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Sample records for active flutter control

  1. Active flutter suppression - Control system design and experimental validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Srinathkumar, S.

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis and experimental validation of an active flutter suppression controller for the Active Flexible Wing wind-tunnel model is presented. The design is accomplished with traditional root locus and Nyquist methods using interactive computer graphics tools and with extensive use of simulation-based analysis. The design approach uses a fundamental understanding of the flutter mechanism to formulate a simple controller structure to meet stringent design specifications. Experimentally, the flutter suppression controller succeeded in simultaneous suppression of two flutter modes, significantly increasing the flutter dynamic pressure despite errors in flutter dynamic pressure and flutter frequency in the mathematical model. The flutter suppression controller was also successfully operated in combination with a roll maneuver controller to perform flutter suppression during rapid rolling maneuvers.

  2. Active flutter control for flexible vehicles, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahesh, J. K.; Garrard, W. L.; Stones, C. R.; Hausman, P. D.

    1979-01-01

    An active flutter control methodology based on linear quadratic gaussian theory and its application to the control of a super critical wing is presented. Results of control surface and sensor position optimization are discussed. Both frequency response matching and residualization used to obtain practical flutter controllers are examined. The development of algorithms and computer programs for flutter modeling and active control design procedures is reported.

  3. Robust control design techniques for active flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozbay, Hitay; Bachmann, Glen R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, an active flutter suppression problem is studied for a thin airfoil in unsteady aerodynamics. The mathematical model of this system is infinite dimensional because of Theodorsen's function which is irrational. Several second order approximations of Theodorsen's function are compared. A finite dimensional model is obtained from such an approximation. We use H infinity control techniques to find a robustly stabilizing controller for active flutter suppression.

  4. Active controls for flutter suppression and gust alleviation in supersonic aircraft. [YF-17 flutter model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.

    1980-01-01

    Results of work done on active controls on the modified YF-17 flutter model are summarized. The basic derivation of a suitable control law is discussed. It is shown that discrepencies found between analysis and wind tunnel tests originate from the lack of proper implementation of the desired control law. Program capabilities are described.

  5. Design and experimental validation of a flutter suppression controller for the active flexible wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Srinathkumar, S.

    1992-01-01

    The synthesis and experimental validation of an active flutter suppression controller for the Active Flexible Wing wind tunnel model is presented. The design is accomplished with traditional root locus and Nyquist methods using interactive computer graphics tools and extensive simulation based analysis. The design approach uses a fundamental understanding of the flutter mechanism to formulate a simple controller structure to meet stringent design specifications. Experimentally, the flutter suppression controller succeeded in simultaneous suppression of two flutter modes, significantly increasing the flutter dynamic pressure despite modeling errors in predicted flutter dynamic pressure and flutter frequency. The flutter suppression controller was also successfully operated in combination with another controller to perform flutter suppression during rapid rolling maneuvers.

  6. Flutter suppression and gust alleviation using active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of active controls on the suppression of flutter and gust alleviation of two different types of subsonic aircraft (the Arava, twin turboprop STOL transport, and the Westwind twin-jet business transport) are investigated. The active controls are introduced in pairs which include, in any chosen wing strip, a leading-edge (LE) control and a trailing-edge (TE) control. Each control surface is allowed to be driven by a combined linear-rotational sensor system, located on the activated strip. The control law, which translates the sensor signals into control surface rotations, is based on the concept of aerodynamic energy. The results indicate the extreme effectiveness of the active systems in controlling flutter. A single system spanning 10% of the wing semispan made the Arava flutter-free, and a similar active system, for the Westwind aircraft, yielded a reduction of 75% in the maximum bending moment of the wing and a reduction of 90% in the acceleration of the cg of the aircraft. Results for simultaneous activation of several LE - TE systems are presented. Further work needed to bring the investigation to completion is also discussed.

  7. Active flutter suppression using optical output feedback digital controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A method for synthesizing digital active flutter suppression controllers using the concept of optimal output feedback is presented. A convergent algorithm is employed to determine constrained control law parameters that minimize an infinite time discrete quadratic performance index. Low order compensator dynamics are included in the control law and the compensator parameters are computed along with the output feedback gain as part of the optimization process. An input noise adjustment procedure is used to improve the stability margins of the digital active flutter controller. Sample rate variation, prefilter pole variation, control structure variation and gain scheduling are discussed. A digital control law which accommodates computation delay can stabilize the wing with reasonable rms performance and adequate stability margins.

  8. Flutter suppression for the Active Flexible Wing - Control system design and experimental validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, M. R.; Srinathkumar, S.

    1992-01-01

    The synthesis and experimental validation of a control law for an active flutter suppression system for the Active Flexible Wing wind-tunnel model is presented. The design was accomplished with traditional root locus and Nyquist methods using interactive computer graphics tools and with extensive use of simulation-based analysis. The design approach relied on a fundamental understanding of the flutter mechanism to formulate understanding of the flutter mechanism to formulate a simple control law structure. Experimentally, the flutter suppression controller succeeded in simultaneous suppression of two flutter modes, significantly increasing the flutter dynamic pressure despite errors in the design model. The flutter suppression controller was also successfully operated in combination with a rolling maneuver controller to perform flutter suppression during rapid rolling maneuvers.

  9. Flutter prediction for a wing with active aileron control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penning, K.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    A method for predicting the vibrational stability of an aircraft with an analog active aileron flutter suppression system (FSS) is expained. Active aileron refers to the use of an active control system connected to the aileron to damp vibrations. Wing vibrations are sensed by accelerometers and the information is used to deflect the aileron. Aerodynamic force caused by the aileron deflection oppose wing vibrations and effectively add additional damping to the system.

  10. Design and test of three active flutter suppression controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christhilf, David M.; Waszak, Martin R.; Adams, William M.; Srinathkumar, S.; Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    1991-01-01

    Three flutter suppression control law design techniques are presented. Each uses multiple control surfaces and/or sensors. The first uses linear combinations of several accelerometer signals together with dynamic compensation to synthesize the modal rate of the critical mode for feedback to distributed control surfaces. The second uses traditional tools (pole/zero loci and Nyquist diagrams) to develop a good understanding of the flutter mechanism and produce a controller with minimal complexity and good robustness to plant uncertainty. The third starts with a minimum energy Linear Quadratic Gaussian controller, applies controller order reduction, and then modifies weight and noise covariance matrices to improve multi-variable robustness. The resulting designs were implemented digitally and tested subsonically on the Active Flexible Wing (AFW) wind tunnel model. Test results presented here include plant characteristics, maximum attained closed-loop dynamic pressure, and Root Mean Square control surface activity. A key result is that simultaneous symmetric and antisymmetric flutter suppression was achieved by the second control law, with a 24 percent increase in attainable dynamic pressure.

  11. Design, test, and evaluation of three active flutter suppression controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, William M., Jr.; Christhilf, David M.; Waszak, Martin R.; Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Srinathkumar, S.

    1992-01-01

    Three control law design techniques for flutter suppression are presented. Each technique uses multiple control surfaces and/or sensors. The first method uses traditional tools (such as pole/zero loci and Nyquist diagrams) for producing a controller that has minimal complexity and which is sufficiently robust to handle plant uncertainty. The second procedure uses linear combinations of several accelerometer signals and dynamic compensation to synthesize the model rate of the critical mode for feedback to the distributed control surfaces. The third technique starts with a minimum-energy linear quadratic Gaussian controller, iteratively modifies intensity matrices corresponding to input and output noise, and applies controller order reduction to achieve a low-order, robust controller. The resulting designs were implemented digitally and tested subsonically on the active flexible wing wind-tunnel model in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. Only the traditional pole/zero loci design was sufficiently robust to errors in the nominal plant to successfully suppress flutter during the test. The traditional pole/zero loci design provided simultaneous suppression of symmetric and antisymmetric flutter with a 24-percent increase in attainable dynamic pressure. Posttest analyses are shown which illustrate the problems encountered with the other laws.

  12. Flutter suppression by active control and its benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Townsend, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A general discussion of the airplane applications of active flutter suppression systems is presented with focus on supersonic cruise aircraft configurations. Topics addressed include a brief historical review; benefits, risks, and concerns; methods of application; and applicable configurations. Results are presented where the direct operating costs and performance benefits of an arrow wing supersonic cruise vehicle equipped with an active flutter suppression system are compared with corresponding costs and performance of the same baseline airplane where the flutter deficiency was corrected by passive methods (increases in structural stiffness). The design, synthesis, and conceptual mechanization of the active flutter suppression system are discussed. The results show that a substantial weight savings can be accomplished by using the active system. For the same payload and range, airplane direct operating costs are reduced by using the active system. The results also indicate that the weight savings translates into increased range or payload.

  13. Robust Multivariable Flutter Suppression for the Benchmark Active Control Technology (BACT) Wind-Tunnel Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.

