Active Learning in Fluid Mechanics: Youtube Tube Flow and Puzzling Fluids Questions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hrenya, Christine M.
2011-01-01
Active-learning exercises appropriate for a course in undergraduate fluid mechanics are presented. The first exercise involves an experiment in gravity-driven tube flow, with small groups of students partaking in a contest to predict the experimental flow rates using the mechanical energy balance. The second exercise takes the form of an…
Aoki, Shigehisa; Ikeda, Satoshi; Takezawa, Toshiaki; Kishi, Tomoya; Makino, Junichi; Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Matsunobu, Aki; Noguchi, Mitsuru; Sugihara, Hajime; Toda, Shuji
2011-12-16
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Late-onset peritoneal fibrosis leading to EPS remains to be elucidated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluid streaming is a potent factor for peritoneal fibrosis in PD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We focused on the prolonged effect of fluid streaming on mesothelial cell kinetics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A history of fluid streaming exposure promoted mesothelial proliferative activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have thus identified a potent new factor for late-onset peritoneal fibrosis. -- Abstract: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) often develops after transfer to hemodialysis and transplantation. Both termination of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and transplantation-related factors are risks implicated in post-PD development of EPS, but the precise mechanism of this late-onset peritoneal fibrosis remains to be elucidated. We previously demonstrated that fluid flow stress induced mesothelial proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Therefore, we speculated that the prolonged bioactive effect of fluid flow stress may affect mesothelial cell kinetics after cessation of fluid streaming. To investigate how long mesothelial cells stay under the bioactive effect brought on by fluid flow stress after removal of the stress, we initially cultured mesothelial cells under fluid flow stress and then cultured the cells under static conditions. Mesothelial cells exposed to fluid flow stress for a certain time showed significantly high proliferative activity compared with static conditions after stoppage of fluid streaming. The expression levels of protein phosphatase 2A, which dephosphorylates MAPK, in mesothelial cells changed with time and showed a biphasic pattern that was dependent on the duration of exposure to fluid flow stress. There were no differences in the fluid flow stress-related bioactive effects on mesothelial cells once a certain time had passed
Fluid flow and heat convection studies for actively cooled airframes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mills, A. F.
1992-01-01
The work done during the progress report period from May-October 1992 is summarized. The effect of wall thermal boundary conditions on flows over a step or rib when repeated rib roughness is used for heating augmentation is examined. In numerical investigations of various such laminar and turbulent flows, the local heat transfer coefficients on a forward-facing step or on a rib were found to be very sensitive to the wall thermal boundary condition. For the computation of constant property laminar flow, the wall thermal boundary conditions were either a uniform heat flux or a uniform temperature. Results (Nusselt number and isotherms) of the studies are included. The second part of the work consisted of using PHOENICS to solve the conjugate heat transfer problem of flow over a rib in channel. Finally, the algebraic stress model in the TEAM (Turbulent Elliptic Algorithm-Manchester) code was tested for jet impingement flow, but there needs to be an addition of the energy equation to the code.
Fluid flow and heat convection studies for actively cooled airframes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mills, A. F.
1993-01-01
This report details progress made on the jet impingement - liquid crystal - digital imaging experiment. With the design phase complete, the experiment is currently in the construction phase. In order to reach this phase two design related issues were resolved. The first issue was to determine NASP leading edge active cooling design parameters. Meetings were arranged with personnel at SAIC International, Torrance, CA in order to obtain recent publications that characterized expected leading edge heat fluxes as well as other details of NASP operating conditions. The information in these publications was used to estimate minimum and maximum jet Reynolds numbers needed to accomplish the required leading edge cooling, and to determine the parameters of the experiment. The details of this analysis are shown in Appendix A. One of the concerns for the NASP design is that of thermal stress due to large surface temperature gradients. Using a series of circular jets to cool the leading edge will cause a non-uniform temperature distribution and potentially large thermal stresses. Therefore it was decided to explore the feasibility of using a slot jet to cool the leading edge. The literature contains many investigations into circular jet heat transfer but few investigations of slot jet heat transfer. The first experiments will be done on circular jets impinging on a fiat plate and results compared to previously published data to establish the accuracy of the method. Subsequent experiments will be slot jets impinging on full scale models of the NASP leading edge. Table 1 shows the range of parameters to be explored. Next a preliminary design of the experiment was done. Previous papers which used a similar experimental technique were studied and elements of those experiments adapted to the jet impingement study. Trade-off studies were conducted to determine which design was the least expensive, easy to construct, and easy to use. Once the final design was settled, vendors were
Spontaneous flow in polar active fluids: the effect of a phenomenological self propulsion-like term.
Bonelli, Francesco; Gonnella, Giuseppe; Tiribocchi, Adriano; Marenduzzo, Davide
2016-01-01
We present hybrid lattice Boltzmann simulations of extensile and contractile active fluids where we incorporate phenomenologically the tendency of active particles such as cell and bacteria, to move, or swim, along the local orientation. Quite surprisingly, we show that the interplay between alignment and activity can lead to completely different results, according to geometry (periodic boundary conditions or confinement between flat walls) and nature of the activity (extensile or contractile). An interesting generic outcome is that the alignment interaction can transform stationary active patterns into continuously moving ones: the dynamics of these evolving patterns can be oscillatory or chaotic according to the strength of the alignment term. Our results suggest that flow-polarisation alignment can have important consequences on the collective dynamics of active fluids and active gel. PMID:26769011
Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.
1976-01-01
A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.
Programming fluid flow with microstructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amini, Hamed; Masaeli, Mahdokht; di Carlo, Dino
2011-11-01
Flow control and fluid interface manipulation in microfluidic platforms are of great importance in a variety of applications. Current approaches to manipulate fluids generally rely on complex designs, difficult-to-fabricate 3D platforms or use of active methods. Here we show that in the presence of simple cylindrical obstacles (i.e. pillars) in a microchannel, at moderate to high flow rates, streamlines tend to turn and stretch in a manner that, unlike intuition for Stokes flow, does not precisely reverse after passing the pillar. The asymmetric flow behavior up- and down-stream of the pillar due to fluid inertia manifests itself as a total deformation of the topology of streamlines that effectively creates a net secondary flow which resembles the recirculating Dean flow in curving channels. Confocal images were taken to investigate the secondary flow for a variety of microstructure settings. We also developed a numerical technique to map the fluid motion in the channel which is utilized to characterize the secondary flow as well as to engineer the fluid patterns within the channel. This passive method creates the possibility of exceptional control of the 3D structure of the fluid within a microfluidic platform which can significantly advance applications requiring fluid interface control (e.g. optofluidics), ultrafast mixing and solution control around cells.
Geophysical fluid flow experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Broome, B. G.; Fichtl, G.; Fowlis, W.
1979-01-01
The essential fluid flow processes associated with the solar and Jovian atmospheres will be examined in a laboratory experiment scheduled for performance on Spacelab Missions One and Three. The experimental instrumentation required to generate and to record convective fluid flow is described. Details of the optical system configuration, the lens design, and the optical coatings are described. Measurement of thermal gradient fields by schlieren techniques and measurement of fluid flow velocity fields by photochromic dye tracers is achieved with a common optical system which utilizes photographic film for data recording. Generation of the photochromic dye tracers is described, and data annotation of experimental parameters on the film record is discussed.
Awad, Faiz G.; Motsa, Sandile; Khumalo, Melusi
2014-01-01
In this study, the Spectral Relaxation Method (SRM) is used to solve the coupled highly nonlinear system of partial differential equations due to an unsteady flow over a stretching surface in an incompressible rotating viscous fluid in presence of binary chemical reaction and Arrhenius activation energy. The velocity, temperature and concentration distributions as well as the skin-friction, heat and mass transfer coefficients have been obtained and discussed for various physical parametric values. The numerical results obtained by (SRM) are then presented graphically and discussed to highlight the physical implications of the simulations. PMID:25250830
Apparatus for irradiating a continuously flowing stream of fluid. [For neutron activation analysis
Speir, L.G.; Adams, E.L.
1982-05-13
An apparatus for irradiating a continuously flowing stream of fluid is disclosed. The apparatus consists of a housing having a spherical cavity and a spherical moderator containing a radiation source positioned within the spherical cavity. The spherical moderator is of lesser diameter than the spherical cavity so as to define a spherical annular volume around the moderator. The housing includes fluid intake and output conduits which open onto the spherical cavity at diametrically opposite positions. Fluid flows through the cavity around the spherical moderator and is uniformly irradiated due to the 4..pi.. radiation geometry. The irradiation source, for example a /sup 252/Cf neutron source, is removable from the spherical moderator through a radial bore which extends outwardly to an opening on the outside of the housing. The radiation source may be routinely removed without interrupting the flow of fluid or breaching the containment of the fluid.
Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns
Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle
2014-08-06
Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.
Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns
Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle
2014-03-06
Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reich, M.; Arancibia, G.; Perez, P.; Sanchez, P.; Cembrano, J. M.; Stimac, J. A.; Lohmar, S.
2012-12-01
In the Andean Cordillera of Central-Southern Chile, geothermal resources occur in close spatial relationship with active volcanism. The nature of the relationship between tectonics and volcanism in this region is the result of interaction between the crustal structures of the basement and the ongoing regional stress field, which is primarily controlled by the oblique convergence of the Nazca and South America Plates. Between 39° and 46°S, the volcanic and geothermal activity is controlled by the NNE-trending, 1,000 km long Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone (LOFZ), an intra-arc dextral strike-slip fault system. Although there is consensus that volcanism (and hence geothermal activity) in southern Chile is largely controlled by the regional-scale tectonic stress field and architecture of the volcanic arc, there is limited scientific information about the role of local kinematic conditions on fluid flow and mineralization during the development and evolution of geothermal reservoirs. In this report, we present the preliminary results of an undergoing structural, mineralogical and geochemical study of the Tolhuaca geothermal system in southern Chile. The Tolhuaca geothermal reservoir formed as a liquid-dominated hydrothermal system, where shallow upflow resulted in near-boiling temperatures in a roughly horizontal liquid reservoir at 100-200 m depth (Melosh et al., 2010, 2012). In an early stage of evolution, hydrothermal brecciation and phase-separation (boiling) episodes penetrated at least 950 m depth into the deeper reservoir, and boiling was followed by steam-heated water invasion that cooled the reservoir. In a later stage, the preliminary conceptual model involves boiling and reheating of the reservoir, forming a system with deep hot brines that is connected to the shallow steam zone by an upflow conduit that is characterized by high-temperature mineralogy. The structural analysis of veins, fault-veins and faults of the Tol-1 drillcore (~1080 m depth) provide insights
Ferroelectric Fluid Flow Control Valve
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)
1999-01-01
An active valve is controlled and driven by external electrical actuation of a ferroelectric actuator to provide for improved passage of the fluid during certain time periods and to provide positive closure of the valve during other time periods. The valve provides improved passage in the direction of flow and positive closure in the direction against the flow. The actuator is a dome shaped internally prestressed ferroelectric actuator having a curvature, said dome shaped actuator having a rim and an apex. and a dome height measured from a plane through said rim said apex that varies with an electric voltage applied between an inside and an outside surface of said dome shaped actuator.
McKay, M.D.; Sweeney, C.E.; Spangler, B.S. Jr.
1993-11-30
A flow meter and temperature measuring device are described comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips. 7 figures.
McKay, Mark D.; Sweeney, Chad E.; Spangler, Jr., B. Samuel
1993-01-01
A flow meter and temperature measuring device comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Y.; Tsai, H. L.
2001-06-01
This article presents a mathematical model simulating the effects of surface tension (Maragoni effect) on weld pool fluid flow and weld penetration in spot gas metal arc welding (GMAW). Filler droplets driven by gravity, electromagnetic force, and plasma arc drag force, carrying mass, thermal energy, and momentum, periodically impinge onto the weld pool. Complicated fluid flow in the weld pool is influenced by the droplet impinging momentum, electromagnetic force, and natural convection due to temperature and concentration gradients, and by surface tension, which is a function of both temperature and concentration of a surface active element (sulfur in the present study). Although the droplet impinging momentum creates a complex fluid flow near the weld pool surface, the momentum is damped out by an “up-and-down” fluid motion. A numerical study has shown that, depending upon the droplet’s sulfur content, which is different from that in the base metal, an inward or outward surface flow of the weld pool may be created, leading to deep or shallow weld penetration. In other words, it is primarily the Marangoni effect that contributes to weld penetration in spot GMAW.
Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow
Ward, Michael D.; Kaduchak, Gregory
2010-11-23
An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.
Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1998-01-01
Computer simulation of atmospheric flow corresponds well to imges taken during the second Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (BFFC) mission. The top shows a view from the pole, while the bottom shows a view from the equator. Red corresponds to hot fluid rising while blue shows cold fluid falling. This simulation was developed by Anil Deane of the University of Maryland, College Park and Paul Fischer of Argorne National Laboratory. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kieffer, Susan W.; Brown, K. L.; Simmons, Stuart F.; Watson, Arnold
2004-01-01
Water in the Earth's crust generally contains dissolved gases such as CO2. Models for both 'Blue Mars' (H2O-driven processes) and 'White Mars' (CO2-driven processes) predict liquid H2O with dissolved CO2 at depth. The fate of dissolved CO2 as this mixture rises toward the surface has not been quantitatively explored. Our approach is a variation on NASA's 'Follow the Water' as we 'Follow the Fluid' from depth to the surface in hydrothermal areas on Earth and extrapolate our results to Mars. This is a preliminary report on a field study of fluid flow in a producing geothermal well. For proprietary reasons, the name and location of this well cannot be revealed, so we have named it 'Earth1' for this study.
Relaminarization of fluid flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Narasimha, R.; Sreenivasan, K. R.
1979-01-01
The mechanisms of the relaminarization of turbulent flows are investigated with a view to establishing any general principles that might govern them. Three basic archetypes of reverting flows are considered: the dissipative type, the absorptive type, and the Richardson type exemplified by a turbulent boundary layer subjected to severe acceleration. A number of other different reverting flows are then considered in the light of the analysis of these archetypes, including radial Poiseuille flow, convex boundary layers, flows reverting by rotation, injection, and suction, as well as heated horizontal and vertical gas flows. Magnetohydrodynamic duct flows are also examined. Applications of flow reversion for turbulence control are discussed.
Fluid Flow Phenomena during Welding
Zhang, Wei
2011-01-01
MOLTEN WELD POOLS are dynamic. Liquid in the weld pool in acted on by several strong forces, which can result in high-velocity fluid motion. Fluid flow velocities exceeding 1 m/s (3.3 ft/s) have been observed in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds under ordinary welding conditions, and higher velocities have been measured in submerged arc welds. Fluid flow is important because it affects weld shape and is related to the formation of a variety of weld defects. Moving liquid transports heat and often dominates heat transport in the weld pool. Because heat transport by mass flow depends on the direction and speed of fluid motion, weld pool shape can differ dramatically from that predicted by conductive heat flow. Temperature gradients are also altered by fluid flow, which can affect weld microstructure. A number of defects in GTA welds have been attributed to fluid flow or changes in fluid flow, including lack of penetration, top bead roughness, humped beads, finger penetration, and undercutting. Instabilities in the liquid film around the keyhole in electron beam and laser welds are responsible for the uneven penetration (spiking) characteristic of these types of welds.
Role of interfacial friction for flow instabilities in a thin polar-ordered active fluid layer.
Sarkar, Niladri; Basu, Abhik
2015-11-01
We construct a generic coarse-grained dynamics of a thin inflexible planar layer of polar-ordered suspension of active particles that is frictionally coupled to an embedding isotropic passive fluid medium with a friction coefficient Γ. Being controlled by Γ, our model provides a unified framework to describe the long-wavelength behavior of a variety of thin polar-ordered systems, ranging from wet to dry active matter and free-standing active films. Investigations of the linear instabilities around a chosen orientationally ordered uniform reference state reveal generic moving and static instabilities in the system that can depend sensitively on Γ. Based on our results, we discuss estimation of bounds on Γ in experimentally accessible systems. PMID:26651694
Role of interfacial friction for flow instabilities in a thin polar-ordered active fluid layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarkar, Niladri; Basu, Abhik
2015-11-01
We construct a generic coarse-grained dynamics of a thin inflexible planar layer of polar-ordered suspension of active particles that is frictionally coupled to an embedding isotropic passive fluid medium with a friction coefficient Γ . Being controlled by Γ , our model provides a unified framework to describe the long-wavelength behavior of a variety of thin polar-ordered systems, ranging from wet to dry active matter and free-standing active films. Investigations of the linear instabilities around a chosen orientationally ordered uniform reference state reveal generic moving and static instabilities in the system that can depend sensitively on Γ . Based on our results, we discuss estimation of bounds on Γ in experimentally accessible systems.
Differential Activation and Inhibition of RhoA by Fluid Flow Induced Shear Stress in Chondrocytes
Wan, Qiaoqiao; Kim, Seung joon; Yokota, Hiroki; Na, Sungsoo
2013-01-01
Physical force environment is a major factor that influences cellular homeostasis and remodeling. It is not well understood, however, as a potential role of force intensities in the induction of cellular mechanotransduction. Using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based approach, we asked whether activities of GTPase RhoA in chondrocytes are dependent on intensities of flow induced shear stress. We hypothesized that RhoA activities can be either elevated or reduced by selecting different levels of shear stress intensities. The result indicate that C28/I2 chondrocytes have increased RhoA activities in response to high shear stress (10 or 20 dyn/cm2), whereas a decrease in activity was seen with an intermediate shear stress of 5 dyn/cm2. No changes were seen under low shear stress (2 dyn/cm2). The observed 2-level switch of RhoA activities is closely linked to the shear stress-induced alterations in actin cytoskeleton and traction forces. In the presence of constitutively active RhoA (RhoA-V14), intermediate shear stress suppressed RhoA activities, while high shear stress failed to activate them. In chondrocytes, expression of various metalloproteinases is, in part, regulated by shear and normal stresses through a network of GTPases. Collectively, the data suggest that intensities of shear stress are critical in differential activation and inhibition of RhoA activities in chondrocytes. PMID:23408748
Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method
Jones, Daniel O.
2000-01-01
A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.
Hernández Vera, Rodrigo; Genové, Elsa; Alvarez, Lery; Borrós, Salvador; Kamm, Roger; Lauffenburger, Douglas
2009-01-01
Development of tissues in vitro with dimensions larger than 150 to 200 μm requires the presence of a functional vascular network. Therefore, we have studied capillary morphogenesis under controlled biological and biophysical conditions with the aim of promoting vascular structures in tissue constructs. We and others have previously demonstrated that physiological values of interstitial fluid flow normal to an endothelial monolayer in combination with vascular endothelial growth factor play a critical role during capillary morphogenesis by promoting cell sprouting. In the present work, we studied the effect that a range of interstitial flow velocities (0–50 μm/min) has in promoting the amount, length, and branching of developing sprouts during capillary morphogenesis. The number of capillary-like structures developed from human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers across the interstitial flow values tested was not significantly affected. Instead, the length and branching degree of the sprouts presented a significant maximum at flow velocities of 10 to 20 μm/min. More-over, at these same flow values, the phosphorylation level of Src also showed its peak. We discovered that capillary morphogenesis is restricted to patches of Src-activated cells (phosphorylated Src (pSrc)) at the monolayer, suggesting that the transduction pathway in charge of sensing the mechanical stimulus induced by flow is promoting predetermined mechanically sensitive areas (pSrc) to undergo capillary morphogenesis. PMID:18636940
Rotational fluid flow experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1991-01-01
This project which began in 1986 as part of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) Advanced Space Design Program focuses on the design and implementation of an electromechanical system for studying vortex behavior in a microgravity environment. Most of the existing equipment was revised and redesigned by this project team, as necessary. Emphasis was placed on documentation and integration of the electrical and mechanical subsystems. Project results include reconfiguration and thorough testing of all hardware subsystems, implementation of an infrared gas entrainment detector, new signal processing circuitry for the ultrasonic fluid circulation device, improved prototype interface circuits, and software for overall control of experiment operation.
Fluid flow electrophoresis in space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Griffin, R. N.
1975-01-01
Four areas relating to free-flow electrophoresis in space were investigated. The first was the degree of improvement over earthbound operations that might be expected. The second area of investigation covered the problems in developing a flowing buffer electrophoresis apparatus. The third area of investigation was the problem of testing on the ground equipment designed for use in space. The fourth area of investigation was the improvement to be expected in space for purification of biologicals. The results of some ground-based experiments are described. Other studies included cooling requirements in space, fluid sealing techniques, and measurement of voltage drop across membranes.
General Transient Fluid Flow Algorithm
1992-03-12
SALE2D calculates two-dimensional fluid flows at all speeds, from the incompressible limit to highly supersonic. An implicit treatment of the pressure calculation similar to that in the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique provides this flow speed flexibility. In addition, the computing mesh may move with the fluid in a typical Lagrangian fashion, be held fixed in an Eulerian manner, or move in some arbitrarily specified way to provide a continuous rezoning capability. This latitude resultsmore » from use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) treatment of the mesh. The partial differential equations solved are the Navier-Stokes equations and the mass and internal energy equations. The fluid pressure is determined from an equation of state and supplemented with an artificial viscous pressure for the computation of shock waves. The computing mesh consists of a two-dimensional network of quadrilateral cells for either cylindrical or Cartesian coordinates, and a variety of user-selectable boundary conditions are provided in the program.« less
Force interaction of high pressure glow discharge with fluid flow for active separation control
Roy, Subrata; Gaitonde, Datta V.
2006-02-15
Radio frequency based discharges at atmospheric pressures are the focus of increased interest in aerodynamics because of the wide range of potential applications including, specifically, actuation in flows at moderate speeds. Recent literature describing promising experimental observations, especially on separation control, has spurred efforts in the development of parallel theoretical modeling to lift limitations in the current understanding of the actuation mechanism. The present effort demonstrates higher fidelity first-principle models in a multidimensional finite-element framework to predict surface discharge-induced momentum exchange. The complete problem of a dielectric barrier discharge at high pressure with axially displaced electrodes is simulated in a self-consistent manner. Model predictions for charge densities, the electric field, and gas velocity distributions are shown to mimic trends reported in the experimental literature. Results show that a residual of electrons remains deposited on the dielectric surface downstream of the exposed powered electrode for the entire duration of the cycle and causes a net electric force in the direction from the electrode to the downstream surface. For the first time, results document the mitigation process of a separation bubble formed due to flow past a flat plate inclined at 12 degree sign angle of attack. This effort sets the basis for extending the formulation further to include polyphase power input in multidimensional settings, and to apply the simulation method to flows past common aerodynamic configurations.
Cerebrospinal fluid flow in adults.
Bradley, William G; Haughton, Victor; Mardal, Kent-Andre
2016-01-01
This chapter uses magnetic resonance imaging phase-contrast cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow measurements to predict which clinical normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) patients will respond to shunting as well as which patients with Chiari I are likely to develop symptoms of syringomyelia. Symptomatic NPH patients with CSF flow (measured as the aqueductal CSF stroke volume) which is shown to be hyperdynamic (defined as twice normal) are quite likely to respond to ventriculoperitoneal shunting. The hyperdynamic CSF flow results from normal systolic brain expansion compressing the enlarged ventricles. When atrophy occurs, there is less brain expansion, decreased aqueductal CSF flow, and less likelihood of responding to shunting. It appears that NPH is a "two-hit" disease, starting as benign external hydrocephalus in infancy, followed by deep white-matter ischemia in late adulthood, which causes increased resistance to CSF outflow through the extracellular space of the brain. Using computational flow dynamics (CFD), CSF flow can be modeled at the foramen magnum and in the upper cervical spine. As in the case of NPH, hyperdynamic CSF flow appears to cause the signs and symptoms in Chiari I and can provide an additional indication for surgical decompression. CFD can also predict CSF pressures over the cardiac cycle. It has been hypothesized that elevated pressure pulses may be a significant etiologic factor in some cases of syringomyelia. PMID:27432684
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, C. E.; Aydin, A.; Durlofsky, L.; Karimi-Fard, M.; Brownlow, D. T.
2008-12-01
An active quarry near Uvalde, TX which mines asphaltic limestone from the Anacacho Formation offers an ideal setting to study fluid-flow in fractured and faulted carbonate rocks. Semi-3D exposures of normal faults and fractures in addition to visual evidence of asphalt concentrations in the quarry help constrain relationships between geologic structures and the flow and transport of hydrocarbons. Furthermore, a subsurface dataset which includes thin sections and measured asphalt concentration from the surrounding region provides a basis to estimate asphalt concentrations and constrain the depositional architecture of both the previously mined portions of the quarry and the un-mined surrounding rock volume. We characterized a series of normal faults and opening mode fractures at the quarry and documented a correlation between the intensity and distribution of these structures with increased concentrations of asphalt. The three-dimensional depositional architecture of the Anacacho Formation was characterized using the subsurface thin sections. Then outcrop exposures of faults, fractured beds, and stratigraphic contacts were mapped and their three-dimensional positions were recorded with differential gps devices. These two datasets were assimilated and a quarry-scale, geologically realistic, three-dimensional Discrete Feature Network (DFN) which represents the geometries and material properties of the matrix, normal faults, and fractures within the quarry was constructed. We then performed two-point flux, control-volume finite- difference fluid-flow simulations with the DFN to investigate the 3D flow and transport of fluids. The results were compared and contrasted with available asphalt concentration estimates from the mine and the aforementioned data from the surrounding drill cores.
Transient Wellbore Fluid Flow Model
1982-04-06
WELBORE is a code to solve transient, one-dimensional two-phase or single-phase non-isothermal fluid flow in a wellbore. The primary thermodynamic variables used in solving the equations are the pressure and specific energy. An equation of state subroutine provides the density, quality, and temperature. The heat loss out of the wellbore is calculated by solving a radial diffusion equation for the temperature changes outside the bore. The calculation is done at each node point in themore » wellbore.« less
Fluid flows around nanoelectromechanical resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svitelskiy, O.; Sauer, V.; Liu, N.; Vick, D.; Cheng, K. M.; Freeman, M. R.; Hiebert, W. K.
2012-02-01
To explore properties of fluids on a nanosize scale, we fabricated by a standard top down technique a series of nanoelectromechanical resonators (cantilevers and bridges) with widths w and thicknesses t from 100 to 500 nm; lengths l from 0.5 to 12 micron; and resonant frequencies f from 10 to 400 MHz. For the sake of purity of the experiment, the undercut in the widest (w=500 nm) devices was eliminated using the focused ion beam. To model the fluidic environment the devices were placed in the atmosphere of compressed gases (He, N2, CO2, Ar, H2) at pressures from vacuum up to 20 MPa, and in liquid CO2; their properties were studied by the real time stroboscopic optical interferometry. Thus, we fully explored the Newtonian and non-Newtonian flow damping models. Observing free molecular flow extending above atmospheric pressure, we find the fluid relaxation time model to be the best approximation throughout, but not beyond, the non-Newtonian regime, and both, vibrating spheres model and the model based on Knudsen number, to be valid in the viscous limit.
Fluid Flow Experiment for Undergraduate Laboratory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vilimpochapornkul, Viroj; Obot, Nsima T.
1986-01-01
The undergraduate fluid mechanics laboratory at Clarkson University consists of three experiments: mixing; drag measurements; and fluid flow and pressure drop measurements. The latter experiment is described, considering equipment needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained. (JN)
Fluid flow, mineral reactions, and metasomatism
Ferry, J.M.; Dipple, G.M. )
1991-03-01
A general model that relates fluid flow along a temnperature gradient to chemical reaction in rocks can be used to quantitatively interpret petrologic and geochemical data on metasomatism from ancient flow systems in terms of flow direction and time-integrated fluid flux. The model is applied to regional metamorphism, quartz veins, and a metasomatized ductile fault zone.
Fluid flow nozzle energy harvesters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Winn, Tyler; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Colonius, Tim
2015-04-01
Power generation schemes that could be used downhole in an oil well to produce about 1 Watt average power with long-life (decades) are actively being developed. A variety of proposed energy harvesting schemes could be used to extract energy from this environment but each of these has their own limitations that limit their practical use. Since vibrating piezoelectric structures are solid state and can be driven below their fatigue limit, harvesters based on these structures are capable of operating for very long lifetimes (decades); thereby, possibly overcoming a principle limitation of existing technology based on rotating turbo-machinery. An initial survey [1] identified that spline nozzle configurations can be used to excite a vibrating piezoelectric structure in such a way as to convert the abundant flow energy into useful amounts of electrical power. This paper presents current flow energy harvesting designs and experimental results of specific spline nozzle/ bimorph design configurations which have generated suitable power per nozzle at or above well production analogous flow rates. Theoretical models for non-dimensional analysis and constitutive electromechanical model are also presented in this paper to optimize the flow harvesting system.
Fluid dynamics and vibration of tube banks in fluid flow
Zukauskas, A.; Ulinskas, R.; Katinas, V.
1988-01-01
This work presents results derived in fluid dynamics, hydraulic drag and flow-induced vibrations within transverse and yawed tube banks. The studies encompass banks of smooth, rough and finned tubes at Reynolds numbers from 1 to 2x10/sup 6/. Highlighted in the text are fluid dynamic parameters of tube banks measured at inter-tube spaces and tube surfaces.
Value for controlling flow of cryogenic fluid
Knapp, Philip A.
1996-01-01
A valve is provided for accurately controlling the flow of cryogenic fluids such as liquid nitrogen. The valve comprises a combination of disc and needle valves affixed to a valve stem in such a manner that the disc and needle are free to rotate about the stem, but are constrained in lateral and vertical movements. This arrangement provides accurate and precise fluid flow control and positive fluid isolation.
Fluid Flow Control with Transformation Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Urzhumov, Yaroslav A.; Smith, David R.
2011-08-01
We introduce a new concept for the manipulation of fluid flow around three-dimensional bodies. Inspired by transformation optics, the concept is based on a mathematical idea of coordinate transformations and physically implemented with anisotropic porous media permeable to the flow of fluids. In two situations—for an impermeable object placed either in a free-flowing fluid or in a fluid-filled porous medium—we show that the object can be coated with an inhomogeneous, anisotropic permeable medium, such as to preserve the flow that would have existed in the absence of the object. The proposed fluid flow cloak eliminates downstream wake and compensates viscous drag, hinting at the possibility of novel propulsion techniques.
VISCOPLASTIC FLUID MODEL FOR DEBRIS FLOW ROUTING.
Chen, Cheng-lung
1986-01-01
This paper describes how a generalized viscoplastic fluid model, which was developed based on non-Newtonian fluid mechanics, can be successfully applied to routing a debris flow down a channel. The one-dimensional dynamic equations developed for unsteady clear-water flow can be used for debris flow routing if the flow parameters, such as the momentum (or energy) correction factor and the resistance coefficient, can be accurately evaluated. The writer's generalized viscoplastic fluid model can be used to express such flow parameters in terms of the rheological parameters for debris flow in wide channels. A preliminary analysis of the theoretical solutions reveals the importance of the flow behavior index and the so-called modified Froude number for uniformly progressive flow in snout profile modeling.
Frictional flow characteristics of microconvective flow for variable fluid properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Rajan; Mahulikar, Shripad P.
2015-12-01
The present work investigates the frictional flow characteristics of water flowing through a circular microchannel with variable fluid properties. The computational analysis reveals the importance of physical mechanisms due to variations in thermophysical fluid properties such as viscosity μ(T), thermal conductivity k(T) and density ρ(T) and also their contribution in the characteristics of frictional flow. Various combinations of thermophysical fluid properties have been used to find their effects on fluid friction. It is observed that the fluid friction attains the maximum value in the vicinity of the inlet and diminishes along the flow. The main reasons are attributed to this, (1) near the inlet, there is a flow undevelopment (the reverse process of flow development) due to μ(T) variation. (2) The viscosity of the water decreases with increasing temperature, which reduces fluid friction along the flow. It is noted that the skin friction coefficient (cf) reduces with increasing fluid mean velocity for a same value of constant wall heat flux ({q}{{w}}\\prime\\prime ). In the vicinity of the inlet, the deviation of Poiseuille number (Po) from 64 (constant properties solution) is also investigated in this paper. Additionally, the relationship between Reynolds number (Re) and cf, Po and Re have been proposed for different combinations of thermophysical fluid properties. This investigation also shows that the effect of fluid property variations on pressure drop is highly significant for microconvective water flow.
Measurement of Diffusion in Flowing Complex Fluids
Leonard, Edward F.; Aucoin, Christian P.; Nanne, Edgar E.
2006-01-01
A microfluidic device for the measurement of solute diffusion as well as particle diffusion and migration in flowing complex fluids is described. The device is particularly suited to obtaining diffusivities in such fluids, which require a desired flow state to be maintained during measurement. A method based on the Loschmidt diffusion theory and short times of exposure is presented to allow calculation of diffusivities from concentration differences in the flow streams leaving the cell. PMID:18560469
Visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Helman, James L.; Hesselink, Lambertus
1991-01-01
Methods of automating the analysis and display of vector field topology in general and flow topology in particular are discussed. Two-dimensional vector field topology is reviewed as the basis for the examination of topology in three-dimensional separated flows. The use of tangent surfaces and clipping in visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows is addressed.
Method and Apparatus for Measuring Fluid Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Nguyen, Thanh X. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)
1997-01-01
Method and apparatus for making measurements on fluids related to their complex permeability are disclosed. A microwave probe is provided for exposure to the fluids. The probe can be non-intrusive or can also be positioned at the location where measurements are to be made. The impedance of the probe is determined. in part. by the complex dielectric constant of the fluids at the probe. A radio frequency signal is transmitted to the probe and the reflected signal is phase and amplitude detected at a rapid rate for the purpose of identifying the fluids. Multiple probes may be selectively positioned to monitor the behavior of the fluids including their flow rate. Fluids may be identified as between two or more different fluids as well as multiple phases of the same fluid based on differences between their complex permittivities.
Viscoelastic fluid flow in inhomogeneous porous media
Siginer, D.A.; Bakhtiyarov, S.I.
1996-09-01
The flow of inelastic and viscoelastic fluids in two porous media of different permeabilities and same priority arranged in series has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The fluids are an oil field spacer fluid and aqueous solutions of polyacrylamide. The porous medium is represented by a cylindrical tube randomly packed with glass spheres. Expressions for the friction factor and the resistance coefficient as a function of the Reynolds number have been developed both for shear thinning and viscoelastic fluids based on the linear fluidity and eight constant Oldroyd models, respectively. The authors show that the energy loss is higher if the viscoelastic fluid flows first through the porous medium with the smaller permeability rather than through the section of the cylinder with the larger permeability. This effect is not observed for Newtonian and shear thinning fluids flowing through the same configuration. Energy requirements for the same volume flow rate are much higher than a Newtonian fluid of the same zero shear viscosity as the polymeric solution. Energy loss increases with increasing Reynolds number at a fixed concentration. At a fixed Reynolds number, the loss is a strong function of the concentration and increases with increasing concentration. The behavior of all fluids is predicted qualitatively except the difference in energy requirements.
Method and device for measuring fluid flow
Atherton, Richard; Marinkovich, Phillip S.; Spadaro, Peter R.; Stout, J. Wilson
1976-11-23
This invention is a fluid flow measuring device for determining the coolant flow at the entrance to a specific nuclear reactor fuel region. The device comprises a plurality of venturis having the upstream inlet and throat pressure of each respectively manifolded together to provide one static pressure signal for each region monitored. The device provides accurate flow measurement with low pressure losses and uniform entrance and discharge flow distribution.
Engineering fluid flow using sequenced microstructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amini, Hamed; Sollier, Elodie; Masaeli, Mahdokht; Xie, Yu; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Stone, Howard A.; di Carlo, Dino
2013-05-01
Controlling the shape of fluid streams is important across scales: from industrial processing to control of biomolecular interactions. Previous approaches to control fluid streams have focused mainly on creating chaotic flows to enhance mixing. Here we develop an approach to apply order using sequences of fluid transformations rather than enhancing chaos. We investigate the inertial flow deformations around a library of single cylindrical pillars within a microfluidic channel and assemble these net fluid transformations to engineer fluid streams. As these transformations provide a deterministic mapping of fluid elements from upstream to downstream of a pillar, we can sequentially arrange pillars to apply the associated nested maps and, therefore, create complex fluid structures without additional numerical simulation. To show the range of capabilities, we present sequences that sculpt the cross-sectional shape of a stream into complex geometries, move and split a fluid stream, perform solution exchange and achieve particle separation. A general strategy to engineer fluid streams into a broad class of defined configurations in which the complexity of the nonlinear equations of fluid motion are abstracted from the user is a first step to programming streams of any desired shape, which would be useful for biological, chemical and materials automation.
Deployable Emergency Shutoff Device Blocks High-Velocity Fluid Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nabors, Sammy A.
2015-01-01
NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a device and method for blocking the flow of fluid from an open pipe. Motivated by the sea-bed oil-drilling catastrophe in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, NASA innovators designed the device to plug, control, and meter the flow of gases and liquids. Anchored with friction fittings, spikes, or explosively activated fasteners, the device is well-suited for harsh environments and high fluid velocities and pressures. With the addition of instrumentation, it can also be used as a variable area flow metering valve that can be set based upon flow conditions. With robotic additions, this patent-pending innovation can be configured to crawl into a pipe then anchor and activate itself to block or control fluid flow.
Saffer, D.M.; Bekins, B.A.
1998-01-01
Down-hole geochemical anomalies encountered in active accretionary systems can be used to constrain the timing, rates, and localization of fluid flow. Here we combine a coupled flow and solute transport model with a kinetic model for smectite dehydration to better understand and quantify fluid flow in the Nankai accretionary complex offshore of Japan. Compaction of sediments and clay dehydration provide fluid sources which drive the model flow system. We explicitly include the consolidation rate of underthrust sediments in our calculations to evaluate the impact that variations in this unknown quantity have on pressure and chloride distribution. Sensitivity analysis of steady state pressure solutions constrains bulk and flow conduit permeabilities. Steady state simulations with 30% smectite in the incoming sedimentary sequence result in minimum chloride concentrations at site 808 of 550 mM, but measured chlorinity is as low as 447 mM. We simulate the transient effects of hydrofracture or a strain event by assuming an instantaneous permeability increase of 3-4 orders of magnitude along a flow conduit (in this case the de??collement), using steady state results as initial conditions. Transient results with an increase in de??collement permeability from 10-16 m2 to 10-13 m2 and 20% smectite reproduce the observed chloride profile at site 808 after 80-160 kyr. Modeled chloride concentrations are highly sensitive to the consolidation rate of underthrust sediments, such that rapid compaction of underthrust material leads to increased freshening. Pressures within the de??collement during transient simulations rise rapidly to a significant fraction of lithostatic and remain high for at least 160 kyr, providing a mechanism for maintaining high permeability. Flow rates at the deformation front for transient simulations are in good agreement with direct measurements, but steady state flow rates are 2-3 orders of magnitude smaller than observed. Fluid budget calculations
Fluid/structure interactions. Internal flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weaver, D. S.
1991-05-01
Flow-induced vibrations are found wherever structures are exposed to high velocity fluid flows. Internal flows are usually characterized by the close proximity of solid boundaries. There are surfaces against which separated flows may reattach, or from which pressure disturbances may be reflected resulting in acoustic resonance. When the fluid is a liquid, the close proximity of solid boundaries to a vibrating component can produce very high added mass effects. This paper presents three different experimental studies of flow-induced vibration problems associated with internal flows. The emphasis was on experimental techniques developed for understanding excitation mechanisms. In difficult flow-induced vibration problems, a useful experimental technique is flow visualization using a large scale model and strobe light triggered by the phenomenon being observed. This should be supported by point measurements of velocity and frequency spectra. When the flow excitation is associated with acoustic resonance, the sound can be fed back to enhance or eliminate the instability. This is potentially a very useful tool for studying and controlling fluid-structure interaction problems. Some flow-induced vibration problems involve a number of different excitation mechanisms and care must be taken to ensure that the mechanisms are properly identified. Artificially imposing structural vibrations or acoustic fields may induce flow structures not naturally present in the system.
Apparatus for measuring fluid flow
Smith, J.E.; Thomas, D.G.
Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.
Apparatus for measuring fluid flow
Smith, Jack E.; Thomas, David G.
1984-01-01
Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.
Directed flow fluid rinse trough
Kempka, Steven N.; Walters, Robert N.
1996-01-01
Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs.
Directed flow fluid rinse trough
Kempka, S.N.; Walters, R.N.
1996-07-02
Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs. 9 figs.
Fluid Flow Within Fractured Porous Media
Crandall, D.M.; Ahmadi, G.; Smith, D.H.; Bromhal, G.S.
2006-10-01
Fractures provide preferential flow paths to subterranean fluid flows. In reservoir scale modeling of geologic flows fractures must be approximated by fairly simple formulations. Often this is accomplished by assuming fractures are parallel plates subjected to an applied pressure gradient. This is known as the cubic law. An induced fracture in Berea sandstone has been digitized to perform numerical flow simulations. A commercially available computational fluid dynamics software package has been used to solve the flow through this model. Single phase flows have been compared to experimental works in the literature to evaluate the accuracy with which this model can be applied. Common methods of fracture geometry classification are also calculated and compared to experimentally obtained values. Flow through regions of the fracture where the upper and lower fracture walls meet (zero aperture) are shown to induce a strong channeling effect on the flow. This model is expanded to include a domain of surrounding porous media through which the flow can travel. The inclusion of a realistic permeability in this media shows that the regions of small and zero apertures contribute to the greatest pressure losses over the fracture length and flow through the porous media is most prevalent in these regions. The flow through the fracture is shown to be the largest contributor to the net flow through the media. From this work, a novel flow relationship is proposed for flow through fractured media.
Pattern formation in flowing electrorheological fluids.
von Pfeil, Karl; Graham, Michael D; Klingenberg, Daniel J; Morris, Jeffrey F
2002-05-01
A two-fluid continuum model is developed to describe mass transport in electro- and magnetorheological suspensions. The particle flux is related to the field-induced stresses. Solutions of the resulting mass balance show column formation in the absence of flow, and stripe formation when a suspension is subjected simultaneously to an applied electric field and shear flow. PMID:12005727
Instrument continuously measures density of flowing fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobs, R. B.; Macinko, J.; Miller, C. E.
1967-01-01
Electromechanical densitometer continuously measures the densities of either single-phase or two-phase flowing cryogenic fluids. Measurement is made on actual flow. The instrument operates on the principle that the mass of any vibrating system is a primary factor in determining the dynamic characteristics of the system.
Electromagnetic probe technique for fluid flow measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arndt, G. D.; Carl, J. R.
1994-01-01
The probes described herein, in various configurations, permit the measurement of the volume fraction of two or more fluids flowing through a pipe. Each probe measures the instantaneous relative dielectric constant of the fluid in immediate proximity. As long as separation of the relative dielectric constant of the fluid is possible, several or even many fluids can be measured in the same flow stream. By using multiple probes, the velocity of each fluid can generally be determined as well as the distribution of each constituent in the pipe. The values are determined by statistical computation. There are many potential applications for probes of this type in industry and government. Possible NASA applications include measurements of helium/hydrazine flow during rocket tests at White Sands, liquid/gas flow in hydrogen or oxygen lines in Orbiter engines, and liquid/gaseous Freon flow in zero gravity tests with the KS135 aircraft at JSC. Much interest has been shown recently by the oil industry. In this a good method is needed to measure the fractions of oil, water, and natural gas flowing in a pipeline and the velocity of each. This particular problem involves an extension of what has been developed to date and our plans to solve this problem will be discussed herein.
Fundamental Processes of Atomization in Fluid-Fluid Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McCready, M. J.; Chang, H.-C.; Leighton, D. T.
2001-01-01
This report outlines the major results of the grant "Fundamental Processes of Atomization in Fluid-Fluid Flows." These include: 1) the demonstration that atomization in liquid/liquid shear flow is driven by a viscous shear instability that triggers the formation of a long thin sheet; 2) discovery of a new mode of interfacial instability for oscillatory two-layer systems whereby a mode that originates within the less viscous liquid phase causes interfacial deformation as the oscillation proceeds; 3) the demonstration that rivulet formation from gravity front occurs because the local front shape specified by gravity and surface tension changes from a nose to a wedge geometry, thus triggering a large increase in viscous resistance; and 4) extension of the studies on nonlinear wave evolution on falling films and in stratified flow, particularly the evolution towards large-amplitude solitary waves that tend to generate drops.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menicovich, David
respond to fluctuating environmental conditions such as changes in wind direction or velocity over the height of building which could be of consequence if the conditions for which the building was designed for change due to, for example, changes in the built environment surrounding it. Fluidic-based Aerodynamic Modification (FAM) is a fundamentally different approach; instead of adjusting the solid material to improve the aerodynamic 'shape' of the structure, fluid-based flow control is used to manipulate the boundary layer characteristics. The local flow field is modified to 'view' the solid as a different shape, and thus, that solid will experience reduced loads.
MEANS FOR VISUALIZING FLUID FLOW PATTERNS
Lynch, F.E.; Palmer, L.D.; Poppendick, H.F.; Winn, G.M.
1961-05-16
An apparatus is given for determining both the absolute and relative velocities of a phosphorescent fluid flowing through a transparent conduit. The apparatus includes a source for exciting a narrow trsnsverse band of the fluid to phosphorescence, detecting means such as a camera located downstream from the exciting source to record the shape of the phosphorescent band as it passes, and a timer to measure the time elapsed between operation of the exciting source and operation of the camera.
Two-fluid equilibrium with flow: FLOW2
Guazzotto, L.; Betti, R.
2015-09-15
The effects of finite macroscopic velocities on axisymmetric ideal equilibria are examined using the two-fluid (ions and electrons) model. A new equilibrium solver, the code FLOW2, is introduced for the two-fluid model and used to investigate the importance of various flow patterns on the equilibrium of tight aspect ratio (NSTX) and regular tokamak (DIII-D) configurations. Several improvements to the understanding and calculation of two-fluid equilibria are presented, including an analytical and numerical proof of the single-fluid and static limits of the two-fluid model, a discussion of boundary conditions, a user-friendly free-function formulation, and the explicit evaluation of velocity components normal to magnetic surfaces.
Electro-osmotic flow in bicomponent fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bazarenko, Andrei; Sega, Marcello
The electroosmotic flow (EOF) is a widely used technique that uses the action of external electric fields on solvated ions to move fluids around in microfluidics devices. For homogeneous fluids, the characteristics of the flow can be well approximated by simple analytical models, but in multicomponent systems such as oil-in-water droplets one has to rely to numerical simulations. The purpose of this study is to investigate physical properties of the EOF in a bicomponent fluid by solving the coupled equations of motions of explicit ions in interaction with a continuous model of the flow. To do so we couple the hydrodynamics equations as solved by a Shan-Chen Lattice-Boltzmann method to the molecular dynamics of the ions. The presence of explicit ions allows us to go beyond the simple Poisson-Boltzmann approximations, and investigate a variety of EOF regimes. ETN-COLLDENSE (H2020-MCSA-ITN-2014, Grant No. 642774).
Tomographic reconstruction of stratified fluid flow.
Winters, K B; Rouseff, D
1993-01-01
A method for imaging a moving fluid is proposed and evaluated by numerical simulation. A cross-section of a three-dimensional fluid is probed by high-frequency acoustic waves from several different directions. Assuming straight-ray geometric acoustics, the time of flight depends on both the scaler sound speed and the vector fluid velocity. By appropriately combining travel times, projections of both the sound speed and the velocity are isolated. The sound speed is reconstructed using the standard filtered backprojection algorithm. Though complete inversion of velocity is not possible, sufficient information is available to recover the component of fluid vorticity transverse to the plane of insonification. A new filtered backprojection algorithm for vorticity is developed and implemented. To demonstrate the inversion procedure, a 3-D stratified fluid is simulated and travel time data are calculated by path integration. These data are then inverted to recover both the scaler sound speed and the vorticity of the evolving flow. PMID:18263153
Method and Apparatus for Measuring Fluid Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Nguyen, Than X. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
The invention is a method and apparatus for monitoring the presence, concentration, and the movement of fluids. It is based on utilizing electromagnetic measurements of the complex permittivity of the fluids for detecting and monitoring the fluid. More particularly the apparatus uses one or more microwave probes which are placed at the locations where the measurements are to be made. A radio frequency signal is transmitted to the probe and the reflected signal is phase and amplitude detected at a rapid rate for the purpose of identifying the fluids, based on their dielectric constant at the probe. The apparatus can be used for multiple purposes including measures of flow rates, turbulence, dispersion, fluid identification, and changes in flow conditions of multiple fluids or multiple states of a single fluid in a flowline or a holding container. The apparatus includes a probe consisting of two electrical conductors separated by an insulator. A radio frequency signal is communicated to the probe and is reflected back from the portion of the probe exposed to the fluid. The radio frequency signal also provides a reference signal. An oscillator generates a second signal which combined with each of the reference signal and the reflected signal to produce signals of lower frequencies to facilitate filtering and amplifying those signals. The two signals are then mixed in a detector to produce an output signal that is representative of the phase and amplitude change caused by the reflection of the signal at the probe exposed to the fluid. The detector may be a dual phase detector that provides two such output signals that are in phase quadrature. A phase shifter may be provided for selectively changing the phase of the reference signal to improve the sensitivity of at least one of the output signals for more accurate readings and/or for calibration purposes. The two outputs that are in quadrature with respect to each other may be simultaneously monitored to account for
Fluid Flow in An Evaporating Droplet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, H.; Larson, R.
1999-01-01
Droplet evaporation is a common phenomenon in everyday life. For example, when a droplet of coffee or salt solution is dropped onto a surface and the droplet dries out, a ring of coffee or salt particles is left on the surface. This phenomenon exists not only in everyday life, but also in many practical industrial processes and scientific research and could also be used to assist in DNA sequence analysis, if the flow field in the droplet produced by the evaporation could be understood and predicted in detail. In order to measure the fluid flow in a droplet, small particles can be suspended into the fluid as tracers. From the ratio of gravitational force to Brownian force a(exp 4)(delta rho)(g)/k(sub B)T, we find that particle's tendency to settle is proportional to a(exp 4) (a is particle radius). So, to keep the particles from settling, the droplet size should be chosen to be in a range 0.1 -1.0 microns in experiments. For such small particles, the Brownian force will affect the motion of the particle preventing accurate measurement of the flow field. This problem could be overcome by using larger particles as tracers to measure fluid flow under microgravity since the gravitational acceleration g is then very small. For larger particles, Brownian force would hardly affect the motion of the particles. Therefore, accurate flow field could be determined from experiments in microgravity. In this paper, we will investigate the fluid flow in an evaporating droplet under normal gravity, and compare experiments to theories. Then, we will present our ideas about the experimental measurement of fluid flow in an evaporating droplet under microgravity.
Messinian Salinity Crisis and basin fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertoni, Claudia; Cartwight, Joe
2014-05-01
Syn- and post-depositional movement of fluids through sediments is one of the least understood aspects in the evolution of a basin. The conventional hydrostratigraphic view on marine sedimentary basins assumes that compactional and meteoric groundwater fluid circulation drives fluid movement and defines its timing. However, in the past few years, several examples of instantaneous and catastrophic release of fluids have been observed even through low-permeability sediments. A particularly complex case-study involves the presence of giant salt bodies in the depocentres of marine basins. Evaporites dramatically change the hydrostratigraphy and fluid-dynamics of the basin, and influence the P/T regimes, e.g. through changes in the geothermal gradient and in the compaction of underlying sediments. Our paper reviews the impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and evaporites on fluid flow in the Mediterranean sub-basins. The analysis of geological and geophysical sub-surface data provides examples from this basin, and the comparison with analogues in other well-known evaporitic provinces. During the MSC, massive sea-level changes occurred in a relatively limited time interval, and affected the balance of fluid dynamics, e.g. with sudden release or unusual trapping of fluids. Fluid expulsion events are here analysed and classified in relation to the long and short-term effects of the MSC. Our main aim is to build a framework for the correct identification of the fluid flow-related events, and their genetic mechanisms. On basin margins, where evaporites are thin or absent, the sea-level changes associated with the MSC force a rapid basinward shift of the mixing zone of meteoric/gravity flow and saline/compactional flow, 100s-km away from its pre-MSC position. This phenomenon changes the geometry of converging flows, creates hydraulic traps for fluids, and triggers specific diagenetic reactions in pre-MSC deep marine sediments. In basin-centre settings, unloading and
Fluid flow meter for measuring the rate of fluid flow in a conduit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, P. R. (Inventor)
1986-01-01
A tube fluid flow rate meter consists of a reservoir divided by flexible diaphragm into two separate isolated compartments. The incoming and outgoing tubes open into the compartments. The orifice is sized to allow maximum tube fluid flow. Opposing compression springs are secured within the two compartments on opposite sides of the orifice to maintain orifice position when the tube fluid pressure is zero. A tapered element is centered in, and extends through the orifice into the compartment, leaving an annular opening between the element and the perimeter of the oriface. The size varies as the diaphragm flexes with changes in the tube fluid pressure to change the fluid flow through the opening. The light source directs light upon the element which in turn scatters the light through the opening into the compartment. The light detector in the compartment senses the scattered light to generate a signal indicating the amount of fluid.
Method and apparatus for controlling fluid flow
Miller, J.R.
1980-06-27
A method and apparatus for precisely controlling the rate (and hence amount) of fluid flow are given. The controlled flow rate is finely adjustable, can be extremely small (on the order of microliter-atmospheres per second), can be adjusted to zero (flow stopped), and is stable to better than 1% with time. The dead volume of the valve can be made arbitrarily small, in fact essentially zero. The valve employs no wearing mechanical parts (including springs, stems, or seals). The valve is finely adjustable, has a flow rate dynamic range of many decades, can be made compatible with any fluid, and is suitable for incorporation into an open or closed loop servo-control system.
Fluid flow along faults in carbonate rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romano, Valentina; Battaglia, Maurizio; Bigi, Sabina
2015-04-01
The study of fluid flow in fractured rocks plays a key role in reservoir management, including CO2 sequestration and waste isolation. We present a mathematical model of fluid flow in a fault zone, based on field data acquired in Majella Mountain, in the Central Apennines (Italy). The Majella is a thrust related, asymmetric, box shaped anticline. The mountain carbonate outcrops are part of a lower Cretaceous-Miocene succession, covered by a siliciclastic sequence of lower Pliocene age. We study a fault zone located in the Bolognano Formation (Oligo-Miocene age) and exposed in the Roman Valley Quarry near the town of Lettomanoppello, in the northern sector of the Majella Mountain. This is one of the best places in the Apennines to investigate a fault zone and has been the subject of numerous field studies. Faults are mechanical and permeability heterogeneities in the upper crust, so they strongly influence fluid flow. The distribution of the main components (core, damage zone) can lead a fault zone to act as a conduit, a barrier or a combined conduit-barrier system. We integrated existing and our own structural surveys of the area to better identify the major fault features (e.g., kind of fractures, statistical properties, geometry and pertrophysical characteristics). Our analytical model describe the Bolognano Formation using a dual porosity/dual permeability model: global flow occurs through the fracture network only, while rock matrix contain the majority of fluid storage and provide fluid drainage to the fractures. Pressure behavior is analyzed by examining the pressure drawdown curves, the derivative plots and the effects of the characteristic parameters. The analytical model has been calibrated against published data on fluid flow and pressure distribution in the Bolognano Formation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fairman, Stephen J.; Johnson, Joseph A.; Walkiewicz, Thomas A.
2003-09-01
Graphical analysis of experimental data that exhibit exponential behavior is typically postponed at many institutions until students are able to understand the theory underlying the concept of radioactive decay or of RC time constants in ac circuits. In 1960 Smithson and Pinkston described a laboratory exercise that uses the flow of water from a vertical column through a long horizontal capillary tube as a source of data that models radioactive decay. Many institutions have used this experiment simply as an early introduction to exponential behavior without reference to radioactive decay or ac circuits. Greenslade2 recently described a modification of this experiment to demonstrate the concept of secular equilibrium in radioactive decay. This paper presents results of similar experiments, but visual measurements are replaced in this work by data obtained with modern sensors interfaced to a computer. Experiments are described from simple exponential decay to an analogue of the complex interactions of three nuclides in a radioactive-series decay chain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zavolzhenskii, M. V.
1982-09-01
Boussinesq equations are used in studying the spectral problem of the stability loss in the equilibrium state of a rotating layer of viscous fluid subjected to temperature inversion. It is shown that this loss can take the form of eddy flows localized around the axis of rotation. It is noted that flows of this type have properties similar to those of waterspouts, tornados, and other vortices.
Automated analysis for fluid flow topology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Helman, James; Hesselink, Lambertus
1989-01-01
A new approach for visualizing vector data sets was developed by reducing the original vector field to a set of critical points and their connections, and was applied to fluid flow data sets. The critical point representation allows for considerable reduction in the data complexity. The representations are displayed as surfaces which are much simpler than the original data set, yet retain all the pertinent flow topology information. It is suggested that topological representations may be useful for database comparison.
Maximal mixing by incompressible fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seis, Christian
2013-12-01
We consider a model for mixing binary viscous fluids under an incompressible flow. We prove the impossibility of perfect mixing in finite time for flows with finite viscous dissipation. As measures of mixedness we consider a Monge-Kantorovich-Rubinstein transportation distance and, more classically, the H-1 norm. We derive rigorous a priori lower bounds on these mixing norms which show that mixing cannot proceed faster than exponentially in time. The rate of the exponential decay is uniform in the initial data.
Advanced designs for fluid flow visualization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1978-01-01
Research was carried out on existing and new designs for minimally intrusive measurement of flow fields in the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell and the proposed Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment. The following topics are discussed: (1) identification and removal of foreign particles, (2) search for higher dielectric photochromic solutions, (3) selection of uv light source, (4) analysis of refractive techniques and (5) examination of fresnel lens applicability.
Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1999-01-01
These simulations of atmospheric flow use the same experimental parameters but started with slightly different initial conditions in the model. The simulations were part of data analysis for the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC), a planet in a test tube apparatus flown on Spacelab to mimic the atmospheres on gas giant planets and stars. (Credit: Dr. Tim Miller of Global Hydrology and Climate Center at the Marshall Space Flight Center)
Berk, B C; Corson, M A; Peterson, T E; Tseng, H
1995-12-01
Fluid shear stress regulates endothelial cell function, but the signal transduction mechanisms involved in mechanotransduction remain unclear. Recent findings demonstrate that several intracellular kinases are activated by mechanical forces. In particular, members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family are stimulated by hyperosmolarity, stretch, and stress such as heat shock. We propose a model for mechanotransduction in endothelial cells involving calcium-dependent and calcium-independent protein kinase pathways. The calcium-dependent pathway involves activation of phospholipase C, hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), increases in intracellular calcium and stimulation of kinases such as calcium-calmodulin and C kinases (PKC). The calcium-independent pathway involves activation of a small GTP-binding protein and stimulation of calcium-independent PKC and MAP kinases. The calcium-dependent pathway mediates the rapid, transient response to fluid shear stress including activation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and ion transport. In contrast, the calcium-independent pathway mediates a slower response including the sustained activation of NOS and changes in cell morphology and gene expression. We propose that focal adhesion complexes link the calcium-dependent and calcium-independent pathways by regulating activity of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) 5-kinase (which regulates PIP2 levels) and p125 focal adhesion kinase (FAK, which phosphorylates paxillin and interacts with cytoskeletal proteins). This model predicts that dynamic interactions between integrin molecules present in focal adhesion complexes and membrane events involved in mechanotransduction will be integrated by calcium-dependent and calcium-independent kinases to generate intracellular signals involved in the endothelial cell response to flow. PMID:8666584
Finite scale equations for compressible fluid flow
Margolin, Len G
2008-01-01
Finite-scale equations (FSE) describe the evolution of finite volumes of fluid over time. We discuss the FSE for a one-dimensional compressible fluid, whose every point is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations. The FSE contain new momentum and internal energy transport terms. These are similar to terms added in numerical simulation for high-speed flows (e.g. artificial viscosity) and for turbulent flows (e.g. subgrid scale models). These similarities suggest that the FSE may provide new insight as a basis for computational fluid dynamics. Our analysis of the FS continuity equation leads to a physical interpretation of the new transport terms, and indicates the need to carefully distinguish between volume-averaged and mass-averaged velocities in numerical simulation. We make preliminary connections to the other recent work reformulating Navier-Stokes equations.
