends in fire activity agree reasonably well with continental-scale reconstructions from charcoal records, with the exception of Europe. For some regions the change in fire activity is predominantly controlled through changes in fuel availability (Australia monsoon, Central America tropics/subtropics). For other regions changes in fuel moisture are more important for the overall trend in fire activity (North America, Sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, Asia monsoon). In Sub-Saharan Africa, for example, changes in fuel moisture alone lead to an increase in fire activity between 8000 and 200 cal yr BP, while changes in fuel availability lead to a decrease. Overall, the fuel moisture control is dominating the simulated fire activity for Sub-Saharan Africa. The simulations clearly demonstrate that both changes in fuel availability and changes in fuel moisture are important drivers for the fire activity over the Holocene. Fuel availability and fuel moisture do, however, have different climate controls. As such, observed changes in fire activity cannot be related to single climate parameters such as precipitation or temperature alone. Fire models, as applied in this study, in combination with observational records can help in understanding the climate control on fire activity, which is essential to project future fire

  16. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...; (3) Operation of the fire main system and checking of the pressure at the most remote and highest outlets; (4) Testing of each fire hose to a test pressure equivalent to its maximum service pressure; (5..., maintenance procedures, and hydrostatic pressure tests. Table 176.810(b)—Semiportable and Fixed...

  17. 33 CFR 154.820 - Fire, explosion, and detonation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire, explosion, and detonation... Systems § 154.820 Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. (a) A vapor control system with a single... oxygen analyzer that samples the vapor concentration continuously at a point not more than 6 meters...

  18. 33 CFR 154.820 - Fire, explosion, and detonation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire, explosion, and detonation... Systems § 154.820 Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. (a) A vapor control system with a single... oxygen analyzer that samples the vapor concentration continuously at a point not more than 6 meters...

  19. 33 CFR 154.820 - Fire, explosion, and detonation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire, explosion, and detonation... Systems § 154.820 Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. (a) A vapor control system with a single... oxygen analyzer that samples the vapor concentration continuously at a point not more than 6 meters...

  20. 33 CFR 154.820 - Fire, explosion, and detonation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire, explosion, and detonation... Systems § 154.820 Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. (a) A vapor control system with a single... oxygen analyzer that samples the vapor concentration continuously at a point not more than 6 meters...

  1. Reserves Protect against Deforestation Fires in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Adeney, J. Marion; Christensen, Norman L.; Pimm, Stuart L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. Methodology/Principal Findings Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. Conclusions/Significance Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon. PMID:19352423

  2. 22. Fire Protection Water Pump (low pressure), view to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Fire Protection Water Pump (low pressure), view to the southwest. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  3. 14. Generator Fire Protection for Unit 5 (low pressure), view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Generator Fire Protection for Unit 5 (low pressure), view to the southeast. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  4. 46 CFR 153.460 - Fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.460 Fire protection systems. Each self-propelled...

  5. 46 CFR 153.460 - Fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.460 Fire protection systems. Each self-propelled...

  6. 46 CFR 153.460 - Fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.460 Fire protection systems. Each self-propelled...

  7. 46 CFR 153.460 - Fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.460 Fire protection systems. Each self-propelled...

  8. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Diesel Generator Fire Protection

    SciTech Connect

    SINGH, G.

    2000-04-25

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection and Detection System installed by Project W-441 (Cold Vacuum Drying Facility and Diesel Generator Building) functions as required by project specifications.

  9. Influence of safeguards and fire protection on criticality safety

    SciTech Connect

    Six, D E

    1980-01-01

    There are several positive influences of safeguards and fire protection on criticality safety. Experts in each discipline must be aware of regulations and requirements of the others and work together to ensure a fault-tree design. EG and G Idaho, Inc., routinely uses an Occupancy-Use Readiness Manual to consider all aspects of criticality safety, fire protection, and safeguards. The use of the analytical tree is described.

  10. Study of aircraft crashworthiness for fire protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1981-01-01

    Impact-survivable postcrash fire accidents were surveyed. The data base developed includes foreign and domestic accidents involving airlines and jet aircraft. The emphasis was placed on domestic accidents, airlines, and jet aircraft due principally to availability of information. Only transport category aircraft in commercial service designed under FAR Part 25 were considered. A matrix was prepared to show the relationships between the accident characteristics and the fire fatalities. Typical postcrash fire scenaries were identified. Safety concepts were developed for three engineering categories: cabin interiors - cabin subsystems; power plant - engines and fuel systems; and structural mechanics - primary and secondary structures. The parameters identified for concept evaluation are cost, effectiveness, and societal concerns. Three concepts were selected for design definition and cost and effectiveness analysis: improved fire-resistant seat materials; anti-misting kerosene; and additional cabin emergency exits.

  11. Fire protection review, Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Idaho Falls, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, P.H.

    1990-10-01

    A fire protection survey was conducted for the Department of Energy at the Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, INC., Idaho Falls, Idaho, on April 24--27, April 30--May 4, June 4--8, and June 11--15, 1990. The purpose of the survey was to review the facility's fire protection program and to make recommendations according to the following criteria established by the Department of Energy: (1) Recommendations which would be made as the result of an improved risk or Highly Protected Risk (HPR) fire inspection of an industrial insured facility. (2) Identification of areas which are presently not protected or are inadequately protected where provision of automatic protection would reduce a fire or explosion loss to less than $1 million. (3) Identification of areas where loss potentials exceed $50 million assuming a failure of automatic protection systems and subsequent reliance only on separation and fire walls. (4) Evaluation of adequacy of compliance with recommendations made in prior surveys. Findings and recommendations in this report reflect to some degree the relative importance of the operation and the time to restore it to useful condition in the event that a loss were to occur.

  12. 46 CFR 115.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (7) Inspection and testing of smoke and fire detecting systems (including sensors and alarms) and... on fixed carbon dioxide systems must be tested or renewed, as required by 46 CFR 147.60 and 147.65... by 46 CFR 147.60 and 147.65 or 147.67. Note that Halon 1301 system approvals have expired, but...

  13. 46 CFR 115.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (7) Inspection and testing of smoke and fire detecting systems (including sensors and alarms) and... on fixed carbon dioxide systems must be tested or renewed, as required by 46 CFR 147.60 and 147.65... by 46 CFR 147.60 and 147.65 or 147.67. Note that Halon 1301 system approvals have expired, but...

  14. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....65 in subchapter N of this chapter; and (7) Inspection and testing of all smoke and fire detection... 10 (incorporated by reference, 46 CFR 175.600) with the frequency specified by NFPA 10. In addition... inspections and tests required by Table 176.810(b)(2), in addition to the tests required by 46 CFR 147.60,...

  15. Design criteria document, Fire Protection Task, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, Project W-405

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.H.

    1994-12-14

    The K Basin were constructed in the early 1950`s with a 20 year design life. The K Basins are currently in their third design life and are serving as a near term storage facility for irradiated N Reactor fuel until an interim fuel storage solution can be implemented. In April 1994, Project W-405, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, was established to address (among other things) the immediate fire protection needs of the 100K Area. A Fire Barrier Evaluation was performed for the wall between the active and inactive areas of the 105KE and 105KW buildings. This evaluation concludes that the wall is capable of being upgraded to provide an equivalent level of fire resistance as a qualified barrier having a fire resistance rating of 2 hours. The Fire Protection Task is one of four separate Tasks included within the scope of Project W405, K Basin Essential systems Recovery. The other three Tasks are the Water Distribution System Task, the Electrical System Task, and the Maintenance Shop/Support Facility Task. The purpose of Project W-405`s Fire Protection Task is to correct Life Safety Code (NFPA 101) non-compliances and to provide fire protection features in Buildings 105KE, 105KW and 190KE that are essential for assuring the safe operation and storage of spent nuclear fuel at the 100K Area Facilities` Irradiated Fuel Storage Basins (K Basins).

  16. Fire protection of safe shutdown capability at commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, K.

    1993-07-01

    The comprehensive industrial safety standards and codes that exist today have evolved from lessons learned through past experience, research results, and improvements in technological capabilities. The current requirements for fire safety features of commercial nuclear power stations operated in the US are a notable example of this practice. Although fire protection has always been an important design requirement, from the aftermath of a serious fire that occurred in 1975 at the Browns Ferry plant, it was learned that the life safety and property protection concerns of the major fire insurance underwriters may not sufficiently encompass nuclear safety issues, particularly with regard to the potential for fire damage to result in the common mode failure of redundant trains of systems, and components important to the safe shutdown of the reactor. Following its investigations into the Browns Ferry fire, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) promulgated guidance documents, which ultimately developed into mandatory regulations, necessary to assure the implementation of a fire protection program that would address nuclear safety concerns. The new criteria that evolved, contain prescriptive design features, as well as personnel and administrative requirements the Commission determined to be necessary to provide a defense-in-depth level of protection against the hazards of fire and its associated effects on safety related equipment. These criteria are primarily contained in Appendix R of Title 10 to the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 50). Since 1983, various members of the Department of Nuclear Energy (DNE) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have provided technical assistance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of its evaluations of fire protection features implemented at commercial nuclear power stations operated in the US. This paper presents a discussion of the insights gained by the author during his active participation in this area.

  17. Early warning of active fire hotspots through NASA FIRMS fire information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Murphy, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires and wildfires can threaten ecosystems, wildlife, property, and often, large swaths of populations. Early warning of active fire hotspots plays a crucial role in planning, managing, and mitigating the damaging effects of wildfires. The NASA Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) has been providing active fire location information to users in easy-to-use formats for the better part of last decade, with a view to improving the alerting mechanisms and response times to fight forest and wildfires. FIRMS utilizes fires flagged as hotspots by the MODIS instrument flying aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites and sends early warning of detected hotspots via email in near real-time or as daily and weekly summaries. The email alerts can also be customized to send alerts for a particular region of interest, a country, or a specific protected area or park. In addition, a web mapping component, named "Web Fire Mapper" helps query and visualize hotspots. A newer version of Web Fire Mapper is being developed to enhance the existing visualization and alerting capabilities. Plans include supporting near real-time imagery from Aqua and Terra satellites to provide a more helpful context while viewing fires. Plans are also underway to upgrade the email alerts system to provide mobile-formatted messages and short text messages (SMS). The newer version of FIRMS will also allow users to obtain geo-located image snapshots, which can be imported into local GIS software by stakeholders to help further analyses. This talk will discuss the FIRMS system, its enhancements and its role in helping map, alert, and monitor fire hotspots by providing quick data visualization, querying, and download capabilities.

  18. 78 FR 45573 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... COMMISSION Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for public comment.../CR-7135, ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire...

  19. Resistance after firing protected electric match. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Montoya, A.P.

    1980-03-20

    An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flame-producing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.

  20. 49 CFR 193.2717 - Training: fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Training: fire protection. 193.2717 Section 193.2717 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY...

  1. 6. Fire Protection (high pressure), view to the east. Located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Fire Protection (high pressure), view to the east. Located on the pipe floor between Unit 3 and Unit 4, the high pressure CO2 tanks are connected to the generator barrel of all four units. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  2. 14 CFR 121.253 - Powerplant fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Powerplant fire protection. 121.253 Section 121.253 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements §...

  3. 14 CFR 121.253 - Powerplant fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powerplant fire protection. 121.253 Section 121.253 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements §...

  4. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  5. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  6. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  7. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  8. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  9. Fire Protection System for an Atrium Satisfies Code Intent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehmer, Donald J.; Jensen, Rolf

    1975-01-01

    The Civic Center in Scarborough, Ontario, has an open interior design that incorporates an atrium. Fire protection elements include automatic sprinklers, provisions for efficient exiting of building occupants, and smoke evacuation by gravity exhaust. (Available from 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020, $15.00 annually.) (Author/MLF)

  10. 14 CFR 121.308 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lavatory fire protection. 121.308 Section 121.308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND...

  11. 46 CFR 28.380 - General structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General structural fire protection. 28.380 Section 28.380 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Requirements for Vessels Which Have Their Keel Laid or Are at a Similar Stage of Construction on or After or...

  12. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water systems for fire protection. 127.1507 Section 127.1507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment § 127.1507...

  13. 14 CFR 25.854 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lavatory fire protection. 25.854 Section 25.854 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... disposal receptacle for towels, paper, or waste, located within the lavatory. The extinguisher must...

  14. 14 CFR 25.854 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lavatory fire protection. 25.854 Section 25.854 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... disposal receptacle for towels, paper, or waste, located within the lavatory. The extinguisher must...

  15. 14 CFR 25.854 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lavatory fire protection. 25.854 Section 25.854 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... disposal receptacle for towels, paper, or waste, located within the lavatory. The extinguisher must...

  16. 33 CFR 154.2105 - Fire, explosion, and detonation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. 154.2105 Section 154.2105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Marine Vapor Control Systems Transfer...

  17. Fire Propagation Performance of Intumescent Fire Protective Coatings Using Eggshells as a Novel Biofiller

    PubMed Central

    Yew, M. C.; Ramli Sulong, N. H.; Yew, M. K.; Amalina, M. A.; Johan, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to synthesize and characterize an effective intumescent fire protective coating that incorporates eggshell powder as a novel biofiller. The performances of thermal stability, char formation, fire propagation, water resistance, and adhesion strength of coatings have been evaluated. A few intumescent flame-retardant coatings based on these three ecofriendly fire retardant additives ammonium polyphosphate phase II, pentaerythritol and melamine mixed together with flame-retardant fillers, and acrylic binder have been prepared and designed for steel. The fire performance of the coatings has conducted employing BS 476: Part 6-Fire propagation test. The foam structures of the intumescent coatings have been observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy. On exposure, the coated specimens' B, C, and D had been certified to be Class 0 due to the fact that their fire propagation indexes were less than 12. Incorporation of ecofriendly eggshell, biofiller into formulation D led to excellent performance in fire stopping (index value, (I) = 4.3) and antioxidation of intumescent coating. The coating is also found to be quite effective in water repellency, uniform foam structure, and adhesion strength. PMID:25136687

  18. Fire propagation performance of intumescent fire protective coatings using eggshells as a novel biofiller.

    PubMed

    Yew, M C; Ramli Sulong, N H; Yew, M K; Amalina, M A; Johan, M R

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to synthesize and characterize an effective intumescent fire protective coating that incorporates eggshell powder as a novel biofiller. The performances of thermal stability, char formation, fire propagation, water resistance, and adhesion strength of coatings have been evaluated. A few intumescent flame-retardant coatings based on these three ecofriendly fire retardant additives ammonium polyphosphate phase II, pentaerythritol and melamine mixed together with flame-retardant fillers, and acrylic binder have been prepared and designed for steel. The fire performance of the coatings has conducted employing BS 476: Part 6-Fire propagation test. The foam structures of the intumescent coatings have been observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy. On exposure, the coated specimens' B, C, and D had been certified to be Class 0 due to the fact that their fire propagation indexes were less than 12. Incorporation of ecofriendly eggshell, biofiller into formulation D led to excellent performance in fire stopping (index value, (I) = 4.3) and antioxidation of intumescent coating. The coating is also found to be quite effective in water repellency, uniform foam structure, and adhesion strength. PMID:25136687

  19. 33 CFR 149.420 - What are the fire protection requirements for escape routes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the cargo area by steel construction, in accordance with 46 CFR 108.133, or equivalent protection is... Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.420 What are the fire...

  20. 33 CFR 149.420 - What are the fire protection requirements for escape routes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the cargo area by steel construction, in accordance with 46 CFR 108.133, or equivalent protection is... Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.420 What are the fire...

  1. Fire protection covering for small diameter missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Sawko, P. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Flexible intumescent protection sheeting of unusually uniform thickness were prepared from epoxy-polysulfide compositions, containing microfibers and the ammonium salt of 1,4-nitroaniline-2-sulfonic acid, as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,663,464, except that an ammonium salt particle size in the order of 5 to 8 microns and a fiber size of about 1/128th inch in length and 3 to 5 microns in diameter were found critical to obtain the required density of 1.46 to 1.50 g/cc. The insulation sheeting was prepared by a continuous process involving vacuum mixing, calendering, and curing under very strict conditions which depend to some extent upon the thickness of the sheet produced.

  2. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149.401 Section 149.401 Navigation and Navigable..., CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.401 What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment? Each deepwater port must comply with...

  3. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149.401 Section 149.401 Navigation and Navigable..., CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.401 What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment? Each deepwater port must comply with...

  4. 46 CFR 116.430 - Insulation other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insulation other than for structural fire protection... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.430 Insulation other than for structural fire protection. (a) Combustible insulation may be used for pipe and machinery covering or lagging within...

  5. 46 CFR 72.05-40 - Insulation, other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insulation, other than for structural fire protection... VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-40 Insulation, other than for structural fire protection. (a) Any insulation installed for heat and comfort, refrigeration (including...

  6. 46 CFR 72.05-40 - Insulation, other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insulation, other than for structural fire protection... VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-40 Insulation, other than for structural fire protection. (a) Any insulation installed for heat and comfort, refrigeration (including...

  7. 46 CFR 116.430 - Insulation other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insulation other than for structural fire protection... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.430 Insulation other than for structural fire protection. (a) Combustible insulation may be used for pipe and machinery covering or lagging within...

  8. 46 CFR 116.430 - Insulation other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insulation other than for structural fire protection... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.430 Insulation other than for structural fire protection. (a) Combustible insulation may be used for pipe and machinery covering or lagging within...

  9. 46 CFR 116.430 - Insulation other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insulation other than for structural fire protection... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.430 Insulation other than for structural fire protection. (a) Combustible insulation may be used for pipe and machinery covering or lagging within...

  10. 46 CFR 116.430 - Insulation other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insulation other than for structural fire protection... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.430 Insulation other than for structural fire protection. (a) Combustible insulation may be used for pipe and machinery covering or lagging within...

  11. 46 CFR 72.05-40 - Insulation, other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insulation, other than for structural fire protection... VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-40 Insulation, other than for structural fire protection. (a) Any insulation installed for heat and comfort, refrigeration (including...

  12. 46 CFR 72.05-40 - Insulation, other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insulation, other than for structural fire protection... VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-40 Insulation, other than for structural fire protection. (a) Any insulation installed for heat and comfort, refrigeration (including...

  13. 76 FR 70413 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Request for Comments on NFPA's Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Request for... notice on behalf of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) to announce the availability of and...: Since 1896, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has accomplished its mission by...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  19. 14 CFR 29.861 - Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of structure, controls, and... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.861 Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts. Each part of the...

  20. 14 CFR 27.861 - Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire protection of structure, controls, and... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 27.861 Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts. Each part of the...

  1. 14 CFR 29.861 - Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire protection of structure, controls, and... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.861 Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts. Each part of the...

  2. 14 CFR 27.861 - Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of structure, controls, and... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 27.861 Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts. Each part of the...

  3. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls, engine... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Flight controls, engine mounts, and other...

  4. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  5. Seek alternative to halon for gas-turbine fire protection

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This article describes fine water-spray technology which recasts use of water for fixed fire-suppression systems. Technology differs from common sprinkler system. Since the 1987 Montreal Protocol governing use and production of chemicals that are suspected of depleting the upper atmospheric ozone layer, fire-protection manufacturers have explored alternatives to halon 1301, a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) used extensively in powerplant applications. One particularly challenging application is the gas-turbine enclosure, because of its high operating temperature and range of potential fire hazards--pools of leaking lube oil, oil-soaked insulation, ruptured high-pressure natural-gas lines, and so on. One alternative racing toward commercialization is fine water spray produced by the so-called twin-fluid atomizing nozzle. The technology, developed and tested in Europe, combines water and compressed air--or nitrogen--to direct precisely sized water droplets to the base of a fire. According to david Kipley, Vectra Technologies Inc., Naperville, IL, the system can rapidly extinguish large, intense fires using limited quantities of water.

  6. Corrosion protection pays off for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    2006-11-15

    Zinc has long been used to hot-dip galvanise steel to deliver protection in harsh environments. Powder River Basin or eastern coal-fired plants benefit from using galvanized steel for conveyors, vibratory feeders, coal hoppers, chutes, etc. because maintenance costs are essentially eliminated. When life cycle costs for this process are compared to an alternative three-coal paint system for corrosion protection, the latter costs 5-10 times more than hot-dip galvanizing. An AEP Power Plant in San Juan, Puerto Rico and the McDuffie Coal Terminal in Mobile, AL, USA have both used hot-dip galvanized steel. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Reconstruction of fire spread within wildland fire events in Northern Eurasia from the MODIS active fire product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, T. V.; Csiszar, I. A.

    2007-04-01

    Russian boreal forests have been reshaped by wildland fire for millennia. While fire is a natural component of boreal ecosystems, it impacts various aspects of the environment and affects human well-being. Often fires occur over large remote areas with limited access, which makes their ground-based observation difficult. A significant progress has been made in mapping burned area from satellite imagery, which provides consistent and fairly unbiased estimates of fire impact on areas of interest at multiple scales. Although the information provided by burned area products is highly important, the spatio-temporal dynamics of individual fire events and their impact are less known. In high northern latitudes of Northern Eurasia, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) makes up to four daily observations from each of the Terra and Aqua satellites providing consistent data on fire development with high temporal frequency. Here we introduce an approach to reconstruct the development of fire events based on active fire detections from MODIS. Fire Spread Reconstruction (FSR) provides a means for characterization of fire occurrence over large territories from remotely sensed data. Individual fire detections are clustered within a GIS environment based on a set of rules determining proximity between fire observations in space and time. FSR determines the number of fire events, their approximate size, duration, and fire spread rate and allows for the analysis of fire occurrence and spread as a function of vegetation, fire season, fire weather and other parameters. FSR clusters were compared to burned scars mapped from Landsat7/ETM+ imagery over Yakutia (Russia). While some smaller burn scars were found to be formed through a continuous burning of a single fire event, large burned areas in Siberia were created by a constellation of fire events incorporating over 100 individual fire clusters. Geographic regions were found to have a stronger influence on the rates of

  8. Protective Breathing Apparatus. Fire Service Certification Series. Unit FSCS-FF-6-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    This training unit on protective breathing apparatus is part of a 17-unit course package written to aid instructors in the development, teaching, and evaluation of fire fighters in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. The purpose stated for the 10-hour unit is to enable the fire fighter to perform routine fire fighting and rescue…

  9. 48 CFR 2052.235-71 - Safety, health, and fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety, health, and fire....235-71 Safety, health, and fire protection. As prescribed in 2035.70(a)(2), the contracting officer..., Health, and Fire Protection (JAN 1993) The contractor shall take all reasonable precautions in...

  10. 76 FR 70414 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Proposes To Revise Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Proposes To... behalf of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) to announce the NFPA's proposal to revise some of its fire safety codes and standards and requests proposals from the public to amend existing...

  11. 75 FR 66735 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Request for Comments on NFPA's Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter. NFPA 275 Standard Method of P Fire Tests for the Evaluation of... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Request for.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Since 1896, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has accomplished...

  12. Transposed firing activation of motor units

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Joshua C.; Contessa, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Muscles are composed of groups of muscle fibers, called motor units, each innervated by a single motoneuron originating in the spinal cord. During constant or linearly varying voluntary force contractions, motor units are activated in a hierarchical order, with the earlier-recruited motor units having greater firing rates than the later-recruited ones. We found that this normal pattern of firing activation can be altered during oscillatory contractions where the force oscillates at frequencies ≥2 Hz. During these high-frequency oscillations, the activation of the lower-threshold motor units effectively decreases and that of the higher-threshold motor units effectively increases. This transposition of firing activation provides means to activate higher-threshold motor units preferentially. Our results demonstrate that the hierarchical regulation of motor unit activation can be manipulated to activate specific motoneuron populations preferentially. This finding can be exploited to develop new forms of physical therapies and exercise programs that enhance muscle performance or that target the preferential atrophy of high-threshold motor units as a result of aging or motor disorders such as stroke and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:24899671

  13. Aviation Engine Test Facilities (AETF) fire protection study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beller, R. C.; Burns, R. E.; Leonard, J. T.

    1989-07-01

    An analysis is presented to the effectiveness of various types of fire fighting agents in extinguishing the kinds of fires anticipated in Aviation Engine Test Facilities (AETF), otherwise known as Hush Houses. The agents considered include Aqueous Film-Forming Foam, Halon 1301, Halon 1211 and water. Previous test work has shown the rapidity with which aircraft, especially high performance aircraft, can be damaged by fire. Based on this, tentative criteria for this evaluation included a maximum time of 20 s from fire detection to extinguishment and a period of 30 min in which the agent would prevent reignition. Other issues examined included: toxicity, corrosivity, ease of personnel egress, system reliability, and cost effectiveness. The agents were evaluated for their performance in several fire scenarios, including: under frame fire, major engine fire, engine disintegration fire, high-volume pool fire with simultaneous spill fire, internal electrical fire, and runaway engine fire.

  14. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... protection engineer? 102-80.135 Section 102-80.135 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... qualified fire protection engineer? A qualified fire protection engineer is defined as an individual with a..., spread, and suppression, meeting one of the following criteria: (a) An engineer having an...

  15. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... protection engineer? 102-80.135 Section 102-80.135 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... qualified fire protection engineer? A qualified fire protection engineer is defined as an individual with a..., spread, and suppression, meeting one of the following criteria: (a) An engineer having an...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering...

  1. Cost-benefit analysis of passive fire protections in road LPG transportation.

    PubMed

    Paltrinieri, Nicola; Bonvicini, Sarah; Spadoni, Gigliola; Cozzani, Valerio

    2012-02-01

    The cost-benefit evaluation of passive fire protection adoption in the road transport of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was investigated. In a previous study, mathematical simulations of real scale fire scenarios proved the effectiveness of passive fire protections in preventing the "fired" boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), thus providing a significant risk reduction. In the present study the economical aspects of the adoption of fire protections are analyzed and an approach to cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is proposed. The CBA model is based on the comparison of the risk reduction due to fire protections (expressed in monetary terms by the value of a statistical life) and the cost of the application of fire protections to a fleet of tankers. Different types of fire protections were considered, as well as the possibility to apply protections to the entire fleet or only to a part of it. The application of the proposed model to a real-life case study is presented and discussed. Results demonstrate that the adoption of passive fire protections on road tankers, though not compulsory in Europe, can be economically feasible, thus representing a concrete measure to achieve control of the "major hazard accidents" cited by the European legislation. PMID:21762459

  2. Improving global fire carbon emissions estimates by combining moderate resolution burned area and active fire observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; Giglio, L.; Rogers, B. M.; van der Werf, G.