    1997-01-01

    The Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) project is part of NASA Langley Research Center s Benchmark Models Program for studying transonic aeroelastic phenomena. In January of 1996 the BACT wind-tunnel model was used to successfully demonstrate the application of robust multivariable control design methods (H and -synthesis) to flutter suppression. This paper addresses the design and experimental evaluation of robust multivariable flutter suppression control laws with particular attention paid to the degree to which stability and performance robustness was achieved.

  14. Passive control of wing/store flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. H., III; Cazier, F. W., Jr.; Foughner, J. T., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for a passive flutter suppression approach known as the decoupler pylon. The decoupler pylon dynamically isolates the wing from store pitch inertia effects by means of soft spring/damper elements assisted by a low frequency feedback control system which minimizes static pitch deflections of the store because of maneuvers and changing flight conditions. Wind tunnel tests and analyses show that this relatively simple pylon suspension system provides substantial increases in flutter speed and reduces the sensitivity of flutter to changes in store inertia and center of gravity. Flutter characteristics of F-16 and YF-17 flutter models equipped with decoupler pylon mounted stores are presented and compared with results obtained on the same model configuration with active flutter suppression systems. These studies show both passive and active concepts to be effective in suppressing wing/store flutter. Also presented are data showing the influence of pylon stiffness nonlinearities on wing/store flutter.

  15. Test Cases for the Benchmark Active Controls: Spoiler and Control Surface Oscillations and Flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Robert M.; Scott, Robert C.; Wieseman, Carol D.

    2000-01-01

    As a portion of the Benchmark Models Program at NASA Langley, a simple generic model was developed for active controls research and was called BACT for Benchmark Active Controls Technology model. This model was based on the previously-tested Benchmark Models rectangular wing with the NACA 0012 airfoil section that was mounted on the Pitch and Plunge Apparatus (PAPA) for flutter testing. The BACT model had an upper surface spoiler, a lower surface spoiler, and a trailing edge control surface for use in flutter suppression and dynamic response excitation. Previous experience with flutter suppression indicated a need for measured control surface aerodynamics for accurate control law design. Three different types of flutter instability boundaries had also been determined for the NACA 0012/PAPA model, a classical flutter boundary, a transonic stall flutter boundary at angle of attack, and a plunge instability near M = 0.9. Therefore an extensive set of steady and control surface oscillation data was generated spanning the range of the three types of instabilities. This information was subsequently used to design control laws to suppress each flutter instability. There have been three tests of the BACT model. The objective of the first test, TDT Test 485, was to generate a data set of steady and unsteady control surface effectiveness data, and to determine the open loop dynamic characteristics of the control systems including the actuators. Unsteady pressures, loads, and transfer functions were measured. The other two tests, TDT Test 502 and TDT Test 5 18, were primarily oriented towards active controls research, but some data supplementary to the first test were obtained. Dynamic response of the flexible system to control surface excitation and open loop flutter characteristics were determined during Test 502. Loads were not measured during the last two tests. During these tests, a database of over 3000 data sets was obtained. A reasonably extensive subset of the data

  16. Synthesis of active controls for flutter suppression on a flight research wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, I.; Perry, B., III; Murrow, H. N.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes some activities associated with the preliminary design of an active control system for flutter suppression capable of demonstrating a 20% increase in flutter velocity. Results from two control system synthesis techniques are given. One technique uses classical control theory, and the other uses an 'aerodynamic energy method' where control surface rates or displacements are minimized. Analytical methods used to synthesize the control systems and evaluate their performance are described. Some aspects of a program for flight testing the active control system are also given. This program, called DAST (Drones for Aerodynamics and Structural Testing), employs modified drone-type vehicles for flight assessments and validation testing.

  17. Flutter suppression and gust alleviation using active controls - Review of developments and applications based on the aerodynamic energy concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.

    1978-01-01

    The state of the art of the aerodynamic energy concept, involving the use of active controls for flutter suppression, is reviewed. Applications of the concept include the suppression of external-store flutter of three different configurations of the YF-17 flutter model using a single trailing edge control surface activated by a single fixed-gain control law. Consideration is also given to some initial results concerning the flutter suppression of the 1/20 scale low speed wind-tunnel model of the Boeing 2707-300 supersonic transport using an activated trailing edge control surface.

  18. Flutter suppression control law synthesis for the active flexible wing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Perry, Boyd, III; Noll, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    The Active Flexible Wing Project is a collaborative effort between the NASA Langley Research Center and Rockwell International. The objectives are the validation of methodologies associated with mathematical modeling, flutter suppression control law development and digital implementation of the control system for application to flexible aircraft. A flutter suppression control law synthesis for this project is described. The state-space mathematical model used for the synthesis included ten flexible modes, four control surface modes and rational function approximation of the doublet-lattice unsteady aerodynamics. The design steps involved developing the full-order optimal control laws, reducing the order of the control law, and optimizing the reduced-order control law in both the continuous and the discrete domains to minimize stochastic response. System robustness was improved using singular value constraints. An 8th order robust control law was designed to increase the symmetric flutter dynamic pressure by 100 percent. Preliminary results are provided and experiences gained are discussed.

  19. Flutter suppression control law synthesis for the Active Flexible Wing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Perry, Boyd, III; Noll, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    The Active Flexible Wing Project is a collaborative effort between the NASA Langley Research Center and Rockwell International. The objectives are the validation of methodologies associated with mathematical modeling, flutter suppression control law development and digital implementation of the control system for application to flexible aircraft. A flutter suppression control law synthesis for this project is described. The state-space mathematical model used for the synthesis included ten flexible modes, four control surface modes and rational function approximation of the doublet-lattice unsteady aerodynamics. The design steps involved developing the full-order optimal control laws, reducing the order of the control law, and optimizing the reduced-order control law in both the continuous and the discrete domains to minimize stochastic response. System robustness was improved using singular value constraints. An 8th order robust control law was designed to increase the symmetric flutter dynamic pressure by 100 percent. Preliminary results are provided and experiences gained are discussed.

  20. Wing Flutter Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Langley Research Center, Orbital Research Inc. developed the Orbital Research Intelligent Control Algorithm (ORICA), the first practical hardware-independent adaptive predictive control structure, specifically suited for optimal control of complex, time-varying systems. ORICA technology has been applied to the problem of controlling aircraft wing flutter. Coupled with NASA expertise, the technology has the possibility of making jet travel safer, more cost effective by extending distance range, and lowering overall aircraft operating costs. Future application areas for ORICA include control of robots, power trains, systems with arrays of sensors, or regulating chemical plants or electrical power plant control.

  1. Multirate flutter suppression system design for the Benchmark Active Controls Technology Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Martin C.; Mason, Gregory S.

    1994-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of various control system design methodologies, the NASA Langley Research Center initiated the Benchmark Active Controls Project. In this project, the various methodologies will be applied to design a flutter suppression system for the Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) Wing (also called the PAPA wing). Eventually, the designs will be implemented in hardware and tested on the BACT wing in a wind tunnel. This report describes a project at the University of Washington to design a multirate flutter suppression system for the BACT wing. The objective of the project was two fold. First, to develop a methodology for designing robust multirate compensators, and second, to demonstrate the methodology by applying it to the design of a multirate flutter suppression system for the BACT wing. The contributions of this project are (1) development of an algorithm for synthesizing robust low order multirate control laws (the algorithm is capable of synthesizing a single compensator which stabilizes both the nominal plant and multiple plant perturbations; (2) development of a multirate design methodology, and supporting software, for modeling, analyzing and synthesizing multirate compensators; and (3) design of a multirate flutter suppression system for NASA's BACT wing which satisfies the specified design criteria. This report describes each of these contributions in detail. Section 2.0 discusses our design methodology. Section 3.0 details the results of our multirate flutter suppression system design for the BACT wing. Finally, Section 4.0 presents our conclusions and suggestions for future research. The body of the report focuses primarily on the results. The associated theoretical background appears in the three technical papers that are included as Attachments 1-3. Attachment 4 is a user's manual for the software that is key to our design methodology.

  2. Final design and fabrication of an active control system for flutter suppression on a supercritical aeroelastic research wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, G. E.; Mcgehee, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    The final design and hardware fabrication was completed for an active control system capable of the required flutter suppression, compatible with and ready for installation in the NASA aeroelastic research wing number 1 (ARW-1) on Firebee II drone flight test vehicle. The flutter suppression system uses vertical acceleration at win buttock line 1.930 (76), with fuselage vertical and roll accelerations subtracted out, to drive wing outboard aileron control surfaces through appropriate symmetric and antisymmetric shaping filters. The goal of providing an increase of 20 percent above the unaugmented vehicle flutter velocity but below the maximum operating condition at Mach 0.98 is exceeded by the final flutter suppression system. Results indicate that the flutter suppression system mechanical and electronic components are ready for installation on the DAST ARW-1 wing and BQM-34E/F drone fuselage.