The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hart, J. E.; Ohlsen, D.; Kittleman, S.; Borhani, N.; Leslie, F.; Miller, T.
1999-01-01
The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) experiment performed visualizations of thermal convection in a rotating differentially heated spherical shell of fluid. In these experiments dielectric polarization forces are used to generate a radially directed buoyancy force. This enables the laboratory simulation of a number of geophysically and astrophysically important situations in which sphericity and rotation both impose strong constraints on global scale fluid motions. During USML-2 a large set of experiments with spherically symmetric heating were carried out. These enabled the determination of critical points for the transition to various forms of nonaxisymmetric convection and, for highly turbulent flows, the transition latitudes separating the different modes of motion. This paper presents a first analysis of these experiments as well as data on the general performance of the instrument during the USML-2 flight.
Cryogenic fluid flow instabilities in heat exchangers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleming, R. B.; Staub, F. W.
1969-01-01
Analytical and experimental investigation determines the nature of oscillations and instabilities that occur in the flow of two-phase cryogenic fluids at both subcritical and supercritical pressures in heat exchangers. Test results with varying system parameters suggest certain design approaches with regard to heat exchanger geometry.
Volcanic termor: Nonlinear excitation by fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Julian, Bruce R.
1994-06-01
A nonlinear process analogous to the excitation mechanism of musical wind instruments and human vocal cords can explain many characteristics of volcanic tremor, including (1) periodic and 'chaotic' oscillations, with peaked and irregular spectra respectively, (2) rapid pulsations in eruptions occurring at the same frequency as tremor, (3) systematic changes in tremor amplitude as channel geometry evolves during an eruption, (4) the period doubling reported for Hawaiian deep tremor, and (5) the fact that the onset of termor can be either gradual or abrupt. Volcanic 'long-period' earthquakes can be explained as oscillations excited by transient disturbances produced by nearby earthquakes, fluid heterogeneity, or changes in channel geometry, when the magma flow rate is too low to excite continuous tremor. A simple lumped-parameter tremor model involving the flow of an incompressible viscous fluid through a channel with movable elastic walls leads to a third-order system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. For different driving fluid pressures, numerical solutions exhibit steady flow, simple limit-cycle oscillations, a cascade of period-doubling subharmonic bifurcations, and chaotic oscillations controlled by a strange attractor of Rossler type. In this model, tremor occurs most easily at local constrictions, and fluid discharge is lower than would occur in unstable steady flow.
14 CFR 23.1095 - Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. 23.1095... Induction System § 23.1095 Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. (a) If a carburetor deicing fluid system is used, it must be able to simultaneously supply each engine with a rate of fluid flow, expressed...
14 CFR 23.1095 - Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. 23.1095... Induction System § 23.1095 Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. (a) If a carburetor deicing fluid system is used, it must be able to simultaneously supply each engine with a rate of fluid flow, expressed...
14 CFR 23.1095 - Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. 23.1095... Induction System § 23.1095 Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. (a) If a carburetor deicing fluid system is used, it must be able to simultaneously supply each engine with a rate of fluid flow, expressed...
14 CFR 23.1095 - Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. 23.1095... Induction System § 23.1095 Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. (a) If a carburetor deicing fluid system is used, it must be able to simultaneously supply each engine with a rate of fluid flow, expressed...
14 CFR 23.1095 - Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. 23.1095... Induction System § 23.1095 Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. (a) If a carburetor deicing fluid system is used, it must be able to simultaneously supply each engine with a rate of fluid flow, expressed...
Benchmarking computational fluid dynamics models for lava flow simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dietterich, Hannah; Lev, Einat; Chen, Jiangzhi
2016-04-01
Numerical simulations of lava flow emplacement are valuable for assessing lava flow hazards, forecasting active flows, interpreting past eruptions, and understanding the controls on lava flow behavior. Existing lava flow models vary in simplifying assumptions, physics, dimensionality, and the degree to which they have been validated against analytical solutions, experiments, and natural observations. In order to assess existing models and guide the development of new codes, we conduct a benchmarking study of computational fluid dynamics models for lava flow emplacement, including VolcFlow, OpenFOAM, FLOW-3D, and COMSOL. Using the new benchmark scenarios defined in Cordonnier et al. (Geol Soc SP, 2015) as a guide, we model viscous, cooling, and solidifying flows over horizontal and sloping surfaces, topographic obstacles, and digital elevation models of natural topography. We compare model results to analytical theory, analogue and molten basalt experiments, and measurements from natural lava flows. Overall, the models accurately simulate viscous flow with some variability in flow thickness where flows intersect obstacles. OpenFOAM, COMSOL, and FLOW-3D can each reproduce experimental measurements of cooling viscous flows, and FLOW-3D simulations with temperature-dependent rheology match results from molten basalt experiments. We can apply these models to reconstruct past lava flows in Hawai'i and Saudi Arabia using parameters assembled from morphology, textural analysis, and eruption observations as natural test cases. Our study highlights the strengths and weaknesses of each code, including accuracy and computational costs, and provides insights regarding code selection.
Enhanced fluid flow through nanoscale carbon pipes.
Whitby, Max; Cagnon, Laurent; Thanou, Maya; Quirke, Nick
2008-09-01
Recent experimental and theoretical studies demonstrate that pressure driven flow of fluids through nanoscale ( d < 10 nm) carbon pores occurs 4 to 5 orders of magnitude faster than predicted by extrapolation from conventional theory. Here, we report experimental results for flow of water, ethanol, and decane through carbon nanopipes with larger inner diameters (43 +/- 3 nm) than previously investigated. We find enhanced transport up to 45 times theoretical predictions. In contrast to previous work, in our systems, decane flows faster than water. These nanopipes were composed of amorphous carbon deposited from ethylene vapor in alumina templates using a single step fabrication process. PMID:18680352
Granular Material Flows with Interstitial Fluid Effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunt, Melany L.; Brennen, Christopher E.
2004-01-01
The research focused on experimental measurements of the rheological properties of liquid-solid and granular flows. In these flows, the viscous effects of the interstitial fluid, the inertia of the fluid and particles, and the collisional interactions of the particles may all contribute to the flow mechanics. These multiphase flows include industrial problems such as coal slurry pipelines, hydraulic fracturing processes, fluidized beds, mining and milling operation, abrasive water jet machining, and polishing and surface erosion technologies. In addition, there are a wide range of geophysical flows such as debris flows, landslides and sediment transport. In extraterrestrial applications, the study of transport of particulate materials is fundamental to the mining and processing of lunar and Martian soils and the transport of atmospheric dust (National Research Council 2000). The recent images from Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft dramatically depict the complex sand and dust flows on Mars, including dune formation and dust avalanches on the slip-face of dune surfaces. These Aeolian features involve a complex interaction of the prevailing winds and deposition or erosion of the sediment layer; these features make a good test bed for the verification of global circulation models of the Martian atmosphere.
Flow behaviour of extremely bidisperse magnetizable fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Susan-Resiga, Daniela; Bica, Doina; Vékás, L.
2010-10-01
In this paper we investigated the rheological and magnetorheological behaviours of an extremely bidisperse (nano-micro) magnetizable fluid (sample D1) for comparison of a commercial magnetorheological fluid (MRF-140CG; LORD Co. (USA)) with the same magnetic solid volume fraction, using the Physica MCR-300 rheometer with a 20 mm diameter plate-plate magnetorheological cell (MRD180). D1 sample is a suspension of micrometer range Fe particles in a transformer oil based magnetic fluid as carrier. For both types of samples, the experimental data for zero and non-zero magnetic field conditions were fitted to equations derived from the Newtonian and Cross type flow equations, as well as the Herschel-Bulkley model. The main advantage of both rheological equations for the quantitative description of the magnetic field behaviour of samples is that they can be used in regular CFD codes to compute the flow properties of the magnetorheological fluid and of the bidisperse magnetizable fluid for practical applications.
Ultrasonic fluid flow measurement method and apparatus
Kronberg, J.W.
1993-10-12
An apparatus for measuring the flow of a fluid in a pipe using ultrasonic waves. The apparatus comprises an ultrasonic generator, a lens for focusing the sound energy produced by the generator, and means for directing the focused energy into the side of the pipe through an opening and in a direction close to parallel to the long axis of the pipe. A cone carries the sound energy to the lens from the generator. Depending on the choice of materials, there may be a quarter-wave, acoustic impedance matching section between the generator and the cone to reduce the reflections of energy at the cone boundary. The lens material has an acoustic impedance similar to that of the cone material but a different sonic velocity so that the lens can converge the sound waves in the fluid. A transition section between the lens and the fluid helps to couple the energy to the fluid and assures it is directed as close to parallel to the fluid flow direction as possible. 3 figures.
Ultrasonic fluid flow measurement method and apparatus
Kronberg, James W.
1993-01-01
An apparatus for measuring the flow of a fluid in a pipe using ultrasonic waves. The apparatus comprises an ultrasonic generator, a lens for focusing the sound energy produced by the generator, and means for directing the focused energy into the side of the pipe through an opening and in a direction close to parallel to the long axis of the pipe. A cone carries the sound energy to the lens from the generator. Depending on the choice of materials, there may be a quarter-wave, acoustic impedance matching section between the generator and the cone to reduce the reflections of energy at the cone boundary. The lens material has an acoustic impedance similar to that of the cone material but a different sonic velocity so that the lens can converge the sound waves in the fluid. A transition section between the lens and the fluid helps to couple the energy to the fluid and assures it is directed as close to parallel to the fluid flow direction as possible.
2-Phase Fluid Flow & Heat Transport
1993-03-13
GEOTHER is a three-dimensional, geothermal reservoir simulation code. The model describes heat transport and flow of a single component, two-phase fluid in porous media. It is based on the continuity equations for steam and water, which are reduced to two nonlinear partial differential equations in which the dependent variables are fluid pressure and enthalpy. GEOTHER can be used to simulate the fluid-thermal interaction in rock that can be approximated by a porous media representation. Itmore » can simulate heat transport and the flow of compressed water, two-phase mixtures, and superheated steam in porous media over a temperature range of 10 to 300 degrees C. In addition, it can treat the conversion from single to two-phase flow, and vice versa. It can be used for evaluation of a near repository spatial scale and a time scale of a few years to thousands of years. The model can be used to investigate temperature and fluid pressure changes in response to thermal loading by waste materials.« less
Monotectic composite growth with fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stöcker, C.; Ratke, L.
It is a well-known fluid-mechanical phenomenon that thermocapillary forces induce surface convection on a fluid-fluid interface. This so-called Marangoni convection depends on the variation of the surface energy along the interface. In our present work we focus our attention on the evolution of a fibrous monotectic microstructure with liquid L 2 fibers. We will show, that the Marangoni convection has a strong influence on the transport of solute in front of the solidification front, despite the flow induced by density differences. The resulting flow field affects the constitutional undercooling and therefore the mean undercooling of a monotectic solidification front. In a previous paper we discussed qualitatively the influence of fluid flow on the microstructure evolution of composite monotetic growth (C. Stöcker, L. Ratke, J. Crystal Growth 203 (1999) 582). We introduced an analytical model that takes the density differences of the phases and the surface convection on the L 1-L 2 surface into consideration. With this extended Jackson and Hunt theory for composite monotectic growth we derived a characteristic equation for the inter-rod distance depending on solidification velocity and temperature gradient. In this paper we develop a more accurate model. We solve numerically the diffusion equation coupled with the Navier-Stokes equation in the L 1 phase to find the minimal undercooling for a given velocity and temperature gradient. We derive a Jackson and Hunt diagram and show that the fluid flow leads to a strong dependence of the inter-rod distance on the temperature gradient opposite to eutectic solidification.
Modeling Tools Predict Flow in Fluid Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2010-01-01
"Because rocket engines operate under extreme temperature and pressure, they present a unique challenge to designers who must test and simulate the technology. To this end, CRAFT Tech Inc., of Pipersville, Pennsylvania, won Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Marshall Space Flight Center to develop software to simulate cryogenic fluid flows and related phenomena. CRAFT Tech enhanced its CRUNCH CFD (computational fluid dynamics) software to simulate phenomena in various liquid propulsion components and systems. Today, both government and industry clients in the aerospace, utilities, and petrochemical industries use the software for analyzing existing systems as well as designing new ones."
Slip mechanisms in complex fluid flows.
Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G
2015-10-28
The classical no-slip boundary condition of fluid mechanics is not always a valid assumption for the flow of several classes of complex fluids including polymer melts, their blends, polymer solutions, microgels, glasses, suspensions and pastes. In fact, it appears that slip effect in these systems is the rule and not the exemption. The occurrence of slip complicates the analysis of rheological data, although it provides new opportunities to understand their behavior in restricted environments delineating additional molecular mechanisms i.e. entropic restrictions due to limitations in the number of molecular conformations. This article discusses these complexities and provides future research opportunities. PMID:26345121
Two-fluid Hydrodynamic Model for Fluid-Flow Simulation in Fluid-Solids Systems
1994-06-20
FLUFIX is a two-dimensional , transient, Eulerian, and finite-difference program, based on a two-fluid hydrodynamic model, for fluid flow simulation in fluid-solids systems. The software is written in a modular form using the Implicit Multi-Field (IMF) numerical technique. Quantities computed are the spatial distribution of solids loading, gas and solids velocities, pressure, and temperatures. Predicted are bubble formation, bed frequencies, and solids recirculation. Applications include bubbling and circulating atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed reactors, combustors,more » gasifiers, and FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracker) reactors.« less
Analysis of Fluid Flow over a Surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McCloud, Peter L. (Inventor)
2013-01-01
A method, apparatus, and computer program product for modeling heat radiated by a structure. The flow of a fluid over a surface of a model of the structure is simulated. The surface has a plurality of surface elements. Heat radiated by the plurality of surface elements in response to the fluid flowing over the surface of the model of the structure is identified. An effect of heat radiated by at least a portion of the plurality of surface elements on each other is identified. A model of the heat radiated by the structure is created using the heat radiated by the plurality of surface elements and the effect of the heat radiated by at least a portion of the plurality of surface elements on each other.
The origin of massive hydrothermal alterations: what drives fluid flow?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Bons, Paul D.; Martín-Martín, Juan-Diego; Corbella, Mercè; Stafford, Sherry L.; Griera, Albert; Teixell, Antonio; Salas, Ramón; Travé, Anna
2014-05-01
hydrofractures (Bons, 2001). The main question is whether fast flow leaves recognizable signs, like hydrofractures of different scales and hydraulic breccias. We estimate fluid pressures reached at the reaction site, and discuss whether they are high enough to break the host rock, according to its petrophysical properties. Thermal convection could have driven pervasive fluid flow at lower flow rates, keeping the fluid warm and allowing time for the rock to react. But this mechanism would have required a shallow and very large intrusion or an anomalous geothermal gradient in order to activate flow by convection. This contribution presents a quantitative analysis of these hypotheses, and discusses their plausibility. Bons, P.D., 2001. The formation of large quartz veins by rapid ascent of fluids in mobile hydrofractures. Tectonophysics 336, 1-17. Gomez-Rivas, E., Corbella, M., Martín-Martín, J.D., Stafford, S.L., Teixell, A., Bons, P.D., Griera, A. and Cardellach, E. 2014. Reactivity of dolomitizing fluids and Mg source evaluation of fault-controlled dolomitization at the Benicàssim outcrop analogue (Maestrat Basin, E Spain). Marine and Petroleum Geology, in press.
Active colloids at fluid interfaces.
Malgaretti, P; Popescu, M N; Dietrich, S
2016-05-01
If an active Janus particle is trapped at the interface between a liquid and a fluid, its self-propelled motion along the interface is affected by a net torque on the particle due to the viscosity contrast between the two adjacent fluid phases. For a simple model of an active, spherical Janus colloid we analyze the conditions under which translation occurs along the interface and we provide estimates of the corresponding persistence length. We show that under certain conditions the persistence length of such a particle is significantly larger than the corresponding one in the bulk liquid, which is in line with the trends observed in recent experimental studies. PMID:27025167
Visualization of working fluid flow in gravity assisted heat pipe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan
2015-05-01
Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapor and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about construction and processes casing in heat pipe during operation. Experiment visualization of working fluid flow is performed with glass heat pipe filed with ethanol. The visualization of working fluid flow explains the phenomena as working fluid boiling, nucleation of bubbles, vapor flow, vapor condensation on the wall, vapor and condensate flow interaction, flow down condensate film thickness on the wall, occurred during the heat pipe operation.
Bernoulli theorem generalized to rheologically complex viscous fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brutyan, M. A.; Krapivskii, P. L.
1992-08-01
The Bernoulli theorem is generalized to two-dimensional and axisymmetric micropolar incompressible fluid flows. It is shown that the approach developed is also applicable to magnetohydrodynamic flows of a viscous Newtonian fluid.
Piezoelectric energy harvesting in internal fluid flow.
Lee, Hyeong Jae; Sherrit, Stewart; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Colonius, Tim
2015-01-01
We consider piezoelectric flow energy harvesting in an internal flow environment with the ultimate goal powering systems such as sensors in deep oil well applications. Fluid motion is coupled to structural vibration via a cantilever beam placed in a converging-diverging flow channel. Two designs were considered for the electromechanical coupling: first; the cantilever itself is a piezoelectric bimorph; second; the cantilever is mounted on a pair of flextensional actuators. We experimentally investigated varying the geometry of the flow passage and the flow rate. Experimental results revealed that the power generated from both designs was similar; producing as much as 20 mW at a flow rate of 20 L/min. The bimorph designs were prone to failure at the extremes of flow rates tested. Finite element analysis (FEA) showed fatigue failure was imminent due to stress concentrations near the bimorph's clamped region; and that robustness could be improved with a stepped-joint mounting design. A similar FEA model showed the flextensional-based harvester had a resonant frequency of around 375 Hz and an electromechanical coupling of 0.23 between the cantilever and flextensional actuators in a vacuum. These values; along with the power levels demonstrated; are significant steps toward building a system design that can eventually deliver power in the Watts range to devices down within a well. PMID:26473879
Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting in Internal Fluid Flow
Lee, Hyeong Jae; Sherrit, Stewart; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Colonius, Tim
2015-01-01
We consider piezoelectric flow energy harvesting in an internal flow environment with the ultimate goal powering systems such as sensors in deep oil well applications. Fluid motion is coupled to structural vibration via a cantilever beam placed in a converging-diverging flow channel. Two designs were considered for the electromechanical coupling: first; the cantilever itself is a piezoelectric bimorph; second; the cantilever is mounted on a pair of flextensional actuators. We experimentally investigated varying the geometry of the flow passage and the flow rate. Experimental results revealed that the power generated from both designs was similar; producing as much as 20 mW at a flow rate of 20 L/min. The bimorph designs were prone to failure at the extremes of flow rates tested. Finite element analysis (FEA) showed fatigue failure was imminent due to stress concentrations near the bimorph’s clamped region; and that robustness could be improved with a stepped-joint mounting design. A similar FEA model showed the flextensional-based harvester had a resonant frequency of around 375 Hz and an electromechanical coupling of 0.23 between the cantilever and flextensional actuators in a vacuum. These values; along with the power levels demonstrated; are significant steps toward building a system design that can eventually deliver power in the Watts range to devices down within a well. PMID:26473879
Physical aspects of computing the flow of a viscous fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehta, U. B.
1984-01-01
One of the main themes in fluid dynamics at present and in the future is going to be computational fluid dynamics with the primary focus on the determination of drag, flow separation, vortex flows, and unsteady flows. A computation of the flow of a viscous fluid requires an understanding and consideration of the physical aspects of the flow. This is done by identifying the flow regimes and the scales of fluid motion, and the sources of vorticity. Discussions of flow regimes deal with conditions of incompressibility, transitional and turbulent flows, Navier-Stokes and non-Navier-Stokes regimes, shock waves, and strain fields. Discussions of the scales of fluid motion consider transitional and turbulent flows, thin- and slender-shear layers, triple- and four-deck regions, viscous-inviscid interactions, shock waves, strain rates, and temporal scales. In addition, the significance and generation of vorticity are discussed. These physical aspects mainly guide computations of the flow of a viscous fluid.
Fluid flow in solidifying monotectic alloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ecker, A.; Frazier, D. O.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.
1989-01-01
Use of a two-wavelength holographic technique results in a simultaneous determination of temperature and composition profiles during directional solidification in a system with a miscibility gap. The relationships among fluid flow, phase separation, and mass transport during the solidification of the monotectic alloy are discussed. The primary sources of fluid motion in this system are buoyancy and thermocapillary forces. These forces act together when phase separation results in the formation of droplets (this occurs at the solid-liquid interface and in the bulk melt). In the absence of phase separation, buoyancy results from density gradients related to temperature and compositional gradients in the single-phase bulk melt. The effects of buoyancy are especially evident in association with water- or ethanol-rich volumes created at the solid-liquid growth interface.
Testing the Markov hypothesis in fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, Daniel W.; Saggini, Frédéric
2016-05-01
Stochastic Markov processes are used very frequently to model, for example, processes in turbulence and subsurface flow and transport. Based on the weak Chapman-Kolmogorov equation and the strong Markov condition, we present methods to test the Markov hypothesis that is at the heart of these models. We demonstrate the capabilities of our methodology by testing the Markov hypothesis for fluid and inertial particles in turbulence, and fluid particles in the heterogeneous subsurface. In the context of subsurface macrodispersion, we find that depending on the heterogeneity level, Markov models work well above a certain scale of interest for media with different log-conductivity correlation structures. Moreover, we find surprising similarities in the velocity dynamics of the different media considered.
Fluid flow in solidifying monotectic alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ecker, A.; Frazier, D. O.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.
1989-11-01
Use of a two-wavelength holographic technique results in a simultaneous determination of temperature and composition profiles during directional solidification in a system with a miscibility gap. A shadowgraph technique is employed for flow visualization. By these methods, flow regimes are identified and related to particular melt compositions. We discuss the relationships among fluid flow, phase separation, and mass transport during the solidification of the monotectic alloy. The primary sources of fluid motion in this system are buoyancy and thermocapillary forces. These forces act together when phase separation results in the formation of droplets (this occurs at the solid-liquid interface and in the bulk melt). While buoyancy forces arise due to density differences between the droplet and the host phase, thermocapillary forces (associated with temperature gradients in the droplet surface) may predominate. In the absence of phase separation, buoyancy results from density gradients related to temperature and compositional gradients in the single-phase bulk melt. The effects of buoyancy are especially evident in association with water- or ethanol-rich volumes created at the solid-liquid growth interface.
Fluid flow through packings of rotating obstacles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, Rafael S.; Andrade, José S.; Andrade, Roberto F. S.
2015-03-01
We investigate through numerical simulation the nonstationary flow of a Newtonian fluid through a two-dimensional channel filled with an array of circular obstacles of distinct sizes. The disks may rotate around their respective centers, modeling a nonstationary, inhomogeneous porous medium. Obstacle sizes and positions are defined by the geometry of an Apollonian packing (AP). To allow for fluid flow, the radii of the disks are uniformly reduced by a factor 0.6 ≤s ≤0.8 for assemblies corresponding to the four first AP generations. The investigation is targeted to elucidate the main features of the rotating regime as compared to the fixed disk condition. It comprises the evaluation of the region of validity of Darcy's law as well as the study of the nonlinear hydraulic resistance as a function of the channel Reynolds number, the reduction factor s , and the AP generation. Depending on a combination of these factors, the resistance of rotating disks may be larger or smaller than that of the corresponding static case. We also analyze the flow redistribution in the interdisk channels as a result of the rotation pattern and characterize the angular velocity of the disks. Here, the striking feature is the emergence of a stable oscillatory behavior of the angular velocity for almost all disks that are inserted into the assemblies after the second generation.
Fluid flow dynamics in MAS systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilhelm, Dirk; Purea, Armin; Engelke, Frank
2015-08-01
The turbine system and the radial bearing of a high performance magic angle spinning (MAS) probe with 1.3 mm-rotor diameter has been analyzed for spinning rates up to 67 kHz. We focused mainly on the fluid flow properties of the MAS system. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and fluid measurements of the turbine and the radial bearings have been performed. CFD simulation and measurement results of the 1.3 mm-MAS rotor system show relatively low efficiency (about 25%) compared to standard turbo machines outside the realm of MAS. However, in particular, MAS turbines are mainly optimized for speed and stability instead of efficiency. We have compared MAS systems for rotor diameter of 1.3-7 mm converted to dimensionless values with classical turbomachinery systems showing that the operation parameters (rotor diameter, inlet mass flow, spinning rate) are in the favorable range. This dimensionless analysis also supports radial turbines for low speed MAS probes and diagonal turbines for high speed MAS probes. Consequently, a change from Pelton type MAS turbines to diagonal turbines might be worth considering for high speed applications. CFD simulations of the radial bearings have been compared with basic theoretical values proposing considerably smaller frictional loss values. The discrepancies might be due to the simple linear flow profile employed for the theoretical model. Frictional losses generated inside the radial bearings result in undesired heat-up of the rotor. The rotor surface temperature distribution computed by CFD simulations show a large temperature gradient over the rotor.
Fluid flow dynamics in MAS systems.
Wilhelm, Dirk; Purea, Armin; Engelke, Frank
2015-08-01
The turbine system and the radial bearing of a high performance magic angle spinning (MAS) probe with 1.3mm-rotor diameter has been analyzed for spinning rates up to 67kHz. We focused mainly on the fluid flow properties of the MAS system. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and fluid measurements of the turbine and the radial bearings have been performed. CFD simulation and measurement results of the 1.3mm-MAS rotor system show relatively low efficiency (about 25%) compared to standard turbo machines outside the realm of MAS. However, in particular, MAS turbines are mainly optimized for speed and stability instead of efficiency. We have compared MAS systems for rotor diameter of 1.3-7mm converted to dimensionless values with classical turbomachinery systems showing that the operation parameters (rotor diameter, inlet mass flow, spinning rate) are in the favorable range. This dimensionless analysis also supports radial turbines for low speed MAS probes and diagonal turbines for high speed MAS probes. Consequently, a change from Pelton type MAS turbines to diagonal turbines might be worth considering for high speed applications. CFD simulations of the radial bearings have been compared with basic theoretical values proposing considerably smaller frictional loss values. The discrepancies might be due to the simple linear flow profile employed for the theoretical model. Frictional losses generated inside the radial bearings result in undesired heat-up of the rotor. The rotor surface temperature distribution computed by CFD simulations show a large temperature gradient over the rotor. PMID:26073599
Fluid Physics of Foam Evolution and Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aref, H.; Thoroddsen, S. T.; Sullivan, J. M.
2003-01-01
The grant supported theoretical, numerical and experimental work focused on the elucidation of the fluid physics of foam structure, evolution and flow. The experimental work concentrated on these subject areas: (a) Measurements of the speed of reconnections within a foam; (b) statistics of bubble rearrangements; and (c) three-dimensional reconstruction of the foam structure. On the numerical simulation and theory side our efforts concentrated on the subjects: (a) simulation techniques for 2D and 3D foams; (b) phase transition in a compressible foam; and (c) TCP structures.
Flow Diode and Method for Controlling Fluid Flow Origin of the Invention
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dyson, Rodger W (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A flow diode configured to permit fluid flow in a first direction while preventing fluid flow in a second direction opposite the first direction is disclosed. The flow diode prevents fluid flow without use of mechanical closures or moving parts. The flow diode utilizes a bypass flowline whereby all fluid flow in the second direction moves into the bypass flowline having a plurality of tortuous portions providing high fluidic resistance. The portions decrease in diameter such that debris in the fluid is trapped. As fluid only travels in one direction through the portions, the debris remains trapped in the portions.
Flow rate measurement in aggressive conductive fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubovikova, Nataliia; Kolesnikov, Yuri; Karcher, Christian
2014-03-01
Two non-contact experimental methods of flow rate measurements for aggressive conductive liquids are described. The techniques are based on electromagnetic forces and Faraday's law: Lorentz force is induced inside moving conductive liquid under influence of variable magnetic field of permanent magnets. They are mounted along a liquid metal channel or (in case of the second method) inserted into rotated metal wheels. The force acts in the opposite of fluids' velocity direction and hence it is possible to measure reaction force of it that takes place according to Newton's law on magnetic field source - permanent magnets. And by knowing the force, which linearly depends on velocity, one can calculate mean flow rate of liquid. In addition experimental "dry" calibration and its results are described for one of the measurements' techniques.
Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) Cross Section
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
This drawing shows a cross-section view of the test cell at the heart of the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) that flew on two Spacelab missions. The middle and lower drawings depict the volume of the silicone oil layer that served as the atmosphere as the steel ball rotated and an electrostatic field pulled the oil inward to mimic gravity's effects during the experiments. The GFFC thus produced flow patterns that simulated conditions inside the atmospheres of Jupiter and the Sun and other stars. The principal investigator was John Hart of the University of Colorado at Boulder. It was managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). An Acrobat PDF copy of this drawing is available at http://microgravity.nasa.gov/gallery. (Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)
Microscale imaging of cilia-driven fluid flow
Huang, Brendan K.; Choma, Michael A.
2015-01-01
Cilia-driven fluid flow is important for multiple processes in the body, including respiratory mucus clearance, gamete transport in the oviduct, right-left patterning in the embryonic node, and cerebrospinal fluid circulation. Multiple imaging techniques have been applied towards quantifying ciliary flow. Here we review common velocimetry methods of quantifying fluid flow. We then discuss four important optical modalities, including light microscopy, epifluorescence, confocal microscopy, and optical coherence tomography, that have been used to investigate cilia-driven flow. PMID:25417211
Template Matching Using a Fluid Flow Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newman, William Curtis
Template matching is successfully used in machine recognition of isolated spoken words. In these systems a word is broken into frames (20 millisecond time slices) and the spectral characteristics of each frame are found. Thus, each word is represented as a 2-dimensional (2-D) function of spectral characteristic and frame number. An unknown word is recognized by matching its 2-D representation to previously stored example words, or templates, also in this 2-D form. A new model for this matching step will be introduced. The 2-D representations of the template and unknown are used to determine the shape of a volume of viscous fluid. This volume is broken up into many small elements. The unknown is changed into the template by allowing flows between the element boundaries. Finally the match between the template and unknown is determined by calculating a weighted squared sum of the flow values. The model also allows the relative flow resistance between the element boundaries to be changed. This is useful for characterizing the important features of a given template. The flow resistances are changed according to the gradient of a simple performance function. This performance function is evaluated using a set of training samples provided by the user. The model is applied to isolated word and single character recognition tasks. Results indicate the applications where this model works best.
Unified slip boundary condition for fluid flows.
Thalakkottor, Joseph John; Mohseni, Kamran
2016-08-01
Determining the correct matching boundary condition is fundamental to our understanding of several everyday problems. Despite over a century of scientific work, existing velocity boundary conditions are unable to consistently explain and capture the complete physics associated with certain common but complex problems, such as moving contact lines and corner flows. The widely used Maxwell and Navier slip boundary conditions make an implicit assumption that velocity varies only in the wall normal direction. This makes their boundary condition inapplicable in the vicinity of contact lines and corner points, where velocity gradient exists both in the wall normal and wall tangential directions. In this paper, by identifying this implicit assumption we are able to extend Maxwell's slip model. Here, we present a generalized velocity boundary condition that shows that slip velocity is a function of not only the shear rate but also the linear strain rate. In addition, we present a universal relation for slip length, which shows that, for a general flow, slip length is a function of the principal strain rate. The universal relation for slip length along with the generalized velocity boundary condition provides a unified slip boundary condition to model a wide range of steady Newtonian fluid flows. We validate the unified slip boundary for simple Newtonian liquids by using molecular dynamics simulations and studying both the moving contact line and corner flow problems. PMID:27627398
Steady and oscillatory fluid flows produce a similar osteogenic phenotype.
Case, N; Sen, B; Thomas, J A; Styner, M; Xie, Z; Jacobs, C R; Rubin, J
2011-03-01
Mechanical loading induces positive changes in the skeleton due to direct effects on bone cells, which may include regulation of transcription factors that support osteoblast differentiation and function. Flow effects on osteoblast transcription factors have generally been evaluated after short exposures. In this work, we assayed flow effects on osteogenic genes at early and late time points in a preosteoblast (CIMC-4) cell line and evaluated both steady and oscillatory flows. Four hours of steady unidirectional flow decreased the level of RANKL mRNA 53 ± 7% below that of nonflowed cells, but increases in Runx2 and osterix mRNA (44 ± 22% and 129 ± 12%, respectively) were significant only after 12-19 h of continuous flow. Late flow effects on RANKL and osterix were also induced by an intermittent flow-rest protocol (four cycles of 1 h on/1 h off + overnight rest). Four hours of oscillatory flow decreased RANKL mRNA at this early time point (63 ± 2%) but did not alter either osterix or Runx2. When oscillatory flow was delivered using the intermittent flow-rest protocol, Runx2 and osterix mRNA increased significantly (85 ± 19% and 161 ± 22%, respectively). Both β-catenin and ERK1/2, known to be involved in RANKL regulation, were rapidly activated by steady flow. Inhibition of flow-activated ERK1/2 prevented the increase in osterix mRNA but not Runx2; Runx2 phosphorylation was increased by flow, an effect which likely contributes to osterix induction. This work shows that both steady and oscillatory fluid flows can support enhancement of an osteogenic phenotype. PMID:21165611
Two Dimensional Fluid Flow Models Offshore Southwestern Taiwan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, L. W.; Wu, S. K.; Chi, W. C.; Liu, C. S.; Shyu, C. T.; Wang, Y. S.
2012-04-01
Fluid migration rates are important parameters for understanding the structural characteristics and evolution of the crustal tectonics and hydrocarbon exploration. However, they are difficult to measure on the seafloor. Dense distribution of bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs) as the index of fluid existence to shed light on our study of the fluid migration. In this study, We acquired 2D fluid flow patterns in two potential gas hydrate prospect sites offshore southwestern Taiwan, and respectively modeled across Yung-An and Formosa ridge in N-S and E-W direction southwestern Taiwan. Temperature field in the shallow crust is used as a tracer to examine the fluid flow patterns. We use thermal information directly measured by thermal probes and topography data to develop the theoretical 2D temperature field using a thermal conduction model, which was derived from a finite element method. The discrepancy between the observed temperature data and the conductive model is attributed to advection heat transfer due to fluid migration. For Yung-An Ridge, we found the BSR-based temperatures are about 2oC higher than the conduction model in the following zones: (1) near a fault zone, (2) on the eastern flank where there are strong seismic reflectors in a pseudo 3D seismic dataset, (3) a seismic chimney zone. We interpret that there is possible active dewatering inside the accretionary prism to allow fluid to migrate upward here. For Formosa Ridge in the passive margin, the BSR-based temperatures are about 2oC colder than the theoretical model, especially on the flanks. We interpret that cold seawater is moving into the ridge from the flanks, cooling the ridge, and then some of the fluid is expelled at the ridge top. The shallow temperature fields are strongly affected by 2D or even 3D bathymetry effects. But we can still gain much information regarding fluid flow patterns through modeling. In the near future, we will extend such study into 3D. Keywords: fluid migration
Space Coffee Cup: Capillary Flow Driven Fluids in Space
Interested in learning more about how fluids react in Space? In this video, Professor Mark Weislogel, and Dr. Marshall Porterfield will discuss the Space Coffee Cup and Capillary Flow Driven Fluids...
Thermal and Fluid Flow Brazing Simulations
HOSKING, FLOYD MICHAEL; GIANOULAKIS,STEVEN E.; GIVLER,RICHARD C.; SCHUNK,P. RANDALL
1999-12-15
The thermal response of fixtured parts in a batch-type brazing furnace can require numerous, time-consuming development runs before an acceptable furnace schedule or joint design is established. Powerful computational simulation tools are being developed to minimize the required number of verification experiments, improve furnace throughput, and increase product yields. Typical furnace simulations are based on thermal, fluid flow, and structural codes that incorporate the fundamental physics of the brazing process. The use of massively parallel computing to predict furnace and joint-level responses is presented. Measured and computed data are compared. Temperature values are within 1-270 of the expected peak brazing temperature for different loading conditions. Sensitivity studies reveal that the thermal response is more sensitive to the thermal boundary conditions of the heating enclosure than variability y in the materials data. Braze flow simulations predict fillet geometry and free surface joint defects. Dynamic wetting conditions, interfacial reactions, and solidification structure add a high degree of uncertainty to the flow results.
On stability and turbulence of fluid flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heisenberg, Werner
1951-01-01
This investigation is divided into two parts, the treatment of the stability problem of fluid flows on the one hand, and that of the turbulent motion on the other. The first part summarizes all previous investigations under a unified point of view, that is, sets up as generally as possible the conditions under which a profile possesses unstable or stable characteristics, and indicates the methods for solution of the stability equation for any arbitrary velocity profile and for calculation of the critical Reynolds number for unstable profiles. In the second part, under certain greatly idealizing assumptions, differential equations for the turbulent motions are derived and from them qualitative information about several properties of the turbulent velocity distribution is obtained.
Fluid flow dynamics under location uncertainty
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mémin, Etienne
2014-03-01
We present a derivation of a stochastic model of Navier Stokes equations that relies on a decomposition of the velocity fields into a differentiable drift component and a time uncorrelated uncertainty random term. This type of decomposition is reminiscent in spirit to the classical Reynolds decomposition. However, the random velocity fluctuations considered here are not differentiable with respect to time, and they must be handled through stochastic calculus. The dynamics associated with the differentiable drift component is derived from a stochastic version of the Reynolds transport theorem. It includes in its general form an uncertainty dependent "subgrid" bulk formula that cannot be immediately related to the usual Boussinesq eddy viscosity assumption constructed from thermal molecular agitation analogy. This formulation, emerging from uncertainties on the fluid parcels location, explains with another viewpoint some subgrid eddy diffusion models currently used in computational fluid dynamics or in geophysical sciences and paves the way for new large-scales flow modelling. We finally describe an applications of our formalism to the derivation of stochastic versions of the Shallow water equations or to the definition of reduced order dynamical systems.
A coupled model of fluid flow in jointed rock
Swenson, Daniel; Martineau, Rick; James, Mark; Brown, Don
1991-01-01
We present a fully coupled model of fluid flow in jointed rock, where the fluid flow depends on the joint openings and the joint openings depend on the fluid pressure. The joints and rock blocks are modeled discretely using the finite element method. Solutions for the fluid and rock are obtained and iteration is performed until both solutions converge. Example applications include an examination of the effects of back-pressure on flow in a geothermal reservoir and transient fluid injection into a reservoir.
Fluid flow plate for decreased density of fuel cell assembly
Vitale, Nicholas G.
1999-01-01
A fluid flow plate includes first and second outward faces. Each of the outward faces has a flow channel thereon for carrying respective fluid. At least one of the fluids serves as reactant fluid for a fuel cell of a fuel cell assembly. One or more pockets are formed between the first and second outward faces for decreasing density of the fluid flow plate. A given flow channel can include one or more end sections and an intermediate section. An interposed member can be positioned between the outward faces at an interface between an intermediate section, of one of the outward faces, and an end section, of that outward face. The interposed member can serve to isolate the reactant fluid from the opposing outward face. The intermediate section(s) of flow channel(s) on an outward face are preferably formed as a folded expanse.
Liquid-liquid extraction based on a new flow pattern: Two-fluid Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baier, Gretchen
The exploitation of flow instabilities that can occur in rotating flows is investigated as a new approach to liquid extraction. Two immiscible liquids are radially stratified by centrifugal force in the annulus between corotating coaxial cylinders. The inner cylinder is rotated above a critical speed to form Taylor vortices in one or both of the fluids. This flow pattern produces a relatively small amount interfacial surface area that is of highly active for interphase mass transfer. Continuous processing is also possible with the addition of countercurrent axial flow. The present study includes: (1)A review of aqueous- aqueous and reversed micelle extraction techniques, the commercially available centrifugal extractors, and one fluid Taylor-Couette flow and its variations. (2)A theoretical analysis to predict the onset of the two- fluid Taylor-Couette instability in the presence of countercurrent axial flow. (3)Theoretical predictions for interphase mass transfer using penetration theory and computational fluid dynamics. (4)The demonstration of two-fluid Taylor-Couette flow with countercurrent axial flow in the laboratory, including: (1) fluid mechanics studies to determine the onset of vortices, and (2) mass transfer studies to characterize intraphase and interphase mass transfer. The agreement between the experiments and theory is good for both the fluid mechanics and the mass transfer. Furthermore, the extraction performance is quite promising with the mass transfer coefficient approximately proportional to the vortex strength. Even higher extraction efficiencies should be obtainable with even larger relative rotation rates or cylinder modification to promote vortex formation. Besides two-fluid Taylor-Couette flow, other instabilities can also occur. With low viscosity fluids at low rotation rates, the ``barber pole'' pattern is observed experimentally and is believed to be a lingering gravitational effect. At high countercurrent axial flowrates, the linear
Fluid flow and particle transport in mechanically ventilated airways. Part I. Fluid flow structures.
Van Rhein, Timothy; Alzahrany, Mohammed; Banerjee, Arindam; Salzman, Gary
2016-07-01
A large eddy simulation-based computational study of fluid flow and particle transport in upper tracheobronchial airways is carried out to investigate the effect of ventilation parameters on pulmonary fluid flow. Respiratory waveforms commonly used by commercial mechanical ventilators are used to study the effect of ventilation parameters and ventilation circuit on pulmonary fluid dynamics. A companion paper (Alzahrany et al. in Med Biol Eng Comput, 2014) reports our findings on the effect of the ventilation parameters and circuit on particle transport and aerosolized drug delivery. The endotracheal tube (ETT) was found to be an important geometric feature and resulted in a fluid jet that caused an increase in turbulence and created a recirculation zone with high wall shear stress in the main bronchi. Stronger turbulence was found in lower airways than would be found under normal breathing conditions due to the presence of the jet caused by the ETT. The pressure-controlled sinusoidal waveform induced the lowest wall shear stress on the airways wall. PMID:26563199
On the coupling between fluid flow and mesh motion in the modelling of fluid structure interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dettmer, Wulf G.; Perić, Djordje
2008-12-01
Partitioned Newton type solution strategies for the strongly coupled system of equations arising in the computational modelling of fluid solid interaction require the evaluation of various coupling terms. An essential part of all ALE type solution strategies is the fluid mesh motion. In this paper, we investigate the effect of the terms which couple the fluid flow with the fluid mesh motion on the convergence behaviour of the overall solution procedure. We show that the computational efficiency of the simulation of many fluid solid interaction processes, including fluid flow through flexible pipes, can be increased significantly if some of these coupling terms are calculated exactly.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rodriguez, David L. (Inventor); Sturdza, Peter (Inventor)
2013-01-01
Fluid-flow simulation over a computer-generated aircraft surface is generated using inviscid and viscous simulations. A fluid-flow mesh of fluid cells is obtained. At least one inviscid fluid property for the fluid cells is determined using an inviscid fluid simulation that does not simulate fluid viscous effects. A set of intersecting fluid cells that intersects the aircraft surface are identified. One surface mesh polygon of the surface mesh is identified for each intersecting fluid cell. A boundary-layer prediction point for each identified surface mesh polygon is determined. At least one boundary-layer fluid property for each boundary-layer prediction point is determined using the at least one inviscid fluid property of the corresponding intersecting fluid cell and a boundary-layer simulation that simulates fluid viscous effects. At least one updated fluid property for at least one fluid cell is determined using the at least one boundary-layer fluid property and the inviscid fluid simulation.
Thermohydrodynamic Analysis of Cryogenic Liquid Turbulent Flow Fluid Film Bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
SanAndres, Luis
1996-01-01
Computational programs developed for the thermal analysis of tilting and flexure-pad hybrid bearings, and the unsteady flow and transient response of a point mass rotor supported on fluid film bearings are described. The motion of a cryogenic liquid on the thin film annular region of a fluid film bearing is described by a set of mass and momentum conservation, and energy transport equations for the turbulent bulk-flow velocities and pressure, and accompanied by thermophysical state equations for evaluation of the fluid material properties. Zeroth-order equations describe the fluid flow field for a journal static equilibrium position, while first-order (linear) equations govern the fluid flow for small amplitude-journal center translational motions. Solution to the zeroth-order flow field equations provides the bearing flow rate, load capacity, drag torque and temperature rise. Solution to the first-order equations determines the rotordynamic force coefficients due to journal radial motions.
Flow of an electrorheological fluid between eccentric rotating cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Průša, Vít; Rajagopal, K. R.
2012-01-01
Electrorheological fluids have numerous potential applications in vibration dampers, brakes, valves, clutches, exercise equipment, etc. The flows in such applications are complex three-dimensional flows. Most models that have been developed to describe the flows of electrorheological fluids are one-dimensional models. Here, we discuss the behavior of two fully three-dimensional models for electrorheological fluids. The models are such that they reduce, in the case of simple shear flows with the intensity of the electric field perpendicular to the streamlines, to the same constitutive relation, but they would not be identical in more complicated three-dimensional settings. In order to show the difference between the two models, we study the flow of these fluids between eccentrically placed rotating cylinders kept at different potentials, in the setting that corresponds to technologically relevant problem of flow of electrorheological fluid in journal bearing. Even though the two models have quite a different constitutive structure, due to the assumed forms for the velocity and pressure fields, the models lead to the same velocity field but to different pressure fields. This finding illustrates the need for considering the flows of fluids described by three-dimensional constitutive models in complex geometries, and not restricting ourselves to flows of fluids described by one-dimensional models or simple shear flows of fluids characterized by three-dimensional models.
Active Polar Two-Fluid Macroscopic Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pleiner, Harald; Svensek, Daniel; Brand, Helmut R.
2014-03-01
We study the dynamics of systems with a polar dynamic preferred direction. Examples include the pattern-forming growth of bacteria (in a solvent, shoals of fish (moving in water currents), flocks of birds and migrating insects (flying in windy air). Because the preferred direction only exists dynamically, but not statically, the macroscopic variable of choice is the macroscopic velocity associated with the motion of the active units. We derive the macroscopic equations for such a system and discuss novel static, reversible and irreversible cross-couplings connected to this second velocity. We find a normal mode structure quite different compared to the static descriptions, as well as linear couplings between (active) flow and e.g. densities and concentrations due to the genuine two-fluid transport derivatives. On the other hand, we get, quite similar to the static case, a direct linear relation between the stress tensor and the structure tensor. This prominent ``active'' term is responsible for many active effects, meaning that our approach can describe those effects as well. In addition, we also deal with explicitly chiral systems, which are important for many active systems. In particular, we find an active flow-induced heat current specific for the dynamic chiral polar order.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sohn, R. A.
2007-07-01
Yearlong time series records of exit fluid temperature from the active TAG hydrothermal mound (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 26°N) reveal a complex space-time pattern of flow variability within the mineral deposit. Exit fluid temperatures were measured every 8-10 min from 17 sites distributed across the upper terrace of the mound from June 2003 to June 2004. High-temperature records were obtained using Deep Sea Power and Light SeaLogger® probes deployed in fractures discharging ˜360°C black smoker fluids, and low-temperature records were obtained using VEMCO Ltd. Minilog probes deployed in cracks discharging ˜20°C diffuse flow fluids. The temperature records are considerably more variable than those acquired from vent fields on the fast spreading East Pacific Rise and exhibit a complex mix of both episodic and periodic variability. The diffuse flow records alternate between periods of discharge and periods of what I infer to be recharge when fluid temperatures are equal to background water column levels (˜2.7°C) as ambient seawater is drawn into the seafloor. The space-time patterns of these episodic variations suggest that they represent reorganizations of the secondary circulation system driving diffuse discharge on the upper terrace of the mound on timescales from a few hours to a few days, most likely in response to permeability perturbations. Harmonic temperature oscillations were observed over a range of periods, with the principal lunar semidiurnal tidal period (M2) being most dominant. During certain times, exit fluid temperatures at diffuse sites pulse at diurnal and semidiurnal tidal periods when they are hovering near background water column levels, which I interpret as flow reversals associated with the vertical displacement of a fluid boundary layer at the seafloor interface when the local net flux is near zero. The pulsing behavior is predicted by poroelastic models of tidal loading but is not consistent with effects from tidal currents, which
Some specific features of the NMR study of fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davydov, V. V.
2016-07-01
Some specific features of studying fluid flows with a NMR spectrometer are considered. The consideration of these features in the NMR spectrometer design makes it possible to determine the relative concentrations of paramagnetic ions and measure the longitudinal and transverse relaxation times ( T 1 and T 2, respectively) in fluid flows with an error no larger than 0.5%. This approach allows one to completely avoid errors in determining the state of a fluid from measured relaxation constants T 1 and T 2, which is especially urgent when working with medical suspensions and biological solutions. The results of an experimental study of fluid flows are presented.
Device for deriving energy from a flow of fluid
van Holten, T.
1982-12-07
Improved process and device for extracting energy present in a flowing fluid medium wherein a supported hub with propellers or blades is placed in said medium and the blades are provided with a wing or vane at the tip. The wing is of such a form that it generates a ''venturi effect'' in the flowing medium by which a part of the fluid which should normally pass outside the propeller disc area, is drawn into the propeller. The improvement consists of mixing of fluid which normally should pass outside the venturi with fluid which has flowed through the blades by provisions on blades and/or wing or vanes.
Fluid flow into vertical fractures from a point source
Clark, P.E.; Zhu, Q.
1995-03-01
Flow into a fracture from a point source recently has been the focus of attention in the petroleum industry. The suggestion has been made that, in this flow configuration, convection (gravity-driven flow) would dominate Stokes`-type settling for determining final proppant distribution. The theory is that when a dense fluid flows into a fracture filled with a less dense fluid from a point source, the density of the fluid will force it to the bottom of the fracture. This clearly happens when the two fluids have low viscosity. However, viscosity of both the fluid in the fracture and the displacing fluid and nonuniformities in the fracture influence displacement process significantly. Results presented in this study clearly show the effects of viscosity and fracture nonuniformity on the convective settling mechanism.
Working fluid flow visualization in gravity heat pipe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan
2016-03-01
Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapour and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about gravity heat pipe construction and processes casing inside during heat pipe operation. Experiment working fluid flow visualization is performed with two glass heat pipes with different inner diameter (13 mm and 22 mm) and filled with water. The working fluid flow visualization explains the phenomena as a working fluid boiling, nucleation of bubbles, and vapour condensation on the wall, vapour and condensate flow interaction, flow down condensate film thickness on the wall occurred during the heat pipe operation.
Motility of active fluid drops on surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khoromskaia, Diana; Alexander, Gareth P.
2015-12-01
Drops of active liquid crystal have recently shown the ability to self-propel, which was associated with topological defects in the orientation of active filaments [Sanchez et al., Nature 491, 431 (2013), 10.1038/nature11591]. Here, we study the onset and different aspects of motility of a three-dimensional drop of active fluid on a planar surface. We analyze theoretically how motility is affected by orientation profiles with defects of various types and locations, by the shape of the drop, and by surface friction at the substrate. In the scope of a thin drop approximation, we derive exact expressions for the flow in the drop that is generated by a given orientation profile. The flow has a natural decomposition into terms that depend entirely on the geometrical properties of the orientation profile, i.e., its bend and splay, and a term coupling the orientation to the shape of the drop. We find that asymmetric splay or bend generates a directed bulk flow and enables the drop to move, with maximal speeds achieved when the splay or bend is induced by a topological defect in the interior of the drop. In motile drops the direction and speed of self-propulsion is controlled by friction at the substrate.
New class of turbulence in active fluids.
Bratanov, Vasil; Jenko, Frank; Frey, Erwin
2015-12-01
Turbulence is a fundamental and ubiquitous phenomenon in nature, occurring from astrophysical to biophysical scales. At the same time, it is widely recognized as one of the key unsolved problems in modern physics, representing a paradigmatic example of nonlinear dynamics far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Whereas in the past, most theoretical work in this area has been devoted to Navier-Stokes flows, there is now a growing awareness of the need to extend the research focus to systems with more general patterns of energy injection and dissipation. These include various types of complex fluids and plasmas, as well as active systems consisting of self-propelled particles, like dense bacterial suspensions. Recently, a continuum model has been proposed for such "living fluids" that is based on the Navier-Stokes equations, but extends them to include some of the most general terms admitted by the symmetry of the problem [Wensink HH, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:14308-14313]. This introduces a cubic nonlinearity, related to the Toner-Tu theory of flocking, which can interact with the quadratic Navier-Stokes nonlinearity. We show that as a result of the subtle interaction between these two terms, the energy spectra at large spatial scales exhibit power laws that are not universal, but depend on both finite-size effects and physical parameters. Our combined numerical and analytical analysis reveals the origin of this effect and even provides a way to understand it quantitatively. Turbulence in active fluids, characterized by this kind of nonlinear self-organization, defines a new class of turbulent flows. PMID:26598708
Method and apparatus for chemically altering fluids in continuous flow
Heath, W.O.; Virden, J.W. Jr.; Richardson, R.L.; Bergsman, T.M.
1993-10-19
The present invention relates to a continuous flow fluid reactor for chemically altering fluids. The reactor operates on standard frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electricity. The fluid reactor contains particles that are energized by the electricity to form a corona throughout the volume of the reactor and subsequently a non-equilibrium plasma that interacts with the fluid. Particles may form a fixed bed or a fluid bed. Electricity may be provided through electrodes or through an inductive coil. Fluids include gases containing exhaust products and organic fuels requiring oxidation. 4 figures.
Method and apparatus for chemically altering fluids in continuous flow
Heath, William O.; Virden, Jr., Judson W.; Richardson, R. L.; Bergsman, Theresa M.
1993-01-01
The present invention relates to a continuous flow fluid reactor for chemically altering fluids. The reactor operates on standard frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electricity. The fluid reactor contains particles that are energized by the electricity to form a corona throughout the volume of the reactor and subsequently a non-equilibrium plasma that interacts with the fluid. Particles may form a fixed bed or a fluid bed. Electricity may be provided through electrodes or through an inductive coil. Fluids include gases containing exhaust products and organic fuels requiring oxidation.
MHD Flow of the Micropolar Fluid between Eccentrically Rotating Disks.
Srivastava, Neetu
2014-01-01
This analytical investigation examines the magnetohydrodynamic flow problem of an incompressible micropolar fluid between the two eccentrically placed disks. Employing suitable transformations, the flow governing partial differential equations is reduced to ordinary differential equations. An exact solution representing the different flow characteristic of micropolar fluid has been derived by solving the ordinary differential equations. Analysis of the flow characteristics of the micropolar fluid has been done graphically by varying the Reynolds number and the Hartmann number. This analysis has been carried out for the weak and strong interactions. PMID:27355040
MHD Flow of the Micropolar Fluid between Eccentrically Rotating Disks
Srivastava, Neetu
2014-01-01
This analytical investigation examines the magnetohydrodynamic flow problem of an incompressible micropolar fluid between the two eccentrically placed disks. Employing suitable transformations, the flow governing partial differential equations is reduced to ordinary differential equations. An exact solution representing the different flow characteristic of micropolar fluid has been derived by solving the ordinary differential equations. Analysis of the flow characteristics of the micropolar fluid has been done graphically by varying the Reynolds number and the Hartmann number. This analysis has been carried out for the weak and strong interactions.
An annotation system for 3D fluid flow visualization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loughlin, Maria M.; Hughes, John F.
1995-01-01
Annotation is a key activity of data analysis. However, current systems for data analysis focus almost exclusively on visualization. We propose a system which integrates annotations into a visualization system. Annotations are embedded in 3D data space, using the Post-it metaphor. This embedding allows contextual-based information storage and retrieval, and facilitates information sharing in collaborative environments. We provide a traditional database filter and a Magic Lens filter to create specialized views of the data. The system has been customized for fluid flow applications, with features which allow users to store parameters of visualization tools and sketch 3D volumes.
Microfluidic flow switching design using volume of fluid model.
Chein, Reiyu; Tsai, S H
2004-03-01
In this study, a volume of fluid (VOF) model was employed for microfluidic switch design. The VOF model validity in predicting the interface between fluid streams with different viscosities co-flowing in a microchannel was first verified by experimental observation. It was then extended to microfluidic flow switch design. Two specific flow switches, one with a guided fluid to one of five desired outlet ports, and another with a guided fluid flows into one, two, or three outlet ports equally distributed along the outlet channel of a Y-shaped channel. The flow switching was achieved by controlling the flow rate ratios between tested and buffer fluids. The numerical results showed that the VOF model could successfully predict the flow switching phenomena in these flow switches. The numerical results also showed that the flow rate ratio required for flow switching depends on the viscosity ratio between the tested and buffer fluids. The numerical simulation was verified by experimental study and the agreement was good. PMID:15307449
Fluid and Cell Transport Through a Microfabricated Flow Chamber.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brody, James Patrick
We use silicon processing techniques to construct microfabricated fluid flow chambers. Custom designed silicon wafers with feature sizes of 1-10 μm and etch depths from 0.5-5 μm are anodically bonded to Pyrex glass to create a hermetically sealed chamber. A pressure gradient is placed across the chamber to induce bulk fluid flow. Properties of fluid flow and red blood cells are recorded using video microscopy. The human red blood cell is ideal for studying cellular membranes. It is an 8 μm diameter biconcave disc containing a membrane and associated cytoskeleton which surrounds a thick solution of hemoglobin. The material properties of individual red blood cells have been extensively studied in the past using micropipettes. However, we can get statistics on hundreds of red blood cells by fabricating an array of narrow channels 4 mu m x 4 μm in cross-section (the diameter of the smallest capillaries in the human body) and 13 μm long. These narrow channels are followed by an open space. This geometry forces red cells to repeatedly fold and unfold. Using these arrays, we show that the shear modulus of the membrane does not have a unique value, but has a distribution that ranges from 3-12 times 10 ^{-6} N/m. The surprisingly wide distribution is not due to cell size or cell age. It does seem to be correlated with intracellular Ca^ {2+}<=vels, leading us to believe that cell rigidity is controlled by some active process. We also report observations on red blood cells changing their rigidity by factors of fifty over tens of seconds. These microfabricated flow chambers are ideal for studying fluid flow through porous media. We construct custom designed two-dimensional environments with micron size features. These environments can be described by simple analytical theories which also attempt to describe flow through rock. For example, we image viscous imbibition of water into a percolation grid with 5 mu m edges in real time, and measure the permeability as a function
Thermodynamics and flow-frames for dissipative relativistic fluids
Ván, P.; Biró, T. S.
2014-01-14
A general thermodynamic treatment of dissipative relativistic fluids is introduced, where the temperature four vector is not parallel to the velocity field of the fluid. Generic stability and kinetic equilibrium points out a particular thermodynamics, where the temperature vector is parallel to the enthalpy flow vector and the choice of the flow fixes the constitutive functions for viscous stress and heat. The linear stability of the homogeneous equilibrium is proved in a mixed particle-energy flow-frame.