    2011-12-01

    In several important biomes, including croplands and tropical forests, many small fires exist that have sizes that are well below the detection limit for the current generation of burned area products derived from moderate resolution spectroradiometers. These fires likely have important effects on greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and regional air quality. Here we developed an approach for combining 1km thermal anomalies (active fires; MOD14A2) and 500m burned area observations (MCD64A1) to estimate the prevalence of these fires and their likely contribution to burned area and carbon emissions. We first estimated active fires within and outside of 500m burn scars in 0.5 degree grid cells during 2001-2010 for which MCD64A1 burned area observations were available. For these two sets of active fires we then examined mean fire radiative power (FRP) and changes in enhanced vegetation index (EVI) derived from 16-day intervals immediately before and after each active fire observation. To estimate the burned area associated with sub-500m fires, we first applied burned area to active fire ratios derived solely from within burned area perimeters to active fires outside of burn perimeters. In a second step, we further modified our sub-500m burned area estimates using EVI changes from active fires outside and within of burned areas (after subtracting EVI changes derived from control regions). We found that in northern and southern Africa savanna regions and in Central and South America dry forest regions, the number of active fires outside of MCD64A1 burned areas increased considerably towards the end of the fire season. EVI changes for active fires outside of burn perimeters were, on average, considerably smaller than EVI changes associated with active fires inside burn scars, providing evidence for burn scars that were substantially smaller than the 25 ha area of a single 500m pixel. FRP estimates also were lower for active fires outside of burn perimeters. In our

  3. Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility Fire Protection System Design Description (SYS 24)

    SciTech Connect

    SINGH, G.

    2000-10-17

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility fire protection system (FPS). The primary features of the FPS for the CVD are a fire alarm and detection system, automatic sprinklers, and fire hydrants. The FPS also includes fire extinguishers located throughout the facility and fire hydrants to assist in manual firefighting efforts. In addition, a fire barrier separates the operations support (administrative) area from the process bays and process bay support areas. Administrative controls to limit combustible materials have been established and are a part of the overall fire protection program. The FPS is augmented by assistance from the Hanford Fire Department (HED) and by interface systems including service water, electrical power, drains, instrumentation and controls. This SDD, when used in conjunction with the other elements of the definitive design package, provides a complete picture of the FPS for the CVD Facility.

  4. F-200(TM): The new solution for fire protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Alfred J.; Walter, Gerald J.

    1995-01-01

    For more than two decades, halon 1301 has been protecting personnel and valuable aircraft and aerospace equipment from the hazards of fire. Only halon 1301 offered the advantages of being clean, odorless, colorless, electrically non-conductive and safe for occupied areas. However, concerns about the depletion of stratospheric ozone and the resulting Montreal Protocol mandated the production phase-out of halon 1301 on December 31, 1993. Prior to this phase-out, Great Lakes Chemical Corporation, the world's leading manufacturer of halon, directed substantial research efforts toward the rapid development of a safe, clean, and effective halon replacement. Some of the criteria for the development of a clean agent included: that it be an effective fire extinguisher; that it be safe for personnel; that it be safe for the environment; that it be safe for valuable assets; that it be cost effective; and that it be able to withstand the rigors of independent approvals. As the result of this research, Great Lakes developed FM-200(TM) is 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 3-hepta-fluoropropane. This paper discusses the physical properties of FM-200(TM) and its efficiency as an extinguishant.

  5. The relative importance of climatic, environmental, and anthropogenic factors on fire activity in Africa using the MODIS active fire product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, R. L.; Eckmann, T. C.; Still, C. J.

    2006-12-01

    Wildland fires are local-scale phenomena that have global-scale impacts due to emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols. Fires are also thought to fundamentally influence ecosystem structure and function, particularly in grasslands and savannas. Satellite observations of fire events facilitate studies of the spatial distribution and frequency of fire activity, even on continental scales, and yet few studies have explored in detail the controls on such fire events. In a preliminary effort to contribute to these broad scientific issues, we integrate several sources of satellite and other spatially explicit datasets to investigate the relative importance of climate and ecosystem controls on fire activity in woody- and herbaceous-dominated biomes. Specifically, for a single year, we analyze fire occurrence in Africa--as detected by the MODIS active fire product--as a function of latitude, time of year, land-cover type, vegetation growth form, climate, and percentage C4 vegetation cover. Additionally, we integrate satellite-observed lightning activity and a spatially explicit dataset of human population density to categorize fire regimes as either human dominated (i.e., majority of ignitions are related to anthropogenic activity) or 'natural' fire ecosystems (i.e., majority of ignitions are related to lightning activity). This work will be the basis of future modeling efforts to assess the relationships among climate, fire activity, and vegetation structure, particularly in C4 grass-dominated biomes, which are thought to be dependent on regular fires for their maintenance and growth.

  6. LLNL Fire Protection Engineering Standard 5.8 Facility Survey Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2012-01-04

    This standard describes the LLNL Fire Protection Facility Survey Program. The purpose of this standard is to describe the type of facility surveys required to fulfill the requirements of DOE Order 420.1B, Facility Safety. Nothing in this standard is intended to prevent the development of a FHA using alternative approaches. Alternate approaches, including formatting, will be by exception only, and approved by the Fire Marshal/Fire Protection Engineering Subject Matter Expert in advance of their use.

  7. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire Protection References For Further Information C Appendix C to Subpart L of Part 1910 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Pt. 1910, Subpt. L, App. C Appendix C...

  8. 14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. 23.855 Section 23.855 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection...

  9. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... by an OSHA Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory, meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.7, for... Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-based Fire Protection Systems, (incorporated by reference, see... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... by an OSHA Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory, meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.7, for... Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-based Fire Protection Systems, (incorporated by reference, see... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section 1915.507 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment §...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... by an OSHA Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory, meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.7, for... Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-based Fire Protection Systems, (incorporated by reference, see... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section...

  13. 76 FR 40777 - Interim Enforcement Policy for Certain Fire Protection Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Register notice Date Brief description 69 FR 33684 June 16, 2004 Describes the initial interim Enforcement Policy on fire protection. 70 FR 2662 January 14, 2005 Revises the submittal date for licensees to receive enforcement discretion for existing identified fire protection program noncompliant issues. 71...

  14. 46 CFR 28.825 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess fire detection and protection equipment. 28.825 Section 28.825 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.825 Excess fire detection and protection equipment. Instead of meeting...

  15. Mapping the Daily Progression of Large Wildland Fires Using MODIS Active Fire Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veraverbeke, Sander; Sedano, Fernando; Hook, Simon J.; Randerson, James T.; Jin, Yufang; Rogers, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    High temporal resolution information on burned area is a prerequisite for incorporating bottom-up estimates of wildland fire emissions in regional air transport models and for improving models of fire behavior. We used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire product (MO(Y)D14) as input to a kriging interpolation to derive continuous maps of the evolution of nine large wildland fires. For each fire, local input parameters for the kriging model were defined using variogram analysis. The accuracy of the kriging model was assessed using high resolution daily fire perimeter data available from the U.S. Forest Service. We also assessed the temporal reporting accuracy of the MODIS burned area products (MCD45A1 and MCD64A1). Averaged over the nine fires, the kriging method correctly mapped 73% of the pixels within the accuracy of a single day, compared to 33% for MCD45A1 and 53% for MCD64A1.

  16. Fire Protection Program fiscal year 1996, site support program plan Hanford Fire Department. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Good, D.E.

    1995-09-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under a mutual aid agreement and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System). The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, self-contained breathing apparatus maintenance, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This report gives a program overview, technical program baselines, and cost and schedule baseline.

  17. Crew Exploration Vehicle Environmental Control and Life Support Fire Protection Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard; Tuan, George C.

    2007-01-01

    As part of preparing for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) worked on developing the requirements to manage the fire risk. The new CEV poses unique challenges to current fire protection systems. The size and configuration of the vehicle resembles the Apollo capsule instead of the current Space Shuttle or the International Space Station. The smaller free air volume and fully cold plated avionic bays of the CEV requires a different approach in fire protection than the ones currently utilized. The fire protection approach discussed in this paper incorporates historical lessons learned and fire detection and suppression system design philosophy spanning from Apollo to the International Space Station. Working with NASA fire and materials experts, this approach outlines the best requirements for both the closed out area of the vehicle, such as the avionics bay, and the crew cabin area to address the unique challenges due to the size and configuration of the CEV.

  18. Nuclear power plant fire protection: philosophy and analysis. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D. L.

    1980-05-01

    This report combines a fire severity analysis technique with a fault tree methodology for assessing the importance to nuclear power plant safety of certain combinations of components and systems. Characteristics unique to fire, such as propagation induced by the failure of barriers, have been incorporated into the methodology. By applying the resulting fire analysis technique to actual conditions found in a representative nuclear power plant, it is found that some safety and nonsafety areas are both highly vulnerable to fire spread and impotant to overall safety, while other areas prove to be of marginal importance. Suggestions are made for further experimental and analytical work to supplement the fire analysis method.

  19. Protection against fire in the mountainous forests of Greece case study: forest complex of W. Nestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosos, Vasileios C.; Giannoulas, Vasileios J.; Stergiadou, Anastasia; Karagiannis, Evaggelos; Doukas, Aristotelis-Kosmas G.

    2014-08-01

    Forest fires are an ancient phenomenon. Appear, however, with devastating frequency and intensity over the last 30 years. In our country, the climatic conditions in combination with the intense relief, favor their rapid spread. Considering the fact that environmental conditions provided for decades even worse (increased temperature, drought and vegetation), then the problem of forest fires in our country, is expected to become more intense. The work focuses on the optimization model of the opening up of the forest mountain areas taking into account the prevention and suppression of forest fires. Research area is the mountain forest complex of W. Nestos of Drama Prefecture. The percentage of forest protection area is examined under the light whether the total hose length corresponds to the actual operational capacity to reach a fire source. For this reason are decided to present a three case study concerning area of the forest being protected by fire extinguishing vehicles. The first one corresponds to a fire suppression bandwidth (buffer zone) with a capacity radius of 150m uphill and 250m downhill from the origin point where the fire extinguishing vehicle stands. The second one corresponds to a fire suppression capacity of 200m uphill and 400m downhill and the third one corresponds to a fire suppression capacity of 300m uphill and 500m downhill. The most important forest technical infrastructures to prevent fire are roads network (opening up) for fire protection and buffer zones. Patrols of small and agile 4 × 4 appropriately equipped (pipe length of 500 meters and putting pressure on uphill to 300 meters) for the first attack of the fire in the summer months coupled with early warning of fire observatories adequately cover the forest protection of W. Nestos complex. But spatial distribution needed improvements to a road density of the optimum economic Dec, both forest protection and for better management (skidding) of woody capital.

  20. Fire Protection Specialist, Blocks IV and V, 17-3. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text contains the fourth and fifth blocks of a five-block course for use in training fire protection specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are the following topics: structural firefighting (operation and maintenance of hydrants, emergency response activities, structural pumpers, vehicle positioning and relay, hose…

  1. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... areas important to safety, with the following objectives: • To prevent fires from starting; • To detect... protection in the work activity procedure. 5. Govern the use of ignition sources by use of a flame permit system to control welding, flame cutting, brazing, or soldering operations. A separate permit shall...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... areas important to safety, with the following objectives: • To prevent fires from starting; • To detect... protection in the work activity procedure. 5. Govern the use of ignition sources by use of a flame permit system to control welding, flame cutting, brazing, or soldering operations. A separate permit shall...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... areas important to safety, with the following objectives: • To prevent fires from starting; • To detect... protection in the work activity procedure. 5. Govern the use of ignition sources by use of a flame permit system to control welding, flame cutting, brazing, or soldering operations. A separate permit shall...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... areas important to safety, with the following objectives: • To prevent fires from starting; • To detect... protection in the work activity procedure. 5. Govern the use of ignition sources by use of a flame permit system to control welding, flame cutting, brazing, or soldering operations. A separate permit shall...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... areas important to safety, with the following objectives: • To prevent fires from starting; • To detect... protection in the work activity procedure. 5. Govern the use of ignition sources by use of a flame permit system to control welding, flame cutting, brazing, or soldering operations. A separate permit shall...

  6. Projecting climate-driven increases in North American fire activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate regulates fire activity through controls on vegetation productivity (fuels), lightning ignitions, and conditions governing fire spread. In many regions of the world, human management also influences the timing, duration, and extent of fire activity. These coupled interactions between human and natural systems make fire a complex component of the Earth system. Satellite data provide valuable information on the spatial and temporal dynamics of recent fire activity, as active fires, burned area, and land cover information can be combined to separate wildfires from intentional burning for agriculture and forestry. Here, we combined satellite-derived burned area data with land cover and climate data to assess fire-climate relationships in North America between 2000-2012. We used the latest versions of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) burned area product and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) climate data to develop regional relationships between burned area and potential evaporation (PE), an integrated dryness metric. Logistic regression models were developed to link burned area with PE and individual climate variables during and preceding the fire season, and optimal models were selected based on Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Overall, our model explained 85% of the variance in burned area since 2000 across North America. Fire-climate relationships from the era of satellite observations provide a blueprint for potential changes in fire activity under scenarios of climate change. We used that blueprint to evaluate potential changes in fire activity over the next 50 years based on twenty models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). All models suggest an increase of PE under low and high emissions scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5, respectively), with largest increases in projected burned area across the western US and central Canada. Overall, near

  7. Fire Protection Specialist, Blocks I, II, & III, 17-2. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text contains the first three blocks of a five-block course for use in training fire protection specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are the following topics: fire protection objectives and responsibilities (fire protection and occupational safety, extinguishing agents, principles and theory of combustion, natural…

  8. Recent Extreme Forest Fire Activity in Western Russia: Fire Danger Conditions, Fire Behavior and Smoke Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocks, B. J.; Fromm, M.; Goldammer, J.; Carr, R.; Sukhinin, A. I.

    2010-12-01

    During the summer of 2010, widespread forest and peatland fires in western Russia burned over hundreds of thousands of hectares, burning over croplands, destroying hundreds of homes, and directly causing the death of more than 50 people. Unprecedented drought conditions, combined with an extended heat wave, resulted in extreme fire danger conditions and explosive fire behavior in a region of Russia not noted for large fires. Several fires exhibited pyroconvection, injecting smoke directly into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, while deep-burning fires created major regional smoke problems. This smoke persisted in the heavily-populated areas around Moscow, exposing millions to high levels of ozone and particulate matter, and creating both immediate and longer-term health risks. This presentation will explore the drought conditions leading to the catastrophic fire behavior experienced in western Russia, and analyze fire behavior in terms of fuel consumption, smoke production, fire intensity levels, and pyroconvection. Impacts of regional and long-range smoke transport will also be discussed.

  9. Fire protection research for DOE facilities: FY 83 year-end report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Foote, K.L.; Priante, S.J.; Stagge, K.

    1984-08-02

    We summarize our research in FY 83 for the DOE-sponsored project, Fire Protection Research for DOE Facilities. This research program was initiated in 1977 to advance fire-protection strategies of energy technology facilities in order to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that develop along with energy technology research. Since 1977, the program has broadened its original scope, as reflected in previous year-end reports. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Using these experiments as models for methodology development, we are currently advancing three major task areas: (1) the identification of fire hazards unique to fusion energy facilities, (2) the evaluation of accepted fire-management measures to meet the negate hazards, and (3) the performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models.

  10. Fire-protection research for DOE facilities: FY 82 year-end report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Priante, S.J.; Foote, K.L.

    1983-09-02

    We summarize our research in FY 82 for the DOE-sponsored project, Fire Protection Research for DOE Facilities. This research program was initiated in 1977 to advance fire-protection strategies for energy technology facilities to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that develop along with energy technology research. Since 1977, the program has broadened its original scope, as reflected in previous year-end reports. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Using these experiments as models for methodology development, we are concurrently advancing three major task areas: (1) the identification of fire hazards unique to current fusion energy facilities; (2) the evaluation of accepted fire-management measures to meet and negate hazards; and (3) the performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models.

  11. Fire-Protection Research for Energy-Technology Projects: FY 1981 year-end report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Foote, K.L.; Priante, S.J.

    1982-07-20

    This report summarizes research conducted in fiscal year 1981 for the DOE-supported project, Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. Initiated in 1977, this ongoing research program was conceived to advance fire protection strategies for Energy Technology Projects to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that are developing with the complexity of energy technology research. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Employing these facilities as models for methodology development, we are simultaneously advancing three major task areas: (1) determination of unique fire hazards of current fusion energy facilities; (2) evaluation of the ability of accepted fire management measures to meet and negate hazards; and (3) performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models.

  12. Summary of fire protection programs of the United States Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This edition of the Annual Summary of DOE Fire Protection Programs continues the series started in 1972. Since May 1950, an annual report has been required from each field organization. The content has varied through the years and most of the accident data reporting requirements have been superseded by the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System administered by EG G, Idaho. However, this report is the sole source of information relating to fire protection programs, and to the actions of the field offices and to headquarters that are of general fire protection interest.

  13. Effects of weathering on performance of intumescent coatings for structure fire protection in the wildland-urban interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrani, Babak

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of weathering on the performance of intumescent fire-retardant coatings on wooden products. The weathering effects included primary (solar irradiation, moisture, and temperature) and secondary (environmental contaminants) parameters at various time intervals. Wildland urban interface (WUI) fires have been an increasing threat to lives and properties. Existing solutions to mitigate the damages caused by WUI fires include protecting the structures from ignition and minimizing the fire spread from one structure to another. These solutions can be divided into two general categories: active fire protection systems and passive fire protection systems. Passive systems are either using pre-applied wetting agents (water, gel, or foam) or adding an extra layer (composite wraps or coatings). Fire-retardant coating treatment methods can be divided into impregnated (penetrant) and intumescent categories. Intumescent coatings are easy to apply, economical, and have a better appearance in comparison to other passive fire protection methods, and are the main focus of this study. There have been limited studies conducted on the application of intumescent coatings on wooden structures and their performance after long-term weathering exposure. The main concerns of weathering effects are: 1) the reduction of ignition resistance of the coating layer after weathering; and 2) the fire properties of coatings after weathering since coatings might contribute as a combustible fuel and assist the fire growth after ignition. Three intumescent coatings were selected and exposed to natural weathering conditions in three different time intervals. Two types of tests were performed on the specimens: a combustibility test consisted of a bench-scale performance evaluation using a Cone Calorimeter, and a thermal decomposition test using Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) method (also known

  14. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.135 Who is a... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who is a qualified fire protection engineer? 102-80.135 Section 102-80.135 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  15. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.135 Who is a... safety engineering, plus a minimum of 4 years work experience in fire protection engineering. (b)...

  16. 78 FR 55765 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... (78 FR 45573) a request for public comment on NUREG/CR-7135, ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory... COMMISSION Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft NUREG/CR, reopening of comment...

  17. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pre-engineered dry or wet chemical fire extinguishing system meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 or 17A and must be listed by an independent laboratory. (c) A vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Galley hood and other fire protection equipment....

  18. Effectiveness of strict vs. multiple use protected areas in reducing tropical forest fires: a global analysis using matching methods.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew; Chomitz, Kenneth M

    2011-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) cover a quarter of the tropical forest estate. Yet there is debate over the effectiveness of PAs in reducing deforestation, especially when local people have rights to use the forest. A key analytic problem is the likely placement of PAs on marginal lands with low pressure for deforestation, biasing comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Using matching techniques to control for this bias, this paper analyzes the global tropical forest biome using forest fires as a high resolution proxy for deforestation; disaggregates impacts by remoteness, a proxy for deforestation pressure; and compares strictly protected vs. multiple use PAs vs indigenous areas. Fire activity was overlaid on a 1 km map of tropical forest extent in 2000; land use change was inferred for any point experiencing one or more fires. Sampled points in pre-2000 PAs were matched with randomly selected never-protected points in the same country. Matching criteria included distance to road network, distance to major cities, elevation and slope, and rainfall. In Latin America and Asia, strict PAs substantially reduced fire incidence, but multi-use PAs were even more effective. In Latin America, where there is data on indigenous areas, these areas reduce forest fire incidence by 16 percentage points, over two and a half times as much as naïve (unmatched) comparison with unprotected areas would suggest. In Africa, more recently established strict PAs appear to be effective, but multi-use tropical forest protected areas yield few sample points, and their impacts are not robustly estimated. These results suggest that forest protection can contribute both to biodiversity conservation and CO2 mitigation goals, with particular relevance to the REDD agenda. Encouragingly, indigenous areas and multi-use protected areas can help to accomplish these goals, suggesting some compatibility between global environmental goals and support for local livelihoods. PMID:21857950

  19. Effectiveness of Strict vs. Multiple Use Protected Areas in Reducing Tropical Forest Fires: A Global Analysis Using Matching Methods

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Andrew; Chomitz, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) cover a quarter of the tropical forest estate. Yet there is debate over the effectiveness of PAs in reducing deforestation, especially when local people have rights to use the forest. A key analytic problem is the likely placement of PAs on marginal lands with low pressure for deforestation, biasing comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Using matching techniques to control for this bias, this paper analyzes the global tropical forest biome using forest fires as a high resolution proxy for deforestation; disaggregates impacts by remoteness, a proxy for deforestation pressure; and compares strictly protected vs. multiple use PAs vs indigenous areas. Fire activity was overlaid on a 1 km map of tropical forest extent in 2000; land use change was inferred for any point experiencing one or more fires. Sampled points in pre-2000 PAs were matched with randomly selected never-protected points in the same country. Matching criteria included distance to road network, distance to major cities, elevation and slope, and rainfall. In Latin America and Asia, strict PAs substantially reduced fire incidence, but multi-use PAs were even more effective. In Latin America, where there is data on indigenous areas, these areas reduce forest fire incidence by 16 percentage points, over two and a half times as much as naïve (unmatched) comparison with unprotected areas would suggest. In Africa, more recently established strict PAs appear to be effective, but multi-use tropical forest protected areas yield few sample points, and their impacts are not robustly estimated. These results suggest that forest protection can contribute both to biodiversity conservation and CO2 mitigation goals, with particular relevance to the REDD agenda. Encouragingly, indigenous areas and multi-use protected areas can help to accomplish these goals, suggesting some compatibility between global environmental goals and support for local livelihoods. PMID:21857950

  20. 46 CFR 72.05-40 - Insulation, other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... structural fire protection. (a) Any insulation installed for heat and comfort, refrigeration (including air conditioning), or for any other purpose, and all material incidental to its installation, shall be...

  1. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Service regulations under 30 CFR 250.803; or (2) The fire main system under § 149.415. (b) If the water... requirements for fire mains in 46 CFR 108.415 through 108.429. ...: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting...

  2. Fire protection research for energy technology projects; FY 79 year-end report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska, A.E.; Ford, H.; Beason, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes work performed in fiscal year 1979, on a DOE funded study entitled Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. The primary goal of this program is to ensure that fire protection measures for Fusion Energy Experiments (FEE) evolve concurrently with the complexity of FEE. Ultimately, it is planned that the detailed study of fusion experiments will provide an analytical methodology which can be applied to the full range of energy technology projects. We attempt to achieve this objective by coordinately advancing 3 (three) major task areas; (a) determine the fire hazards of current FEE facilities (b) assess the ability of accepted fire management strategies to meet and negate the hazard, (c) perform unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire growth and damage assessment models.

  3. Risk reduction in road and rail LPG transportation by passive fire protection.

    PubMed

    Paltrinieri, Nicola; Landucci, Gabriele; Molag, Menso; Bonvicini, Sarah; Spadoni, Gigliola; Cozzani, Valerio

    2009-08-15

    The potential reduction of risk in LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) road transport due to the adoption of passive fire protections was investigated. Experimental data available for small scale vessels fully engulfed by a fire were extended to real scale road and rail tankers through a finite elements model. The results of mathematical simulations of real scale fire engulfment scenarios that may follow accidents involving LPG tankers proved the effectiveness of the thermal protections in preventing the "fired" BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion) scenario. The presence of a thermal coating greatly increases the "time to failure", providing a time lapse that in the European experience may be considered sufficient to allow the start of effective mitigation actions by fire brigades. The results obtained were used to calculate the expected reduction of individual and societal risk due to LPG transportation in real case scenarios. The analysis confirmed that the introduction of passive fire protections turns out in a significant reduction of risk, up to an order of magnitude in the case of individual risk and of about 50% if the expectation value is considered. Thus, the adoption of passive fire protections, not compulsory in European regulations, may be an effective technical measure for risk reduction, and may contribute to achieve the control of "major accidents hazards" cited by the European legislation. PMID:19188020

  4. Burned area, active fires and biomass burning - approaches to account for emissions from fires in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruecker, Gernot; Hoffmann, Anja; Leimbach, David; Tiemann, Joachim; Ng'atigwa, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Eleven years of data from the globally available MODIS burned area and the MODS Active Fire Product have been analysed for Tanzania in conjunction with GIS data on land use and cover to provide a baseline for fire activity in this East African country. The total radiated energy (FRE) emitted by fires that were picked up by the burned area and active fire product is estimated based on a spatio-temporal clustering algorithm over the burned areas, and integration of the fire radiative power from the MODIS Active Fires product over the time of burning and the area of each burned area cluster. Resulting biomass combusted by unit area based on Woosteŕs scaling factor for FRE to biomass combusted is compared to values found in the literature, and to values found in the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Pyrogenic emissions are then estimated using emission factors. According to our analysis, an average of 11 million ha burn annually (ranging between 8.5 and 12.9 million ha) in Tanzania corresponding to between 10 and 14 % of Tanzaniás land area. Most burned area is recorded in the months from May to October. The land cover types most affected are woodland and shrubland cover types: they comprise almost 70 % of Tanzania's average annual burned area or 6.8 million ha. Most burning occurs in gazetted land, with an annual average of 3.7 million ha in forest reserves, 3.3 million ha in game reserves and 1.46 million ha in national parks, totalling close to 8.5 million ha or 77 % of the annual average burned area of Tanzania. Annual variability of burned area is moderate for most of the analysed classes, and in most cases there is no clear trend to be detected in burned area, except for the Lindi region were annual burned area appears to be increasing. Preliminary results regarding emissions from fires show that for larger fires that burn over a longer time, biomass burned derived through the FRP method compares well to literature values, while the integration over

  5. Modeling heat and moisture transport in firefighter protective clothing during flash fire exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitrphiromsri, Patirop; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a model of heat and moisture transport in firefighter protective clothing during a flash fire exposure is presented. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of coupled heat and moisture transport on the protective performance of the garment. Computational results show the distribution of temperature and moisture content in the fabric during the exposure to the flash fire as well as during the cool-down period. Moreover, the duration of the exposure during which the garment protects the firefighter from getting second and third degree burns from the flash fire exposure is numerically predicted. A complete model for the fire-fabric-air gap-skin system is presented.