  3. Multirate Flutter Suppression System Design for the Benchmark Active Controls Technology Wing. Part 2; Methodology Application Software Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Gregory S.; Berg, Martin C.; Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2002-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of various control system design methodologies, the NASA Langley Research Center initiated the Benchmark Active Controls Project. In this project, the various methodologies were applied to design a flutter suppression system for the Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) Wing. This report describes the user's manual and software toolbox developed at the University of Washington to design a multirate flutter suppression control law for the BACT wing.

  4. Active flutter suppression using dipole filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinathkumar, S.; Waszak, Martin R.

    1992-01-01

    By using traditional control concepts of gain root locus, the active suppression of a flutter mode of a flexible wing is examined. It is shown that the attraction of the unstable mode towards a critical system zero determines the degree to which the flutter mode can be stabilized. For control situations where the critical zero is adversely placed in the complex plane, a novel compensation scheme called a 'Dipole' filter is proposed. This filter ensures that the flutter mode is stabilized with acceptable control energy. The control strategy is illustrated by designing flutter suppression laws for an active flexible wing (AFW) wind-tunnel model, where minimal control effort solutions are mandated by control rate saturation problems caused by wind-tunnel turbulence.

  5. Modeling the Benchmark Active Control Technology Wind-Tunnel Model for Application to Flutter Suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the formulation of a model of the dynamic behavior of the Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) wind-tunnel model for application to design and analysis of flutter suppression controllers. The model is formed by combining the equations of motion for the BACT wind-tunnel model with actuator models and a model of wind-tunnel turbulence. The primary focus of this paper is the development of the equations of motion from first principles using Lagrange's equations and the principle of virtual work. A numerical form of the model is generated using values for parameters obtained from both experiment and analysis. A unique aspect of the BACT wind-tunnel model is that it has upper- and lower-surface spoilers for active control. Comparisons with experimental frequency responses and other data show excellent agreement and suggest that simple coefficient-based aerodynamics are sufficient to accurately characterize the aeroelastic response of the BACT wind-tunnel model. The equations of motion developed herein have been used to assist the design and analysis of a number of flutter suppression controllers that have been successfully implemented.

  6. Multirate Flutter Suppression System Design for the Benchmark Active Controls Technology Wing. Part 1; Theory and Design Procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Gregory S.; Berg, Martin C.; Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2002-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of various control system design methodologies, the NASA Langley Research Center initiated the Benchmark Active Controls Project. In this project, the various methodologies were applied to design a flutter suppression system for the Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) Wing. This report describes a project at the University of Washington to design a multirate suppression system for the BACT wing. The objective of the project was two fold. First, to develop a methodology for designing robust multirate compensators, and second, to demonstrate the methodology by applying it to the design of a multirate flutter suppression system for the BACT wing.

  7. Application of the aerodynamic energy concept to flutter suppression and gust alleviation by use of active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.; Caspi, A.; Lottati, I.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of active controls on flutter suppression and gust alleviation of the Arava twin turboprop STOL transport and the Westwind twinjet business transport are investigated. The active control surfaces are introduced in pairs which include, in any chosen wing strip, a 20-percent chord leading-edge control and a 20-percent chord trailing-edge control. Each control surface is driven by a combined linear-rotational sensor system located on the activated strip. The control law is based on the concept of aerodynamic energy and utilizes previously optimized control law parameters based on two-dimensional aerodynamic theory. The best locations of the activated system along the span of the wing are determined for bending-moment alleviation, reduction in fuselage accelerations, and flutter suppression. The effectiveness of the activated system over a wide range of maximum control deflections is also determined. Two control laws are investigated. The first control law utilizes both rigid-body and elastic contributions of the motion. The second control law employs primarily the elastic contribution of the wing and leads to large increases in the activated control effectiveness as compared with the basic control law. The results indicate that flutter speed can be significantly increased (over 70 percent increase) and that the bending moment due to gust loading can be almost totally eliminated by a control system of about 10 to 20 percent span with reasonable control-surface rotations.

  8. The development of the DAST I remotely piloted research vehicle for flight testing an active flutter suppression control system. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grose, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The development of the DAST I (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing) remotely piloted research vehicle is described. The DAST I is a highly modified BQM-34E/F Firebee II Supersonic Aerial Target incorporating a swept supercritical wing designed to flutter within the vehicle's flight envelope. The predicted flutter and rigid body characteristics are presented. A description of the analysis and design of an active flutter suppression control system (FSS) designed to increase the flutter boundary of the DAST wing (ARW-1) by a factor of 20% is given. The design and development of the digital remotely augmented primary flight control system and on-board analog backup control system is presented. An evaluation of the near real-time flight flutter testing methods is made by comparing results of five flutter testing techniques on simulated DAST I flutter data. The development of the DAST ARW-1 state variable model used to generate time histories of simulated accelerometer responses is presented. This model uses control surface commands and a Dryden model gust as inputs. The feasibility of the concept of extracting open loop flutter characteristics from closed loop FSS responses was examined. It was shown that open loop characteristics can be determined very well from closed loop subcritical responses.

  9. Alleviation of whirl-flutter on a joined-wing tilt-rotor aircraft configuration using active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanaken, Johannes M.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of using active controls to delay the onset of whirl-flutter on a joined-wing tilt rotor aircraft was investigated. The CAMRAD/JA code was used to obtain a set of linear differential equations which describe the motion of the joined-wing tilt-rotor aircraft. The hub motions due to wing/body motion is a standard input to CAMRAD/JA and were obtained from a structural dynamics model of a representative joined-wing tilt-rotor aircraft. The CAMRAD/JA output, consisting of the open-loop system matrices, and the airframe free vibration motion were input to a separate program which performed the closed-loop, active control calculations. An eigenvalue analysis was performed to determine the flutter stability of both open- and closed-loop systems. Sensor models, based upon the feedback of pure state variables and based upon hub-mounted sensors, providing physically measurable accelerations, were evaluated. It was shown that the onset of tilt-rotor whirl-flutter could be delayed from 240 to above 270 knots by feeding back vertical and span-wise accelerations, measured at the rotor hub, to the longitudinal cyclic pitch. Time response calculations at a 270-knot cruise condition showed an active cyclic pitch control level of 0.009 deg, which equates to a very acceptable 9 pound active-control force applied at the rotor hub.

  10. Eigenspace techniques for active flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, William L.; Liebst, Bradley S.; Farm, Jerome A.

    1987-01-01

    The use of eigenspace techniques for the design of an active flutter suppression system for a hypothetical research drone is discussed. One leading edge and two trailing edge aerodynamic control surfaces and four sensors (accelerometers) are available for each wing. Full state control laws are designed by selecting feedback gains which place closed loop eigenvalues and shape closed loop eigenvectors so as to stabilize wing flutter and reduce gust loads at the wing root while yielding accepatable robustness and satisfying constrains on rms control surface activity. These controllers are realized by state estimators designed using an eigenvalue placement/eigenvector shaping technique which results in recovery of the full state loop transfer characteristics. The resulting feedback compensators are shown to perform almost as well as the full state designs. They also exhibit acceptable performance in situations in which the failure of an actuator is simulated.

  11. Adaptive Modal Identification for Flutter Suppression Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Drew, Michael; Swei, Sean S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will develop an adaptive modal identification method for identifying the frequencies and damping of a flutter mode based on model-reference adaptive control (MRAC) and least-squares methods. The least-squares parameter estimation will achieve parameter convergence in the presence of persistent excitation whereas the MRAC parameter estimation does not guarantee parameter convergence. Two adaptive flutter suppression control approaches are developed: one based on MRAC and the other based on the least-squares method. The MRAC flutter suppression control is designed as an integral part of the parameter estimation where the feedback signal is used to estimate the modal information. On the other hand, the separation principle of control and estimation is applied to the least-squares method. The least-squares modal identification is used to perform parameter estimation.

  12. Development, simulation validation, and wind tunnel testing of a digital controller system for flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoadley, Sherwood Tiffany; Buttrill, Carey S.; Mcgraw, Sandra M.; Houck, Jacob A.

    1991-01-01

    Flutter suppression (FS) is one of the active control concepts being investigated by the AFW program. The design goal for FS control laws was to increase the passive flutter dynamic pressure by 30 percent. In order to meet this goal, the FS control laws had to be capable of suppressing both symmetric and antisymmetric flutter instabilities simultaneously. In addition, the FS control laws had to be practical and low-order, robust and capable of real time execution within the 200 hz. sampling time. The purpose here is to present an overview of the development, simulation validation, and wind tunnel testing of a digital controller system for flutter suppression.

  13. Comparative study between two different active flutter suppression systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.