Fundamental Processes of Atomization in Fluid-Fluid Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gallagher, Christopher; Leighton, David T.; Chang, Hsueh-Chia; McCready, Mark J.
1996-01-01
This paper discusses our proposed experimental and theoretical study of atomization in gas-liquid and liquid-liquid flows. While atomization is a very important process in these flows, the fundamental mechanism is not understood and there is no predictive theory. Previous photographic studies in (turbulent) gas-liquid flows have shown that liquid is atomized when it is removed by the gas flow from the crest of large solitary or roll waves. Our preliminary studies in liquid-liquid laminar flows exhibit the same mechanism. The two-liquid system is easier to study than gas-liquid systems because the time scales are much slower, the length scales much larger, and there is no turbulence. The proposed work is intended to obtain information about the mechanism of formation, rate of occurrence and the evolving shape of solitary waves; and quantitative aspects of the detailed events of the liquid removal process that can be used to verify a general predictive theory.
Vibration of a Flexible Pipe Conveying Viscous Pulsating Fluid Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
GORMAN, D. G.; REESE, J. M.; ZHANG, Y. L.
2000-02-01
The non-linear equations of motion of a flexible pipe conveying unsteadily flowing fluid are derived from the continuity and momentum equations of unsteady flow. These partial differential equations are fully coupled through equilibrium of contact forces, the normal compatibility of velocity at the fluid- pipe interfaces, and the conservation of mass and momentum of the transient fluid. Poisson coupling between the pipe wall and fluid is also incorporated in the model. A combination of the finite difference method and the method of characteristics is employed to extract displacements, hydrodynamic pressure and flow velocities from the equations. A numerical example of a pipeline conveying fluid with a pulsating flow is given and discussed.
Thermohydrodynamic analysis of cryogenic liquid turbulent flow fluid film bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andres, Luis San
1993-01-01
A thermohydrodynamic analysis is presented and a computer code developed for prediction of the static and dynamic force response of hydrostatic journal bearings (HJB's), annular seals or damper bearing seals, and fixed arc pad bearings for cryogenic liquid applications. The study includes the most important flow characteristics found in cryogenic fluid film bearings such as flow turbulence, fluid inertia, liquid compressibility and thermal effects. The analysis and computational model devised allow the determination of the flow field in cryogenic fluid film bearings along with the dynamic force coefficients for rotor-bearing stability analysis.
Mineralogical controls on metamorphic fluid flow in metabasaltic sills from Islay, Scotland
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleine, Barbara I.; Pitcairn, Iain K.; Skelton, Alasdair D. L.
2016-04-01
In this study we show that mineralogy was the primary control of metamorphic fluid flow in the well-studied metabasaltic sills in the SW Scottish Highlands. Here, basaltic sills have been partially carbonated by H2O-CO2 fluids at greenschist facies conditions. This has led to mineral zonation with carbonate-poor sill interiors separated from carbonate-rich sill margins by reaction fronts. Although deformation set the stage for metamorphic fluid flow in the SW Scottish Highlands by causing the preferred alignment of mineral grains, metamorphic fluid flow was not coupled with active deformation but occurred later utilizing the pre-existing mineral alignment as a means of accessing the sill interiors. The sills which were studied were partially carbonated with well-preserved reaction fronts. They were selected because (atypically for the SW Scottish Highlands) they are mineralogically heterogeneous making them ideal for a study of mineralogical controls of metamorphic fluid flow. Their mineralogical heterogeneity reflects chemical heterogeneity arising from magmatic flow differentiation and spilitization, which occurred before greenschist facies metamorphism. Magmatic flow differentiation resulted in parts of the sill containing large crystals with no preferred alignment. Large (up to 3 cm) plagioclase phenocrysts were concentrated in the sill interior whereas large (up to 1 cm) amphibole (after pyroxene) grains formed cumulate layers close to the sill margins. These large randomly oriented crystals were replaced by an interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation mechanism. Replacement is constant volume and with hydration and carbonation affecting the cores of these minerals while the rims are remained intact and unaltered. This finding points to intra-granular metamorphic fluid flow. In contrast inter-granular metamorphic fluid flow was facilitated by mineral alignment on different scales. Pre-metamorphic spilitization, produced layers of epidote called segregations
Sefidgar, Mostafa; Soltani, M.; Bazmara, Hossein
2015-01-01
A solid tumor is investigated as porous media for fluid flow simulation. Most of the studies use Darcy model for porous media. In Darcy model, the fluid friction is neglected and a few simplified assumptions are implemented. In this study, the effect of these assumptions is studied by considering Brinkman model. A multiscale mathematical method which calculates fluid flow to a solid tumor is used in this study to investigate how neglecting fluid friction affects the solid tumor simulation. The mathematical method involves processes such as blood flow through vessels and solute and fluid diffusion, convective transport in extracellular matrix, and extravasation from blood vessels. The sprouting angiogenesis model is used for generating capillary network and then fluid flow governing equations are implemented to calculate blood flow through the tumor-induced capillary network. Finally, the two models of porous media are used for modeling fluid flow in normal and tumor tissues in three different shapes of tumors. Simulations of interstitial fluid transport in a solid tumor demonstrate that the simplifications used in Darcy model affect the interstitial velocity and Brinkman model predicts a lower value for interstitial velocity than the values that Darcy model predicts. PMID:25960764
Letechipia, J E; Alessi, A; Rodriguez, G; Asbun, J
2010-08-01
Bone accommodates to changes in its functional environment ensuring that sufficient skeletal mass is appropriately positioned to withstand the mechanical loads that result from functional activities. Increasing physical activity will result in increased bone mass, while the removal of functional loading would result in bone loss. Bone is a composite material made up of a collagen-hydroxyapatite matrix and a complex network of lacunae-canaliculi channels occupied by osteocyte and osteoblast processes, immersed in interstitial fluid. There are strong indications that changes in interstitial fluid flow velocity or pressure are the means by which an external load signal is communicated to the cell. In vitro studies indicate that shear stress, induced by interstitial fluid flow, is a potent bone cell behavior regulator. One of the forms of altering interstitial fluid flow is through the mechanical deformation of skeletal tissue in response to applied loads. Other methods include increased intramedullary pressure, negative-pressure tissue regeneration, or external mechanical stimulation. Analysis of these methods poses the question of process effectiveness. The efficacy of each method theoretically will depend on the mechanical efficiency of transmitting an external load and converting it into changes in interstitial fluid flow. In this paper, we combine recent knowledge on the effect of the bone's interstitial fluid flow, different fluid patterns, the role of gap junctions, and the concept of mechanical effectiveness of different methods that influence interstitial fluid flow within bone, and we hypothesize that the efficiency of bone remodeling can be improved if a small mechanical percussion device could be placed directly in contact with the bone, thus inducing local interstitial fluid flow variations. Enhancement of bone repair and remodeling through controlled interstitial fluid flow possesses many clinical applications. Further investigations and in vivo
Conjugate Compressible Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Ducts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cross, M. F.
2011-01-01
A computational approach to modeling transient, compressible fluid flow with heat transfer in long, narrow ducts is presented. The primary application of the model is for analyzing fluid flow and heat transfer in solid propellant rocket motor nozzle joints during motor start-up, but the approach is relevant to a wide range of analyses involving rapid pressurization and filling of ducts. Fluid flow is modeled through solution of the spatially one-dimensional, transient Euler equations. Source terms are included in the governing equations to account for the effects of wall friction and heat transfer. The equation solver is fully-implicit, thus providing greater flexibility than an explicit solver. This approach allows for resolution of pressure wave effects on the flow as well as for fast calculation of the steady-state solution when a quasi-steady approach is sufficient. Solution of the one-dimensional Euler equations with source terms significantly reduces computational run times compared to general purpose computational fluid dynamics packages solving the Navier-Stokes equations with resolved boundary layers. In addition, conjugate heat transfer is more readily implemented using the approach described in this paper than with most general purpose computational fluid dynamics packages. The compressible flow code has been integrated with a transient heat transfer solver to analyze heat transfer between the fluid and surrounding structure. Conjugate fluid flow and heat transfer solutions are presented. The author is unaware of any previous work available in the open literature which uses the same approach described in this paper.
Alkaline phosphatase in osteoblasts is down-regulated by pulsatile fluid flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hillsley, M. V.; Frangos, J. A.
1997-01-01
It is our hypothesis that interstitial fluid flow plays a role in the bone remodeling response to mechanical loading. The fluid flow-induced expression of three proteins (collagen, osteopontin, and alkaline phosphatase) involved in bone remodeling was investigated. Rat calvarial osteoblasts subjected to pulsatile fluid flow at an average shear stress of 5 dyne/cm2 showed decreased alkaline phosphatase (AP) mRNA expression after only 1 hour of flow. After 3 hours of flow, AP mRNA levels had decreased to 30% of stationary control levels and remained at this level for an additional 5 hours of flow. Steady flow (4 dyne/cm2 fluid shear stress), in contrast, resulted in a delayed and less dramatic decrease in AP mRNA expression to 63% of control levels after 8 hours of flow. The reduced AP mRNA expression under pulsatile flow conditions was followed by reduced AP enzyme activity after 24 hours. No changes in collagen or osteopontin mRNA expression were detected over 8 hours of pulsatile flow. This is the first time fluid flow has been shown to affect gene expression in osteoblasts.
New class of turbulence in active fluids
Bratanov, Vasil; Frey, Erwin
2015-01-01
Turbulence is a fundamental and ubiquitous phenomenon in nature, occurring from astrophysical to biophysical scales. At the same time, it is widely recognized as one of the key unsolved problems in modern physics, representing a paradigmatic example of nonlinear dynamics far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Whereas in the past, most theoretical work in this area has been devoted to Navier–Stokes flows, there is now a growing awareness of the need to extend the research focus to systems with more general patterns of energy injection and dissipation. These include various types of complex fluids and plasmas, as well as active systems consisting of self-propelled particles, like dense bacterial suspensions. Recently, a continuum model has been proposed for such “living fluids” that is based on the Navier–Stokes equations, but extends them to include some of the most general terms admitted by the symmetry of the problem [Wensink HH, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:14308–14313]. This introduces a cubic nonlinearity, related to the Toner–Tu theory of flocking, which can interact with the quadratic Navier–Stokes nonlinearity. We show that as a result of the subtle interaction between these two terms, the energy spectra at large spatial scales exhibit power laws that are not universal, but depend on both finite-size effects and physical parameters. Our combined numerical and analytical analysis reveals the origin of this effect and even provides a way to understand it quantitatively. Turbulence in active fluids, characterized by this kind of nonlinear self-organization, defines a new class of turbulent flows. PMID:26598708
A framework for estimating potential fluid flow from digital imagery.
Luttman, Aaron; Bollt, Erik M; Basnayake, Ranil; Kramer, Sean; Tufillaro, Nicholas B
2013-09-01
Given image data of a fluid flow, the flow field, , governing the evolution of the system can be estimated using a variational approach to optical flow. Assuming that the flow field governing the advection is the symplectic gradient of a stream function or the gradient of a potential function-both falling under the category of a potential flow-it is natural to re-frame the optical flow problem to reconstruct the stream or potential function directly rather than the components of the flow individually. There are several advantages to this framework. Minimizing a functional based on the stream or potential function rather than based on the components of the flow will ensure that the computed flow is a potential flow. Next, this approach allows a more natural method for imposing scientific priors on the computed flow, via regularization of the optical flow functional. Also, this paradigm shift gives a framework--rather than an algorithm--and can be applied to nearly any existing variational optical flow technique. In this work, we develop the mathematical formulation of the potential optical flow framework and demonstrate the technique on synthetic flows that represent important dynamics for mass transport in fluid flows, as well as a flow generated by a satellite data-verified ocean model of temperature transport. PMID:24089970
Unbalanced-flow, fluid-mixing plug with metering capabilities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Van Buskirk, Paul D. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A fluid mixer plug has holes formed therethrough such that a remaining portion is closed to fluid flow. The plug's inlet face defines a central circuit region and a ring-shaped region with the ring-shaped region including at least some of the plug's remaining portion so-closed to fluid flow. This remaining portion or closed region at each radius R of the ring shaped region satisfies a radius independent, flow-based relationship. Entry openings are defined in the plug's inlet face in correspondence with the holes. The entry openings define an open flow area at each radius of the ring-shaped region. The open flow area at each such radius satisfies the inverse of the flow-based relationship defining the closed regions of the plug.
A microgravity experiment of the on-orbit fluid transfer technique using swirl flow.
Kawanami, Osamu; Imai, Ryoji; Azuma, Hisao; Ohta, Haruhiko; Honda, Itsuro; Kawashima, Yousuke
2006-09-01
The cryogenic fluid transfer technique will prove useful for flexible and low-cost space activities by prolonging the life cycle of satellites, orbital transfer vehicles, and orbital telescopes that employ cryogenic fluids, such as reactants, coolants, and propellants. Although NASA has conducted extensive research on this technique to date, a complicated mechanism is required to control the pressure in the receiver tank and avoid a large liquid loss by vaporization. We have proposed a novel fluid transfer method by using swirl flow combined with vapor condensation facilitated by spray cooling. This technique enables gas-liquid separation in microgravity and effectively facilitates vapor condensation without any special device like a mixer. In addition, since the incoming liquid flows along the tank wall, the tank wall would be cooled effectively, thereby minimizing the liquid loss due to vaporization. In this paper, the influence of the number of inlet points, fluid velocity at the inlet, fluid type, and boiling condition on swirl flow under microgravity conditions is investigated experimentally. The results indicated that the new fluid transfer technique using the swirl flow proposed by us is effective for cryogenic fluids that generally exhibit low surface tension and good wettability. In addition, it is possible to apply this technique to the real system because the swirl flow conditions are determined by the Froude number, which is dimensionless. Thus, the fundamental technique of fluid transfer by using the swirl flow under microgravity conditions was established. PMID:17124131
Immersed Boundary Simulations of Active Fluid Droplets.
Whitfield, Carl A; Hawkins, Rhoda J
2016-01-01
We present numerical simulations of active fluid droplets immersed in an external fluid in 2-dimensions using an Immersed Boundary method to simulate the fluid droplet interface as a Lagrangian mesh. We present results from two example systems, firstly an active isotropic fluid boundary consisting of particles that can bind and unbind from the interface and generate surface tension gradients through active contractility. Secondly, a droplet filled with an active polar fluid with homeotropic anchoring at the droplet interface. These two systems demonstrate spontaneous symmetry breaking and steady state dynamics resembling cell motility and division and show complex feedback mechanisms with minimal degrees of freedom. The simulations outlined here will be useful for quantifying the wide range of dynamics observable in these active systems and modelling the effects of confinement in a consistent and adaptable way. PMID:27606609
Flow networks: A characterization of geophysical fluid transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ser-Giacomi, Enrico; Rossi, Vincent; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio
2015-03-01
We represent transport between different regions of a fluid domain by flow networks, constructed from the discrete representation of the Perron-Frobenius or transfer operator associated to the fluid advection dynamics. The procedure is useful to analyze fluid dynamics in geophysical contexts, as illustrated by the construction of a flow network associated to the surface circulation in the Mediterranean sea. We use network-theory tools to analyze the flow network and gain insights into transport processes. In particular, we quantitatively relate dispersion and mixing characteristics, classically quantified by Lyapunov exponents, to the degree of the network nodes. A family of network entropies is defined from the network adjacency matrix and related to the statistics of stretching in the fluid, in particular, to the Lyapunov exponent field. Finally, we use a network community detection algorithm, Infomap, to partition the Mediterranean network into coherent regions, i.e., areas internally well mixed, but with little fluid interchange between them.
Feedback regulated induction heater for a flowing fluid
Migliori, Albert; Swift, Gregory W.
1985-01-01
A regulated induction heater for heating a stream of flowing fluid to a predetermined desired temperature. The heater includes a radiofrequency induction coil which surrounds a glass tube through which the fluid flows. A heating element consisting of a bundle of approximately 200 stainless steel capillary tubes located within the glass tube couples the output of the induction coil to the fluid. The temperature of the fluid downstream from the heating element is sensed with a platinum resistance thermometer, the output of which is applied to an adjustable proportional and integral feedback control circuit which regulates the power applied to the induction coil. The heater regulates the fluid temperature to within 0.005.degree. C. at a flow rate of 50 cm.sup.3 /second with a response time of less than 0.1 second, and can accommodate changes in heat load up to 1500 watts.
Feedback regulated induction heater for a flowing fluid
Migliori, A.; Swift, G.W.
1984-06-13
A regulated induction heater for heating a stream of flowing fluid to a predetermined desired temperature. The heater includes a radiofrequency induction coil which surrounds a glass tube through which the fluid flows. A heating element consisting of a bundle of approximately 200 stainless steel capillary tubes located within the glass tube couples the output of the induction coil to the fluid. The temperature of the fluid downstream from the heating element is sensed with a platinum resistance thermometer, the output of which is applied to an adjustable porportional and integral feedback control circuit which regulates the power applied to the induction coil. The heater regulates the fluid temperature to within 0.005/sup 0/C at a flow rate of 50 cm/sup 3//sec with a response time of less than 0.1 second, and can accommodate changes in heat load up to 1500 watts.
Apparatus for irradiating a continuously flowing stream of fluid
Speir, Leslie G.; Adams, Edwin L.
1984-01-01
An apparatus for irradiating a continuously flowing stream of fluid is diosed. The apparatus consists of a housing having a spherical cavity and a spherical moderator containing a radiation source positioned within the spherical cavity. The spherical moderator is of lesser diameter than the spherical cavity so as to define a spherical annular volume around the moderator. The housing includes fluid intake and output conduits which open onto the spherical cavity at diametrically opposite positions. Fluid flows through the cavity around the spherical moderator and is uniformly irradiated due to the 4.pi. radiation geometry. The irradiation source, for example a .sup.252 CF neutron source, is removable from the spherical moderator through a radial bore which extends outwardly to an opening on the outside of the housing. The radiation source may be routinely removed without interrupting the flow of fluid or breaching the containment of the fluid.
Superconfinement tailors fluid flow at microscales
Setu, Siti Aminah; Dullens, Roel P.A.; Hernández-Machado, Aurora; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Aarts, Dirk G.A.L.; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo
2015-01-01
Understanding fluid dynamics under extreme confinement, where device and intrinsic fluid length scales become comparable, is essential to successfully develop the coming generations of fluidic devices. Here we report measurements of advancing fluid fronts in such a regime, which we dub superconfinement. We find that the strong coupling between contact-line friction and geometric confinement gives rise to a new stability regime where the maximum speed for a stable moving front exhibits a distinctive response to changes in the bounding geometry. Unstable fronts develop into drop-emitting jets controlled by thermal fluctuations. Numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics in superconfined systems is dominated by interfacial forces. Henceforth, we present a theory that quantifies our experiments in terms of the relevant interfacial length scale, which in our system is the intrinsic contact-line slip length. Our findings show that length-scale overlap can be used as a new fluid-control mechanism in strongly confined systems. PMID:26073752
Destabilization of confined granular packings due to fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monloubou, Martin; Sandnes, Bjørnar
2016-04-01
Fluid flow through granular materials can cause fluidization when fluid drag exceeds the frictional stress within the packing. Fluid driven failure of granular packings is observed in both natural and engineered settings, e.g. soil liquefaction and flowback of proppants during hydraulic fracturing operations. We study experimentally the destabilization and flow of an unconsolidated granular packing subjected to a point source fluid withdrawal using a model system consisting of a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing a water-grain mixture. The fluid is withdrawn from the cell at a constant rate, and the emerging flow patterns are imaged in time-lapse mode. Using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), we show that the granular flow gets localized in a narrow channel down the center of the cell, and adopts a Gaussian velocity profile similar to those observed in dry grain flows in silos. We investigate the effects of the experimental parameters (flow rate, grain size, grain shape, fluid viscosity) on the packing destabilization, and identify the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed complex flow behaviour.
Laminar flow of two miscible fluids in a simple network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karst, Casey M.; Storey, Brian D.; Geddes, John B.
2013-03-01
When a fluid comprised of multiple phases or constituents flows through a network, nonlinear phenomena such as multiple stable equilibrium states and spontaneous oscillations can occur. Such behavior has been observed or predicted in a number of networks including the flow of blood through the microcirculation, the flow of picoliter droplets through microfluidic devices, the flow of magma through lava tubes, and two-phase flow in refrigeration systems. While the existence of nonlinear phenomena in a network with many inter-connections containing fluids with complex rheology may seem unsurprising, this paper demonstrates that even simple networks containing Newtonian fluids in laminar flow can demonstrate multiple equilibria. The paper describes a theoretical and experimental investigation of the laminar flow of two miscible Newtonian fluids of different density and viscosity through a simple network. The fluids stratify due to gravity and remain as nearly distinct phases with some mixing occurring only by diffusion. This fluid system has the advantage that it is easily controlled and modeled, yet contains the key ingredients for network nonlinearities. Experiments and 3D simulations are first used to explore how phases distribute at a single T-junction. Once the phase separation at a single junction is known, a network model is developed which predicts multiple equilibria in the simplest of networks. The existence of multiple stable equilibria is confirmed experimentally and a criterion for existence is developed. The network results are generic and could be applied to or found in different physical systems.
Performance of Magnetorheological Fluids Flowing Through Metal Foams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, X. h.; Fu, Z. m.; Yao, X. y.; Li, F.
2011-01-01
If magnetorheological (MR) fluids are stored in porous materials, when excited by the external magnetic field, MR fluid will be drawn out and produce MR effect, which could be used to solve the following problems of the MR damper, such as the seal, volume and the cost of MR fluid damper. In this paper, the effect of structure of metal foams on the performance of MR fluid is investigated; the relationship between the penetrability and the porosity of the metal foams is measured, the change of MR fluid performance flowing though the metal foams is obtained. It shows that, after flowing through metal foams, the change of performance of MR fluid is about 2.5%. Compared to the sponge, the porous metal foams have the obvious advantages in high porosity and rigidity, which provide a convenient and low-cost way to design the MR damper.
Collapsible sheath fluid reservoirs for flow cytometers
Mark, Graham A.
2000-01-01
The present invention is a container in the form of a single housing for holding fluid, including a first collapsible reservoir having a first valve. The first reservoir initially contains a volume of fluid. The container also includes a second reservoir, initially empty (or substantially empty), expandable to a second volume. The second reservoir has a second valve. As the volume of said first reservoir decreases, the volume of the second reservoir proportionally increases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunt, J. C. R.
1981-05-01
The ways in which advances in fluid mechanics have led to improvements in engineering design are discussed, with attention to the stimulation of fluid mechanics research by industrial and environmental problems. The development of many practical uses of fluid flow without the benefit of scientific study is also emphasized. Among the topics discussed are vortices and coherent structures in turbulent flows, lubrication, jet and multiphase flows, the control and exploitation of waves, the effect of unsteady forces on structures, and dispersion phenomena. Among the practical achievements covered are the use of bluff shields to control separated flow over truck bodies and reduce aerodynamic drag, ink-jet printing, hovercraft stability, fluidized-bed combustion, the fluid/solid instabilities caused by air flow around a computer memory floppy disc, and various wind turbines.
Centrifuge in space fluid flow visualization experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arnold, William A.; Wilcox, William R.; Regel, Liya L.; Dunbar, Bonnie J.
1993-01-01
A prototype flow visualization system is constructed to examine buoyancy driven flows during centrifugation in space. An axial density gradient is formed by imposing a thermal gradient between the two ends of the test cell. Numerical computations for this geometry showed that the Prandtl number plays a limited part in determining the flow.
Debris-flow deposition: Effects of pore-fluid pressure and friction concentrated at flow margins
Major, J.J.; Iverson, R.M.
1999-01-01
Measurements of pore-fluid pressure and total bed-normal stress at the base of several ???10 m3 experimental debris flows provide new insight into the process of debris-flow deposition. Pore-fluid pressures nearly sufficient to cause liquefaction were developed and maintained during flow mobilization and acceleration, persisted in debris-flow interiors during flow deceleration and deposition, and dissipated significantly only during postdepositional sediment consolidation. In contrast, leading edges of debris flows exhibited little or no positive pore-fluid pressure. Deposition therefore resulted from grain-contact friction and bed friction concentrated at flow margins. This finding contradicts models that invoke widespread decay of excess pore-fluid pressure, uniform viscoplastic yield strength, or pervasive grain-collision stresses to explain debris-flow deposition. Furthermore, the finding demonstrates that deposit thickness cannot be used to infer the strength of flowing debris.
A two-fluid model for avalanche and debris flows.
Pitman, E Bruce; Le, Long
2005-07-15
Geophysical mass flows--debris flows, avalanches, landslides--can contain O(10(6)-10(10)) m(3) or more of material, often a mixture of soil and rocks with a significant quantity of interstitial fluid. These flows can be tens of meters in depth and hundreds of meters in length. The range of scales and the rheology of this mixture presents significant modelling and computational challenges. This paper describes a depth-averaged 'thin layer' model of geophysical mass flows containing a mixture of solid material and fluid. The model is derived from a 'two-phase' or 'two-fluid' system of equations commonly used in engineering research. Phenomenological modelling and depth averaging combine to yield a tractable set of equations, a hyperbolic system that describes the motion of the two constituent phases. If the fluid inertia is small, a reduced model system that is easier to solve may be derived. PMID:16011934
Mechanisms of fluid-flow-induced matrix production in bone tissue engineering.
Morris, H L; Reed, C I; Haycock, J W; Reilly, G C
2010-12-01
Matrix production by tissue-engineered bone is enhanced when the growing tissue is subjected to mechanical forces and/or fluid flow in bioreactor culture. Cells deposit collagen and mineral, depending upon the mechanical loading that they receive. However, the molecular mechanisms of flow-induced signal transduction in bone are poorly understood. The hyaluronan (HA) glycocalyx has been proposed as a potential mediator of mechanical forces in bone. Using a parallel-plate flow chamber the effects of removal of HA on flow-induced collagen production and NF-kappaB activation in MLO-A5 osteoid osteocytes were investigated. Short periods of fluid flow significantly increased collagen production and induced translocation of the NF-kappaB subunit p65 to the cell's nuclei in 65 per cent of the cell population. Enzymatic removal of the HA coat and antibody blocking of CD44 (a transmembrane protein that binds to HA) eliminated the fluid-flow-induced increase in collagen production but had no effect on the translocation of p65. HA and CD44 appear to play roles in transducing the flow signals that modulate collagen production over long-term culture but not in the short-term flow-induced activation of NF-kappaB, implying that multiple signalling events are initiated from the commencement of flow. Understanding the mechanotransduction events that enable fluid flow to stimulate bone matrix production will allow the optimization of bioreactor design and flow profiles for bone tissue engineering. PMID:21287834
Thermal analysis of turbulent flow of a supercritical fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yamane, E.
1979-01-01
The influence of the large variation of thermodynamics and transport properties near the pseudocritical temperature on the heat transfer coefficient of supercritical fluid in turbulent flow was studied. The formation of the characteristics peak in the heat transfer coefficient vs. bulk temperature curve is described, and the necessity of the fluid element at pseudocritical temperature located in the buffer layer is discussed.
Flow of Magnetohydrodynamic Micropolar Fluid Induced by Radially Stretching Sheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayat, Tasawar; Nawaz, Muhammad; Hendi, Awatif A.
2011-02-01
We investigate the flow of a micropolar fluid between radial stretching sheets. The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) nonlinear problem is treated using the homotopy analysis method (HAM) and the velocity profiles are predicted for the pertinent parameters. The values of skin friction and couple shear stress coefficients are obtained for various values of Reynolds number, Hartman number, and micropolar fluid parameter.
Nanoscale Fluid Flows in the Vicinity of Patterned Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cieplak, Marek; Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.
2006-03-01
Molecular dynamics simulations of dense and rarefied fluids comprising small chain molecules in chemically patterned nanochannels predict a novel switching from Poiseuille to plug flow along the channel. We also demonstrate behavior akin to the lotus effect for a nanodrop on a chemically patterned substrate. Our results show that one can control and exploit the behavior of fluids at the nanoscale using chemical patterning.
A discrete simulation of 2-D fluid flow on TERASYS
Mullins, P.G.; Krolak, P.D.
1995-12-01
A discrete simulation of two-dimensional (2-D) fluid flow, on a recently designed novel architecture called TERASYS is presented. The simulation uses a cellular automaton approach, implemented in a new language called data-parallel bit C (dbC). A performance comparison between our implementation on TERASYS and an implementation on the Connection Machine is discussed. We comment briefly on the suitability of the TERASYS system for modeling fluid flow using cellular automata.
Fluid transport by active elastic membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, Arthur A.; Lauga, Eric
2011-09-01
A flexible membrane deforming its shape in time can self-propel in a viscous fluid. Alternatively, if the membrane is anchored, its deformation will lead to fluid transport. Past work in this area focused on situations where the deformation kinematics of the membrane were prescribed. Here we consider models where the deformation of the membrane is not prescribed, but instead the membrane is internally forced. Both the time-varying membrane shape and the resulting fluid motion result then from a balance between prescribed internal active stresses, internal passive resistance, and external viscous stresses. We introduce two specific models for such active internal forcing: one where a distribution of active bending moments is prescribed, and one where active inclusions exert normal stresses on the membrane by pumping fluid through it. In each case, we asymptotically calculate the membrane shape and the fluid transport velocities for small forcing amplitudes, and recover our results using scaling analysis.
Fluid pressure and flow as a cause of bone resorption
Fahlgren, Anna
2010-01-01
Background Unstable implants in bone become surrounded by an osteolytic zone. This is seen around loose screws, for example, but may also contribute to prosthetic loosening. Previous animal studies have shown that such zones can be induced by fluctuations in fluid pressure or flow, caused by implant instability. Method To understand the roles of pressure and flow, we describe the 3-dimensional distribution of osteolytic lesions in response to fluid pressure and flow in a previously reported rat model of aseptic loosening. 50 rats had a piston inserted in the proximal tibia, designed to produce 20 local spikes in fluid pressure of a clinically relevant magnitude (700 mmHg) twice a day. The spikes lasted for about 0.3 seconds. After 2 weeks, the pressure was measured in vivo, and the osteolytic lesions induced were studied using micro-CT scans. Results Most bone resorption occurred at pre-existing cavities within the bone in the periphery around the pressurized region, and not under the piston. This region is likely to have a higher fluid flow and less pressure than the area just beneath the piston. The velocity of fluid flow was estimated to be very high (roughly 20 mm/s). Interpretation The localization of the resorptive lesions suggests that high-velocity fluid flow is important for bone resorption induced by instability. PMID:20718695
Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium
Zheng, Zhong; Guo, Bo; Christov, Ivan C.; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.
2015-02-24
We report theoretical and numerical studies of the flow behaviour when a fluid is injected into a confined porous medium saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convection–diffusion equation is derived to describe the time evolution of the fluid–fluid interface. In the early time period, the fluid motion is mainly driven by the buoyancy force and the governing equation is reduced to a nonlinear diffusion equation with a well-known self-similar solution. In the late time period, the fluid flow is mainly driven by the injection, and the governing equation is approximated by a nonlinear hyperbolic equation that determines the global spreading rate; a shock solution is obtained when the injected fluid is more viscous than the displaced fluid, whereas a rarefaction wave solution is found when the injected fluid is less viscous. In the late time period, we also obtain analytical solutions including the diffusive term associated with the buoyancy effects (for an injected fluid with a viscosity higher than or equal to that of the displaced fluid), which provide the structure of the moving front. Numerical simulations of the convection–diffusion equation are performed; the various analytical solutions are verified as appropriate asymptotic limits, and the transition processes between the individual limits are demonstrated.
Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium
Zheng, Zhong; Guo, Bo; Christov, Ivan C.; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.
2015-02-24
We report theoretical and numerical studies of the flow behaviour when a fluid is injected into a confined porous medium saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convection–diffusion equation is derived to describe the time evolution of the fluid–fluid interface. In the early time period, the fluid motion is mainly driven by the buoyancy force and the governing equation is reduced to a nonlinear diffusion equation with a well-known self-similar solution. In the late time period, the fluid flow is mainly driven by the injection, and the governingmore » equation is approximated by a nonlinear hyperbolic equation that determines the global spreading rate; a shock solution is obtained when the injected fluid is more viscous than the displaced fluid, whereas a rarefaction wave solution is found when the injected fluid is less viscous. In the late time period, we also obtain analytical solutions including the diffusive term associated with the buoyancy effects (for an injected fluid with a viscosity higher than or equal to that of the displaced fluid), which provide the structure of the moving front. Numerical simulations of the convection–diffusion equation are performed; the various analytical solutions are verified as appropriate asymptotic limits, and the transition processes between the individual limits are demonstrated.« less
Maxwell, electromagnetism, and fluid flow in resistive media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narasimhan, T. N.
Common wisdom has it that Darcy [1856] founded the modern field of fluid flow through porous media with his celebrated 1856 experiment on the steady flow of water through a sand column. For considerable time, Darcy's empirical observation, in conjunction with Fourier's [1807] heat equation, was used to analyze fluid flow in porous media simply by mathematical analogy. Hubbert [1940] is credited with placing Darcy's work on sound hydrodynamic foundations. Among other things, he defined an energy potential, interpreted permeability in the context of balancing impelling and resistive forces, and derived an expression for the refraction of flow lines. In 1856, James Clerk Maxwell constructed a theory for the flow of an incompressible fluid in a resistive medium as a metaphor for comprehending the emerging field of electromagnetism [Maxwell, 1890].
Bone tissue engineering: the role of interstitial fluid flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hillsley, M. V.; Frangos, J. A.
1994-01-01
It is well established that vascularization is required for effective bone healing. This implies that blood flow and interstitial fluid (ISF) flow are required for healing and maintenance of bone. The fact that changes in bone blood flow and ISF flow are associated with changes in bone remodeling and formation support this theory. ISF flow in bone results from transcortical pressure gradients produced by vascular and hydrostatic pressure, and mechanical loading. Conditions observed to alter flow rates include increases in venous pressure in hypertension, fluid shifts occurring in bedrest and microgravity, increases in vascularization during the injury-healing response, and mechanical compression and bending of bone during exercise. These conditions also induce changes in bone remodeling. Previously, we hypothesized that interstitial fluid flow in bone, and in particular fluid shear stress, serves to mediate signal transduction in mechanical loading- and injury-induced remodeling. In addition, we proposed that a lack or decrease of ISF flow results in the bone loss observed in disuse and microgravity. The purpose of this article is to review ISF flow in bone and its role in osteogenesis.
Active Flow Control Activities at NASA Langley
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anders, Scott G.; Sellers, William L., III; Washburn, Anthony E.
2004-01-01
NASA Langley continues to aggressively investigate the potential advantages of active flow control over more traditional aerodynamic techniques. This paper provides an update to a previous paper and describes both the progress in the various research areas and the significant changes in the NASA research programs. The goals of the topics presented are focused on advancing the state of knowledge and understanding of controllable fundamental mechanisms in fluids as well as to address engineering challenges. An organizational view of current research activities at NASA Langley in active flow control as supported by several projects is presented. On-center research as well as NASA Langley funded contracts and grants are discussed at a relatively high level. The products of this research are to be demonstrated either in bench-top experiments, wind-tunnel investigations, or in flight as part of the fundamental NASA R&D program and then transferred to more applied research programs within NASA, DOD, and U.S. industry.
Capacitance probe for fluid flow and volume measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Nguyen, Thanh X. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
Method and apparatus for making measurements on fluids are disclosed, including the use of a capacitive probe for measuring the flow volume of a material within a flow stream. The capacitance probe has at least two elongate electrodes and, in a specific embodiment of the invention, has three parallel elongate electrodes with the center electrode being an extension of the center conductor of a co-axial cable. A conductance probe is also provided to provide more accurate flow volume data in response to conductivity of the material within the flow stream. A preferred embodiment of the present invention provides for a gas flow stream through a microgravity environment that allows for monitoring a flow volume of a fluid sample, such as a urine sample, that is entrained within the gas flow stream.
Capacitance Probe for Fluid Flow and Volume Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Nguyen, Thanh X. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)
1997-01-01
Method and apparatus for making measurements on fluids are disclosed, including the use of a capacitive probe for measuring the flow volume of a material within a flow stream. The capacitance probe has at least two elongate electrodes and, in a specific embodiment of the invention, has three parallel elongate electrodes with the center electrode being an extension of the center conductor of a co-axial cable. A conductance probe is also provided to provide more accurate flow volume data in response to conductivity of the material within the flow stream. A preferred embodiment of the present invention provides for a gas flow stream through a micro-gravity environment that allows for monitoring a flow volume of a fluid sample, such as a urine sample, that is entrained within the gas flow stream.
Axisymmetric flows from fluid injection into a confined porous medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Bo; Zheng, Zhong; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.
2016-02-01
We study the axisymmetric flows generated from fluid injection into a horizontal confined porous medium that is originally saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. Neglecting the effects of surface tension and fluid mixing, we use the lubrication approximation to obtain a nonlinear advection-diffusion equation that describes the time evolution of the sharp fluid-fluid interface. The flow behaviors are controlled by two dimensionless groups: M, the viscosity ratio of displaced fluid relative to injected fluid, and Γ, which measures the relative importance of buoyancy and fluid injection. For this axisymmetric geometry, the similarity solution involving R2/T (where R is the dimensionless radial coordinate and T is the dimensionless time) is an exact solution to the nonlinear governing equation for all times. Four analytical expressions are identified as asymptotic approximations (two of which are new solutions): (i) injection-driven flow with the injected fluid being more viscous than the displaced fluid (Γ ≪ 1 and M < 1) where we identify a self-similar solution that indicates a parabolic interface shape; (ii) injection-driven flow with injected and displaced fluids of equal viscosity (Γ ≪ 1 and M = 1), where we find a self-similar solution that predicts a distinct parabolic interface shape; (iii) injection-driven flow with a less viscous injected fluid (Γ ≪ 1 and M > 1) for which there is a rarefaction wave solution, assuming that the Saffman-Taylor instability does not occur at the reservoir scale; and (iv) buoyancy-driven flow (Γ ≫ 1) for which there is a well-known self-similar solution corresponding to gravity currents in an unconfined porous medium [S. Lyle et al. "Axisymmetric gravity currents in a porous medium," J. Fluid Mech. 543, 293-302 (2005)]. The various axisymmetric flows are summarized in a Γ-M regime diagram with five distinct dynamic behaviors including the four asymptotic regimes and an intermediate regime
Numerical study of subcritical flow with fluid injection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balasubramanian, R.
1990-01-01
It is suggested that the study of synthetic flows, where controlled experiments can be performed, is useful in understanding turbulent flow structures. The early states of formation of hairpin structures in shear flows and the subsequent evolution of these structures is studied in shear flows and the subsequent evolution of these structures is studied through numerical simulations, by developing full-time dependent three-dimensional flow solution of an initially laminar (subcritical) flow in which injection of fluid through a narrow streamwise slot from the bottom wall of a plate is carried out. Details of the numerical approach and significance of the present findings are reported in this work.
Surface tension driven flow in glass melts and model fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcneil, T. J.; Cole, R.; Subramanian, R. S.
1982-01-01
Surface tension driven flow has been investigated analytically and experimentally using an apparatus where a free column of molten glass or model fluids was supported at its top and bottom faces by solid surfaces. The glass used in the experiments was sodium diborate, and the model fluids were silicone oils. In both the model fluid and glass melt experiments, conclusive evidence was obtained to prove that the observed flow was driven primarily by surface tension forces. The experimental observations are in qualitative agreement with predictions from the theoretical model.
Network Flow Simulation of Fluid Transients in Rocket Propulsion Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bandyopadhyay, Alak; Hamill, Brian; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Majumdar, Alok
2011-01-01
Fluid transients, also known as water hammer, can have a significant impact on the design and operation of both spacecraft and launch vehicle propulsion systems. These transients often occur at system activation and shutdown. The pressure rise due to sudden opening and closing of valves of propulsion feed lines can cause serious damage during activation and shutdown of propulsion systems. During activation (valve opening) and shutdown (valve closing), pressure surges must be predicted accurately to ensure structural integrity of the propulsion system fluid network. In the current work, a network flow simulation software (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) based on Finite Volume Method has been used to predict the pressure surges in the feed line due to both valve closing and valve opening using two separate geometrical configurations. The valve opening pressure surge results are compared with experimental data available in the literature and the numerical results compared very well within reasonable accuracy (< 5%) for a wide range of inlet-to-initial pressure ratios. A Fast Fourier Transform is preformed on the pressure oscillations to predict the various modal frequencies of the pressure wave. The shutdown problem, i.e. valve closing problem, the simulation results are compared with the results of Method of Characteristics. Most rocket engines experience a longitudinal acceleration, known as "pogo" during the later stage of engine burn. In the shutdown example problem, an accumulator has been used in the feed system to demonstrate the "pogo" mitigation effects in the feed system of propellant. The simulation results using GFSSP compared very well with the results of Method of Characteristics.
Pulmonary fluid flow challenges for experimental and mathematical modeling.
Levy, Rachel; Hill, David B; Forest, M Gregory; Grotberg, James B
2014-12-01
Modeling the flow of fluid in the lungs, even under baseline healthy conditions, presents many challenges. The complex rheology of the fluids, interaction between fluids and structures, and complicated multi-scale geometry all add to the complexity of the problem. We provide a brief overview of approaches used to model three aspects of pulmonary fluid and flow: the surfactant layer in the deep branches of the lung, the mucus layer in the upper airway branches, and closure/reopening of the airway. We discuss models of each aspect, the potential to capture biological and therapeutic information, and open questions worthy of further investigation. We hope to promote multi-disciplinary collaboration by providing insights into mathematical descriptions of fluid-mechanics in the lung and the kinds of predictions these models can make. PMID:25096289
Pulmonary Fluid Flow Challenges for Experimental and Mathematical Modeling
Levy, Rachel; Hill, David B.; Forest, M. Gregory; Grotberg, James B.
2014-01-01
Modeling the flow of fluid in the lungs, even under baseline healthy conditions, presents many challenges. The complex rheology of the fluids, interaction between fluids and structures, and complicated multi-scale geometry all add to the complexity of the problem. We provide a brief overview of approaches used to model three aspects of pulmonary fluid and flow: the surfactant layer in the deep branches of the lung, the mucus layer in the upper airway branches, and closure/reopening of the airway. We discuss models of each aspect, the potential to capture biological and therapeutic information, and open questions worthy of further investigation. We hope to promote multi-disciplinary collaboration by providing insights into mathematical descriptions of fluid-mechanics in the lung and the kinds of predictions these models can make. PMID:25096289
System and method measuring fluid flow in a conduit
Ortiz, M.G.; Kidd, T.G.
1999-05-18
A system is described for measuring fluid mass flow in a conduit in which there exists a pressure differential in the fluid between at least two spaced-apart locations in the conduit. The system includes a first pressure transducer disposed in the side of the conduit at a first location for measuring pressure of fluid at that location, a second or more pressure transducers disposed in the side of the conduit at a second location, for making multiple measurements of pressure of fluid in the conduit at that location, and a computer for computing the average pressure of the multiple measurements at the second location and for computing flow rate of fluid in the conduit from the pressure measurement by the first pressure transducer and from the average pressure calculation of the multiple measurements. 3 figs.
System and method measuring fluid flow in a conduit
Ortiz, Marcos German; Kidd, Terrel G.
1999-01-01
A system for measuring fluid mass flow in a conduit in which there exists a pressure differential in the fluid between at least two spaced-apart locations in the conduit. The system includes a first pressure transducer disposed in the side of the conduit at a first location for measuring pressure of fluid at that location, a second or more pressure transducers disposed in the side of the conduit at a second location, for making multiple measurements of pressure of fluid in the conduit at that location, and a computer for computing the average pressure of the multiple measurements at the second location and for computing flow rate of fluid in the conduit from the pressure measurement by the first pressure transducer and from the average pressure calculation of the multiple measurements.
Transonic Flows of Bethe-Zel'dovich-Thompson Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cramer, Mark; Andreyev, Aleksandr
2013-11-01
We examine steady transonic flows of Bethe-Zel'dovich-Thompson (BZT) fluids over thin turbine blades or airfoils. BZT fluids are ordinary fluids having a region of negative fundamental derivative over a finite range of pressures and temperatures in the single phase regime. We present the transonic small disturbance equation, shock jump conditions, and shock existence conditions capable of capturing the qualitative behavior of BZT fluids. The flux function is seen to be quartic in the pressure or density perturbation rather than the quadratic (convex) flux function of the perfect gas theory. We show how this nonconvex flux function can be used to predict and explain the complex flows possible. Numerical solutions using a successive line relaxation (SLR) scheme are presented. New results of interest include shock-splitting, collisions between expansion and compression shocks, two compressive bow shocks in supersonic flows, and the observation of as many as three normal stern shocks following an oblique trailing edge shock.
An Iterative CT Reconstruction Algorithm for Fast Fluid Flow Imaging.
Van Eyndhoven, Geert; Batenburg, K Joost; Kazantsev, Daniil; Van Nieuwenhove, Vincent; Lee, Peter D; Dobson, Katherine J; Sijbers, Jan
2015-11-01
The study of fluid flow through solid matter by computed tomography (CT) imaging has many applications, ranging from petroleum and aquifer engineering to biomedical, manufacturing, and environmental research. To avoid motion artifacts, current experiments are often limited to slow fluid flow dynamics. This severely limits the applicability of the technique. In this paper, a new iterative CT reconstruction algorithm for improved a temporal/spatial resolution in the imaging of fluid flow through solid matter is introduced. The proposed algorithm exploits prior knowledge in two ways. First, the time-varying object is assumed to consist of stationary (the solid matter) and dynamic regions (the fluid flow). Second, the attenuation curve of a particular voxel in the dynamic region is modeled by a piecewise constant function over time, which is in accordance with the actual advancing fluid/air boundary. Quantitative and qualitative results on different simulation experiments and a real neutron tomography data set show that, in comparison with the state-of-the-art algorithms, the proposed algorithm allows reconstruction from substantially fewer projections per rotation without image quality loss. Therefore, the temporal resolution can be substantially increased, and thus fluid flow experiments with faster dynamics can be performed. PMID:26259219
Numerical modeling of fluid flow with rafts: An application to lava flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsepelev, Igor; Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Melnik, Oleg; Korotkii, Alexander
2016-07-01
Although volcanic lava flows do not significantly affect the life of people, its hazard is not negligible as hot lava kills vegetation, destroys infrastructure, and may trigger a flood due to melting of snow/ice. The lava flow hazard can be reduced if the flow patterns are known, and the complexity of the flow with debris is analyzed to assist in disaster risk mitigation. In this paper we develop three-dimensional numerical models of a gravitational flow of multi-phase fluid with rafts (mimicking rigid lava-crust fragments) on a horizontal and topographic surfaces to explore the dynamics and the interaction of lava flows. We have obtained various flow patterns and spatial distribution of rafts depending on conditions at the surface of fluid spreading, obstacles on the way of a fluid flow, raft landing scenarios, and the size of rafts. Furthermore, we analyze two numerical models related to specific lava flows: (i) a model of fluid flow with rafts inside an inclined channel, and (ii) a model of fluid flow from a single vent on an artificial topography, when the fluid density, its viscosity, and the effusion rate vary with time. Although the studied models do not account for lava solidification, crust formation, and its rupture, the results of the modeling may be used for understanding of flows with breccias before a significant lava cooling.
System proportions fluid-flow in response to demand signals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1966-01-01
Control system provides proportioned fluid flow rates in response to demand signals. It compares a digital signal, representing a flow demand, with a reference signal to yield a control voltage to one or more solenoid valves connected to orifices of a predetermined size.
Hydromechanical Modeling of Fluid Flow in the Lower Crust
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Connolly, J.
2011-12-01
The lower crust lies within an ambiguous rheological regime between the brittle upper crust and ductile sub-lithospheric mantle. This ambiguity has allowed two schools of thought to develop concerning the nature of fluid flow in the lower crust. The classical school holds that lower crustal rocks are inviscid and that any fluid generated by metamorphic devolatilization is squeezed out of rocks as rapidly as it is produced. According to this school, permeability is a dynamic property and fluid flow is upward. In contrast, the modern school uses concepts from upper crustal hydrology that presume implicitly, if not explicitly, that rocks are rigid or, at most, brittle. For the modern school, the details of crustal permeability determine fluid flow and as these details are poorly known almost anything is possible. Reality, to the extent that it is reflected by inference from field studies, offers some support to both schools. In particular, evidence of significant lateral and channelized fluid flow are consistent with flow in rigid media, while evidence for short (104 - 105 y) grain-scale fluid-rock interaction during much longer metamorphic events, suggests that reaction-generated grain-scale permeability is sealed rapidly by compaction; a phenomenon that is also essential to prevent extensive retrograde metamorphism. These observations provide a compelling argument for recognizing in conceptual models of lower crustal fluid flow that rocks are neither inviscid nor rigid, but compact by viscous mechanisms on a finite time-scale. This presentation will review the principle consequences of, and obstacles to, incorporating compaction in such models. The role of viscous compaction in the lower crust is extraordinarily uncertain, but ignoring this uncertainty in models of lower crustal fluid flow does not make the models any more certain. Models inevitably invoke an initial steady state hydraulic regime. This initial steady state is critical to model outcomes because it
Fluid migration in the subduction zone: a coupled fluid flow approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hongliang; Huismans, Ritske; Rondenay, Stéphane
2016-04-01
Subduction zone are the main entry point of water into earth's mantle and play an important role in the global water cycle. The progressive release of water by metamorphic dehydration induce important physical-chemical process in the subduction zone, such as hydrous melting, hydration and weakening of the mantle wedge, creation of pore fluid pressures that may weaken the subduction interface and induce earthquakes. Most previous studies on the role of fluids in subduction zones assume vertical migration or migration according to the dynamic pressure in the solid matrix without considering the pore fluid pressure effect on the deformation of the solid matrix. Here we investigate this interaction by explicitly modeling two-phase coupled poro-plastic flow during subduction. In this approach, the fluid migrates by compaction and decompaction of the solid matrix and affects the subduction dynamics through pore fluid pressure dependent frictional-plastic yield. Our preliminary results indicate that: 1) the rate of fluid migration depends strongly on the permeability and the bulk viscosity of the solid matrix, 2) fluid transfer occurs preferentially along the slab and then propagates into the mantle wedge by viscous compaction driven fluid flow, 3) fluid transport from the surface to depth is a prerequisite for producing high fluid pore pressures and associated hydration induced weakening of the subduction zone interface.
A preliminary study to Assess Model Uncertainties in Fluid Flows
Marc Oliver Delchini; Jean C. Ragusa
2009-09-01
The goal of this study is to assess the impact of various flow models for a simplified primary coolant loop of a light water nuclear reactor. The various fluid flow models are based on the Euler equations with an additional friction term, gravity term, momentum source, and energy source. The geometric model is purposefully chosen simple and consists of a one-dimensional (1D) loop system in order to focus the study on the validity of various fluid flow approximations. The 1D loop system is represented by a rectangle; the fluid is heated up along one of the vertical legs and cooled down along the opposite leg. A pressurizer and a pump are included in the horizontal legs. The amount of energy transferred and removed from the system is equal in absolute value along the two vertical legs. The various fluid flow approximations are compressible vs. incompressible, and complete momentum equation vs. Darcy’s approximation. The ultimate goal is to compute the fluid flow models’ uncertainties and, if possible, to generate validity ranges for these models when applied to reactor analysis. We also limit this study to single phase flows with low-Mach numbers. As a result, sound waves carry a very small amount of energy in this particular case. A standard finite volume method is used for the spatial discretization of the system.
Flow over a membrane-covered, fluid-filled cavity
Mongeau, Luc; Frankel, Steven H.
2014-01-01
The flow-induced response of a membrane covering a fluid-filled cavity located in a section of a rigid-walled channel was explored using finite element analysis. The membrane was initially aligned with the channel wall and separated the channel fluid from the cavity fluid. As fluid flowed over the membrane-covered cavity, a streamwise-dependent transmural pressure gradient caused membrane deformation. This model has application to synthetic models of the vocal fold cover layer used in voice production research. In this paper, the model is introduced and responses of the channel flow, the membrane, and the cavity flow are summarized for a range of flow and membrane parameters. It is shown that for high values of cavity fluid viscosity, the intracavity pressure and the beam deflection both reached steady values. For combinations of low cavity viscosity and sufficiently large upstream pressures, large-amplitude membrane vibrations resulted. Asymmetric conditions were introduced by creating cavities on opposing sides of the channel and assigning different stiffness values to the two membranes. The asymmetry resulted in reduction in or cessation of vibration amplitude, depending on the degree of asymmetry, and in significant skewing of the downstream flow field. PMID:24723738
Flow over a membrane-covered, fluid-filled cavity.
Thomson, Scott L; Mongeau, Luc; Frankel, Steven H
2007-01-01
The flow-induced response of a membrane covering a fluid-filled cavity located in a section of a rigid-walled channel was explored using finite element analysis. The membrane was initially aligned with the channel wall and separated the channel fluid from the cavity fluid. As fluid flowed over the membrane-covered cavity, a streamwise-dependent transmural pressure gradient caused membrane deformation. This model has application to synthetic models of the vocal fold cover layer used in voice production research. In this paper, the model is introduced and responses of the channel flow, the membrane, and the cavity flow are summarized for a range of flow and membrane parameters. It is shown that for high values of cavity fluid viscosity, the intracavity pressure and the beam deflection both reached steady values. For combinations of low cavity viscosity and sufficiently large upstream pressures, large-amplitude membrane vibrations resulted. Asymmetric conditions were introduced by creating cavities on opposing sides of the channel and assigning different stiffness values to the two membranes. The asymmetry resulted in reduction in or cessation of vibration amplitude, depending on the degree of asymmetry, and in significant skewing of the downstream flow field. PMID:24723738
A numerical model for dynamic crustal-scale fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sachau, Till; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Koehn, Daniel
2015-04-01
Fluid flow in the crust is often envisaged and modeled as continuous, yet minimal flow, which occurs over large geological times. This is a suitable approximation for flow as long as it is solely controlled by the matrix permeability of rocks, which in turn is controlled by viscous compaction of the pore space. However, strong evidence (hydrothermal veins and ore deposits) exists that a significant part of fluid flow in the crust occurs strongly localized in both space and time, controlled by the opening and sealing of hydrofractures. We developed, tested and applied a novel computer code, which considers this dynamic behavior and couples it with steady, Darcian flow controlled by the matrix permeability. In this dual-porosity model, fractures open depending on the fluid pressure relative to the solid pressure. Fractures form when matrix permeability is insufficient to accommodate fluid flow resulting from compaction, decompression (Staude et al. 2009) or metamorphic dehydration reactions (Weisheit et al. 2013). Open fractures can close when the contained fluid either seeps into the matrix or escapes by fracture propagation: mobile hydrofractures (Bons, 2001). In the model, closing and sealing of fractures is controlled by a time-dependent viscous law, which is based on the effective stress and on either Newtonian or non-Newtonian viscosity. Our simulations indicate that the bulk of crustal fluid flow in the middle to lower upper crust is intermittent, highly self-organized, and occurs as mobile hydrofractures. This is due to the low matrix porosity and permeability, combined with a low matrix viscosity and, hence, fast sealing of fractures. Stable fracture networks, generated by fluid overpressure, are restricted to the uppermost crust. Semi-stable fracture networks can develop in an intermediate zone, if a critical overpressure is reached. Flow rates in mobile hydrofractures exceed those in the matrix porosity and fracture networks by orders of magnitude
Advances in modelling of biomimetic fluid flow at different scales
2011-01-01
The biomimetic flow at different scales has been discussed at length. The need of looking into the biological surfaces and morphologies and both geometrical and physical similarities to imitate the technological products and processes has been emphasized. The complex fluid flow and heat transfer problems, the fluid-interface and the physics involved at multiscale and macro-, meso-, micro- and nano-scales have been discussed. The flow and heat transfer simulation is done by various CFD solvers including Navier-Stokes and energy equations, lattice Boltzmann method and molecular dynamics method. Combined continuum-molecular dynamics method is also reviewed. PMID:21711847
Fluid Flow Technology that Measures Up
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
From 1994 to 1996, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a Center Director's Discretionary Fund research effort to apply artificial intelligence technologies to the health management of plant equipment and space propulsion systems. Through this effort, NASA established a business relationship with Quality Monitoring and Control (QMC), of Kingwood, Texas, to provide hardware modeling and artificial intelligence tools. Very detailed and accurate Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) analysis and algorithms were jointly created, which identified several missing, critical instrumentation needs for adequately evaluating the engine health status. One of the missing instruments was a liquid oxygen (LOX) flow measurement. This instrument was missing since the original SSME included a LOX turbine flow meter that failed during a ground test, resulting in considerable damage for NASA. New balanced flow meter technology addresses this need with robust, safe, and accurate flow metering hardware.
Modelling fluid flow in a reciprocating compressor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tuhovcak, Jan; Hejčík, Jiří; Jícha, Miroslav
2015-05-01
Efficiency of reciprocating compressor is strongly dependent on the valves characteristics, which affects the flow through the suction and discharge line. Understanding the phenomenon inside the compressor is necessary step in development process. Commercial CFD tools offer wide capabilities to simulate the flow inside the reciprocating compressor, however they are too complicated in terms of computational time and mesh creation. Several parameters describing compressor could be therefore examined without the CFD analysis, such is valve characteristic, flow through the cycle and heat transfer. The aim of this paper is to show a numerical tool for reciprocating compressor based on the energy balance through the cycle, which provides valve characteristics, flow through the cycle and heat losses from the cylinder. Spring-damping-mass model was used for the valve description. Boundary conditions were extracted from the performance test of 4-cylinder semihermetic compressor and numerical tool validation was performed with indicated p-V diagram comparison.
Direct numerical simulation of solidification microstructures affected by fluid flow
Juric, D.
1997-12-01
The effects of fluid flow on the solidification morphology of pure materials and solute microsegregation patterns of binary alloys are studied using a computational methodology based on a front tracking/finite difference method. A general single field formulation is presented for the full coupling of phase change, fluid flow, heat and solute transport. This formulation accounts for interfacial rejection/absorption of latent heat and solute, interfacial anisotropies, discontinuities in material properties between the liquid and solid phases, shrinkage/expansion upon solidification and motion and deformation of the solid. Numerical results are presented for the two dimensional dendritic solidification of pure succinonitrile and the solidification of globulitic grains of a plutonium-gallium alloy. For both problems, comparisons are made between solidification without fluid flow and solidification within a shear flow.
A Causal, Covariant Theory of Dissipative Fluid Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scofield, Dillon; Huq, Pablo
2015-04-01
The use of newtonian viscous dissipation theory in covariant fluid flow theories is known to lead to predictions that are inconsistent with the second law of thermodynamics and to predictions that are acausal. For instance, these problems effectively limit the covariant form of the Navier-Stokes theory (NST) to time-independent flow regimes. Thus the NST, the work horse of fluid dynamical theory, is limited in its ability to model time-dependent turbulent, stellar or thermonuclear flows. We show how such problems are avoided by a new geometrodynamical theory of fluids. This theory is based on a recent result of geometrodynamics showing current conservation implies gauge field creation, called the vortex field lemma and classification of flows by their Pfaff dimension. Experimental confirmation of the theory is reviewed.
Spatial and temporal resolution of fluid flows: LDRD final report
Tieszen, S.R.; O`Hern, T.J.; Schefer, R.W.; Perea, L.D.