  6. A study of the behaviour of a protected vessel containing LPG during pool fire engulfment.

    PubMed

    Shebeko, Y N; Bolodian, I A; Filippov, V N; Navzenya, V Y; Kostyuhin, A K; Tokarev, P M; Zamishevski, E D

    2000-10-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of various methods for protection against fires of vessels containing liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) (safety relief valves, intumescent fire retardant coatings, thermal isolation) have been carried out. A simple mathematical model has been proposed, which describes dependences of various parameters on time. These parameters are temperature, pressure and mass of LPG, temperatures of the vessel's walls and thermal protection layer. The case of total fire engulfment of the vessel with LPG was considered. Experiments have been executed, which were aimed on the investigation of the behaviour of vessels with LPG (50 l), equipped with protective devices during total fire engulfment. It was found out that the safety valve prevented an explosion of the vessels without any other protective measures. The presence of the intumescent fire retardant coating caused a significant delay in operation of the safety valve. A rather good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data was obtained. It has been revealed that the considered methods for protection of LPG vessels are promising in regard to prevention of explosions in these vessels at the fire engulfment. PMID:10946118

  7. Providing accurate near real-time fire alerts for Protected Areas through NASA FIRMS: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Wong, M.; Murphy, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) is at the forefront of providing global near real-time (NRT) MODIS thermal anomalies / hotspot location data to end-users . FIRMS serves the data via an interactive Web GIS named Web Fire Mapper, downloads of NRT active fire, archive data downloads for MODIS hotspots dating back to 1999 and a hotspot email alert system The FIRMS Email Alerts system has been successfully alerting users of fires in their area of interest in near real-time and/or via daily and weekly email summaries, with an option to receive MODIS hotspot data as a text file (CSV) attachment. Currently, there are more than 7000 email alert subscriptions from more than 100 countries. Specifically, the email alerts system is designed to generate and send an email alert for any region or area on the globe, with a special focus on providing alerts for protected areas worldwide. For many protected areas, email alerts are particularly useful for early fire detection, monitoring on going fires, as well as allocating resources to protect wildlife and natural resources of particular value. For protected areas, FIRMS uses the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) supplied by United Nations Environment Program - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). Maintaining the most up-to-date, accurate boundary geometry for the protected areas for the email alerts is a challenge as the WDPA is continuously updated due to changing boundaries, merging or delisting of certain protected areas. Because of this dynamic nature of the protected areas database, the FIRMS protected areas database is frequently out-of-date with the most current version of WDPA database. To maintain the most up-to-date boundary information for protected areas and to be in compliance with the WDPA terms and conditions, FIRMS needs to constantly update its database of protected areas. Currently, FIRMS strives to keep its database up to date by downloading the most recent

  8. Fire Protection in Various Types of Wooden Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gašpercová, Stanislava; Makovická Osvaldová, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Design of new modern systems for low energy efficient construction in a passive, zero standard or energy-autonomous buildings, as well as the increased popularity of solid wood construction means intervention into the very structure of its statics, building physics, but also fire properties. Some prototype design solutions are not verified whether the tests, by good computational analysis or verification of long-term use of the building. In the context of changing standards in building design, new approaches are needed. If in wooden buildings the potential risk of fire is higher than other buildings, we need special methods, materials and practical skills.

  9. 46 CFR 28.380 - General structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....16) in 16 CFR part 1632, subpart A, applies to each mattress. (i) Fiber reinforced plastic. When the... reinforced plastic, the resin used must be fire retardant. (j) Cooking areas. Vertical or horizontal surfaces within 0.9144 meters (3 feet) of cooking appliances must be composed of noncombustible material...

  10. 46 CFR 28.380 - General structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....16) in 16 CFR part 1632, subpart A, applies to each mattress. (i) Fiber reinforced plastic. When the... reinforced plastic, the resin used must be fire retardant. (j) Cooking areas. Vertical or horizontal surfaces within 0.9144 meters (3 feet) of cooking appliances must be composed of noncombustible material...

  11. 46 CFR 28.380 - General structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....16) in 16 CFR part 1632, subpart A, applies to each mattress. (i) Fiber reinforced plastic. When the... reinforced plastic, the resin used must be fire retardant. (j) Cooking areas. Vertical or horizontal surfaces within 0.9144 meters (3 feet) of cooking appliances must be composed of noncombustible material...

  12. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... defined as the ratio of the contaminant concentrations outside of the respirator to the contaminant... workplaces, pose a greater hazard to employees; they can produce greater exposure to quantities of smoke... necessary to abandon fire fighting efforts. In recognition of the degree of hazard present in the two...

  13. 46 CFR 177.410 - Structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... an ASTM E-84 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) flame spread rating of not more than 75... accordance with ABYC P-1 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600). (3) Fire detection and... NPFC MIL-R-21607E(SH) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600). Resin systems that have not...

  14. 46 CFR 177.410 - Structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... an ASTM E-84 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) flame spread rating of not more than 75... accordance with ABYC P-1 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600). (3) Fire detection and... NPFC MIL-R-21607E(SH) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600). Resin systems that have not...

  15. 46 CFR 177.410 - Structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... an ASTM E-84 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) flame spread rating of not more than 75... accordance with ABYC P-1 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600). (3) Fire detection and... NPFC MIL-R-21607E(SH) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600). Resin systems that have not...

  16. 46 CFR 177.410 - Structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... an ASTM E-84 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) flame spread rating of not more than 75... accordance with ABYC P-1 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600). (3) Fire detection and... NPFC MIL-R-21607E(SH) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600). Resin systems that have not...

  17. 46 CFR 177.410 - Structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... an ASTM E-84 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) flame spread rating of not more than 75... accordance with ABYC P-1 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600). (3) Fire detection and... NPFC MIL-R-21607E(SH) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600). Resin systems that have not...

  18. The Influence of Management on the Cost of Fire Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Amy K.

    2004-01-01

    An important and unresolved issue central to the study of government performance is how the actions of managers and the nature of organizations affect the cost of public services. This paper presents an empirical analysis of fire departments that estimates the influence of managerial choices on per capita spending within a simultaneous public…

  19. 14 CFR 125.175 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components... Requirements § 125.175 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle...

  20. 14 CFR 121.277 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components....277 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle diameter on...

  1. 14 CFR 121.277 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components....277 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle diameter on...

  2. 14 CFR 121.277 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components....277 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle diameter on...

  3. 14 CFR 121.277 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components....277 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle diameter on...

  4. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Appendix C to Subpart L of Part 1910 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... Protection Pt. 1910, Subpt. L, App. C Appendix C to Subpart L of Part 1910—Fire Protection References For... be helpful in understanding the requirements contained in all of the sections of subpart L: A....

  5. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Appendix C to Subpart L of Part 1910 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... Protection Pt. 1910, Subpt. L, App. C Appendix C to Subpart L of Part 1910—Fire Protection References For... be helpful in understanding the requirements contained in all of the sections of subpart L: A....

  6. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Appendix C to Subpart L of Part 1910 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... Protection Pt. 1910, Subpt. L, App. C Appendix C to Subpart L of Part 1910—Fire Protection References For... be helpful in understanding the requirements contained in all of the sections of subpart L: A....

  7. 14 CFR 121.277 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components....277 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle diameter on...

  8. New Model Predicts Fire Activity in South America

    NASA Video Gallery

    UC Irvine scientist Jim Randerson discusses a new model that is able to predict fire activity in South America using sea surface temperature observations of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. The find...

  9. Effectiveness of protected areas in mitigating fire within their boundaries: case study of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Román-Cuesta, María Rosa; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2006-08-01

    Since the severe 1982-1983 El Niño drought, recurrent burning has been reported inside tropical protected areas (TPAs). Despite the key role of fire in habitat degradation, little is known about the effectiveness of TPAs in mitigating fire incidence and burned areas. We used a GPS fire database (1995-2005) (n=3590 forest fires) obtained from the National Forest Commission to compare fire incidence (number of fires) and burned areas inside TPAs and their surrounding adjacent buffer areas in Southern Mexico (Chiapas). Burned areas inside parks ranged from 2% (Palenque) to 45% (Lagunas de Montebello) of a park's area, and the amount burned was influenced by two severe El Niño events (1998 and 2003). These two years together resulted in 67% and 46% of the total area burned in TPAs and buffers, respectively during the period under analysis. Larger burned areas in TPAs than in their buffers were exclusively related to the extent of natural habitats (flammable area excluding agrarian and pasture lands). Higher fuel loads together with access and extinction difficulties were likely behind this trend. A higher incidence of fire in TPAs than in their buffers was exclusively related to anthropogenic factors such as higher road densities and agrarian extensions. Our results suggest that TPAs are failing to mitigate fire impacts, with both fire incidence and total burned areas being significantly higher in the reserves than in adjacent buffer areas. Management plans should consider those factors that facilitate fires in TPAs: anthropogenic origin of fires, sensitivity of TPAs to El Niñio-droughts, large fuel loads and fuel continuity inside parks, and limited financial resources. Consideration of these factors favors lines of action such as alternatives to the use of fire (e.g., mucuna-maize system), climatic prediction to follow the evolution of El Niño, fuel management strategies that favor extinction practices, and the strengthening of local communities and ecotourism

  10. Survey of fire-protection systems at LNG facilities. Topical report, July-November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.; Borows, K.A.

    1991-04-05

    The objectives of the study were to collect and analyze data relating to the types, costs, and operational problems of gas leak and fire detection devices and of fire prevention and suppression systems used at LNG facilities operating in the United States. Data from 39 LNG facilities, which accounted for 45% of the total U.S. storage capacity, were collected. The report provides information relating to equipment manufacturers, site applications, operational problems, initial installation costs, annual operational costs, and equipment lifetime. Equipment of interest included fixed gas leak, fire and cryogenic detection systems, water deluge and barrier systems, thermal radiation walls and protective coatings, and fixed high expansion foam, dry chemical, carbon dioxide and halon fire suppression systems. In addition, internal fire fighting capabilities were reviewed.

  11. Active fire detection using Landsat 8 reflective bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyachandran, S. K.; Roy, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation fires can alter landscapes and are a significant source of atmospheric emissions, particulates and greenhouse gases. Currently, only coarse spatial resolution sensors with high temporal coverage, such as MODIS or VIIRS, are used for routine global active fire mapping. Higher spatial resolution satellites have not been used due to their low temporal coverage and so are less useful for monitoring fires at the time of satellite overpass. However, looking forward, combination of the recently launched Landsat-8 (2013), Sentinel-2A (2015) and upcoming Sentinel-2B (2016) sensor data will provide 10-30m global coverage multi-spectral reflective wavelength observations approximately every three days. Therefore the development of reflective wavelength active fire detections to take advantage of these new data is highly attractive. Conventional detection algorithms use the elevated thermal emission of fire to detect the location of fires burning at the time of satellite overpass and apply contextual checks to remove commission errors by examination of neighboring pixels. A Landsat 8 active fire detection algorithm that takes advantage of the improved 12-bit radiometric resolution and high reflectance saturation of the Landsat 8 OLI detectors is presented. The algorithm uses the 1.6 μm and 2.2 μm bands without the need for a contextual implementation, or thermal bands, and was parameterized using six months of Landsat 8 data over the conterminous United States. Active fire detection results for Landsat 8 scenes acquired over a range of fire sizes and temperatures in Canada, Brazil and Southern Africa are presented and compared to detections found using an existing Landsat 7 contextual algorithm adapted to the Landsat 8 bands. Results show that the Landsat 8 algorithm has potential for global application, with relatively low omission and commission errors, and is suitable for application to the corresponding Sentinel 2 reflectance wavelength bands.

  12. Risk and Protective Factors for Fires, Burns, and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in U.S. Households

    PubMed Central

    Runyan, Carol W.; Johnson, Renee M.; Yang, Jingzhen; Waller, Anna E.; Perkis, David; Marshall, Stephen W.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; McGee, Kara S.

    2011-01-01

    Background More needs to be known about the prevalence of risk and protective factors for fires, burns, and carbon monoxide poisoning in U.S. households. Methods A random-digit-dial survey was conducted about home safety with 1003 respondents representing households in the continental United States. Descriptive statistics assess the prevalence of risk and protective factors for fires, burns, and carbon monoxide overall, and by demographic characteristics, household structure, region, and residential tenure. The data were weighted to adjust for nonresponse and to reflect the U.S. population. Results Although most respondents reported having a smoke alarm (97%), and 80% reported having one on each level of their home, <20% reported checking the alarm at least every 3 months. Seventy-one percent reported having a fire extinguisher, 29% had a carbon monoxide detector, and 51% of those living with at least one other person had a fire escape plan. Few could report the temperature of their hot water at the tap (9%), or the setting on the hot water heater (25%). Only 6% had an antiscald device. Conclusions Results suggest that there is much room for improvement regarding adoption of measures to prevent fires, burns, and carbon monoxide poisoning. Further investigations of the efficacy of carbon monoxide detectors, fire extinguishers, and escape plans, as well as effectiveness studies of fire and burn-prevention efforts are needed. PMID:15626564

  13. Forest construction infrastructures for the prevision, suppression, and protection before and after forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosos, Vasileios C.; Giannoulas, Vasileios J.; Daoutis, Christodoulos

    2014-08-01

    Climatic changes cause temperature rise and thus increase the risk of forest fires. In Greece the forests with the greatest risk to fire are usually those located near residential and tourist areas where there are major pressures on land use changes, while there are no currently guaranteed cadastral maps and defined title deeds because of the lack of National and Forest Cadastre. In these areas the deliberate causes of forest fires are at a percentage more than 50%. This study focuses on the forest opening up model concerning both the prevention and suppression of forest fires. The most urgent interventions that can be done after the fire destructions is also studied in relation to soil protection constructions, in order to minimize the erosion and the torrential conditions. Digital orthophotos were used in order to produce and analyze spatial data using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Initially, Digital Elevation Models were generated, based on photogrammetry and forest areas as well as the forest road network were mapped. Road density, road distance, skidding distance and the opening up percentage were accurately measured for a forest complex. Finally, conclusions and suggestions have been drawn about the environmental compatibility of forest protection and wood harvesting works. In particular the contribution of modern technologies such as digital photogrammetry, remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems is very important, allowing reliable, effective and fast process of spatial analysis contributing to a successful planning of opening up works and fire protection.

  14. A Combined Water-Bromotrifluoromethane Crash-Fire Protection System for a T-56 Turbopropeller Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John A.; Busch, Arthur M.

    1959-01-01

    A crash-fire protection system is described which will suppress the ignition of crash-spilled fuel that may be ingested by a T-56 turbo-propeller engine. This system includes means for rapidly extinguishing the combustor flame, means for cooling and inerting with water the hot engine parts likely to ignite engine ingested fuel, and means for blanketing with bromotrifluoromethane massive metal parts that may reheat after the engine stops rotating. Combustion-chamber flames were rapidly extinguished at the engine fuel nozzles by a fuel shutoff and drain valve. Hot engine parts were inerted and cooled by 42 pounds of water discharged at seven engine stations. Massive metal parts that could reheat were inerted with 10 pounds of bromotrifluoromethane discharged at two engine stations. Performance trials of the crash-fire protection system were conducted by bringing the engine up to takeoff temperature, actuating the crash-fire protection system, and then spraying fuel into the engine to simulate crash-ingested fuel. No fires occurred during these trials, although fuel was sprayed into the engine from 0.3 second to 15 minutes after actuating the crash-fire protection system.

  15. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... which provide protection against flame, cut, and puncture. It is suggested that protective gloves... permissible modified version of Federal Test Method 191, Method 5903, (paragraph (3) of appendix E) for flame resistance when gloves, rather than glove material, are tested for flame resistance. (E) Head, eye, and...

  16. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... which provide protection against flame, cut, and puncture. It is suggested that protective gloves... permissible modified version of Federal Test Method 191, Method 5903, (paragraph (3) of appendix E) for flame resistance when gloves, rather than glove material, are tested for flame resistance. (E) Head, eye, and...

  17. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... which provide protection against flame, cut, and puncture. It is suggested that protective gloves... permissible modified version of Federal Test Method 191, Method 5903, (paragraph (3) of appendix E) for flame resistance when gloves, rather than glove material, are tested for flame resistance. (E) Head, eye, and...

  18. Fires

    MedlinePlus

    Whether a fire happens in your home or in the wild, it can be very dangerous. Fire spreads quickly. There is no time to gather ... a phone call. In just two minutes, a fire can become life-threatening. In five minutes, a ...

  19. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment - April 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, J.S.

    2003-04-30

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  20. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, John S

    2003-04-01

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  1. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume II. Fire effects and electrical and electronic equipment

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-18

    Electrical and electronic equipment, including computers, are used at critical facilities throughout the Department of Energy (DOE). Hughes Associates, Inc. was tasked to evaluate the potential thermal and nonthermal effects of a fire on the electrical and electronic equipment and methods to analyze, evaluate, and assist in controlling the potential effects. This report is a result of a literature review and analysis on the effects of fire on electrical equipment. It is directed at three objectives: (1) Provide a state-of-the-art review and analysis of thermal and nonthermal damage to electrical and electronic equipment; (2) Develop a procedure for estimating thermal and nonthermal damage considerations using current knowledge; and (3) Develop an R&D/T&E program to fill gaps in the current knowledge needed to further perfect the procedure. The literature review was performed utilizing existing electronic databases. Sources searched included scientific and engineering databases including Dialog, NTIS, SciSearch and NIST BFRL literature. Incorporated in the analysis is unpublished literature and conversations with members of the ASTM E-5.21, Smoke Corrosivity, and researchers in the electronics field. This report does not consider the effects of fire suppression systems or efforts. Further analysis of the potential impact is required in the future.

  2. Fire protection for power plants: past, present and future. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Corcoran, J.R.

    1985-05-01

    Major power stations are divided into two categories, fossil-fueled and nuclear. Fossil stations - coal, oil, natural gas, and dual fuel - are described as are the hazards and protective features unique to each type. Commonalities are highlighted and boiler controls, boiler auxiliaries, turbine-generator systems, electrical equipment and auxiliary systems are reviewed. The history of nuclear power stations, the impact of the Brown's Ferry fire and the resultant regulation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are discussed. The importance of utilizing fire protection engineers is underscored.

  3. Fire protection review revisit No. 2, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, P.H.; Keller, D.R.; Treece, S.D.

    1990-02-01

    A fire protection survey was conducted for the Department of Energy at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky, from October 30--November 4, November 6--10, and December 4--8, 1989. The purpose of the survey was to review the facility fire protection program and to make recommendations. Surveys of other facilities resulted in a classification system for buildings which provide an indication of the importance of the building to the fulfillment of the mission of the facility. Recommendations in this report reflect to some degree the relative importance of the facility and the time to restore it to useful condition in the event a loss were to occur.

  4. Integration of Planetary Protection Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.

    2000-01-01

    Research and activities under this grant have focused on a systematic examination and analysis of critical questions likely to impact planetary protection (PP) controls and implementation for Mars sample return missions (MSR). Four areas in the non-scientific and social realms were selected for special attention because of their importance to future mission planning and concern about critical timing or possible economic impacts on MSR mission implementation. These include: (1) questions of legal uncertainty and the decision making process, (2) public perception of risks associated with sample return, (3) risk communication and Education/Public Outreach , and (4) planetary protection implications of alternative mission architectures, for both robotic and human sample return missions. In its entirety, NAG 2-986 has encompassed three categories of activity: (1) research and analysis (Race), (2) subcontracted research (MacGregor/Decision Research), and (3) consulting services.

  5. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system? 149.419 Section 149.419 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND...

  6. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system? 149.419 Section 149.419 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND...

  7. 76 FR 3178 - Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Labor's Order No. 4-2010 (75 FR 55355). Signed at Washington, DC, on January 13, 2011. David Michaels... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment Standard; Extension of the... collection requirements specified in its Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment Standard (29 CFR...

  8. 46 CFR 28.385 - Structural fire protection for vessels that operate with more than 49 individuals on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Structural fire protection for vessels that operate with... Individuals on Board § 28.385 Structural fire protection for vessels that operate with more than 49...) Construction. The hull, structural bulkheads, columns and stanchions must be composed of steel....

  9. Shrapnel protection testing in support of the proposed Site 300 Contained Firing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pastrnak, J W; Baker, C F; Simmons, L F

    1992-08-04

    In preparation for the planned Contained Firing Facility at LLNL's Site 300, various multi-layered shrapnel protection schemes were investigated with the intent of minimizing the amount of material used in the shielding. As a result of testing, it was found that two pieces of 1-in.-thick mild steel plate provide adequate general-purpose protection from shrapnel generated by normal hydrodynamic and cylinder shots at Bunker 801. 8 refs.

  10. Flexible fire retardant polyisocyanate modified neoprene foam. [for thermal protective devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Lightweight, fire resistant foams have been developed through the modification of conventional neoprene-isocyanate foams by the addition of an alkyl halide polymer. Extensive tests have shown that the modified/neoprene-isocyanate foams are much superior in heat protection properties than the foams heretofore employed both for ballistic and ablative purposes.

  11. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. Fire Protection Specialist, CDC 57150, 17-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This five-volume course is designed to provide the student with information about fire protection, first aid and rescue, and special situation firefighting techniques. The course is one of number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in civilian setting. The course…

  12. 48 CFR 2052.235-71 - Safety, health, and fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Safety, health, and fire protection. 2052.235-71 Section 2052.235-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2052.235-71 Safety, health, and...

  13. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who is a qualified fire protection engineer? 102-80.135 Section 102-80.135 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident...

  14. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... protection equipment. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a grease extraction hood complying with UL 710 above each grill, broiler, and deep fat fryer. (b) Each grease extraction hood must be equipped with a pre-engineered dry or wet chemical fire extinguishing system meeting the applicable sections of...

  15. 33 CFR 149.640 - What are the requirements for fire protection systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for fire protection systems? 149.640 Section 149.640 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Design and Equipment Structural...

  16. 33 CFR 149.640 - What are the requirements for fire protection systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the requirements for fire protection systems? 149.640 Section 149.640 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Design and Equipment Structural...

  17. Is Fire Safety a Burning Issue for Your Home?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Jamie E.

    1986-01-01

    Families can take an active role in protecting their homes and themselves from fire by: (1) keeping their homes free of fire hazards; (2) installing, testing, and maintaining smoke detectors; and (3) developing a fire escape plan. (DF)

  18. 30 CFR 865.11 - Protected activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES § 865.11 Protected activity. (a) No person shall discharge or.... (b) Each employer conducting operations which are regulated under this Act, shall within 30 days from... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protected activity. 865.11 Section...

  19. 30 CFR 865.11 - Protected activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES § 865.11 Protected activity. (a) No person shall discharge or.... (b) Each employer conducting operations which are regulated under this Act, shall within 30 days from... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protected activity. 865.11 Section...

  20. 30 CFR 865.11 - Protected activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES § 865.11 Protected activity. (a) No person shall discharge or.... (b) Each employer conducting operations which are regulated under this Act, shall within 30 days from... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protected activity. 865.11 Section...

  1. Detection rates of the MODIS active fire product in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawbaker, T.J.; Radeloff, V.C.; Syphard, A.D.; Zhu, Z.; Stewart, S.I.

    2008-01-01

    MODIS active fire data offer new information about global fire patterns. However, uncertainties in detection rates can render satellite-derived fire statistics difficult to interpret. We evaluated the MODIS 1??km daily active fire product to quantify detection rates for both Terra and Aqua MODIS sensors, examined how cloud cover and fire size affected detection rates, and estimated how detection rates varied across the United States. MODIS active fire detections were compared to 361 reference fires (??? 18??ha) that had been delineated using pre- and post-fire Landsat imagery. Reference fires were considered detected if at least one MODIS active fire pixel occurred within 1??km of the edge of the fire. When active fire data from both Aqua and Terra were combined, 82% of all reference fires were found, but detection rates were less for Aqua and Terra individually (73% and 66% respectively). Fires not detected generally had more cloudy days, but not when the Aqua data were considered exclusively. MODIS detection rates decreased with fire size, and the size at which 50% of all fires were detected was 105??ha when combining Aqua and Terra (195??ha for Aqua and 334??ha for Terra alone). Across the United States, detection rates were greatest in the West, lower in the Great Plains, and lowest in the East. The MODIS active fire product captures large fires in the U.S. well, but may under-represent fires in areas with frequent cloud cover or rapidly burning, small, and low-intensity fires. We recommend that users of the MODIS active fire data perform individual validations to ensure that all relevant fires are included. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer in Fire-Protective Coatings Deformable upon Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudzinsky, V. P.; Garashchenko, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical studies of heat transfer in fire-protective coatings deformable (intumescent) upon heating have been conducted. The optimum combination of the computation-scheme parameters providing stability, convergence and satisfactory accuracy of solutions has been determined. An effect of basic characteristics of materials in real range of their change that made it possible to estimate the degree of influence of properties on the fire-protective efficiency of coatings and the level of warm-up (flame resistance) of structures to be protected with them has been studied. The possibility of using developed models and techniques to estimate and provide the required level of fire safety of polymer-based materials (in particular, elastomers and structures and products on their basis) is considered. The results of estimating the mass rate of evolving gaseous thermal-decomposition products that determine, in a considerable extent, the material combustibility have been presented. The numerical analysis results have demonstrated the potentiality of reducing the combustibility of such materials and increasing limits of their fire resistance at the expense of organizing the intumescence of a material upon heating by means of modification of their initial formulations as well as with the aid of an additional layer made of the intumescent coating compatible with an elastomer.

  3. Management and climate contributions to satellite-derived active fire trends in the contiguous United States

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; McCarty, Jessica L; Wang, Dongdong; Rogers, Brendan M; Morton, Douglas C; Collatz, G James; Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T

    2014-01-01

    Fires in croplands, plantations, and rangelands contribute significantly to fire emissions in the United States, yet are often overshadowed by wildland fires in efforts to develop inventories or estimate responses to climate change. Here we quantified decadal trends, interannual variability, and seasonality of Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations of active fires (thermal anomalies) as a function of management type in the contiguous U.S. during 2001–2010. We used the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity database to identify active fires within the perimeter of large wildland fires and land cover maps to identify active fires in croplands. A third class of fires defined as prescribed/other included all residual satellite active fire detections. Large wildland fires were the most variable of all three fire types and had no significant annual trend in the contiguous U.S. during 2001–2010. Active fires in croplands, in contrast, increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Cropland and prescribed/other fire types combined were responsible for 77% of the total active fire detections within the U.S and were most abundant in the south and southeast. In the west, cropland active fires decreased at a rate of 5.9% per year, likely in response to intensive air quality policies. Potential evaporation was a dominant regulator of the interannual variability of large wildland fires, but had a weaker influence on the other two fire types. Our analysis suggests it may be possible to modify landscape fire emissions within the U.S. by influencing the way fires are used in managed ecosystems. Key Points Wildland, cropland, and prescribed fires had different trends and patterns Sensitivity to climate varied with fire type Intensity of air quality regulation influenced cropland burning trends PMID:26213662

  4. A parametric study on the use of passive fire protection in FPSO topside module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebe, Martin; Jang, Beom-Seon; Jim, Yanlin

    2014-12-01

    Fire is a continuous threat to FPSO topside modules as large amounts of oil and gas are passing through the modules. As a conventional measure to mitigate structural failure under fire, passive fire protection (PFP) coatings are widely used on main structural members. However, an excessive use of PFP coatings can cause considerable cost for material purchase, installation, inspection and maintenance. Long installation time can be a risk since the work should be done nearly at the last fabrication stage. Thus, the minimal use of PFP can be beneficial to the reduction of construction cost and the avoidance of schedule delay. This paper presents a few case studies on how different applications of PFP have influence on collapse time of a FPSO module structure. A series of heat analysis and thermal elasto-plastic FE analysis are performed for different PFP coatings and the resultant collapse time and the amount of PFP coatings are compared with each other.