    1978-01-01

    An activated leading-edge (LE)-tailing-edge (TE) control system is applied to a drone aircraft with the objective of enabling the drone to fly subsonically at dynamic pressures which are 44% above the open-loop flutter dynamic pressure. The control synthesis approach is based on the aerodynamic energy concept and it incorporates recent developments in this area. A comparison is made between the performance of the activated LE-TE control system and the performance of a TE control system, analyzed in a previous work. The results obtained indicate that although all the control systems achieve the flutter suppression objectives, the TE control system appears to be somewhat superior to the LE-TE control system, in this specific application. This superiority is manifested through reduced values of control surface activity over a wide range of flight conditions.

  14. A multiloop, digital flutter suppression control law synthesis case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Perry, Boyd, III; Noll, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    A methodology for obtaining a digital low-order, multiloop, robust control law for aeroelastic application from a full-state Linear Quadratic Gaussian design is presented. As part of the design methodology, the multivariable system robustness at the plant input and output is evaluated using singular value properties and improved using constrained optimization procedures. To validate the methodology, a digital flutter suppression system has been designed for the full-span Active Flexible Wing (AFW) wind-tunnel model as part of a collaborative effort between the NASA Langley Research Center and Rockwell International. Preliminary results for a low-order discrete, symmetric flutter suppression system design that significantly improved the AFW model stability are provided and the experiences gained during the design process are discussed.

  15. About the Effect of Control on Flutter and Post-Flutter of a Supersonic/Hypersonic Cross-Sectional Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzocca, Piergiovanni; Librescu, Liviu; Silva, Walter A.

    2000-01-01

    The control of the flutter instability and the conversion of the dangerous character of the flutter instability boundary into the undangerous one of a cross-sectional wing in a supersonic/hypersonic flow field is presented. The objective of this paper is twofold: i) to analyze the implications of nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics and physical nonlinearities on the character of the instability boundary in the presence of a control capability, and ii) to outline the effects played in the same respect by some important parameters of the aeroelastic system. As a by-product of this analysis, the implications of the active control on the linearized flutter behavior of the system are captured and emphasized. The bifurcation behavior of the open/closed loop aeroelastic system in the vicinity of the flutter boundary is studied via the use of a new methodology based on the Liapunov First Quantity. The expected outcome of this study is: a) to greatly enhance the scope and reliability of the aeroelastic analysis and design criteria of advanced supersonic/hypersonic flight vehicles and, b) provide a theoretical basis for the analysis of more complex nonlinear aeroelastic systems.

  16. About the Effect of Control on Flutter and Post-Flutter of a Supersonic/Hypersonic Cross-Sectional Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Librescu, Liviu; Marzocca, Piergiovanni

    2001-01-01

    The control of the flutter instability and the conversion of the dangerous character of the flutter instability boundary into the undangerous one of a cross-sectional wing in a supersonic/hypersonic flow field is presented. The objective of this paper is twofold: i) to analyze the implications of nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics and physical nonlinearities on the character of the instability boundary in the presence of a control capability, and ii) to outline the effects played in the same respect by some important parameters of the aeroelastic system. As a by-product of this analysis, the implications of the active control on the linearized flutter behavior of the system are captured and emphasized. The bifurcation behavior of the open/closed loop aeroelastic system in the vicinity of the flutter boundary is studied via the use of a new methodology based on the Liapunov First Quantity. The expected outcome of this study is: a) to greatly enhance the scope and reliability of the aeroelastic analysis and design criteria of advanced supersonic/hypersonic flight vehicles and, b) provide a theoretical basis for the analysis of more complex nonlinear aeroelastic systems.

  17. Aeroelastic control of flutter using trailing edge control surfaces powered by piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardelean, Emil Valentin

    Flutter is a rather spectacular phenomenon of aeroelastic instability that affects lifting and control surfaces, yet can also lead to catastrophic consequences for the aircraft. The idea of controlling flutter by using the same energy that causes it, namely airflow energy, through changing the aerodynamics in a controlled manner is not new. In the case of fixed wings, the use of trailing edge control surfaces (flaps) is an extremely effective method to alter the aerodynamics. This research presents the development of an actuation system for trailing edge control surfaces (flaps) used for aeroelastic flutter control of a typical section wing model. In order to be effective for aeroelastic control of flutter, flap deflection of +/-5-6° with adequate bandwidth (up to 25--30 Hz) is required. Classical solutions for flap actuation do not have the capabilities required for this task. Therefore actuation systems using active materials became the focus of this investigation. A new piezoelectric actuator (V-Stack Piezoelectric Actuator) was developed. This actuator meets the requirements for trailing edge flap actuation in both stroke and force over the bandwidth of interest. It is compact, simple, sturdy, and leverages stroke geometrically with minimum force penalties, while displaying linearity over a wide range of stroke. Integration of the actuator inside an existing structure requires minimal modifications of the structure. The shape of the actuator makes it very suitable for trailing edge flap actuation, eliminating the need for a push rod. The actuation solution presented here stands out because of its simplicity, compactness, small mass (compared to that of the actuated structure) and high reliability. Although the actuator was designed for flap actuation, other applications can also benefit from its capabilities. In order to demonstrate the actuation concept, a typical section prototype was constructed and tested experimentally in the wind tunnel at Duke

  18. Transonic Flutter Suppression Control Law Design, Analysis and Wind Tunnel Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    1999-01-01

    The benchmark active controls technology and wind tunnel test program at NASA Langley Research Center was started with the objective to investigate the nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamics and active flutter suppression of wings in transonic flow. The paper will present the flutter suppression control law design process, numerical nonlinear simulation and wind tunnel test results for the NACA 0012 benchmark active control wing model. The flutter suppression control law design processes using (1) classical, (2) linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG), and (3) minimax techniques are described. A unified general formulation and solution for the LQG and minimax approaches, based on the steady state differential game theory is presented. Design considerations for improving the control law robustness and digital implementation are outlined. It was shown that simple control laws when properly designed based on physical principles, can suppress flutter with limited control power even in the presence of transonic shocks and flow separation. In wind tunnel tests in air and heavy gas medium, the closed-loop flutter dynamic pressure was increased to the tunnel upper limit of 200 psf The control law robustness and performance predictions were verified in highly nonlinear flow conditions, gain and phase perturbations, and spoiler deployment. A non-design plunge instability condition was also successfully suppressed.

  19. Transonic Flutter Suppression Control Law Design Using Classical and Optimal Techniques with Wind-Tunnel Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    1999-01-01

    The benchmark active controls technology and wind tunnel test program at NASA Langley Research Center was started with the objective to investigate the nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamics and active flutter suppression of wings in transonic flow. The paper will present the flutter suppression control law design process, numerical nonlinear simulation and wind tunnel test results for the NACA 0012 benchmark active control wing model. The flutter suppression control law design processes using (1) classical, (2) linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG), and (3) minimax techniques are described. A unified general formulation and solution for the LQG and minimax approaches, based on the steady state differential game theory is presented. Design considerations for improving the control law robustness and digital implementation are outlined. It was shown that simple control laws when properly designed based on physical principles, can suppress flutter with limited control power even in the presence of transonic shocks and flow separation. In wind tunnel tests in air and heavy gas medium, the closed-loop flutter dynamic pressure was increased to the tunnel upper limit of 200 psf. The control law robustness and performance predictions were verified in highly nonlinear flow conditions, gain and phase perturbations, and spoiler deployment. A non-design plunge instability condition was also successfully suppressed.

  20. Transonic Flutter Suppression Control Law Design, Analysis and Wind-Tunnel Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    1999-01-01

    The benchmark active controls technology and wind tunnel test program at NASA Langley Research Center was started with the objective to investigate the nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamics and active flutter suppression of wings in transonic flow. The paper will present the flutter suppression control law design process, numerical nonlinear simulation and wind tunnel test results for the NACA 0012 benchmark active control wing model. The flutter suppression control law design processes using (1) classical, (2) linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG), and (3) minimax techniques are described. A unified general formulation and solution for the LQG and minimax approaches, based on the steady state differential game theory is presented. Design considerations for improving the control law robustness and digital implementation are outlined. It was shown that simple control laws when properly designed based on physical principles, can suppress flutter with limited control power even in the presence of transonic shocks and flow separation. In wind tunnel tests in air and heavy gas medium, the closed-loop flutter dynamic pressure was increased to the tunnel upper limit of 200 psf. The control law robustness and performance predictions were verified in highly nonlinear flow conditions, gain and phase perturbations, and spoiler deployment. A non-design plunge instability condition was also successfully suppressed.