1998-02-01
This report describes a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) activity to develop a diagnostic technique for simultaneous temporal and spatial resolution of fluid flows. The goal is to obtain two orders of magnitude resolution in two spatial dimensions and time simultaneously. The approach used in this study is to scale up Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) to acquire meter-size images at up to 200 frames/sec. Experiments were conducted in buoyant, fully turbulent, non-reacting and reacting plumes with a base diameter of one meter. The PIV results were successful in the ambient gas for all flows, and in the plume for non-reacting helium and reacting methane, but not reacting hydrogen. No PIV was obtained in the hot combustion product region as the seed particles chosen vaporized. Weak signals prevented PLIF in the helium. However, in reacting methane flows, PLIF images speculated to be from Poly-Aromatic-Hydrocarbons were obtained which mark the flame sheets. The results were unexpected and very insightful. A natural fluorescence from the seed particle vapor was also noted in the hydrogen tests.
Complexity analysis of the turbulent environmental fluid flow time series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mihailović, D. T.; Nikolić-Đorić, E.; Drešković, N.; Mimić, G.
2014-02-01
We have used the Kolmogorov complexities, sample and permutation entropies to quantify the randomness degree in river flow time series of two mountain rivers in Bosnia and Herzegovina, representing the turbulent environmental fluid, for the period 1926-1990. In particular, we have examined the monthly river flow time series from two rivers (the Miljacka and the Bosnia) in the mountain part of their flow and then calculated the Kolmogorov complexity (KL) based on the Lempel-Ziv Algorithm (LZA) (lower-KLL and upper-KLU), sample entropy (SE) and permutation entropy (PE) values for each time series. The results indicate that the KLL, KLU, SE and PE values in two rivers are close to each other regardless of the amplitude differences in their monthly flow rates. We have illustrated the changes in mountain river flow complexity by experiments using (i) the data set for the Bosnia River and (ii) anticipated human activities and projected climate changes. We have explored the sensitivity of considered measures in dependence on the length of time series. In addition, we have divided the period 1926-1990 into three subintervals: (a) 1926-1945, (b) 1946-1965, (c) 1966-1990, and calculated the KLL, KLU, SE, PE values for the various time series in these subintervals. It is found that during the period 1946-1965, there is a decrease in their complexities, and corresponding changes in the SE and PE, in comparison to the period 1926-1990. This complexity loss may be primarily attributed to (i) human interventions, after the Second World War, on these two rivers because of their use for water consumption and (ii) climate change in recent times.
Calcium response in osteocytic networks under steady and oscillatory fluid flow.
Lu, X Lucas; Huo, Bo; Park, Miri; Guo, X Edward
2012-09-01
The fluid flow in the lacunar-canalicular system of bone is an essential mechanical stimulation on the osteocyte networks. Due to the complexity of human physical activities, the fluid shear stress on osteocyte bodies and processes consists of both steady and oscillatory components. In this study, we investigated and compared the intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) responses of osteocytic networks under steady and oscillatory fluid flows. An in vitro osteocytic network was built with MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells using micro-patterning techniques to simulate the in vivo orderly organization of osteocyte networks. Sinusoidal oscillating fluid flow or unidirectional steady flow was applied on the cell surface with 2Pa peak shear stress. It was found that the osteocytic networks were significantly more responsive to steady flow than to oscillatory flow. The osteocytes can release more calcium peaks with higher magnitudes at a faster speed under steady flow stimulation. The [Ca(2+)](i) signaling transients under the steady and oscillatory flows have significantly different spatiotemporal characters, but a similar responsive percentage of cells. Further signaling pathway studies using inhibitors showed that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium store, extracellular calcium source, ATP, PGE(2) and NO related pathways play similar roles in the [Ca(2+)](i) signaling of osteocytes under either steady or oscillating flow. The spatiotemporal characteristics of [Ca(2+)](i) transients under oscillating fluid flow are affected more profoundly by pharmacological treatments than under the steady flow. Our findings support the hypothesis that the [Ca(2+)](i) responses of osteocytic networks are significantly dependent on the profiles of fluid flow. PMID:22750013
The fluid mechanics of continuous flow electrophoresis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saville, D. A.
1990-01-01
The overall objective is to establish theoretically and confirm experimentally the ultimate capabilities of continuous flow electrophoresis chambers operating in an environment essentially free of particle sedimentation and buoyancy. The efforts are devoted to: (1) studying the effects of particle concentration on sample conductivity and dielectric constant. The dielectric constant and conductivity were identified as playing crucial roles in the behavior of the sample and on the resolving power and throughput of continuous flow devices; and (2) improving the extant mathematical models to predict flow fields and particle trajectories in continuous flow electrophoresis. A dielectric spectrometer was designed and built to measure the complex dielectric constant of a colloidal dispersion as a function of frequency between 500 Hz and 200 kHz. The real part of the signal can be related to the sample's conductivity and the imaginary part to its dielectric constant. Measurements of the dielectric constants of several different dispersions disclosed that the dielectric constants of dilute systems of the sort encountered in particle electrophoresis are much larger than would be expected based on the extant theory. Experiments were carried out to show that, in many cases, this behavior is due to the presence of a filamentary structure of small hairs on the particle surface. A technique for producing electrokinetically ideal synthetic latex particles by heat treating was developed. Given the ubiquitous nature of hairy surfaces with both cells and synthetic particles, it was deemed necessary to develop a theory to explain their behavior. A theory for electrophoretic mobility of hairy particles was developed. Finally, the extant computer programs for predicting the structure of electro-osmotically driven flows were extended to encompass flow channels with variable wall mobilities.
Particle Deposition in a Two-Fluid Flow Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yap, Yit Fatt; Goharzadeh, Afshin; Vargas, Francisco M.; John Chai, Chee Kiong
2014-11-01
The formation of particle deposit on surfaces occurs in many applications. For example, in the oil and gas industry, deposition of wax, hydrates and asphaltene reduces flows and clogs pipelines eventually if left untreated. Removal of the deposits is costly as it disrupts production. To further complicate the problem, the main flow carrying the depositing particles is often of a multi-phase nature. Successful mitigation effort requires good understanding and eventual prediction of the deposition process interacting within a multiphase flow environment. This work presents a model for prediction of particle deposition in a two-fluid flow environment. Modeling of the process is challenging as there are two unknown evolving interfaces, i.e. the fluid-fluid interface and the depositing front. Both interfaces are captured via the level-set method. The deposition at the depositing front is modeled as a first order reaction. The two immiscible fluids are modeled using the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Solution of the equations is implemented using a finite volume method. The model is then verified against known solutions. Preliminary results on deposition process in a two-fluid flow environment are presented. ADNOC R&D Oil-Sub Committee.
Fluid dynamics following flow shut-off in bottle filling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thete, Sumeet; Appathurai, Santosh; Gao, Haijing; Basaran, Osman
2012-11-01
Bottle filling is ubiquitous in industry. Examples include filling of bottles with shampoos and cleaners, engine oil and pharmaceuticals. In these examples, fluid flows out of a nozzle to fill bottles in an assembly line. Once the required volume of fluid has flowed out of the nozzle, the flow is shut off. However, an evolving fluid thread or string may remain suspended from the nozzle following flow shut-off and persist. This stringing phenomenon can be detrimental to a bottle filling operation because it can adversely affect line speed and filling accuracy by causing uncertainty in fill volume, product loss and undesirable marring of the bottles' exterior surfaces. The dynamics of stringing are studied numerically primarily by using the 1D, slender-jet approximation of the flow equations. A novel feature entails development and use of a new boundary condition downstream of the nozzle exit to expedite the computations. While the emphasis is on stringing of Newtonian fluids and use of 1D approximations, results will also be presented for situations where (a) the fluids are non-Newtonian and (b) the full set of equations are solved without invoking the 1D approximation. Phase diagrams will be presented that identify conditions for which stringing can be problematic.
Method, apparatus and system for controlling fluid flow
McMurtrey, Ryan D.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Burch, Joesph V.
2007-10-30
A system, apparatus and method of controlling the flow of a fluid are provided. In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, a flow control device includes a valve having a flow path defined therethrough and a valve seat in communication with the flow path with a valve stem disposed in the valve seat. The valve stem and valve seat are cooperatively configured to cause mutual relative linear displacement thereof in response to rotation of the valve stem. A gear member is coupled with the rotary stem and a linear positioning member includes a portion which complementarily engages the gear member. Upon displacement of the linear positioning member along a first axis, the gear member and rotary valve stem are rotated about a second axis and the valve stem and valve seat are mutually linearly displaced to alter the flow of fluid through the valve.
Regulation of tumor invasion by interstitial fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shieh, Adrian C.; Swartz, Melody A.
2011-02-01
The importance of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression is undisputed, yet the significance of biophysical forces in the microenvironment remains poorly understood. Interstitial fluid flow is a nearly ubiquitous and physiologically relevant biophysical force that is elevated in tumors because of tumor-associated angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, as well as changes in the tumor stroma. Not only does it apply physical forces to cells directly, but interstitial flow also creates gradients of soluble signals in the tumor microenvironment, thus influencing cell behavior and modulating cell-cell interactions. In this paper, we highlight our current understanding of interstitial fluid flow in the context of the tumor, focusing on the physical changes that lead to elevated interstitial flow, how cells sense flow and how they respond to changes in interstitial flow. In particular, we emphasize that interstitial flow can directly promote tumor cell invasion through a mechanism known as autologous chemotaxis, and indirectly support tumor invasion via both biophysical and biochemical cues generated by stromal cells. Thus, interstitial fluid flow demonstrates how important biophysical factors are in cancer, both by modulating cell behavior and coupling biophysical and biochemical signals.
Computerized tomographic analysis of fluid flow in fractured tuff
Felice, C.W.; Sharer, J.C. ); Springer, E.P. )
1992-01-01
The purpose of this summary is to demonstrate the usefulness of X-ray computerized tomography to observe fluid flow down a fracture and rock matrix imbibition in a sample of Bandelier tuff. This was accomplished by using a tuff sample 152.4 mm long and 50.8 mm in diameter. A longitudinal fracture was created by cutting the core with a wire saw. The fractured piece was then coupled to its adjacent section to that the fracture was not expected. Water was injected into a dry sample at five flow rates and CT scanning performed at set intervals during the flow. Cross sectional images and longitudinal reconstructions were built and saturation profiles calculated for the sample at each time interval at each flow rate. The results showed that for the test conditions, the fracture was not a primary pathway of fluid flow down the sample. At a slow fluid injection rate into the dry sample, the fluid was imbibed into the rock uniformly down the length of the core. With increasing injection rates, the flow remained uniform over the core cross section through complete saturation.
Flow lasers. [fluid mechanics of high power continuous output operations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Christiansen, W. H.; Russell, D. A.; Hertzberg, A.
1975-01-01
The present work reviews the fluid-mechanical aspects of high-power continuous-wave (CW) lasers. The flow characteristics of these devices appear as classical fluid-mechanical phenomena recast in a complicated interactive environment. The fundamentals of high-power lasers are reviewed, followed by a discussion of the N2-CO2 gas dynamic laser. Next, the HF/DF supersonic diffusion laser is described, and finally the CO electrical-discharge laser is discussed.
Studies of fluid flow indicators, Pacific margin of Costa Rica
Silver, E.; McAdoo, B.; Langseth, M.; Orange, D.
1996-12-31
Seismic reflection profiles off Costa Rica image a decrease in thickness of the underthrust sedimentary section from the Middle America Trench, implying a significant reduction of porosity in the outer 3-5 km from the trench and a source of vent water through the wedge. We encountered no evidence of discrete fluid venting over the outer 3-5 km of this margin from dives using the ALVIN submersible or from heat flow measurements (based on absence of chemosynthetic vent communities and heat flow anomalies in this zone). Vent communities occur farther upslope, associated with a series of out-of-sequence thrusts, with two mud diapirs, and a mid-slope canyon. We infer that fracture permeability dominates in the out-of-sequence thrusts, upflow of fluid-rich muds in the diapir, and focusing of fluid flow in the canyon. Over 100 heat flow observations on the wedge and incoming COCOS plate showed a broad area of anomalously low heat flow (13 mW/m{sup 2}) seaward of the frontal thrust, whereas the expected heat flow for ocean crust of early Miocene age is seven times greater. The very low regional heat flow may reflect refrigeration by vigorous sea water flow through the upper crust pillow basalts. Heat flow increases to about 30 mW/m{sup 2} throughout the lower slope to mid-slope, implying a combination of widespread fluid venting, reheating of the cooled crust and frictional heating at the base of the wedge. The lack of discrete vents over the outer 3-5 km of the margin indicates diffuse flow and likely temporal episodicity, as this region has been aseismic since 1950.
Studies of fluid flow indicators, Pacific margin of Costa Rica
Silver, E.; McAdoo, B. ); Langseth, M. ); Orange, D. )
1996-01-01
Seismic reflection profiles off Costa Rica image a decrease in thickness of the underthrust sedimentary section from the Middle America Trench, implying a significant reduction of porosity in the outer 3-5 km from the trench and a source of vent water through the wedge. We encountered no evidence of discrete fluid venting over the outer 3-5 km of this margin from dives using the ALVIN submersible or from heat flow measurements (based on absence of chemosynthetic vent communities and heat flow anomalies in this zone). Vent communities occur farther upslope, associated with a series of out-of-sequence thrusts, with two mud diapirs, and a mid-slope canyon. We infer that fracture permeability dominates in the out-of-sequence thrusts, upflow of fluid-rich muds in the diapir, and focusing of fluid flow in the canyon. Over 100 heat flow observations on the wedge and incoming COCOS plate showed a broad area of anomalously low heat flow (13 mW/m[sup 2]) seaward of the frontal thrust, whereas the expected heat flow for ocean crust of early Miocene age is seven times greater. The very low regional heat flow may reflect refrigeration by vigorous sea water flow through the upper crust pillow basalts. Heat flow increases to about 30 mW/m[sup 2] throughout the lower slope to mid-slope, implying a combination of widespread fluid venting, reheating of the cooled crust and frictional heating at the base of the wedge. The lack of discrete vents over the outer 3-5 km of the margin indicates diffuse flow and likely temporal episodicity, as this region has been aseismic since 1950.
Triangular spectral elements for incompressible fluid flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, C.; Vanrosendale, John
1993-01-01
We discuss the use of triangular elements in the spectral element method for direct simulation of incompressible flow. Triangles provide much greater geometric flexibility than quadrilateral elements and are better conditioned and more accurate when small angles arise. We employ a family of tensor product algorithms for triangles, allowing triangular elements to be handled with comparable arithmetic complexity to quadrilateral elements. The triangular discretizations are applied and validated on the Poisson equation. These discretizations are then applied to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and a laminar channel flow solution is given. These new triangular spectral elements can be combined with standard quadrilateral elements, yielding a general and flexible high order method for complex geometries in two dimensions.
Fluid flow and chemical reaction kinetics in metamorphic systems
Lasaga, A.C.; Rye, D.M. )
1993-05-01
The treatment and effects of chemical reaction kinetics during metamorphism are developed along with the incorporation of fluid flow, diffusion, and thermal evolution. The interplay of fluid flow and surface reaction rates, the distinction between steady state and equilibrium, and the possible overstepping of metamorphic reactions are discussed using a simple analytic model. This model serves as an introduction to the second part of the paper, which develops a reaction model that solves the coupled temperature-fluid flow-chemical composition differential equations relevant to metamorphic processes. Consideration of stable isotopic evidence requires that such a kinetic model be considered for the chemical evolution of a metamorphic aureole. A general numerical scheme is discussed to handle the solution of the model. The results of this kinetic model allow us to reach several important conclusions regarding the factors controlling the chemical evolution of mineral assemblages during a metamorphic event. 41 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.
Numerical computational of fluid flow through a detached retina
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiann, Lim Yeou; Ismail, Zuhaila; Shafie, Sharidan; Fitt, Alistair
2015-02-01
In this paper, a phenomenon of fluid flow through a detached retina is studied. Rhegmatogeneous retinal detachment happens when vitreous humour flow through a detached retina. The exact mechanism of Rhegmatogeneous retinal detachment is complex and remains incomplete. To understand the fluid flow, a paradigm mathematical model is developed and is approximated by the lubrication theory. The numerical results of the velocity profile and pressure distribution are computed by using Finite Element Method. The effects of fluid mechanical on the retinal detachment is discussed and analyzed. Based on the analysis, it is found that the retinal detachment deformation affects the pressure distribution. It is important to comprehend the development of the retinal detachment so that a new treatment method can be developed.
Fluid flow in nanopores: Accurate boundary conditions for carbon nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokhan, Vladimir P.; Nicholson, David; Quirke, Nicholas
2002-11-01
Steady-state Poiseuille flow of a simple fluid in carbon nanopores under a gravitylike force is simulated using a realistic empirical many-body potential model for carbon. Building on our previous study of slit carbon nanopores we show that fluid flow in a nanotube is also characterized by a large slip length. By analyzing temporal profiles of the velocity components of particles colliding with the wall we obtain values of the Maxwell coefficient defining the fraction of molecules thermalized by the wall and, for the first time, propose slip boundary conditions for smooth continuum surfaces such that they are equivalent in adsorption, diffusion, and fluid flow properties to fully dynamic atomistic models.
Modeling of fluid and heat flow in fractured geothermal reservoirs
Pruess, K.
1988-08-01
In most geothermal reservoirs large-scale permeability is dominated by fractures, while most of the heat and fluid reserves are stored in the rock matrix. Early-time fluid production comes mostly from the readily accessible fracture volume, while reservoir behavior at later time depends upon the ease with which fluid and heat can be transferred from the rock matrix to the fractures. Methods for modeling flow in fractured porous media must be able to deal with this matrix-fracture exchange, the so-called interporosity flow. This paper reviews recent work at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory on numerical modeling of nonisothermal multiphase flow in fractured porous media. We also give a brief summary of simulation applications to problems in geothermal production and reinjection. 29 refs., 1 fig.
Multiphase Flow of Immiscible Fluids on Unstructured Moving Meshes.
Misztal, Marek K; Erleben, Kenny; Bargteil, Adam; Fursund, Jens; Christensen, Brian Bunch; Bærentzen, J Andreas; Bridson, Robert
2013-07-01
In this paper, we present a method for animating multiphase flow of immiscible fluids using unstructured moving meshes. Our underlying discretization is an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, the deformable simplicial complex (DSC), that moves with the flow in a Lagrangian manner. Mesh optimization operations improve element quality and avoid element inversion. In the context of multiphase flow, we guarantee that every element is occupied by a single fluid and, consequently, the interface between fluids is represented by a set of faces in the simplicial complex. This approach ensures that the underlying discretization matches the physics and avoids the additional book-keeping required in grid-based methods where multiple fluids may occupy the same cell. Our Lagrangian approach naturally leads us to adopt a finite element approach to simulation, in contrast to the finite volume approaches adopted by a majority of fluid simulation techniques that use tetrahedral meshes. We characterize fluid simulation as an optimization problem allowing for full coupling of the pressure and velocity fields and the incorporation of a second-order surface energy. We introduce a preconditioner based on the diagonal Schur complement and solve our optimization on the GPU. We provide the results of parameter studies as well as a performance analysis of our method, together with suggestions for performance optimization. PMID:23836703
Multiphase flow of immiscible fluids on unstructured moving meshes.
Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Erleben, Kenny; Bargteil, Adam; Fursund, Jens; Christensen, Brian Bunch; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Bridson, Robert
2014-01-01
In this paper, we present a method for animating multiphase flow of immiscible fluids using unstructured moving meshes. Our underlying discretization is an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, the deformable simplicial complex (DSC), that moves with the flow in a Lagrangian manner. Mesh optimization operations improve element quality and avoid element inversion. In the context of multiphase flow, we guarantee that every element is occupied by a single fluid and, consequently, the interface between fluids is represented by a set of faces in the simplicial complex. This approach ensures that the underlying discretization matches the physics and avoids the additional book-keeping required in grid-based methods where multiple fluids may occupy the same cell. Our Lagrangian approach naturally leads us to adopt a finite element approach to simulation, in contrast to the finite volume approaches adopted by a majority of fluid simulation techniques that use tetrahedral meshes. We characterize fluid simulation as an optimization problem allowing for full coupling of the pressure and velocity fields and the incorporation of a second-order surface energy. We introduce a preconditioner based on the diagonal Schur complement and solve our optimization on the GPU. We provide the results of parameter studies as well as a performance analysis of our method, together with suggestions for performance optimization. PMID:24201322
Analysis for flow of Jeffrey fluid with nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayat, T.; Asad, Sadia; Alsaedi, A.
2015-04-01
An analysis of the boundary layer flow and heat transfer in a Jeffrey fluid containing nanoparticles is presented in this paper. Here, fluid motion is due to a stretchable cylinder. The thermal conductivity of the fluid is taken to be temperature-dependent. The partial differential equations of velocity, temperature, and concentration fields are transformed to a dimensionless system of ordinary differential equations. Nonlinear governing analysis is computed for the homotopy solutions. The behaviors of Brownian motion and thermophoresis diffusion of nanoparticles have been examined graphically. Numerical values of the local Nusselt number are computed and analyzed.
Apparatus for controlling fluid flow in a conduit wall
Glass, S. Jill; Nicolaysen, Scott D.; Beauchamp, Edwin K.
2003-05-13
A frangible rupture disk and mounting apparatus for use in blocking fluid flow, generally in a fluid conducting conduit such as a well casing, a well tubing string or other conduits within subterranean boreholes. The disk can also be utilized in above-surface pipes or tanks where temporary and controllable fluid blockage is required. The frangible rupture disk is made from a pre-stressed glass with controllable rupture properties wherein the strength distribution has a standard deviation less than approximately 5% from the mean strength. The frangible rupture disk has controllable operating pressures and rupture pressures.
Superfluid-like dynamics in active vortex fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slomka, Jonasz; Dunkel, Jorn
Active biological fluids exhibit rich non-equilibrium dynamics and share striking similarities with quantum fluids, from vortex formation and magnetic ordering to superfluid-like behavior. Building on universality ideas, we have recently proposed a generalization of the Navier-Stokes equations that captures qualitatively the active bulk flow structures observed in bacterial suspensions. Here, we present new numerical simulations that explicitly account for boundary and shear effects. The theory successfully reproduces recent experimental observations of bacterial suspensions, including a superfluid-like regime of nearly vanishing shear viscosity. Our simulations further predict a geometry-induced 'quantization' of viscosity and the existence of excited states capable of performing mechanical work. It is plausible that these results generalize to a broad a class of fluids that are subject to an active scale selection mechanism.
Synchronous droplets as a test bed for pulsatory active fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katsikis, Georgios; Prakash, Manu
2014-11-01
Collective behavior in many-body systems has been studied extensively focusing on a wide range of interacting entities including: flocking animals, sedimenting particles and microfluidic droplets among others. Here, we propose an experimental platform to explore an oscillatory active fluid with synchronous ferrofluid droplets immersed in an immiscible carrier fluid in a Hele-Shaw configuration. The droplets are organized and actuated on a 2-D uniform grid through application of a precessive magnetic field. The state of our system is dependent on three parameters: the grid occupancy with fluid droplets, the grid geometry and the magnetic field. We study the long range orientational order of our system over a range of those parameters by tracking the motion of the droplets and analyzing the PIV data of the carrier fluid flow. Numerical simulations are juxtaposed with experimental data for prediction of the system's behavior.
Fluid flow from a low to a higher density liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinberg, F.
1984-12-01
The penetration of liquid from a low density brine solution into a higher density solution below it has been measured as a function of vertical flow velocity and the density difference of the two solutions. The flow velocity was produced by a horizontal disc rotating in the low density liquid. The results show the penetration distance and penetration rate are dependent on flow velocity and in particular are very sensitive to small changes in the density difference between the two liquids. The observations are considered in relation to liquid penetration into dendritic arrays, and fluid flow in the pool of ingots and continuously cast steel billets, during solidification.
Rotation of a rod system containing inertial fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sergeev, A. D.
2012-11-01
This paper considers a rod system for which it is possible to correctly formulate and solve the problem of three-dimensional motion in the physical space of an elastic pipeline area containing inertial incompressible fluid flow. The precession of the axis of an elastic pipeline along which inertial incompressible fluid flows is described, a physical phenomenon which has not been previously studied. With the use of rigid body dynamics, it was theoretically established that a three-dimensional dynamic process is possible in an open (exchanging mass with the environment) elastic-inertial rod system.
Using artificial intelligence to control fluid flow computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gelsey, Andrew
1992-01-01
Computational simulation is an essential tool for the prediction of fluid flow. Many powerful simulation programs exist today. However, using these programs to reliably analyze fluid flow and other physical situations requires considerable human effort and expertise to set up a simulation, determine whether the output makes sense, and repeatedly run the simulation with different inputs until a satisfactory result is achieved. Automating this process is not only of considerable practical importance but will also significantly advance basic artificial intelligence (AI) research in reasoning about the physical world.
Balanced Flow Metering and Conditioning: Technology for Fluid Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelley, Anthony R.
2006-01-01
Revolutionary new technology that creates balanced conditions across the face of a multi-hole orifice plate has been developed, patented and exclusively licensed for commercialization. This balanced flow technology simultaneously measures mass flow rate, volumetric flow rate, and fluid density with little or no straight pipe run requirements. Initially, the balanced plate was a drop in replacement for a traditional orifice plate, but testing revealed substantially better performance as compared to the orifice plate such as, 10 times better accuracy, 2 times faster (shorter distance) pressure recovery, 15 times less acoustic noise energy generation, and 2.5 times less permanent pressure loss. During 2004 testing at MSFC, testing revealed several configurations of the balanced flow meter that match the accuracy of Venturi meters while having only slightly more permanent pressure loss. However, the balanced meter only requires a 0.25 inch plate and has no upstream or downstream straight pipe requirements. As a fluid conditioning device, the fluid usually reaches fully developed flow within 1 pipe diameter of the balanced conditioning plate. This paper will describe the basic balanced flow metering technology, provide performance details generated by testing to date and provide implementation details along with calculations required for differing degrees of flow metering accuracy.
A thermal stack structure for measurement of fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Hao; Mitchell, S. J. N.; Campbell, D. H.; Gamble, Harold S.
2003-03-01
A stacked thermal structure for fluid flow sensing has been designed, fabricated, and tested. A double-layer polysilicon process was employed in the fabrication. Flow measurement is based on the transfer of heat from a temperature sensor element to the moving fluid. The undoped or lightly doped polysilicon temperature sensor is located on top of a heavily doped polysilicon heater element. A dielectric layer between the heater and the sensor elements provides both thermal coupling and electrical isolation. In comparison to a hot-wire flow sensor, the heating and sensing functions are separated, allowing the electrical characteristics of each to be optimized. Undoped polysilicon has a large temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) up to 7 %/K and is thus a preferred material for the sensor. However, heavily doped polysilicon is preferred for the heater due to its lower resistance. The stacked flow sensor structure offers a high thermal sensitivity making it especially suitable for medical applications where the working temperatures are restricted. Flow rates of various fluids can be measured over a wide range. The fabricated flow sensors were used to measure the flow rate of water in the range μl - ml/min and gas (Helium) in the range 10 - 100ml/min.
Beyond poiseuille: preservation fluid flow in an experimental model.
Singh, Saurabh; Randle, Lucy V; Callaghan, Paul T; Watson, Christopher J E; Callaghan, Chris J
2013-01-01
Poiseuille's equation describes the relationship between fluid viscosity, pressure, tubing diameter, and flow, yet it is not known if cold organ perfusion systems follow this equation. We investigated these relationships in an ex vivo model and aimed to offer some rationale for equipment selection. Increasing the cannula size from 14 to 20 Fr increased flow rate by a mean (SD) of 13 (12)%. Marshall's hyperosmolar citrate was three times less viscous than UW solution, but flows were only 45% faster. Doubling the bag pressure led to a mean (SD) flow rate increase of only 19 (13)%, not twice the rate. When external pressure devices were used, 100 mmHg of continuous pressure increased flow by a mean (SD) of 43 (17)% when compared to the same pressure applied initially only. Poiseuille's equation was not followed; this is most likely due to "slipping" of preservation fluid within the plastic tubing. Cannula size made little difference over the ranges examined; flows are primarily determined by bag pressure and fluid viscosity. External infusor devices require continuous pressurisation to deliver high flow. Future studies examining the impact of perfusion variables on graft outcomes should include detailed equipment descriptions. PMID:24062943
Beyond Poiseuille: Preservation Fluid Flow in an Experimental Model
Singh, Saurabh; Randle, Lucy V.; Callaghan, Paul T.; Watson, Christopher J. E.; Callaghan, Chris J.
2013-01-01
Poiseuille's equation describes the relationship between fluid viscosity, pressure, tubing diameter, and flow, yet it is not known if cold organ perfusion systems follow this equation. We investigated these relationships in an ex vivo model and aimed to offer some rationale for equipment selection. Increasing the cannula size from 14 to 20 Fr increased flow rate by a mean (SD) of 13 (12)%. Marshall's hyperosmolar citrate was three times less viscous than UW solution, but flows were only 45% faster. Doubling the bag pressure led to a mean (SD) flow rate increase of only 19 (13)%, not twice the rate. When external pressure devices were used, 100 mmHg of continuous pressure increased flow by a mean (SD) of 43 (17)% when compared to the same pressure applied initially only. Poiseuille's equation was not followed; this is most likely due to “slipping” of preservation fluid within the plastic tubing. Cannula size made little difference over the ranges examined; flows are primarily determined by bag pressure and fluid viscosity. External infusor devices require continuous pressurisation to deliver high flow. Future studies examining the impact of perfusion variables on graft outcomes should include detailed equipment descriptions. PMID:24062943
On two-dimensional flows of compressible fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergman, Stefan
1945-01-01
This report is devoted to the study of two-dimensional steady motion of a compressible fluid. It is shown that the complete flow pattern around a closed obstacle cannot be obtained by the method of Chaplygin. In order to overcome this difficulty, a formula for the stream-function of a two-dimensional subsonic flow is derived. The formula involves an arbitrary function of a complex variable and yields all possible subsonic flow patterns of certain types. Conditions are given so that the flow pattern in the physical plane will represent a flow around a closed curve. The formula obtained can be employed for the approximate determination of a subsonic flow around an obstacle. The method can be extended to partially supersonic flows.
Dynamics of a fluid flow on Mars: lava or mud?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, L.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.
2013-12-01
We have identified an enigmatic flow in S.W. Cerberus Fossae, Mars. The flow originates from an almost circular pit within a remnant of a yardang at 0.58 degrees N, 155.28 degrees E, within the lower unit of the Medusae Fossae Formation. The flow is ~42 km long and 0.5 to 2.0 km wide. The surface textures of the resulting deposit show that the material flowed in such a way that the various deformation patterns on its surface were generally preserved as it moved, only being distorted or disrupted when the flow encountered major topographic obstacles or was forced to make rapid changes of direction. This observation of a stiff, generally undeformed surface layer overlying a relatively mobile base suggests that, while it was moving, the fluid material flowed in a laminar, and possibly non-Newtonian, fashion. The least-complicated non-Newtonian fluids are Bingham plastics. On this basis we use measurements of flow width, length, thickness and substrate slope obtained from images, a DEM constructed from stereo pairs of Context Camera (CTX) images, and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) altimetry points to deduce the rheological properties of the fluid, treating it as both a Newtonian and a Bingham material for comparison. The Newtonian option requires the fluid to have a viscosity close to 100 Pa s and to have flowed everywhere in a turbulent fashion. The Bingham option requires laminar flow, a plastic viscosity close to 1 Pa s, and a yield strength of ~185 Pa. We compare these parameters values with those of various environmental fluids on Earth in an attempt to narrow the range of possible materials forming the martian flow. A mafic to ultramafic lava would fit the Newtonian option but the required turbulence does not seem consistent with the surface textures. The Bingham option satisfies the morphological constraint of laminar motion if the material is a mud flow consisting of ~40% water and ~60% silt-sized silicate solids. Elsewhere on Mars, deposits with similar
Squeeze Flow of Yield Stress Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelot, David; Yarin, Alexander
2014-03-01
The squeeze flow of yield stress materials are investigated using a non-invasive optical technique. In the experiments, cylindrically-shaped samples of Carbopol solutions and Bentonite dispersions are rapidly compressed between two transparent plates using a constant force and the instantaneous cross-sectional area is recorded as a function of time using a high speed CCD camera. Furthermore, visualization of the boundary reveals that the no-slip condition holds. In addition, shear experiments are conducted using parallel-plate and vane viscometers. The material exhibits first a fast stage of squeezing in which the normal stresses dominate and viscosity plays the main role. Then, the second (slow) stage sets in where the material exhibits a slow deformation dominated by yield stress. At the end, the deformation process is arrested by yield stress. The material response is attributed to the Bingham-like or Herschel-Bulkley-like rheological behavior. Squeeze flow is developed into a convenient and simple tool for studying yield stress materials. This work is supported by the United States Gypsum Corp.
Cerebrospinal Fluid Flow Studies and Recent Advancements.
Kelly, Erin J; Yamada, Shinya
2016-04-01
This article provides an overview of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques used to assess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) movement in the central nervous system (CNS), including Phase-Contrast (PC), Time-Spatial Labeling Inversion Pulse, and simultaneous multi slice echo planar phase contrast imaging. These techniques have been used to assess CSF movement in the CNS under normal and pathophysiological situations. PC can quantitatively measure stroke volume in selected regions, particularly the aqueduct of Sylvius, as synchronized to the heartbeat. The PC is frequently used to investigate those patients with suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus and a Chiari I malformation. Time-Spatial Labeling Inversion Pulse, with high signal-to-noise ratio, captures motion of CSF anywhere in the CNS over a time period of up to 5 seconds. Variations of PC-MRI improved temporal resolution and included contributions from respiration. With non-invasive imaging such as these, more can be understood about CSF dynamics, especially with respect to the relative effects of cardiac and respiratory changes on CSF movement. PMID:27063659
Modeling the Effect of Fluid Flow on a Growing Network of Fractures in a Porous Medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alhashim, Mohammed; Koch, Donald
2015-11-01
The injection of a viscous fluid at high pressure in a geological formation induces the fracturing of pre-existing joints. Assuming a constant solid-matrix stress field, a weak joint saturated with fluid is fractured when the fluid pressure exceeds a critical value that depends on the joint's orientation. In this work, the formation of a network of fractures in a porous medium is modeled. When the average length of the fractures is much smaller than the radius of a cluster of fractured joints, the fluid flow within the network can be described as Darcy flow in a permeable medium consisting of the fracture network. The permeability and porosity of the medium are functions of the number density of activated joints and consequently depend on the fluid pressure. We demonstrate conditions under which these relationships can be derived from percolation theory. Fluid may also be lost from the fracture network by flowing into the permeable rock matrix. The solution of the model shows that the cluster radius grows as a power law with time in two regimes: (1) an intermediate time regime when the network contains many fractures but fluid loss is negligible; and (2) a long time regime when fluid loss dominates. In both regimes, the power law exponent depends on the Euclidean dimension and the injection rate dependence on time.
Flow in left atrium using MR fluid motion estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Kelvin K. L.; Kelso, Richard M.; Worthley, Steve M.; Sanders, Prash; Mazumdar, Jagannath; Abbott, Derek
2007-12-01
A recent development based on optical flow applied onto Fast Imaging in Steady State Free Precession (TrueFISP) magnetic resonance imaging is able to deliver good estimation of the flow profile in the human heart chamber. The examination of cardiac flow based on tracking of MR signals emitted by moving blood is able to give medical doctors insight into the flow patterns within the human heart using standard MRI procedure without specifically subjecting the patient to longer scan times using more dedicated scan protocols such as phase contrast MRI. Although MR fluid motion estimation has its limitations in terms of accurate flow mapping, the use of a comparatively quick scan procedure and computational post-processing gives satisfactory flow quantification and can assist in management of cardiac patients. In this study, we present flow in the left atria of five human subjects using MR fluid motion tracking. The measured flow shows that vortices exist within the atrium of heart. Although the scan is two-dimensional, we have produced multiple slices of flow maps in a spatial direction to show that the vortex exist in a three-dimensional space.
Seals/Secondary Fluid Flows Workshop 1997; Volume I
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)
2006-01-01
The 1997 Conference provided discussions and data on (a) program overviews, (b) developments in seals and secondary air management systems, (c) interactive seals flows with secondary air or fluid flows and powerstream flows, (d) views of engine externals and limitations, (e) high speed engine research sealing needs and demands, and (f) a short course on engine design development margins. Sealing concepts discussed include, mechanical rim and cavity seals, leaf, finger, air/oil, rope, floating-brush, floating-T-buffer, and brush seals. Engine externals include all components of engine fluid systems, sensors and their support structures that lie within or project through the nacelle. The clean features of the nacelle belie the minefield of challenges and opportunities that lie within. Seals; Secondary air flows; Rotordynamics; Gas turbine; Aircraft; CFD; Testing; Turbomachinery
Fluid-flow-induced flutter of a flag
Argentina, Médéric; Mahadevan, L.
2005-01-01
We give an explanation for the onset of fluid-flow-induced flutter in a flag. Our theory accounts for the various physical mechanisms at work: the finite length and the small but finite bending stiffness of the flag, the unsteadiness of the flow, the added mass effect, and vortex shedding from the trailing edge. Our analysis allows us to predict a critical speed for the onset of flapping as well as the frequency of flapping. We find that in a particular limit corresponding to a low-density fluid flowing over a soft high-density flag, the flapping instability is akin to a resonance between the mode of oscillation of a rigid pivoted airfoil in a flow and a hinged-free elastic plate vibrating in its lowest mode. PMID:15684057
The flow of a compressible fluid past a curved surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaplan, Carl
1943-01-01
An iteration method is employed to obtain the flow of a compressible fluid past a curved surface. The first approximation which leads to the Prandtl-Glauert rule, is based on the assumption that the flow differs but little from a pure translation. The iteration process then consists in improving this first approximation in order that it will apply to a flow differing from pure translatory motion to a greater degree. The method fails when the Mach number of the undisturbed stream reaches unity but permits a transition from subsonic to supersonic conditions without the appearance of a compression shock. The limiting value at which potential flow no longer exits is indicated by the apparent divergence of the power series representing the velocity of the fluid at the surface of the solid boundary.
Fluid-flow-induced flutter of a flag.
Argentina, Médéric; Mahadevan, L
2005-02-01
We give an explanation for the onset of fluid-flow-induced flutter in a flag. Our theory accounts for the various physical mechanisms at work: the finite length and the small but finite bending stiffness of the flag, the unsteadiness of the flow, the added mass effect, and vortex shedding from the trailing edge. Our analysis allows us to predict a critical speed for the onset of flapping as well as the frequency of flapping. We find that in a particular limit corresponding to a low-density fluid flowing over a soft high-density flag, the flapping instability is akin to a resonance between the mode of oscillation of a rigid pivoted airfoil in a flow and a hinged-free elastic plate vibrating in its lowest mode. PMID:15684057
Fluid flow near the surface of earth's outer core
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bloxham, Jeremy; Jackson, Andrew
1991-01-01
This review examines the recent attempts at extracting information on the pattern of fluid flow near the surface of the outer core from the geomagnetic secular variation. Maps of the fluid flow at the core surface are important as they may provide some insight into the process of the geodynamo and may place useful constraints on geodynamo models. In contrast to the case of mantle convection, only very small lateral variations in core density are necessary to drive the flow; these density variations are, by several orders of magnitude, too small to be imaged seismically; therefore, the geomagnetic secular variation is utilized to infer the flow. As substantial differences exist between maps developed by different researchers, the possible underlying reasons for these differences are examined with particular attention given to the inherent problems of nonuniqueness.
Experimental analysis on MR fluid channel flow dynamics with complex fluid-wall interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishiyama, Hideya; Takana, Hidemasa; Shinohara, Keisuke; Mizuki, Kotoe; Katagiri, Kazunari; Ohta, Makoto
2011-05-01
MR fluid plugging performance by aggregation of magnetized particles in MR fluid is recently expected to be one of the most promising applications in medical or safety devices, such as blood flow control, steam issuing shut-down valve and fuel supply control for automobile. In this study, dynamic response of MR fluid plugging and its breakdown in a pressure mode with complex fluid-wall interactions was experimentally investigated, considering the effects of magnetic flux density, wall surface structure, wall permeability and wall elasticity of tube. Higher endurance pressure is obtained for wall surface groove structure and for steel wall due to a strong anchoring effect by rigid cluster formation in a concave region and strong MR fluid column formation in a channel core region, respectively. Furthermore, MR fluid plugging performance and the fluid storage characteristic of PVA tube as a bio-material was clarified. Because of the large radial expansion of the tube at the applied magnetic region in a pressure mode, PVA tube shows unique characteristics, such as storing MR fluid under magnetic field and MR fluid jet issuing under releasing magnetic field.
Fluid flow systems analysis to save energy
Parekh, P.S.
1999-07-01
Industrial processes use rotating equipment (e.g.; pump, fan, blower, centrifugal compressor, positive displacement compressor) and pipe (or duct) to move fluid from point A to B, with many processes using electric motors as the prime mover. Most of the systems in the industry are over-designed to meet a peak load demand which might occur over a small fraction of the time or to satisfy a higher pressure demanded by a much smaller user in the same process. The system over-design will result in a selection of larger but inefficient rotating equipment and electric motor system. A careful life cycle cost and economic evaluation must be undertaken to ensure that the process audit, reengineering and equipment selections are not impacting the industrial process goals, but result in a least optimal cost over the life of the project. The paper will define, discuss, and present various process systems in chemical, hydrocarbon and pulp and paper industries. It will discuss the interactive impact of the changes in the mechanical system configuration and the changes in the process variables to better redesign the system and reduce the cost of operation. it will also present a check list of energy conservation measures (ECM) or opportunities. Such ECMs will be related to hydraulics, system components, process modifications, and system efficiency. Two or three case studies will be presented focusing on various conservation measures that improve electrical operating efficiency of a distillation column system. An incremental cost and payback analysis will be presented to assist the investment in process optimization and energy savings' measures.
Using a genetic algorithm to solve fluid-flow problems
Pryor, R.J. )
1990-06-01
Genetic algorithms are based on the mechanics of the natural selection and natural genetics processes. These algorithms are finding increasing application to a wide variety of engineering optimization and machine learning problems. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the use of a genetic algorithm to solve fluid flow problems. Specifically, the authors use the algorithm to solve the one-dimensional flow equations for a pipe.
Understanding heat and fluid flow in linear GTA welds
Zacharia, T.; David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.
1992-12-31
A transient heat flow and fluid flow model was used to predict the development of gas tungsten arc (GTA) weld pools in 1.5 mm thick AISI 304 SS. The welding parameters were chosen so as to correspond to an earlier experimental study which produced high-resolution surface temperature maps. The motivation of the present study was to verify the predictive capability of the computational model. Comparison of the numerical predictions and experimental observations indicate good agreement.
Understanding heat and fluid flow in linear GTA welds
Zacharia, T.; David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.
1992-01-01
A transient heat flow and fluid flow model was used to predict the development of gas tungsten arc (GTA) weld pools in 1.5 mm thick AISI 304 SS. The welding parameters were chosen so as to correspond to an earlier experimental study which produced high-resolution surface temperature maps. The motivation of the present study was to verify the predictive capability of the computational model. Comparison of the numerical predictions and experimental observations indicate good agreement.
Stability of axisymmetric swirl flows of viscous incompressible fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aktershev, S. P.; Kuibin, P. A.
2013-09-01
A new method of solution to the problem of stability of the swirl flow of viscous incompressible fluid is developed. The method based on expansion of the required function into power series of radial coordinate allows an avoidance of difficulties related to numerical integration of the system of differential equations with a singular point. Stability of the Poiseuille flow in a rotating pipe is considered as an example.
A Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program to Model Flow Distribution in Fluid Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok; Bailey, John W.; Schallhorn, Paul; Steadman, Todd
1998-01-01
This paper describes a general purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and transient flow in a complex network. The program is capable of modeling phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The program's preprocessor allows the user to interactively develop a fluid network simulation consisting of nodes and branches. Mass, energy and specie conservation equations are solved at the nodes; the momentum conservation equations are solved in the branches. The program contains subroutines for computing "real fluid" thermodynamic and thermophysical properties for 33 fluids. The fluids are: helium, methane, neon, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, fluorine, hydrogen, parahydrogen, water, kerosene (RP-1), isobutane, butane, deuterium, ethane, ethylene, hydrogen sulfide, krypton, propane, xenon, R-11, R-12, R-22, R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134A, R-152A, nitrogen trifluoride and ammonia. The program also provides the options of using any incompressible fluid with constant density and viscosity or ideal gas. Seventeen different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. These options include: pipe flow, flow through a restriction, non-circular duct, pipe flow with entrance and/or exit losses, thin sharp orifice, thick orifice, square edge reduction, square edge expansion, rotating annular duct, rotating radial duct, labyrinth seal, parallel plates, common fittings and valves, pump characteristics, pump power, valve with a given loss coefficient, and a Joule-Thompson device. The system of equations describing the fluid network is solved by a hybrid numerical method that is a combination of the Newton-Raphson and successive substitution methods. This paper also illustrates the application and verification of the code by comparison with Hardy Cross method for steady state flow and analytical solution for unsteady flow.
Aging and free surface flow of a thixotropic fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huynh, H. T.; Roussel, N.; Coussot, P.
2005-03-01
Free surface flows of thixotropic fluids such as paints, self-compacting concrete, or natural mudflows are of noticeable practical interest. Here we study the basic characteristics of the uniform flow of a layer of thixotropic fluid under gravity. A theoretical approach relying on a simple thixotropy constitutive equation shows that after some time at rest over a small slope angle the fluid layer should start to flow rather abruptly beyond a new, larger, critical slope angle. The theory also predicts that the critical time at which the layer velocity should significantly increase is proportional to the duration of the preliminary rest and tends to infinity when the new slope approaches the critical slope. Experiments carried out with different suspensions show that the qualitative trends of the flows are in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions, except that the critical time for flow start appears to be proportional to a power 0.6 of the time of rest whereas the theory predicts a linear dependence. We show that this indicates a restructuration process at rest differing from the restructuration process under flow.
Fluid and particulate suspension flows at fracture junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo, Tak S.; Koplik, Joel
2015-03-01
Suspended particles can be a serious problem in geological contexts such as fluid recovery from reservoirs because they alter the rheology of the flowing liquids and may obstruct transport by narrowing flow channels due to deposition or gravitational sedimentation. In particular, the irregular geometry of the fracture walls can trap particles, induce jamming and cause unwanted channeling effects. We have investigated particle suspension flows in tight geological fractures using lattice Boltzmann method in the past. In this work we extend these studies to flows at a junction where two fractures intersect, an essential step towards a complete understanding of flows in fracture networks. The fracture walls are modeled as realistic self-affine fractal surfaces, and we focus on the case of tight fractures, where the wall roughness, the aperture and the particle size are all comparable. The simulations provide complete detail on the particle configurations and the fluid flow field, from which the stresses in the fluid and the forces acting on the bounding walls can be computed. With these information, phenomena such as particle mixing and dispersion, mechanical responses of the solid walls, possible jamming and release at junctions, and other situations of interest can be investigated. Work supported by NERSC and DOE.
Quantitative description of fluid flows produced by left-right cilia in zebrafish.
Fox, Craig; Manning, M Lisa; Amack, Jeffrey D
2015-01-01
Motile cilia generate directional flows that move mucus through airways, cerebrospinal fluid through brain ventricles, and oocytes through fallopian tubes. In addition, specialized monocilia beat in a rotational pattern to create asymmetric flows that are involved in establishing the left-right (LR) body axis during embryogenesis. These monocilia, which we refer to as "left-right cilia," produce a leftward flow of extraembryonic fluid in a transient "organ of asymmetry" that directs asymmetric signaling and development of LR asymmetries in the cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract. The asymmetric flows are thought to establish a chemical gradient and/or activate mechanosensitive cilia to initiate calcium ion signals and a conserved Nodal (TGFβ) pathway on the left side of the embryo, but the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. The zebrafish organ of asymmetry, called Kupffer's vesicle, provides a useful model system for investigating LR cilia and cilia-powered fluid flows. Here, we describe methods to visualize flows in Kupffer's vesicle using fluorescent microspheres and introduce a new and freely available MATLAB particle tracking code to quantitatively describe these flows. Analysis of normal and aberrant flows indicates this approach is useful for characterizing flow properties that impact LR asymmetry and may be more broadly applicable for quantifying other cilia flows. PMID:25837391
Tracing fluid flow in geothermal reservoirs
Rose, P.E.; Adams, M.C.
1997-12-31
A family of fluorescent compounds, the polycyclic aromatic sulfonates, were evaluated for application in intermediate- and high-temperature geothermal reservoirs. Whereas the naphthalene sulfonates were found to be very thermally stable and reasonably detectable, the amino-substituted naphthalene sulfonates were found to be somewhat less thermally stable, but much more detectable. A tracer test was conducted at the Dixie Valley, Nevada, geothermal reservoir using one of the substituted naphthalene sulfonates, amino G, and fluorescein. Four of 9 production wells showed tracer breakthrough during the first 200 days of the test. Reconstructed tracer return curves are presented that correct for the thermal decay of tracer assuming an average reservoir temperature of 227{degrees}C. In order to examine the feasibility of using numerical simulation to model tracer flow, we developed simple, two-dimensional models of the geothermal reservoir using the numerical simulation programs TETRAD and TOUGH2. By fitting model outputs to measured return curves, we show that numerical reservoir simulations can be calibrated with the tracer data. Both models predict the same order of elution, approximate tracer concentrations, and return curve shapes. Using these results, we propose a method for using numerical models to design a tracer test.
Alternative experiments using the geophysical fluid flow cell
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hart, J. E.
1984-01-01
This study addresses the possibility of doing large scale dynamics experiments using the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell. In particular, cases where the forcing generates a statically stable stratification almost everywhere in the spherical shell are evaluated. This situation is typical of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans. By calculating the strongest meridional circulation expected in the spacelab experiments, and testing its stability using quasi-geostrophic stability theory, it is shown that strongly nonlinear baroclinic waves on a zonally symmetric modified thermal wind will not occur. The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell does not have a deep enough fluid layer to permit useful studies of large scale planetary wave processes arising from instability. It is argued, however, that by introducing suitable meridional barriers, a significant contribution to the understanding of the oceanic thermocline problem could be made.
Noise, anti-noise and fluid flow control.
Williams, J E Ffowcs
2002-05-15
This paper celebrates Thomas Young's discovery that wave interference was responsible for much that is known about light and colour. A substantial programme of work has been aimed at controlling the noise of aerodynamic flows. Much of that field can be explained in terms of interference and it is argued in this paper that the theoretical techniques for analysing noise can also be seen to rest on interference effects. Interference can change the character of wave fields to produce, out of well-ordered fields, wave systems quite different from the interfering wave elements. Lighthill's acoustic analogy is described as an example of this effect, an example in which the exact model of turbulence-generated noise is seen to consist of elementary interfering sound waves; waves that are sometimes heard in advance of their sources. The paper goes on to describe an emerging field of technology where sound is suppressed by superimposing on it a destructively interfering secondary sound; one designed and manufactured specifically for interference. That sound is known as anti-sound, or anti-noise when the sound is chaotic enough. Examples are then referred to where the noisy effect to be controlled is actually a disturbance of a linearly unstable system; a disturbance that is destroyed by destructive interference with a deliberately constructed antidote. The practical benefits of this kind of instability control are much greater and can even change the whole character of flows. It is argued that completely unnatural unstable conditions can be held with active controllers generating destructively interfering elements. Examples are given in which gravitational instability of stratified fluids can be prevented. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of shear flows can also be avoided by simple controls. Those are speculative examples of what might be possible in future developments of an interference effect, which has made anti-noise a useful technology. PMID:12804281
Global Optimization Techniques for Fluid Flow and Propulsion Devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shyy, Wei; Papila, Nilay; Vaidyanathan, Raj; Tucker, Kevin; Griffin, Lisa; Dorney, Dan; Huber, Frank; Tran, Ken; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of global optimization techniques for fluid flow and propulsion devices. Details are given on the need, characteristics, and techniques for global optimization. The techniques include response surface methodology (RSM), neural networks and back-propagation neural networks, design of experiments, face centered composite design (FCCD), orthogonal arrays, outlier analysis, and design optimization.
Design of vortex fluid amplifiers with asymmetrical flow fields.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawley, T. J.; Price, D. C.
1972-01-01
Variation of geometric parameters, including supply area, control area, chamber length, and outlet diameter, of a large scale, modular design vortex fluid amplifier with single supply and control jets, has confirmed and extended a previously published design method, developed for vortex amplifiers with symmetric flow fields. This allows application of the method to devices which are more representative of practical, production type components.
DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR FIRE SUPPRESSANT FLUID FLOW.
The objective of the project is to develop a computer code capable of predicting single and two phase hydrodynamic behavior of fire suppressant fluids during transport through piping systems. This new code will be able to predict pressure losses and flow rates for a wide variety ...
Flow Curve Determination for Non-Newtonian Fluids.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tjahjadi, Mahari; Gupta, Santosh K.
1986-01-01
Describes an experimental program to examine flow curve determination for non-Newtonian fluids. Includes apparatus used (a modification of Walawender and Chen's set-up, but using a 50cc buret connected to a glass capillary through a Tygon tube), theoretical information, procedures, and typical results obtained. (JN)
Application of IR thermography for unsteady fluid-flow research
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koppel, Tiit; Lahdeniemi, Matti; Ekholm, Ari
1998-03-01
In the recent years the IR thermography technique has been sued successfully as a new contactless instrument for gas and fluid flow research in pipes and on the surface of a flat plate. It is well known that most energy changes in the flow take place in the boundary layer. This is in turn important for the intensity of convective heat transfer in pipe flows and enables to measure processes connected with energy changes in the flow from outside the pipe. Series of measurements of suddenly accelerated and pulsating pipe flow were made at Satakunta Polytechnic, Technology Pori, Finland. The theoretical criterion describing the transition from laminar to turbulent regime is found depending on the critical thickness of the boundary layer of suddenly accelerated flow. At the moment of transition of the 'plug' type flow into turbulent flow, the velocities in the wall region diminish and this can be detected using the IR thermography from the wall temperature changes. the experimental results of the mean velocity development and transition criteria correspond to the theoretical calculations. The changes of the internal structure of the flow affect the convective heat transfer and this in turn influences the pipe wall temperature. IR thermography measures pipe wall temperature changes and consequently we can detect flow structure changes in the boundary layer in the accelerated and decelerated phase of the pulsating pipe flow.
Review of coaxial flow gas core nuclear rocket fluid mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weinstein, H.
1976-01-01
Almost all of the fluid mechanics research associated with the coaxial flow gas core reactor ended abruptly with the interruption of NASA's space nuclear program because of policy and budgetary considerations in 1973. An overview of program accomplishments is presented through a review of the experiments conducted and the analyses performed. Areas are indicated where additional research is required for a fuller understanding of cavity flow and of the factors which influence cold and hot flow containment. A bibliography is included with graphic material.
Instability of fluid flow over saturated porous medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyubimova, Tatyana; Kolchanova, Ekaterina; Lyubimov, Dmitry
2013-04-01
We investigate the stability of a fluid flow over a saturated porous medium. The problem is of importance due to the applications to washing out of contaminants from the bottom layer of vegetation, whose properties are similar to the properties of porous medium. In the case of porous medium with the relatively high permeability and porosity the flow involves a part of the fluid saturating the porous medium, with the tangential fluid velocity drop occurring because of the resistance of the solid matrix. The drop leads to the instability analogous to Kelvin-Helmholtz one accompanied by the formation of travelling waves. In the present paper we consider a two-layer system consisting of a pure fluid layer and a porous layer saturated by the fluid located underneath. The system is bounded by a rigid surface at the bottom and a non-deformable free surface at the top. It is under the gravity and inclined at a slight angle to the horizontal axis. The boundary conditions at the interface between the fluid and porous layers are the continuity of fluid velocities and the balance of normal and tangential stresses taking into account the resistance of the solid matrix with respect to the fluid flow near the interface [1-2]. The problem is solved in the framework of the Brinkman model applying the classical shooting algorithm with orthogonalization. The stability boundaries of the stationary fluid flow over the saturated porous medium with respect to the small oscillatory perturbations are obtained for the various values of the Darcy number and the ratio of the porous layer thickness to the full thickness of the system d. It was shown that at the d > 0.5 with increasing the porous layer thickness (or with decreasing of the fluid layer thickness) the stability threshold rises. This is because of the fact that the instability is primarily caused by perturbations located in the fluid layer. At the d < 0.5 the reduction of the porous layer thickness leads to the stability threshold
High frequency flow-structural interaction in dense subsonic fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Baw-Lin; Ofarrell, J. M.
1995-01-01
Prediction of the detailed dynamic behavior in rocket propellant feed systems and engines and other such high-energy fluid systems requires precise analysis to assure structural performance. Designs sometimes require placement of bluff bodies in a flow passage. Additionally, there are flexibilities in ducts, liners, and piping systems. A design handbook and interactive data base have been developed for assessing flow/structural interactions to be used as a tool in design and development, to evaluate applicable geometries before problems develop, or to eliminate or minimize problems with existing hardware. This is a compilation of analytical/empirical data and techniques to evaluate detailed dynamic characteristics of both the fluid and structures. These techniques have direct applicability to rocket engine internal flow passages, hot gas drive systems, and vehicle propellant feed systems. Organization of the handbook is by basic geometries for estimating Strouhal numbers, added mass effects, mode shapes for various end constraints, critical onset flow conditions, and possible structural response amplitudes. Emphasis is on dense fluids and high structural loading potential for fatigue at low subsonic flow speeds where high-frequency excitations are possible. Avoidance and corrective measure illustrations are presented together with analytical curve fits for predictions compiled from a comprehensive data base.
ANFIS modeling for prediction of particle motions in fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safdari, Arman; Kim, Kyung Chun
2015-11-01
Accurate dynamic analysis of parcel of solid particles driven in fluid flow system is of interest for many natural and industrial applications such as sedimentation process, study of cloud particles in atmosphere, etc. In this paper, numerical modeling of solid particles in incompressible flow using Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is carried out to investigate the dynamic behavior of particles in different flow conditions; channel and cavity flow. Although modern computers have been well developed, the high computational time and costs for this kind of problems are still demanded. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is used to simulate fluid flows and combined with the Lagrangian approach to predict the motion of particles in the range of masses. Some particles are selected, and subjected to Adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict the trajectory of moving solid particles. Using a hybrid learning procedure from computational particle movement, the ANFIS can construct an input-output mapping based on fuzzy if-then rules and stipulated computational fluid dynamics prediction pairs. The obtained results from ANFIS algorithm is validated and compared with the set of benchmark data provided based on point-like approach coupled with the LBM method.
Squeeze flow of a Carreau fluid during sphere impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uddin, J.; Marston, J. O.; Thoroddsen, S. T.
2012-07-01
We present results from a combined numerical and experimental investigation into the squeeze flow induced when a solid sphere impacts onto a thin, ultra-viscous film of non-Newtonian fluid. We examine both the sphere motion through the liquid as well as the fluid flow field in the region directly beneath the sphere during approach to a solid plate. In the experiments we use silicone oil as the model fluid, which is well-described by the Carreau model. We use high-speed imaging and particle tracking to achieve flow visualisation within the film itself and derive the corresponding velocity fields. We show that the radial velocity either diverges as the gap between the sphere and the wall diminishes (Ztip → 0) or that it reaches a maximum value and then decays rapidly to zero as the sphere comes to rest at a non-zero distance (Ztip = Zmin) away from the wall. The horizontal shear rate is calculated and is responsible for significant viscosity reduction during the approach of the sphere. Our model of this flow, based on lubrication theory, is solved numerically and compared to experimental trials. We show that our model is able to correctly describe the physical features of the flow observed in the experiments.