  5. Mitochondrial ROS fire up T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael P; Siegel, Richard M

    2013-02-21

    Metabolic reprogramming has emerged as an important feature of immune cell activation. Two new studies, including Sena et al. (2013) in this issue of Immunity, identify mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) arising from metabolic reprogramming as signaling molecules in T cell activation. PMID:23438817

  6. Long-distance dispersal in a fire- and livestock-protected savanna

    PubMed Central

    Tarazi, Roberto; Sebbenn, Alexandre M; Kageyama, Paulo Y; Vencovsky, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Savannas are highly diverse and dynamic environments that can shift to forest formations due to protection policies. Long-distance dispersal may shape the genetic structure of these new closed forest formations. We analyzed eight microsatellite loci using a single-time approach to understand contemporary pollen and effective seed dispersal of the tropical tree, Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Fabaceae), occurring in a Brazilian fire- and livestock-protected savanna. We sampled all adult trees found within a 10.24 ha permanent plot, young trees within a subplot of 1.44 ha and open-pollinated seeds. We detected a very high level of genetic diversity among the three generations in the studied plot. Parentage analysis revealed high pollen immigration rate (0.64) and a mean contemporary pollen dispersal distance of 74 m. In addition, half-sib production was 1.8 times higher than full-sibs in significant higher distances, indicating foraging activity preference for different trees at long distances. There was a significant and negative correlation between diameter at breast height (DBH) of the pollen donor with the number of seeds (r = −0.640, P-value = 0.032), suggesting that pollen donor trees with a higher DBH produce less seeds. The mean distance of realized seed dispersal (recruitment kernel) was 135 m due to the large home range dispersers (birds and mammals) in the area. The small magnitude of spatial genetic structure found in young trees may be a consequence of overlapping seed shadows and increased tree density. Our results show the positive side of closed canopy expansion, where animal activities regarding pollination and seed dispersal are extremely high. PMID:23610640

  7. Modeling of the Thermal Protection of a Multilayer Material Under Fire Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, V. A.; Yakimov, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    On the basis of the theoretical and known experimental results, a refined mathematical model of the thermochemical destruction of a multilayer heat-shield coating has been developed. Account of the flow across the body has made it possible to forecast more exactly the state of the protected structure under fire conditions. A comparison between the results of numerical calculations and the known data has been made.

  8. Modeling of the Thermal Protection of a Multilayer Material Under Fire Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, V. A.; Yakimov, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    On the basis of the theoretical and known experimental results, a refined mathematical model of the thermochemical destruction of a multilayer heat-shield coating has been developed. Account of the flow across the body has made it possible to forecast more exactly the state of the protected structure under fire conditions. A comparison between the results of numerical calculations and the known data has been made.

  9. Management and climate contributions to satellite-derived active fire trends in the contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; McCarty, Jessica L.; Wang, Dongdong; Rogers, Brendan M.; Morton, Douglas C.; Collatz, G. James; Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T.

    2014-04-01

    Fires in croplands, plantations, and rangelands contribute significantly to fire emissions in the United States, yet are often overshadowed by wildland fires in efforts to develop inventories or estimate responses to climate change. Here we quantified decadal trends, interannual variability, and seasonality of Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations of active fires (thermal anomalies) as a function of management type in the contiguous U.S. during 2001-2010. We used the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity database to identify active fires within the perimeter of large wildland fires and land cover maps to identify active fires in croplands. A third class of fires defined as prescribed/other included all residual satellite active fire detections. Large wildland fires were the most variable of all three fire types and had no significant annual trend in the contiguous U.S. during 2001-2010. Active fires in croplands, in contrast, increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Cropland and prescribed/other fire types combined were responsible for 77% of the total active fire detections within the U.S and were most abundant in the south and southeast. In the west, cropland active fires decreased at a rate of 5.9% per year, likely in response to intensive air quality policies. Potential evaporation was a dominant regulator of the interannual variability of large wildland fires, but had a weaker influence on the other two fire types. Our analysis suggests it may be possible to modify landscape fire emissions within the U.S. by influencing the way fires are used in managed ecosystems.

  10. Fire activity in Eastern Africa during the last 4000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrwald, N. M.; Zangrando, R.; Gabrielli, P.; Gambaro, A.; Thompson, L. G.; Barbante, C.

    2010-12-01

    Tropical savanna fires are a dominant source of carbon from fire emissions. The Kilimanjaro ice fields (3°04.6’S, 37°21.2’E, 5893 masl) are located near the largest savanna system in the world and preserve atmospheric aerosols produced by savanna fires. Biomass burning injects particles with distinct signatures of organic matter into smoke plumes that transport particles through the regional to global atmosphere. Monsaccharide anhydrides including levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose) are specific molecular tracers because they can only be generated by combusting woody tissue at temperatures greater than approximately 300° C. Levoglucosan is emitted in large quantities in savanna and forest fires, is transported in smoke plumes, and is trapped and preserved in mountain glaciers. Here, we present levoglucosan concentrations from 120 50-cm samples from the Kilimanjaro Northern Ice Field (NIF2) ice core which provide a local to regional East African fire history for the past 4000 years. Levoglucosan flux was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometric detection. Past biomass burning in the Kilimanjaro region contains centennial-scale periods of increased fire activity with levoglucosan flux orders of magnitude greater than the baseline concentrations. A major and sustained increase in fire activity occurs from approximately 1.1 ky BP until present. Levoglucosan concentrations can be compared with other climate parameters measured in the Kilimanjaro ice core including stable isotopes, dust, and major ion records. Of the major ions, Na+ and F- are especially important as East African Rift Valley alkaline basalts are enriched in Na+ and F- with respect to analogous basalts and tephrites in other parts of the world. Local mineral aerosol is enriched in Na+ and F-, especially during times of drought. Preliminary results show that the measured Kilimanjaro levoglucosan flux does correlate with Na+ (R

  11. 76 FR 29011 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Fire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... information, see the related notice published in the Federal Register on January 19, 2011 (76 FR 3178...; Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is... (ICR) titled, ``Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment,'' to the Office of Management and Budget...

  12. 78 FR 6133 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Fire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... Federal Register on September 19, 2012 (77 FR 58170). Interested parties are encouraged to send comments...; Fire Protection in Underground Coal Mines ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is...) revision titled, ``Fire Protection in Underground Coal Mines,'' to the Office of Management and Budget...

  13. Improved estimates of boreal Fire Radiative Energy using high temporal resolution data and a modified active fire detection algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Kirsten

    2016-04-01

    Reliable estimates of biomass combusted during wildfires can be obtained from satellite observations of fire radiative power (FRP). Total fire radiative energy (FRE) is typically estimated by integrating instantaneous measurements of fire radiative power (FRP) at the time of orbital satellite overpass or geostationary observation. Remotely-sensed FRP products from orbital satellites are usually global in extent, requiring several thresholding and filtering operations to reduce the number of false fire detections. Some filters required for a global product may not be appropriate to fire detection in the boreal forest resulting in errors of omission and increased data processing times. We evaluate the effect of a boreal-specific active fire detection algorithm and estimates of FRP/FRE. Boreal fires are more likely to escape detection due to lower intensity smouldering combustion and sub canopy fires, therefore improvements in boreal fire detection could substantially reduce the uncertainty of emissions from biomass combustion in the region. High temporal resolution data from geostationary satellites have led to improvements in FRE estimation in tropical and temperate forests, but such a perspective is not possible for high latitude ecosystems given the equatorial orbit of geostationary observation. The increased density of overpasses in high latitudes from polar-orbiting satellites, however, may provide adequate temporal sampling for estimating FRE.

  14. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  15. Application of MODIS-Derived Active Fire Radiative Energy to Fire Disaster and Smoke Pollution Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Hao, Wei Min; Habib, Shahid

    2004-01-01

    The radiative energy emitted by large fires and the corresponding smoke aerosol loading are simultaneously measured from the MODIS sensor from both the Terra and Aqua satellites. Quantitative relationships between the rates of emission of fire radiative energy and smoke are being developed for different fire-prone regions of the globe. Preliminary results are presented. When fully developed, the system will enable the use of MODIS direct broadcast fire data for near real-time monitoring of fire strength and smoke emission as well as forecasting of fire progression and smoke dispersion, several hours to a few days in advance.

  16. Linking management effectiveness indicators to observed effects of protected areas on fire occurrence in the Amazon rainforest.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun

    2013-02-01

    Management-effectiveness scores are used widely by donors and implementers of conservation projects to prioritize, track, and evaluate investments in protected areas. However, there is little evidence that these scores actually reflect the capacity of protected areas to deliver conservation outcomes. We examined the relation between indicators of management effectiveness in protected areas and the effectiveness of protected areas in reducing fire occurrence in the Amazon rainforest. We used data collected with the Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT) scorecard, adopted by some of the world's largest conservation organizations to track management characteristics believed to be crucial for protected-area effectiveness. We used the occurrence of forest fires from 2000 through 2010 as a measure of the effect of protected areas on undesired land-cover change in the Amazon basin. We used matching to compare the estimated effect of protected areas with low versus high METT scores on fire occurrence. We also estimated effects of individual protected areas on fire occurrence and explored the relation between these effects and METT scores. The relations between METT scores and effects of protected areas on fire occurrence were weak. Protected areas with higher METT scores in 2005 did not seem to have performed better than protected areas with lower METT scores at reducing fire occurrence over the last 10 years. Further research into the relations between management-effectiveness indicators and conservation outcomes in protected areas seems necessary, and our results show that the careful application of matching methods can be a suitable method for that purpose. PMID:23009052

  17. Constraints on global fire activity vary across a resource gradient.

    PubMed

    Krawchuk, Meg A; Moritz, Max A

    2011-01-01

    We provide an empirical, global test of the varying constraints hypothesis, which predicts systematic heterogeneity in the relative importance of biomass resources to burn and atmospheric conditions suitable to burning (weather/climate) across a spatial gradient of long-term resource availability. Analyses were based on relationships between monthly global wildfire activity, soil moisture, and mid-tropospheric circulation data from 2001 to 2007, synthesized across a gradient of long-term averages in resources (net primary productivity), annual temperature, and terrestrial biome. We demonstrate support for the varying constraints hypothesis, showing that, while key biophysical factors must coincide for wildfires to occur, the relative influence of resources to burn and moisture/weather conditions on fire activity shows predictable spatial patterns. In areas where resources are always available for burning during the fire season, such as subtropical/tropical biomes with mid-high annual long-term net primary productivity, fuel moisture conditions exert their strongest constraint on fire activity. In areas where resources are more limiting or variable, such as deserts, xeric shrublands, or grasslands/savannas, fuel moisture has a diminished constraint on wildfire, and metrics indicating availability of burnable fuels produced during the antecedent wet growing seasons reflect a more pronounced constraint on wildfire. This macro-scaled evidence for spatially varying constraints provides a synthesis with studies performed at local and regional scales, enhances our understanding of fire as a global process, and indicates how sensitivity to future changes in temperature and precipitation may differ across the world. PMID:21560682

  18. Summary report, California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection evaluation of full-face air-purifying respirators for wildland fire fighting use

    SciTech Connect

    Beason, D.G.; Johnson, J.S.; Foote, K.L.; Weaver, W.A.

    1996-02-01

    Wildland fire suppression personnel employed by the CDF do not currently have the equipment to protect themselves from the short-term acute affects of smoke from wildland fires. In addition, no regulations exist that specify appropriate respiratory protection and the current air-purifying respirator technology and carbon monoxide monitoring has not been adapted to fit wildland fire suppression requirements. This three-year limited study evaluated the ability of wildland fire fighters to perform their normal job function while wearing full-face air-purifying respirators. In the first two years of this study we designed, developed and field tested a prototype ``smart`` air-purifying respirator which incorporated a real-time carbon monoxide monitor into a commercial full-face respirator.` Data on carbon monoxide exposure while fighting wildland fires was collected. During the third year of this study we evaluated eight different commercially available full-face air-purifying respirators equipped with a variety of cartridges. Apparatus to aid the fire fighter in carrying the respirator and carbon monoxide personal monitor was designed and fabricated. A smoke exposure test method was developed and a laboratory study on the penetration of smoke through respirator cartridges was conducted.

  19. Oriented clay nanopaper from biobased components--mechanisms for superior fire protection properties.

    PubMed

    Carosio, F; Kochumalayil, J; Cuttica, F; Camino, G; Berglund, L

    2015-03-18

    The toxicity of the most efficient fire retardant additives is a major problem for polymeric materials. Cellulose nanofiber (CNF)/clay nanocomposites, with unique brick-and-mortar structure and prepared by simple filtration, are characterized from the morphological point of view by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. These nanocomposites have superior fire protection properties to other clay nanocomposites and fiber composites. The corresponding mechanisms are evaluated in terms of flammability (reaction to a flame) and cone calorimetry (exposure to heat flux). These two tests provide a wide spectrum characterization of fire protection properties in CNF/montmorrilonite (MTM) materials. The morphology of the collected residues after flammability testing is investigated. In addition, thermal and thermo-oxidative stability are evaluated by thermogravimetric analyses performed in inert (nitrogen) and oxidative (air) atmospheres. Physical and chemical mechanisms are identified and related to the unique nanostructure and its low thermal conductivity, high gas barrier properties and CNF/MTM interactions for char formation. PMID:25723913

  20. Effect of aluminized fabrics on radiant protective performance of fire proximity suit materials.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lu; Park, Pyoung Kyu; Hong, Kyoung A; Yoon, Kee Jong

    2015-03-01

    Radiant heat may be a significant component of heat exposure in the case of proximity firefighting. To combat high levels of radiant heat, fire proximity suits made of aluminized fabrics (Al-Fb) are commonly used due to their proven radiant protective performance (RPP). In this study RPP of various Al-Fb prepared using different aluminized films (Al-Fl) such as double-sided aluminized film and single-sided aluminized film and different base fabrics such as woven, knit, and nonwoven fabrics are compared. The effect of flexing on RPP and flame protective performance (FPP) of Al-Fb is also examined. The results show that RPP of Al-Fl is affected by the protective film to protect against mechanical or physical damages, and also by their structure such as whether the second reflective aluminum layer is present or not. In addition RPP of Al-Fb is also influenced by the base fabric, especially its surface roughness. The increased surface roughness combined with the damage caused to the aluminum layer after flexing result in reduction of RPP of Al-Fb. The contribution of Al-Fl to FPP of Al-Fb is not as significant as to RPP. Finally, based on the results, some points that may be important in developing and designing fire proximity suits are recommended. PMID:25324564

  1. Integration of planetary protection activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.

    1995-01-01

    For decades, NASA has been concerned about the protection of planets and other solar system bodies from biological contamination. Its policies regarding biological contamination control for outbound and inbound planetary spacecraft have evolved to focus on three important areas: (1) the preservation of celestial objects and the space environment; (2) protection of Earth from extraterrestrial hazards; and (3) ensuring the integrity of its scientific investigations. Over the years as new information has been obtained from planetary exploration and research, planetary protection parameters and policies have been modified accordingly. The overall focus of research under this cooperative agreement has been to provide information about non-scientific and societal factors related to planetary protection and use it in the planning and implementation phases of future Mars sample return missions.

  2. Protection forest resilience after a fire event: a case study in Vallis, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergani, Chiara; Werlen, Mario; Schwarz, Massimiliano

    2016-04-01

    Forests are well known to protect against natural hazards such as landslides, rockfall and floods. Nevertheless, they are dynamic ecosystems which are exposed to a variety of disturbances such as windstorms, fires, bark beetle and pathogen outbreaks. Catastrophic disturbances like windstorms and fires usually remove large portions of the canopy, starting a succession process which lead to a complete stand regeneration. Disturbances belong to the natural dynamic of forests, however they are highly undesirable in the case where forest protect infrastructure or settlements. Quantifying the decay and recovery of the protection effect of forests after disturbances is therefore important to evaluate risks and implement appropriate management techniques, when needed. This work analyzes the dynamic of a Scots Pine (Pinus silvestris) protection forests near Visp (Vallis) after a fire event, focusing on root reinforcement, which is the key factor in preventing shallow landslides. Forest cover, root distribution and root mechanical properties were analyzed 4 years after the fire event, and the root reinforcement has been quantified. Furthermore, the contribution of natural regeneration has been evaluated. Results show that the root reinforcement of Scots pine has declined massively in the forest fire area. At a distance of 1.5 m from the tree stem there is a reduction of 60% compared with the live stand. With increasing distance from the stem, the reduction in the reinforcement is even bigger. At a distance of 2.5 meters it is 12% and at 3.5 meters, only 5% of the original root reinforcement. This decrease is due to the decomposition of roots and associated change in the mechanical properties of the wood. The reinforcement of the dead roots in the forest area is estimated between 0.36 kPa and 2.64 kPa. The contribution of the emerging regeneration is estimated on average 0.01 kPa. Overall the stand provides a reinforcement between 0.37 kPa and 2.65 kPa. From the results it

  3. A feasibility study: California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection utilization of infrared technologies for wildland fire suppression and management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.; Britten, R. A.; Parks, G. S.; Voss, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's JPL has completed a feasibility study using infrared technologies for wildland fire suppression and management. The study surveyed user needs, examined available technologies, matched the user needs with technologies, and defined an integrated infrared wildland fire mapping concept system configuration. System component trade-offs were presented for evaluation in the concept system configuration. The economic benefits of using infrared technologies in fire suppression and management were examined. Follow-on concept system configuration development and implementation were proposed.

  4. Solar activity as a possible cause of large forest fires--a case study: analysis of the Portuguese forest fires.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J F P; Radovanovic, M

    2008-05-01

    Fires of large dimension destroy forests, harvests and housing objects. Apart from that combustion products and burned surfaces become large ecological problems. Very often fires emerge simultaneously on different locations of a region so a question could be asked if they always have been a consequence of negligence, pyromania, high temperatures or maybe there has been some other cause. This paper is an attempt of establishing the possible connection between forest fires that numerous satellites registered and activities happening on the Sun immediately before fires ignite. Fires emerged on relatively large areas from Portugal and Spain on August 2005, as well as on other regions of Europe. The cases that have been analyzed show that, in every concrete situation, an emission of strong electromagnetic and thermal corpuscular energy from highly energetic regions that were in geo-effective position had preceded the fires. Such emissions have, usually, very high energy and high speeds of particles and come from coronary holes that also have been either in the very structure or in the immediate closeness of the geo-effective position. It should also be noted that the solar wind directed towards the Earth becomes weaker with deeper penetration towards the topographic surface. However, the results presented in this paper suggest that, there is a strong causality relationship between solar activity and the ignition of these forest fires taking place in South-western Europe. PMID:18291443

  5. Assessment of the Utility of the Advanced Himawari Imager to Detect Active Fire Over Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hally, B.; Wallace, L.; Reinke, K.; Jones, S.

    2016-06-01

    Wildfire detection and attribution is an issue of importance due to the socio-economic impact of fires in Australia. Early detection of fires allows emergency response agencies to make informed decisions in order to minimise loss of life and protect strategic resources in threatened areas. Until recently, the ability of land management authorities to accurately assess fire through satellite observations of Australia was limited to those made by polar orbiting satellites. The launch of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Himawari-8 satellite, with the 16-band Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI-8) onboard, in October 2014 presents a significant opportunity to improve the timeliness of satellite fire detection across Australia. The near real-time availability of images, at a ten minute frequency, may also provide contextual information (background temperature) leading to improvements in the assessment of fire characteristics. This paper investigates the application of the high frequency observation data supplied by this sensor for fire detection and attribution. As AHI-8 is a new sensor we have performed an analysis of the noise characteristics of the two spectral bands used for fire attribution across various land use types which occur in Australia. Using this information we have adapted existing algorithms, based upon least squares error minimisation and Kalman filtering, which utilise high frequency observations of surface temperature to detect and attribute fire. The fire detection and attribution information provided by these algorithms is then compared to existing satellite based fire products as well as in-situ information provided by land management agencies. These comparisons were made Australia-wide for an entire fire season - including many significant fire events (wildfires and prescribed burns). Preliminary detection results suggest that these methods for fire detection perform comparably to existing fire products and fire incident reporting from relevant

  6. Synchronous fire activity in the tropical high Andes: an indication of regional climate forcing.

    PubMed

    Román-Cuesta, R M; Carmona-Moreno, C; Lizcano, G; New, M; Silman, M; Knoke, T; Malhi, Y; Oliveras, I; Asbjornsen, H; Vuille, M

    2014-06-01

    Global climate models suggest enhanced warming of the tropical mid and upper troposphere, with larger temperature rise rates at higher elevations. Changes in fire activity are amongst the most significant ecological consequences of rising temperatures and changing hydrological properties in mountainous ecosystems, and there is a global evidence of increased fire activity with elevation. Whilst fire research has become popular in the tropical lowlands, much less is known of the tropical high Andean region (>2000 masl, from Colombia to Bolivia). This study examines fire trends in the high Andes for three ecosystems, the Puna, the Paramo and the Yungas, for the period 1982-2006. We pose three questions: (i) is there an increased fire response with elevation? (ii) does the El Niño- Southern Oscillation control fire activity in this region? (iii) are the observed fire trends human driven (e.g., human practices and their effects on fuel build-up) or climate driven? We did not find evidence of increased fire activity with elevation but, instead, a quasicyclic and synchronous fire response in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, suggesting the influence of high-frequency climate forcing on fire responses on a subcontinental scale, in the high Andes. ENSO variability did not show a significant relation to fire activity for these three countries, partly because ENSO variability did not significantly relate to precipitation extremes, although it strongly did to temperature extremes. Whilst ENSO did not individually lead the observed regional fire trends, our results suggest a climate influence on fire activity, mainly through a sawtooth pattern of precipitation (increased rainfall before fire-peak seasons (t-1) followed by drought spells and unusual low temperatures (t0), which is particularly common where fire is carried by low fuel loads (e.g., grasslands and fine fuel). This climatic sawtooth appeared as the main driver of fire trends, above local human influences and fuel build

  7. GIS Fuzzy Expert System for the assessment of ecosystems vulnerability to fire in managing Mediterranean natural protected areas.

    PubMed

    Semeraro, Teodoro; Mastroleo, Giovanni; Aretano, Roberta; Facchinetti, Gisella; Zurlini, Giovanni; Petrosillo, Irene

    2016-03-01

    A significant threat to the natural and cultural heritage of Mediterranean natural protected areas (NPAs) is related to uncontrolled fires that can cause potential damages related to the loss or a reduction of ecosystems. The assessment and mapping of the vulnerability to fire can be useful to reduce landscape damages and to establish priority areas where it is necessary to plan measures to reduce the fire vulnerability. To this aim, a methodology based on an interactive computer-based system has been proposed in order to support NPA's management authority for the identification of vulnerable hotspots to fire through the selection of suitable indicators that allow discriminating different levels of sensitivity (e.g. Habitat relevance, Fragmentation, Fire behavior, Ecosystem Services, Vegetation recovery after fire) and stresses (agriculture, tourism, urbanization). In particular, a multi-criteria analysis based on Fuzzy Expert System (FES) integrated in a GIS environment has been developed in order to identify and map potential "hotspots" of fire vulnerability, where fire protection measures can be undertaken in advance. In order to test the effectiveness of this approach, this approach has been applied to the NPA of Torre Guaceto (Apulia Region, southern Italy). The most fire vulnerable areas are the patch of century-old forest characterized by high sensitivity and stress, and the wetlands and century-old olive groves due to their high sensitivity. The GIS fuzzy expert system provides evidence of its potential usefulness for the effective management of natural protected areas and can help conservation managers to plan and intervene in order to mitigate the fire vulnerability in accordance with conservation goals. PMID:26696610

  8. Evaluation of the thermal performance of fire fighter protective clothing with the addition of phase change material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Lee K.

    Fire fighters rely on fire fighter protective clothing (FFPC) to provide adequate protection in the various hazardous environments they may encounter during operations. FFPC has seen significant advancement in technology over the past few decades. The addition of phase change material (PCM) to FFPC is a new technology with potential to enhance the thermal protection provided by the FFPC. To explore this technology, data from bench-scale experiments involving FFPC with PCMs are compared with a theoretical finite difference heat transfer model. The results demonstrate an effective method to mathematically model the heat transfer and provide insight into the effectiveness of improving the thermal protection of FFPC. The experiments confirm that the latent heat absorbed during the phase change reduces temperatures that might be experienced at the fire fighter's skin surface, advancing the high temperature performance of FFPC.

  9. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample...) Automatic fire detecting systems. For the purpose of this subpart, automatic fire and smoke detecting... unit, fire detectors, smoke detectors, and audible and visual alarms distinct in both respects from...

  10. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample...) Automatic fire detecting systems. For the purpose of this subpart, automatic fire and smoke detecting... unit, fire detectors, smoke detectors, and audible and visual alarms distinct in both respects from...

  11. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample...) Automatic fire detecting systems. For the purpose of this subpart, automatic fire and smoke detecting... unit, fire detectors, smoke detectors, and audible and visual alarms distinct in both respects from...

  12. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample...) Automatic fire detecting systems. For the purpose of this subpart, automatic fire and smoke detecting... unit, fire detectors, smoke detectors, and audible and visual alarms distinct in both respects from...

  13. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample...) Automatic fire detecting systems. For the purpose of this subpart, automatic fire and smoke detecting... unit, fire detectors, smoke detectors, and audible and visual alarms distinct in both respects from...