  1. Transonic Flutter Suppression Control Law Design, Analysis and Wind-Tunnel Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    1999-01-01

    The benchmark active controls technology and wind tunnel test program at NASA Langley Research Center was started with the objective to investigate the nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamics and active flutter suppression of wings in transonic flow. The paper will present the flutter suppression control law design process, numerical nonlinear simulation and wind tunnel test results for the NACA 0012 benchmark active control wing model. The flutter suppression control law design processes using classical, and minimax techniques are described. A unified general formulation and solution for the minimax approach, based on the steady state differential game theory is presented. Design considerations for improving the control law robustness and digital implementation are outlined. It was shown that simple control laws when properly designed based on physical principles, can suppress flutter with limited control power even in the presence of transonic shocks and flow separation. In wind tunnel tests in air and heavy gas medium, the closed-loop flutter dynamic pressure was increased to the tunnel upper limit of 200 psf. The control law robustness and performance predictions were verified in highly nonlinear flow conditions, gain and phase perturbations, and spoiler deployment. A non-design plunge instability condition was also successfully suppressed.

  2. Real-time flutter analysis of an active flutter-suppression system on a remotely piloted research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, G. B.; Edwards, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Flight flutter-test results of the first aeroelastic research wing (ARW-1) of NASA's drones for aerodynamic and structural testing program are presented. The flight-test operation and the implementation of the active flutter-suppression system are described as well as the software techniques used to obtain real-time damping estimates and the actual flutter testing procedure. Real-time analysis of fast-frequency aileron excitation sweeps provided reliable damping estimates. The open-loop flutter boundary was well defined at two altitudes; a maximum Mach number of 0.91 was obtained. Both open-loop and closed-loop data were of exceptionally high quality. Although the flutter-suppression system provided augmented damping at speeds below the flutter boundary, an error in the implementation of the system resulted in the system being less stable than predicted. The vehicle encountered system-on flutter shortly after crossing the open-loop flutter boundary on the third flight and was lost. The aircraft was rebuilt. Changes made in real-time test techniques are included.

  3. A method for obtaining practical flutter-suppression control laws using results of optimal control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newson, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The results of optimal control theory are used to synthesize a feedback filter. The feedback filter is used to force the output of the filtered frequency response to match that of a desired optimal frequency response over a finite frequency range. This matching is accomplished by employing a nonlinear programing algorithm to search for the coefficients of the feedback filter that minimize the error between the optimal frequency response and the filtered frequency response. The method is applied to the synthesis of an active flutter-suppression control law for an aeroelastic wind-tunnel model. It is shown that the resulting control law suppresses flutter over a wide range of subsonic Mach numbers. This is a promising method for synthesizing practical control laws using the results of optimal control theory.

  4. Stall Flutter Control of a Smart Blade Section Undergoing Asymmetric Limit Oscillations

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Nailu; Balas, Mark J.; Nikoueeyan, Pourya; Yang, Hua; Naughton, Jonathan W.

    2016-01-01

    Stall flutter is an aeroelastic phenomenon resulting in unwanted oscillatory loads on the blade, such as wind turbine blade, helicopter rotor blade, and other flexible wing blades. Although the stall flutter and related aeroelastic control have been studied theoretically and experimentally, microtab control of asymmetric limit cycle oscillations (LCOs) in stall flutter cases has not been generally investigated. This paper presents an aeroservoelastic model to study the microtab control of the blade section undergoing moderate stall flutter and deep stall flutter separately. The effects of different dynamic stall conditions and the consequent asymmetric LCOs for both stall cases are simulatedmore » and analyzed. Then, for the design of the stall flutter controller, the potential sensor signal for the stall flutter, the microtab control capability of the stall flutter, and the control algorithm for the stall flutter are studied. The improvement and the superiority of the proposed adaptive stall flutter controller are shown by comparison with a simple stall flutter controller.« less

  5. Design for active and passive flutter suppression and gust alleviation. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpel, M.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical design techniques for active and passive control of aeroelastic systems are based on a rational approximation of the unsteady aerodynamic loads in the entire Laplace domain, which yields matrix equations of motion with constant coefficients. Some existing schemes are reviewed, the matrix Pade approximant is modified, and a technique which yields a minimal number of augmented states for a desired accuracy is presented. The state-space aeroelastic model is used to design an active control system for simultaneous flutter suppression and gust alleviation. The design target is for a continuous controller which transfers some measurements taken on the vehicle to a control command applied to a control surface. Structural modifications are formulated in a way which enables the treatment of passive flutter suppression system with the same procedures by which active control systems are designed.

  6. Flutter, Postflutter, and Control of a Supersonic Wing Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzocca, Piergiovanni; Librescu, Liviu; Silva, Walter A.

    2002-01-01

    A number of issues related to the flutter and postflutter of two-dimensional supersonic lifting surfaces are addressed. Among them there are the 1) investigation of the implications of the nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics and structural nonlinearities on the stable/unstable character of the limit cycle and 2) study of the implications of the incorporation of a control capability on both the flutter boundary and the postflutter behavior. To this end, a powerful methodology based on the Lyapunov first quantity is implemented. Such a treatment of the problem enables one to get a better understanding of the various factors involved in the nonlinear aeroelastic problem, including the stable and unstable limit cycle. In addition, it constitutes a first step toward a more general investigation of nonlinear aeroelastic phenomena of three-dimensional lifting surfaces.

  7. Flutter suppression digital control law design and testing for the AFW wind-tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    1992-01-01

    Design of a control law for simultaneously suppressing the symmetric and antisymmetric flutter modes of a string mounted fixed-in-roll aeroelastic wind tunnel model is described. The flutter suppression control law was designed using linear quadratic Gaussian theory and involved control law order reduction, a gain root-locus study, and the use of previous experimental results. A 23 percent increase in open-loop flutter dynamic pressure was demonstrated during the wind tunnel test. Rapid roll maneuvers at 11 percent above the symmetric flutter boundary were also performed when the model was in a free-to-roll configuration.

  8. Flutter suppression digital control law design and testing for the AFW wind tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    1994-01-01

    The design of a control law for simultaneously suppressing the symmetric and antisymmetric flutter modes of a sting mounted fixed-in-roll aeroelastic wind-tunnel model is described. The flutter suppression control law was designed using linear quadratic Gaussian theory, and it also involved control law order reduction, a gain root-locus study, and use of previous experimental results. A 23 percent increase in the open-loop flutter dynamic pressure was demonstrated during the wind-tunnel test. Rapid roll maneuvers at 11 percent above the symmetric flutter boundary were also performed when the model was in a free-to-roll configuration.

  9. An eigenvector orientation approach for detection and control of panel flutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastijanovic, Nebojsa; Ma, Tianwei; DiCarlo, Anthony; Yang, Henry T. Y.

    2005-05-01

    A basic eigenvector orientation approach has been used to evaluate the possibility of controlling the onset of panel flutter using a flat panel (wide beam) as an illustrative example. The onset of flutter can be defined as the instance when two modes coalesce. Since eigenvectors for two consecutive modes are usually orthogonal, an indication of the onset of flutter condition can be observed earlier when they start to lose their orthogonality. Using eigenvector orientation method for the prediction of the flutter boundary (indicated by a gradual loss of orthogonality between two eigenvectors) was developed in a previous study and thus can provide a 'lead time' for possible flutter control. In this study, a basic simple beam element is used to model the panel (wide beam). As a first step, piezoelectric layers are assumed to be bonded on the top and bottom surface of the panel to provide counter-bending moments at joints between elements. The standard linear quadratic control theory is used for controller design and full state feedback is considered for simplicity. The controllers are designed to modify the system stiffness matrix in such a way to re-stabilize the system at the onset of flutter; as a result, flutter occurrence is offset to higher flutter speed. Controllers based on different control objectives are considered and the effects of control moment locations are studied as well. Potential applications of this basic method can be straightforwardly applied to plates and shells of laminated composites using finite element method.

  10. Flutter of wings involving a locally distributed flexible control surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari-Jovin, S.; Firouz-Abadi, R. D.; Roshanian, J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper undertakes to facilitate appraisal of aeroelastic interaction of a locally distributed, flap-type control surface with aircraft wings operating in a subsonic potential flow field. The extended Hamilton's principle serves as a framework to ascertain the Euler-Lagrange equations for coupled bending-torsional-flap vibration. An analytical solution to this boundary-value problem is then accomplished by assumed modes and the extended Galerkin's method. The developed aeroelastic model considers both the inherent flexibility of the control surface displaced on the wing and the inertial coupling between these two flexible bodies. The structural deformations also obey the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, along with the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic constitutive law. Meanwhile, the unsteady thin-airfoil and strip theories are the tools of producing the three-dimensional airloads. The origin of aerodynamic instability undergoes analysis in light of the oscillatory loads as well as the loads owing to arbitrary motions. After successful verification of the model, a systematic flutter survey was conducted on the theoretical effects of various control surface parameters. The results obtained demonstrate that the flapping modes and parameters of the control surface can significantly impact the flutter characteristics of the wings, which leads to a series of pertinent conclusions.