Map of fluid flow in fractal porous medium into fractal continuum flow.
Balankin, Alexander S; Elizarraraz, Benjamin Espinoza
2012-05-01
This paper is devoted to fractal continuum hydrodynamics and its application to model fluid flows in fractally permeable reservoirs. Hydrodynamics of fractal continuum flow is developed on the basis of a self-consistent model of fractal continuum employing vector local fractional differential operators allied with the Hausdorff derivative. The generalized forms of Green-Gauss and Kelvin-Stokes theorems for fractional calculus are proved. The Hausdorff material derivative is defined and the form of Reynolds transport theorem for fractal continuum flow is obtained. The fundamental conservation laws for a fractal continuum flow are established. The Stokes law and the analog of Darcy's law for fractal continuum flow are suggested. The pressure-transient equation accounting the fractal metric of fractal continuum flow is derived. The generalization of the pressure-transient equation accounting the fractal topology of fractal continuum flow is proposed. The mapping of fluid flow in a fractally permeable medium into a fractal continuum flow is discussed. It is stated that the spectral dimension of the fractal continuum flow d(s) is equal to its mass fractal dimension D, even when the spectral dimension of the fractally porous or fissured medium is less than D. A comparison of the fractal continuum flow approach with other models of fluid flow in fractally permeable media and the experimental field data for reservoir tests are provided. PMID:23004869
Map of fluid flow in fractal porous medium into fractal continuum flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balankin, Alexander S.; Elizarraraz, Benjamin Espinoza
2012-05-01
This paper is devoted to fractal continuum hydrodynamics and its application to model fluid flows in fractally permeable reservoirs. Hydrodynamics of fractal continuum flow is developed on the basis of a self-consistent model of fractal continuum employing vector local fractional differential operators allied with the Hausdorff derivative. The generalized forms of Green-Gauss and Kelvin-Stokes theorems for fractional calculus are proved. The Hausdorff material derivative is defined and the form of Reynolds transport theorem for fractal continuum flow is obtained. The fundamental conservation laws for a fractal continuum flow are established. The Stokes law and the analog of Darcy's law for fractal continuum flow are suggested. The pressure-transient equation accounting the fractal metric of fractal continuum flow is derived. The generalization of the pressure-transient equation accounting the fractal topology of fractal continuum flow is proposed. The mapping of fluid flow in a fractally permeable medium into a fractal continuum flow is discussed. It is stated that the spectral dimension of the fractal continuum flow ds is equal to its mass fractal dimension D, even when the spectral dimension of the fractally porous or fissured medium is less than D. A comparison of the fractal continuum flow approach with other models of fluid flow in fractally permeable media and the experimental field data for reservoir tests are provided.
Geometrodynamical Fluid Theory Applied to Dynamo Flows in Planetary Interiors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, Kayla; Miramontes, Diego; Scofield, Dillon
2015-11-01
Due to their reliance on a Newtonian viscous stress model, the traditional Navier-Stokes equations are of parabolic type; this in turn leads to acausal behavior of solutions to these equations, e.g., a localized disturbance at any point instantaneously affects the solution arbitrarily far away. Geometrodynamical fluid theory (GFT) avoids this problem through a relativistically covariant formulation of the flow equations. Using GFT, we derive the magnetohydrodynamic equations describing the balance of energy-momentum appropriate for dynamo flows in planetary interiors. These equations include interactions between magnetic and fluid vortex fields. We derive scaling laws from these equations and compare them with scaling laws derived from the traditional approach. Finally, we discuss implications of these scalings for flows in planetary dynamos.
Neutron Radiography of Fluid Flow for Geothermal Energy Research
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bingham, P.; Polsky, Y.; Anovitz, L.; Carmichael, J.; Bilheux, H.; Jacobsen, D.; Hussey, D.
Enhanced geothermal systems seek to expand the potential for geothermal energy by engineering heat exchange systems within the earth. A neutron radiography imaging method has been developed for the study of fluid flow through rock under environmental conditions found in enhanced geothermal energy systems. For this method, a pressure vessel suitable for neutron radiography was designed and fabricated, modifications to imaging instrument setups were tested, multiple contrast agents were tested, and algorithms developed for tracking of flow. The method has shown success for tracking of single phase flow through a manufactured crack in a 3.81 cm (1.5 inch) diameter core within a pressure vessel capable of confinement up to 69 MPa (10,000 psi) using a particle tracking approach with bubbles of fluorocarbon-based fluid as the "particles" and imaging with 10 ms exposures.
Neutron radigoraphy of fluid flow for geothermal energy research
Bingham, Philip R.; Polsky, Yarom; Anovitz, L.; Carmichael, Justin R.; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Jacobson, David; Hussey, Dan
2015-01-01
Enhanced geothermal systems seek to expand the potential for geothermal energy by engineering heat exchange systems within the earth. A neutron radiography imaging method has been developed for the study of fluid flow through rock under environmental conditions found in enhanced geothermal energy systems. For this method, a pressure vessel suitable for neutron radiography was designed and fabricated, modifications to imaging instrument setups were tested, multiple contrast agents were tested, and algorithms developed for tracking of flow. The method has shown success for tracking of single phase flow through a manufactured crack in a 3.81 cm (1.5 inch) diameter core within a pressure vessel capable of confinement up to 69 MPa (10,000 psi) using a particle tracking approach with bubbles of fluorocarbon-based fluid as the “particles” and imaging with 10 ms exposures.
Visualization of two-fluid flows of superfluid helium-4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Wei; La Mantia, Marco; Lathrop, Daniel P.; Van Sciver, Steven W.
2014-03-01
Cryogenic flow visualization techniques have been proved in recent years to be a very powerful experimental method to study superfluid turbulence. Micron-sized solid particles and metastable helium molecules are specifically being used to investigate in detail the dynamics of quantum flows. These studies belong to a well-established, interdisciplinary line of inquiry that focuses on the deeper understanding of turbulence, one of the open problem of modern physics, relevant to many research fields, ranging from fluid mechanics to cosmology. Progress made to date is discussed, to highlight its relevance to a wider scientific community, and future directions are outlined. The latter include, e.g., detailed studies of normal-fluid turbulence, dissipative mechanisms, and unsteady/oscillatory flows.
Visualization of two-fluid flows of superfluid helium-4
Guo, Wei; La Mantia, Marco; Lathrop, Daniel P.; Van Sciver, Steven W.
2014-01-01
Cryogenic flow visualization techniques have been proved in recent years to be a very powerful experimental method to study superfluid turbulence. Micron-sized solid particles and metastable helium molecules are specifically being used to investigate in detail the dynamics of quantum flows. These studies belong to a well-established, interdisciplinary line of inquiry that focuses on the deeper understanding of turbulence, one of the open problem of modern physics, relevant to many research fields, ranging from fluid mechanics to cosmology. Progress made to date is discussed, to highlight its relevance to a wider scientific community, and future directions are outlined. The latter include, e.g., detailed studies of normal-fluid turbulence, dissipative mechanisms, and unsteady/oscillatory flows. PMID:24704871
Numerical Simulation of Flow-Induced Structure in Complex Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Takehiro
2007-04-01
It is important to investigate the flow-induced structure for the analysis of the mechanism of flow behavior of complex fluids. The present paper includes two topics in which the flow-induced structure is numerically investigated. The first topic treats the suspensions of disc-like particles under simple shear flows. Disc-like particles were modeled by oblate spheroid particles, and the Brownian dynamics simulation was performed for suspensions of the particles interacting via the Gay-Berne potential. This simulation confirmed that this model system was applicable to the analysis of flow of suspension of disc-like particles. The second one is the numerical simulation of the deformation behavior of a droplet in shear flows. The present simulation is the first step for the numerical simulation of the flow-induced structure in emulsions. This simulation can demonstrate the deformation behavior of droplet observed in experiments and predict effects of non-Newtonian property of fluids on the droplet deformation.
A numerical model of deformation and fluid-flow in an evolving thrust wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strayer, Luther M.; Hudleston, Peter J.; Lorig, Loren J.
2001-06-01
To investigate deformation and fluid-flow in an actively deforming tectonic wedge, we model the evolution of a large, two-dimensional (100 km long, 5 km thick), mechanically and hydrologically homogeneous and isotropic pile of sedimentary strata that is deformed to become a thrust wedge. We compare both 'dry' and 'wet' cases, in order to illustrate: (1) the relative importance of fluids on wedge evolution, and (2) the effect of brittle deformation on fluid-flow. We use an elastic-plastic constitutive relation, including a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion and a non-associated flow rule, and coupled fluid flow, with bulk rock properties that approximate typical foreland sedimentary strata. Simulations are made both with and without dilation. The model is fully dynamic, but inertial forces remain small. Results show that deformation within the wedge is accommodated by reverse-slip movement on shear bands, which migrate in both directions through the wedge as both fore- and back-thrusts. The model has features predicted by the critical-taper theory: (1) overall wedge geometry; (2) crudely self-similar growth during evolution; (3) more intense deformation toward the rear of the wedge. The models show strong overall in-sequence faulting behavior with major thrusts isolating relatively undeformed packages, which are moved in a piggyback manner upon the active thrusts. Intermittent out-of-sequence faulting does however occur, in order to maintain the wedge taper. Fluid-flow in the deforming wedge is dominated by topography, but is also strongly affected by dilational plastic deformation. In all simulations, there is focused fluid flow within fault zones. When mechanical time-stepping is shut off (uncoupled), flow systems evolve to steady-state where inflow equals outflow. By subtracting the two 'states' we isolate the mechanical fluid response from the total coupled system response. The mechanical fluid response is manifest as contours of head and pressure difference and
Fluid flow induced calcium response in osteoblasts: mathematical modeling.
Su, J H; Xu, F; Lu, X L; Lu, T J
2011-07-28
Fluid flow in the bone lacuno-canalicular network can induce dynamic fluctuation of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in osteoblasts, which plays an important role in bone remodeling. There has been limited progress in the mathematical modeling of this process probably due to its complexity, which is controlled by various factors such as Ca(2+) channels and extracellular messengers. In this study we developed a mathematical model to describe [Ca(2+)](i) response induced by fluid shear stress (SS) by integrating the major factors involved and analyzed the effects of different experimental setups (e.g. [Ca(2+)](i) baseline, pretreatment with ATP). In this model we considered the ATP release process and the activities of multiple ion channels and purinergic receptors. The model was further verified quantitatively by comparing the simulation results with experimental data reported in literature. The results showed that: (i) extracellular ATP concentration has more significant effect on [Ca(2+)](i) baseline (73% increase in [Ca(2+)](i) with extracellular ATP concentration varying between 0 and 10 μM), as compared to that induced by SS (25% variation in [Ca(2+)](i) with SS varying from 0 to 3.5 Pa); (ii) Pretreatment with ATP-medium results in different [Ca(2+)](i) response as compared to the control group (ATP-free medium) under SS; (iii) Relative [Ca(2+)](i) fluctuation over baseline is more reliable to show the [Ca(2+)](i) response process than the absolute [Ca(2+)](i) response peak. The developed model may improve the experimental design and facilitate our understanding of the mechanotransduction process in osteoblasts. PMID:21665208
Armstrong, William D.; Naughton, Jonathan; Lindberg, William R.
2008-09-02
A shear stress sensor for measuring fluid wall shear stress on a test surface is provided. The wall shear stress sensor is comprised of an active sensing surface and a sensor body. An elastic mechanism mounted between the active sensing surface and the sensor body allows movement between the active sensing surface and the sensor body. A driving mechanism forces the shear stress sensor to oscillate. A measuring mechanism measures displacement of the active sensing surface relative to the sensor body. The sensor may be operated under periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor measurably changes the amplitude or phase of the motion of the active sensing surface, or changes the force and power required from a control system in order to maintain constant motion. The device may be operated under non-periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor change the transient motion of the active sensor surface or change the force and power required from a control system to maintain a specified transient motion of the active sensor surface.
3D topographic correction of the BSR heat flow and detection of focused fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Tao; Li, Hong-Lin; Zou, Chang-Chun
2014-06-01
The bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) is a seismic indicator of the bottom of a gas hydrate stability zone. Its depth can be used to calculate the seafloor surface heat flow. The calculated BSR heat flow variations include disturbances from two important factors: (1) seafloor topography, which focuses the heat flow over regions of concave topography and defocuses it over regions of convex topography, and (2) the focused warm fluid flow within the accretionary prism coming from depths deeper than BSR. The focused fluid flow can be detected if the contribution of the topography to the BSR heat flow is removed. However, the analytical equation cannot solve the topographic effect at complex seafloor regions. We prove that 3D finite element method can model the topographic effect on the regional background heat flow with high accuracy, which can then be used to correct the topographic effect and obtain the BSR heat flow under the condition of perfectly flat topography. By comparing the corrected BSR heat flow with the regional background heat flow, focused fluid flow regions can be detected that are originally too small and cannot be detected using present-day equipment. This method was successfully applied to the midslope region of northern Cascadia subducting margin. The results suggest that the Cucumber Ridge and its neighboring area are positive heat flow anomalies, about 10%-20% higher than the background heat flow after 3D topographic correction. Moreover, the seismic imaging associated the positive heat flow anomaly areas with seabed fracture-cavity systems. This suggests flow of warm gas-carrying fluids along these high-permeability pathways, which could result in higher gas hydrate concentrations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yu-Ning
In this work, we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for turbulent secondary flows of a Newtonian fluid and necessary and sufficient conditions for laminar steady secondary flows of a Non-Newtonian fluid in a straight tube. It is found that there is a striking similarity between them. This similarity motivates the assumption used in developing a generalized non-linear K- epsilon model. Based on an analogy that exists between the constitutive relations for turbulent mean flows of a Newtonian fluid and that for laminar flows of a Non -Newtonian fluid, and making use of the constitutive framework of extended thermodynamics, we develop a generalized non -linear K-epsilon model with the same relaxation time as that which appears in the turbulence model proposed by Yakhot, Orszag, Thangam, Gatski and Speziale in 1992. We show that the non-linear K-epsilon model developed by Speziale in 1987 is unable to predict the relaxation phenomena of the Reynolds stresses because of involving no K and dotepsilon , and a coefficient of which leads to a negative relaxation time for the Reynolds stresses. To correct this deficiency, we resort to making use of the relaxation time in the model of Yakhot et al.. The approximate form of our generalized non-linear K-epsilon model, which can predict the relaxation phenomena of the Reynolds stresses and is frame indifferent, is an extension of the standard K-epsilon model and the non-linear K-epsilon model of Speziale.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerroni, D.; Fancellu, L.; Manservisi, S.; Menghini, F.
2016-06-01
In this work we propose to study the behavior of a solid elastic object that interacts with a multiphase flow. Fluid structure interaction and multiphase problems are of great interest in engineering and science because of many potential applications. The study of this interaction by coupling a fluid structure interaction (FSI) solver with a multiphase problem could open a large range of possibilities in the investigation of realistic problems. We use a FSI solver based on a monolithic approach, while the two-phase interface advection and reconstruction is computed in the framework of a Volume of Fluid method which is one of the more popular algorithms for two-phase flow problems. The coupling between the FSI and VOF algorithm is efficiently handled with the use of MEDMEM libraries implemented in the computational platform Salome. The numerical results of a dam break problem over a deformable solid are reported in order to show the robustness and stability of this numerical approach.
Fluid dynamics aspects of miniaturized axial-flow blood pump.
Kang, Can; Huang, Qifeng; Li, Yunxiao
2014-01-01
Rotary blood pump (RBP) is a kind of crucial ventricular assist device (VAD) and its advantages have been evidenced and acknowledged in recent years. Among the factors that influence the operation performance and the durability of various rotary blood pumps, medium property and the flow features in pump's flow passages are conceivably significant. The major concern in this paper is the fluid dynamics aspects of such a kind of miniaturized pump. More specifically, the structural features of axial-flow blood pump and corresponding flow features are analyzed in detail. The narrow flow passage between blade tips and pump casing and the rotor-stator interaction (RSI) zone may exert a negative effect on the shear stress distribution in the blood flow. Numerical techniques are briefly introduced in view of their contribution to facilitating the optimal design of blood pump and the visualization of shear stress distribution and multiphase flow analysis. Additionally, with the development of flow measurement techniques, the high-resolution, effective and non-intrusive flow measurement techniques catering to the measurement of the flows inside rotary blood pumps are highly anticipated. PMID:24211957
Noninvasive characterization of a flowing multiphase fluid using ultrasonic interferometry
Sinha, Dipen N.
2003-11-11
An apparatus for noninvasively monitoring the flow and/or the composition of a flowing liquid using ultrasound is described. The position of the resonance peaks for a fluid excited by a swept-frequency ultrasonic signal have been found to change frequency both in response to a change in composition and in response to a change in the flow velocity thereof. Additionally, the distance between successive resonance peaks does not change as a function of flow, but rather in response to a change in composition. Thus, a measurement of both parameters (resonance position and resonance spacing), once calibrated, permits the simultaneous determination of flow rate and composition using the apparatus and method of the present invention.
Noninvasive Characterization Of A Flowing Multiphase Fluid Using Ultrasonic Interferometry
Sinha, Dipen N.
2005-05-10
An apparatus for noninvasively monitoring the flow and/or the composition of a flowing liquid using ultrasound is described. The position of the resonance peaks for a fluid excited by a swept-frequency ultrasonic signal have been found to change frequency both in response to a change in composition and in response to a change in the flow velocity thereof. Additionally, the distance between successive resonance peaks does not change as a function of flow, but rather in response to a change in composition. Thus, a measurement of both parameters (resonance position and resonance spacing), once calibrated, permits the simultaneous determination of flow rate and composition using the apparatus and method of the present invention.
Noninvasive characterization of a flowing multiphase fluid using ultrasonic interferometry
Sinha, Dipen N.
2007-06-12
An apparatus for noninvasively monitoring the flow and/or the composition of a flowing liquid using ultrasound is described. The position of the resonance peaks for a fluid excited by a swept-frequency ultrasonic signal have been found to change frequency both in response to a change in composition and in response to a change in the flow velocity thereof. Additionally, the distance between successive resonance peaks does not change as a function of flow, but rather in response to a change in composition. Thus, a measurement of both parameters (resonance position and resonance spacing), once calibrated, permits the simultaneous determination of flow rate and composition using the apparatus and method of the present invention.
Changes in rabbit lacrimal gland fluid osmolarity with flow rate.
Gilbard, J P; Dartt, D A
1982-12-01
To determine whether the osmolarity of rabbit lacrimal gland fluid (LGF) changes with flow rate, microvolumes (approximately 0.2 microliters) were collected directly from he cannulated glandular excretory duct of anesthetized rabbits. Low flow rates were obtained by collection of LGF 5 min after instillation of proparacaine: higher flow rates were obtained by stimulation with 0.45, 0.9, 3.8, or 15 micrograms of acetylcholine administered by local arterial injection. At low flow rates (less than 0.11 microliters/min), LGF osmolarity was 334 +/- 4 mOsm/L (n = 19). As flow rate increased to maximal rates (13.0 to 19.1 microliters/min), LGF osmolarity decreased to a value of 299 +/- 2 mOsm/L (n = 7). In keratoconjunctivitis sicca, increase in LGF osmolarity, as well as tear film evaporation, may contribute to elevated tear film osmolarity. PMID:7141824
Flow in the well: computational fluid dynamics is essential in flow chamber construction
Franke, Jörg; Frank, Wolfram; Schroten, Horst
2007-01-01
A perfusion system was developed to generate well defined flow conditions within a well of a standard multidish. Human vein endothelial cells were cultured under flow conditions and cell response was analyzed by microscopy. Endothelial cells became elongated and spindle shaped. As demonstrated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD), cells were cultured under well defined but time varying shear stress conditions. A damper system was introduced which reduced pulsatile flow when using volumetric pumps. The flow and the wall shear stress distribution were analyzed by CFD for the steady and unsteady flow field. Usage of the volumetric pump caused variations of the wall shear stresses despite the controlled fluid environment and introduction of a damper system. Therefore the use of CFD analysis and experimental validation is critical in developing flow chambers and studying cell response to shear stress. The system presented gives an effortless flow chamber setup within a 6-well standard multidish. PMID:19002993
Flow of mantle fluids through the ductile lower crust: Heliumisotope trends
Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.
2007-10-07
Heat and mass are injected into the shallow crust when mantle fluids are able to flow through the ductile lower crust. Minimum 3He/4He ratios in surface fluids from the northern Basin and Range province, western North America increase systematically from low, crustal values in the east to high, mantle values in the west, a regional trend that correlates with the rates of active crustal deformation. The highest ratios occur where the extension and shear strain rates are greatest. The correspondence of helium isotope ratios and active trans-tensional deformation indicates a deformation enhanced permeability and that mantle fluids can penetrate the ductile lithosphere in regions even where there is no significant magmatism. Superimposed on the regional trend are local, high-{sup 3}He/{sup 4}He anomalies signifying hidden magmatic activity and/or deep fluid production with locally enhanced permeability, identifying zones with high resource potential, particularly for geothermal energy development.
Flow of mantle fluids through the ductile lower crust: helium isotope trends.
Kennedy, B Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C
2007-11-30
Heat and mass are injected into the shallow crust when mantle fluids are able to flow through the ductile lower crust. Minimum 3He/4He ratios in surface fluids from the northern Basin and Range Province, western North America, increase systematically from low crustal values in the east to high mantle values in the west, a regional trend that correlates with the rates of active crustal deformation. The highest ratios occur where the extension and shear strain rates are greatest. The correspondence of helium isotope ratios and active transtensional deformation indicates a deformation-enhanced permeability and that mantle fluids can penetrate the ductile lithosphere, even in regions where there is no substantial magmatism. Superimposed on the regional trend are local, high 3He/4He anomalies indicating hidden magmatic activity and/or deep fluid production with locally enhanced permeability, identifying zones with high resource potential, particularly for geothermal energy development. PMID:18048684
Chronic Fluid Flow Is an Environmental Modifier of Renal Epithelial Function
Resnick, Andrew
2011-01-01
Although solitary or sensory cilia are present in most cells of the body and their existence has been known since the sixties, very little is been known about their functions. One suspected function is fluid flow sensing- physical bending of cilia produces an influx of Ca++, which can then result in a variety of activated signaling pathways. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is a progressive disease, typically appearing in the 5th decade of life and is one of the most common monogenetic inherited human diseases, affecting approximately 600,000 people in the United States. Because ADPKD is a slowly progressing disease, I asked how fluid flow may act, via the primary cilium, to alter epithelial physiology during the course of cell turnover. I performed an experiment to determine under what conditions fluid flow can result in a change of function of renal epithelial tissue. A wildtype epithelial cell line derived the cortical collecting duct of a heterozygous offspring of the Immortomouse (Charles River Laboratory) was selected as our model system. Gentle orbital shaking was used to induce physiologically relevant fluid flow, and periodic measurements of the transepithelial Sodium current were performed. At the conclusion of the experiment, mechanosensitive proteins of interest were visualized by immunostaining. I found that fluid flow, in itself, modifies the transepithelial sodium current, cell proliferation, and the actin cytoskeleton. These results significantly impact the understanding of both the mechanosensation function of primary cilia as well as the understanding of ADPKD disease progression. PMID:22046444
Gravity-Driven Thin Film Flow of an Ellis Fluid.
Kheyfets, Vitaly O; Kieweg, Sarah L
2013-12-01
The thin film lubrication approximation has been studied extensively for moving contact lines of Newtonian fluids. However, many industrial and biological applications of the thin film equation involve shear-thinning fluids, which often also exhibit a Newtonian plateau at low shear. This study presents new numerical simulations of the three-dimensional (i.e. two-dimensional spreading), constant-volume, gravity-driven, free surface flow of an Ellis fluid. The numerical solution was validated with a new similarity solution, compared to previous experiments, and then used in a parametric study. The parametric study centered around rheological data for an example biological application of thin film flow: topical drug delivery of anti-HIV microbicide formulations, e.g. hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) polymer solutions. The parametric study evaluated how spreading length and front velocity saturation depend on Ellis parameters. A lower concentration polymer solution with smaller zero shear viscosity (η 0), τ 1/2, and λ values spread further. However, when comparing any two fluids with any possible combinations of Ellis parameters, the impact of changing one parameter on spreading length depends on the direction and magnitude of changes in the other two parameters. In addition, the isolated effect of the shear-thinning parameter, λ, on the front velocity saturation depended on τ 1/2. This study highlighted the relative effects of the individual Ellis parameters, and showed that the shear rates in this flow were in both the shear-thinning and plateau regions of rheological behavior, emphasizing the importance of characterizing the full range of shear-rates in rheological measurements. The validated numerical model and parametric study provides a useful tool for future steps to optimize flow of a fluid with rheological behavior well-described by the Ellis constitutive model, in a range of industrial and biological applications. PMID:25309029
Gravity-Driven Thin Film Flow of an Ellis Fluid
Kheyfets, Vitaly O.
2014-01-01
The thin film lubrication approximation has been studied extensively for moving contact lines of Newtonian fluids. However, many industrial and biological applications of the thin film equation involve shear-thinning fluids, which often also exhibit a Newtonian plateau at low shear. This study presents new numerical simulations of the three-dimensional (i.e. two-dimensional spreading), constant-volume, gravity-driven, free surface flow of an Ellis fluid. The numerical solution was validated with a new similarity solution, compared to previous experiments, and then used in a parametric study. The parametric study centered around rheological data for an example biological application of thin film flow: topical drug delivery of anti-HIV microbicide formulations, e.g. hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) polymer solutions. The parametric study evaluated how spreading length and front velocity saturation depend on Ellis parameters. A lower concentration polymer solution with smaller zero shear viscosity (η0), τ1/2, and λ values spread further. However, when comparing any two fluids with any possible combinations of Ellis parameters, the impact of changing one parameter on spreading length depends on the direction and magnitude of changes in the other two parameters. In addition, the isolated effect of the shear-thinning parameter, λ, on the front velocity saturation depended on τ1/2. This study highlighted the relative effects of the individual Ellis parameters, and showed that the shear rates in this flow were in both the shear-thinning and plateau regions of rheological behavior, emphasizing the importance of characterizing the full range of shear-rates in rheological measurements. The validated numerical model and parametric study provides a useful tool for future steps to optimize flow of a fluid with rheological behavior well-described by the Ellis constitutive model, in a range of industrial and biological applications. PMID:25309029
Preconditioning methods for ideal and multiphase fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Ashish
The objective of this study is to develop a preconditioning method for ideal and multiphase multispecies compressible fluid flow solver using homogeneous equilibrium mixture model. The mathematical model for fluid flow going through phase change uses density and temperature in the formulation, where the density represents the multiphase mixture density. The change of phase of the fluid is then explicitly determined using the equation of state of the fluid, which only requires temperature and mixture density. The method developed is based on a finite-volume framework in which the numerical fluxes are computed using Roe's approximate Riemann solver and the modified Harten, Lax and Van-leer scheme (HLLC). All speed Roe and HLLC flux based schemes have been developed either by using preconditioning or by directly modifying dissipation to reduce the effect of acoustic speed in its numerical dissipation when Mach number decreases. Preconditioning proposed by Briley, Taylor and Whitfield, Eriksson and Turkel are studied in this research, where as low dissipation schemes proposed by Rieper and Thornber, Mosedale, Drikakis, Youngs and Williams are also considered. Various preconditioners are evaluated in terms of development, performance, accuracy and limitations in simulations at various Mach numbers. A generalized preconditioner is derived which possesses well conditioned eigensystem for multiphase multispecies flow simulations. Validation and verification of the solution procedure are carried out on several small model problems with comparison to experimental, theoretical, and other numerical results. Preconditioning methods are evaluated using three basic geometries; 1) bump in a channel 2) flow over a NACA0012 airfoil and 3) flow over a cylinder, which are then compared with theoretical and numerical results. Multiphase capabilities of the solver are evaluated in cryogenic and non-cryogenic conditions. For cryogenic conditions the solver is evaluated by predicting
Channelized fluid flow in oceanic crust reconciles heat-flow and permeability data
Fisher; Becker
2000-01-01
Hydrothermal fluid circulation within the sea floor profoundly influences the physical, chemical and biological state of the crust and the oceans. Circulation within ridge flanks (in crust more than 1 Myr old) results in greater heat loss and fluid flux than that at ridge crests and persists for millions of years, thereby altering the composition of the crust and overlying ocean. Fluid flow in oceanic crust is, however, limited by the extent and nature of the rock's permeability. Here we demonstrate that the global data set of borehole permeability measurements in uppermost oceanic crust defines a trend with age that is consistent with changes in seismic velocity. This trend-which indicates that fluid flow should be greatly reduced in crust older than a few million years-would appear to be inconsistent with heat-flow observations, which on average indicate significant advective heat loss in crust up to 65 Myr old. But our calculations, based on a lateral flow model, suggest that regional-scale permeabilities are much higher than have been measured in boreholes. These results can be reconciled if most of the fluid flow in the upper crust is channelized through a small volume of rock, influencing the geometry of convection and the nature of fluid-rock interaction. PMID:10638753
Particle hopping vs. fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow
Nagel, K.
1995-12-31
Although particle hopping models have been introduced into traffic science in the 19509, their systematic use has only started recently. Two reasons for this are, that they are advantageous on modem computers, and that recent theoretical developments allow analytical understanding of their properties and therefore more confidence for their use. In principle, particle hopping models fit between microscopic models for driving and fluiddynamical models for traffic flow. In this sense, they also help closing the conceptual gap between these two. This paper shows connections between particle hopping models and traffic flow theory. It shows that the hydrodynamical limits of certain particle hopping models correspond to the Lighthill-Whitham theory for traffic flow, and that only slightly more complex particle hopping models produce already the correct traffic jam dynamics, consistent with recent fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow. By doing so, this paper establishes that, on the macroscopic level, particle hopping models are at least as good as fluid-dynamical models. Yet, particle hopping models have at least two advantages over fluid-dynamical models: they straightforwardly allow microscopic simulations, and they include stochasticity.
Vibrating surface actuators for active flow control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calkins, Frederick T.; Clingman, Dan J.
2002-07-01
Current research has shown that aircraft can gain significant aerodynamic performance benefits from active flow control (AFC). AFC seeks to control large scale flows by exploiting natural response triggered by small energy inputs. The principal target application is download alleviation of the V-22 Osprey under the DARPA sponsored Boeing Active Flow Control System program. One method of injecting energy into the flow over the V22 wings is to use an active vibrating surface on the passive seal between the wing and flapperon. The active surface is an oscillating cantilevered beam which injects fluid into the flow, similar to a synthetic jet, and interacts with the flow field. Two types of actuators, or flipperons, are explored. The first is a multilayer piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride cantilevered bender. The second is a single crystal piezoelectric (SCP)d31 poled wafer mounted on a cantilevered spring steel substrate. This paper details the development effort including fabrication, mechanical and electrical testing, and modeling for both types of actuators. Both flipperons were mounted on the passive seal between a 1/10th scale V22 wing and flapperon and the aerodynamic performance evaluated in low speed wind tunnel. The SCP flipperon demonstrated significant cruise benefits, with increase of 10 percent lift and 20 percent angle of attack capability. The PVDF flipperon provided a 16 percent drag reduction in the hover mode.
Yuan, Dan; Zhang, Jun; Yan, Sheng; Peng, Gangrou; Zhao, Qianbin; Alici, Gursel; Du, Hejun; Li, Weihua
2016-08-01
In this work, particle lateral migration in sample-sheath flow of viscoelastic fluid and Newtonian fluid was experimentally investigated. The 4.8-μm micro-particles were dispersed in a polyethylene oxide (PEO) viscoelastic solution, and then the solution was injected into a straight rectangular channel with a deionised (DI) water Newtonian sheath flow. Micro-particles suspended in PEO solution migrated laterally to a DI water stream, but migration in the opposite direction from a DI water stream to a PEO solution stream or from one DI water stream to another DI water stream could not be achieved. The lateral migration of particles depends on the viscoelastic properties of the sample fluids. Furthermore, the effects of channel length, flow rate, and PEO concentration were studied. By using viscoelastic sample flow and Newtonian sheath flow, a selective particle lateral migration can be achieved in a simple straight channel, without any external force fields. This particle lateral migration technique could be potentially used in solution exchange fields such as automated cell staining and washing in microfluidic platforms, and holds numerous biomedical applications. PMID:27140330
Flow regime classification in air magnetic fluid two-phase flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuwahara, T.; DeVuyst, F.; Yamaguchi, H.
2008-05-01
A new experimental/numerical technique of classification of flow regimes (flow patterns) in air-magnetic fluid two-phase flow is proposed in the present paper. The proposed technique utilizes the electromagnetic induction to obtain time-series signals of the electromotive force, allowing us to make a non-contact measurement. Firstly, an experiment is carried out to obtain the time-series signals in a vertical upward air-magnetic fluid two-phase flow. The signals obtained are first treated using two kinds of wavelet transforms. The data sets treated are then used as input vectors for an artificial neural network (ANN) with supervised training. In the present study, flow regimes are classified into bubbly, slug, churn and annular flows, which are generally the main flow regimes. To validate the flow regimes, a visualization experiment is also performed with a glycerin solution that has roughly the same physical properties, i.e., kinetic viscosity and surface tension, as a magnetic fluid used in the present study. The flow regimes from the visualization are used as targets in an ANN and also used in the estimation of the accuracy of the present method. As a result, ANNs using radial basis functions are shown to be the most appropriate for the present classification of flow regimes, leading to small classification errors.
Flow regime classification in air-magnetic fluid two-phase flow.
Kuwahara, T; De Vuyst, F; Yamaguchi, H
2008-05-21
A new experimental/numerical technique of classification of flow regimes (flow patterns) in air-magnetic fluid two-phase flow is proposed in the present paper. The proposed technique utilizes the electromagnetic induction to obtain time-series signals of the electromotive force, allowing us to make a non-contact measurement. Firstly, an experiment is carried out to obtain the time-series signals in a vertical upward air-magnetic fluid two-phase flow. The signals obtained are first treated using two kinds of wavelet transforms. The data sets treated are then used as input vectors for an artificial neural network (ANN) with supervised training. In the present study, flow regimes are classified into bubbly, slug, churn and annular flows, which are generally the main flow regimes. To validate the flow regimes, a visualization experiment is also performed with a glycerin solution that has roughly the same physical properties, i.e., kinetic viscosity and surface tension, as a magnetic fluid used in the present study. The flow regimes from the visualization are used as targets in an ANN and also used in the estimation of the accuracy of the present method. As a result, ANNs using radial basis functions are shown to be the most appropriate for the present classification of flow regimes, leading to small classification errors. PMID:21694270
Magneto-polar fluid flow through a porous medium of variable permeability in slip flow regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaur, P. K.; Jha, A. K.; Sharma, R.
2016-05-01
A theoretical study is carried out to obtain an analytical solution of free convective heat transfer for the flow of a polar fluid through a porous medium with variable permeability bounded by a semi-infinite vertical plate in a slip flow regime. A uniform magnetic field acts perpendicular to the porous surface. The free stream velocity follows an exponentially decreasing small perturbation law. Using the approximate method the expressions for the velocity, microrotation, and temperature are obtained. Further, the results of the skin friction coefficient, the couple stress coefficient and the rate of heat transfer at the wall are presented with various values of fluid properties and flow conditions.
Kamel, Mohamed A.; Picconi, Jason L.; Lara-Castillo, Nuria; Johnson, Mark L.
2010-01-01
The osteocyte is hypothesized to be the mechanosensory cell in bone. However, osteoblastic cell models have been most commonly used to investigate mechanisms of mechanosensation in bone. Therefore, we sought to determine if differences might exist between osteocytic and osteoblastic cell models relative to the activation of β-catenin signaling in MLO-Y4 osteocytic, 2T3 osteoblastic and primary neonatal calvarial cells (NCCs) in response to pulsatile fluid flow shear stress (PFFSS). β–catenin nuclear translocation was observed in MLO-Y4 cells at 2 and 16 dynes/cm2 PFFSS, but only at 16 dynes/cm2 in the 2T3 or NCC cultures. MLO-Y4 cells released high amounts of PGE2 into the media at all levels of PFFSS (2–24 dynes/cm2) and we observed a biphasic pattern of relative to the level of PFFSS. In contrast PGE2 release by 2T3 cells was only detected during 16 and 24 dynes/cm2 PFFSS starting at >1 hour and never reached the levels produced by MLO-Y4 cells. Exogenously added PGE2 was able to induce β–catenin nuclear translocation in all cells suggesting that the differences between the cell lines observed for β–catenin nuclear translocation was associated with the differences in PGE2 production. To investigate a possible mechanism for the differences in PGE2 release by MLO-Y4 and 2T3 cells we examined the regulation of Ptgs2 (Cox-2) gene expression by PFFSS. 2T3 cell Ptgs2 mRNA levels at both 0 and 24 hours after 2 hours of PFFSS showed biphasic increases with peaks at 4 and 24 dynes/cm2 and 24 hour levels were higher than 0 hour levels. MLO-Y4 cell Ptgs2 expression was similarly biphasic; however at 24 hours post flow Ptgs2 mRNA levels were lower. Our data suggest significant differences in the sensitivity and kinetics of the response mechanisms of 2T3 and neonatal calvarial osteoblastic versus MLO-Y4 osteocytic cells to PFFSS. Furthermore our data support a role for PGE2 in mediating the activation of β–catenin signaling in response to fluid flow shear
Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit using an elbow flow meter
Ortiz, Marcos G.; Boucher, Timothy J.
1997-01-01
A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit. The system utilizes pressure transducers disposed generally in line upstream and downstream of the flow of fluid in a bend in the conduit. Data from the pressure transducers is transmitted to a microprocessor or computer. The pressure differential measured by the pressure transducers is then used to calculate the fluid flow rate in the conduit. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to control flow, total fluid dispersed, (in, for example, an irrigation system), area of dispersal or other desired effect based on the fluid flow in the conduit.
Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit using an elbow flow meter
Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.
1997-06-24
A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit. The system utilizes pressure transducers disposed generally in line upstream and downstream of the flow of fluid in a bend in the conduit. Data from the pressure transducers is transmitted to a microprocessor or computer. The pressure differential measured by the pressure transducers is then used to calculate the fluid flow rate in the conduit. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to control flow, total fluid dispersed, (in, for example, an irrigation system), area of dispersal or other desired effect based on the fluid flow in the conduit. 2 figs.
Governing equations for electro-conjugate fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosoda, K.; Takemura, K.; Fukagata, K.; Yokota, S.; Edamura, K.
2013-12-01
An electro-conjugation fluid (ECF) is a kind of dielectric liquid, which generates a powerful flow when high DC voltage is applied with tiny electrodes. This study deals with the derivation of the governing equations for electro-conjugate fluid flow based on the Korteweg-Helmholtz (KH) equation which represents the force in dielectric liquid subjected to high DC voltage. The governing equations consist of the Gauss's law, charge conservation with charge recombination, the KH equation, the continuity equation and the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The KH equation consists of coulomb force, dielectric constant gradient force and electrostriction force. The governing equation gives the distribution of electric field, charge density and flow velocity. In this study, direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used in order to get these distribution at arbitrary time. Successive over-relaxation (SOR) method is used in analyzing Gauss's law and constrained interpolation pseudo-particle (CIP) method is used in analyzing charge conservation with charge recombination. The third order Runge-Kutta method and conservative second-order-accurate finite difference method is used in analyzing the Navier-Stokes equations with the KH equation. This study also deals with the measurement of ECF ow generated with a symmetrical pole electrodes pair which are made of 0.3 mm diameter piano wire. Working fluid is FF-1EHA2 which is an ECF family. The flow is observed from the both electrodes, i.e., the flow collides in between the electrodes. The governing equation successfully calculates mean flow velocity in between the collector pole electrode and the colliding region by the numerical simulation.
Lagrangian analysis of fluid transport in empirical vortex ring flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shadden, Shawn C.; Dabiri, John O.; Marsden, Jerrold E.
2006-04-01
In this paper we apply dynamical systems analyses and computational tools to fluid transport in empirically measured vortex ring flows. Measurements of quasisteadily propagating vortex rings generated by a mechanical piston-cylinder apparatus reveal lobe dynamics during entrainment and detrainment that are consistent with previous theoretical and numerical studies. In addition, the vortex ring wake of a free-swimming Aurelia aurita jellyfish is measured and analyzed in the framework of dynamical systems to elucidate similar lobe dynamics in a naturally occurring biological flow. For the mechanically generated rings, a comparison of the net entrainment rate based on the present methods with a previous Eulerian analysis shows good correspondence. However, the current Lagrangian framework is more effective than previous analyses in capturing the transport geometry, especially when the flow becomes more unsteady, as in the case of the free-swimming jellyfish. Extensions of these results to more complex flow geometries is suggested.
A stochastic filtering technique for fluid flow velocity fields tracking.
Cuzol, Anne; Mémin, Etienne
2009-07-01
In this paper, we present a method for the temporal tracking of fluid flow velocity fields. The technique we propose is formalized within a sequential Bayesian filtering framework. The filtering model combines an Itô diffusion process coming from a stochastic formulation of the vorticity-velocity form of the Navier-Stokes equation and discrete measurements extracted from the image sequence. In order to handle a state space of reasonable dimension, the motion field is represented as a combination of adapted basis functions, derived from a discretization of the vorticity map of the fluid flow velocity field. The resulting nonlinear filtering problem is solved with the particle filter algorithm in continuous time. An adaptive dimensional reduction method is applied to the filtering technique, relying on dynamical systems theory. The efficiency of the tracking method is demonstrated on synthetic and real-world sequences. PMID:19443925
Highly simplified lateral flow-based nucleic acid sample preparation and passive fluid flow control
Cary, Robert E.
2015-12-08
Highly simplified lateral flow chromatographic nucleic acid sample preparation methods, devices, and integrated systems are provided for the efficient concentration of trace samples and the removal of nucleic acid amplification inhibitors. Methods for capturing and reducing inhibitors of nucleic acid amplification reactions, such as humic acid, using polyvinylpyrrolidone treated elements of the lateral flow device are also provided. Further provided are passive fluid control methods and systems for use in lateral flow assays.
Communications: Mechanical Deformation of Dendrites by Fluid Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pilling, J.; Hellawell, A.
1996-01-01
It is generally accepted that liquid agitation during alloy solidification assists in crystal multiplication, as in dendrite fragmentation and the detachment of side arms in the mushy region of a casting. Even without deliberate stirring by electromagnetic or mechanical means, there is often vigorous interdendritic fluid flow promoted by natural thermosolutal convection. In this analysis, we shall estimate the stress at the root of a secondary dendrite arm of aluminum arising from the action of a flow of molten metal past the dendrite arm.
Measuring fluid flow and heat output in seafloor hydrothermal environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Germanovich, Leonid N.; Hurt, Robert S.; Smith, Joshua E.; Genc, Gence; Lowell, Robert P.
2015-12-01
We review techniques for measuring fluid flow and advective heat output from seafloor hydrothermal systems and describe new anemometer and turbine flowmeter devices we have designed, built, calibrated, and tested. These devices allow measuring fluid velocity at high- and low-temperature focused and diffuse discharge sites at oceanic spreading centers. The devices perform at ocean floor depths and black smoker temperatures and can be used to measure flow rates ranging over 2 orders of magnitude. Flow velocity is determined from the rotation rate of the rotor blades or paddle assembly. These devices have an open bearing design that eliminates clogging by particles or chemical precipitates as the fluid passes by the rotors. The devices are compact and lightweight enough for deployment from either an occupied or remotely operated submersible. The measured flow rates can be used in conjunction with vent temperature or geochemical measurements to obtain heat outputs or geochemical fluxes from both vent chimneys and diffuse flow regions. The devices have been tested on 30 Alvin dives on the Juan de Fuca Ridge and 3 Jason dives on the East Pacific Rise (EPR). We measured an anomalously low entrainment coefficient (0.064) and report 104 new measurements over a wide range of discharge temperatures (5°-363°C), velocities (2-199 cm/s), and depths (1517-2511 m). These include the first advective heat output measurements at the High Rise vent field and the first direct fluid flow measurement at Middle Valley. Our data suggest that black smoker heat output at the Main Endeavour vent field may have declined since 1994 and that after the 2005-2006 eruption, the high-temperature advective flow at the EPR 9°50'N field may have become more channelized, predominately discharging through the Bio 9 structure. We also report 16 measurements on 10 Alvin dives and 2 Jason dives with flow meters that predate devices described in this work and were used in the process of their development
Simulation of flow past a sphere in a stratified fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Stadler, Matthew; Sarkar, Sutanu
2011-11-01
Direct numerical simulation is used to simulate spatially-evolving flow past a sphere in a stratified fluid. The immersed boundary method is used to treat the sphere inside the domain. The main objective of this study is to characterize the near wake region. Statistics of interest include the drag coefficient, separation angle, Strouhal number, and the spatial evolution of the velocity fluctuations and the defect velocity. In addition to quantitative statistics, visualizations of the vortex structures in the wake will also be provided and discussed. Results are compared and contrasted with previous experimental and numerical data for unstratified and stratified flow past a sphere.
Fluid flow in fractured rock: Theory and application
Long, J.C.S.; Hestir, K.; Karasaki, K.; Davey, A.; Peterson, J.; Kemeny, J.; Landsfeld, M.
1989-07-01
The phenomena of fluid flow in fractured rock is dominated by the fact that is not all parts of the domain are in hydraulic communication. In theory, it is possible to determine connectivity and permeability from stochastic parameters that describe the fracture geometry. When this approach is applied to the field we find it very difficult to sufficiently determine the geometry which controls the flow. Simulated annealing, an inverse technique which focus on finding the pattern of conductors may provide a better way to characterize these systems. 30 refs., 20 figs., 6 tabs.
Pulse-like channelled long-distance fluid flow in subducting slabs (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
John, T.; Gussone, N. C.; Beinlich, A.; Halama, R.; Bebout, G. E.; Podladchikov, Y. Y.; Magna, T.
2010-12-01
ratio of 0.70566 is consistent with both altered oceanic crust and altered mantle, the relatively high δ44/40Ca (>1.3‰) of the infiltrating fluid is suggestive of partially hydrated slab mantle as the fluid source. This indicates that some fraction of the slab fluid was liberated by sub-crustal dehydration, then transported over km scales within overlying oceanic crust. Lithium, as one of the fastest diffusing elements, can provide information regarding how long such fluid pathways are active, i.e. the duration of fluid-rock interaction in the reaction selvage. Diffusive fluid-mediated transport modeling of Li concentrations and isotopes indicates that the fluid flow structure was open for less than 100 years, implying that channelized fluid flow in slabs is very fast and that rates of fluid release are similar to magma transport rates beneath arcs. Such fluid pulses could feed arc magma sources with aqueous fluids, with these fluids traversing the slab-wedge interface in transient hydraulic fractures. [1] Beinlich et al. (2010), GCA 74, 1892-1922.
ICEd-ALE Treatment of 3-D Fluid Flow.
1999-09-13
Version: 00 SALE3D calculates three-dimensional fluid flow at all speeds, from the incompressible limit to highly supersonic. An implicit treatment of the pressure calculation similar to that in the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique provides this flow speed flexibility. In addition, the computing mesh may move with the fluid in a typical Lagrangian fashion, be held in an Eulerian manner, or move in some arbitrarily specified way to provide a continuous rezoning capability. This latitudemore » results from use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) treatment of the mesh. The partial differential equations solved are the Navier-Stokes equations and the mass and internal energy equations. The fluid pressure is determined from an equation of state and supplemented with an artificial viscous pressure for the computation of shock waves. The computing mesh consists of a three-dimensional network of arbitrarily shaped, six-sided deformable cells, and a variety of user-selectable boundary conditions are provided in the program.« less
Microbubbles reveal chiral fluid flows in bacterial swarms
Wu, Yilin; Hosu, Basarab G.; Berg, Howard C.
2011-01-01
Flagellated bacteria can swim within a thin film of fluid that coats a solid surface, such as agar; this is a means for colony expansion known as swarming. We found that micrometer-sized bubbles make excellent tracers for the motion of this fluid. The microbubbles form explosively when small aliquots of an aqueous suspension of droplets of a water-insoluble surfactant (Span 83) are placed on the agar ahead of a swarm, as the water is absorbed by the agar and the droplets are exposed to air. Using these bubbles, we discovered an extensive stream (or river) of swarm fluid flowing clockwise along the leading edge of an Escherichia coli swarm, at speeds of order 10 μm/s, about three times faster than the swarm expansion. The flow is generated by the action of counterclockwise rotating flagella of cells stuck to the substratum, which drives fluid clockwise around isolated cells (when viewed from above), counterclockwise between cells in dilute arrays, and clockwise in front of cells at the swarm edge. The river provides an avenue for long-range communication in the swarming colony, ideally suited for secretory vesicles that diffuse poorly. These findings broaden our understanding of swarming dynamics and have implications for the engineering of bacterial-driven microfluidic devices. PMID:21300887
Cytoskeletal Dynamics and Fluid Flow in Drosophila Oocytes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Canio, Gabriele; Goldstein, Raymond; Lauga, Eric
2015-11-01
The biological world includes a broad range of phenomena in which transport in a fluid plays a central role. Among these is the fundamental issue of cell polarity arising during development, studied historically using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. The polarity of the oocyte is known to be induced by the translocation of mRNAs by kinesin motor proteins along a dense microtubule cytoskeleton, a process which also induces cytoplasmic streaming. Recent experimental observations have revealed the remarkable fluid-structure interactions that occur as the streaming flows back-react on the microtubules. In this work we use a combination of theory and simulations to address the interplay between the fluid flow and the configuration of cytoskeletal filaments leading to the directed motion inside the oocyte. We show in particular that the mechanical coupling between the fluid motion and the orientation of the microtubules can lead to a transition to coherent motion within the oocyte, as observed. Supported by EPSRC and ERC Advanced Investigator Grant 247333.
Optimization of micropillar sequences for fluid flow sculpting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoecklein, Daniel; Wu, Chueh-Yu; Kim, Donghyuk; Di Carlo, Dino; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar
2016-01-01
Inertial fluid flow deformation around pillars in a microchannel is a new method for controlling fluid flow. Sequences of pillars have been shown to produce a rich phase space with a wide variety of flow transformations. Previous work has successfully demonstrated manual design of pillar sequences to achieve desired transformations of the flow cross section, with experimental validation. However, such a method is not ideal for seeking out complex sculpted shapes as the search space quickly becomes too large for efficient manual discovery. We explore fast, automated optimization methods to solve this problem. We formulate the inertial flow physics in microchannels with different micropillar configurations as a set of state transition matrix operations. These state transition matrices are constructed from experimentally validated streamtraces for a fixed channel length per pillar. This facilitates modeling the effect of a sequence of micropillars as nested matrix-matrix products, which have very efficient numerical implementations. With this new forward model, arbitrary micropillar sequences can be rapidly simulated with various inlet configurations, allowing optimization routines quick access to a large search space. We integrate this framework with the genetic algorithm and showcase its applicability by designing micropillar sequences for various useful transformations. We computationally discover micropillar sequences for complex transformations that are substantially shorter than manually designed sequences. We also determine sequences for novel transformations that were difficult to manually design. Finally, we experimentally validate these computational designs by fabricating devices and comparing predictions with the results from confocal microscopy.
Yield Hardening of Electrorheological Fluids in Channel Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helal, Ahmed; Qian, Bian; McKinley, Gareth H.; Hosoi, A. E.
2016-06-01
Electrorheological fluids offer potential for developing rapidly actuated hydraulic devices where shear forces or pressure-driven flow are present. In this study, the Bingham yield stress of electrorheological fluids with different particle volume fractions is investigated experimentally in wall-driven and pressure-driven flow modes using measurements in a parallel-plate rheometer and a microfluidic channel, respectively. A modified Krieger-Dougherty model can be used to describe the effects of the particle volume fraction on the yield stress and is in good agreement with the viscometric data. However, significant yield hardening in pressure-driven channel flow is observed and attributed to an increase and eventual saturation of the particle volume fraction in the channel. A phenomenological physical model linking the densification and consequent microstructure to the ratio of the particle aggregation time scale compared to the convective time scale is presented and used to predict the enhancement in yield stress in channel flow, enabling us to reconcile discrepancies in the literature between wall-driven and pressure-driven flows.
Experimental study of fluid flows in a precessing cylindrical annulus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Yufeng; Noir, Jerome; Jackson, Andrew
2014-04-01
The flow inside a precessing fluid cavity has been given particular attention since the end of the 19th century in geophysical and industrial contexts. The present study aims at shedding light on the underlying mechanism by which the flow inside a precessing cylindrical annulus transitions from laminar to multiple scale complex structures. We address this problem experimentally using ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry to diagnose the fluid velocity in a rotating and precessing cylindrical annulus. When precession is weak, the flow can be described as a superposition of forced inertial modes. Above a critical value of the precession rate, the forced flow couples with two free inertial modes satisfying triadic resonance conditions, leading to the classical growth and collapse. Using a Bayesian approach, we extract the wavenumber, frequency, growth rate, and amplitude of each mode involved in the instability. In some cases, we observe for the first time ever experimentally two pairs of free modes coexisting with the forced flow. At larger precession rates, we do not observe triadic resonance any more, instead we observe several harmonics whose frequencies are integer multiples of the rotation frequency.
GEOSIM: A numerical model for geophysical fluid flow simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Butler, Karen A.; Miller, Timothy L.; Lu, Huei-Iin
1991-01-01
A numerical model which simulates geophysical fluid flow in a wide range of problems is described in detail, and comparisons of some of the model's results are made with previous experimental and numerical studies. The model is based upon the Boussinesq Navier-Stokes equations in spherical coordinates, which can be reduced to a cylindrical system when latitudinal walls are used near the pole and the ratio of latitudinal length to the radius of the sphere is small. The equations are approximated by finite differences in the meridional plane and spectral decomposition in the azimuthal direction. The user can specify a variety of boundary and initial conditions, and there are five different spectral truncation options. The results of five validation cases are presented: (1) the transition between axisymmetric flow and baroclinic wave flow in the side heated annulus; (2) the steady baroclinic wave of the side heated annulus; (3) the wave amplitude vacillation of the side heated annulus; (4) transition to baroclinic wave flow in a bottom heated annulus; and (5) the Spacelab Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (spherical) experiment.
Using heteroclinic orbits to quantify topological entropy in fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sattari, Sulimon; Chen, Qianting; Mitchell, Kevin A.
2016-03-01
Topological approaches to mixing are important tools to understand chaotic fluid flows, ranging from oceanic transport to the design of micro-mixers. Typically, topological entropy, the exponential growth rate of material lines, is used to quantify topological mixing. Computing topological entropy from the direct stretching rate is computationally expensive and sheds little light on the source of the mixing. Earlier approaches emphasized that topological entropy could be viewed as generated by the braiding of virtual, or "ghost," rods stirring the fluid in a periodic manner. Here, we demonstrate that topological entropy can also be viewed as generated by the braiding of ghost rods following heteroclinic orbits instead. We use the machinery of homotopic lobe dynamics, which extracts symbolic dynamics from finite-length pieces of stable and unstable manifolds attached to fixed points of the fluid flow. As an example, we focus on the topological entropy of a bounded, chaotic, two-dimensional, double-vortex cavity flow. Over a certain parameter range, the topological entropy is primarily due to the braiding of a period-three orbit. However, this orbit does not explain the topological entropy for parameter values where it does not exist, nor does it explain the excess of topological entropy for the entire range of its existence. We show that braiding by heteroclinic orbits provides an accurate computation of topological entropy when the period-three orbit does not exist, and that it provides an explanation for some of the excess topological entropy when the period-three orbit does exist. Furthermore, the computation of symbolic dynamics using heteroclinic orbits has been automated and can be used to compute topological entropy for a general 2D fluid flow.
Using heteroclinic orbits to quantify topological entropy in fluid flows.
Sattari, Sulimon; Chen, Qianting; Mitchell, Kevin A
2016-03-01
Topological approaches to mixing are important tools to understand chaotic fluid flows, ranging from oceanic transport to the design of micro-mixers. Typically, topological entropy, the exponential growth rate of material lines, is used to quantify topological mixing. Computing topological entropy from the direct stretching rate is computationally expensive and sheds little light on the source of the mixing. Earlier approaches emphasized that topological entropy could be viewed as generated by the braiding of virtual, or "ghost," rods stirring the fluid in a periodic manner. Here, we demonstrate that topological entropy can also be viewed as generated by the braiding of ghost rods following heteroclinic orbits instead. We use the machinery of homotopic lobe dynamics, which extracts symbolic dynamics from finite-length pieces of stable and unstable manifolds attached to fixed points of the fluid flow. As an example, we focus on the topological entropy of a bounded, chaotic, two-dimensional, double-vortex cavity flow. Over a certain parameter range, the topological entropy is primarily due to the braiding of a period-three orbit. However, this orbit does not explain the topological entropy for parameter values where it does not exist, nor does it explain the excess of topological entropy for the entire range of its existence. We show that braiding by heteroclinic orbits provides an accurate computation of topological entropy when the period-three orbit does not exist, and that it provides an explanation for some of the excess topological entropy when the period-three orbit does exist. Furthermore, the computation of symbolic dynamics using heteroclinic orbits has been automated and can be used to compute topological entropy for a general 2D fluid flow. PMID:27036190
Fluid flow measurements by means of vibration monitoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campagna, Mauro M.; Dinardo, Giuseppe; Fabbiano, Laura; Vacca, Gaetano
2015-11-01
The achievement of accurate fluid flow measurements is fundamental whenever the control and the monitoring of certain physical quantities governing an industrial process are required. In that case, non-intrusive devices are preferable, but these are often more sophisticated and expensive than those which are more common (such as nozzles, diaphrams, Coriolis flowmeters and so on). In this paper, a novel, non-intrusive, simple and inexpensive methodology is presented to measure the fluid flow rate (in a turbulent regime) whose physical principle is based on the acquisition of transversal vibrational signals induced by the fluid itself onto the pipe walls it is flowing through. Such a principle of operation would permit the use of micro-accelerometers capable of acquiring and transmitting the signals, even by means of wireless technology, to a control room for the monitoring of the process under control. A possible application (whose feasibility will be investigated by the authors in a further study) of this introduced technology is related to the employment of a net of micro-accelerometers to be installed on pipeline networks of aqueducts. This apparatus could lead to the faster and easier detection and location of possible leaks of fluid affecting the pipeline network with more affordable costs. The authors, who have previously proven the linear dependency of the acceleration harmonics amplitude on the flow rate, here discuss an experimental analysis of this functional relation with the variation in the physical properties of the pipe in terms of its diameter and constituent material, to find the eventual limits to the practical application of the measurement methodology.
Draft: Modeling Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media Including Fluid-Fluid Interfacial Area
Crandall, Dustin; Niessner, Jennifer; Hassanizadeh, S Majid
2008-01-01
We present a new numerical model for macro-scale twophase flow in porous media which is based on a physically consistent theory of multi-phase flow.The standard approach for modeling the flow of two fluid phases in a porous medium consists of a continuity equation for each phase, an extended form of Darcy’s law as well as constitutive relationships for relative permeability and capillary pressure. This approach is known to have a number of important shortcomings and, in particular, it does not account for the presence and role of fluid - fluid interfaces. An alternative is to use an extended model which is founded on thermodynamic principles and is physically consistent. In addition to the standard equations, the model uses a balance equation for specific interfacial area. The constitutive relationship for capillary pressure involves not only saturation, but also specific interfacial area. We show how parameters can be obtained for the alternative model using experimental data from a new kind of flow cell and present results of a numerical modeling study
An experimental study of recirculating flow through fluid sediment interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalili, A.; Basu, A. J.; Pietrzyk, U.; Raffel, M.