  14. Incorporating Anthropogenic Influences into Fire Probability Models: Effects of Human Activity and Climate Change on Fire Activity in California

    PubMed Central

    Batllori, Enric; Moritz, Max A.; Waller, Eric K.; Berck, Peter; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Dolfi, Emmalee

    2016-01-01

    The costly interactions between humans and wildfires throughout California demonstrate the need to understand the relationships between them, especially in the face of a changing climate and expanding human communities. Although a number of statistical and process-based wildfire models exist for California, there is enormous uncertainty about the location and number of future fires, with previously published estimates of increases ranging from nine to fifty-three percent by the end of the century. Our goal is to assess the role of climate and anthropogenic influences on the state’s fire regimes from 1975 to 2050. We develop an empirical model that integrates estimates of biophysical indicators relevant to plant communities and anthropogenic influences at each forecast time step. Historically, we find that anthropogenic influences account for up to fifty percent of explanatory power in the model. We also find that the total area burned is likely to increase, with burned area expected to increase by 2.2 and 5.0 percent by 2050 under climatic bookends (PCM and GFDL climate models, respectively). Our two climate models show considerable agreement, but due to potential shifts in rainfall patterns, substantial uncertainty remains for the semiarid inland deserts and coastal areas of the south. Given the strength of human-related variables in some regions, however, it is clear that comprehensive projections of future fire activity should include both anthropogenic and biophysical influences. Previous findings of substantially increased numbers of fires and burned area for California may be tied to omitted variable bias from the exclusion of human influences. The omission of anthropogenic variables in our model would overstate the importance of climatic ones by at least 24%. As such, the failure to include anthropogenic effects in many models likely overstates the response of wildfire to climatic change. PMID:27124597

  15. Incorporating Anthropogenic Influences into Fire Probability Models: Effects of Human Activity and Climate Change on Fire Activity in California.

    PubMed

    Mann, Michael L; Batllori, Enric; Moritz, Max A; Waller, Eric K; Berck, Peter; Flint, Alan L; Flint, Lorraine E; Dolfi, Emmalee

    2016-01-01

    The costly interactions between humans and wildfires throughout California demonstrate the need to understand the relationships between them, especially in the face of a changing climate and expanding human communities. Although a number of statistical and process-based wildfire models exist for California, there is enormous uncertainty about the location and number of future fires, with previously published estimates of increases ranging from nine to fifty-three percent by the end of the century. Our goal is to assess the role of climate and anthropogenic influences on the state's fire regimes from 1975 to 2050. We develop an empirical model that integrates estimates of biophysical indicators relevant to plant communities and anthropogenic influences at each forecast time step. Historically, we find that anthropogenic influences account for up to fifty percent of explanatory power in the model. We also find that the total area burned is likely to increase, with burned area expected to increase by 2.2 and 5.0 percent by 2050 under climatic bookends (PCM and GFDL climate models, respectively). Our two climate models show considerable agreement, but due to potential shifts in rainfall patterns, substantial uncertainty remains for the semiarid inland deserts and coastal areas of the south. Given the strength of human-related variables in some regions, however, it is clear that comprehensive projections of future fire activity should include both anthropogenic and biophysical influences. Previous findings of substantially increased numbers of fires and burned area for California may be tied to omitted variable bias from the exclusion of human influences. The omission of anthropogenic variables in our model would overstate the importance of climatic ones by at least 24%. As such, the failure to include anthropogenic effects in many models likely overstates the response of wildfire to climatic change. PMID:27124597

  16. Crash-Fire Protection System for T-56 Turbopropeller Engine Using Water as Cooling and Inerting Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, Arthur M.; Campbell, John A.

    1959-01-01

    A crash-fire protection system to suppress the ignition of crash-spilled fuel that may be ingested by a T-56 turbopropeller engine is described. This system includes means for rapidly extinguishing the combustor flame and means for cooling and inerting with water the hot engine parts likely to ignite engine-ingested fuel. Combustion-chamber flames were extinguished in 0.07 second at the engine fuel manifold. Hot engine parts were inerted and cooled by 52 pounds of water discharged at ten engine stations. Performance trials of the crash-fire prevention system were conducted by bringing the engine up to takeoff temperature, stopping the normal fuel flow to the engine, starting the water discharge, and then spraying fuel into the engine to simulate crash-ingested fuel. No fires occurred during these trials, although fuel was sprayed into the engine from 0.3 second to 15 minutes after actuating the crash-fire protection system.

  17. Standard on fire protection for self-propelled and mobile surface mining equipment. 2001 ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2001-07-01

    Safeguard life and property against fire and related hazards in mines with the latest requirements in NFPA 121. This 2001 edition covers fire detection, suppression, ignition sources, fire risk assessment and maintenance of mining equipment systems. 4 apps.

  18. 14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... it must be equipped with a smoke or fire detector system to give a warning at the pilots' station... the contents of a hand held fire extinguisher, or (2) Be equipped with a smoke or fire detector...

  19. 14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... it must be equipped with a smoke or fire detector system to give a warning at the pilots' station... the contents of a hand held fire extinguisher, or (2) Be equipped with a smoke or fire detector...

  20. Extravehicular Activity and Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, J. A.; Mary, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    The first human mission to Mars will be the farthest distance that humans have traveled from Earth and the first human boots on Martian soil in the Exploration EVA Suit. The primary functions of the Exploration EVA Suit are to provide a habitable, anthropometric, pressurized environment for up to eight hours that allows crewmembers to perform autonomous and robotically assisted extravehicular exploration, science/research, construction, servicing, and repair operations on the exterior of the vehicle, in hazardous external conditions of the Mars local environment. The Exploration EVA Suit has the capability to structurally interface with exploration vehicles via next generation ingress/egress systems. Operational concepts and requirements are dependent on the mission profile, surface assets, and the Mars environment. This paper will discuss the effects and dependencies of the EVA system design with the local Mars environment and Planetary Protection. Of the three study areas listed for the workshop, EVA identifies most strongly with technology and operations for contamination control.

  1. Model example of natural ventilation for protected escape route type Ap in the fire of a block of flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkáč, J.

    2011-03-01

    Ventilation methods for protected escape route type Ap are defined and given technically and by typology in current legislation [1] and [5]. The simulation of the growth of a fire and movement of smoke was modelled on a stairway in a block of flats with 9 aboveground storeys and one underground storey (the most used type of stairway in blocks of flats in the Slovak Republic). The initiation, dynamics and movement of smoke are influenced by the efficiency of the natural ventilation. The dangerous products of fire, smoke, visibility and temperature influence safe evacuations and human behaviour. The selected model was verified by an actual fire.

  2. Modeling the effects of fire severity and climate warming on active layer and soil carbon dynamics of black spruce forests across the landscape in interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Genet, H.; McGuire, Anthony David; Barrett, K.; Breen, A.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Johnstone, J.F.; Kasischke, E.S.; Melvin, A.M.; Bennett, A.; Mack, M.C.; Rupp, T.S.; Schuur, A.E.G.; Turetsky, M.R.; Yuan, F.

    2013-01-01

    There is a substantial amount of carbon stored in the permafrost soils of boreal forest ecosystems, where it is currently protected from decomposition. The surface organic horizons insulate the deeper soil from variations in atmospheric temperature. The removal of these insulating horizons through consumption by fire increases the vulnerability of permafrost to thaw, and the carbon stored in permafrost to decomposition. In this study we ask how warming and fire regime may influence spatial and temporal changes in active layer and carbon dynamics across a boreal forest landscape in interior Alaska. To address this question, we (1) developed and tested a predictive model of the effect of fire severity on soil organic horizons that depends on landscape-level conditions and (2) used this model to evaluate the long-term consequences of warming and changes in fire regime on active layer and soil carbon dynamics of black spruce forests across interior Alaska. The predictive model of fire severity, designed from the analysis of field observations, reproduces the effect of local topography (landform category, the slope angle and aspect and flow accumulation), weather conditions (drought index, soil moisture) and fire characteristics (day of year and size of the fire) on the reduction of the organic layer caused by fire. The integration of the fire severity model into an ecosystem process-based model allowed us to document the relative importance and interactions among local topography, fire regime and climate warming on active layer and soil carbon dynamics. Lowlands were more resistant to severe fires and climate warming, showing smaller increases in active layer thickness and soil carbon loss compared to drier flat uplands and slopes. In simulations that included the effects of both warming and fire at the regional scale, fire was primarily responsible for a reduction in organic layer thickness of 0.06 m on average by 2100 that led to an increase in active layer thickness

  3. Modeling the effects of fire severity and climate warming on active layer thickness and soil carbon storage of black spruce forests across the landscape in interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, H.; McGuire, A. D.; Barrett, K.; Breen, A.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Johnstone, J. F.; Kasischke, E. S.; Melvin, A. M.; Bennett, A.; Mack, M. C.; Rupp, T. S.; Schuur, A. E. G.; Turetsky, M. R.; Yuan, F.

    2013-12-01

    There is a substantial amount of carbon stored in the permafrost soils of boreal forest ecosystems, where it is currently protected from decomposition. The surface organic horizons insulate the deeper soil from variations in atmospheric temperature. The removal of these insulating horizons through consumption by fire increases the vulnerability of permafrost to thaw, and the carbon stored in permafrost to decomposition. In this study we ask how warming and fire regime may influence spatial and temporal changes in active layer and carbon dynamics across a boreal forest landscape in interior Alaska. To address this question, we (1) developed and tested a predictive model of the effect of fire severity on soil organic horizons that depends on landscape-level conditions and (2) used this model to evaluate the long-term consequences of warming and changes in fire regime on active layer and soil carbon dynamics of black spruce forests across interior Alaska. The predictive model of fire severity, designed from the analysis of field observations, reproduces the effect of local topography (landform category, the slope angle and aspect and flow accumulation), weather conditions (drought index, soil moisture) and fire characteristics (day of year and size of the fire) on the reduction of the organic layer caused by fire. The integration of the fire severity model into an ecosystem process-based model allowed us to document the relative importance and interactions among local topography, fire regime and climate warming on active layer and soil carbon dynamics. Lowlands were more resistant to severe fires and climate warming, showing smaller increases in active layer thickness and soil carbon loss compared to drier flat uplands and slopes. In simulations that included the effects of both warming and fire at the regional scale, fire was primarily responsible for a reduction in organic layer thickness of 0.06 m on average by 2100 that led to an increase in active layer thickness

  4. Modeling the effects of fire severity and climate warming on active layer thickness and soil carbon storage of black spruce forests across the landscape in interior Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Genet, Helene; McGuire, A. David; Barrett, K.; Breen, Amy; Euskirchen, Eugenie S; Johnstone, J. F.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Melvin, A. M.; Bennett, A.; Mack, M. C.; Rupp, Scott T.; Schuur, Edward; Turetsky, M. R.; Yuan, Fengming

    2013-01-01

    There is a substantial amount of carbon stored in the permafrost soils of boreal forest ecosystems, where it is currently protected from decomposition. The surface organic horizons insulate the deeper soil from variations in atmospheric temperature. The removal of these insulating horizons through consumption by fire increases the vulnerability of permafrost to thaw, and the carbon stored in permafrost to decomposition. In this study we ask how warming and fire regime may influence spatial and temporal changes in active layer and carbon dynamics across a boreal forest landscape in interior Alaska. To address this question, we (1) developed and tested a predictive model of the effect of fire severity on soil organic horizons that depends on landscape-level conditions and (2) used this model to evaluate the long-term consequences of warming and changes in fire regime on active layer and soil carbon dynamics of black spruce forests across interior Alaska. The predictive model of fire severity, designed from the analysis of field observations, reproduces the effect of local topography (landform category, the slope angle and aspect and flow accumulation), weather conditions (drought index, soil moisture) and fire characteristics (day of year and size of the fire) on the reduction of the organic layercaused by fire. The integration of the fire severity model into an ecosystem process-based model allowed us to document the relative importance and interactions among local topography, fire regime and climate warming on active layer and soil carbon dynamics. Lowlands were more resistant to severe fires and climate warming, showing smaller increases in active layer thickness and soil carbon loss compared to drier flat uplands and slopes. In simulations that included the effects of both warming and fire at the regional scale, fire was primarily responsible for a reduction in organic layer thickness of 0.06 m on average by 2100 that led to an increase in active layer thickness

  5. Contrasting Spatial Patterns in Active-Fire and Fire-Suppressed Mediterranean Climate Old-Growth Mixed Conifer Forests

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Danny L.; Stephens, Scott L.; Collins, Brandon M.; North, Malcolm P.; Franco-Vizcaíno, Ernesto; Gill, Samantha J.

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean environments in western North America, historic fire regimes in frequent-fire conifer forests are highly variable both temporally and spatially. This complexity influenced forest structure and spatial patterns, but some of this diversity has been lost due to anthropogenic disruption of ecosystem processes, including fire. Information from reference forest sites can help management efforts to restore forests conditions that may be more resilient to future changes in disturbance regimes and climate. In this study, we characterize tree spatial patterns using four-ha stem maps from four old-growth, Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forests, two with active-fire regimes in northwestern Mexico and two that experienced fire exclusion in the southern Sierra Nevada. Most of the trees were in patches, averaging six to 11 trees per patch at 0.007 to 0.014 ha−1, and occupied 27–46% of the study areas. Average canopy gap sizes (0.04 ha) covering 11–20% of the area were not significantly different among sites. The putative main effects of fire exclusion were higher densities of single trees in smaller size classes, larger proportion of trees (≥56%) in large patches (≥10 trees), and decreases in spatial complexity. While a homogenization of forest structure has been a typical result from fire exclusion, some similarities in patch, single tree, and gap attributes were maintained at these sites. These within-stand descriptions provide spatially relevant benchmarks from which to manage for structural heterogeneity in frequent-fire forest types. PMID:24586472

  6. Moderate Livestock Grazing Protects Sagebrush Plant Communities From Post-fire Cheatgrass Invasion.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock grazing and fire are common disturbances on sagebrush rangelands. However, little is known about the influence of pre-fire grazing on post-fire plant community recovery. We evaluated the impacts of long-term grazing compared to not grazing prior to fire on sagebrush rangeland. We found ...

  7. Protection of Active Distribution Systems with DGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akila, Abdelrahman Ahmed; Helal, Ahmed; Eldesouki, Hussein

    2015-10-01

    Distribution systems are traditionally designed as radial passive systems fed from a single source. Protection coordination of such systems has been easily established assuming the system radiality. Insertion of distributed generators (DGs) into distribution systems makes the distribution system to be more active which causes redistribution of fault currents magnitudes and directions. This causes negative impacts on the original protection system coordination, since the distribution system losses its radiality and passiveness. Recently protection coordination in the presence of distributed generation has been paid a great attention. Researchers proposed various solutions to solve the protection coordination problem caused by adding DG into the distribution network. In this paper, the proposed solutions for the protection coordination problem considering the DG insertion will be illustrated, classified, and criticized.

  8. Fire hazards evaluation for light duty utility arm system

    SciTech Connect

    HUCKFELDT, R.A.

    1999-02-24

    In accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A, Fire Protection, a Fire Hazards Analysis must be performed for all new facilities. LMHC Fire Protection has reviewed and approved the significant documentation leading up to the LDUA operation. This includes, but is not limited to, development criteria and drawings, Engineering Task Plan, Quality Assurance Program Plan, and Safety Program Plan. LMHC has provided an appropriate level of fire protection for this activity as documented.

  9. Fire activity as a function of fire-weather seasonal severity and antecedent climate across spatial scales in southern Europe and Pacific western USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbieta, Itziar R.; Zavala, Gonzalo; Bedia, Joaquín; Gutiérrez, José M.; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús; Camia, Andrea; Keeley, Jon E.; Moreno, José M.

    2015-11-01

    Climate has a strong influence on fire activity, varying across time and space. We analyzed the relationships between fire-weather conditions during the main fire season and antecedent water-balance conditions and fires in two Mediterranean-type regions with contrasted management histories: five southern countries of the European Union (EUMED)(all fires); the Pacific western coast of the USA (California and Oregon, PWUSA)(national forest fires). Total number of fires (≥1 ha), number of large fires (≥100 ha) and area burned were related to mean seasonal fire weather index (FWI), number of days over the 90th percentile of the FWI, and to the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) from the preceding 3 (spring) or 8 (autumn through spring) months. Calculations were made at three spatial aggregations in each area, and models related first-difference (year-to-year change) of fires and FWI/climate variables to minimize autocorrelation. An increase in mean seasonal FWI resulted in increases in the three fire variables across spatial scales in both regions. SPEI contributed little to explain fires, with few exceptions. Negative water-balance (dry) conditions from autumn through spring (SPEI8) were generally more important than positive conditions (moist) in spring (SPEI3), both of which contributed positively to fires. The R2 of the models generally improved with increasing area of aggregation. For total number of fires and area burned, the R2 of the models tended to decrease with increasing mean seasonal FWI. Thus, fires were more susceptible to change with climate variability in areas with less amenable conditions for fires (lower FWI) than in areas with higher mean FWI values. The relationships were similar in both regions, albeit weaker in PWUSA, probably due to the wider latitudinal gradient covered in PWUSA than in EUMED. The large variance explained by some of the models indicates that large-scale seasonal forecast could help anticipating fire

  10. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF BICARBONATE POWDERS AS FIRE SUPPRESSANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Combustion Dynamics Section of the Navy Technology Center for Safety and Survivability is actively involved in addressing US Navy needs for fire protection, concentrating on the effectiveness of current and future fire extinguishing agents, with the responsibility to recommen...

  11. 78 FR 24997 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone-Depleting Substances-Fire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... stratospheric ozone layer. This action will provide users that need specialized fire protection applications... History On March 18, 1994, EPA published the original rulemaking (59 FR 13044) which established the... preamble to the rule initially implementing the SNAP program in the Federal Register at 59 FR 13044...

  12. 33 CFR 149.641 - What are the structural fire protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the structural fire protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules? 149.641 Section 149.641 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Design...

  13. 33 CFR 149.641 - What are the structural fire protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the structural fire protection requirements for accommodation spaces and modules? 149.641 Section 149.641 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Design...

  14. Atlantic SSTs control regime shifts in forest fire activity of Northern Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobyshev, Igor; Bergeron, Yves; Vernal, Anne De; Moberg, Anders; Ali, Adam A.; Niklasson, Mats

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the drivers of the boreal forest fire activity is challenging due to the complexity of the interactions driving fire regimes. We analyzed drivers of forest fire activity in Northern Scandinavia (above 60 N) by combining modern and proxy data over the Holocene. The results suggest that the cold climate in northern Scandinavia was generally characterized by dry conditions favourable to periods of regionally increased fire activity. We propose that the cold conditions over the northern North Atlantic, associated with low SSTs, expansion of sea ice cover, and the southward shift in the position of the subpolar gyre, redirect southward the precipitation over Scandinavia, associated with the westerlies. This dynamics strengthens high pressure systems over Scandinavia and results in increased regional fire activity. Our study reveals a previously undocumented teleconnection between large scale climate and ocean dynamics over the North Atlantic and regional boreal forest fire activity in Northern Scandinavia. Consistency of the pattern observed annually through millennium scales suggests that a strong link between Atlantic SST and fire activity on multiple temporal scales over the entire Holocene is relevant for understanding future fire activity across the European boreal zone.

  15. Atlantic SSTs control regime shifts in forest fire activity of Northern Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Drobyshev, Igor; Bergeron, Yves; Vernal, Anne de; Moberg, Anders; Ali, Adam A; Niklasson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of the boreal forest fire activity is challenging due to the complexity of the interactions driving fire regimes. We analyzed drivers of forest fire activity in Northern Scandinavia (above 60 N) by combining modern and proxy data over the Holocene. The results suggest that the cold climate in northern Scandinavia was generally characterized by dry conditions favourable to periods of regionally increased fire activity. We propose that the cold conditions over the northern North Atlantic, associated with low SSTs, expansion of sea ice cover, and the southward shift in the position of the subpolar gyre, redirect southward the precipitation over Scandinavia, associated with the westerlies. This dynamics strengthens high pressure systems over Scandinavia and results in increased regional fire activity. Our study reveals a previously undocumented teleconnection between large scale climate and ocean dynamics over the North Atlantic and regional boreal forest fire activity in Northern Scandinavia. Consistency of the pattern observed annually through millennium scales suggests that a strong link between Atlantic SST and fire activity on multiple temporal scales over the entire Holocene is relevant for understanding future fire activity across the European boreal zone. PMID:26940995

  16. Atlantic SSTs control regime shifts in forest fire activity of Northern Scandinavia

    PubMed Central

    Drobyshev, Igor; Bergeron, Yves; Vernal, Anne de; Moberg, Anders; Ali, Adam A.; Niklasson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of the boreal forest fire activity is challenging due to the complexity of the interactions driving fire regimes. We analyzed drivers of forest fire activity in Northern Scandinavia (above 60 N) by combining modern and proxy data over the Holocene. The results suggest that the cold climate in northern Scandinavia was generally characterized by dry conditions favourable to periods of regionally increased fire activity. We propose that the cold conditions over the northern North Atlantic, associated with low SSTs, expansion of sea ice cover, and the southward shift in the position of the subpolar gyre, redirect southward the precipitation over Scandinavia, associated with the westerlies. This dynamics strengthens high pressure systems over Scandinavia and results in increased regional fire activity. Our study reveals a previously undocumented teleconnection between large scale climate and ocean dynamics over the North Atlantic and regional boreal forest fire activity in Northern Scandinavia. Consistency of the pattern observed annually through millennium scales suggests that a strong link between Atlantic SST and fire activity on multiple temporal scales over the entire Holocene is relevant for understanding future fire activity across the European boreal zone. PMID:26940995

  17. Using Macroscopic Charcoal to Reconstruct the Holocene Fire Activity of the Willamette Valley, Oregon and Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, M. K.; Whitlock, C.; Bartlein, P. J.; Pearl, C. A.

    2006-12-01

    High-resolution macroscopic charcoal analysis of two lacustrine records has revealed the Holocene fire activity of the Willamette Valley, located between the Coast and Cascade ranges of southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. The Willamette Valley experienced major environmental and cultural changes during the Holocene, however, its long-term fire history is poorly known. Of particular interest are shifts in fire activity that occurred in response to (1) millennial- and centennial-scale climate and vegetation changes (e.g., the Early Holocene warm period, the Little Ice Age) and (2) major shifts in human activity and population size (e.g., Native American population decline, Euro-American settlement). Macroscopic charcoal analysis of contiguous core samples was used to reconstruct fire activity at each site. Charcoal source (i.e., herbaceous or woody) was also determined based on particle morphology. Charcoal influx was decomposed into a peak component (which indicates fire episodes) and a background component (which indicates changes in burnable biomass). Charcoal records from Battle Ground Lake and Beaver Lake reveal major shifts in fire activity that are consistent with known changes in regional climate on orbital time scales. The Battle Ground Lake charcoal data, for example, show a general increase in fire frequency from the beginning of the Holocene to a maximum of ~18 fire episodes/1000 years at 6500 cal yr BP, associated with the early Holocene insolation maximum and its influence on summer drought, followed by a decrease to ~5 fire episodes/1000 years at present. Similar trends are indicated by the Beaver Lake charcoal data. Both records also indicate shifts in fire activity that suggest the possibility of anthropogenic burning, but at different times at each site. Additional records are being analyzed to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of fire activity across the Willamette Valley as a whole.

  18. 309 Building fire protection analysis and justification for deactivation of sprinkler system. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, R.P.

    1997-06-25

    Provide a `graded approach` fire evaluation in preparation for turnover to Environmental Restoration Contractor for D&D. Scope includes revising 309 Building book value and evaluating fire hazards, radiological and toxicological releases, and life safety issues.

  19. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire... Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH. 1976. 16. Model Performance Criteria for Structural Fire.... Firefighters; Job Safety and Health Magazine, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington,...

  20. Holocene fire activity in the Carpathian region: regional climate vs. local controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florescu, Gabriela; Feurdean, Angelica

    2015-04-01

    Introduction. Fire drives significant changes in ecosystem structure and function, diversity, species evolution, biomass dynamics and atmospheric composition. Palaeodata and model-based studies have pointed towards a strong connection between fire activity, climate, vegetation and people. Nevertheless, the relative importance of these factors appears to be strongly variable and a better understanding of these factors and their interaction needs a thorough investigation over multiple spatial (local to global) and temporal (years to millennia) scales. In this respect, sedimentary charcoal, associated with other proxies of climate, vegetation and human impact, represents a powerful tool of investigating changes in past fire activity, especially in regions with scarce fire dataset such as the CE Europe. Aim. To increase the spatial and temporal coverage of charcoal records and facilitate a more critical examination of the patterns, drivers and consequences of biomass burning over multiple spatial and temporal scales in CE Europe, we have investigated 6 fossil sequences in the Carpathian region (northern Romania). These are located in different geographical settings, in terms of elevation, vegetation composition, topography and land-use. Specific questions are: i) determine trends in timing and magnitude of fire activity, as well as similarities and differences between elevations; ii) disentangle the importance of regional from local controls in fire activity; iii) evaluate ecological consequences of fire on landscape composition, structure and diversity. Methods. We first determine the recent trends in fire activity (the last 150 years) from charcoal data and compare them with instrumental records of temperature, precipitation, site history and topography for a better understanding of the relationship between sedimentary charcoal and historical fire activity. We then statistically quantify centennial to millennial trends in fire activity (frequency, magnitude) based on

  1. Characterization of indoor and outdoor pool fires with active calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Gill, W.; Gritzo, L.A.; Kent, L.A.; Wix, S.D.

    1994-12-31

    A water cooled, 1 m {times} 1 m, vertical calorimeter panel has been used in conjunction with other fire diagnostics to characterize a 6 m {times} 6 m outdoor and three 3 m {times} 3 m indoor JP-4 pool fires. Measurements reported include calorimeter surface heat flux and surface temperatures, flame temperatures, and gas flow velocities in the fire. From the data, effective radiative absorption coefficients for various zones in the fires have been estimated. The outdoor test was conducted at Sandia`s Coyote Canyon test facility, while indoor tests were conducted at the indoor SMokE Reduction Facility (SMERF) at the same location. The measurements provide data useful in calibrating simple analytic fire models intended for the analysis of packages containing hazardous materials.

  2. 14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the contents of a hand held fire extinguisher, or (2) Be equipped with a smoke or fire detector system... it must be equipped with a smoke or fire detector system to give a warning at the pilots' station... subsequent to its removal. The average flame time after removal of the flame source may not exceed 15...

  3. 14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the contents of a hand held fire extinguisher, or (2) Be equipped with a smoke or fire detector system... it must be equipped with a smoke or fire detector system to give a warning at the pilots' station... subsequent to its removal. The average flame time after removal of the flame source may not exceed 15...

  4. 77 FR 58170 - Proposed Renewal of Existing Information Collection; Fire Protection (Underground Coal Mines)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... the type, quality, and quantity of such equipment. 30 CFR 75.1100-3 requires that chemical fire...-0145. 30 CFR 75.1103-8(a) requires that a qualified person examine the automatic fire sensor and... once every seven days. Section 75.1103-8(b) requires that a record of the weekly automatic fire...

  5. 24 CFR 245.115 - Protected activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Protected activities. 245.115 Section 245.115 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER...