  11. Eigenspace techniques for active flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    Mathematical models to be used in the control system design were developed. A computer program, which takes aerodynamic and structural data for the ARW-2 aircraft and converts these data into state space models suitable for use in modern control synthesis procedures, was developed. Reduced order models of inboard and outboard control surface actuator dynamics and a second order vertical wind gust model were developed. An analysis of the rigid body motion of the ARW-2 was conducted. The deletion of the aerodynamic lag states in the rigid body modes resulted in more accurate values for the eigenvalues associated with the plunge and pitch modes than were obtainable if the lag states were retained.

  12. Suppression of bending-torsion wing flutter using self-straining controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jensen Cheng-Sheng

    Flutter is an instability endemic to aircraft that occurs at high enough air speed. Suppression of flutter is in the interest of safety and economy. In this study, we propose a purely analytical approach to the problem flutter suppression. Counter to the commercially available numerical schemes, mathematical precisions are provided to gain a better understanding of the flutter phenomenon and the controller performance. We model the wing structure and aerodynamics with a pair of time-invariant linear partial differential equations. The control action of the self-straining material is easily incorporated into the structural model as boundary control. This model faithfully captures the flutter phenomenon as well as the control action. A State Space representation is carefully chosen for the aeroelastic model. The problem of flutter analysis is reduced to evaluating the resolvent of the aeroelastic operator. We also present a Laplace-Fourier Transform version of the Possio equation in the theory of Unsteady Subsonic Aerodynamics. This new version enables us to obtain explicit formulas for the lift and moment, which in turn afford us to analyze the flutter problem more readily. Analyses reveal the torsion controllers are effective in extending the flutter boundary while the bending controllers are not. A series of experiments were designed to validate our theoretical models for flutter analysis and to test the performance of self-straining actuators. An aeroelastic wing with self-straining sensors and actuators were designed to flutter within the speed limit of the vehicle as well as the assumptions of our theoretical model. The NASA Ground Research Vehicle, the "Roadrunner" served as the platform for these experiments. The processed data from the field tests showed the theoretical prediction of flutter speed is accurate. Theoretical calculations for both of the frequencies and damping as function of air speed were also found to be within the experimental error. However

  13. Neural net-based controller for flutter suppression using ASTROS with smart structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Changho; Chen, P. C.; Liu, Danny D.; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Kim, Jongsun

    2000-06-01

    Recent development of a smart structures module and its successful integration with a multidisciplinary design optimization software ASTROS* and an Aeroservoelasticity (ASE) module is presented. A modeled F-16 wing using piezoelectric (PZT) actuators was used as an example to demonstrate the integrated software capability to design a flutter suppression system. For an active control design, neural network based robust controller will be used for this study. A smart structures module is developed by modifying the existing thermal loads module in ASTROS* in order to include the effects of the induced strain due to piezoelectric (PZT) actuation. The thermal-PZT equivalence model enables the modifications of the thermal stress module to accommodate the smart structures module in ASTROS*. ZONA developed the control surface (CS)/PZT equivalence model principle, which ensures the interchangeability between the CS force input and the PZT force input to the ASE modules in ASTROS*. The results show that the neural net based controller can increase the flutter speed.

  14. Developing, mechanizing and testing of a digital active flutter suppression system for a modified B-52 wind-tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthew, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    A digital flutter suppression system was developed and mechanized for a significantly modified version of the 1/30-scale B-52E aeroelastic wind tunnel model. A model configuration was identified that produced symmetric and antisymmetric flutter modes that occur at 2873N/sq m (60 psf) dynamic pressure with violent onset. The flutter suppression system, using one trailing edge control surface and the accelerometers on each wing, extended the flutter dynamic pressure of the model beyond the design limit of 4788N/sq m (100 psf). The hardware and software required to implement the flutter suppression system were designed and mechanized using digital computers in a fail-operate configuration. The model equipped with the system was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center and results showed the flutter dynamic pressure of the model was extended beyond 4884N/sq m (102 psf).

  15. Optimal locations of piezoelectric patches for supersonic flutter control of honeycomb sandwich panels, using the NSGA-II method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezami, M.; Gholami, B.

    2016-03-01

    The active flutter control of supersonic sandwich panels with regular honeycomb interlayers under impact load excitation is studied using piezoelectric patches. A non-dominated sorting-based multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, called non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is suggested to find the optimal locations for different numbers of piezoelectric actuator/sensor pairs. Quasi-steady first order supersonic piston theory is employed to define aerodynamic loading and the p-method is applied to find the flutter bounds. Hamilton’s principle in conjunction with the generalized Fourier expansions and Galerkin method are used to develop the dynamical model of the structural systems in the state-space domain. The classical Runge-Kutta time integration algorithm is then used to calculate the open-loop aeroelastic response of the system. The maximum flutter velocity and minimum voltage applied to actuators are calculated according to the optimal locations of piezoelectric patches obtained using the NSGA-II and then the proportional feedback is used to actively suppress the closed loop system response. Finally the control effects, using the two different controllers, are compared.

  16. Flutter and thermal buckling control for composite laminated panels in supersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng-Ming; Song, Zhi-Guang

    2013-10-01

    Aerothermoelastic analysis for composite laminated panels in supersonic flow is carried out. The flutter and thermal buckling control for the panels are also investigated. In the modeling for the equation of motion, the influences of in-plane thermal load on the transverse bending deflection are taken into account, and the unsteady aerodynamic pressure in supersonic flow is evaluated by the linear piston theory. The governing equation of the structural system is developed applying the Hamilton's principle. In order to study the influences of aerodynamic pressure on the vibration mode shape of the panel, both the assumed mode method (AMM) and the finite element method (FEM) are used to derive the equation of motion. The proportional feedback control method and the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) are used to design the controller. The aeroelastic stability of the structural system is analyzed using the frequency-domain method. The effects of ply angle of the laminated panel on the critical flutter aerodynamic pressure and the critical buckling temperature change are researched. The flutter and thermal buckling control effects using the proportional feedback control and the LQR are compared. An effective method which can suppress the flutter and thermal buckling simultaneously is proposed.

  17. Comparison of analysis and flight test data for a drone aircraft with active flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, J. R.; Pototzky, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of analysis and flight test data for a drone aircraft equipped with an active flutter suppression system. Emphasis is placed on the comparison of modal dampings and frequencies as a function of Mach number. Results are presented for both symmetric and antisymmetric motion with flutter suppression off. Only symmetric results are presented for flutter suppression on. Frequency response functions of the vehicle are presented from both flight test data and analysis. The analysis correlation is improved by using an empirical aerodynamic correction factor which is proportional to the ratio of experimental to analytical steady-state lift curve slope. In addition to presenting the mathematical models and a brief description of existing analytical techniques, an alternative analytical technique for obtaining closed-loop results is presented.

  18. Comparison of analysis and flight test data for a drone aircraft with active flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, J. R.; Pototzky, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    A drone aircraft equipped with an active flutter suppression system is considered with emphasis on the comparison of modal dampings and frequencies as a function of Mach number. Results are presented for both symmetric and antisymmetric motion with flutter suppression off. Only symmetric results are given for flutter suppression on. Frequency response functions of the vehicle are presented from both flight test data and analysis. The analysis correlation is improved by using an empirical aerodynamic correction factor which is proportional to the ratio of experimental to analytical steady-state lift curve slope. The mathematical models are included and existing analytical techniques are described as well as an alternative analytical technique for obtaining closed-loop results.

  19. Transonic flight flutter tests of a control surface utilizing an impedance response technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirowitz, L. I.

    1975-01-01

    Transonic flight flutter tests of the XF3H-1 Demon Airplane were conducted utilizing a frequency response technique in which the oscillating rudder provides the means of system excitation. These tests were conducted as a result of a rudder flutter incident in the transonic speed range. The technique employed is presented including a brief theoretical development of basic concepts. Test data obtained during the flight are included and the method of interpretation of these data is indicated. This method is based on an impedance matching technique. It is shown that an artificial stabilizing device, such as a damper, may be incorporated in the system for test purposes without complicating the interpretation of the test results of the normal configuration. Data are presented which define the margin of stability introduced to the originally unstable rudder by design changes which involve higher control system stiffness and external damper. It is concluded that this technique of flight flutter testing is a feasible means of obtaining flutter stability information in flight.

  20. Design of control laws for flutter suppression based on the aerodynamic energy concept and comparisons with other design methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, Eli

    1990-01-01

    The aerodynamic energy method is used to synthesize control laws for NASA's drone for aerodynamic and structural testing-aerodynamic research wing 1 (DAST-ARW1) mathematical model. The performance of these control laws in terms of closed-loop flutter dynamic pressure, control surface activity, and robustness is compared with other control laws that relate to the same model. A control law synthesis technique that makes use of the return difference singular values is developed. It is based on the aerodynamic energy approach and is shown to yield results that are superior to those results given in the literature and are based on optimal control theory. Nyquist plots are presented, together with a short discussion regarding the relative merits of the minimum singular value as a measure of robustness as compared with the more traditional measure involving phase and gain margins.