1999-03-01
We report here visualizations and quantitative measurements of scalar transport, under the influence of rotation, through permeable sediments with an overlying fluid layer. The experimental set-up considered here is a stationary cylinder containing a fluid-saturated porous medium up to its midheight, with supernatant water on top. A rotating lid generates, in the upper fluid region, a flow that partially percolates into the porous layer below. The velocity field in the fluid layer is obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Further, dye transport from the sediment is studied using two different techniques. The first one is positron emission tomography (PET), a non-invasive method which allowed us to ‘see’ through the opaque solid matrix, and to obtain full three-dimensional pictures of dye transport through the sediment. The second one is digital photographic visualization from outside, and subsequent image processing in order to obtain the near-wall dye-washout depth. The experimental data suggest that the temporal evolution of washout depth for different sediments follows near-logarithmic behaviour. This finding is of importance for the a priori estimation of the transport of fluid and other solute substances in sandy aquatic sediments.
Nanoscale transient porosity controls large-scale metamorphic fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plümper, Oliver; Botan, Alexandru; Los, Catharina; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Jamtveit, Bjørn
2016-04-01
The reaction of fluids with rocks is fundamental for Earth's dynamics as they facilitate heat/mass transfer and induce volume changes, weaknesses and instabilities in rock masses that localize deformation enabling tectonic responses to plate motion. During these fluid-rock interactions it is the ability of a rock to transmit fluid, its permeability, that controls the rates of metamorphic reactions. However, although some geological environments (e.g., sediments) are open to fluids, the majority of solid rocks (e.g., granites, elcogites, peridotites, etc.) are nearly impermeable. Surprisingly though, even in rocks that are nominally impermeable widespread fluid-rock interactions are observed leading to the question: How can fluids migrate through vast amounts of nominally impermeable rocks? Here we investigate one of the most wide-spread fluid-mediated metamorphic processes in the Earth's crust, the albitization of feldspatic rocks. We show that fluid flow and element mobilization during albitization is controlled by an interaction between grain boundary diffusion and reaction front migration through an interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation process. Using a combination of focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM)-assisted nanotomography combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the porosity is dictated by pore channels with a pore diameter ranging between 10 to 100 nm. Three-dimensional visualization of the feldspar pore network reveals that the pore channels must have been connected during the replacement reaction. Analysis of the pore aspect ratios suggests that a Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability associated to surface energy minimization caused the disconnection of the pore channels. Fluid transport in nanometer-sized objects with at least one characteristic dimension below 100 nm enables the occurrence of physical phenomena that are impossible at bigger length scales. Thus, on the basis of our microstructural
Parallel Plate Flow of a Third-Grade Fluid and a Newtonian Fluid With Variable Viscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yıldız, Volkan; Pakdemirli, Mehmet; Aksoy, Yiğit
2016-07-01
Steady-state parallel plate flow of a third-grade fluid and a Newtonian fluid with temperature-dependent viscosity is considered. Approximate analytical solutions are constructed using the newly developed perturbation-iteration algorithms. Two different perturbation-iteration algorithms are used. The velocity and temperature profiles obtained by the iteration algorithms are contrasted with the numerical solutions as well as with the regular perturbation solutions. It is found that the perturbation-iteration solutions converge better to the numerical solutions than the regular perturbation solutions, in particular when the validity criteria of the regular perturbation solution are not satisfied. The new analytical approach produces promising results in solving complex fluid problems.
Traveling hairpin-shaped fluid vortices in plane Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deguchi, K.; Nagata, M.
2010-11-01
Traveling-wave solutions are discovered in plane Couette flow. They are obtained when the so-called steady hairpin vortex state found recently by Gibson [J. Fluid Mech. 638, 243 (2009)]10.1017/S0022112009990863 and Itano and Generalis [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 114501 (2009)]10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.114501 is continued to sliding Couette flow geometry between two concentric cylinders by using the radius ratio as a homotopy parameter. It turns out that in the plane Couette flow geometry two traveling waves having the phase velocities with opposite signs are associated with their appearance from the steady hairpin vortex state, where the amplitude of the phase velocities increases gradually from zero as the Reynolds number is increased. The solutions obviously inherit the streaky structure of the hairpin vortex state, but shape preserving flow patterns propagate in the streamwise direction. Other striking features of the solution are asymmetric mean flow profiles and strong quasistreamwise vortices which occupy the vicinity of only the top or bottom moving boundary, depending on the sign of the phase velocity. Furthermore, we find that the pitchfork bifurcation associated with the appearance of the solution becomes imperfect when the flow is perturbed by a Poiseuille flow component.
Monitoring Fluid Flow in Fractured Carbonate Rocks Using Seismic Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, W.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.
2008-12-01
The physical properties of carbonate rock are strongly influenced by the rock fabric which depends on the depositional environment, diagenetic and tectonic processes. The most common form of heterogeneity is layering caused by a variation in porosity among layers and within layers. The variation in porosity among layers leads to anisotropic behavior in the hydraulic, mechanical and seismic properties of carbonate rocks. We present the results of a laboratory study to examine the effect of fabric-controlled layering on fluid flow and seismic wave propagation through intact and fractured carbonate rock. Experiments were performed on cubic samples of Austin Chalk Cordova Cream. Samples AC1, AC5 and AC6 are cubic samples that measure 100 mm on edge. The samples were sealed and contained three inlet and three outlet ports for fluid invasion experiments. Two orthogonal seismic arrays were used to record both compressional and shear wave transmission through intact and fractured samples. The arrays used piezoelectric contact transducers with a central frequency 1.0 MHz. Between the two arrays, sixteen sources and sixteen receivers were used. Seismic measurements were made on the samples as a function of stress and during fluid saturation. The location of the invading fluid front as a function of time was monitored by using the peak-to-peak amplitude of the transmitted signals. The front was assumed to be between a source-receiver pair when the signal amplitude decreased by 50% over the initial value. The hydraulic gradient was parallel and perpendicular to the layers for AC5 and AC6, respectively. Sample AC1 was fractured and flow ports were established on the edges of the fracture plane. The weakly directed fabric controlled the rate at which fluid flowed through the samples. From the seismic data on AC6, the fluid first spread vertically along a layer before flowing across the layers. For AC6, it took the fluid two and half hours to flow between the inlet and the outlet
Fluid Dynamical Instabilities in a Partially Ionized Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamaya, Hideyuki; Nishi, Ryoichi
2000-05-01
In this paper, we reveal that there are two fluid dynamical instabilities for a partially ionized flow with quasi-static contraction: the instability of the Alfvén wave and the two-fluid instability. We find them by means of linear perturbation analysis, adopting the following unperturbed state; the magnetic field has a gradient against the terminal flow of neutrals, which are accelerated because of gravity. The terminal velocity is determined by the balance between the gravity and the friction force, which originates from the ion-neutral collisions. The instability of the Alfvén wave occurs because of the imbalance of the restoring force, which is generated by the unperturbed background magnetic field if a wavelength is longer than a critical wavelength. Indeed, this critical wavelength is obtained from the comparison between the local restoring efficiency and that of the background unperturbed field. It is estimated as of the order of ~0.01 pc when the grains are the dominant charged particles. Thus, we speculate that this instability is responsible for the formation of the observed small-scale structure in the molecular clouds. If the relative speed between the ions and the neutrals is larger than the thermal speed of the neutrals, there is another instability, i.e., the so-called two-fluid instability. Fortunately, although the two-fluid instability coexists with the instability of the Alfvén wave, structure formation via the instability of the Alfvén wave is possible since its growth rate is larger than that of the two-fluid instability.
Lymphatic vessel development: fluid flow and valve-forming cells.
Kume, Tsutomu
2015-08-01
Hemodynamic forces regulate many aspects of blood vessel disease and development, including susceptibility to atherosclerosis and remodeling of primary blood vessels into a mature vascular network. Vessels of the lymphatic circulatory system are also subjected to fluid flow-associated forces, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which these forces regulate the formation and maintenance of lymphatic vessels remain largely uncharacterized. This issue of the JCI includes two articles that begin to address how fluid flow influences lymphatic vessel development and function. Sweet et al. demonstrate that lymph flow is essential for the remodeling of primary lymphatic vessels, for ensuring the proper distribution of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and for the development and maturation of lymphatic valves. Kazenwadel et al. show that flow-induced lymphatic valve development is initiated by the upregulation of GATA2, which has been linked to lymphedema in patients with Emberger syndrome. Together, these observations and future studies inspired by these results have potential to lead to the development of strategies for the treatment of lymphatic disorders. PMID:26214518
Pressure of Newtonian fluid flow through curved pipes and elbows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Xinxin; Sun, Haosen; Chen, Mingjiu; Lu, Xiaoyang; Wang, Yuancheng; Liu, Xueting
2013-08-01
Under conditions of high temperature and high pressure, the non-uniformity of pressure loads has intensified the stress concentration which impacts the safety of curved pipes and elbows. This paper focuses on the pressure distribution and flow characteristic in a curved 90° bend pipe with circular cross-sections, which are widely used in industrial applications. These flow and pressure characteristics in curved bend pipes have been researched by employing numerical simulation and theoretical analysis. Based on the dimensionless analysis method a formula for the pressure of Newtonian fluid flow through the elbow pipes is deduced. Also the pressure distributions of several elbows with different curvature ratio R/D are obtained by numerical methods. The influence of these non-dimensional parameters such as non-dimensional curvature ratio, Reynolds number and non-dimensional axial angle α and circumferential angle β on the pressure distribution in elbow pipes is discussed in detail. A number of important results have been achieved. This paper provides theoretical and numerical methods to understand the mechanical property of fluid flow in elbow pipes, to analyze the stress and to design the wall thickness of elbow pipes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pjevac, P.; Markert, S.; Richter, M.; Gruber-Vodicka, H.; Schweder, T.; Amann, R.; Meyerdierks, A.
2014-12-01
At many sites of hydrothermal discharge in the deep-sea, the deposition of metal sulfides from hydrothermal fluids leads to the formation of geological structures known as hydrothermal chimneys. The mixing of reduced hydrothermal fluids with oxygenated seawater leads to the formation of steep redox gradients within the chimney walls. These gradients facilitate the co-existence of metabolically diverse microorganisms in the narrow habitable zone of hydrothermal chimney walls. However, the overall composition of chimney-associated microbial community is usually of low complexity and represents an environment suitable for metaomic-based studies. We used metagenomic and metaproteomic tools to compare microbial communities colonizing two metal-sulfide chimneys from the Manus Basin back-arc spreading center in the Bismarck Sea off Papua New Guinea. These chimneys were supplied by the same source hydrothermal fluids, but exhibited different fluid flow regimes. One chimney (RMR5) had a focused venting edifice, while the other (RMR-D) displayed diffuse fluid efflux on its entire outer surface. Although the microbial diversity of both chimneys is similar and dominated by mesophilic Epsilonproteobacteria, our results indicate a strong structuring effect of hydrothermal fluid flow regime on chimney-associated biofilms. The microbial community composition indicates a homogeneous colonization of the diffuse chimney walls. In contrast, the walls of the focused venting chimney appear to be colonized in layers reflecting different temperature tolerances of the dominant microorganisms. Sulfide-oxidation is likely the key metabolism in both chimneys, which is in line with the high sulfide content of the source hydrothermal fluid. However, preliminary metaproteome analysis indicates high activity of low-abundant methanotrophic Bacteria in the diffuser chimney walls. This finding is particularly interesting in light of the very low methane content of the source hydrothermal fluid
Magnetorheological effect in a suspension with an active carrier fluid
Kashevskii, B.E.; Kordonskii, V.I.; Prokhorov, I.V.
1988-07-01
The main quantitative laws governing the magnetorheological effect in a magnetorheological suspension with an active carrier liquid were established. The family of flow curves obtained for several samples of suspensions of one type of nonmagnetic particle was analyzed. Particles were suspended in a magnetic fluid of the magnetite-kerosite type. The main goal was to establish the law governing rheological similarity by generalizing experimental data with a universal relation while employing a small amount of initial data on the system. The data included the law of magnetization of the magnetic carrier fluid, the law of change in its viscosity in the field, and the law of change in the viscosity of the magnetorheological suspension/active carrier liquid system with an increase in the concentration of nonmagnetic particles in a zero field.
Particle-fluid two-phase flow modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mortensen, G. A.; Trapp, J. A.
This paper describes a numerical scheme and computer program, DISCON, for the calculation of two-phase flows that does not require the use of flow regime maps. This model is intermediate between-thermal instantaneous and the averaged two-fluid model. It solves the Eulerian continuity, momentum, and energy equations for each liquid control volume, and the Lagrangian mass, momentum, energy, and position equations for each bubble. The bubbles are modeled individually using a large representative number of bubbles, thus, avoiding the numerical diffusion associated with Eulerian models. DISCON has been used to calculate the bubbling of air through a column of water and the subcooled boiling of water in a flow channel. The results of these calculations are presented.
Local mesh refinement for incompressible fluid flow with free surfaces
Terasaka, H.; Kajiwara, H.; Ogura, K.
1995-09-01
A new local mesh refinement (LMR) technique has been developed and applied to incompressible fluid flows with free surface boundaries. The LMR method embeds patches of fine grid in arbitrary regions of interest. Hence, more accurate solutions can be obtained with a lower number of computational cells. This method is very suitable for the simulation of free surface movements because free surface flow problems generally require a finer computational grid to obtain adequate results. By using this technique, one can place finer grids only near the surfaces, and therefore greatly reduce the total number of cells and computational costs. This paper introduces LMR3D, a three-dimensional incompressible flow analysis code. Numerical examples calculated with the code demonstrate well the advantages of the LMR method.
Advanced numerics for multi-dimensional fluid flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanka, S. P.
1984-01-01
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the development and use of mathematical models for the simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer and combustion processes in engineering equipment. The equations representing the multi-dimensional transport of mass, momenta and species are numerically solved by finite-difference or finite-element techniques. However despite the multiude of differencing schemes and solution algorithms, and the advancement of computing power, the calculation of multi-dimensional flows, especially three-dimensional flows, remains a mammoth task. The following discussion is concerned with the author's recent work on the construction of accurate discretization schemes for the partial derivatives, and the efficient solution of the set of nonlinear algebraic equations resulting after discretization. The present work has been jointly supported by the Ramjet Engine Division of the Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, and the NASA Lewis Research Center.
Particle-fluid two-phase flow modeling
Mortensen, G.A. ); Trapp, J.A. Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID )
1992-01-01
This paper describes a numerical scheme and computer program, DISCON, for the calculation of two-phase flows that does not require the use of flow regime maps. This model is intermediate between-thermal instantaneous and the averaged two-fluid model. It solves the Eulerian continuity, momentum, and energy equations for each liquid control volume, and the Lagrangian mass, momentum, energy, and position equations for each bubble. The bubbles are modeled individually using a large representative number of bubbles thus avoiding the numerical diffusion associated with Eulerian models. DISCON has been used to calculate the bubbling of air through a column of water and the subcooled boiling of water in a flow channel. The results of these calculations are presented.
Flow behaviour of negatively buoyant jets in immiscible ambient fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geyer, A.; Phillips, J. C.; Mier-Torrecilla, M.; Idelsohn, S. R.; Oñate, E.
2012-01-01
In this paper we investigate experimentally the injection of a negatively buoyant jet into a homogenous immiscible ambient fluid. Experiments are carried out by injecting a jet of dyed fresh water through a nozzle in the base of a cylindrical tank containing rapeseed oil. The fountain inlet flow rate and nozzle diameter were varied to cover a wide range of Richardson Ri (8 × 10-4 < Ri < 1.98), Reynolds Re (467 < Re < 5,928) and Weber We (2.40 < We < 308.56) numbers. Based on the Re, Ri and We values for the experiments, we have determined a regime map to define how these values may control the occurrence of the observed flow types. Whereas Ri plays a stronger role when determining the maximum penetration height, the effect of the Reynolds number is stronger predicting the flow behaviour for a specific nozzle diameter and injection velocity.
Particle-fluid two-phase flow modeling
Mortensen, G.A.; Trapp, J.A. |
1992-09-01
This paper describes a numerical scheme and computer program, DISCON, for the calculation of two-phase flows that does not require the use of flow regime maps. This model is intermediate between-thermal instantaneous and the averaged two-fluid model. It solves the Eulerian continuity, momentum, and energy equations for each liquid control volume, and the Lagrangian mass, momentum, energy, and position equations for each bubble. The bubbles are modeled individually using a large representative number of bubbles thus avoiding the numerical diffusion associated with Eulerian models. DISCON has been used to calculate the bubbling of air through a column of water and the subcooled boiling of water in a flow channel. The results of these calculations are presented.
Visualization periodic flows in a continuously stratified fluid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bardakov, R.; Vasiliev, A.
2012-04-01
To visualize the flow pattern of viscous continuously stratified fluid both experimental and computational methods were developed. Computational procedures were based on exact solutions of set of the fundamental equations. Solutions of the problems of flows producing by periodically oscillating disk (linear and torsion oscillations) were visualized with a high resolutions to distinguish small-scale the singular components on the background of strong internal waves. Numerical algorithm of visualization allows to represent both the scalar and vector fields, such as velocity, density, pressure, vorticity, stream function. The size of the source, buoyancy and oscillation frequency, kinematic viscosity of the medium effects were traced in 2D an 3D posing problems. Precision schlieren instrument was used to visualize the flow pattern produced by linear and torsion oscillations of strip and disk in a continuously stratified fluid. Uniform stratification was created by the continuous displacement method. The buoyancy period ranged from 7.5 to 14 s. In the experiments disks with diameters from 9 to 30 cm and a thickness of 1 mm to 10 mm were used. Different schlieren methods that are conventional vertical slit - Foucault knife, vertical slit - filament (Maksoutov's method) and horizontal slit - horizontal grating (natural "rainbow" schlieren method) help to produce supplementing flow patterns. Both internal wave beams and fine flow components were visualized in vicinity and far from the source. Intensity of high gradient envelopes increased proportionally the amplitude of the source. In domains of envelopes convergence isolated small scale vortices and extended mushroom like jets were formed. Experiments have shown that in the case of torsion oscillations pattern of currents is more complicated than in case of forced linear oscillations. Comparison with known theoretical model shows that nonlinear interactions between the regular and singular flow components must be taken
Fluid Flow Prediction with Development System Interwell Connectivity Influence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolshakov, M.; Deeva, T.; Pustovskikh, A.
2016-03-01
In this paper interwell connectivity has been studied. First of all, literature review of existing methods was made which is divided into three groups: Statistically-Based Methods, Material (fluid) Propagation-Based Methods and Potential (pressure) Change Propagation-Based Method. The disadvantages of the first and second groups are as follows: methods do not involve fluid flow through porous media, ignore any changes of well conditions (BHP, skin factor, etc.). The last group considers changes of well conditions and fluid flow through porous media. In this work Capacitance method (CM) has been chosen for research. This method is based on material balance and uses weight coefficients lambdas to assess well influence. In the next step synthetic model was created for examining CM. This model consists of an injection well and a production well. CM gave good results, it means that flow rates which were calculated by analytical method (CM) show matching with flow rate in model. Further new synthetic model was created which includes six production and one injection wells. This model represents seven-spot pattern. To obtain lambdas weight coefficients, the delta function was entered using by minimization algorithm. Also synthetic model which has three injectors and thirteen producer wells was created. This model simulates seven-spot pattern production system. Finally Capacitance method (CM) has been adjusted on real data of oil Field Ω. In this case CM does not give enough satisfying results in terms of field data liquid rate. In conclusion, recommendations to simplify CM calculations were given. Field Ω is assumed to have one injection and one production wells. In this case, satisfying results for production rates and cumulative production were obtained.
Capillary Corner Flows With Partial and Nonwetting Fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bolleddula, D. A.; Weislogel, M. M.
2009-01-01
Capillary flow in containers or conduits with interior corners are common place in nature and industry. The majority of investigations addressing such flows solve the problem numerically in terms of a friction factor for flows along corners with contact angles below the Concus-Finn critical wetting condition for the particular conduit geometry of interest. This research effort provides missing numerical data for the flow resistance function F(sub i) for partially and nonwetting systems above the Concus-Finn condition. In such cases the fluid spontaneously de-wets the interior corner and often retracts into corner-bound drops. A banded numerical coefficient is desirable for further analysis and is achieved by careful selection of length scales x(sub s) and y(sub s) to nondimensionalize the problem. The optimal scaling is found to be identical to the wetting scaling, namely x(sub s) = H and y(sub s) = Htan (alpha), where H is the height from the corner to the free surface and a is the corner half-angle. Employing this scaling produces a relatively weakly varying flow resistance F(sub i) and for subsequent analyses is treated as a constant. Example solutions to steady and transient flow problems are provided that illustrate applications of this result.
Fluid flow in nanopores: An examination of hydrodynamic boundary conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokhan, V. P.; Nicholson, D.; Quirke, N.
2001-08-01
Steady-state Poiseuille flow of a simple fluid in carbon slit pores under a gravity-like force is simulated using a realistic empirical many-body potential model for carbon. In this work we focus on the small Knudsen number regime, where the macroscopic equations are applicable, and simulate different wetting conditions by varying the strength of fluid-wall interactions. We show that fluid flow in a carbon pore is characterized by a large slip length even in the strongly wetting case, contrary to the predictions of Tolstoi's theory. When the surface density of wall atoms is reduced to values typical of a van der Waals solid, the streaming velocity profile vanishes at the wall, in accordance with earlier findings. From the velocity profiles we have calculated the slip length and by analyzing temporal profiles of the velocity components of particles colliding with the wall we obtained values of the Maxwell coefficient defining the fraction of molecules thermalized by the wall.
Constructive interference in arrays of energy harvesters in fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azadeh Ranjbar, Vahid; Goushcha, Oleg; Elvin, Niell; Andreopoulos, Yiannis
2014-11-01
In the present work we demonstrate some unique opportunities which exist to increase the power harvested with fluidic piezoelectric generators by almost two orders of magnitude higher than existing methods by exploiting dynamic non-linearities and deploying multi-element arrays in carefully selected positions in a fluid flow field. These ac-coupled generators convert fluid kinetic energy, which otherwise would be wasted, into electrical energy. The available power in a flowing fluid is proportional to the cube of its velocity and if it is properly harvested can be used for continuously powering very small electronic devices or can be rectified and stored for intermittent use. Additional experimental work has shown that non-linear arrays of such energy harvesters can produce high output voltages in a very broadband range of frequencies. In our work, we investigate the effect of geometric parameters such as spatial arrangement and the mutual interference between the elements of a non-linear array on their overall performance and efficiency characteristics. Analytical tools based on the non-linear van der Pol oscillator have been also developed and verified with experimental data. Work supported by National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET #1033117.
New Methods for Sensitivity Analysis in Chaotic, Turbulent Fluid Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blonigan, Patrick; Wang, Qiqi
2012-11-01
Computational methods for sensitivity analysis are invaluable tools for fluid mechanics research and engineering design. These methods are used in many applications, including aerodynamic shape optimization and adaptive grid refinement. However, traditional sensitivity analysis methods break down when applied to long-time averaged quantities in chaotic fluid flowfields, such as those obtained using high-fidelity turbulence simulations. Also, a number of dynamical properties of chaotic fluid flows, most notably the ``Butterfly Effect,'' make the formulation of new sensitivity analysis methods difficult. This talk will outline two chaotic sensitivity analysis methods. The first method, the Fokker-Planck adjoint method, forms a probability density function on the strange attractor associated with the system and uses its adjoint to find gradients. The second method, the Least Squares Sensitivity method, finds some ``shadow trajectory'' in phase space for which perturbations do not grow exponentially. This method is formulated as a quadratic programing problem with linear constraints. This talk is concluded with demonstrations of these new methods on some example problems, including the Lorenz attractor and flow around an airfoil at a high angle of attack.
Stability of layered channel flow of magnetic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yecko, Philip
2009-03-01
The stability of a sheared interface separating a viscous magnetic fluid (ferrofluid) and an ordinary viscous fluid is examined for arbitrary wavelength disturbances using three dimensional linear perturbation theory. The unperturbed state corresponds to a two-layer Poiseuille profile in which a uniform magnetic field of arbitrary orientation is imposed. Coupling between the field and fluid occurs via the magnetic Maxwell stress tensor, formulated here for nonlinear magnetic material, expanding the scope of previous studies of linear media. Neutral curves and stability characteristics at low Reynolds number are presented and analyzed, and are found to depend sensitively on the linear and nonlinear magnetic properties of the material. The stability properties of the flow are shaped by a small set of the least stable modes of the spectrum, a result that evades single mode or potential flow analyses. The gravest modes can be of different character, resembling either interfacial or shear modes, modified by magnetic effects. The commonly cited ferrofluid interface properties of "stabilization by a tangential field" and "destabilization by a normal field" are shown to be invalid here, although the origins of these features can be identified within this problem.
Pattern formation in Active Polar Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gopinath, Arvind; Hagan, Michael; Baskaran, Aparna
2011-03-01
Systems such as bacterial suspensions or cytoskeletal filaments and motility assays can be described within the paradigm of active polar fluids. These systems have been shown to exhibit pattern formation raging from asters and vortices to traveling stripes. A coarse-grained description of such a fluid is given by a scalar density field and a vector polarization field. We study such a macroscopic description of the system using weakly nonlinear analysis and numerical simulations to map out the emergent pattern formation as a function of the hydrodynamic parameters in the context of two specific microscopic models - a quasi-2D suspension of cytoskeletal filaments and motor proteins and a system of self propelled hard rods that interact through excluded volume interactions. The authors thank the Brandeis MRSEC center for financial support.
Compressible flow of a multiphase fluid between two vessels:
Chenoweth, D.R. ); Paolucci, S. . Dept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
1990-06-01
The transfer of a multiphase fluid from a high pressure vessel to one initially at lower pressure is investigated. The fluid is composed of two phases which do not undergo any change. The phases consist of an ideal gas, and solid particles (or liquid droplets) having constant density. The mixture is assumed to be stagnant and always perfectly mixed as well as at thermal equilibrium in each constant volume vessel. The fluid also remains homogeneous and at equilibrium while flowing between vessels. The transport properties of the mixture are taken to be zero. One important finding is that the expanding mixture or pseduo-fluid behaves similar to a polytropic Abel-Noble gas. The mixture thermodymanic properties, the end state in each vessel at pressure equilibrium, the critical parameters, and time dependent results are given for the adiabatic and isothermal limiting cases. The results include both initially sonic and initially subsonic transfer. No mathematical restriction is placed on the particle concentration, although some limiting results are given for small particle volume fraction. The mass transferred at adiabatic pressure equilibrium can be significantly less than that when thermal equilibrium is also reached. Furthermore, the adiabatic pressure equilibrium level may not be the same as that obtained at thermal equilibrium, even when all initial temperatures are the same. Finally, it is shown that the transfer times can be very slow compared to those of a pure gas due to the large reduction possible in the mixture sound speed. 18 refs.
Numerical simulation of cavitating flow of liquid helium in a pipe using multi-fluid model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishimoto, J.; Oike, M.; Kamijo, K.
2002-05-01
The two-dimensional characteristics of the cavitating flow of liquid helium in a pipe are numerically investigated to realize the further development and high performance of new cryogenic engineering applications. First, the governing equations of the cavitating flow of liquid helium based on the unsteady thermal nonequilibrium multi-fluid model are presented and several flow characteristics are numerically calculated, taking into account the effect of superfluidity. Based on the numerical results, the two-dimensional structure of the turbulent cavitating flow of liquid helium passing through the orifice is shown in detail, and it is also found that the phase transition of the normal fluid to the superfluid and the generation of superfluid counterflow against normal fluid flow are conspicuous in the large gas phase volume fraction region where the liquid to gas phase change actively occurs. Furthermore, it is clarified that the mechanism of the He I to He II phase transition caused by the temperature decrease is due to the deprivation of latent heat for vaporization from the liquid phase. According to these theoretical results, the fundamental characteristics of the cryogenic cavitating flow are predicted.
Fluid flow and mass flux determinations at vent sites on the Cascadia margin accretionary prism
Carson, B.; Strasser, J.C. ); Suess, E. )
1990-06-10
Fluid venting from the toe of the accretionary prism off Oregon was measured in situ during a series of dives with DSRV Alvin in 1987 and 1988. A benthic chamber was place over active vent sites to sequentially collect samples of venting fluids and to make direct measurements of discharge rates. Calibrated flow meter measurements and flow rates determined from dissolved methane transfer indicate that discharge from two vent sites, Alvin 1428 and Alvin 1900, ranges roughly between 100 and 500 l/m{sup 2}d with the most reliable estimates falling in the range of 125-150 l/m{sup 2}d. These rates imply subsurface advective flow on the order of 100 m/yr. Comparison of observed discharge rates with rates calculated for steady state expulsion supported by accretion-related compaction indicates that the observed flow is greater than predicted flow by several orders of magnitude. The disparity dictates that fluids are not derived locally, but are transported laterally within the prism, or that flow is not steady state and that individual vents are short-lived features in the ongoing accretion process.
Effect of Non-Uniform Inlet Temperature on Flow Stagnation in a Pumped Fluid Tube Radiator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reavis, Gretchen
2008-01-01
The effect of a non-uniform inlet temperature on the panel fluid tube flow stagnation point is examined using a spacecraft radiator panel model with 20 fluid tubes constructed in Thermal Desktop®. Fluid temperature variations due to panel edge effect and localized hot and cold spots in the flow path were simulated by varying the fluid inlet temperature on one or more tubes. Results show that a large fluid inlet temperature difference between tubes can decrease the fluid system stability and increase the possibility of fluid stagnation with the coldest fluid tube initiating stagnation. Conversely, a small fluid inlet temperature difference between tubes can, in some cases, increase the fluid system stability and decrease the possibility of fluid stagnation. A uniform fluid inlet temperature provides for a near optimization of the stagnation point as compared to fluid temperature gradients across the panel.
Turbulence and turbulence spectra in complex fluid flows
Clark, T.T.; Chen, Shi-Yi; Turner, L.; Zemach, C.
1997-11-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Our objective was to develop a theoretical model of fluid turbulence in parallel with a series of direct numerical simulations of increasingly complex test environments to establish limits of error and regimes of applicability, and to guide improvements. The aim is to produce methods of tested accuracy, with tractable numerical approximations, for turbulent fluids of constant density, and then for variable densities and multimaterial flows. We proceed from a recent spectral model that describes turbulent energy and stress densities in terms of a range of length scales. This should lead not only to improved engineering models, but also to a basic conceptual improvement because the spectral approach accounts for the variation of evolution rates with turbulence length scales.
Electrochemically actuated mercury pump for fluid flow and delivery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ni, J.; Zhong, C. J.; Coldiron, S. J.; Porter, M. D.
2001-01-01
This paper describes the development of a prototype pumping system with the potential for incorporation into miniaturized, fluid-based analytical instruments. The approach exploits the well-established electrocapillarity phenomena at a mercury/electrolyte interface as the mechanism for pump actuation. That is, electrochemically induced changes in the surface tension of mercury result in the pistonlike movement of a mercury column confined within a capillary. We present herein theoretical and experimental assessments of pump performance. The design and construction of the pump are detailed, and the potential attributes of this design, including the generated pumping pressure, flow rate, and power consumption, are discussed. The possible miniaturization of the pump for use as a field-deployable, fluid-delivery device is also briefly examined.
Homogenization of two fluid flow in porous media
Daly, K. R.; Roose, T.
2015-01-01
The macroscopic behaviour of air and water in porous media is often approximated using Richards' equation for the fluid saturation and pressure. This equation is parametrized by the hydraulic conductivity and water release curve. In this paper, we use homogenization to derive a general model for saturation and pressure in porous media based on an underlying periodic porous structure. Under an appropriate set of assumptions, i.e. constant gas pressure, this model is shown to reduce to the simpler form of Richards' equation. The starting point for this derivation is the Cahn–Hilliard phase field equation coupled with Stokes equations for fluid flow. This approach allows us, for the first time, to rigorously derive the water release curve and hydraulic conductivities through a series of cell problems. The method captures the hysteresis in the water release curve and ties the macroscopic properties of the porous media with the underlying geometrical and material properties.
SPH numerical simulation of fluid flow through a porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klapp-Escribano, Jaime; Mayoral-Villa, Estela; Rodriguez-Meza, Mario Alberto; de La Cruz-Sanchez, Eduardo; di G Sigalotti, Leonardo; Inin-Abacus Collaboration; Ivic Collaboration
2013-11-01
We have tested an improved a method for 3D SPH simulations of fluid flow through a porous media using an implementation of this method with the Dual-Physics code. This improvement makes it possible to simulate many particles (of the order of several million) in reasonable computer times because its execution on GPUs processors makes it possible to reduce considerably the simulation cost for large systems. Modifications in the initial configuration have been implemented in order to simulate different arrays and geometries for the porous media. The basic tests were reproduced and the performance was analyzed. Our 3D simulations of fluid flow through a saturated homogeneous porous media shows a discharge velocity proportional to the hydraulic gradient reproducing Darcy's law at small body forces. The results are comparable with values obtained in previous work and published in the literature for simulations of flow through periodic porous media. Our simulations for a non saturated porous media produce adequate qualitative results showing that a non steady state is generated. The relaxation time for these systems were obtained. Work partially supported by Cinvestav-ABACUS, CONACyT grant EDOMEX-2011-C01-165873.
Characterization of fluid flow in naturally fractured reservoirs. Final report
Evans, R.D.
1981-08-01
This report summarizes the results of a four month study of the characteristics of multiphase flow in naturally fractured porous media. An assessment and evaluation of the literature was carried out and a comprehensive list of references compiled on the subject. Mathematical models presented in the various references cited were evaluated along with the stated assumptions or those inherent in the equations. Particular attention was focused upon identifying unique approaches which would lead to the formulation of a general mathematical model of multiphase/multi-component flow in fractured porous media. A model is presented which may be used to more accurately predict the movement of multi-phase fluids through such type formations. Equations of motion are derived for a multiphase/multicomponent fluid which is flowing through a double porosity, double permeability medium consisting of isotropic primary rock matrix blocks and an anisotropic fracture matrix system. The fractures are assumed to have a general statistical distribution in space and orientation. A general distribution function, called the fracture matrix function is introduced to represent the statistical nature of the fractures.
Gauge principle for flows of an ideal fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kambe, Tsutomu
2003-05-01
A gauge principle is applied to flows of a compressible ideal fluid. First, a free-field Lagrangian is defined with a constraint condition of continuity equation. The Lagrangian is invariant with respect to global SO(3) gauge transformations as well as Galilei transformation. From the variational principle, we obtain the equation of motion for a potential flow. Next, in order to satisfy local SO(3) gauge invariance, we define a gauge field and a gauge-covariant derivative. Requiring the covariant derivative to be Galilei-invariant, it is found that the gauge field coincides with the vorticity and the covariant derivative is the material derivative for the velocity. Based on the gauge principle and the gauge-covariant derivative, the Euler's equation of motion is derived for a homentropic rotational flow. Noether's law associated with global SO(3) gauge invariance leads to the conservation of total angular momentum. This provides a gauge-theoretical ground for analogy between acoustic-wave and vortex interaction in fluid dynamics and the electron-wave and magnetic-field interaction in quantum electrodynamics.
Microfluidic-SANS: flow processing of complex fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez, Carlos G.; Watanabe, Takaichi; Martel, Anne; Porcar, Lionel; Cabral, João T.
2015-01-01
Understanding and engineering the flow-response of complex and non-Newtonian fluids at a molecular level is a key challenge for their practical utilisation. Here we demonstrate the coupling of microfluidics with small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Microdevices with high neutron transmission (up to 98%), low scattering background (), broad solvent compatibility and high pressure tolerance (~3-15 bar) are rapidly prototyped via frontal photo polymerisation. Scattering from single microchannels of widths down to 60 μm, with beam footprint of 500 μm diameter, was successfully obtained in the scattering vector range 0.01-0.3 Å-1, corresponding to real space dimensions of . We demonstrate our approach by investigating the molecular re-orientation and alignment underpinning the flow response of two model complex fluids, namely cetyl trimethylammonium chloride/pentanol/D2O and sodium lauryl sulfate/octanol/brine lamellar systems. Finally, we assess the applicability and outlook of microfluidic-SANS for high-throughput and flow processing studies, with emphasis of soft matter.
Microfluidic-SANS: flow processing of complex fluids.
Lopez, Carlos G; Watanabe, Takaichi; Martel, Anne; Porcar, Lionel; Cabral, João T
2015-01-01
Understanding and engineering the flow-response of complex and non-Newtonian fluids at a molecular level is a key challenge for their practical utilisation. Here we demonstrate the coupling of microfluidics with small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Microdevices with high neutron transmission (up to 98%), low scattering background (≲10⁻² cm⁻¹), broad solvent compatibility and high pressure tolerance (≈3-15 bar) are rapidly prototyped via frontal photo polymerisation. Scattering from single microchannels of widths down to 60 μm, with beam footprint of 500 μm diameter, was successfully obtained in the scattering vector range 0.01-0.3 Å(-1), corresponding to real space dimensions of ≃10-600 Å. We demonstrate our approach by investigating the molecular re-orientation and alignment underpinning the flow response of two model complex fluids, namely cetyl trimethylammonium chloride/pentanol/D₂O and sodium lauryl sulfate/octanol/brine lamellar systems. Finally, we assess the applicability and outlook of microfluidic-SANS for high-throughput and flow processing studies, with emphasis of soft matter. PMID:25578326
Microfluidic-SANS: flow processing of complex fluids
Lopez, Carlos G.; Watanabe, Takaichi; Martel, Anne; Porcar, Lionel; Cabral, João T.
2015-01-01
Understanding and engineering the flow-response of complex and non-Newtonian fluids at a molecular level is a key challenge for their practical utilisation. Here we demonstrate the coupling of microfluidics with small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Microdevices with high neutron transmission (up to 98%), low scattering background (), broad solvent compatibility and high pressure tolerance (≈3–15 bar) are rapidly prototyped via frontal photo polymerisation. Scattering from single microchannels of widths down to 60 μm, with beam footprint of 500 μm diameter, was successfully obtained in the scattering vector range 0.01–0.3 Å−1, corresponding to real space dimensions of . We demonstrate our approach by investigating the molecular re-orientation and alignment underpinning the flow response of two model complex fluids, namely cetyl trimethylammonium chloride/pentanol/D2O and sodium lauryl sulfate/octanol/brine lamellar systems. Finally, we assess the applicability and outlook of microfluidic-SANS for high-throughput and flow processing studies, with emphasis of soft matter. PMID:25578326
Modelling couplings between reaction, fluid flow and deformation: Kinetics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malvoisin, Benjamin; Podladchikov, Yury Y.; Connolly, James A. D.
2016-04-01
Mineral assemblages out of equilibrium are commonly found in metamorphic rocks testifying of the critical role of kinetics for metamorphic reactions. As experimentally determined reaction rates in fluid-saturated systems generally indicate complete reaction in less than several years, i.e. several orders of magnitude faster than field-based estimates, metamorphic reaction kinetics are generally thought to be controlled by transport rather than by processes at the mineral surface. However, some geological processes like earthquakes or slow-slip events have shorter characteristic timescales, and transport processes can be intimately related to mineral surface processes. Therefore, it is important to take into account the kinetics of mineral surface processes for modelling fluid/rock interactions. Here, a model coupling reaction, fluid flow and deformation was improved by introducing a delay in the achievement of equilibrium. The classical formalism for dissolution/precipitation reactions was used to consider the influence of the distance from equilibrium and of temperature on the reaction rate, and a dependence on porosity was introduced to model evolution of reacting surface area during reaction. The fitting of experimental data for three reactions typically occurring in metamorphic systems (serpentine dehydration, muscovite dehydration and calcite decarbonation) indicates a systematic faster kinetics close from equilibrium on the dehydration side than on the hydration side. This effect is amplified through the porosity term in the reaction rate since porosity is formed during dehydration. Numerical modelling indicates that this difference in reaction rate close from equilibrium plays a key role in microtextures formation. The developed model can be used in a wide variety of geological systems where couplings between reaction, deformation and fluid flow have to be considered.
Two-fluid model for two-phase flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishii, M.
1987-06-01
The two-fluid model formulation is discussed in detail. The emphasis of the paper is on the three-dimensional formulation and the closure issues. The origin of the interfacial and turbulent transfer terms in the averaged formulation is explained and their original mathematical forms are examined. The interfacial transfer of mass, momentum, and energy is proportional to the interfacial area and driving force. This is not a postulate but a result of the careful examination of the mathematical form of the exact interfacial terms. These two effects are considered separately. Since all the interfacial transfer terms involve the interfacial area concentration, the accurate modeling of the local interfacial area concentration is the first step to be taken for a development of a reliable two-fluid model closure relations. The interfacial momentum interaction has been studied in terms of the standard-drag, lift, virtual mass, and Basset forces. Available analytical and semi-empirical correlations and closure relations are reviewed and existing shortcomings are pointed out. The other major area of importance is the modeling of turbulent transfer in two-phase flow. The two-phase flow turbulence problem is coupled with the phase separation problem even in a steady-state fully developed flow. Thus the two-phase turbulence cannot be understood without understanding the interfacial drag and lift forces accurately. There are some indications that the mixing length type model may not be sufficient to describe the three-dimensional turbulent and flow structures. Although it is a very difficult challenge, the two-phase flow turbulence should be investigated both experimentally and analytically with long time-scale research.
Oscillatory Fluid Flow Influences Primary Cilia and Microtubule Mechanics
Espinha, Lina C.; Hoey, David A.; Fernandes, Paulo R.; Rodrigues, Hélder C.; Jacobs, Christopher R.
2014-01-01
Many tissues are sensitive to mechanical stimuli; however, the mechanotransduction mechanism used by cells remains unknown in many cases. The primary cilium is a solitary, immotile microtubule-based extension present on nearly every mammalian cell which extends from the basal body. The cilium is a mechanosensitive organelle and has been shown to transduce fluid flow-induced shear stress in tissues such as the kidney and bone. The majority of microtubules assemble from the mother centriole (basal body), contributing significantly to the anchoring of the primary cilium. Several studies have attempted to quantify the number of microtubules emanating from the basal body and the results vary depending on the cell type. It has also been shown that cellular response to shear stress depends on microtubular integrity. This study hypothesizes that changing the microtubule attachment of primary cilia in response to a mechanical stimulus could change primary cilia mechanics and, possibly, mechanosensitivity. Oscillatory fluid flow was applied to two different cell types and the microtubule attachment to the ciliary base was quantified. For the first time, an increase in microtubules around primary cilia both with time and shear rate in response to oscillatory fluid flow stimulation was demonstrated. Moreover, it is presented that the primary cilium is required for this loading-induced cellular response. This study has demonstrated a new role for the cilium in regulating alterations in the cytoplasmic microtubule network in response to mechanical stimulation, and therefore provides a new insight into how cilia may regulate its mechanics and thus the cells mechanosensitivity. PMID:25044764
Numerical investigation of fluid flow in a chandler loop.
Touma, Hisham; Sahin, Iskender; Gaamangwe, Tidimogo; Gorbet, Maud B; Peterson, Sean D
2014-07-01
The Chandler loop is an artificial circulatory platform for in vitro hemodynamic experiments. In most experiments, the working fluid is subjected to a strain rate field via rotation of the Chandler loop, which, in turn, induces biochemical responses of the suspended cells. For low rotation rates, the strain rate field can be approximated using laminar flow in a straight tube. However, as the rotation rate increases, the effect of the tube curvature causes significant deviation from the laminar straight tube approximation. In this manuscript, we investigate the flow and associated strain rate field of an incompressible Newtonian fluid in a Chandler loop as a function of the governing nondimensional parameters. Analytical estimates of the strain rate from a perturbation solution for pressure driven steady flow in a curved tube suggest that the strain rate should increase with Dean number, which is proportional to the tangential velocity of the rotating tube, and the radius to radius of curvature ratio of the loop. Parametrically varying the rotation rate, tube geometry, and fill ratio of the loop show that strain rate can actually decrease with Dean number. We show that this is due to the nonlinear relationship between the tube rotation rate and height difference between the two menisci in the rotating tube, which provides the driving pressure gradient. An alternative Dean number is presented to naturally incorporate the fill ratio and collapse the numerical data. Using this modified Dean number, we propose an empirical formula for predicting the average fluid strain rate magnitude that is valid over a much wider parameter range than the more restrictive straight tube-based prediction. PMID:24686927
Mechanics of fluid flow over compliant wrinkled polymeric surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raayai, Shabnam; McKinley, Gareth; Boyce, Mary
2014-03-01
Skin friction coefficients (based on frontal area) of sharks and dolphins are lower than birds, fish and swimming beetles. By either exploiting flow-induced changes in their flexible skin or microscale textures, dolphins and sharks can change the structure of the fluid flow around them and thus reduce viscous drag forces on their bodies. Inspired by this ability, investigators have tried using compliant walls and riblet-like textures as drag reduction methods in aircraft and marine industries and have been able to achieve reductions up to 19%. Here we investigate flow-structure interaction and wrinkling of soft polymer surfaces that can emulate shark riblets and dolphin's flexible skin. Wrinkling arises spontaneously as the result of mismatched deformation of a thin stiff coating bound to a thick soft elastic substrate. Wrinkles can be fabricated by controlling the ratio of the stiffness of the coating and substrate, the applied displacement and the thickness of the coating. In this work we will examine the evolution in the kinematic structures associated with steady viscous flow over the polymer wrinkled surfaces and in particular compare the skin friction with corresponding results for flow over non-textured and rigid surfaces.
Reducing or stopping the uncontrolled flow of fluid such as oil from a well
Hermes, Robert E
2014-02-18
The uncontrolled flow of fluid from an oil or gas well may be reduced or stopped by injecting a composition including 2-cyanoacrylate ester monomer into the fluid stream. Injection of the monomer results in a rapid, perhaps instantaneous, polymerization of the monomer within the flow stream of the fluid. This polymerization results in formation of a solid plug that reduces or stops the flow of additional fluid from the well.
Direction of fluid flow and the properties of fibrous filters
Pich, J.; Spurny, K.
1991-01-01
The influence of the fluid flow direction (downflow and upflow) on the filtration properties of filters that have a fibrous structure is investigated. It is concluded that selectivity of these filters (dependence of the filter efficiency on the particle size) in the case of upflow is changed - in comparison with the case of downflow - in three ways: the position of the minimum of this dependence is shifted to larger particle sizes, and the whole selectivity is decreased and simultaneously deformed. Corresponding equations for this shift and changes are derived and analyzed. Theoretical predictions are compared with available experimental data. In all cases qualitative agreement and in some cases quantitative agreement is found.
Numerical simulation of fluid flow around a scramaccelerator projectile
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pepper, Darrell W.; Humphrey, Joseph W.; Sobota, Thomas H.
1991-01-01
Numerical simulations of the fluid motion and temperature distribution around a 'scramaccelerator' projectile are obtained for Mach numbers in the 5-10 range. A finite element method is used to solve the equations of motion for inviscid and viscous two-dimensional or axisymmetric compressible flow. The time-dependent equations are solved explicitly, using bilinear isoparametric quadrilateral elements, mass lumping, and a shock-capturing Petrov-Galerkin formulation. Computed results indicate that maintaining on-design performance for controlling and stabilizing oblique detonation waves is critically dependent on projectile shape and Mach number.
Dynamics and Emergent Structures in Active Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baskaran, Aparna
2014-03-01
In this talk, we consider an active fluid of colloidal sized particles, with the primary manifestation of activity being a self-replenishing velocity along one body axis of the particle. This is a minimal model for varied systems such as bacterial colonies, cytoskeletal filament motility assays vibrated granular particles and self propelled diffusophoretic colloids, depending on the nature of interaction among the particles. Using microscopic Brownian dynamics simulations, coarse-graining using the tools of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and analysis of macroscopic hydrodynamic theories, we characterize emergent structures seen in these systems, which are determined by the symmetry of the interactions among the active units, such as propagating density waves, dense stationary bands, asters and phase separated isotropic clusters. We identify a universal mechanism, termed ``self-regulation,'' as the underlying physics that leads to these structures in diverse systems. Support from NSF through DMR-1149266 and DMR-0820492.
Complex fluid flow modeling with SPH on GPU
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilotta, Giuseppe; Hérault, Alexis; Del Negro, Ciro; Russo, Giovanni; Vicari, Annamaria
2010-05-01
We describe an implementation of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method for the simulation of complex fluid flows. The algorithm is entirely executed on Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) developed by NVIDIA and fully exploiting their computational power. An increase of one to two orders of magnitude in simulation speed over equivalent CPU code is achieved. A complete modeling of the flow of a complex fluid such as lava is challenging from the modelistic, numerical and computational points of view. The natural topography irregularities, the dynamic free boundaries and phenomena such as solidification, presence of floating solid bodies or other obstacles and their eventual fragmentation make the problem difficult to solve using traditional numerical methods (finite volumes, finite elements): the need to refine the discretization grid in correspondence of high gradients, when possible, is computationally expensive and with an often inadequate control of the error; for real-world applications, moreover, the information needed by the grid refinement may not be available (e.g. because the Digital Elevation Models are too coarse); boundary tracking is also problematic with Eulerian discretizations, more so with complex fluids due to the presence of internal boundaries given by fluid inhomogeneity and presence of solidification fronts. An alternative approach is offered by mesh-free particle methods, that solve most of the problems connected to the dynamics of complex fluids in a natural way. Particle methods discretize the fluid using nodes which are not forced on a given topological structure: boundary treatment is therefore implicit and automatic; the movement freedom of the particles also permits the treatment of deformations without incurring in any significant penalty; finally, the accuracy is easily controlled by the insertion of new particles where needed. Our team has developed a new model based on the
Porous media flow problems: natural convection and one-dimensional flow of a non-Newtonian fluid
Walker, K.L.
1980-01-01
Two fluid problems in porous media are studied: natural convection of a Newtonian fluid and one-dimensional flow of a non-Newtonian fluid. Convection in a rectangular porous cavity driven by heating in the horizontal is analyzed by a number of different techniques which yield a fairly complete description of the 2-dimensional solutions. The solutions are governed by 2 dimensionless parameters: the Darcy-Rayleigh number R and cavity aspect ratio A. The flow behavior of a dilute solution of polyacrylamide in corn syrup flowing through porous media also is studied. Measurements of the pressure drop and flow rate are made for the solution flowing through a packed bed of glass beads. At low velocities the pressure drop as a function of velocity is the same as that for a Newtonian fluid of equal viscosity. At higher flow rates the non-Newtonian fluid exhibited significantly higher pressure drops than a Newtonian fluid.
Fluid flow vorticity measurement using laser beams with orbital angular momentum.
Ryabtsev, A; Pouya, S; Safaripour, A; Koochesfahani, M; Dantus, M
2016-05-30
Vorticity is one of the most important dynamic flow variables and is fundamental to the basic flow physics of many areas of fluid dynamics, including aerodynamics, turbulent flows and chaotic motion. We report on the direct measurements of fluid flow vorticity using a beam with orbital angular momentum that takes advantage of the rotational Doppler shift from microparticles intersecting the beam focus. Experiments are carried out on fluid flows with well-characterized vorticity and the experimental results are found to be in excellent agreement with the expected values. This method allows for localized real-time determination of vorticity in a fluid flow with three-dimensional resolution. PMID:27410101
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sturdza, Peter (Inventor); Martins-Rivas, Herve (Inventor); Suzuki, Yoshifumi (Inventor)
2014-01-01
A fluid-flow simulation over a computer-generated surface is generated using a quasi-simultaneous technique. The simulation includes a fluid-flow mesh of inviscid and boundary-layer fluid cells. An initial fluid property for an inviscid fluid cell is determined using an inviscid fluid simulation that does not simulate fluid viscous effects. An initial boundary-layer fluid property a boundary-layer fluid cell is determined using the initial fluid property and a viscous fluid simulation that simulates fluid viscous effects. An updated boundary-layer fluid property is determined for the boundary-layer fluid cell using the initial fluid property, initial boundary-layer fluid property, and an interaction law. The interaction law approximates the inviscid fluid simulation using a matrix of aerodynamic influence coefficients computed using a two-dimensional surface panel technique and a fluid-property vector. An updated fluid property is determined for the inviscid fluid cell using the updated boundary-layer fluid property.
Mapping flow distortion on oceanographic platforms using computational fluid dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Sullivan, N.; Landwehr, S.; Ward, B.
2013-10-01
Wind speed measurements over the ocean on ships or buoys are affected by flow distortion from the platform and by the anemometer itself. This can lead to errors in direct measurements and the derived parametrisations. Here we computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate the errors in wind speed measurements caused by flow distortion on the RV Celtic Explorer. Numerical measurements were obtained from the finite-volume CFD code OpenFOAM, which was used to simulate the velocity fields. This was done over a range of orientations in the test domain from -60 to +60° in increments of 10°. The simulation was also set up for a range of velocities, ranging from 5 to 25 m s-1 in increments of 0.5 m s-1. The numerical analysis showed close agreement to experimental measurements.
Generalized Newtonian fluid flow through fibrous porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mierzwiczak, Magdalena; Kołodziej, Jan Adam; Grabski, Jakub Krzysztof
2016-06-01
The numerical calculations of the velocity field and the component of transverse permeability in the filtration equation for steady, incompressible flow of the generalized Newtonian fluid through the assemblages of cylindrical fibers are presented in this paper. The fibers are arranged regularly in arrays. Flow is transverse with respect to the fibers. The non-linear governing equation in the repeated element of the array is solved using iteration method. At each iteration step the method of fundamental solutions and the method of particular solutions are used. The bundle of fibers is treated as a porous media and on the base of velocity field the permeability coefficients are calculated as a function of porosity.
Onset of turbulence from the receptivity stage of fluid flows.
Sengupta, T K; Bhaumik, S
2011-10-01
The traditional viewpoint of fluid flow considers the transition to turbulence to occur by the secondary and nonlinear instability of wave packets, which have been created experimentally by localized harmonic excitation. The boundary layer has been shown theoretically to support spatiotemporal growing wave fronts by Sengupta, Rao, and Venkatasubbaiah [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 224504 (2006)] by a linear mechanism, which is shown here to grow continuously, causing the transition to turbulence. Here, we track spatiotemporal wave fronts to a nonlinear turbulent state by solving the full 2D Navier-Stokes equation, without any limiting assumptions. Thus, this is the only demonstration of deterministic disturbances evolving from a receptivity stage to the full turbulent flow. This is despite the prevalent competing conjectures of the event being three-dimensional and/or stochastic in nature. PMID:22107294
Fluid flow over arbitrary bottom topography in a channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panda, Srikumar
2016-05-01
In this paper, two-dimensional free surface potential flow over an arbitrary bottom in a channel is considered to analyze the behavior of the free surface profile using linear theory. It is assumed that the fluid is inviscid, incompressible and flow is irrotational. Perturbation analysis in conjunction with Fourier transform technique is employed to determine the first order corrections of some important physical quantities such as free surface profile, velocity potential, etc. From the practical point of view, one arbitrary bottom topography is considered to determine the free surface profile since the free surface profile depends on the bottom topography. It is found that the free surface profile is oscillatory in nature, representing a wave propagating downstream and no wave upstream.
Modeling of unsteady-state flows of viscoelastic plastic fluids
Shulman, Z.P.; Dornyak, O.R.; Khusid, B.M.; Ryklina, I.L.; Zal'tsgendler, E.A.
1989-04-01
Unsteady-state flows of media that possess a complex of rheological properties such as elasticity, viscosity and plasticity are studied. The fluid is assumed to exhibit elastic properties at stresses below the fluidity limit. A Trikomi-type boundary-value problem for describing the unsteady-state forced flows in these media is formulated. A difference scheme for the unobstructed calculation is constructed, and the conditions of its efficiency are investigated. The numerical results obtained illustrate the essential effect of elastic properties in the region where the stress is below the fluidity limit; in particular, those cases are studied wherein the period of the elastic shear wave is commensurable with the characteristic hydrodynamic time of the process.
Fluid mechanics experiments in oscillatory flow. Volume 1
Seume, J.; Friedman, G.; Simon, T.W.
1992-03-01
Results of a fluid mechanics measurement program is oscillating flow within a circular duct are present. The program began with a survey of transition behavior over a range of oscillation frequency and magnitude and continued with a detailed study at a single operating point. Such measurements were made in support of Stirling engine development. Values of three dimensionless parameters, Re{sub max}, Re{sub W}, and A{sub R}, embody the velocity amplitude, frequency of oscillation and mean fluid displacement of the cycle, respectively. Measurements were first made over a range of these parameters which included operating points of all Stirling engines. Next, a case was studied with values of these parameters that are representative of the heat exchanger tubes in the heater section of NASA`s Stirling cycle Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Measurements were taken of the axial and radical components of ensemble-averaged velocity and rms-velocity fluctuation and the dominant Reynolds shear stress, at various radial positions for each of four axial stations. In each run, transition from laminar to turbulent flow, and in reverse, were identified and sufficient data was gathered to propose the transition mechanism. Models of laminar and turbulent boundary layers were used to process the data into wall coordinates and to evaluate skin friction coefficients. Such data aids in validating computational models and is useful in comparing oscillatory flow characteristics to those of fully-developed steady flow. Data were taken with a contoured entry to each end of the test section and with flush square inlets so that the effects of test section inlet geometry on transition and turbulence are documented. The following is presented in two-volumes. Volume I contains the text of the report including figures and supporting appendices. Volume II contains data reduction program listings and tabulated data (including its graphical presentation).
Extensional bundle waveguide techniques for measuring flow of hot fluids.
Lynnworth, Lawrence C; Liu, Yi; Umina, John A
2005-04-01
A bundle of acoustically slender metal rods, each thin compared to wavelength, tightly packed within a sheath, and welded closed at each end, provides a dispersion-free waveguide assembly that acts as a thermal buffer between a transducer and the hot fluid medium the flow of which is to be measured. Gas and steam flow applications have ranged up to 600 degrees C. Liquid applications have ranged from cryogenic (-160 degrees C) to 500 degrees C and include intermittent two-phase flows. The individual rods comprising the bundle usually are approximately one millimeter in diameter. The sheath, made of a pipe or tube, typically has an outside diameter of 12.7 to about 33 mm and usually is about 300 mm long. Materials for the sheath and bundle are selected to satisfy requirements of compatibility with the fluid as well as for acoustic properties. Corrosion-resistant alloys such as 316SS and titanium are commonly used. The buffers are used with transducers that are metal-encapsulated and certified for use in hazardous areas. They operate at a frequency in the range of 0.1 to 1 MHz. The radiating end of the buffer is usually flat and perpendicular to the buffer's main axis. In some cases the end of the buffer is stepped or angled. Angling the radiating faces at approximately 2 degrees to overcome beam drift at Mach 0.1 recently contributed to solving a high-temperature high-velocity flow measurement problem. The temperature in this situation was 300 degrees C, and the gas molecular weight was about 95, with pressure 0.9 to 1.1 bar. PMID:16060500
Fluid mechanics experiments in oscillatory flow. Volume 1: Report
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seume, J.; Friedman, G.; Simon, T. W.