  6. Directory of workers in the fire field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuvshinoff, B. W.; Mcleod, S. B.; Katz, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    A directory was compiled to provide a list of workers engaged in fire research, their addresses and affiliations, and their principal fields of activity. The initial criteria for the selection of names for the directory are recent contributions to fire literature, teaching of subjects relevant to fire science, or participation in or support of fire research programs. With some exceptions, fire service personnel and fire protection engineers were excluded because directories already exist for these professionals. Also excluded are investigators engaged principally in studies of propulsion, combustion, and explosion phenomena, because these areas of study are somewhat aside from the main focus of fire research. For purposes of the directory, fire science is taken to be the body of knowledge, art, and skill related to the investigation, analysis, and interpretation of the phenomena of unwanted fires and the evaluation of materials methods, systems, and equipment related to fire safety, prevention, detection, and suppression.

  7. Fire in the Shop!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton P.; Buchanan, Joseph P.

    1977-01-01

    Fire emergency preparedness measures to take to prevent school fires and to protect against injury and minimize damage when fire does occur are presented. Includes fire safety practices, extinguishers for different classes of fires and their use, and the need for fire safety training in schools. (MF)

  8. Controls on interannual variability in lightning-caused fire activity in the western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abatzoglou, John T.; Kolden, Crystal A.; Balch, Jennifer K.; Bradley, Bethany A.

    2016-04-01

    Lightning-caused wildfires account for a majority of burned area across the western United States (US), yet lightning remains among the more unpredictable spatiotemporal aspects of the fire environment and a challenge for both modeling and managing fire activity. A data synthesis of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes, climate and fire data across the western US from 1992 to 2013 was conducted to better understand geographic variability in lightning-caused wildfire and the factors that influence interannual variability in lightning-caused wildfire at regional scales. Distinct geographic variability occurred in the proportion of fires and area burned attributed to lightning, with a majority of fires in the interior western US attributed to lightning. Lightning ignition efficiency was highest across the western portion of the region due to the concomitance of peak lightning frequency and annual nadir in fuel moisture in mid-to-late summer. For most regions the number of total and dry lightning strikes exhibited strong interannual correlation with the number of lightning-caused fires, yet were a poor predictor of area burned at regional scales. Commonality in climate–fire relationships for regional annual area burned by lightning- versus human-ignited fires suggests climate conditions, rather than lightning activity, are the predominant control of interannual variability in area burned by lightning-caused fire across much of the western US.

  9. Increasing late winter-early spring fire activity in Northern Spain: climate change or human footprint?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carracedo Martín, Virginia; García Codron, Juan Carlos; Rasilla Álvarez, Domingo

    2016-04-01

    Most of the fire activity across Spain concentrates during the summer months, but a secondary peak appears also during late winter and early spring (February and March). This peak represents a tiny fraction of the burned surface but in northern Spain becomes the main fire season, representing up to 60 % of the total burned surface. Moreover, the impact of this "unseasonal" fire regime is becoming more relevant; an analysis of the temporal evolution of the burned surface since 2005 shows that the suppression efforts of summer forest fires have apparently succeeded, while the opposite has occurred with late winter-early spring forest fires. For example, during March 2012 more than 22,000 ha were burned in the Spanish provinces of Asturias and Cantabria, while about 14,000 suffers the effects of fires in Northern Portugal. Anthropogenic factor (mostly linked to an extensive cattle farming in the mountains) are the main cause of such fire activity, but atmospheric factors also play a relevant role in the spread of this fires. Consequently, the main aim of this poster is to explore if the recent evolution of forest fires in the study area are consequence of an aggravation of the atmospheric conditions driving to more fire risk conditions, or other factor could also explain the increase in fire activity. Burned surface data obtained from official statistics since 1971 were compared with atmospheric data at two temporal scales: daily fire risk values calculated from synoptic records and long term drought indices (SPI and SPEI). The results show a long term increase in both daily fire risk and drought conditions, but this trend can be related to the background warming of the area, rather to an increase in the frequency and magnitude of the extreme fire weather events. Thus, we consider that the regional atmospheric evolution cannot explain by itself the recent increase in late winter-early spring fire activity. Additional anthropogenic factors, such as recent changes in

  10. Dynamics of firing patterns, synchronization and resonances in neuronal electrical activities: experiments and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qishao; Gu, Huaguang; Yang, Zhuoqin; Shi, Xia; Duan, Lixia; Zheng, Yanhong

    2008-12-01

    Recent advances in the experimental and theoretical study of dynamics of neuronal electrical firing activities are reviewed. Firstly, some experimental phenomena of neuronal irregular firing patterns, especially chaotic and stochastic firing patterns, are presented, and practical nonlinear time analysis methods are introduced to distinguish deterministic and stochastic mechanism in time series. Secondly, the dynamics of electrical firing activities in a single neuron is concerned, namely, fast-slow dynamics analysis for classification and mechanism of various bursting patterns, one- or two-parameter bifurcation analysis for transitions of firing patterns, and stochastic dynamics of firing activities (stochastic and coherence resonances, integer multiple and other firing patterns induced by noise, etc.). Thirdly, different types of synchronization of coupled neurons with electrical and chemical synapses are discussed. As noise and time delay are inevitable in nervous systems, it is found that noise and time delay may induce or enhance synchronization and change firing patterns of coupled neurons. Noise-induced resonance and spatiotemporal patterns in coupled neuronal networks are also demonstrated. Finally, some prospects are presented for future research. In consequence, the idea and methods of nonlinear dynamics are of great significance in exploration of dynamic processes and physiological functions of nervous systems.

  11. Fire activity and severity in the western US vary along proxy gradients representing fuel amount and fuel moisture.

    PubMed

    Parks, Sean A; Parisien, Marc-André; Miller, Carol; Dobrowski, Solomon Z

    2014-01-01

    Numerous theoretical and empirical studies have shown that wildfire activity (e.g., area burned) at regional to global scales may be limited at the extremes of environmental gradients such as productivity or moisture. Fire activity, however, represents only one component of the fire regime, and no studies to date have characterized fire severity along such gradients. Given the importance of fire severity in dictating ecological response to fire, this is a considerable knowledge gap. For the western US, we quantify relationships between climate and the fire regime by empirically describing both fire activity and severity along two climatic water balance gradients, actual evapotranspiration (AET) and water deficit (WD), that can be considered proxies for fuel amount and fuel moisture, respectively. We also concurrently summarize fire activity and severity among ecoregions, providing an empirically based description of the geographic distribution of fire regimes. Our results show that fire activity in the western US increases with fuel amount (represented by AET) but has a unimodal (i.e., humped) relationship with fuel moisture (represented by WD); fire severity increases with fuel amount and fuel moisture. The explicit links between fire regime components and physical environmental gradients suggest that multivariable statistical models can be generated to produce an empirically based fire regime map for the western US. Such models will potentially enable researchers to anticipate climate-mediated changes in fire recurrence and its impacts based on gridded spatial data representing future climate scenarios. PMID:24941290

  12. Fire Activity and Severity in the Western US Vary along Proxy Gradients Representing Fuel Amount and Fuel Moisture

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Sean A.; Parisien, Marc-André; Miller, Carol; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous theoretical and empirical studies have shown that wildfire activity (e.g., area burned) at regional to global scales may be limited at the extremes of environmental gradients such as productivity or moisture. Fire activity, however, represents only one component of the fire regime, and no studies to date have characterized fire severity along such gradients. Given the importance of fire severity in dictating ecological response to fire, this is a considerable knowledge gap. For the western US, we quantify relationships between climate and the fire regime by empirically describing both fire activity and severity along two climatic water balance gradients, actual evapotranspiration (AET) and water deficit (WD), that can be considered proxies for fuel amount and fuel moisture, respectively. We also concurrently summarize fire activity and severity among ecoregions, providing an empirically based description of the geographic distribution of fire regimes. Our results show that fire activity in the western US increases with fuel amount (represented by AET) but has a unimodal (i.e., humped) relationship with fuel moisture (represented by WD); fire severity increases with fuel amount and fuel moisture. The explicit links between fire regime components and physical environmental gradients suggest that multivariable statistical models can be generated to produce an empirically based fire regime map for the western US. Such models will potentially enable researchers to anticipate climate-mediated changes in fire recurrence and its impacts based on gridded spatial data representing future climate scenarios. PMID:24941290

  13. Thermal Spray Coatings for High-Temperature Corrosion Protection in Biomass Co-Fired Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksa, M.; Metsäjoki, J.; Kärki, J.

    2015-01-01

    There are over 1000 biomass boilers and about 500 plants using waste as fuel in Europe, and the numbers are increasing. Many of them encounter serious problems with high-temperature corrosion due to detrimental elements such as chlorides, alkali metals, and heavy metals. By HVOF spraying, it is possible to produce very dense and well-adhered coatings, which can be applied for corrosion protection of heat exchanger surfaces in biomass and waste-to-energy power plant boilers. Four HVOF coatings and one arc sprayed coating were exposed to actual biomass co-fired boiler conditions in superheater area with a probe measurement installation for 5900 h at 550 and 750 °C. The coating materials were Ni-Cr, IN625, Fe-Cr-W-Nb-Mo, and Ni-Cr-Ti. CJS and DJ Hybrid spray guns were used for HVOF spraying to compare the corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr coating structures. Reference materials were ferritic steel T92 and nickel super alloy A263. The circulating fluidized bed boiler burnt a mixture of wood, peat and coal. The coatings showed excellent corrosion resistance at 550 °C compared to the ferritic steel. At higher temperature, NiCr sprayed with CJS had the best corrosion resistance. IN625 was consumed almost completely during the exposure at 750 °C.

  14. Thermal Spray Coatings for High-Temperature Corrosion Protection in Biomass Co-Fired Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksa, M.; Metsäjoki, J.; Kärki, J.

    2014-09-01

    There are over 1000 biomass boilers and about 500 plants using waste as fuel in Europe, and the numbers are increasing. Many of them encounter serious problems with high-temperature corrosion due to detrimental elements such as chlorides, alkali metals, and heavy metals. By HVOF spraying, it is possible to produce very dense and well-adhered coatings, which can be applied for corrosion protection of heat exchanger surfaces in biomass and waste-to-energy power plant boilers. Four HVOF coatings and one arc sprayed coating were exposed to actual biomass co-fired boiler conditions in superheater area with a probe measurement installation for 5900 h at 550 and 750 °C. The coating materials were Ni-Cr, IN625, Fe-Cr-W-Nb-Mo, and Ni-Cr-Ti. CJS and DJ Hybrid spray guns were used for HVOF spraying to compare the corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr coating structures. Reference materials were ferritic steel T92 and nickel super alloy A263. The circulating fluidized bed boiler burnt a mixture of wood, peat and coal. The coatings showed excellent corrosion resistance at 550 °C compared to the ferritic steel. At higher temperature, NiCr sprayed with CJS had the best corrosion resistance. IN625 was consumed almost completely during the exposure at 750 °C.

  15. Starch-Based Layer by Layer Assembly: Efficient and Sustainable Approach to Cotton Fire Protection.

    PubMed

    Carosio, F; Fontaine, G; Alongi, J; Bourbigot, S

    2015-06-10

    Starch has been employed via layer by layer assembly for building an efficient and sustainable biobased coatings capable of protecting cotton from fire. In order to obtain a better understanding of the coating to substrate relationship, the coating efficiency has been tested on cotton fabrics having different densities (i.e., 100, 200, and 400 g/m(2)). The adopted deposition conditions allow for the buildup of a homogeneous coating even at a low number of deposition steps. The physical and chemical mechanisms are described and related to the achieved results. The coating can greatly enhance the char forming ability of cellulose, nearly doubling the amount of thermally stable organic residue produced by cotton at high temperatures, as assessed by thermogravimetric analyses. After only 2 bilayers deposited, this biobased system is capable of self-extinguishing a flame during flammability tests with less than 5% in weight deposited on cotton. This high efficiency is kept even when the coating is deposited on cotton with the highest density. By cone calorimetry, all treated cottons showed significant reductions (up to 40%) of the total heat released during combustion, thus demonstrating the high efficiency achieved. PMID:25978652

  16. [Protecting Safety During Dust Fires and Dust Explosions - The Example of the Formosa Fun Coast Water Park Accident].

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Hong; Wu, Jia-Wun; Li, Ya-Cing; Tang, Jia-Suei; Hsieh, Chun-Chien

    2016-02-01

    This paper will explore the fire and explosion characteristics of cornstarch powder as well as strategies for protecting the safety of people who are involved a dust fire or dust explosion. We discuss the 5 elements of dust explosions and conduct tests to analyze the fire and explosion characteristics of differently colored powders (yellow, golden yellow, pink, purple, orange and green). The results show that, while all of the tested powders were difficult to ignite, low moisture content was associated with significantly greater risks of ignition and flame spread. We found the auto-ignition temperature (AIT) of air-borne cornstarch powder to be between 385°C and 405°C, with yellow-colored cornstarch powder showing the highest AIT and pink-colored cornstarch powder showing the lowest AIT. The volume resistivity of all powder samples was approximately 108 Ω.m, indicating that they were nonconductive. Lighters and cigarettes are effective ignition sources, as their lit temperatures are higher than the AIT of cornstarch powder. In order to better protect the safety of individuals at venues where cornstarch powder is released, explosion control measures such as explosion containment facilities, vents, and explosion suppression and isolation devices should be installed. Furthermore, employees that work at these venues should be better trained in explosion prevention and control measures. We hope this article is a reminder to the public to recognize the fire and explosion characteristics of flammable powders as well as the preventive and control measures for dust explosions. PMID:26813056

  17. Utilizing GIS Technology to Improve Fire Prevention Activities in an Urban Fire Department.

    PubMed

    Shields, Wendy C; Shields, Timothy M; McDonald, Eileen M; Perry, Elise C; Hanna, Peter; Gielen, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    The Baltimore City Fire Department (BCFD) has been installing smoke alarms city wide for more than three decades. Though data on each visit are entered into a database, no system existed for using these data for planning or evaluation. The objective of this study is to use Geographic Information System (GIS) technology and existing databases to 1) determine the number of residences in need of a home visit; 2) determine total visits, visits per household, and number of homes entered for eligible households; and 3) demonstrate integration of various data via GIS for use in prevention planning. The tax assessment database was queried to determine the number of eligible (as determined by BCFD policy) residences in need of a visit. Each attempted BCFD home visit was coded to identify, if the BCFD personnel interacted with residents ("pass door") and installed alarms. Home visits were geocoded and compared to the tax assessment database to determine city wide pass door rates. Frequency of visits was run by individual residences to measure efficiency. A total of 206,850 residences met BCFD eligibility for a home visit. In 2007, the BCFD attempted 181,757 home visits and 177,213 were successfully geocoded to 122,118 addresses. A total of 122,118 eligible residences (59%) received a home visit. A total of 35,317 residences (29%) received a repeat visit attempt. The pass door rate was 22% (46,429) of all residences. GIS technology offers a promising means for fire departments to plan and evaluate the fire prevention services they provide. PMID:25185929

  18. Advanced fire-resistant forms of activated carbon and methods of adsorbing and separating gases using same

    DOEpatents

    Xiong, Yongliang; Wang, Yifeng

    2016-04-19

    A method of removing a target gas from a gas stream is disclosed. The method uses advanced, fire-resistant activated carbon compositions having vastly improved fire resistance. Methods for synthesizing the compositions are also provided. The advanced compositions have high gas adsorption capacities and rapid adsorption kinetics (comparable to commercially-available activated carbon), without having any intrinsic fire hazard.

  19. Fire Ants Protect Mealybugs against Their Natural Enemies by Utilizing the Leaf Shelters Constructed by the Leaf Roller Sylepta derogata

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Aiming; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

    2012-01-01

    The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis) against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones. PMID:23185505

  20. United States Department of Energy`s reactor core protection evaluation methodology for fires at RBMK and VVER nuclear power plants. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This document provides operators of Soviet-designed RBMK (graphite moderated light water boiling water reactor) and VVER (pressurized light water reactor) nuclear power plants with a systematic Methodology to qualitatively evaluate plant response to fires and to identify remedies to protect the reactor core from fire-initiated damage.

  1. Aircraft Instrument, Fire Protection, Warning, Communication, Navigation and Cabin Atmosphere Control System (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame): 9067.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with manipulative skills and theoretical knowledge concerning aircraft instrument systems like major flight and engine instruments; fire protection and fire fighting systems; warning systems and navigation systems; aircraft cabin control systems, such as…

  2. Patterns of fire activity over Indonesia and Malaysia from polar and geostationary satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyer, Edward J.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Prins, Elaine M.; Hoffman, Jay P.; Schmidt, Christopher C.; Miettinen, Jukka I.; Giglio, Louis

    2013-03-01

    Biomass burning patterns over the Maritime Continent of Southeast Asia are examined using a new active fire detection product based on application of the Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) to data from the imagers on the MTSAT geostationary satellites operated by the Japanese space agency JAXA. Data from MTSAT-1R and MTSAT-2 covering 34 months from September 2008 to July 2011 are examined for a study region consisting of Indonesia, Malaysia, and nearby environs. The spatial and temporal distributions of fires detected in the MTSAT WF_ABBA product are described and compared with active fire observations from MODIS MOD14 data. Land cover distributions for the two instruments are examined using a new 250 m land cover product from the National University of Singapore. The two products show broadly similar patterns of fire activity, land cover distribution of fires, and pixel fire radiative power (FRP). However, the MTSAT WF_ABBA data differ from MOD14 in important ways. Relative to MODIS, the MTSAT WF_ABBA product has lower overall detection efficiency, but more fires detected due to more frequent looks, a greater relative fraction of fires in forest and a lower relative fraction of fires in open areas, and significantly higher single-pixel retrieved FRP. The differences in land cover distribution and FRP between the MTSAT and MODIS products are shown to be qualitatively consistent with expectations based on pixel size and diurnal sampling. The MTSAT WF_ABBA data are used to calculate coverage-corrected diurnal cycles of fire for different regions within the study area. These diurnal cycles are preliminary but demonstrate that the fraction of diurnal fire activity sampled by the two MODIS sensors varies significantly by region and vegetation type. Based on the results from comparison of the two fire products, a series of steps is outlined to account for some of the systematic biases in each of these satellite products in order to produce a

  3. 21 CFR 346.14 - Protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Protectant active ingredients. 346.14 Section 346... Protectant active ingredients. (a) The following active ingredients may be used as the sole protectant active... solution so that the final product contains not less than 10 and not more than 45 percent glycerin...

  4. An Overview of Recent Geostationary Fire Monitoring Activities and Applications in the Western Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae, D. J.; Conard, S. G.; Ivanova, G. A.; Sukhinin, A. I.; Hao, W. M.; Koutzenogii, K. P.; Prins, E. M.; Schmidt, C. C.; Feltz, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    Over the past twenty years the international scientific research and environmental monitoring communities have recognized the vital role environmental satellites can play in detecting and monitoring active fires both regionally and around the globe for hazards applications and to better understand the extent and impact of biomass burning on the global environment. Both groups have stressed the importance of utilizing operational satellites to produce routine fire products and to ensure long-term stable records of fire activity for applications such as land-use/land cover change analyses and global climate change research. The current NOAA GOES system provides the unique opportunity to detect fires throughout the Western Hemisphere every half-hour from a series of nearly identical satellites for a period of 15+ years. This presentation will provide an overview of the GOES biomass burning monitoring program at UW-Madison Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) with an emphasis on recent applications of the new GOES Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA). For the past 8 years, CIMSS has utilized the GOES-8 imager to monitor biomass burning trends in South America. Since September 2000, CIMSS has been producing half-hourly fire products in real-time for most of the Western Hemisphere. The WF_ABBA half-hourly fire product is providing new insights into diurnal, spatial, seasonal and interannual fire dynamics in North, Central, and South America. In North America these products are utilized to detect and monitor wildfires in northerly and remote locations. In South America the diurnal GOES fire product is being used as an indicator of land-use and land-cover change and carbon dynamics along the borders between Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia. The Navy is assimilating the Wildfire ABBA fire product into the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) to analyze and predict aerosol loading and transport as part of the NASA

  5. The Southern Annular Mode determines interannual and centennial-scale fire activity in temperate southwest Tasmania, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Michela; Fletcher, Michael-Shawn

    2016-02-01

    Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is the primary mode of atmospheric variability in the Southern Hemisphere. While it is well established that the current anthropogenic-driven trend in SAM is responsible for decreased rainfall in southern Australia, its role in driving fire regimes in this region has not been explored. We examined the connection between fire activity and SAM in southwest Tasmania, which lies in the latitudinal band of strongest correlation between SAM and rainfall in the Southern Hemisphere. We reveal that fire activity during a fire season is significantly correlated with the phase of SAM in the preceding year using superposed epoch analysis. We then synthesized new 14 charcoal records from southwest Tasmania spanning the last 1000 years, revealing a tight coupling between fire activity and SAM at centennial timescales, observing a multicentury increase in fire activity over the last 500 years and a spike in fire activity in the 21st century in response to natural and anthropogenic SAM trends.

  6. Evaluation of activated carbon for control of mercury from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.; Laudal, D.; Dunham, G.

    1995-11-01

    The ability to remove mercury from power plant flue gas may become important because of the Clean Air Act amendments` requirement that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks associated with these emissions. One approach for mercury removal, which may be relatively simple to retrofit, is the injection of sorbents, such as activated carbon, upstream of existing particulate control devices. Activated carbon has been reported to capture mercury when injected into flue gas upstream of a spray dryer baghouse system applied to waste incinerators or coal-fired boilers. However, the mercury capture ability of activated carbon injected upstream of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or baghouse operated at temperatures between 200{degrees} and 400{degrees}F is not well known. A study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric power Research Institute is being conducted at the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to evaluate whether mercury control with sorbents can be a cost-effective approach for large power plants. Initial results from the study were reported last year. This paper presents some of the recent project results. Variables of interest include coal type, sorbent type, sorbent addition rate, collection media, and temperature.

  7. A trend analysis of global fire activity. Is it land use or climate the main driver?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistinas, Ioannis; Oom, Duarte; Silva, Joao M. N.; Lopez-Saldaña, Gerardo; Pereira, Jose M. C.

    2016-04-01

    We perform a global trend analysis of active fire counts at 0.5o spatial resolution, using 156 months (January 2001 - December 2013) of MODIS Climate Modelling Grid data (TERRA). We use the Contextual Mann-Kendall (CMK) test to assess the statistical significance at cell level and found that 13% of the global land area displays statistically significant active fire count trends, with a slight predominance of negative trends (50.63% of the total significant cells). We perform the same trend analysis with the unexplained variability (residuals) between active fires and the Fire Weather Index (FWI) that is used as a proxy for climate. There is agreement between the main patterns from the trend analysis coming from the residuals and the active fire trends, implying that the main contemporary fire trends are not climate driven. Spatially coherent patches with significant trends were found in all continents (with the obvious exception of Antarctica). The majority of significant trends occur in areas of high fire incidence, and both increasing and decreasing trends appear to be associated with land use change processes. The analysis reveals large negative trends at the Sahel and between Russia and Kazakhstan, whereas a massive and coherent positive trend appears in southeastern Asia. Smaller patches of positive trends appear in southeastern United States and in Mexico, as well as in Brazil and between Argentina and Paraguay, and in Asia in India. There are also negative trends in Brazil, Argentina and in Australia. The study highlights the land use activities as the main driver of these trends, but also the need for data driven analyses and longer time series for future studies in order to gain better knowledge on fire occurrence.

  8. Fire Safety Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Fire protection is one of the most important considerations in the construction and operation of industrial plants and commercial buildings. Fire insurance rates are determined by fire probability factors, such as the type of construction, ease of transporting personnel, and the quality and quantity of fire protection equipment available. Because…

  9. Fire Effects on Microbial Enzyme Activities in Larch Forests of the Siberian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, S.; Alexander, H. D.; Bulygina, E. B.; Mann, P. J.; Natali, S.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic forest ecosystems are warming at an accelerated rate relative to lower latitudes, with global implications for C cycling within these regions. As climate continues to warm and dry, wildfire frequency and severity are predicted to increase, creating a positive feedback to climate warming. Increased fire activity will also influence the microenvironment experienced by soil microbes in disturbed soils. Because soil microbes regulate carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, it is important to understand microbial response to fires, particularly in the understudied larch forests in the Siberian Arctic. In this project, we created experimental burn plots in a mature larch forest in the Kolyma River watershed of Northeastern Siberia. Plots were burned at several treatments: control (no burn), low, moderate, and severe. After, 1 and 8 d post-fire, we measured soil organic layer depth, soil organic matter (SOM) content, soil moisture, and CO2 flux from the plots. Additionally, we leached soils and measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), NH4, NO3, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Furthermore, we measured extracellular activity of four enzymes involved in soil C and nutrient cycling (leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), β-glucosidase, phosphatase, and phenol oxidase). One day post-fire, LAP activity was similarly low in all treatments, but by 8 d post-fire, LAP activity was lower in burned plots compared to control plots, likely due to increased nitrogen content with increasing burn severity. Phosphatase activity decreased with burn severity 1 d post-fire, but after 8 d, moderate and severe burn plots exhibited increased phosphatase activity. Coupled with trends in LAP activity, this suggests a switch in nutrient limitation from N to phosphorus that is more pronounced with burn severity. β-glucosidase activity similarly decreased with burn

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF BURN TEST SPECIFICATIONS FOR FIRE PROTECTION MATERIALS IN RAM PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.

    2010-03-03

    The regulations in 10 CFR 71 require that the radioactive material (RAM) packages must be able to withstand specific fire conditions given in 10 CFR 71.73 during Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). This requirement is normally satisfied by extensive testing of full scale test specimens under required test conditions. Since fire test planning and execution is expensive and only provides a single snapshot into a package performance, every effort is made to minimize testing and supplement tests with results from computational thermal models. However, the accuracy of such thermal models depends heavily on the thermal properties of the fire insulating materials that are rarely available at the regulatory fire temperatures. To the best of authors knowledge no test standards exist that could be used to test the insulating materials and derive their thermal properties for the RAM package design. This paper presents a review of the existing industry fire testing standards and proposes testing methods that could serve as a standardized specification for testing fire insulating materials for use in RAM packages.