  1. Panel flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Criteria are presented for the prediction of panel flutter, determination of its occurrence, design for its prevention, and evaluation of its severity. Theoretical analyses recommended for the prediction of flutter stability boundaries, vibration amplitudes, and frequencies for several types of panels are described. Vibration tests and wind tunnel tests are recommended for certain panels and environmental flow conditions to provide information for design of verification analysis. Appropriate design margins on flutter stability boundaries are given and general criteria are presented for evaluating the severity of possible short-duration, limited-amplitude panel flutter on nonreusable vehicles.

  2. Computational methods of robust controller design for aerodynamic flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. R.

    1981-01-01

    The development of Riccati iteration, a tool for the design and analysis of linear control systems is examined. First, Riccati iteration is applied to the problem of pole placement and order reduction in two-time scale control systems. Order reduction, yielding a good approximation to the original system, is demonstrated using a 16th order linear model of a turbofan engine. Next, a numerical method for solving the Riccati equation is presented and demonstrated for a set of eighth order random examples. A literature review of robust controller design methods follows which includes a number of methods for reducing the trajectory and performance index sensitivity in linear regulators. Lastly, robust controller design for large parameter variations is discussed.

  3. Supersonic flutter suppression of electrorheological fluid-based adaptive panels resting on elastic foundations using sliding mode control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasheminejad, Seyyed M.; Nezami, M.; Aryaee Panah, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    Brief reviews on suppressing panel flutter vibrations by various active control strategies as well as utilization tunable electrorheological fluids (ERFs) for vibration control of structural systems are presented. Active suppression of the supersonic flutter motion of a simply supported sandwich panel with a tunable ERF interlayer, and coupled to an elastic foundation, is subsequently investigated. The structural formulation is based on the classical beam theory along with the Winkler-Pasternak foundation model, the ER fluid core is modeled as a first-order Kelvin-Voigt material, and the quasi-steady first-order supersonic piston theory is employed to describe the aerodynamic loading. Hamilton’s principle is used to derive a set of fully coupled dynamic equations of motion. The generalized Fourier expansions in conjunction with the Galerkin method are then employed to formulate the governing equations in the state space domain. The critical dynamic pressures at which unstable panel oscillations (coalescence of eigenvalues) occur are obtained via the p-method for selected applied electric field strengths (E = 0,2,4 kV mm-1). The classical Runge-Kutta time integration algorithm is subsequently used to calculate the open-loop aeroelastic response of the system in various basic loading configurations (i.e. uniformly distributed blast, gust, sonic boom, and step loads), with or without an interacting soft/stiff elastic foundation. Finally, a sliding mode control synthesis (SMC) involving the first six natural modes of the structural system is set up to actively suppress the closed-loop system response in supersonic flight conditions and under the imposed excitations. Simulation results demonstrate performance, effectiveness, and insensitivity with respect to the spillover of the proposed SMC-based control system. Limiting cases are considered and good agreements with the data available in the literature as well as with the computations made by using the Rayleigh

  4. A parametric sensitivity and optimization study for the active flexible wing wind-tunnel model flutter characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rais-Rohani, Masoud

    1991-01-01

    In this paper an effort is made to improve the analytical open-loop flutter predictions for the Active Flexible Wing wind-tunnel model using a sensitivity based optimization approach. The sensitivity derivatives of the flutter frequency and dynamic pressure of the model with respect to the lag terms appearing in the Roger's unsteady aerodynamics approximations are evaluated both analytical and by finite differences. Then, the Levenberg-Marquardt method is used to find the optimum values for these lag-terms. The results obtained here agree much better with the experimental (wind tunnel) results than those found in the previous studies.

  5. Application of a flight test and data analysis technique to flutter of a drone aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    Modal identification results presented were obtained from recent flight flutter tests of a drone vehicle with a research wing (DAST ARW-1 for Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing, Aeroelastic Research Wing-1). This vehicle is equipped with an active flutter suppression system (FSS). Frequency and damping of several modes are determined by a time domain modal analysis of the impulse response function obtained by Fourier transformations of data from fast swept sine wave excitation by the FSS control surface on the wing. Flutter points are determined for two different altitudes with the FSS off. Data are given for near the flutter boundary with the FSS on.

  6. Application of a flight test and data analysis technique to flutter of a drone aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, R. M.; Abel, I.

    1981-01-01

    Modal identification results are presented that were obtained from recent flight flutter tests of a drone vehicle with a research wing equipped with an active flutter suppression system (FSS). Frequency and damping of several modes are determined by a time domain modal analysis of the impulse response function obtained by Fourier transformations of data from fast swept sine wave excitation by the FSS control surfaces on the wing. Flutter points are determined for two different altitudes with the FSS off. Data are given for near the flutter boundary with the FSS on.

  7. A wind-tunnel investigation of a B-52 model flutter suppression system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, L. T.; Gilman, J., Jr.; Cooley, D. E.; Sevart, F. D.

    1974-01-01

    Flutter modeling techniques have been successfully extended to the difficult case of the active suppression of flutter. The demonstration was conducted in a transonic dynamics tunnel using a 1/30 scale, elastic, dynamic model of a Boeing B-52 control configured vehicle. The results from the study show that with the flutter suppression system operating there is a substantial increase in the damping associated with the critical flutter mode. The results also show good correlation between the damping characteristics of the model and the aircraft.

  8. Practical gust load alleviation and flutter suppression control laws based on a LQG methodology. [Linear Quadratic Gaussian

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangsaas, D.; Ly, U.; Norman, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    A modified linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) synthesis procedure has been used to design low-order robust multiloop controllers for a flexible airplane. The introduction of properly constructed fictitious Gauss-Markov processes in the control loops allowed meeting classical frequency-domain stability criteria using the direct synthesis procedures of modern time-domain control theory. Model reduction was used to simplify the control laws to the point where they could be easily implemented on onboard flight computers. These control laws provided excellent gust load and flutter mode control with good stability margins and compared very favorably to other control laws synthesized by the classical root-locus technique.

  9. Flutter suppression of plates using passive constrained viscoelastic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha-Filho, A. G.; de Lima, A. M. G.; Donadon, M. V.; Leão, L. S.

    2016-10-01

    Flutter in aeronautical panels is a self-excited aeroelastic phenomenon which occurs during supersonic flights due to dynamic instability of inertia, elastic and aerodynamic forces of the system. In the flutter condition, when the critical aerodynamic pressure is reached, the vibration amplitudes of the panel become dynamically unstable and increase exponentially with time, significantly affecting the fatigue life of the existing aeronautical components. Thus, in this paper, the interest is to investigate the possibility reducing the effects of the supersonic aeroelastic instability of rectangular plates by applying passive constrained viscoelastic layers. The rationale for such study is the fact that as the addition of viscoelastic materials provides decreased vibration amplitudes it becomes important to quantify the suppression of plate flutter coalescence modes that can be obtained. Moreover, despite the fact that much research on the suppression of panel flutter has been carried out by using passive, semi-active and active control techniques, few works have been proposed to deal with the problem of predicting the flutter boundary of aeroviscoelastic systems, since they must conveniently account for the frequency- and temperature-dependent behavior of the viscoelastic material. After the presentation of the theoretical foundations of the methodology, the description of a numerical study on the flutter analysis of a three-layer sandwich plate is addressed.

  10. Optimization of Sensing and Feedback Control for Vibration/Flutter of Rotating Disk by PZT Actuators via Air Coupled Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Tianhong; Xu, Xinsheng; Han, Jianqiang; Lin, Rongming; Ju, Bingfeng; Li, Qing

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a feedback control mechanism and its optimization for rotating disk vibration/flutter via changes of air-coupled pressure generated using piezoelectric patch actuators are studied. A thin disk rotates in an enclosure, which is equipped with a feedback control loop consisting of a micro-sensor, a signal processor, a power amplifier, and several piezoelectric (PZT) actuator patches distributed on the cover of the enclosure. The actuator patches are mounted on the inner or the outer surfaces of the enclosure to produce necessary control force required through the airflow around the disk. The control mechanism for rotating disk flutter using enclosure surfaces bonded with sensors and piezoelectric actuators is thoroughly studied through analytical simulations. The sensor output is used to determine the amount of input to the actuator for controlling the response of the disk in a closed loop configuration. The dynamic stability of the disk-enclosure system, together with the feedback control loop, is analyzed as a complex eigenvalue problem, which is solved using Galerkin’s discretization procedure. The results show that the disk flutter can be reduced effectively with proper configurations of the control gain and the phase shift through the actuations of PZT patches. The effectiveness of different feedback control methods in altering system characteristics and system response has been investigated. The control capability, in terms of control gain, phase shift, and especially the physical configuration of actuator patches, are also evaluated by calculating the complex eigenvalues and the maximum displacement produced by the actuators. To achieve a optimal control performance, sizes, positions and shapes of PZT patches used need to be optimized and such optimization has been achieved through numerical simulations. PMID:22163788