1992-01-01
Results of a fluid mechanics measurement program in oscillating flow within a circular duct are presented. The program began with a survey of transition behavior over a range of oscillation frequency and magnitude and continued with a detailed study at a single operating point. Such measurements were made in support of Stirling engine development. Values of three dimensionless parameters, Re(sub max), Re(sub w), and A(sub R), embody the velocity amplitude, frequency of oscillation and mean fluid displacement of the cycle, respectively. Measurements were first made over a range of these parameters which included operating points of all Stirling engines. Next, a case was studied with values of these parameters that are representative of the heat exchanger tubes in the heater section of NASA's Stirling cycle Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Measurements were taken of the axial and radial components of ensemble-averaged velocity and rms-velocity fluctuation and the dominant Reynolds shear stress, at various radial positions for each of four axial stations. In each run, transition from laminar to turbulent flow, and its reverse, were identified and sufficient data was gathered to propose the transition mechanism. Models of laminar and turbulent boundary layers were used to process the data into wall coordinates and to evaluate skin friction coefficients. Such data aids in validating computational models and is useful in comparing oscillatory flow characteristics to those of fully-developed steady flow. Data were taken with a contoured entry to each end of the test section and with flush square inlets so that the effects of test section inlet geometry on transition and turbulence are documented. Volume 1 contains the text of the report including figures and supporting appendices. Volume 2 contains data reduction program listings and tabulated data (including its graphical presentation).
Two-phase flow characterization for fluid components and variable gravity conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dzenitis, John M.; Miller, Kathryn M.
1992-01-01
This paper describes a program initiated by the NASA Johnson Space Center to investigate vapor-liquid flow regimes and pressure drops in pipe components and variable gravity conditions. This program supports the Space Station Freedom External Active Thermal Control System design and future space missions, including the Space Exploration Initiative activities. The objectives for this program include studying two-phase flow behavior in fluid components (smooth pipes, bellows lines, quick-disconnect fittings), expanding the two-phase database for zero-g conditions, developing a database for low-g conditions (for example, Moon-g, Mars-g), and validating models for two-phase flow analyses. Zero-g and low-g data will be gathered using a Freon-12 flow loop during four test series on the KC-135 aircraft beginning in August 1991.
Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device
Fincke, J.R.
1982-05-04
A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion. 3 figs.
Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device
Fincke, James R.
1982-01-01
A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion.
Hamiltonian description of ideal fluids and MHD flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuznetsov, E. A.
2002-11-01
Vortex line and magnetic line representations are introduced for description of flows in ideal hydrodynamics and MHD, respectively. For incompressible fluids it is shown that the equations of motion for vorticity Ω and magnetic field with the help of this transformation follow from the variational principle. By means of this representation it is possible to integrate the system of hydrodynamic type with the Hamiltonian lH=int |Ω| dr. It is also demonstrated that these representations allow to remove from the noncanonical Poisson brackets, defined on the space of divergence-free vector fields, degeneracy connected with the vorticity frozenness for the Euler equation and with magnetic field frozenness for ideal MHD. For MHD a new Weber type transformation is found. It is shown how this transformation can be obtained from the two-fluid model when electrons and ions can be considered as two independent fluids. The Weber type transformation for ideal MHD gives the whole Lagrangian vector invariant. When this invariant is absent this transformation coincides with the Clebsch representation analog introduced in (V.E.Zakharov and E.A.Kuznetsov, Doklady USSR Ac. Nauk. (Soviet Doklady), 194), 1288 (1970).
Two-phase fluid flow in geometric packing.
Paiva, Aureliano Sancho S; Oliveira, Rafael S; Andrade, Roberto F S
2015-12-13
We investigate how a plug of obstacles inside a two-dimensional channel affects the drainage of high viscous fluid (oil) when the channel is invaded by a less viscous fluid (water). The plug consists of an Apollonian packing with, at most, 17 circles of different sizes, which is intended to model an inhomogeneous porous region. The work aims to quantify the amount of retained oil in the region where the flow is influenced by the packing. The investigation, carried out with the help of the computational fluid dynamics package ANSYS-FLUENT, is based on the integration of the complete set of equations of motion. The study considers the effect of both the injection speed and the number and size of obstacles, which directly affects the porosity of the system. The results indicate a complex dependence in the fraction of retained oil on the velocity and geometric parameters. The regions where the oil remains trapped is very sensitive to the number of circles and their size, which influence in different ways the porosity of the system. Nevertheless, at low values of Reynolds and capillary numbers Re<4 and n(c)≃10(-5), the overall expected result that the volume fraction of oil retained decreases with increasing porosity is recovered. A direct relationship between the injection speed and the fraction of oil is also obtained. PMID:26527816
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bose, Sayan; Banerjee, Moloy
2015-07-01
Magnetic nanoparticles drug carriers continue to attract considerable interest for drug targeting in the treatment of cancer and other pathological conditions. Guiding magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with the help of an external magnetic field to its target is the basic principle behind the Magnetic Drug Targeting (MDT). It is essential to couple the ferrohydrodynamic (FHD) and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles when magnetic fields are applied to blood as a biomagnetic fluid. The present study is devoted to study on MDT technique by particle tracking in the presence of a non uniform magnetic field in a stenosed aortic bifurcation. The present numerical model of biomagnetic fluid dynamics (BFD) takes into accounts both magnetization and electrical conductivity of blood. The blood flow in the bifurcation is considered to be incompressible and Newtonian. An Eulerian-Lagrangian technique is adopted to resolve the hemodynamic flow and the motion of the magnetic particles in the flow using ANSYS FLUENT two way particle-fluid coupling. An implantable infinitely long cylindrical current carrying conductor is used to create the requisite magnetic field. Targeted transport of the magnetic particles in a partly occluded vessel differs distinctly from the same in a regular unblocked vessel. Results concerning the velocity and temperature field indicate that the presence of the magnetic field influences the flow field considerably and the disturbances increase as the magnetic field strength increases. The insert position is also varied to observe the variation in flow as well as temperature field. Parametric investigation is conducted and the influence of the particle size (dp), flow Reynolds number (Re) and external magnetic field strength (B0) on the "capture efficiency" (CE) is reported. The difference in CE is also studied for different particle loading condition. According to the results, the magnetic field increased the particle concentration in the target region
Study of the crevicular fluid flow rate in smokers.
Rosa, G M; Lucas, G Q; Lucas, O N
2000-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate if smoking--a risk factor in periodontal disease-affects the crevicular fluid (CF) flow rate. Twenty-nine dental students were included in the control group--non-smokers- (NS) and 34 in the experimental group--smokers- (S). All subjects were enrolled in a rigorous dental hygiene program (RDHP). The Greene-Vermillion plaque index, and Löe-Silness gingival index (GI) were recorded. CF was obtained and measured with the Periotron 8000. These recordings were made before and after the RDHP. The results show that the CF mean flow rate was slightly lower in the S group than in the NS group, for both recordings. The analysis of the relation between the CF flow rate and the GI recorded in the dental surfaces, revealed a significantly lower flow rate in the S group for GI 1 (p < 0.01) and GI 3 (p < 0.05). The difference observed between the S and NS groups, may be due to the vasoconstrictor action of the cigarette components (nicotine and/or metabolites) on the gingival vasculature. PMID:11885468
PArallel Reacting Multiphase FLOw Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis
2002-06-01
PARMFLO is a parallel multiphase reacting flow computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. It can perform steady or unsteady simulations in three space dimensions. It is intended for use in engineering CFD analysis of industrial flow system components. Its parallel processing capabilities allow it to be applied to problems that use at least an order of magnitude more computational cells than the number that can be used on a typical single processor workstation (about 106 cellsmore » in parallel processing mode versus about io cells in serial processing mode). Alternately, by spreading the work of a CFD problem that could be run on a single workstation over a group of computers on a network, it can bring the runtime down by an order of magnitude or more (typically from many days to less than one day). The software was implemented using the industry standard Message-Passing Interface (MPI) and domain decomposition in one spatial direction. The phases of a flow problem may include an ideal gas mixture with an arbitrary number of chemical species, and dispersed droplet and particle phases. Regions of porous media may also be included within the domain. The porous media may be packed beds, foams, or monolith catalyst supports. With these features, the code is especially suited to analysis of mixing of reactants in the inlet chamber of catalytic reactors coupled to computation of product yields that result from the flow of the mixture through the catalyst coaled support structure.« less
PArallel Reacting Multiphase FLOw Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis
Lottes, Steven A.
2002-06-01
PARMFLO is a parallel multiphase reacting flow computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. It can perform steady or unsteady simulations in three space dimensions. It is intended for use in engineering CFD analysis of industrial flow system components. Its parallel processing capabilities allow it to be applied to problems that use at least an order of magnitude more computational cells than the number that can be used on a typical single processor workstation (about 106 cells in parallel processing mode versus about io cells in serial processing mode). Alternately, by spreading the work of a CFD problem that could be run on a single workstation over a group of computers on a network, it can bring the runtime down by an order of magnitude or more (typically from many days to less than one day). The software was implemented using the industry standard Message-Passing Interface (MPI) and domain decomposition in one spatial direction. The phases of a flow problem may include an ideal gas mixture with an arbitrary number of chemical species, and dispersed droplet and particle phases. Regions of porous media may also be included within the domain. The porous media may be packed beds, foams, or monolith catalyst supports. With these features, the code is especially suited to analysis of mixing of reactants in the inlet chamber of catalytic reactors coupled to computation of product yields that result from the flow of the mixture through the catalyst coaled support structure.
[Numerical methods for multi-fluid flows]. Final progress report
Pozrikidis, C.
1998-07-21
The central objective of this research has been to develop efficient numerical methods for computing multi-fluid flows with large interfacial deformations, and apply these methods to study the rheology of suspensions of deformable particles with viscous and non-Newtonian interfacial behavior. The mathematical formulation employs boundary-integral, immersed-boundary, and related numerical methods. Particles of interest include liquid drops with constant surface tension and capsules whose interfaces exhibit viscoelastic and incompressible characteristics. In one family of problems, the author has considered the shear-driven and pressure-driven flow of a suspension of two-dimensional liquid drops with ordered and random structure. In a second series of investigations, the author carried out dynamic simulations of two-dimensional, unbounded, doubly-periodic shear flows with random structure. Another family of problems addresses the deformation of three-dimensional capsules whose interfaces exhibit isotropic surface tension, viscous, elastic, or incompressible behavior, in simple shear flow. The numerical results extend previous asymptotic theories for small deformations and illuminate the mechanism of membrane rupture.
Sensor for Boundary Shear Stress in Fluid Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Chang, Zensheu; Trease, Brian P.; Kerenyi, Kornel; Widholm, Scott E.; Ostlund, Patrick N.
2012-01-01
The formation of scour patterns at bridge piers is driven by the forces at the boundary of the water flow. In most experimental scour studies, indirect processes have been applied to estimate the shear stress using measured velocity profiles. The estimations are based on theoretical models and associated assumptions. However, the turbulence flow fields and boundary layer in the pier-scour region are very complex and lead to low-fidelity results. In addition, available turbulence models cannot account accurately for the bed roughness effect. Direct measurement of the boundary shear stress, normal stress, and their fluctuations are attractive alternatives. However, most direct-measurement shear sensors are bulky in size or not compatible to fluid flow. A sensor has been developed that consists of a floating plate with folded beam support and an optical grid on the back, combined with a high-resolution optical position probe. The folded beam support makes the floating plate more flexible in the sensing direction within a small footprint, while maintaining high stiffness in the other directions. The floating plate converts the shear force to displacement, and the optical probe detects the plate s position with nanometer resolution by sensing the pattern of the diffraction field of the grid through a glass window. This configuration makes the sensor compatible with liquid flow applications.
Biomagnetic fluid flow in an aneurysm using ferrohydrodynamics principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tzirtzilakis, E. E.
2015-06-01
In this study, the fundamental problem of biomagnetic fluid flow in an aneurysmal geometry under the influence of a steady localized magnetic field is numerically investigated. The mathematical model used to formulate the problem is consistent with the principles of ferrohydrodynamics. Blood is considered to be an electrically non-conducting, homogeneous, non-isothermal Newtonian magnetic fluid. For the numerical solution of the problem, which is described by a coupled, non-linear system of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs), with appropriate boundary conditions, the stream function-vorticity formulation is adopted. The solution is obtained by applying an efficient pseudotransient numerical methodology using finite differences. This methodology is based on the application of a semi-implicit numerical technique, transformations, stretching of the grid, and construction of the boundary conditions for the vorticity. The results regarding the velocity and temperature field, skin friction, and rate of heat transfer indicate that the presence of a magnetic field considerably influences the flow field, particularly in the region of the aneurysm.
Fluid mechanics experiments in oscillatory flow. Volume 2: Tabulated data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seume, J.; Friedman, G.; Simon, T. W.
1992-01-01
Results of a fluid mechanics measurement program in oscillating flow within a circular duct are presented. The program began with a survey of transition behavior over a range of oscillation frequency and magnitude and continued with a detailed study at a single operating point. Such measurements were made in support of Stirling engine development. Values of three dimensionless parameters, Re sub max, Re sub w, and A sub R, embody the velocity amplitude, frequency of oscillation, and mean fluid displacement of the cycle, respectively. Measurements were first made over a range of these parameters that are representative of the heat exchanger tubes in the heater section of NASA's Stirling cycle Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Measurements were taken of the axial and radial components of ensemble-averaged velocity and rms velocity fluctuation and the dominant Reynolds shear stress, at various radial positions for each of four axial stations. In each run, transition from laminar to turbulent flow, and its reverse, were identified and sufficient data was gathered to propose the transition mechanism. Volume 2 contains data reduction program listings and tabulated data (including its graphics).
A review of interaction mechanisms in fluid-solid flows
Johnson, G.; Rajagopal, K.R. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Massoudi, M. )
1990-09-01
Multiphase flows have become the subject of considerable attention because of their importance in many industrial applications, such as fluidized beds, pneumatic transport of solids, coal combustion, etc. Fundamental research into the nature of pneumatic transport has made significant progress in identifying key parameters controlling the characteristics of these processes. The emphasis of this study is on a mixture composed of spherical particles of uniform size and a linearly viscous fluid. Section 1 introduces our approach and the importance of this study. In Section 2, the dynamics of a single particle as studied in classical hydrodynamics and fluid dynamics is presented. This has been a subject of study for more than 200 years. In Section 3, we review the literature for the constitutive relations as given in multiphase studies, i.e., generalization of single particle and as given in literature concerning the continuum theories of mixtures or multicomponent systems. In Section 4, a comparison between these representations and the earlier approach, i.e., forces acting on a single particle will be made. The importance of flow regimes, particle concentration, particle size and shape, rotation of the particle, effect of solid walls, etc. are discussed. 141 refs.
Protein Crystal Movements and Fluid Flows During Microgravity Growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boggon, Titus J.; Chayen, Naomi E.; Snell, Edward H.; Dong, Jun; Lautenschlager, Peter; Potthast, Lothar; Siddons, D. Peter; Stojanoff, Vivian; Gordon, Elspeth; Thompson, Andrew W.; Zagalsky, Peter F.; Bi, Ru-Chang; Helliwell, John R.
1998-01-01
The growth of protein crystals suitable for x-ray crystal structure analysis is an important topic. The quality (perfection) of protein crystals is now being evaluated by mosaicity analysis (rocking curves) and x-ray topographic images as well as the diffraction resolution limit and overall data quality. In yet another study, use of hanging drop vapour diffusion geometry on the IML-2 shuttle mission showed, again via CCD video monitoring, growing apocrustacyanin C(sub 1) protein crystal executing near cyclic movement, reminiscent of Marangoni convection flow of fluid, the crystals serving as "markers" of the fluid flow. A review is given here of existing results and experience over several microgravity missions. Some comment is given on gel protein crystal growth in attempts to 'mimic' the benefits of microgravity on Earth. Finally, the recent new results from our experiments on the shuttle mission LMS are described. These results include CCD video as well as interferometry during the mission, followed, on return to Earth, by reciprocal space mapping at the NSLS, Brookhaven, and full X-ray data collection on LMS and Earth control lysozyme crystals. Diffraction data recorded from LMS and ground control apocrustacyanin C(sub 1) crystals are also described.
Applying uncertainty quantification to multiphase flow computational fluid dynamics
Gel, A; Garg, R; Tong, C; Shahnam, M; Guenther, C
2013-07-01
Multiphase computational fluid dynamics plays a major role in design and optimization of fossil fuel based reactors. There is a growing interest in accounting for the influence of uncertainties associated with physical systems to increase the reliability of computational simulation based engineering analysis. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has recently undertaken an initiative to characterize uncertainties associated with computer simulation of reacting multiphase flows encountered in energy producing systems such as a coal gasifier. The current work presents the preliminary results in applying non-intrusive parametric uncertainty quantification and propagation techniques with NETL's open-source multiphase computational fluid dynamics software MFIX. For this purpose an open-source uncertainty quantification toolkit, PSUADE developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been interfaced with MFIX software. In this study, the sources of uncertainty associated with numerical approximation and model form have been neglected, and only the model input parametric uncertainty with forward propagation has been investigated by constructing a surrogate model based on data-fitted response surface for a multiphase flow demonstration problem. Monte Carlo simulation was employed for forward propagation of the aleatory type input uncertainties. Several insights gained based on the outcome of these simulations are presented such as how inadequate characterization of uncertainties can affect the reliability of the prediction results. Also a global sensitivity study using Sobol' indices was performed to better understand the contribution of input parameters to the variability observed in response variable.
Novel active vibration absorber with magnetorheological fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerlach, T.; Ehrlich, J.; Böse, H.
2009-02-01
Disturbing vibrations diminish the performance of technical high precision devices significantly. In search of a suitable solution for reducing these vibrations, a novel concept of active vibration reduction was developed which exploits the special properties of magnetorheological fluids. In order to evaluate the concept of such an active vibration absorber (AVA) a demonstrator was designed and manufactured. This demonstrator generates a force which counteracts the motion of the vibrating body. Since the counterforce is generated by a centrifugal exciter, the AVA provides the capability to compensate vibrations even in two dimensions. To control the strength of the force transmitted to the vibrating body, the exciter is based on a tunable MR coupling. The AVA was integrated in an appropriate testing device to investigate its performance. The recorded results show a significant reduction of the vibration amplitudes by an order of magnitude.
Breakup modes of fluid drops in confined shear flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barai, Nilkamal; Mandal, Nibir
2016-07-01
Using a conservative level set method we investigate the deformation behavior of isolated spherical fluid drops in a fluid channel subjected to simple shear flows, accounting the following three non-dimensional parameters: (1) degree of confinement (Wc = 2a/h, where a is the drop radius and h is the channel thickness); (2) viscosity ratio between the two fluids (λ = μd/μm, where μd is the drop viscosity and μm is the matrix viscosity); and (3) capillary number (Ca). For a given Wc, a drop steadily deforms to attain a stable geometry (Taylor number and inclination of its long axis to the shear direction) when Ca < 0.3. For Ca > 0.3, the deformation behavior turns to be unsteady, leading to oscillatory variations of both its shape and orientation with progressive shear. This kind of unsteady deformation also occurs in a condition of high viscosity ratios (λ > 2). Here we present a detailed parametric analysis of the drop geometry with increasing shear as a function of Wc, Ca, and λ. Under a threshold condition, deforming drops become unstable, resulting in their breakup into smaller droplets. We recognize three principal modes of breakup: Mode I (mid-point pinching), Mode II (edge breakup), and Mode III (homogeneous breakup). Each of these modes is shown to be most effective in the specific field defined by Ca and λ. Our study also demonstrates the role of channel confinement (Wc) in controlling the transition of Mode I to III. Finally, we discuss implications of the three modes in determining characteristic drop size distributions in multiphase flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fraggedakis, D.; Kouris, Ch.; Dimakopoulos, Y.; Tsamopoulos, J.
2015-08-01
We study the flow of two immiscible, Newtonian fluids in a periodically constricted tube driven by a constant pressure gradient. Our volume-of-fluid algorithm is used to solve the governing equations. First, the code is validated by comparing its predictions to previously reported results for stratified and pulsing flow. Then, it is used to capture accurately all the significant topological changes that take place. Initially, the fluids have a core-annular arrangement, which is found to either remain the same or change to a different arrangement depending on the fluid properties, the pressure driving the flow, or the flow geometry. The flow-patterns that appear are the core-annular, segmented, churn, spray, and segregated flow. The predicted scalings near pinching of the core fluid concur with similarity predictions and earlier numerical results [I. Cohen et al., "Two fluid drop snap-off problem: Experiments and theory," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1147-1150 (1999)]. Flow-pattern maps are constructed in terms of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. Our result provides deeper insights into the mechanism of the pattern transitions and is in agreement with previous studies on core-annular flow [Ch. Kouris and J. Tsamopoulos, "Core-annular flow in a periodically constricted circular tube, I. Steady state, linear stability and energy analysis," J. Fluid Mech. 432, 31-68 (2001) and Ch. Kouris et al., "Comparison of spectral and finite element methods applied to the study of interfacial instabilities of the core-annular flow in an undulating tube," Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids 39(1), 41-73 (2002)], segmented flow [E. Lac and J. D. Sherwood, "Motion of a drop along the centreline of a capillary in a pressure-driven flow," J. Fluid Mech. 640, 27-54 (2009)], and churn flow [R. Y. Bai et al., "Lubricated pipelining—Stability of core annular-flow. 5. Experiments and comparison with theory," J. Fluid Mech. 240, 97-132 (1992)].
Overview af MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert
2004-01-01
This paper presents viewgraphs on NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities. The topics include: 1) Status of programs at MSFC; 2) Fluid Mechanics at MSFC; 3) Relevant Fluid Dynamics Activities at MSFC; and 4) Shuttle Return to Flight.
Large-eddy simulation of supercritical fluid flow and combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huo, Hongfa
The present study focuses on the modeling and simulation of injection, mixing, and combustion of real fluids at supercritical conditions. The objectives of the study are: (1) to establish a unified theoretical framework that can be used to study the turbulent combustion of real fluids; (2) to implement the theoretical framework and conduct numerical studies with the aim of improving the understanding of the flow and combustion dynamics at conditions representative of contemporary liquid-propellant rocket engine operation; (3) to identify the key design parameters and the flow variables which dictate the dynamics characteristics of swirl- and shear- coaxial injectors. The theoretical and numerical framework is validated by simulating the Sandia Flame D. The calculated axial and radial profiles of velocity, temperature, and mass fractions of major species are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental measurements. The conditionally averaged mass fraction profiles agree very well with the experimental results at different axial locations. The validated model is first employed to examine the flow dynamics of liquid oxygen in a pressure swirl injector at supercritical conditions. Emphasis is placed on analyzing the effects of external excitations on the dynamic response of the injector. The high-frequency fluctuations do not significantly affect the flow field as they are dissipated shortly after being introduced into the flow. However, the lower-frequency fluctuations are amplified by the flow. As a result, the film thickness and the spreading angle at the nozzle exit fluctuate strongly for low-frequency external excitations. The combustion of gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen in a high-pressure combustion chamber for a shear coaxial injector is simulated to assess the accuracy and the credibility of the computer program when applied to a sub-scale model of a combustor. The predicted heat flux profile is compared with the experimental and numerical studies. The
Occurrence of turbulent flow conditions in supercritical fluid chromatography.
De Pauw, Ruben; Choikhet, Konstantin; Desmet, Gert; Broeckhoven, Ken
2014-09-26
Having similar densities as liquids but with viscosities up to 20 times lower (higher diffusion coefficients), supercritical CO2 is the ideal (co-)solvent for fast and/or highly efficient separations without mass-transfer limitations or excessive column pressure drops. Whereas in liquid chromatography the flow remains laminar in both the packed bed and tubing, except in extreme cases (e.g. in a 75 μm tubing, pure acetonitrile at 5 ml/min), a supercritical fluid can experience a transition from laminar to turbulent flow in more typical operation modes. Due to the significant lower viscosity, this transition for example already occurs at 1.3 ml/min for neat CO2 when using connection tubing with an ID of 127 μm. By calculating the Darcy friction factor, which can be plotted versus the Reynolds number in a so-called Moody chart, typically used in fluid dynamics, higher values are found for stainless steel than PEEK tubing, in agreement with their expected higher surface roughness. As a result turbulent effects are more pronounced when using stainless steel tubing. The higher than expected extra-column pressure drop limits the kinetic performance of supercritical fluid chromatography and complicates the optimization of tubing ID, which is based on a trade-off between extra-column band broadening and pressure drop. One of the most important practical consequences is the non-linear increase in extra-column pressure drop over the tubing downstream of the column which leads to an unexpected increase in average column pressure and mobile phase density, and thus decrease in retention. For close eluting components with a significantly different dependence of retention on density, the selectivity can significantly be affected by this increase in average pressure. In addition, the occurrence of turbulent flow is also observed in the detector cell and connection tubing. This results in a noise-increase by a factor of four when going from laminar to turbulent flow (e.g. going
Scaling of Fluid Flow and Seismic Stiffness of Fractures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrovitch, C.; Nolte, D.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.
2011-12-01
A firm understanding of the relationship between the hydraulic and mechanical properties of fractures has been long sought. Seismic techniques probe the mechanical properties of fractures, e.g. fracture specific stiffness. Providing a connection between fluid flow and fracture stiffness would enable remote estimation of the flow properties in the subsurface. Linking theses two properties would improve society's ability to assess the risk related to the extraction of drinkable water, oil production, and the storage of CO2 in subsurface reservoirs. This relationship is complicated because the subsurface is composed of a hierarchy of structures and processes that span a large range of length and time scales. A scaling approach enables researchers to translate laboratory measurements towards the field scale and vise a versa. We performed a computational study of the scaling of the flow-stiffness relationship for planar fractures with uncorrelated aperture distributions. Three numerical models were required to study the scaling properties of the flow-stiffness relationship for single fractures. Firstly, the fracture topologies where constructed using a stratified continuum percolation method. Only uncorrelated fracture geometries were considered to provide a baseline of understanding for the different interacting critical thresholds occurring in the hydraulic and mechanical properties. Secondly, fracture stiffness was calculated by modeling the deformation of asperities and a deformable half space. This model computed the displacement-stress curves for a given fracture, from which the stiffness was extracted. Thirdly, due to the sensitive nature of the critical phenomena associated with fluid flow through fractures, two network flow models were used for verification. The fractures were first modeled as a network of elliptical pipes and the corresponding linear system of equations was solved. The second method consisted of using a lattice grid network, where the flow is
Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device
Fincke, J.R.
1980-05-02
A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion.
SINDA/SINFLO computer routine, volume 1, revision A. [for fluid flow system analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oren, J. A.; Williams, D. R.
1975-01-01
The SINFLO package was developed to modify the SINDA preprocessor to accept and store the input data for fluid flow systems analysis and adding the FLOSOL user subroutine to perform the flow solution. This reduced and simplified the user input required for analysis of flow problems. A temperature calculation method, the flow-hybrid method which was developed in previous VSD thermal simulator routines, was incorporated for calculating fluid temperatures. The calculation method accuracy was improved by using fluid enthalpy rather than specific heat for the convective term of the fluid temperature equation. Subroutines and data input requirements are described along with user subroutines, flow data storage, and usage of the plot program.
Metamorphic fluid flow - a question of scale, crustal depth and bulk rock composition
Tracy, R.J.; Rye, D.M.
1985-01-01
Recent studies have indicated that certain metamorphic rocks interacted with significant volumes of aqueous fluid during their time-integrated mineral reaction history. Rather than demonstrating that pervasive fluid flow is general in metamorphic rocks, these documented cases instead suggest the likelihood of pronounced to extreme channelization of through-going in fluids in deep-seated metamorphic terranes (P>3 kbar). In rocks more shallowly buried, and therefore under low lithostatic stress, pervasive flow along grain boundaries and open microfractures probably occurred, as at Skye and the Skaergaard Complex. In higher pressure metamorphic environments, documented cases of high fluid/rock ratio make a strong case for flow channelized in veins or in impure marble aquifers where pore space and permeability were created by decarbonation reactions driven by infiltration of aqueous fluid. The source of this fluid may commonly be traced to a nearby wet granitic intrusion or quartz vein. As long as the pressurized source of aqueous fluid continued, outward flow was possible as fluid held open the intergranular pore space which was created only at the infiltration/reaction front where a reduction in solid volume accompanied reaction. Cessation or interruption of fluid flow would allow the pore space to close due to porous-rock strength being exceeded by lithostatic stress. Pervasive flow or aqueous fluid in deepseated metamorphic terranes is therefore probably limited to carbonate-bearing lithologies adjacent to sources of major volumes of fluid; otherwise, fluid flow is likely to be localized in fractures or veins.
Advanced tomographic flow diagnostics for opaque multiphase fluids
Torczynski, J.R.; O`Hern, T.J.; Adkins, D.R.; Jackson, N.B.; Shollenberger, K.A.
1997-05-01
This report documents the work performed for the ``Advanced Tomographic Flow Diagnostics for Opaque Multiphase Fluids`` LDRD (Laboratory-Directed Research and Development) project and is presented as the fulfillment of the LDRD reporting requirement. Dispersed multiphase flows, particularly gas-liquid flows, are industrially important to the chemical and applied-energy industries, where bubble-column reactors are employed for chemical synthesis and waste treatment. Due to the large range of length scales (10{sup {minus}6}-10{sup 1}m) inherent in real systems, direct numerical simulation is not possible at present, so computational simulations are forced to use models of subgrid-scale processes, the accuracy of which strongly impacts simulation fidelity. The development and validation of such subgrid-scale models requires data sets at representative conditions. The ideal measurement techniques would provide spatially and temporally resolved full-field measurements of the distributions of all phases, their velocity fields, and additional associated quantities such as pressure and temperature. No technique or set of techniques is known that satisfies this requirement. In this study, efforts are focused on characterizing the spatial distribution of the phases in two-phase gas-liquid flow and in three-phase gas-liquid-solid flow. Due to its industrial importance, the bubble-column geometry is selected for diagnostics development and assessment. Two bubble-column testbeds are utilized: one at laboratory scale and one close to industrial scale. Several techniques for measuring the phase distributions at conditions of industrial interest are examined: level-rise measurements, differential-pressure measurements, bulk electrical impedance measurements, electrical bubble probes, x-ray tomography, gamma-densitometry tomography, and electrical impedance tomography.
Wu, Binxin
2010-12-01
In this paper, 12 turbulence models for single-phase non-newtonian fluid flow in a pipe are evaluated by comparing the frictional pressure drops obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with those from three friction factor correlations. The turbulence models studied are (1) three high-Reynolds-number k-ε models, (2) six low-Reynolds-number k-ε models, (3) two k-ω models, and (4) the Reynolds stress model. The simulation results indicate that the Chang-Hsieh-Chen version of the low-Reynolds-number k-ε model performs better than the other models in predicting the frictional pressure drops while the standard k-ω model has an acceptable accuracy and a low computing cost. In the model applications, CFD simulation of mixing in a full-scale anaerobic digester with pumped circulation is performed to propose an improvement in the effective mixing standards recommended by the U.S. EPA based on the effect of rheology on the flow fields. Characterization of the velocity gradient is conducted to quantify the growth or breakage of an assumed floc size. Placement of two discharge nozzles in the digester is analyzed to show that spacing two nozzles 180° apart with each one discharging at an angle of 45° off the wall is the most efficient. Moreover, the similarity rules of geometry and mixing energy are checked for scaling up the digester. PMID:21047058
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dewever, B.; Swennen, R.; Breesch, L.
2013-04-01
The fluid flow history in the frontal part of the Sicilian fold and thrust belt (FTB) has been reconstructed using an integrated structural, petrographic, geochemical and microthermometric approach. The study focused on comparing fluid flow during progressive deformation along major thrust horizons and in pelagic sediments occurring in the associated thrust sheets (foot- and hanging wall). A fluid flow model is constructed for the frontal part of the Sicilian FTB. Syn-deformational quartz and calcite have been precipitated along décollement horizons in the Iudica-Scalpello study area. The microthermometric analysis of fluid inclusions in the quartz and calcite indicated migration of low saline high temperature aqueous fluids (- 1.5 < Tm < - 0.2 °C and 80 < Th < 200 °C) and hydrocarbons along the main thrusts. Geochemical and petrographic analysis showed the presence of high manganese (2500-25,000 ppm) and iron (300-7000 ppm) contents in certain calcite phases, suggesting that the migrating fluids originate from clay dewatering and clay-water interactions. The fluid flow history in the thrust sheets can be subdivided into two stages. Calcite of types 1 and 2 has identical light orange cathodoluminescence as the surrounding mudstone. Furthermore, its isotope signature (2 < δ13C < 3‰ and - 6 < δ18O < - 2‰) and minor element content are also in line with closed, host rock buffered fluid flow during the initial stages of the fluid flow history. Type 3 calcite is volumetrically by far the most important calcite phase. It occurs in (hydro-)fractures that are limited to the hanging wall of major thrusts and within major strike-slip faults that are interpreted as transfer faults as a result of thrust development. The presence of associated fluorite suggests more open fluid flow conditions during the final stages of the fluid flow history. Fluorite is characterized by low salinity fluid inclusions (- 2.6 < Tm < - 1.6 °C) with Th between 80 and 140 °C. Type 3
Stockman, Harlan Wheelock
2005-01-01
The lattice Boltzmann method is used to model oscillatory flow in the spinal subarachnoid space. The effect of obstacles such as trabeculae, nerve bundles, and ligaments on fluid velocity profiles appears to be small, when the flow is averaged over the length of a vertebra. Averaged fluid flow in complex models is little different from flow in corresponding elliptical annular cavities. However, the obstacles stir the flow locally and may be more significant in studies of tracer dispersion.
Magnetic resonance measurement of fluid dynamics and transport in tube flow of a near-critical fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bray, Joshua M.; Rassi, Erik M.; Seymour, Joseph D.; Codd, Sarah L.
2014-07-01
An ability to predict fluid dynamics and transport in supercritical fluids is essential for optimization of applications such as carbon sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, "green" solvents, and supercritical coolant systems. While much has been done to model supercritical velocity distributions, experimental characterization is sparse, owing in part to a high sensitivity to perturbation by measurement probes. Magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, however, detect signal noninvasively from the fluid molecules and thereby overcome this obstacle to measurement. MR velocity maps and propagators (i.e., probability density functions of displacement) were acquired of a flowing fluid in several regimes about the critical point, providing quantitative data on the transport and fluid dynamics in the system. Hexafluoroethane (C2F6) was pumped at 0.5 ml/min in a cylindrical tube through an MR system, and propagators as well as velocity maps were measured at temperatures and pressures below, near, and above the critical values. It was observed that flow of C2F6 with thermodynamic properties far above or below the critical point had the Poiseuille flow distribution of an incompressible Newtonian fluid. Flows with thermodynamic properties near the critical point exhibit complex flow distributions impacted by buoyancy and viscous forces. The approach to steady state was also observed and found to take the longest near the critical point, but once it was reached, the dynamics were stable and reproducible. These data provide insight into the interplay between the critical phase transition thermodynamics and the fluid dynamics, which control transport processes.
Convective Flow of Sisko Fluid over a Bidirectional Stretching Surface.
Munir, Asif; Shahzad, Azeem; Khan, Masood
2015-01-01
The present investigation focuses the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the steady three-dimensional Sisko fluid driven by a bidirectional stretching sheet. The modeled partial differential equations are reduced to coupled ordinary differential equations by a suitable transformation. The resulting equations are solved numerically by the shooting method using adaptive Runge Kutta algorithm in combination with Newton's method in the domain [0,∞). The numerical results for the velocity and temperature fields are graphically presented and effects of the relevant parameters are discussed in detail. Moreover, the skin-friction coefficient and local Nusselt number for different values of the power-law index and stretching ratio parameter are presented through tabulated data. The numerical results are also verified with the results obtained analytically by the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Additionally, the results are validated with previously published pertinent literature as a limiting case of the problem. PMID:26110873
Magneto-fluid-mechanics free convection turbulent flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Papailiou, D. D.; Lykoudis, P. S.
1974-01-01
The present work is an experimental study of the influence of a uniform magnetic field on the structure of a free convection turbulent boundary layer in a conducting fluid. The boundary layer was formed along the heated vertical wall of a cell. The applied magnetic field was normal to the wall. The measured mean temperature profiles, temperature turbulent intensity distributions, and temperature spectra along the wall, indicated that transition from turbulent to laminar flow occurs at a constant value of the ratio (Rayleigh number)/(Hartmann number). The study of the recorded spectra indicated that the presence of the magnetic field enhances the mechanism of turbulent suppression due to the buoyancy forces. Finally, a possible mechanism by which turbulence is suppressed by the presence of a magnetic field is discussed.
Convective Flow of Sisko Fluid over a Bidirectional Stretching Surface
Munir, Asif; Shahzad, Azeem; Khan, Masood
2015-01-01
The present investigation focuses the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the steady three-dimensional Sisko fluid driven by a bidirectional stretching sheet. The modeled partial differential equations are reduced to coupled ordinary differential equations by a suitable transformation. The resulting equations are solved numerically by the shooting method using adaptive Runge Kutta algorithm in combination with Newton's method in the domain [0,∞). The numerical results for the velocity and temperature fields are graphically presented and effects of the relevant parameters are discussed in detail. Moreover, the skin-friction coefficient and local Nusselt number for different values of the power-law index and stretching ratio parameter are presented through tabulated data. The numerical results are also verified with the results obtained analytically by the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Additionally, the results are validated with previously published pertinent literature as a limiting case of the problem. PMID:26110873
Viscous boundary layers in rotating fluids driven by periodic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergstrom, R. W.; Cogley, A. C.
1976-01-01
The paper analyzes the boundary layers formed in a rotating fluid by an oscillating flow over an infinite half plate, with particular attention paid to the effects of unsteadiness, the critical latitude effect and the structure of the solution to the boundary layer equations at resonance. The Navier-Stokes boundary layer equations are obtained through an asymptotic expansion with the incorporation of the Rossby and Ekman numbers and are analyzed as the sum of a nonlinear steady solution and a linearized unsteady solution. The solution is predominantly composed of two inertial wave vector components, one circularly polarized to the left and the other circularly polarized to the right. The problem considered here has relevance in oceanography and meteorology, with special reference to the unsteady atmospheric boundary layer.
A central difference type approximation of convection in fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tzanos, Constantine P.
In fluid flow and heat transfer problems, to eliminate instability and oscillations resulting from the numerical approximation of the convection term, it is common practice to use first order upwind differencing. For example, first order upwind differencing is used in codes like COMMIX and PHOENICS. However, in problems characterized by high Peclet numbers, this approach is highly inaccurate unless an excessive number of nodes is used. To eliminate this difficulty, a method of grid adaptation using central differencing in one-dimensional problems was presented. In the effort to extend this approach to 2-D and 3-D problems a new method was developed for multidimensional problems that is superior to first order upwind differencing even for a few non-adaptive grid points. This method is presented in this work.
Grid-Based Hydrodynamics in Astrophysical Fluid Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teyssier, Romain
2015-08-01
In this review, the equations of hydrodynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, and radiation hydrodynamics are presented, together with their corresponding nonideal source terms. I overview the current landscape of modern grid-based numerical techniques with an emphasis on numerical diffusion, which plays a fundamental role in stabilizing the solution but is also the main source of errors associated with these numerical techniques. I discuss in great detail the inclusion of additional important source terms, such as cooling and gravity. I also show how to modify classic operator-splitting techniques to avoid undesirable numerical errors associated with these additional source terms, in particular in the presence of highly supersonic flows. I finally present various mesh adaptation strategies that can be used to minimize these numerical errors. To conclude, I review existing astrophysical software that is publicly available to perform simulations for such astrophysical fluids.
Fluid flow effects in evaporation from liquid-vapor meniscus
Khrustalev, D.; Faghri, A.
1996-12-31
A mathematical model of the evaporating liquid-vapor meniscus in a capillary slot has been developed. The model includes two-dimensional steady-state momentum conservation and energy equations for both the vapor and liquid phases, and incorporates the existing simplified one-dimensional model of the evaporating microfilm. The numerical results, obtained for water, demonstrate the importance of accounting for the fluid flow in calculating the effective evaporative heat transfer coefficient and the superheat of the vapor over the liquid-vapor meniscus due to the heat transfer from the heated wall. With higher heat fluxes, a recirculation zone appears in the vapor near the heated wall due to the extensive evaporation in the thin-film region of the liquid-vapor meniscus.
On fluid flow in a heterogeneous medium under nonisothermal conditions
D.W., Vasco
2010-11-01
An asymptotic technique, valid in the presence of smoothly-varying heterogeneity, provides explicit expressions for the velocity of a propagating pressure and temperature disturbance. The governing equations contain nonlinear terms due to the presence of temperature-dependent coefficients and due to the advection of fluids with differing temperatures. Two cases give well-defined expressions in terms of the parameters of the porous medium: the uncoupled propagation of a pressure disturbance and the propagation of a fully coupled temperature and pressure disturbance. The velocity of the coupled disturbance or front, depends upon the medium parameters and upon the change in temperature and pressure across the front. For uncoupled flow, the semi-analytic expression for the front velocity reduces to that associated with a linear diffusion equation. A comparison of the asymptotic travel time estimates with calculations from a numerical simulator indicates reasonably good agreement for both uncoupled and coupled disturbances.
Fluid Structural Analysis of Urine Flow in a Stented Ureter
Gómez-Blanco, J. Carlos; Martínez-Reina, F. Javier; Cruz, Domingo; Pagador, J. Blas; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M.; Soria, Federico
2016-01-01
Many urologists are currently studying new designs of ureteral stents to improve the quality of their operations and the subsequent recovery of the patient. In order to help during this design process, many computational models have been developed to simulate the behaviour of different biological tissues and provide a realistic computational environment to evaluate the stents. However, due to the high complexity of the involved tissues, they usually introduce simplifications to make these models less computationally demanding. In this study, the interaction between urine flow and a double-J stented ureter with a simplified geometry has been analysed. The Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) of urine and the ureteral wall was studied using three models for the solid domain: Mooney-Rivlin, Yeoh, and Ogden. The ureter was assumed to be quasi-incompressible and isotropic. Data obtained in previous studies from ex vivo and in vivo mechanical characterization of different ureters were used to fit the mentioned models. The results show that the interaction between the stented ureter and urine is negligible. Therefore, we can conclude that this type of models does not need to include the FSI and could be solved quite accurately assuming that the ureter is a rigid body and, thus, using the more simple Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach. PMID:27127535
System and method for bidirectional flow and controlling fluid flow in a conduit
Ortiz, Marcos German
1999-01-01
A system for measuring bidirectional flow, including backflow, of fluid in a conduit. The system utilizes a structural mechanism to create a pressure differential in the conduit. Pressure sensors are positioned upstream from the mechanism, at the mechanism, and downstream from the mechanism. Data from the pressure sensors are transmitted to a microprocessor or computer, and pressure differential detected between the pressure sensors is then used to calculate the backflow. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to shut off valves located in the conduit, upon the occurrence of backflow, or to control flow, total material dispersed, etc. in the conduit.
System and method for bidirectional flow and controlling fluid flow in a conduit
Ortiz, M.G.
1999-03-23
A system for measuring bidirectional flow, including backflow, of fluid in a conduit is disclosed. The system utilizes a structural mechanism to create a pressure differential in the conduit. Pressure sensors are positioned upstream from the mechanism, at the mechanism, and downstream from the mechanism. Data from the pressure sensors are transmitted to a microprocessor or computer, and pressure differential detected between the pressure sensors is then used to calculate the backflow. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to shut off valves located in the conduit, upon the occurrence of backflow, or to control flow, total material dispersed, etc. in the conduit. 3 figs.
Fluid flow and scalar transport through porous fins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coletti, F.; Muramatsu, K.; Schiavazzi, D.; Elkins, C. J.; Eaton, J. K.
2014-05-01
Lotus-type porous metals are a promising alternative for compact heat transfer applications. In lotus-type porous fins, jet impingement and transverse mixing play important roles for heat transfer: jets emerging from the pores impinge on the following fin and enhance heat transfer performance, while the transverse fluid motion advects heat away from the fin surface. By means of magnetic resonance imaging we have performed mean flow and scalar transport measurements through scaled-up replicas of two kinds of lotus-type porous fins: one with a deterministic hole pattern and staggered alignment, and one with a random hole pattern, but the same porosity and mean pore diameter. The choice of geometric parameters (fin spacing, thickness, porosity, and hole diameter) is based on previous thermal studies. The Reynolds number based on the mean pore diameter and inner velocity ranges from 80 to 3800. The measurements show that in the random hole pattern the jet characteristic length scale is substantially larger with respect to the staggered hole pattern. The random geometry also produces long coherent vortices aligned with the streamwise direction, which improves the transverse mixing. The random hole distribution causes the time mean streamlines to meander in a random-walk manner, and the diffusivity coefficient associated to the mechanical dispersion (which is nominally zero in the staggered hole configuration) is several times larger than the fluid molecular diffusivity at the higher Reynolds numbers. From the trends in maximum streamwise velocity, streamwise vorticity, and mechanical diffusivity, it is inferred that the flow undergoes a transition to an unsteady/turbulent regime around Reynolds number 300. This is supported by the measurements of concentration of an isokinetic non-buoyant plume of scalar injected upstream of the stack of fins. The total scalar diffusivity for the fully turbulent regime is found to be 22 times larger than the molecular diffusivity, but
Fluid flow processes in the Beppu geothermal system, Japan
Allis, R.G. ); Yusa, Y. )
1989-01-01
This paper reports on the Beppu geothermal system, centered beneath the late Quaternary volcanoes of Tsurumi and Garandake at the northern end of the Ryukyu volcanic arc. The deep fluid has a temperature of at least 250--300{degrees} C, and an inferred chloride concentration of 1400--1600 mg/kg. Apart from fumarolic areas near the summits of the two volcanoes, most thermal activity occurs at low elevation along the two main outflow paths towards the coast. The hot spring waters of downtown Beppu have originated from outflow along the Asamigawa Fault, with their chemistry indicating predominantly dilution of the deep fluid by groundwater. The second outflow zone towards the hot spring area of downtown Kamegawa coincides with a ridge of lavas. Here boiling, steam loss, and subsequent mixing with steam-heated groundwaters have significantly modified both the deep fluid and host rocks. The area of the geothermal system above 200{degrees} C is at least 15 km{sup 2} at sea level, and the total natural heat output is inferred to be at least 250 MW. Most of this heat output occurs as subsurface hot water outflows towards the coast due to the 1300 m of topographic relief across the system.
Mathematical modeling of slope flows with entrainment as flows of non-Newtonian fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zayko, Julia; Eglit, Margarita
2015-04-01
Non-Newtonian fluids in which the shear stresses are nonlinear functions of the shear strain rates are used to model slope flows such as snow avalanches, mudflows, debris flows. The entrainment of bottom material is included into the model basing on the assumption that in entraining flows the bed friction is equal to the shear stress of the bottom material (Issler et al, 2011). Unsteady motion down long homogeneous slopes with constant inclines is studied numerically for different flow rheologies and different slope angles. Variation of the velocity profile, increase of the flow depth and velocity due to entrainment as well as the value of the entrainment rate is calculated. Asymptotic formulae for the entrainment rate are derived for unsteady flows of different rheological properties. REFERENCES Chowdhury M., Testik F., 2011. Laboratory testing of mathematical models for high-concentration fluid mud turbidity currents. Ocean Engineering 38, 256-270. Eglit, M.E., Demidov, K.S., 2005. Mathematical modeling of snow entrainment in avalanche motion. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 43 (1-2), 10-23. Eglit M. E., Yakubenko A. E., 2012, Mathematical Modeling of slope flows entraining bottom material. Eglit M. E., Yakubenko A. E., 2014, Numerical modeling of slope flows entraining bottom material. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 108, 139-148. Issler D, M. Pastor Peréz. 2011. Interplay of entrainment and rheology in snow avalanches; a numerical study. Annals of Glaciology, 52(58), pp.143-147 Kern M. A., Tiefenbacher F., McElwaine J., N., 2004. The rheology of snow in large chute flows. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 39, 181 -192. Naaim, M., Faug, T., Naaim-Bouvet, F., 2003. Dry granular flow modelling including erosion and deposition. Surv. Geophys. 24, 569-585. Naaim, M., Naaim-Bouvet, F., Faug, T., Bouchet, A., 2004. Dense snow avalanche modeling: flow, erosion, deposition and obstacle effects. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 39, 193-204. Rougier, J & Kern, M 2010, 'Predicting snow
Gallium-67 activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in sarcoidosis
Trauth, H.A.; Heimes, K.; Schubotz, R.; von Wichert, P.
1986-01-01
Roentgenograms and gallium-67 scans and gallium-67 counts of BAL fluid samples, together with differential cell counts, have proved to be useful in assessing activity and lung involvement in sarcoidosis. In active pulmonary sarcoidosis gallium-67 scans are usually positive. Quantitation of gallium-67 uptake in lung scans, however, may be difficult. Because gallium-67 uptake and cell counts in BAL fluid may be correlated, we set out to investigate gallium-67 activity in BAL fluid recovered from patient of different groups. Sixteen patients with recently diagnosed and untreated sarcoidosis, nine patients with healthy lungs, and five patients with CFA were studied. Gallium-67 uptake of the lung, gallium-67 activity in the lavage fluid, SACE and LACE levels, and alpha 1-AT activity were measured. Significantly more gallium-67 activity was found in BAL fluid from sarcoidosis patients than in that from CFA patients (alpha = .001) or patients with healthy lungs (alpha = .001). Gallium-67 activity in BAL fluid could be well correlated with the number of lymphocytes in BAL fluid, but poorly with the number of macrophages. Subjects with increased levels of SACE or serum alpha 1-AT showed higher lavage gallium-67 activity than did normals, but no correlation could be established. High gallium-67 activity in lavage fluid may be correlated with acute sarcoidosis or physiological deterioration; low activity denotes change for the better. The results show that gallium-67 counts in BAL fluid reflects the intensity of gallium-67 uptake and thus of activity of pulmonary sarcoidosis.
Pennell, Thomas; Yi, Juneyoung L; Kaufman, Bruce A; Krishnamurthy, Satish
2016-03-01
OBJECT Mechanical failure-which is the primary cause of CSF shunt malfunction-is not readily diagnosed, and the specific reasons for mechanical failure are not easily discerned. Prior attempts to measure CSF flow noninvasively have lacked the ability to either quantitatively or qualitatively obtain data. To address these needs, this preliminary study evaluates an ultrasonic transit time flow sensor in pediatric and adult patients with external ventricular drains (EVDs). One goal was to confirm the stated accuracy of the sensor in a clinical setting. A second goal was to observe the sensor's capability to record real-time continuous CSF flow. The final goal was to observe recordings during instances of flow blockage or lack of flow in order to determine the sensor's ability to identify these changes. METHODS A total of 5 pediatric and 11 adult patients who had received EVDs for the treatment of hydrocephalus were studied in a hospital setting. The primary EVD was connected to a secondary study EVD that contained a fluid-filled pressure transducer and an in-line transit time flow sensor. Comparisons were made between the weight of the drainage bag and the flow measured via the sensor in order to confirm its accuracy. Data from the pressure transducer and the flow sensor were recorded continuously at 100 Hz for a period of 24 hours by a data acquisition system, while the hourly CSF flow into the drip chamber was recorded manually. Changes in the patient's neurological status and their time points were noted. RESULTS The flow sensor demonstrated a proven accuracy of ± 15% or ± 2 ml/hr. The flow sensor allowed real-time continuous flow waveform data recordings. Dynamic analysis of CSF flow waveforms allowed the calculation of the pressure-volume index. Lastly, the sensor was able to diagnose a blocked catheter and distinguish between the blockage and lack of flow. CONCLUSIONS The Transonic flow sensor accurately measures CSF output within ± 15% or ± 2 ml
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiantini, Rosalina; Umar, Efrizon
2010-06-01
Common energy crisis has modified the national energy policy which is in the beginning based on natural resources becoming based on technology, therefore the capability to understanding the basic and applied science is needed to supporting those policies. National energy policy which aims at new energy exploitation, such as nuclear energy is including many efforts to increase the safety reactor core condition and optimize the related aspects and the ability to build new research reactor with properly design. The previous analysis of the modification TRIGA 2000 Reactor design indicates that forced convection of the primary coolant system put on an effect to the flow characteristic in the reactor core, but relatively insignificant effect to the flow velocity in the reactor core. In this analysis, the lid of reactor core is closed. However the forced convection effect is still presented. This analysis shows the fluid flow velocity vector in the model area without exception. Result of this analysis indicates that in the original design of TRIGA 2000 reactor, there is still forced convection effects occur but less than in the modified TRIGA 2000 design.
Fiantini, Rosalina; Umar, Efrizon
2010-06-22
Common energy crisis has modified the national energy policy which is in the beginning based on natural resources becoming based on technology, therefore the capability to understanding the basic and applied science is needed to supporting those policies. National energy policy which aims at new energy exploitation, such as nuclear energy is including many efforts to increase the safety reactor core condition and optimize the related aspects and the ability to build new research reactor with properly design. The previous analysis of the modification TRIGA 2000 Reactor design indicates that forced convection of the primary coolant system put on an effect to the flow characteristic in the reactor core, but relatively insignificant effect to the flow velocity in the reactor core. In this analysis, the lid of reactor core is closed. However the forced convection effect is still presented. This analysis shows the fluid flow velocity vector in the model area without exception. Result of this analysis indicates that in the original design of TRIGA 2000 reactor, there is still forced convection effects occur but less than in the modified TRIGA 2000 design.
Flow Visualization of Low Prandtl Number Fluids using Electrochemical Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crunkleton, D.; Anderson, T.; Narayanan, R.; Labrosse, G.
2003-01-01
It is well established that residual flows exist in contained liquid metal processes. In 1-g processing, buoyancy forces often drive these flows and their magnitudes can be substantial. It is also known that residual flows can exist during microgravity processing, and although greatly reduced in magnitude, they can influence the properties of the processed materials. Unfortunately, there are very few techniques to visualize flows in opaque, high temperature liquid metals, and those available are not easily adapted to flight investigation. In this study, a novel technique is developed that uses liquid tin as the model fluid and solid-state electrochemical cells constructed from Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) to establish and measure dissolved oxygen boundary conditions. The melt serves as a common electrode for each of the electrochemical cells in this design, while independent reference electrodes are maintained at the outside surfaces of the electrolyte. By constructing isolated electrochemical cells at various locations along the container walls, oxygen is introduced or extracted by imposing a known electrical potential or passing a given current between the melt and the reference electrode. This programmed titration then establishes a known oxygen concentration boundary condition at the selected electrolyte-melt interface. Using the other cells, the concentration of oxygen at the electrolyte-melt interface is also monitored by measuring the open-circuit potentials developed between the melt and reference electrodes. Thus the electrochemical cells serve to both establish boundary conditions for the passive tracer and sense its path. Rayleigh-Benard convection was used to validate the electrochemical approach to flow visualization. Thus, a numerical characterization of the second critical Rayleigh numbers in liquid tin was conducted for a variety of Cartesian aspect ratios. The extremely low Prandtl number of tin represents the lowest value studied numerically
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schilling, Frank R.
2014-05-01
Not only in densely populated areas the preservation of drinking water quality is of vital interest. On the other side, our modern economies request for a sustained energy supply and a secure storage of waste materials. As energy sources with a high security of supply, oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy cover ca. 60% of Europe's energy demand; together with coal more than 75% (IEA 2011). Besides geothermal energy, all of the resources have a high greenhouse gas footprint. All these production activities are related to fluid injection and/or fluid production. The same holds true for gas storage operations in porous reservoirs, to store natural gases, oil, or greenhouse gases. Different concerns are discussed in the public and geoscientific community to influence the drinking water quality: - wastewater discharges from field exploration, drilling, production, well treatment and completion - wastewater sequestration - gas storage - tight gas and tight oil production (including hydraulic fracturing) - Shale gas production (including hydraulic fracturing) - mine drainage This overview contribution focusses on strategies to systematically reduce the risk of water pollution in geotechnical operations of deep reservoirs. The principals will be exemplarily revealed for different geotechnical operations. - How to control hydraulic fracturing operations to reduce the risk of enhanced seismic activity and avoiding the connection of originally separated aquifers. The presented approach to quantitatively predict the impact of stimulation activities is based on petrophysical models taking the feedback of geomechanical processes and fluid flow in porous media, fissures and faults into account. The specific flow patterns in various rock types lead to distinguished differences in operational risk. - How can a proper planning of geotechnical operations reduce the involved risks. A systematic risk reduction strategy will be discussed. On selected samples the role of exploration
Winters, W.S.
1984-01-01
An overview of the computer code TOPAZ (Transient-One-Dimensional Pipe Flow Analyzer) is presented. TOPAZ models the flow of compressible and incompressible fluids through complex and arbitrary arrangements of pipes, valves, flow branches and vessels. Heat transfer to and from the fluid containment structures (i.e. vessel and pipe walls) can also be modeled. This document includes discussions of the fluid flow equations and containment heat conduction equations. The modeling philosophy, numerical integration technique, code architecture, and methods for generating the computational mesh are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grabski, Jakub Krzysztof; Kołodziej, Jan Adam
2016-06-01
In the paper an analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer of a power-law fluid in an internally finned tube with different fin length is conducted. Nonlinear momentum equation of a power-law fluid flow and nonlinear energy equation are solved using the Picard iteration method. Then on each iteration step the solution of inhomogeneous equation consists of two parts: the general solution and the particular solution. Firstly the particular solution is obtained by interpolation of the inhomogeneous term by means of the radial basis functions and monomials. Then the general solution is obtained using the method of fundamental solutions and by fulfilling boundary conditions.
Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert
2002-01-01
This viewgraph report presents an overview of activities and accomplishments of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group. Expertise in this group focuses on high-fidelity fluids design and analysis with application to space shuttle propulsion and next generation launch technologies. Topics covered include: computational fluid dynamics research and goals, turbomachinery research and activities, nozzle research and activities, combustion devices, engine systems, MDA development and CFD process improvements.
Numerical Simulation of non-Newtonian Fluid Flows through Fracture Network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dharmawan, I. A.; Ulhag, R. Z.; Endyana, C.; Aufaristama, M.
2016-01-01
We present a numerical simulation of non-Newtonian fluid flow in a twodimensional fracture network. The fracture is having constant mean aperture and bounded with Hurst exponent surfaces. The non-Newtonian rheology behaviour of the fluid is described using the Power-Law model. The lattice Boltzmann method is employed to calculate the solutions for non-Newtonian flow in finite Reynolds number. We use a constant force to drive the fluid within the fracture, while the bounceback rules and periodic boundary conditions are applied for the fluid-solid interaction and inflow outlflow boundary conditions, respectively. The validation study of the simulation is done via parallel plate flow simulation and the results demonstrated good agreement with the analytical solution. In addition, the fluid flow properties within the fracture network follow the relationships of power law fluid while the errors are becoming larger if the fluid more shear thinning.
Fluid Flow Simulation and Energetic Analysis of Anomalocarididae Locomotion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikel-Stites, Maxwell; Staples, Anne
2014-11-01
While an abundance of animal locomotion simulations have been performed modeling the motions of living arthropods and aquatic animals, little quantitative simulation and reconstruction of gait parameters has been done to model the locomotion of extinct animals, many of which bear little physical resemblance to their modern descendants. To that end, this project seeks to analyze potential swimming patterns used by the anomalocaridid family, (specifically Anomalocaris canadensis, a Cambrian Era aquatic predator), and determine the most probable modes of movement. This will serve to either verify or cast into question the current assumed movement patterns and properties of these animals and create a bridge between similar flexible-bodied swimmers and their robotic counterparts. This will be accomplished by particle-based fluid flow simulations of the flow around the fins of the animal, as well as an energy analysis of a variety of sample gaits. The energy analysis will then be compared to the extant information regarding speed/energy use curves in an attempt to determine which modes of swimming were most energy efficient for a given range of speeds. These results will provide a better understanding of how these long-extinct animals moved, possibly allowing an improved understanding of their behavioral patterns, and may also lead to a novel potential platform for bio-inspired underwater autonomous vehicles (UAVs).