  11. Evaluating Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Systems for Agricultural Waste Burning Using MODIS Active Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Jin, Y.; Giglio, L.; Foley, J. A.; Randerson, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Fires in agricultural ecosystems emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that influence climate on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Annex 1 countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), many of which ratified the Kyoto Protocol, are required to report emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O from these fires annually. We evaluated several aspects of this reporting system, including the optimality of the crops targeted by the UNFCCC globally and within Annex 1 countries and the consistency of emissions reporting among countries. We also evaluated the success of the individual countries in capturing interannual variability and long-term trends in agricultural fire activity. We combined global crop maps with Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire detections. At a global scale, we recommend adding ground nuts, cocoa, cotton and oil palm, and removing potato, oats, pulse other and rye from the UNFCCC list of 14 crops. This leads to an overall increase of 6% of the active fires covered by the reporting system. Optimization led to a different recommended list for Annex 1 countries. Extending emissions reporting to all Annex 1 countries (from the current set of 19 countries) would increase the efficacy of the reporting system from 10% to 20%, and further including several non-Annex 1 countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Mexico and Nigeria) would capture over 58% of active fires in croplands worldwide. Analyses of interannual trends from the U.S. and Australia showed the importance of both intensity of fire use and crop production in controlling year-to-year variations in agricultural fire emissions. Remote sensing provides an efficient tool for an independent assessment of current UNFCCC emissions reporting system; and, if combined with census data, field experiments and expert opinion, has the potential for improving the robustness of the next generation inventory

  12. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Skin protectant active ingredients. 347.10 Section 347.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SKIN PROTECTANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 347.10 Skin protectant active...

  13. Fire protection considerations in the design of plutonium handling and storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-08-01

    Unwanted fire in a facility that handles plutonium must be addressed early in the facility design. Such fires have the potential for transporting radioactive contamination throughout the building and widespread downwind dispersal. Features that mitigate such events can be severely challenged during the fire. High temperatures can cause storage containers to burst; a very efficient dispersal mechanism for radioactive contamination. The fire will also establish ventilation patterns that cause the migration of smoke and radioactive contamination throughout the facility. The smoke and soot generated by the fire will enter the exhaust system and travel to the filtration system where it will deposit on the filters. The quantity of smoke generated during a typical multi-room fire is expected to blind most High Efficiency Particulate Airfilter (HEPA) media. The blinding can have two possible outcomes. (1) The air movement though the facility is reduced, compromising the negative pressure containment and allowing contamination to leave the building though doors and other openings; or (2) the filters collapse allowing the contamination to bypass the filtration media and exit the building through the filter plenum. HEPA filter blinding during severe fires can be prevented or mitigated. Increasing the face surface area of HEPA filters will increase the smoke filtration capacity of the system, thus preventing blinding. As an alternative sandfilters can be provided to mitigate the effects of the HEPA filter bypass. Both concepts have distinct advantages. This paper will explore these two design concepts and two others; it will describe the design requirements necessary for each concept to prevent unacceptable contamination spread. The intent is to allow the filter media selection to be based on a comprehensive understanding of the four different design concepts.

  14. Influence of the air gap between protective clothing and skin on clothing performance during flash fire exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazy, Ahmed; Bergstrom, Donald J.

    2011-10-01

    A finite volume model was developed to simulate transient heat transfer in protective clothing during flash fire exposure. The model accounts for the combined conduction-radiation heat transfer in the air gap between the fabric and skin. The variation in the fabric and air gap properties with temperature and the thermochemical reactions in the fabric are also considered. This study investigates the influence of the air gap in protective clothing on the energy transfer through the clothing and hence on its performance. Different parameters that affect the conduction-radiation heat transfer through the air gap such as the air gap absorption coefficient and the air gap width were studied. Finally, the paper demonstrates that an innovative and potentially significant way to improve protective clothing performance is to reduce the emissivity on the backside of the fabric.

  15. Micelles Protect and Concentrate Activated Acetic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Zoe; House, C.

    2014-01-01

    As more and more exoplanets are discovered and the habitability of such planets is considered, one can turn to searching for the origin of life on Earth in order to better understand what makes a habitable planet. Activated acetic acid, or methyl thioacetate, has been proposed to be central to the origin of life on Earth, and also as an important energy currency molecule in early cellular evolution. We have investigated the hydrolysis of methyl thioacetate under various conditions. Its uncatalyzed rate of hydrolysis is about three orders of magnitude faster (K = 0.00663 s^-1; 100°C, pH 7.5, concentration = 0.33mM) than published rates for its catalyzed production making it unlikely to accumulate under prebiotic conditions. However, we also observed that methyl thioacetate was protected from hydrolysis when inside its own hydrophobic droplets. We found that methyl thioacetate protection from hydrolysis was also possible in droplets of hexane and in the membranes of nonanoic acid micelles. Thus, the hydrophobic regions of prebiotic micelles and early cell membranes could have offered a refuge for this energetic molecule increasing its lifetime in close proximity to the reactions for which it would be needed. Methyl thioacetate could thus be important for the origin of life on Earth and perhaps for better understanding the potential habitability of other planets.

  16. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for active corrosion protection.

    PubMed

    Borisova, Dimitriya; Möhwald, Helmuth; Shchukin, Dmitry G

    2011-03-22

    This work presents the synthesis of monodisperse, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and their application as nanocontainers loaded with corrosion inhibitor (1H-benzotriazole (BTA)) and embedded in hybrid SiOx/ZrOx sol-gel coating for the corrosion protection of aluminum alloy. The developed porous system of mechanically stable silica nanoparticles exhibits high surface area (∼1000 m2·g(-1)), narrow pore size distribution (d∼3 nm), and large pore volume (∼1 mL·g(-1)). As a result, a sufficiently high uptake and storage of the corrosion inhibitor in the mesoporous nanocontainers was achieved. The successful embedding and homogeneous distribution of the BTA-loaded monodisperse silica nanocontainers in the passive anticorrosive SiOx/ZrOx film improve the wet corrosion resistance of the aluminum alloy AA2024 in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution. The enhanced corrosion protection of this newly developed active system in comparison to the passive sol-gel coating was observed during a simulated corrosion process by the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET). These results, as well as the controlled pH-dependent release of BTA from the mesoporous silica nanocontainers without additional polyelectrolyte shell, suggest an inhibitor release triggered by the corrosion process leading to a self-healing effect. PMID:21344888

  17. European activities in radiation protection in medicine.

    PubMed

    Simeonov, Georgi

    2015-07-01

    including promotion and dissemination activities, exchange and discussion fora and provision of guidance. These actions will be based on previous experiences and will rely on the results of recent and ongoing EU-funded projects. Important stakeholders including the Euratom Article 31 Group, the association of the Heads of European Radiological protection Competent Authorities (HERCA) and different European professional and specialty organisations will be involved. PMID:25870434

  18. Activation state of the hyperpolarization-activated current modulates temperature-sensitivity of firing in locus coeruleus neurons from bullfrogs.

    PubMed

    Santin, Joseph M; Hartzler, Lynn K

    2015-06-15

    Locus coeruleus neurons of anuran amphibians contribute to breathing control and have spontaneous firing frequencies that, paradoxically, increase with cooling. We previously showed that cooling inhibits a depolarizing membrane current, the hyperpolarization-activated current (I h) in locus coeruleus neurons from bullfrogs, Lithobates catesbeianus (Santin JM, Watters KC, Putnam RW, Hartzler LK. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 305: R1451-R1464, 2013). This suggests an unlikely role for I h in generating cold activation, but led us to hypothesize that inhibition of I h by cooling functions as a physiological brake to limit the cold-activated response. Using whole cell electrophysiology in brain slices, we employed 2 mM Cs(+) (an I h antagonist) to isolate the role of I h in spontaneous firing and cold activation in neurons recorded with either control or I h agonist (cyclic AMP)-containing artificial intracellular fluid. I h did not contribute to the membrane potential (V m) and spontaneous firing at 20°C. Although voltage-clamp analysis confirmed that cooling inhibits I h, its lack of involvement in setting baseline firing and V m precluded its ability to regulate cold activation as hypothesized. In contrast, neurons dialyzed with cAMP exhibited greater baseline firing frequencies at 20°C due to I h activation. Our hypothesis was supported when the starting level of I h was enhanced by elevating cAMP because cold activation was converted to more ordinary cold inhibition. These findings indicate that situations leading to enhancement of I h facilitate firing at 20°C, yet the hyperpolarization associated with inhibiting a depolarizing cation current by cooling blunts the net V m response to cooling to oppose normal cold-depolarizing factors. This suggests that the influence of I h activation state on neuronal firing varies in the poikilothermic neuronal environment. PMID:25833936

  19. What Fraction of Global Fire Activity Can Be Forecast Using Sea Surface Temperatures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Morton, D. C.; Andela, N.; Giglio, L.

    2015-12-01

    Variations in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) can influence climate dynamics in local and remote land areas, and thus influence fire-climate interactions that govern burned area. SST information has been recently used in statistical models to create seasonal outlooks of fire season severity in South America and as the initial condition for dynamical model predictions of fire activity in Indonesia. However, the degree to which large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions can influence burned area in other continental regions has not been systematically explored. Here we quantified the amount of global burned area that can be predicted using SSTs in 14 different oceans regions as statistical predictors. We first examined lagged correlations between GFED4s burned area and the 14 ocean climate indices (OCIs) individually. The maximum correlations from different OCIs were used to construct a global map of fire predictability. About half of the global burned area can be forecast by this approach 3 months before the peak burning month (with a Pearson's r of 0.5 or higher), with the highest levels of predictability in Central America and Equatorial Asia. Several hotspots of predictability were identified using k-means cluster analysis. Within these regions, we tested the improvements of the forecast by using two OCIs from different oceans. Our forecast models were based on near-real-time SST data and may therefore support the development of new seasonal outlooks for fire activity that can aid the sustainable management of these fire-prone ecosystems.

  20. Mechanised spraying device a novel technology for spraying fire protective coating material in the benches of opencast coal mines for preventing spontaneous combustion

    SciTech Connect

    R.V.K. Singh; V.K. Singh

    2004-10-15

    Spontaneous combustion in coal mines plays a vital role in occurrences of fire. Fire in coal, particularly in opencast mines, not only causes irreparable loss of national wealth but damages the surface structure and pollutes the environment. The problem of spontaneous combustion/fire in opencast coal benches is acute. Presently over 75% of the total production of coal in Indian mines is being carried out by opencast mining. Accordingly a mechanised spraying device has been developed for spraying the fire protective coating material for preventing spontaneous combustion in coal benches of opencast mines jointly by Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad and M/s Signum Fire Protection (India) Pvt. Ltd., Nagpur under Science & Technology (S&T) project funded by Ministry of Coal, Govt. of India. The objective of this paper is to describe in detail about the mechanised spraying device and its application for spraying fire protective coating material in the benches of opencast coal mines for preventing spontaneous combustion/fire.

  1. Detection and Characterization of Low Temperature Peat Fires during the 2015 Fire Catastrophe in Indonesia Using a New High-Sensitivity Fire Monitoring Satellite Sensor (FireBird).

    PubMed

    Atwood, Elizabeth C; Englhart, Sandra; Lorenz, Eckehard; Halle, Winfried; Wiedemann, Werner; Siegert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Vast and disastrous fires occurred on Borneo during the 2015 dry season, pushing Indonesia into the top five carbon emitting countries. The region was affected by a very strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomenon, on par with the last severe event in 1997/98. Fire dynamics in Central Kalimantan were investigated using an innovative sensor offering higher sensitivity to a wider range of fire intensities at a finer spatial resolution (160 m) than heretofore available. The sensor is onboard the TET-1 satellite, part of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) FireBird mission. TET-1 images (acquired every 2-3 days) from the middle infrared were used to detect fires continuously burning for almost three weeks in the protected peatlands of Sebangau National Park as well as surrounding areas with active logging and oil palm concessions. TET-1 detection capabilities were compared with MODIS active fire detection and Landsat burned area algorithms. Fire dynamics, including fire front propagation speed and area burned, were investigated. We show that TET-1 has improved detection capabilities over MODIS in monitoring low-intensity peatland fire fronts through thick smoke and haze. Analysis of fire dynamics revealed that the largest burned areas resulted from fire front lines started from multiple locations, and the highest propagation speeds were in excess of 500 m/day (all over peat > 2m deep). Fires were found to occur most often in concessions that contained drainage infrastructure but were not cleared prior to the fire season. Benefits of implementing this sensor system to improve current fire management techniques are discussed. Near real-time fire detection together with enhanced fire behavior monitoring capabilities would not only improve firefighting efforts, but also benefit analysis of fire impact on tropical peatlands, greenhouse gas emission estimations as well as mitigation measures to reduce severe fire events in the future. PMID:27486664

  2. Detection and Characterization of Low Temperature Peat Fires during the 2015 Fire Catastrophe in Indonesia Using a New High-Sensitivity Fire Monitoring Satellite Sensor (FireBird)

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Elizabeth C.; Englhart, Sandra; Lorenz, Eckehard; Halle, Winfried; Wiedemann, Werner; Siegert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Vast and disastrous fires occurred on Borneo during the 2015 dry season, pushing Indonesia into the top five carbon emitting countries. The region was affected by a very strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomenon, on par with the last severe event in 1997/98. Fire dynamics in Central Kalimantan were investigated using an innovative sensor offering higher sensitivity to a wider range of fire intensities at a finer spatial resolution (160 m) than heretofore available. The sensor is onboard the TET-1 satellite, part of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) FireBird mission. TET-1 images (acquired every 2–3 days) from the middle infrared were used to detect fires continuously burning for almost three weeks in the protected peatlands of Sebangau National Park as well as surrounding areas with active logging and oil palm concessions. TET-1 detection capabilities were compared with MODIS active fire detection and Landsat burned area algorithms. Fire dynamics, including fire front propagation speed and area burned, were investigated. We show that TET-1 has improved detection capabilities over MODIS in monitoring low-intensity peatland fire fronts through thick smoke and haze. Analysis of fire dynamics revealed that the largest burned areas resulted from fire front lines started from multiple locations, and the highest propagation speeds were in excess of 500 m/day (all over peat > 2m deep). Fires were found to occur most often in concessions that contained drainage infrastructure but were not cleared prior to the fire season. Benefits of implementing this sensor system to improve current fire management techniques are discussed. Near real-time fire detection together with enhanced fire behavior monitoring capabilities would not only improve firefighting efforts, but also benefit analysis of fire impact on tropical peatlands, greenhouse gas emission estimations as well as mitigation measures to reduce severe fire events in the future. PMID:27486664

  3. Spatial-temporal distribution of fire-protected savanna physiognomies in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Marcelo H O; Azevedo, Thiago S de; Monteiro, Reinaldo

    2010-06-01

    The analysis of the influence of edaphic finer textures, as a facilitating factor for the expansion of forest formations in the absence of fire, was possible thanks to rare characteristics found in a savanna fragment located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The total suppression of fire for over four decades, and the occurrence of two savanna physiognomies, cerrado sensu stricto and cerradão, allowed the conduction of this study based on the hypothesis that cerradão, a physiognomy of forest aspect consisting of fire-sensitive tree and shrubs species, is favored by fire absence and higher soil hydric retention capacity. Edaphic samples were collected from a regular grid of 200 m(2) for the production of isopletic maps of the distribution of clay, fine sand, coarse sand and silt edaphic textures by the geostatistic method of ordinary kriging. Changes in the areas occupied by both savanna physiognomies, defined on the basis of aerial photographs taken over a period of 43 years, were assessed through mean variation rates. Besides corroborating the hypothesis of edaphic hydric retention as a facilitating factor for the expansion of forest physiognomies in savanna areas, we were able to infer the positive influence of higher precipitation on the increase in cerradão expansion rates. PMID:20563419

  4. 77 FR 74381 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone Depleting Substances-Fire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... three fire suppressants under EPA's Significant New Alternatives Policy program (77 FR 58035). Because... of Part 82 in the direct final rule published at 77 FR 58035, September 19, 2012. FOR FURTHER... on the parallel proposed rule published on September 19, 2012 (77 FR 58081). As stated in the...

  5. Prenatal immune activation alters hippocampal place cell firing characteristics in adult animals.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Amy R; Bilkey, David K

    2015-08-01

    Prenatal maternal immune activation (MIA) is a risk factor for several developmental neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Adults with these disorders display alterations in memory function that may result from changes in the structure and function of the hippocampus. In the present study we use an animal model to investigate the effect that a transient prenatal maternal immune activation episode has on the spatially-modulated firing activity of hippocampal neurons in adult animals. MIA was induced in pregnant rat dams with a single injection of the synthetic cytokine inducer polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) on gestational day 15. Control dams were given a saline equivalent. Firing activity and local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from the CA1 region of the adult male offspring of these dams as they moved freely in an open arena. Most neurons displayed characteristic spatially-modulated 'place cell' firing activity and while there was no between-group difference in mean firing rate between groups, place cells had smaller place fields in MIA-exposed animals when compared to control-group cells. Cells recorded in MIA-group animals also displayed an altered firing-phase synchrony relationship to simultaneously recorded LFPs. When the floor of the arena was rotated, the place fields of MIA-group cells were more likely to shift in the same direction as the floor rotation, suggesting that local cues may have been more salient for these animals. In contrast, place fields in control group cells were more likely to shift firing position to novel spatial locations suggesting an altered response to contextual cues. These findings show that a single MIA intervention is sufficient to change several important characteristics of hippocampal place cell activity in adult offspring. These changes could contribute to the memory dysfunction that is associated with MIA, by altering the encoding of spatial context and by

  6. Effects of naltrexone on firing activity of rat cortex neurons and its interactions with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Kozhechkin, S N; Mednikova, Yu S; Kolik, L G

    2013-09-01

    Naltrexone dose-dependently decreased neuron firing rate in the rat frontal cortex after intravenous (1-20 mg/kg) and microelectrophoretic administration. Microelectrophoretic applications of naltrexone reduced the excitatory neuronal response of neurons to low doses of ethanol (electroosmotic application) and potentiated depression of firing activity induced by ethanol in high doses. We concluded that opioid peptides take part in generation of spontaneous neuronal activity in the frontal cortex and neuronal excitation caused by ethanol in low doses. Naltrexone acts as a synergist of ethanol in its depressive effect on cortical neurons. PMID:24288728

  7. Project FIRES [Firefighters' Integrated Response Equipment System]. Volume 2: Protective Ensemble Performance Standards, Phase 1B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of the prototype protective ensemble was finalized. Prototype ensembles were fabricated and then subjected to a series of qualification tests which were based upon the protective ensemble performance standards PEPS requirements. Engineering drawings and purchase specifications were prepared for the new protective ensemble.

  8. Fire-protection research for energy technology: FY 80 year-end report. [For fusion energy experiments and other energy research

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska, A.E.; Ford, H.; Priante, S.; Beason, D.G.

    1981-05-26

    This continuing research program was initiated in 1977 in order to advance fire protection strategies for Fusion Energy Experiments (FEE). The program has since been expanded to encompass other forms of energy research. Accomplishments for fiscal year 1980 were: finalization of the fault-tree analysis of the Shiva fire management system; development of a second-generation, fire-growth analysis using an alternate moel and new LLNL combustion dynamics data; improvements of techniques for chemical smoke aerosol analysis; development and test of a simple method to assess the corrosive potential of smoke aerosols; development of an initial aerosol dilution system; completion of primary small-scale tests for measurements of the dynamics of cable fires; finalization of primary survey format for non-LLNL energy technology facilities; and studies of fire dynamics and aerosol production from electrical insulation and computer tape cassettes.

  9. Validation of MODIS and SEVIRI Active Fire Monitoring products over Western Romania. Case study: Arad County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oanea, Lavinia; Alina Ristea, Mihaela

    2014-05-01

    At the national level, the issue of wildfire monitoring represents a long debated topic. However, in the present situation, fire management requires various improvements in terms of detection, monitoring and post-fire analysis. The objectives of this study are to validate the data provided by MODIS (Terra and Aqua) Active Fire Monitoring and SEVIRI (MSG) FIR (Active Fire Monitoring) satellite products, with wildfires field data from The Romanian General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations (IGSU) (1), to chart the efficiency of satellite products in locating fires and study their strengths and weaknesses using a SWOT analysis (2). This is the initial step of a larger project that aims to implement an online Geographic Information System for fire management that will ease wildfire data manipulation and facilitate the decision making process. In order to do so, the current study objectives must be achieved. Our general strategy is to determine the consistency of direct (field measurements) and indirect (satellite data) observations. Depending on the amount of field information, the fire characteristics (location, frequency, extension area, moment of occurrence, type of fire, and others) will be studied through a statistical analysis. The products show some peculiar restrictiveness like spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically, we will process and interpret satellite products to identify wildfires according to the data from IGSU using specialized software. The case study for the application of these procedures is a set of fire events from Arad county - Romania, that occurred between 2007 and 2013. In order to do so, it is important to compare results from different sensors with field information through various methods and to use only consistent results. The results will play an important role in achieving the above mentioned informational system, which will integrate field information, satellite data and values of parameters that influence the evolution of

  10. Human and climate impacts on Holocene fire activity recorded in polar and mountain ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrwald, Natalie; Zennaro, Piero; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Li, Quanlian; Wang, Ninglian; Power, Mitchell; Zangrando, Roberta; Gabrielli, Paolo; Thompson, Lonnie; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Fire is one of the major influences of biogeochemical change on local to hemispheric scales through emitting greenhouse gases, altering atmospheric chemistry, and changing primary productivity. Levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose) is a specific molecular that can only be produced by cellulose burning at temperatures > 300°C, comprises a major component of smoke plumes, and can be transported across > 1000 km distances. Levoglucosan is deposited on and archived in glaciers over glacial interglacial cycles resulting in pyrochemical evidence for exploring interactions between fire, climate and human activity. Ice core records provide records of past biomass burning from regions of the world with limited paleofire data including polar and low-latitude, high-altitude regions. Here, we present Holocene fire activity records from the NEEM, Greenland (77° 27'N; 51° 3'W; 2454 masl), EPICA Dome C, Antarctica (75° 06'S; 123° 21'E; 3233 masl), Kilimanjaro, Tanzania (3° 05'S, 21.2° E, 5893 masl) and the Muztagh, China (87.17° E; 36.35° N; 5780 masl ice cores. The NEEM ice core reflects boreal fire activity from both North American and Eurasian sources. Temperature is the dominant control of NEEM levoglucosan flux over decadal to millennial time scales, while droughts influence fire activity over sub-decadal timescales. Our results demonstrate the prominence of Siberian fire sources during intense multiannual droughts. Unlike the NEEM core, which incorporates the largest land masses in the world as potential fire sources, EPICA Dome C is located far from any possible fire source. However, EPICA Dome C levoglucosan concentrations are consistently above detection limits and demonstrate a substantial 1000-fold increase in fire activity beginning approximately 800 years ago. This significant and sustained increase coincides with Maori arrival and dispersal in New Zealand augmented by later European arrival in Australia. The EPICA Dome C levoglucosan profile is

  11. Spontaneous Synaptic Activation of Muscarinic Receptors by Striatal Cholinergic Neuron Firing.

    PubMed

    Mamaligas, Aphroditi A; Ford, Christopher P

    2016-08-01

    Cholinergic interneurons (CHIs) play a major role in motor and learning functions of the striatum. As acetylcholine does not directly evoke postsynaptic events at most striatal synapses, it remains unclear how postsynaptic cholinergic receptors encode the firing patterns of CHIs in the striatum. To examine the dynamics of acetylcholine release, we used optogenetics and paired recordings from CHIs and medium spiny neurons (MSNs) virally overexpressing G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels. Due to the efficient coupling between endogenous muscarinic receptors and GIRK channels, we found that firing of individual CHIs resulted in monosynaptic spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in MSNs. Paired CHI-MSN recordings revealed that the high probability of acetylcholine release at these synapses allowed muscarinic receptors to faithfully encode physiological activity patterns from individual CHIs without failure. These results indicate that muscarinic receptors in striatal output neurons reliably decode CHI firing. PMID:27373830

  12. Measurement of inter- and intra-annual variability of landscape fire activity at a continental scale: the Australian case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Grant J.; Prior, Lynda D.; Jolly, W. Matt; Cochrane, Mark A.; Murphy, Brett P.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2016-03-01

    Climate dynamics at diurnal, seasonal and inter-annual scales shape global fire activity, although difficulties of assembling reliable fire and meteorological data with sufficient spatio-temporal resolution have frustrated quantification of this variability. Using Australia as a case study, we combine data from 4760 meteorological stations with 12 years of satellite-derived active fire detections to determine day and night time fire activity, fire season start and end dates, and inter-annual variability, across 61 objectively defined climate regions in three climate zones (monsoon tropics, arid and temperate). We show that geographic patterns of landscape burning (onset and duration) are related to fire weather, resulting in a latitudinal gradient from the monsoon tropics in winter, through the arid zone in all seasons except winter, and then to the temperate zone in summer and autumn. Peak fire activity precedes maximum lightning activity by several months in all regions, signalling the importance of human ignitions in shaping fire seasons. We determined median daily McArthur forest fire danger index (FFDI50) for days and nights when fires were detected: FFDI50 varied substantially between climate zones, reflecting effects of fire management in the temperate zone, fuel limitation in the arid zone and abundance of flammable grasses in the monsoon tropical zone. We found correlations between the proportion of days when FFDI exceeds FFDI50 and the Southern Oscillation index across the arid zone during spring and summer, and Indian Ocean dipole mode index across south-eastern Australia during summer. Our study demonstrates that Australia has a long fire weather season with high inter-annual variability relative to all other continents, making it difficult to detect long term trends. It also provides a way of establishing robust baselines to track changes to fire seasons, and supports a previous conceptual model highlighting multi-temporal scale effects of climate in

  13. Navy Safety Center data on the effects of fire protection systems on electrical equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Robert S.

    1991-04-01

    Records of the Navy Safety Center, Norfolk, VA were reviewed to find data relevant to inadvertant operation of installed fire extinguishing systems in civilian nuclear power plants. Navy data show the incidence of collateral fire or other damage by fresh water on operating electrical equipment in submarines and in shore facilities is about the same as the civilian experience, about 30 percent. Aboard surface ships, however, the collateral damage incidence in much lower, about 15 percent. With sea water, the collateral damage incidence is at least 75 percent. It is concluded that the fire extinguisher water has to be contaminated, as by rust in sprinkler systems or deposited salt spray, for most collateral damage to occur. Reasons for inadvertant operation (or advertant operation) of firex systems at shore facilities, submarines, and surface ships resemble those for nuclear power plants. Mechanical or electrical failures lead the list, followed by mishaps during maintenance. Detector and alarm system failures are significant problems at Navy shore facilities, and significant at nuclear power plants. Fixed halon and CO2 systems in shore facilities cause no collateral damage. Lists of individual Navy incidents with water and with halon and carbon dioxide are included as appendices.

  14. Fire Pumps: Time to Change NFPA 25 Weekly Churn Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saidi, John F.; Davis, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    APPA, through its Code Advocacy Task Force (CATF), is active with code organizations such as the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). This article reviews some of the recent work on NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, by the CATF and some members of the NFPA 25 Technical…

  15. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Skin protectant active ingredients. 347.10 Section 347.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 347.10 Skin protectant active ingredients. The active ingredients of the product consist of any of...

  16. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Skin protectant active ingredients. 347.10 Section 347.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 347.10 Skin protectant active ingredients. The active ingredients of the product consist of any of...