Response time correlations for platinum resistance thermometers in flowing fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandey, D. K.; Ash, R. L.
1985-01-01
The thermal response of two types of Platinum Resistance Thermometers (PRT's), which are being considered for use in the National Transonic Wind Tunnel Facility, were studied. Response time correlations for each PRT, in flowing water, oil and air, were established separately. A universal correlation, tau WOA = 2.0 + 1264, 9/h, for a Hy-Cal Sensor (with a reference resistance of 100 ohm) within an error of 20% was established while the universal correlation for the Rosemount Sensor (with a reference resistance of 1000 ohm), tau OA = 0.122 + 1105.6/h, was found with a maximum percentage error of 30%. The correlation for the Rosemount Sensor was based on air and oil data only which is certainly not sufficient to make a correlation applicable to every condition. Therefore, the correlation needs more data to be gathered in different fluids. Also, it is necessary to state that the calculation of the parameter, h, was based on the available heat transfer correlations, whose accuracies are already reported in literature uncertain within 20-30%. Therefore, the universal response constant correlations established here for the Hy-Cal and Rosemount sensors are consistent with the uncertainty in the input data and are recommended for future use in flowing liquids and gases.
Effect of asynchrony on numerical simulations of fluid flow phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konduri, Aditya; Mahoney, Bryan; Donzis, Diego
2015-11-01
Designing scalable CFD codes on massively parallel computers is a challenge. This is mainly due to the large number of communications between processing elements (PEs) and their synchronization, leading to idling of PEs. Indeed, communication will likely be the bottleneck in the scalability of codes on Exascale machines. Our recent work on asynchronous computing for PDEs based on finite-differences has shown that it is possible to relax synchronization between PEs at a mathematical level. Computations then proceed regardless of the status of communication, reducing the idle time of PEs and improving the scalability. However, accuracy of the schemes is greatly affected. We have proposed asynchrony-tolerant (AT) schemes to address this issue. In this work, we study the effect of asynchrony on the solution of fluid flow problems using standard and AT schemes. We show that asynchrony creates additional scales with low energy content. The specific wavenumbers affected can be shown to be due to two distinct effects: the randomness in the arrival of messages and the corresponding switching between schemes. Understanding these errors allow us to effectively control them, rendering the method's feasibility in solving turbulent flows at realistic conditions on future computing systems.
Characterization of fracture networks for fluid flow analysis
Long, J.C.S.; Billaux, D.; Hestir, K.; Majer, E.L.; Peterson, J.; Karasaki, K.; Nihei, K.; Gentier, S.; Cox, L.
1989-06-01
The analysis of fluid flow through fractured rocks is difficult because the only way to assign hydraulic parameters to fractures is to perform hydraulic tests. However, the interpretation of such tests, or ''inversion'' of the data, requires at least that we know the geometric pattern formed by the fractures. Combining a statistical approach with geophysical data may be extremely helpful in defining the fracture geometry. Cross-hole geophysics, either seismic or radar, can provide tomograms which are pixel maps of the velocity or attenuation anomalies in the rock. These anomalies are often due to fracture zones. Therefore, tomograms can be used to identify fracture zones and provide information about the structure within the fracture zones. This structural information can be used as the basis for simulating the degree of fracturing within the zones. Well tests can then be used to further refine the model. Because the fracture network is only partially connected, the resulting geometry of the flow paths may have fractal properties. We are studying the behavior of well tests under such geometry. Through understanding of this behavior, it may be possible to use inverse techniques to refine the a priori assignment of fractures and their conductances such that we obtain the best fit to a series of well test results simultaneously. The methodology described here is under development and currently being applied to several field sites. 4 refs., 14 figs.
Fluid dynamics of active heterogeneities in a mantle plume conduit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farnetani, C. G.; Limare, A.; Hofmann, A. W.
2015-12-01
Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations indicate that the flow of a purely thermal plume preserves the azimuthal zonation of the source region, thus providing a framework to attribute a deep origin to the isotopic zonation of Hawaiian lavas. However, previous studies were limited to passive heterogeneities not affecting the flow. We go beyond this simplification by considering active heterogeneities which are compositionally denser, or more viscous, and we address the following questions: (1) How do active heterogeneities modify the axially symmetric velocity field of the plume conduit? (2) Under which conditions is the azimuthal zonation of the source region no longer preserved in the plume stem? (3) How do active heterogeneities deform during upwelling and what is their shape once at sublithospheric depths? We conducted both laboratory experiments, using a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to calculate the velocity field, and high resolution three-dimensional simulations where millions of tracers keep track of the heterogeneous fluid. For compositionally denser heterogeneities we cover a range of buoyancy ratios 0fluid and η is viscosity. The initial heterogeneity has the arbitrary shape of a sphere and we vary its volume and its distance from the plume axis. We find that by increasing λ, the shape of the heterogeneity changes from filament-like to blob-like characterized by internal rotation and little stretching. By increasing B the heterogeneity tends to spread at the base of the plume stem and to rise as a tendril close to the axis, so that the initial zonation may be poorly preserved. We also find that the plume velocity field can be profoundly modified by active heterogeneities, and we explore the relation between strain rates and the evolving shape of the upwelling heterogeneity.
Mixing of methane and sulphate due to fluid flow in the Barbados accretionary prism
Laier, T. )
1996-01-01
Methane concentrations above background level in sulphate-containing (15 mmol/l) pore waters have been observed in the d6collement zone of the Barbados accretionary prism. The peak in methane concentration in the decollement was found at a number of sites by headspace analysis of cores retrieved during ODP Legs 110 156 at the toe of the accretionary prism. [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] values between -22[per thousand] and -36[per thousand] indicate that methane oxidation occurs possibly due to sulphate reduction. Thus, the presence of both methane and sulphate at the same depths suggests mixing of fluids due to fluid flow. Fluid flow is also indicated by the distinct minima in chloride concentrations at the same depths. In the case of on-going methane oxidation, mixing of sulphate and methane fluids is anticipated to have occurred fairly recently. Sulphate concentration decreases only little with depth in the Pleistocene to lower Miocene sediments where TOC is very low, <0.2 %. Sulphate decreases more rapidly with depth in the Oligocene to Eocene sediments where numerous relatively thin turbidites occur. The turbidites have significantly higher TOC, 0.5-1.5 %, than the interbedded hemipelagic sediments, TOC <0.2 %. High methane concentrations were not found in any of the boreholes, but the trends in sulphate and methane in boreholes indicate that high methane concentrations exist in older sediments not reached by drilling. The decollement zone is composed of lower Miocene to upper Oligocene sediments near the toe of the prism, but deepens into stratigraphically lower sediments prism ward. Thus, methane originating from these older sediments may have been brought to shallower depths by active fluid flow in the decollement.
Mixing of methane and sulphate due to fluid flow in the Barbados accretionary prism
Laier, T.
1996-12-31
Methane concentrations above background level in sulphate-containing (15 mmol/l) pore waters have been observed in the d6collement zone of the Barbados accretionary prism. The peak in methane concentration in the decollement was found at a number of sites by headspace analysis of cores retrieved during ODP Legs 110 & 156 at the toe of the accretionary prism. {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} values between -22{per_thousand} and -36{per_thousand} indicate that methane oxidation occurs possibly due to sulphate reduction. Thus, the presence of both methane and sulphate at the same depths suggests mixing of fluids due to fluid flow. Fluid flow is also indicated by the distinct minima in chloride concentrations at the same depths. In the case of on-going methane oxidation, mixing of sulphate and methane fluids is anticipated to have occurred fairly recently. Sulphate concentration decreases only little with depth in the Pleistocene to lower Miocene sediments where TOC is very low, <0.2 %. Sulphate decreases more rapidly with depth in the Oligocene to Eocene sediments where numerous relatively thin turbidites occur. The turbidites have significantly higher TOC, 0.5-1.5 %, than the interbedded hemipelagic sediments, TOC <0.2 %. High methane concentrations were not found in any of the boreholes, but the trends in sulphate and methane in boreholes indicate that high methane concentrations exist in older sediments not reached by drilling. The decollement zone is composed of lower Miocene to upper Oligocene sediments near the toe of the prism, but deepens into stratigraphically lower sediments prism ward. Thus, methane originating from these older sediments may have been brought to shallower depths by active fluid flow in the decollement.
Time-Dependent Thermally-Driven Interfacial Flows in Multilayered Fluid Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haj-Hariri, Hossein; Borhan, A.
1996-01-01
A computational study of thermally-driven convection in multilayered fluid structures will be performed to examine the effect of interactions among deformable fluid-fluid interfaces on the structure of time-dependent flow in these systems. Multilayered fluid structures in two models configurations will be considered: the differentially heated rectangular cavity with a free surface, and the encapsulated cylindrical liquid bridge. An extension of a numerical method developed as part of our recent NASA Fluid Physics grant will be used to account for finite deformations of fluid-fluid interfaces.
Modelling Fault Zone Evolution: Implications for fluid flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moir, H.; Lunn, R. J.; Shipton, Z. K.
2009-04-01
Flow simulation models are of major interest to many industries including hydrocarbon, nuclear waste, sequestering of carbon dioxide and mining. One of the major uncertainties in these models is in predicting the permeability of faults, principally in the detailed structure of the fault zone. Studying the detailed structure of a fault zone is difficult because of the inaccessible nature of sub-surface faults and also because of their highly complex nature; fault zones show a high degree of spatial and temporal heterogeneity i.e. the properties of the fault change as you move along the fault, they also change with time. It is well understood that faults influence fluid flow characteristics. They may act as a conduit or a barrier or even as both by blocking flow across the fault while promoting flow along it. Controls on fault hydraulic properties include cementation, stress field orientation, fault zone components and fault zone geometry. Within brittle rocks, such as granite, fracture networks are limited but provide the dominant pathway for flow within this rock type. Research at the EU's Soultz-sous-Forệt Hot Dry Rock test site [Evans et al., 2005] showed that 95% of flow into the borehole was associated with a single fault zone at 3490m depth, and that 10 open fractures account for the majority of flow within the zone. These data underline the critical role of faults in deep flow systems and the importance of achieving a predictive understanding of fault hydraulic properties. To improve estimates of fault zone permeability, it is important to understand the underlying hydro-mechanical processes of fault zone formation. In this research, we explore the spatial and temporal evolution of fault zones in brittle rock through development and application of a 2D hydro-mechanical finite element model, MOPEDZ. The authors have previously presented numerical simulations of the development of fault linkage structures from two or three pre-existing joints, the results of
Edge states in confined active fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souslov, Anton; Vitelli, Vincenzo
Recently, topologically protected edge modes have been proposed and realized in both mechanical and acoustic metamaterials. In one class of such metamaterials, Time-Reversal Symmetry is broken, and, to achieve this TRS breaking in mechanical and acoustic systems, an external energy input must be used. For example, motors provide a driving force that uses energy and, thus, explicitly break TRS. As a result, motors have been used as an essential component in the design of topological metamaterials. By contrast, we explore the design of topological metamaterials that use a class of far-from-equilibrium liquids, called polar active liquids, that spontaneously break TRS. We thus envision the confinement of a polar active liquid to a prescribed geometry in order to realize topological order with broken time-reversal symmetry. We address the design of the requisite geometries, for example a regular honeycomb lattice composed of annular channels, in which the active liquid may be confined. We also consider the physical character of the active liquid that, when introduced into the prescribed geometry, will spontaneously form the flow pattern of a metamaterial with topologically protected edge states. Finally, we comment on potential experimental realizations of such metamaterials.
Computational Fluid Dynamic simulations of pipe elbow flow.
Homicz, Gregory Francis
2004-08-01
One problem facing today's nuclear power industry is flow-accelerated corrosion and erosion in pipe elbows. The Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is performing experiments in their Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) test loop to better characterize these phenomena, and develop advanced sensor technologies for the condition monitoring of critical elbows on a continuous basis. In parallel with these experiments, Sandia National Laboratories is performing Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations of the flow in one elbow of the FAC test loop. The simulations are being performed using the FLUENT commercial software developed and marketed by Fluent, Inc. The model geometry and mesh were created using the GAMBIT software, also from Fluent, Inc. This report documents the results of the simulations that have been made to date; baseline results employing the RNG k-e turbulence model are presented. The predicted value for the diametrical pressure coefficient is in reasonably good agreement with published correlations. Plots of the velocities, pressure field, wall shear stress, and turbulent kinetic energy adjacent to the wall are shown within the elbow section. Somewhat to our surprise, these indicate that the maximum values of both wall shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy occur near the elbow entrance, on the inner radius of the bend. Additional simulations were performed for the same conditions, but with the RNG k-e model replaced by either the standard k-{var_epsilon}, or the realizable k-{var_epsilon} turbulence model. The predictions using the standard k-{var_epsilon} model are quite similar to those obtained in the baseline simulation. However, with the realizable k-{var_epsilon} model, more significant differences are evident. The maximums in both wall shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy now appear on the outer radius, near the elbow exit, and are {approx}11% and 14% greater, respectively, than those predicted in the baseline calculation
Flow imaging of fluids in porous media by magnetization prepared centric-scan SPRITE.
Li, Linqing; Chen, Quan; Marble, Andrew E; Romero-Zerón, Laura; Newling, Benedict; Balcom, Bruce J
2009-03-01
MRI has considerable potential as a non-destructive probe of porous media, permitting rapid quantification of local fluid content and the possibility of local flow visualization and quantification. In this work we explore a general approach to flow velocity measurement in porous media by combining Cotts pulsed field gradient flow encoding with SPRITE MRI. This technique permits facile and accurate flow and dispersion coefficient mapping of fluids in porous media. This new approach has proven to be robust in characterizing fluid behavior. This method is illustrated through measurements of flow in pipes, flow in sand packs and flow in porous reservoir rocks. Spatially resolved flow maps and local fluid velocity distribution were acquired. PMID:19121591
Rabbit tendon cells produce MMP-3 in response to fluid flow without significant calcium transients.
Archambault, Joanne M; Elfervig-Wall, Michelle K; Tsuzaki, Mari; Herzog, Walter; Banes, Albert J
2002-03-01
Forces applied to tendon during movement cause cellular deformation, as well as fluid movement. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that rabbit tendon fibroblasts detect and respond to fluid-induced shear stress. Cells were isolated from the paratenon of the rabbit Achilles tendon and then subjected to fluid flow at 1 dyn/cm(2) for 6h in a specially designed multi-slide flow device. The application of fluid flow led to an increased expression of the collagenase-1 (MMP-1), stromelysin-1 (MMP-3), cyclooxygenase II (COX-2) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) genes. The release of proMMP-3 into the medium exhibited a dose-response with the level of fluid shear stress. However, not all cells aligned in the direction of flow. In other experiments, the same cells were incubated with the calcium-reactive dye FURA-2 AM, then subjected to laminar fluid flow in a parallel plate flow chamber. The cells did not significantly increase intracellular calcium concentration when exposed to fluid shear stress levels of up to 25 dyn/cm(2). These results show that gene expression in rabbit tendon cells is sensitive to fluid flow, but that signal transduction is not dependent on intracellular calcium transients. The upregulation of the MMP-1, MMP-3 and COX-2 genes shows that fluid flow could be an important mechanical stimulus for tendon remodelling or injury. PMID:11858805
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reusch, Anna; Moernaut, Jasper; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Strasser, Michael
2016-04-01
Subsurface fluid flow can be affected by earthquakes: increased spring activity, mud volcano eruptions, groundwater fluctuations, changes in geyser frequency and other forms of altered subsurface fluid flow have been documented during, after, or even prior to earthquakes. Recently discovered giant pockmarks on the bottom of Lake Neuchâtel, Switzerland, are the lake-floor expression of subsurface fluid flow. They discharge karstic groundwater from the Jura Mountains and experience episodically increased subsurface fluid flow documented by subsurface sediment mobilization deposits at the levees of the pockmarks. In this study, we present the spatio-temporal distribution of event deposits from phases of sediment expulsion and their time correlative multiple mass-transport deposits. We report striking evidence for five events of concurrent multiple subsurface sediment deposits and multiple mass-transport deposits since Late Glacial times, for which we propose past earthquakes as trigger. Comparison of this new event catalogue with historic earthquakes and other independent paleoseismic records suggests that initiation of sediment expulsion requires a minimum macroseismic intensity of VII. Thus, our study presents for the first time sedimentary deposits resulting from increased subsurface fluid flow as new paleoseismic proxy. Comparable processes must also be relevant for other mountain front ranges and coastal mountain ranges, where groundwater flow triggers subsurface sediment mobilization and discharges into lacustrine and marine settings.
Shaded computer graphic techniques for visualizing and interpreting analytic fluid flow models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parke, F. I.
1981-01-01
Mathematical models which predict the behavior of fluid flow in different experiments are simulated using digital computers. The simulations predict values of parameters of the fluid flow (pressure, temperature and velocity vector) at many points in the fluid. Visualization of the spatial variation in the value of these parameters is important to comprehend and check the data generated, to identify the regions of interest in the flow, and for effectively communicating information about the flow to others. The state of the art imaging techniques developed in the field of three dimensional shaded computer graphics is applied to visualization of fluid flow. Use of an imaging technique known as 'SCAN' for visualizing fluid flow, is studied and the results are presented.
Interference well testing—variable fluid flow rate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kutasov, I. M.; Eppelbaum, L. V.; Kagan, M.
2008-03-01
At present when conducting an interference well test a constant flow rate (at the 'active' well) is utilized and the type-curve matching technique (where only 2-3 values of pressure drops are matched) is used to estimate the porosity-total compressibility product and formation permeability. For oil and geothermal reservoirs with low formation permeability the duration of the test may require a long period of time and it can be difficult to maintain a constant flow rate. The qualitative term 'long' period of time means that (at a given distance between the 'active' and 'observational' well) more test time (for low permeability formations) is needed to obtain tangible pressure drops in the 'observational' well. In this study we present working equations which will allow us to process field data when the flow rate at the 'active' well is a function of time. The shut-in period is also considered. A new method of field data processing, where all measured pressure drops are utilized, is proposed. The suggested method allows us to make use of the statistical theory to obtain error estimates on the regression parameters. It is also shown that when high precision (resolution) pressure gauges are employed the pressure time derivative equations can be used for the determination of formation hydraulic diffusivity. An example is presented to demonstrate the data processing procedure.
Fluid Mechanics of Inertial Particle-Laden Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gharaghieh, Hamed Haddadi
This work addresses the role of particle scale inertia on the motion of hard spherical particles suspended in a Newtonian fluid. We have utilized lattice-Boltzmann method to solve for the motion of particles in the fluid. The particles in the suspension are neutrally buoyant; therefore, a same level of inertia is carried by solid and liquid phase. In the first phase, the microstructure and rheological properties of suspensions are studied. The suspensions are subjected to simple shear flow and the properties are studied as a function of Reynolds number. The flow-induced microstructure is studied using the pair distribution function. Different stress mechanisms, including those due to surface tractions (stresslet), acceleration, and the Reynolds stress due to velocity fluctuations are computed and their influence on the first and second normal stress differences, the particle pressure and the viscosity of the suspensions are detailed. The probability density functions of linear and angular accelerations are also presented. Next, we present our results on the topology of particle pair trajectories. The pair relative trajectory is studied both for pairs which are isolated and for pairs in suspension of large solid fractions. For the suspension, the average trajectory and aspects of its dispersion are considered. The pair trajectories in a dilute inertial suspension have the same basic features as the streamlines around an isolated particle at similar Re, with reversing, in-plane and off-plane spiraling, and open but fore-aft asymmetric trajectories. The origin of the off-plane spirals is examined in detail, and the zone of these spirals is found to become smaller with increasing Re. The average pair trajectory space in a suspension of finite volume fraction is found to be qualitatively similar to the dilute suspension pair trajectories, as the spiraling and reversing zones are retained; the influence of volume fraction and Re on the extension of the different zones is
Intravenous fluids: should we go with the flow?
2015-01-01
Sensitive monitoring should be used when prescribing intravenous fluids for volume resuscitation. The extent and duration of tissue hypoperfusion determine the severity of cellular damage, which should be kept to a minimum with timely volume substitution. Optimizing the filling status to normovolaemia may boost the resuscitation success. Macrocirculatory pressure values are not sensitive in this indication. While the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines focus on these conventional pressure parameters, the guidelines from the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) on perioperative bleeding management recommend individualized care by monitoring the actual volume status and correcting hypovolaemia promptly if present. The motto is: 'give what is missing'. The credo of the ESA guidelines is to use management algorithms with predefined intervention triggers. Stop signals should help in avoiding hyper-resuscitation. The high-quality evidence-based S3 guidelines on volume therapy in adults have recently been prepared by 14 German scientific societies. Statements include, for example, repeated clinical inspection including turgor of the skin and mucosa. Adjunctive laboratory parameters such as central venous oxygen saturation, lactate, base excess and haematocrit should be considered. The S3 guidelines propose the use of flow-based and/or dynamic preload parameters for guiding volume therapy. Fluid challenges and/or the leg-raising test (autotransfusion) should be performed. The statement from the Co-ordination group for Mutual Recognition and Decentralized Procedures--Human informs healthcare professionals to consider applying individualized medicine and using sensitive monitoring to assess hypovolaemia. The authorities encourage a personalized goal-directed volume resuscitation technique. PMID:26728428
Fluid flow pathways study from the 3D seismic data offshore southwestern Taiwan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, L.; Chi, W. C.; Chiang, H. T.; Lin, S.
2014-12-01
3D seismic reflection data provide detailed information on the physical properties of the crust, which can be used for hydrocarbon exploration. Recently, scientists from Taiwan and Germany are collaborating on a project to use a portable 3D seismic system, called P-Cable, to study gas hydrates offshore southwest Taiwan. We have collected 3 cubes, covering the active and passive margins. At these three sites, there is a wide-spread bottom-simulating reflector (BSR). We use the BSR to study the shallow thermal structures of these prospect sites, and use the temperature field information to study fluid migration patterns. We have also done in-situ heat flow measurements, and found similar results, showing focused fluid flow migrations in some pathways. Some of the high temperature fields also correlate with gas chimneys found through seismic attribute analyses. Preliminary results show that there might be active fluid migration above the BSR in the gas hydrate stability zone. In September and October of 2014, we will collect additional P-Cable datasets to be incorporated into this study. Such results will be used to evaluate some proposed sites for future drilling programs.
Theoretical studies of non-Newtonian and Newtonian fluid flow through porous media
Wu, Yu-Shu.
1990-02-01
A comprehensive theoretical study has been carried out on the flow behavior of both single and multiple phase non-Newtonian fluids in porous media. This work is divided into three parts: development of numerical and analytical solutions; theoretical studies of transient flow of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media; and applications of well test analysis and displacement efficiency evaluation to field problems. A fully implicit, integral finite difference model has been developed for simulation of non-Newtonian and Newtonian fluid flow through porous media. Several commonly-used rheological models of power-law and Bingham plastic non-Newtonian fluids have been incorporated in the simulator. A Buckley-Leverett type analytical solution for one-dimensional, immiscible displacement involving non-Newtonian fluids in porous media has been developed. An integral method is also presented for the study of transient flow of Bingham fluids in porous media. In addition, two well test analysis methods have been developed for analyzing pressure transient tests of power-law and Bingham fluids, respectively. Applications are included to demonstrate this new technology. The physical mechanisms involved in immiscible displacement with non-Newtonian fluids in porous media have been studied using the Buckley-Leverett type analytical solution. In another study, an idealized fracture model has been used to obtain some insights into the flow of a power-law fluid in a double-porosity medium. Transient flow of a general pseudoplastic fluid has been studied numerically. 125 refs., 91 figs., 12 tabs.
STRUCTURAL HETEROGENEITIES AND PALEO FLUID FLOW IN AN ANALOG SANDSTONE RESERVOIR 2001-2004
Pollard, David; Aydin, Atilla
2005-02-22
simulation of fluid flow to study a typical sandstone aquifer/reservoir at a variety of scales. We have produced many tools and insights which can be applied to active subsurface flow systems and practical problems of pressing global importance.
Measuring Black Smoker Fluid Flow Rates Using Image Correlation Velocimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crone, T. J.; Wilcock, W. S.; McDuff, R. E.
2006-12-01
Motivated by a desire to find non-invasive methods for obtaining time-series measurements of fluid flow rates through mid-ocean ridge black smokers, we are developing an image-based velocimetry technique that will provide this information through the analysis of video sequences showing the turbulent structures of black smoker effluent jets. Our ultimate goal is to develop an autonomous seafloor instrument suitable for use with a cabled seafloor observatory that can provide extended time-series measurements of black smoker discharge rates with little user intervention. The method we are developing is based on the two-dimensional cross-correlation of an array of overlapping subimages from two sequential image frames within a sequence. For each pair of images this yields a two- dimensional representation of the instantaneous velocity field in the imaged flow. For each video sequence, the set of these "image velocity fields" from all image pairs is temporally averaged to yield a smoothed representation of the time-averaged image flow field. A transformation is then applied to convert the image flow fields into a relative discharge rate. We have developed a computational algorithm to implement this technique and have successfully applied it to video sequences collected in the late 1980s and early 1990s showing the discharge of black smokers in the Main Endeavour field of the Juan de Fuca Ridge over the course of weeks and months. We are able to resolve velocity fields that are qualitatively consistent with those predicted by plume theory from 5 seconds of video (150 image pairs), but it is difficult to calibrate or assess the precision of the technique with field data alone. In order to address these issues, as well as refine the computational algorithm, we have conducted laboratory simulations of black smoker jets with known discharge rates over a range of Reynolds numbers. We have recorded these simulations to obtain video image sequences that are similar to those
Interstitial fluid flow: simulation of mechanical environment of cells in the interosseous membrane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Wei; Ding, Guang-Hong
2011-08-01
In vitro experiments have shown that subtle fluid flow environment plays a significant role in living biological tissues, while there is no in vivo practical dynamical measurement of the interstitial fluid flow velocity. On the basis of a new finding that capillaries and collagen fibrils in the interosseous membrane form a parallel array, we set up a porous media model simulating the flow field with FLUENT software, studied the shear stress on interstitial cells' surface due to the interstitial fluid flow, and analyzed the effect of flow on protein space distribution around the cells. The numerical simulation results show that the parallel nature of capillaries could lead to directional interstitial fluid flow in the direction of capillaries. Interstitial fluid flow would induce shear stress on the membrane of interstitial cells, up to 30 Pa or so, which reaches or exceeds the threshold values of cells' biological response observed in vitro. Interstitial fluid flow would induce nonuniform spacial distribution of secretion protein of mast cells. Shear tress on cells could be affected by capillary parameters such as the distance between the adjacent capillaries, blood pressure and the permeability coefficient of capillary's wall. The interstitial pressure and the interstitial porosity could also affect the shear stress on cells. In conclusion, numerical simulation provides an effective way for in vivo dynamic interstitial velocity research, helps to set up the vivid subtle interstitial flow environment of cells, and is beneficial to understanding the physiological functions of interstitial fluid flow.
Overview of Fluid Dynamics Activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa W.; Wang, Ten-See
1999-01-01
Since its inception 40 years ago, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has had the need to maintain and advance state-of-the-art flow analysis and cold-flow testing capability to support its roles and missions. This overview discusses the recent organizational changes that have occurred at MSFC with emphasis on the resulting three groups that form the core of fluid dynamics expertise at MSFC: the Fluid Physics and Dynamics Group, the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group, and the Experimental Fluid Dynamics Group. Recently completed activities discussed include the analysis and flow testing in support of the Fastrac engine design, the X-33 vehicle design, and the X34 propulsion system design. Ongoing activities include support of the RLV vehicle design, Liquid Fly Back Booster aerodynamic configuration definition, and RLV focused technologies development. Other ongoing activities discussed are efforts sponsored by the Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) to develop an advanced incompressible flow code and to develop optimization techniques. Recently initiated programs and their anticipated required fluid dynamics support are discussed. Based on recent experiences and on the anticipated program needs, required analytical and experimental technique improvements are presented. Due to anticipated budgetary constraints, there is a strong need to leverage activities and to pursue teaming arrangements in order to advance the state-of-the-art and to adequately support concept development. Throughout this overview there is discussion of the lessons learned and of the capabilities demonstrated and established in support of the hardware development programs.
COMPARING SIMULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL HYSTERETIC TWO- PHASE TRANSIENT FLUID FLOW PHENOMENA
A hysteretic model for two-phase permeability (k)-saturation (S)-pressure (P) relations is outlined that accounts for effects of nonwetting fluid entrapment. The model can be employed in unsaturated fluid flow computer codes to predict temporal and spatial fluid distributions. Co...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abolhasani, Milad
Flowing trains of uniformly sized bubbles/droplets (i.e., segmented flows) and the associated mass transfer enhancement over their single-phase counterparts have been studied extensively during the past fifty years. Although the scaling behaviour of segmented flow formation is increasingly well understood, the predictive adjustment of the desired flow characteristics that influence the mixing and residence times, remains a challenge. Currently, a time consuming, slow and often inconsistent manual manipulation of experimental conditions is required to address this task. In my thesis, I have overcome the above-mentioned challenges and developed an experimental strategy that for the first time provided predictive control over segmented flows in a hands-off manner. A computer-controlled platform that consisted of a real-time image processing module within an integral controller, a silicon-based microreactor and automated fluid delivery technique was designed, implemented and validated. In a first part of my thesis I utilized this approach for the automated screening of physical mass transfer and solubility characteristics of carbon dioxide (CO2) in a physical solvent at a well-defined temperature and pressure and a throughput of 12 conditions per hour. Second, by applying the segmented flow approach to a recently discovered CO2 chemical absorbent, frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs), I determined the thermodynamic characteristics of the CO2-FLP reaction. Finally, the segmented flow approach was employed for characterization and investigation of CO2-governed liquid-liquid phase separation process. The second part of my thesis utilized the segmented flow platform for the preparation and shape control of high quality colloidal nanomaterials (e.g., CdSe/CdS) via the automated control of residence times up to approximately 5 minutes. By introducing a novel oscillatory segmented flow concept, I was able to further extend the residence time limitation to 24 hours. A case study of a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsamopoulos, John; Fraggedakis, Dimitris; Dimakopoulos, Yiannis
2015-11-01
We study the flow of two immiscible, Newtonian fluids in a periodically constricted tube driven by a constant pressure gradient. Our Volume-of-Fluid algorithm is used to solve the governing equations. First the code is validated by comparing its predictions to previously reported results for stratified and pulsing flow. Then it is used to capture accurately all the significant topological changes that take place. Initially, the fluids have a core-annular arrangement, which is found to either remain the same or change to a different arrangement depending on the fluid properties, the pressure driving the flow or the flow geometry. The flow-patterns that appear are the core-annular, segmented, churn, spray and segregated flow. The predicted scalings near pinching of the core fluid concur with similarity predictions and earlier numerical results (Cohen et al. (1999)). Flow-pattern maps are constructed in terms of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. Our results provide deeper insights in the mechanism of the pattern transitions and are in agreement with previous studies on core-annular flow (Kouris & Tsamopoulos (2001 & 2002)), segmented flow (Lac & Sherwood (2009)) and churn flow (Bai et al. (1992)). GSRT of Greece through the program ``Excellence'' (Grant No. 1918, entitled ``FilCoMicrA'').
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malvoisin, Benjamin; Podladchikov, Yury Yu.; Vrijmoed, Johannes C.
2015-12-01
Mineralogical reactions which generate or consume fluids play a key role during fluid flow in porous media. Such reactions are linked to changes in density, porosity, permeability, and fluid pressure which influence fluid flow and rock deformation. To understand such a coupled system, equations were derived from mass conservation and local thermodynamic equilibrium. The presented mass conservative modeling approach describes the relationships among evolving fluid pressure, porosity, fluid and solid density, and devolatilization reactions in multicomponent systems with solid solutions. This first step serves as a framework for future models including aqueous speciation and transport. The complexity of univariant and multivariant reactions is treated by calculating lookup tables from thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Simplified cases were also investigated to understand previously studied formulations. For nondeforming systems or systems divided into phases of constant density, the equations can be reduced to porosity wave equations with addition of a reactive term taking the volume change of reaction into account. For closed systems, an expression for the volume change of reaction and the associated pressure increase can be obtained. The key equations were solved numerically for the case of devolatilization of three different rock types that may enter a subduction zone. Reactions with positive Clapeyron slope lead to an increase in porosity and permeability with decreasing fluid pressure resulting in sharp fluid pressure gradients around a negative pressure anomaly. The opposite trend is obtained for reactions having a negative Clapeyron slope during which sharp fluid pressure gradients were only generated around a positive pressure anomaly. Coupling of reaction with elastic deformation induces a more efficient fluid flow for reactions with negative Clapeyron slope than for reactions with positive Clapeyron slope.
Device and method for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend
Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.
1998-11-10
A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.
Device and method for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend
Ortiz, Marcos German; Boucher, Timothy J
1998-01-01
A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.
Transition in the Flow of Power-Law Fluids through Isotropic Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zami-Pierre, F.; de Loubens, R.; Quintard, M.; Davit, Y.
2016-08-01
We use computational fluid dynamics to explore the creeping flow of power-law fluids through isotropic porous media. We find that the flow pattern is primarily controlled by the geometry of the porous structure rather than by the nonlinear effects in the rheology of the fluid. We further highlight a macroscale transition between a Newtonian and a non-Newtonian regime, which is the signature of a coupling between the viscosity of the fluid and the structure of the porous medium. These complex features of the flow can be condensed into an effective length scale, which defines both the non-Newtonian transition and the Newtonian permeability.
Transition in the Flow of Power-Law Fluids through Isotropic Porous Media.
Zami-Pierre, F; de Loubens, R; Quintard, M; Davit, Y
2016-08-12
We use computational fluid dynamics to explore the creeping flow of power-law fluids through isotropic porous media. We find that the flow pattern is primarily controlled by the geometry of the porous structure rather than by the nonlinear effects in the rheology of the fluid. We further highlight a macroscale transition between a Newtonian and a non-Newtonian regime, which is the signature of a coupling between the viscosity of the fluid and the structure of the porous medium. These complex features of the flow can be condensed into an effective length scale, which defines both the non-Newtonian transition and the Newtonian permeability. PMID:27563969
Shock wave irradiations avoiding fluid flow evoke intracellular Ca2+ signaling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Toru; Tsukamoto, Akira; Tada, Shigeru
Shock wave irradiation accelerates therapeutic effects including angiogenesis. One mechanism underlying those effects is cellular responses evoked by shock wave irradiation. Fluid flow is one of major physical phenomena induced by shock wave irradiation. Cellular responses evoked by fluid flow are similar to those evoked by shock wave irradiation. Thus, fluid flow could be responsible for cellular responses evoked by shock wave irradiation. However, it is obscure whether fluid flow is required for the cellular responses evoked by shock wave irradiation. In this study, intracellular Ca2 + signaling was observed in cells seeded in down-sized chambers. In the down-sized chambers, fluid flow was supposed to be suppressed because size of chambers (6 mm in diameter, 1 mm in thickness) was analogous to size of shock wave focus region (3mm in diameter). Dynamics of polystyrene microbeads suspended in the chambers were visualized with a CCD camera and analyzed with a particle image velocimetry (PIV) method to quantify fluid flow in the chamber. As a result, shock wave irradiation evoked intracellular Ca2 + signaling. However, fluid flow was not observed in the chamber due to shock wave irradiation. Thus, it was suggested that physical mechanics, not fluid flow, are further required for evoking intracellular Ca2 + signaling following to shock wave irradiation.
Investigations of redox magnetohydrodynamic fluid flow at microelectrode arrays using microbeads.
Anderson, Emily C; Weston, Melissa C; Fritsch, Ingrid
2010-04-01
Microbeads are used to track fluid flow over microband electrode arrays to investigate fundamentals of redox magnetohydrodynamics (redox-MHD) in a confined solution. The results may lead toward the design of micro total analysis systems with microfluidics based on the redox-MHD concept. Ion flux was generated by reduction and oxidation of electroactive potassium ferri- and ferrocyanide at selected individually addressable microelectrodes in the array. An external magnetic field was produced by a small, permanent magnet (0.38 T) placed directly below the array with its field perpendicular to the plane of the array. The cross product of ion flux and magnetic field produces a magnetic force (a portion of the Lorentz force equation) that causes the fluid to rotate around the active electrodes. Velocities up to 1.4 mm/s are demonstrated here. The effects on velocities were obtained for different concentrations of redox species, widths of electrodes, gaps between electrodes, and combinations of anodically- and cathodically polarized electrodes. The microbeads allowed mapping of flow patterns and velocities, both parallel and perpendicular to the array chip. The influence of counteracting shear forces, drag along the walls, and reinforcing flow are discussed. A significant result is the fairly flat flow profile across 650 microm, attained between electrodes that are oppositely biased. PMID:20210341
Entropy Generation During Fluid Flow Between Two Parallel Plates With Moving Bottom Plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erbay, Latife B.; Ercan, Mehmet S.; Sülüs, Birsen; Yalçÿn, M. M.
2003-12-01
Two dimensional numerical analysis of entropy generation during transient convective heat transfer for laminar flow between two parallel plates has been investigated. The fluid is incompressible and Newtonian and the flow is the hydrodynamically and thermally developing. The plates are held at constant equal temperatures higher than that of the fluid. The bottom plate moves in either parallel or in inverse direction to the flow. The governing equations of the transient convective heat transfer are written in two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates and solved by the finite volume method with SIMPLE algorithm. The solutions are carried for Reynolds numbers of 102, 5x102 and 103 and Prandtl number of 1. After the flow field and the temperature distributions are obtained, the entropy values and the sites initiating the entropy generation are investigated. The results have indicated that the number of the entropy generation has its highest value at the highest Reynolds and Br/Ω values, which is obtained at counter motion of the lower plate. The lowest average number of the entropy generation on the bottom plate is obtained in parallel motion. The corners of the channel plates at the entrance play the role of active sites where the generation of entropy is triggered.
Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert
2003-01-01
TD64, the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group, is one of several groups with high-fidelity fluids design and analysis expertise in the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). TD64 assists personnel working on other programs. The group participates in projects in the following areas: turbomachinery activities, nozzle activities, combustion devices, and the Columbia accident investigation.
Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda
Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J; DePaolo, Donald J.; Pietraß, Tanja
2015-05-22
From beneath the surface of the earth, we currently obtain about 80-percent of the energy our nation consumes each year. In the future we have the potential to generate billions of watts of electrical power from clean, green, geothermal energy sources. Our planet’s subsurface can also serve as a reservoir for storing energy produced from intermittent sources such as wind and solar, and it could provide safe, long-term storage of excess carbon dioxide, energy waste products and other hazardous materials. However, it is impossible to underestimate the complexities of the subsurface world. These complexities challenge our ability to acquire the scientific knowledge needed for the efficient and safe exploitation of its resources. To more effectively harness subsurface resources while mitigating the impacts of developing and using these resources, the U.S. Department of Energy established SubTER – the Subsurface Technology and Engineering RD&D Crosscut team. This DOE multi-office team engaged scientists and engineers from the national laboratories to assess and make recommendations for improving energy-related subsurface engineering. The SubTER team produced a plan with the overall objective of “adaptive control of subsurface fractures and fluid flow.”This plan revolved around four core technological pillars—Intelligent Wellbore Systems that sustain the integrity of the wellbore environment; Subsurface Stress and Induced Seismicity programs that guide and optimize sustainable energy strategies while reducing the risks associated with subsurface injections; Permeability Manipulation studies that improve methods of enhancing, impeding and eliminating fluid flow; and New Subsurface Signals that transform our ability to see into and characterize subsurface systems. The SubTER team developed an extensive R&D plan for advancing technologies within these four core pillars and also identified several areas where new technologies would require additional basic research
Numerical analysis of magnetic field effects on Eyring-Powell fluid flow towards a stretching sheet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sher Akbar, Noreen; Ebaid, Abdelhalim; Khan, Z. H.
2015-05-01
In the present article, we have examined the two dimensional MHD flow of Eyring-Powell fluid model towards a stretching sheet. The governing equations of Eyring-Powell fluid are modeled and then simplified by using boundary layer approach and similarity transformations and then solved numerically using implicit finite difference method. It was found that the increase in the intensity of the magnetic field as well as Eyring-Powell fluid parameter γ shows resistance to the flow.
Pore fluid pressure and shear behavior in debris flows of different compositions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaitna, Roland; Palucis, Marisa; Yohannes, Bereket; Hill, Kimberly; Dietrich, William
2016-04-01
Debris flows are mixtures of sediment and water that can have a wide range of different grain size distributions and water contents. The composition of the material is expected to have a strong effect on the development of pore fluid pressures in excess to hydrostatic, which in turn might affect the internal deformation behavior. We present a set of large scale experiments with debris flow mixtures of different compositions in a 4-m diameter rotating drum. Longitudinal profiles of basal fluid pressure and normal stress were measured and a probe to determine fluid pressure at different depths within the flow was developed and tested. Additionally we determined vertical profiles of mean particle velocities in the flow interior by measuring small variations of conductivity of the passing material and calculating the time lag between signals from two independent measurements at a small, known distance apart. Mean values of basal pore fluid pressure range from hydrostatic pressure for gravel-water flows to nearly complete liquefaction for muddy mixtures having a wide grain size distribution. The data indicate that the presence of fines dampens fluctuations of normalized fluid pressure and normal stress and concentrates shear at the base. The mobility of grain-fluid flows is strongly enhanced by a combination of fines in suspension as part of the interstitial fluid and a wide grain size distribution. Excess fluid pressure may arise from fluid displacement by converging grains at the front of the flow and the slow settling of grains through a highly viscous non-Newtonian fluid. Our findings support the need for pore pressure evolution and diffusion equations in debris flow models as they depend on particle size distributions. This study contributes to the understanding of the production of excess fluid pressure in grain fluid mixtures and may guide the development of constitutive models that describe natural events.
Unsteady Boundary-Layer Flow over Jerked Plate Moving in a Free Stream of Viscoelastic Fluid
Mehmood, Ahmer; Ali, Asif; Saleem, Najma
2014-01-01
This study aims to investigate the unsteady boundary-layer flow of a viscoelastic non-Newtonian fluid over a flat surface. The plate is suddenly jerked to move with uniform velocity in a uniform stream of non-Newtonian fluid. Purely analytic solution to governing nonlinear equation is obtained. The solution is highly accurate and valid for all values of the dimensionless time 0 ≤ τ < ∞. Flow properties of the viscoelastic fluid are discussed through graphs. PMID:24892060
Predicting multidimensional annular flow with a locally based two-fluid model
Antal, S.P.; Edwards, D.P.; Strayer, T.D.
1998-06-01
The purpose of this work was to: develop a methodology to predict annular flows using a multidimensional four-field, two-fluid Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computer code; develop closure models which use the CFD predicted local velocities, phasic volume fractions, etc...; implement a numerical method which allows the discretized equations to have the same characteristics as the differential form; and compare predicted results to local flow field data taken in a R-134a working fluid test section.
Fluid-structure interactions in compressible cavity flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya M.; Beresh, Steven J.; Hunter, Patrick S.; Spillers, Russell W.; Henfling, John F.; Mayes, Randall L.
2015-06-01
Experiments were performed to understand the complex fluid-structure interactions that occur during aircraft internal store carriage. A cylindrical store was installed in a rectangular cavity having a length-to-depth ratio of 3.33 and a length-to-width ratio of 1. The Mach number ranged from 0.6 to 2.5 and the incoming boundary layer was turbulent. Fast-response pressure measurements provided aeroacoustic loading in the cavity, while triaxial accelerometers provided simultaneous store response. Despite occupying only 6% of the cavity volume, the store significantly altered the cavity acoustics. The store responded to the cavity flow at its natural structural frequencies, and it exhibited a directionally dependent response to cavity resonance. Specifically, cavity tones excited the store in the streamwise and wall-normal directions consistently, whereas a spanwise response was observed only occasionally. The streamwise and wall-normal responses were attributed to the longitudinal pressure waves and shear layer vortices known to occur during cavity resonance. Although the spanwise response to cavity tones was limited, broadband pressure fluctuations resulted in significant spanwise accelerations at store natural frequencies. The largest vibrations occurred when a cavity tone matched a structural natural frequency, although energy was transferred more efficiently to natural frequencies having predominantly streamwise and wall-normal motions.
Anisotropic material synthesis by capillary flow in a fluid stripe
Hancock, Matthew J.; Piraino, Francesco; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Rasponi, Marco; Khademhosseini, Ali
2011-01-01
We present a simple bench-top technique to produce centimeter long concentration gradients in biomaterials incorporating soluble, material, and particle gradients. By patterning hydrophilic regions on a substrate, a stripe of prepolymer solution is held in place on a glass slide by a hydrophobic boundary. Adding a droplet to one end of this “pre-wet” stripe causes a rapid capillary flow that spreads the droplet along the stripe to generate a gradient in the relative concentrations of the droplet and pre-wet solutions. The gradient length and shape are controlled by the pre-wet and droplet volumes, stripe thickness, fluid viscosity and surface tension. Gradient biomaterials are produced by crosslinking gradients of prepolymer solutions. Demonstrated examples include a concentration gradient of cells encapsulated in three dimensions (3D) within a homogeneous biopolymer and a constant concentration of cells encapsulated in 3D within a biomaterial gradient exhibiting a gradient in cell spreading. The technique employs coated glass slides that may be purchased or custom made from tape and hydrophobic spray. The approach is accessible to virtually any researcher or student and should dramatically reduce the time required to synthesize a wide range of gradient biomaterials. Moreover, since the technique employs passive mechanisms it is ideal for remote or resource poor settings. PMID:21684595
Miniatuization of the flowing fluid electric conductivity loggingtec hnique
Su, Grace W.; Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Cook, Paul J.; Shipp, William
2005-10-19
An understanding of both the hydraulic properties of the aquifer and the depth distribution of salts is critical for evaluating the potential of groundwater for conjunctive water use and for maintaining suitable groundwater quality in agricultural regions where groundwater is used extensively for irrigation and drinking water. The electrical conductivity profiles recorded in a well using the flowing fluid electric conductivity logging (FEC logging) method can be analyzed to estimate interval specific hydraulic conductivity and estimates of the salinity concentration with depth. However, irrigation wells that are common in agricultural regions have limited access into them because these wells are still in operation, and the traditional equipment used for FEC logging cannot fit through the small access pipe intersecting the well. A modified, miniaturized FEC logging technique was developed such that this logging method could be used in wells with limited access. In addition, a new method for injecting water over the entire screened interval of the well was developed to reduce the time required to perform FEC logging. Results of FEC logging using the new methodology and miniaturized system in two irrigation wells are also summarized.
Flow of Fluid and Particle Assemblages in Rotating Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kizito, John; Hiltner, David; Niederhaus, Charles; Kleis, Stanley; Hudson, Ed; Gonda, Steve
2004-01-01
NASA-designed bioreactors have been highly successful in growing three-dimensional tissue structures in a low shear environment both on earth and in space. The goal of the present study is to characterize the fluid flow environment within the HFB-S bioreactor and determine the spatial distribution of particles that mimic cellular tissue structures. The results will be used to obtain optimal operating conditions of rotation rates and media perfusehnfuse rates which are required for cell culture growth protocols. Two types of experiments have been performed so far. First, we have performed laser florescent dye visualization of the perfusion loop to determine the mixing times within the chamber. The second type of experiments involved particles which represent cellular tissue to determine the spatial distribution with the chamber. From these experiments we established that mixing times were largely dependant on the speed ratio and sign of the difference between the spinner and the dome. The shortest mixing times occurred when the spinner rotates faster than the dome and longest mixing times occurs with no relative motion between the dome and spinner. Also, we have determined the spatial and temporal distribution of particle assemblages within the chamber.
Fluid-structure interactions in compressible cavity flows
Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.; Hunter, Patrick S.; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Henfling, John F.; Mayes, Randall L.
2015-06-08
Experiments were performed to understand the complex fluid-structure interactions that occur during aircraft internal store carriage. A cylindrical store was installed in a rectangular cavity having a length-to-depth ratio of 3.33 and a length-to-width ratio of 1. The Mach number ranged from 0.6 to 2.5 and the incoming boundary layer was turbulent. Fast-response pressure measurements provided aeroacoustic loading in the cavity, while triaxial accelerometers provided simultaneous store response. Despite occupying only 6% of the cavity volume, the store significantly altered the cavity acoustics. The store responded to the cavity flow at its natural structural frequencies, and it exhibited a directionally dependent response to cavity resonance. Specifically, cavity tones excited the store in the streamwise and wall-normal directions consistently, whereas a spanwise response was observed only occasionally. Also, the streamwise and wall-normal responses were attributed to the longitudinal pressure waves and shear layer vortices known to occur during cavity resonance. Although the spanwise response to cavity tones was limited, broadband pressure fluctuations resulted in significant spanwise accelerations at store natural frequencies. As a result, the largest vibrations occurred when a cavity tone matched a structural natural frequency, although energy was transferred more efficiently to natural frequencies having predominantly streamwise and wall-normal motions.
Fluid-structure interactions in compressible cavity flows
Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.; Hunter, Patrick S.; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Henfling, John F.; Mayes, Randall L.
2015-06-08
Experiments were performed to understand the complex fluid-structure interactions that occur during aircraft internal store carriage. A cylindrical store was installed in a rectangular cavity having a length-to-depth ratio of 3.33 and a length-to-width ratio of 1. The Mach number ranged from 0.6 to 2.5 and the incoming boundary layer was turbulent. Fast-response pressure measurements provided aeroacoustic loading in the cavity, while triaxial accelerometers provided simultaneous store response. Despite occupying only 6% of the cavity volume, the store significantly altered the cavity acoustics. The store responded to the cavity flow at its natural structural frequencies, and it exhibited a directionallymore » dependent response to cavity resonance. Specifically, cavity tones excited the store in the streamwise and wall-normal directions consistently, whereas a spanwise response was observed only occasionally. Also, the streamwise and wall-normal responses were attributed to the longitudinal pressure waves and shear layer vortices known to occur during cavity resonance. Although the spanwise response to cavity tones was limited, broadband pressure fluctuations resulted in significant spanwise accelerations at store natural frequencies. As a result, the largest vibrations occurred when a cavity tone matched a structural natural frequency, although energy was transferred more efficiently to natural frequencies having predominantly streamwise and wall-normal motions.« less
Creep cavitation bands control porosity and fluid flow in lower crustal shear zones
Menegon, Luca; Fusseis, Florian; Stunitz, Holger; Xiao, Xianghui
2015-03-01
Shear zones channelize fluid flow in Earth’s crust. However, little is known about deep crustal fluid migration and how fluids are channelized and distributed in a deforming lower crustal shear zone. This study investigates the deformation mechanisms, fluid-rock interaction, and development of porosity in a monzonite ultramylonite from Lofoten, northern Norway. The rock was deformed and transformed into an ultramylonite under lower crustal conditions (temperature = 700–730 °C, pressure = 0.65–0.8 GPa). The ultramylonite consists of feldspathic layers and domains of amphibole + quartz + calcite, which result from hydration reactions of magmatic clinopyroxene. The average grain size in both domains is <25 mm. Microstructural observations and electron backscatter diffraction analysis are consistent with diffusion creep as the dominant deformation mechanism in both domains. Festoons of isolated quartz grains define C'-type bands in feldspathic layers. These quartz grains do not show a crystallographic preferred orientation. The alignment of quartz grains is parallel to the preferred elongation of pores in the ultramylonites, as evidenced from synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Such C'-type bands are interpreted as creep cavitation bands resulting from diffusion creep deformation associated with grain boundary sliding. Mass-balance calculation indicates a 2% volume increase during the protolith-ultramylonite transformation, which is consistent with synkinematic formation of creep cavities producing dilatancy. Thus, this study presents evidence that creep cavitation bands may control deep crustal porosity and fluid flow. Nucleation of new phases in creep cavitation bands inhibits grain growth and enhances the activity of grain size–sensitive creep, thereby stabilizing strain localization in the polymineralic ultramylonites.
Temperature change, dentinal fluid flow and cuspal displacement during resin composite restoration.
Ratih, D N; Palamara, J E A; Messer, H H
2007-09-01
Dentin-bonding agents and resin composite materials typically require light activation for polymerization. Light curing generates heat, which may influence dentinal fluid flow (DFF) and cuspal displacement. This study investigated the relationship among temperature increase, DFF and cuspal displacement in extracted human maxillary premolars with a mesial occlusal distal (MOD) cavity preparation. Two types of curing light were compared. Temperature changes were measured using thermocouples located on the occlusal cavity floor and at the pulp-dentine junction, during polymerization of bonding agent and resin composite material. DFF and cuspal displacement were measured simultaneously using automated flow measurement apparatus and direct current differential transformers respectively. Temperature increases of up to 15 degrees C were recorded during the restoration procedures. A quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) unit produced a significantly greater temperature increase than a light-emitting diode unit and curing of the bonding agent generated less temperature increase than curing of the resin composite. Heating due to exothermic reaction during polymerization of bonding agent and resin was not significantly different between light sources or between bonding and curing (P > 0.05). The QTH unit produced both greater inward fluid flow and cuspal displacement during the irradiation of bonding agent and resin composite than the light-emitting diode unit. There was not a simple relationship between temperature increase, fluid movement and cuspal displacement. From a clinical point of view, the light-emitting diode unit can be considered preferable to the QTH light, because it caused significantly smaller temperature increase, fluid shift and cuspal displacement. PMID:17716269
Pediatric leptomeningeal metastasis: 111In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow studies.
Chamberlain, M C
1994-04-01
Nine children (five girls and four boys) ranging in age from 1 to 18 years (median age, 12 years) with leptomeningeal metastasis were evaluated for cerebrospinal fluid compartmentalization with cerebrospinal fluid flow studies using ventricular diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with indium 111 (111In-DTPA). Histologic diagnosis included medulloblastoma (two), primitive neuroectodermal tumor (two), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (two), pineoblastoma (one), ependymoma (one), and anaplastic astrocytoma (one). Sixteen 111In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow studies were performed, of which nine demonstrated normal anterograde cerebrospinal fluid flow of radionuclide, with the following cerebrospinal fluid compartment median times to appearance, with ranges in parentheses: ventricles, 1 minute (0 to 3 minutes); cisterna magna/basal cisterns, 5 minutes (3 to 5 minutes); cervical subarachnoid space, 8 minutes (5 to 10 minutes); thoracic subarachnoid space, 15 minutes (10 to 30 minutes); lumbar subarachnoid space, 35 minutes (20 to 45 minutes); and sylvian cistern, 80 minutes (60 to 90 minutes). Blockage of normal anterograde cerebrospinal fluid flow was seen in seven 111In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow studies in the following cerebrospinal fluid compartments: cervical subarachnoid space (four), lumbar subarachnoid space (two), and cisterna magna/basal cisterns (one). Five 111In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow studies were performed after demonstration of cerebrospinal fluid compartmentalization and treatment with limited-field radiation therapy to involved regions; cerebrospinal fluid flow blocks resolved in three. In conclusion, cerebrospinal fluid compartmentalization, as shown by radionuclide ventriculography, is a common occurrence in pediatric leptomeningeal metastasis (four of nine patients, or 44%) and may be palliated by involved-field radiotherapy. PMID:8006365
Fluid flows and forces in development: functions, features and biophysical principles
Freund, Jonathan B.; Goetz, Jacky G.; Hill, Kent L.; Vermot, Julien
2012-01-01
Throughout morphogenesis, cells experience intracellular tensile and contractile forces on microscopic scales. Cells also experience extracellular forces, such as static forces mediated by the extracellular matrix and forces resulting from microscopic fluid flow. Although the biological ramifications of static forces have received much attention, little is known about the roles of fluid flows and forces during embryogenesis. Here, we focus on the microfluidic forces generated by cilia-driven fluid flow and heart-driven hemodynamics, as well as on the signaling pathways involved in flow sensing. We discuss recent studies that describe the functions and the biomechanical features of these fluid flows. These insights suggest that biological flow determines many aspects of cell behavior and identity through a specific set of physical stimuli and signaling pathways. PMID:22395739
Complement, complement activation and anaphylatoxins in human ovarian follicular fluid.
Perricone, R; de Carolis, C; Moretti, C; Santuari, E; de Sanctis, G; Fontana, L
1990-01-01
Functionally active complement was sought and detected in human follicular fluids obtained during the pre-ovulatory period. All the functional complement activities tested, including total haemolytic complement, classical pathway activity and alternative pathway activity were present in nine fluids from four different donors with values within the normal serum range. The immunochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of complement factors from C1 to C9, of B and of C1 INH, H, I. Complement anaphylatoxins were found employing RIA techniques in amounts significantly higher than in human plasma, thus demonstrating that follicular fluid complement, at least during the pre-ovulatory period, is partially activated. A possible role for urokinase-like substances in such an activation was indicated by further in vitro experiments. The presence of active complement in follicular fluid can be relevant for the function of the enzymatic multi-factorial mechanism of ovulation. PMID:2242616
A Geophysical Flow Experiment in a Compressible Critical Fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hegseth, John; Garcia, Laudelino
1996-01-01
The first objective of this experiment is to build an experimental system in which, in analogy to a geophysical system, a compressible fluid in a spherical annulus becomes radially stratified in density through an A.C. electric field. When this density gradient is demonstrated, the system will be augmented so that the fluid can be driven by heating and rotation and tested in preparation for a microgravity experiment. This apparatus consists of a spherical capacitor filled with critical fluid in a temperature controlled environment. To make the fluid critical, the apparatus will be operated near the critical pressure, critical density, and critical temperature of the fluid. This will result in a highly compressible fluid because of the properties of the fluid near its critical point. A high voltage A.C. source applied across the capacitor will create a spherically symmetric central force because of the dielectric properties of the fluid in an electric field gradient. This central force will induce a spherically symmetric density gradient that is analogous to a geophysical fluid system. To generate such a density gradient the system must be small (approx. 1 inch diameter). This small cell will also be capable of driving the critical fluid by heating and rotation. Since a spherically symmetric density gradient can only be made in microgravity, another small cell, of the same geometry, will be built that uses incompressible fluid. The driving of the fluid by rotation and heating in these small cells will be developed. The resulting instabilities from the driving in these two systems will then be studied. The second objective is to study the pattern forming instabilities (bifurcations) resulting from the well controlled experimental conditions in the critical fluid cell. This experiment will come close to producing conditions that are geophysically similar and will be studied as the driving parameters are changed.
Computer simulations of fluid flow over catalytic surfaces for water splitting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chong, Leebyn; Dutt, Meenakshi
2014-12-01
Interfacial phenomena arising at solid/fluid interfaces depend upon the nanoscale structural and dynamical properties of the system. The presence of active sites on the solid surface that can bind with reactants in the fluid enables the investigation of reaction kinetics and its effect on multi-scale transport processes. We develop a coarse-grained particle-based model of the flow of reactants over a solid surface composed of close packed particles with embedded active sites. We investigate the role of the adsorption of the reactants onto these sites on the transport phenomena via the coarse-grained molecular dynamics technique. Our objective is to understand the role of nanoscale interfacial phenomena on the structural and dynamical properties of the system through the measurement of diffusion coefficients, velocity profiles, radial distribution functions, and mean residence times. We have investigated these properties as a function of the active site density, coarse graining effects and interaction strengths. Our results can potentially be used for future studies on multi-scale phenomena driven by reaction kinetics at solid/fluid interfaces, such as artificial photosynthesis cells.