  17. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Skin protectant active ingredients. 347.10 Section 347.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 347.10 Skin protectant active ingredients. The active ingredients of the product consist of any of...

  18. Atmospheric conditions associated with extreme fire activity in the Western Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Amraoui, Malik; Pereira, Mário G; DaCamara, Carlos C; Calado, Teresa J

    2015-08-15

    Active fire information provided by TERRA and AQUA instruments on-board sun-synchronous polar MODIS platform is used to describe fire activity in the Western Mediterranean and to identify and characterize the synoptic patterns of several meteorological fields associated with the occurrence of extreme fire activity episodes (EEs). The spatial distribution of the fire pixels during the period of 2003-2012 leads to the identification of two most affected sub-regions, namely the Northern and Western parts of the Iberian Peninsula (NWIP) and Northern Africa (NAFR). The temporal distribution of the fire pixels in these two sub-regions is characterized by: (i) high and non-concurrent inter- and intra-annual variability with maximum values during the summer of 2003 and 2005 in NWIP and 2007 and 2012 in NAFR; and, (ii) high intra-annual variability dominated by a prominent annual cycle with a main peak centred in August in both sub-regions and a less pronounced secondary peak in March only evident in NWIP region. The 34 EEs identified were grouped according to the location, period of occurrence and spatial configuration of the associated synoptic patterns into 3 clusters (NWIP-summer, NWIP-winter and NAFR-summer). Results from the composite analysis reveal similar fire weather conditions (statistically significant positive anomalies of air temperature and negative anomalies of air relative humidity) but associated with different circulation patterns at lower and mid-levels of the atmosphere associated with the occurrence of EEs in each cluster of the Western Mediterranean region. PMID:25889542

  19. Estimating energy expenditure in wildland fire fighters using a physical activity monitor.

    PubMed

    Heil, Daniel P

    2002-09-01

    This study piloted the use of an electronic activity monitor (MTI AM 7164-1.2) as a tool for estimating activity (EE(ACT), kcal day(-1)) and total (EE(TOT) kcal day(-1)) energy expenditure in wildland fire fighters during extended periods of wildland fire suppression. Ten Hot Shot fire fighters (9 men, 1 woman) volunteered to wear a MTI monitor during every work shift for 21 consecutive days. Summarizing whole-body motion data each 1 min, the raw activity data (counts min(-1)) were transformed into units of kcal min(-1) using a custom computer program with standard conversion equations. EE(TOT) averaged (Mean+/-SD) 4768+/-478 kcal day(-1), while EE(ACT) averaged 2585+/-406 kcal day(-1), neither of which differed significantly (P = 0.198 and 0.268, respectively) from literature values reported for Hot Shots using the doubly labeled water technique. These data suggest that the electronic activity monitor provided reasonable estimates of EE in wildland fire fighters. This study should be verified, however, with a more complete validation methodology to ensure these findings. PMID:12236649

  20. Station set requirements document. Volume 82: Fire support. Book 2: Preliminary functional fire plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, N. C.

    1974-01-01

    The fire prevention/protection requirements for all shuttle facility and ground support equipment are presented for the hazardous operations. These include: preparing the orbiter for launch, launch operations, landing operations, safing operations, and associated off-line activities.

  1. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

    2012-06-01

    Fires in agricultural ecosystems emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that influence climate on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Annex 1 countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), many of which ratified the Kyoto Protocol, are required to report emissions of CH4 and N2O from these fires annually. In this study, we evaluated several aspects of this reporting system, including the optimality of the crops targeted by the UNFCCC globally and within Annex 1 countries, and the consistency of emissions inventories among different countries. We also evaluated the success of individual countries in capturing interannual variability and long-term trends in agricultural fire activity. In our approach, we combined global high-resolution maps of crop harvest area and production, derived from satellite maps and ground-based census data, with Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements of active fires. At a global scale, we found that adding ground nuts (e.g., peanuts), cocoa, cotton and oil palm, and removing potato, oats, rye, and pulse other from the list of 14 crops targeted by the UNFCCC increased the percentage of active fires covered by the reporting system by 9%. Optimization led to a different recommended list for Annex 1 countries, requiring the addition of sunflower, cotton, rapeseed, and alfalfa and the removal of beans, sugarcane, pulse others, and tuber-root others. Extending emissions reporting to all Annex 1 countries (from the current set of 19 countries) would increase the efficacy of the reporting system from 6% to 15%, and further including several non-Annex 1 countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Mexico, and Nigeria) would capture over 55% of active fires in croplands worldwide. Analyses of interannual trends from the United States and Australia showed the importance of both intensity of fire use and crop production in controlling year

  2. Fire Patterns and Drivers of Fires in the West African Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwomoh, F. K.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The West African tropical forest (referred to as the Upper Guinean forest, UGF), is a global biodiversity hotspot providing vital ecosystem services for the region's socio-economic and environmental wellbeing. It is also one of the most fragmented and human-modified tropical forest ecosystems, with the only remaining large patches of original forests contained in protected areas. However, these remnant forests are susceptible to continued fire-mediated degradation and forest loss due to intense climatic, demographic and land use pressures. We analyzed human and climatic drivers of fire activity in the sub-region to better understand the spatial and temporal patterns of these risks. We utilized MODIS active fire and burned area products to identify fire activity within the sub-region. We measured climatic variability using TRMM rainfall data and derived indicators of human land use from a variety of geospatial datasets. We used a boosted regression trees model to determine the influences of predictor variables on fire activity. Our analyses indicated that the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation is a key driving factor of fire activity in the UGF. Anthropogenic effects on fire activity in the area were evident through the influences of agriculture and low-density populations. These human footprints in the landscape make forests more susceptible to fires through forest fragmentation, degradation, and fire spread from agricultural areas. Forested protected areas within the forest savanna mosaic experienced frequent fires, whereas the more humid forest areas located in the south and south-western portions of the study area had fewer fires as these rainforests tend to offer some buffering against fire encroachment. These results improve characterization of UGF fire regime and expand our understanding of the spatio-temporal dynamics of tropical forest fires in response to human and climatic pressures.

  3. Development of a protective decorative fire resistant low smoke emitting, thermally stable coating material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The development of suitable electrocoatings and subsequent application to nonconductive substrates are discussed. Substrates investigated were plastics or resin-treated materials such as FX-resin (phenolic-type resin) impregnated fiberglass mat, polyphenylene sulfide, polyether sulfone and polyimide-impregnated unidirectional fiberglass. Efforts were aimed at formulating a fire-resistant, low smoke emitting, thermally stable, easily cleaned coating material. The coating is to be used for covering substrate panels, such as aluminum, silicate foam, polymeric structural entities, etc., all of which are applied in the aircraft cabin interior and thus subject to the spillages, scuffing, spotting and the general contaminants which prevail in aircraft passenger compartments.

  4. Mediation of Fire-Climate Linkages by Vegetation Types in Alaskan Arctic Tundra Ecosystems: Impacts of Model Uncertainty on GCM-Based Forecasts of Future Fire Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, P.; Higuera, P. E.; Young, A. M.; Hu, F.; Dietze, M.

    2014-12-01

    Fire is a powerful landscape scale disturbance agent in tundra ecosystems. Impacts on biophysical properties (e.g. albedo) and biogeochemical function (e.g. carbon flux) underscore the need to better quantify fire-climate linkages in tundra ecosystems as climate change accelerates at northern high latitudes. In this context, a critical question is "How does the functional linkage between climate and fire vary across spatial domains dominated by different vegetation types?" We address this question with BLM-Alaska Fire Service area burned data (http://fire.ak.blm.gov/predsvcs/maps.php) used in conjunction with downscaled historical climate data from the Scenarios Network for Alaska Planning (http://www.snap.uaf.edu/data.php) to develop gradient boosting models of annual area burned in Alaska tundra ecosystems. The sparse historical fire records in the Arctic necessitate explicit quantification of model uncertainty associated with the development of statistical analyses. In this work, model uncertainty is depicted through the construction of separate models depicting fire-climate relationships for regions defined by the graminoid, shrub, and wetland tundra vegetation classes (Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map: http://www.geobotany.uaf.edu/cavm/). Non-linear relationships between annual area burned and climate variables are depicted with partial dependence functions. Our results show that vegetation-specific models result in different non-linear relationships between climate and fire. Precipitation variables generally had higher relative influence scores than temperature; however, differences between the magnitude of the scores were greater when models were built with monthly (versus seasonal) explanatory variables. Key threshold values for climate variables are identified. The impact of model uncertainty on forecasts of future fire activity was quantified using output from five different AR5/CMIP5 General Circulation Models. Model uncertainty corresponding to

  5. Predicting fire activity in the US over the next 50 years using new IPCC climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.

    2012-12-01

    Fire is an integral part of the Earth system with both direct and indirect effects on terrestrial ecosystems, the atmosphere, and human societies (Bowman et al. 2009). Climate conditions regulate fire activities through a variety of ways, e.g., influencing the conditions for ignition and fire spread, changing vegetation growth and decay and thus the accumulation of fuels for combustion (Arora and Boer 2005). Our recent study disclosed the burned area (BA) in US is strongly correlated with potential evaporation (PE), a measurement of climatic dryness derived from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) climate data (Morton et al. 2012). The correlation varies spatially and temporally. With regard to fire of peak fire seasons, Northwestern US, Great Plains and Alaska have the strongest BA/PE relationship. Using the recently released the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) Version 3 (van der Werf et al. 2010), we showed increasing BA in the last decade in most of NCA regions. Longer time series of Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) (Eidenshink et al. 2007) data showed the increasing trends occurred in all NCA regions from 1984 to 2010. This relationship between BA and PE provides us the basis to predict the future fire activities in the projected climate conditions. In this study, we build spatially explicit predictors using the historic PE/BA relationship. PE from 2011 to 2060 is calculated from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) data and the historic PE/BA relationship is then used to estimate BA. This study examines the spatial pattern and temporal dynamics of the future US fires driven by new climate predictions for the next 50 years. Reference: Arora, V.K., & Boer, G.J. (2005). Fire as an interactive component of dynamic vegetation models. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 110 Bowman, D.M.J.S., Balch, J.K., Artaxo, P., Bond, W.J., Carlson, J.M., Cochrane, M.A., D

  6. High pre-industrial and modern Tibetan Plateau fire activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrwald, N. M.; Li, Q.; Wang, N.; Zennaro, P.; Zangrando, R.; Barbante, C.

    2013-12-01

    The South Asian brown cloud created from a mix of biomass burning and fossil fuel aerosols is warming the atmosphere between 5000 to 7000 meters above sea level (m asl) along the southern slope of the Himalaya. The extent to which this atmospheric brown cloud is transported up and over the 7000 to 8000 m asl ridge of the Himalaya and northward across the Tibetan Plateau is unknown. Intense Eastern Asian industry and associated coal burning may also export fossil fuel burning products to the Tibetan Plateau. In addition, local cooking, agricultural and natural fires emit combustion products that alter atmospheric chemistry and are deposited on glacier surfaces. It is essential to differentiate between the effects of fossil fuel and biomass burning across the Tibetan Plateau to determine if combustion products affect glacier surfaces and, by extension, glacier volume. The specific biomarker levoglucosan can only be produced by biomass burning at temperatures of 300°C or higher and is trapped and preserved in glaciers across the globe. This specificity may allow the possibility of differentiating between fossil fuel and biomass burning contributions when comparing levoglucosan concentrations with more general ice core combustion proxies such as black carbon. Here, we present a biomass burning record from the entire 164 m Muztag ice core (36.35°N; 87.17°E; 5780 m asl) and from a southwest to northeast transect of snow pits across the Tibetan Plateau. Multiple total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon surface samples demonstrate organic carbon concentrations at or near detection limits. However, these samples have high levoglucosan concentrations suggesting that the biomass burning recorded in these sites may be from a regional rather than local source. The Tibetan Plateau levoglucosan concentrations are surprisingly substantially greater than Kilimanjaro levoglucosan concentrations, where Kilimanjaro is located in a relatively similar low-latitude high

  7. Cortical Network Models of Firing Rates in the Resting and Active States Predict BOLD Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Maxwell R.; Farnell, Les; Gibson, William G.; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals have produced some surprising observations. One is that their amplitude is proportional to the entire activity in a region of interest and not just the fluctuations in this activity. Another is that during sleep and anesthesia the average BOLD correlations between regions of interest decline as the activity declines. Mechanistic explanations of these phenomena are described here using a cortical network model consisting of modules with excitatory and inhibitory neurons, taken as regions of cortical interest, each receiving excitatory inputs from outside the network, taken as subcortical driving inputs in addition to extrinsic (intermodular) connections, such as provided by associational fibers. The model shows that the standard deviation of the firing rate is proportional to the mean frequency of the firing when the extrinsic connections are decreased, so that the mean BOLD signal is proportional to both as is observed experimentally. The model also shows that if these extrinsic connections are decreased or the frequency of firing reaching the network from the subcortical driving inputs is decreased, or both decline, there is a decrease in the mean firing rate in the modules accompanied by decreases in the mean BOLD correlations between the modules, consistent with the observed changes during NREM sleep and under anesthesia. Finally, the model explains why a transient increase in the BOLD signal in a cortical area, due to a transient subcortical input, gives rises to responses throughout the cortex as observed, with these responses mediated by the extrinsic (intermodular) connections. PMID:26659399

  8. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Service regulations under 30 CFR 250.803; or (2) The fire main system under § 149.415. (b) If the water... system, the piping design and hardware must be compatible with the system and must comply with the requirements for fire mains in 46 CFR 108.415 through 108.429....

  9. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ocean Energy Management regulations under 30 CFR 250.803; or (2) The fire main system under § 149.415 of... and must comply with the requirements for fire mains in 46 CFR 108.415 through 108.429. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Can the water supply for...

  10. Effects of norepinephrine on spontaneous firing activity of cerebellar Purkinje cells in vivo in mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ao; Feng, Jun-Yang; Li, Jia; Ding, Nan; Li, Ying-Jun; Qiu, De-Lai; Piao, Ri-Long; Chu, Chun-Ping

    2016-08-26

    Norepinephrine (NE), from the locus coeruleus (LC), has been supported to affect GABAergic system and parallel fiber (PF)-Purkinje cell (PC) synaptic transmission via adrenoceptor in cerebellum cortex. However, the effects of NE on the spontaneous spike activity of cerebellar PCs in living mouse have not yet been fully understood. We here examined the effects of NE on the spontaneous activity of PC in urethane-anesthetized mice by electrophysiological and pharmacological methods. Cerebellar surface application of NE (2.5-25μM) reduced the PC simple spike (SS) firing rate in a dose-dependent manner. The half-inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 5.97μM. In contrast, NE significantly increased the spontaneous firing rate of molecular layer interneuron (MLI). Application of GABAA receptor antagonist, gabazine (SR95531, 20μM) not only blocked the NE-induced inhibition of PC SS firing but also revealed NE-induced excitation of cerebellar PC. Blocking AMPA receptors activity enhanced NE-induced inhibition of PC spontaneous activity. Moreover, the effects of NE on PC spontaneous activity were abolished by simultaneously blocking GABAA and AMPA receptors activity. These results indicated that NE bidirectional modulated the spontaneous activity of PCs via enhancing both inhibitory inputs from MLIs and excitatory inputs of parallel fibers, but NE-induced enhance of inhibitory inputs overwhelmed the excitatory inputs under in vivo conditions. PMID:27369323

  11. Effects of alpha-zirconium phosphate on thermal degradation and flame retardancy of transparent intumescent fire protective coating

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Weiyi; Zhang, Ping; Song, Lei; Wang, Xin; Hu, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A transparent intumescent fire protective coating was obtained by UV-cured technology. • OZrP could enhance the thermal stability and anti-oxidation of the coating. • OZrP could reduce the combustion properties of the coatings. - Abstract: Organophilic alpha-zirconium phosphate (OZrP) was used to improve the thermal and fire retardant behaviors of the phenyl di(acryloyloxyethyl)phosphate (PDHA)-triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA)-2-phenoxyethyl acrylate (PHEA) (PDHA-TGICA-PHEA) coating. The morphology of nanocomposite coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of OZrP on the flame retardancy, thermal stability, fireproofing time and char formation of the coatings was investigated by microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and scanning electric microscope (SEM). The results showed that by adding OZrP, the peak heat release rate and total heat of combustion were significantly reduced. The highest improvement was achieved with 0.5 wt% OZrP. XPS analysis indicated that the performance of anti-oxidation of the coating was improved with the addition of OZrP, and SEM images showed that a good synergistic effect was obtained through a ceramic-like layer produced by OZrP covered on the surface of char.

  12. Project FIRES. Volume 4: Prototype Protective Ensemble Qualification Test Report, Phase 1B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    The qualification testing of a prototype firefighter's protective ensemble is documented. Included are descriptions of the design requirements, the testing methods, and the test apparatus. The tests include measurements of individual subsystem characteristics in areas relating to both physical testing, such as heat, flame, impact penetration and human factors testing, such as dexterity, grip, and mobility. Also, measurements related to both physical and human factors testing of the complete ensemble, such as water protection, metabolic expenditures, and compatibility are considered.

  13. Effect of cardiopulmonary C fibre activation on the firing activity of ventral respiratory group neurones in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C G; Bonham, A C

    1997-01-01

    1. Cardiopulmonary C fibre receptor stimulation elicits apnoea and rapid shallow breathing, but the effects on the firing activity of central respiratory neurones are not well understood. This study examined the responses of ventral respiratory group neurones: decrementing expiratory (Edec), augmenting expiratory (Eaug), and inspiratory (I) neurones during cardiopulmonary C fibre receptor-evoked apnoea and rapid shallow breathing. 2. Extracellular neuronal activity, phrenic nerve activity and arterial pressure were recorded in urethane-anaesthetized rats. Cardiopulmonary C fibre receptors were stimulated by right atrial injections of phenylbiguanide. Neurones were tested for antidromic activation from the contra- and ipsilateral ventral respiratory group (VRG), spinal cord and cervical vagus nerve. 3. Edec neurones discharged tonically during cardiopulmonary C fibre-evoked apnoea and rapid shallow breathing, displaying increased burst durations, number of impulses per burst, and mean impulse frequencies. Edec neurones recovered either with the phrenic nerve activity (25 s) or much later (3 min). 4. By contrast, the firing activity of Eaug and most I neurones was decreased, featuring decreased burst durations and number of impulses per burst and increased interburst intervals. Eaug activity recovered in approximately 3 min and inspiratory activity in approximately 1 min. 5. The results indicate that cardiopulmonary C fibre receptor stimulation causes tonic firing of Edec neurones and decreases in Eaug and I neuronal activity coincident with apnoea or rapid shallow breathing. PMID:9365917

  14. The activities and prospect of planetary protection research in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection is an important activities and responsibilities for space exploration. In Chinese manned missions, micro-organism research and protection has been developed in Shenzhou-9, Shenzhou-10 and Tiangong-2 missions. In the experiment facility of Lunar Palace-1, the micro-organism pollution and protection/control technology has been studied. In the lunar sample recovery mission and China Mars mission, the planetary protection has become an important issue. This paper introduced the research about planetary protection in China. The planetary protection activities, strategy and procedures have been suggested for future space exploration program to meet the requirement for planetary protection, such as cabin pollution isolation, pollutant detection, and so on.

  15. 78 FR 15876 - Activation of Ice Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... final rule published on August 22, 2011 (76 FR 52241). In that rule, the FAA amended its regulations to... Protection,'' (76 FR 52241). In that final rule the FAA added operating rules for flight in icing conditions... amendatory language of the final rule which inadvertently led to the omission of the new section from...

  16. Firing activity of "diapause hormone" producing cells in the male silkmoth, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Toshio; Suenobu, Akiko

    2003-08-01

    Diapause hormone (DH) originally identified to be a factor originating from neurosecretory cells in the suboesophageal ganglion acts on developing ovaries to produce diapause eggs in a female silkmoth, Bombyx mori. A male silkmoth has homologous neurosecretory cells, but little is known of the physiological nature of the cells and actions of their products. We examined the long-term firing activity of putative DH-producing neurosecretory cells and hormonal activity of their products in male pupae that had been experienced different environmental regimens for diapause induction. Firing activity patterns of male labial cells strongly depended on diapause types of pupae: cells in a diapause-type male were active throughout the pupal period, whereas the same cells in a non-diapause-type male were usually inactive during the early two-thirds of the pupal period. A male pupa with electrically active labial cells could induce diapause eggs in a female pupa connected parabiotically to that male. The firing activity of male neurosecretory cells and hormonal action of their products are qualitatively the same as in the female previously examined. We suggest that there is no evident sexual dimorphism in the physiological and biochemical nature of neurosecretory cells producing DH and the amidated peptide DH has different functions in a male. PMID:12951400

  17. Beyond blow-up in excitatory integrate and fire neuronal networks: Refractory period and spontaneous activity.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, María J; Perthame, Benoît

    2014-06-01

    The Network Noisy Leaky Integrate and Fire equation is among the simplest model allowing for a self-consistent description of neural networks and gives a rule to determine the probability to find a neuron at the potential v. However, its mathematical structure is still poorly understood and, concerning its solutions, very few results are available. In the midst of them, a recent result shows blow-up in finite time for fully excitatory networks. The intuitive explanation is that each firing neuron induces a discharge of the others; thus increases the activity and consequently the discharge rate of the full network. In order to better understand the details of the phenomena and show that the equation is more complex and fruitful than expected, we analyze further the model. We extend the finite time blow-up result to the case when neurons, after firing, enter a refractory state for a given period of time. We also show that spontaneous activity may occur when, additionally, randomness is included on the firing potential VF in regimes where blow-up occurs for a fixed value of VF. PMID:24533963

  18. A basin-wide assessment of the GOES and MODIS active fire products for the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, W.; Csiszar, I.; Prins, E.; Schmidt, C.; Setzer, A.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Morisette, J.; Brunner, J.

    2007-05-01

    This LBE-ECO Phase III study is designed to assess the performance of active fire products which have been used to delineate the fire dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon basin and which are routinely used to feed biomass burning emissions models for the region. The initial analyses are focused primarily on the creation of a validated long term (1995-present) record for the WF-ABBA active fire product using GOES East geostationary satellite data. Active fire masks were produced for 285 ASTER and ETM+ scenes distributed across the Brazilian Amazon representing our ground truth for the validation of the WF-ABBA. For comparison purposes we also included the MODIS/Terra "Thermal Anomalies" (MOD14) data in our analyses. Approximately 14,500 fire pixels were analyzed for the GOES data and 7,300 fire pixels were analyzed for the MODIS data. We found that at the 50% detection probability mark (p<0.001), the GOES fire product requires four times more active fire area than it is necessary for MODIS to achieve the same probability of detection. However, the higher observation frequency of GOES resulted in less than 40% omission error compared to 80% with MODIS. Basin-wide commission errors for MODIS and GOES were approximately 15 and 17%, respectively. Commission errors were higher over areas of active deforestation due to the high thermal contrast between the deforested sites and the adjacent green forests which can cause multiple false detections. Burnt area estimates were also produced based on ETM+ data to assess the average burnt area size associated with the coarse resolution active fire data above. For this application over 2,700 burn scar polygons were digitized representing all major biomass burning regions across the Brazilian Amazon. Burn scar polygons were then intersected with the MODIS/Terra and Aqua active fire data. 50% of all polygons containing active fires in the MODIS imagery showed a burnt area size larger than 300ha. Burnt areas of less than 100ha in size

  19. An algorithm to detect fire activity using Meteosat: fine tuning and quality assesment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amraoui, M.; DaCamara, C. C.; Ermida, S. L.

    2012-04-01

    Hot spot detection by means of sensors on-board geostationary satellites allows studying wildfire activity at hourly and even sub-hourly intervals, an advantage that cannot be met by polar orbiters. Since 1997, the Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Analysis has been running an operational procedure that allows detecting active fires based on information from Meteosat-8/SEVIRI. This is the so-called Fire Detection and Monitoring (FD&M) product and the procedure takes advantage of the temporal resolution of SEVIRI (one image every 15 min), and relies on information from SEVIRI channels (namely 0.6, 0.8, 3.9, 10.8 and 12.0 μm) together with information on illumination angles. The method is based on heritage from contextual algorithms designed for polar, sun-synchronous instruments, namely NOAA/AVHRR and MODIS/TERRAAQUA. A potential fire pixel is compared with the neighboring ones and the decision is made based on relative thresholds as derived from the pixels in the neighborhood. Generally speaking, the observed fire incidence compares well against hot spots extracted from the global daily active fire product developed by the MODIS Fire Team. However, values of probability of detection (POD) tend to be quite low, a result that may be partially expected by the finer resolution of MODIS. The aim of the present study is to make a systematic assessment of the impacts on POD and False Alarm Ratio (FAR) of the several parameters that are set in the algorithms. Such parameters range from the threshold values of brightness temperature in the IR3.9 and 10.8 channels that are used to select potential fire pixels up to the extent of the background grid and thresholds used to statistically characterize the radiometric departures of a potential pixel from the respective background. The impact of different criteria to identify pixels contaminated by clouds, smoke and sun glint is also evaluated. Finally, the advantages that may be brought to the algorithm by adding

  20. Incorporating anthropogenic influences into fire probability models: Effects of development and climate change on fire activity in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, M.; Moritz, M.; Batllori, E.; Waller, E.; Krawchuk, M.; Berck, P.

    2014-12-01

    The costly interactions between humans and natural fire regimes throughout California demonstrate the need to understand the uncertainties surrounding wildfire, especially in the face of a changing climate and expanding human communities. Although a number of statistical and process-based wildfire models exist for California, there is enormous uncertainty about the location and number of future fires. Models estimate an increase in fire occurrence between nine and fifty-three percent by the end of the century. Our goal is to assess the role of uncertainty in climate and anthropogenic influences on the state's fire regime from 2000-2050. We develop an empirical model that integrates novel information about the distribution and characteristics of future plant communities without assuming a particular distribution, and improve on previous efforts by integrating dynamic estimates of population density at each forecast time step. Historically, we find that anthropogenic influences account for up to fifty percent of the total fire count, and that further housing development will incite or suppress additional fires according to their intensity. We also find that the total area burned is likely to increase but at a slower than historical rate. Previous findings of substantially increased numbers of fires may be tied to the assumption of static fuel loadings, and the use of proxy variables not relevant to plant community distributions. We also find considerable agreement between GFDL and PCM model A2 runs, with decreasing fire counts expected only in areas of coastal influence below San Francisco and above Los Angeles. Due to potential shifts in rainfall patterns, substantial uncertainty remains for the semiarid deserts of the inland south. The broad shifts of wildfire between California's climatic regions forecast in this study point to dramatic shifts in the pressures plant and human communities will face by midcentury. The information provided by this study reduces the