  11. Optimization of sensing and feedback control for vibration/flutter of rotating disk by PZT actuators via air coupled pressure.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tianhong; Xu, Xinsheng; Han, Jianqiang; Lin, Rongming; Ju, Bingfeng; Li, Qing

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a feedback control mechanism and its optimization for rotating disk vibration/flutter via changes of air-coupled pressure generated using piezoelectric patch actuators are studied. A thin disk rotates in an enclosure, which is equipped with a feedback control loop consisting of a micro-sensor, a signal processor, a power amplifier, and several piezoelectric (PZT) actuator patches distributed on the cover of the enclosure. The actuator patches are mounted on the inner or the outer surfaces of the enclosure to produce necessary control force required through the airflow around the disk. The control mechanism for rotating disk flutter using enclosure surfaces bonded with sensors and piezoelectric actuators is thoroughly studied through analytical simulations. The sensor output is used to determine the amount of input to the actuator for controlling the response of the disk in a closed loop configuration. The dynamic stability of the disk-enclosure system, together with the feedback control loop, is analyzed as a complex eigenvalue problem, which is solved using Galerkin's discretization procedure. The results show that the disk flutter can be reduced effectively with proper configurations of the control gain and the phase shift through the actuations of PZT patches. The effectiveness of different feedback control methods in altering system characteristics and system response has been investigated. The control capability, in terms of control gain, phase shift, and especially the physical configuration of actuator patches, are also evaluated by calculating the complex eigenvalues and the maximum displacement produced by the actuators. To achieve a optimal control performance, sizes, positions and shapes of PZT patches used need to be optimized and such optimization has been achieved through numerical simulations.

  12. Design of a candidate flutter suppression control law for DAST ARW-2. [Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing Aeroelastic Research Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. M., Jr.; Tiffany, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    A control law is developed to suppress symmetric flutter for a mathematical model of an aeroelastic research vehicle. An implementable control law is attained by including modified LQG (linear quadratic Gaussian) design techniques, controller order reduction, and gain scheduling. An alternate (complementary) design approach is illustrated for one flight condition wherein nongradient-based constrained optimization techniques are applied to maximize controller robustness.

  13. Analytical and experimental investigation of flutter suppression by piezoelectric actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeg, Jennifer

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this research was to analytically and experimentally study the capabilities of piezoelectric plate actuators for suppressing flutter. Piezoelectric materials are characterized by their ability to produce voltage when subjected to a mechanical strain. The converse piezoelectric effect can be utilized to actuate a structure by applying a voltage. For this investigation, a two-degree-of-freedom wind tunnel model was designed, analyzed, and tested. The model consisted of a rigid wing and a flexible mount system that permitted a translational and a rotational degree of freedom. The model was designed such that flutter was encountered within the testing envelope of the wind tunnel. Actuators made of piezoelectric material were affixed to leaf springs of the mount system. Command signals, applied to the piezoelectric actuators, exerted control over the damping and stiffness properties. A mathematical aeroservoelastic model was constructed by using finite element methods, laminated plate theory, and aeroelastic analysis tools. Plant characteristics were determined from this model and verified by open loop experimental tests. A flutter suppression control law was designed and implemented on a digital control computer. Closed loop flutter testing was conducted. The experimental results represent the first time that adaptive materials have been used to actively suppress flutter. They demonstrate that small, carefully placed actuating plates can be used effectively to control aeroelastic response.

  14. Adaptive flutter suppression, analysis and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. H.; Hwang, C.; Joshi, D. S.; Harvey, C. A.; Huttsell, L. T.; Farmer, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of adaptive control have been applied to suppress a potentially violent flutter condition of a half-span model of a lightweight figher aircraft. This marked the confluence of several technologies with active flutter suppression, digital control and adaptive control theory the primary contributors. The control algorithm was required to adapt both to slowly varying changes, corresponding to changes in the flight condition or fuel loading and to rapid changes, corresponding to a store release or the transition from a stable to an unstable flight condition. The development of the adaptive control methods was followed by a simulation and checkout of the complete system and a wind tunnel demonstration. As part of the test, a store was released from the model wing tip, transforming the model abruptly from a stable configuration to a violent flutter condition. The adaptive algorithm recognized the unstable nature of the resulting configuration and implemented a stabilizing control law in a fraction of a second. The algorithm was also shown to provide system stability over a range of wind tunnel Mach numbers and dynamic pressures.

  15. Noninvasive Imaging of Human Atrial Activation during Atrial Flutter and Normal Rhythm from Body Surface Potential Maps

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhaoye; Jin, Qi; Yu, Long; Wu, Liqun; He, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background Knowledge of atrial electrophysiological properties is crucial for clinical intervention of atrial arrhythmias and the investigation of the underlying mechanism. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of a novel noninvasive cardiac electrical imaging technique in imaging bi-atrial activation sequences from body surface potential maps (BSPMs). Methods The study includes 7 subjects, with 3 atrial flutter patients, and 4 healthy subjects with normal atrial activations. The subject-specific heart-torso geometries were obtained from MRI/CT images. The equivalent current densities were reconstructed from 208-channel BSPMs by solving the inverse problem using individual heart-torso geometry models. The activation times were estimated from the time instant corresponding to the highest peak in the time course of the equivalent current densities. To evaluate the performance, a total of 32 cycles of atrial flutter were analyzed. The imaged activation maps obtained from single beats were compared with the average maps and the activation maps measured from CARTO, by using correlation coefficient (CC) and relative error (RE). Results The cardiac electrical imaging technique is capable of imaging both focal and reentrant activations. The imaged activation maps for normal atrial activations are consistent with findings from isolated human hearts. Activation maps for isthmus-dependent counterclockwise reentry were reconstructed on three patients with typical atrial flutter. The method was capable of imaging macro counterclockwise reentrant loop in the right atrium and showed inter-atria electrical conduction through coronary sinus. The imaged activation sequences obtained from single beats showed good correlation with both the average activation maps (CC = 0.91±0.03, RE = 0.29±0.05) and the clinical endocardial findings using CARTO (CC = 0.70±0.04, RE = 0.42±0.05). Conclusions The noninvasive cardiac electrical imaging technique is able to reconstruct complex

  16. Hiatal hernia squeezing the heart to flutter.

    PubMed

    Patel, Arpan; Shah, Rushikesh; Nadavaram, Sravanthi; Aggarwal, Aakash

    2014-04-01

    An 80-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with failure to thrive and weakness for 14 days. Medical history was significant for polio. On admission her electrocardiogram showed atrial flutter, and cardiac enzymes were elevated. Echocardiogram revealed a high pulmonary artery pressure, but no other wall motion abnormalities or valvulopathies. Chest x-ray showed a large lucency likely representing a diaphragmatic hernia. Computed tomographic scan confirmed the hernia. Our patient remained in atrial flutter despite rate control, and thereafter surgery was consulted to evaluate the patient. She underwent hernia repair. After surgery, the patient was taken off rate control and monitored for 72 hours; she did not have any episode of atrial flutter and was discharged with follow up in a week showing no arrhythmia. Her flutter was caused directly by the mechanical effect of the large hiatal hernia pressing against her heart, as the flutter resolved after the operation.

  17. Control of Thermal Deflection, Panel Flutter and Acoustic Fatigue at Elevated Temperatures Using Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh; Huang, Jen-Kuang

    1996-01-01

    The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) will have to be designed to withstand high aerodynamic load at supersonic speeds (panel flutter) and high acoustic load (acoustic or sonic fatigue) due to fluctuating boundary layer or jet engine acoustic pressure. The thermal deflection of the skin panels will also alter the vehicle's configuration, thus it may affect the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle and lead to poor performance. Shape memory alloys (SMA) have an unique ability to recover large strains completely when the alloy is heated above the characteristic transformation (austenite finish T(sub f)) temperature. The recovery stress and elastic modulus are both temperature dependent, and the recovery stress also depends on the initial strain. An innovative concept is to utilize the recovery stress by embedding the initially strained SMA wire in a graphite/epoxy composite laminated panel. The SMA wires are thus restrained and large inplane forces are induced in the panel at elevated temeperatures. By embedding SMA in composite panel, the panel becomes much stiffer at elevated temperatures. That is because the large tensile inplane forces induced in the panel from the SMA recovery stress. A stiffer panel would certainly yield smaller dynamic responses.

  18. Geared-elevator flutter study. [wind tunnel tests of transonic flutter effects on control surfaces of supersonic transport tail assemblies, conducted in a NASA-Langley transonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruhlin, C. L.; Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Gregory, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental and analytical study was made of the transonic flutter characteristics of a supersonic transport tail assembly model having an all-movable, horizontal tail with a geared elevator. Two model configurations, namely, one with a gear-elevator (2.8 to 1.0 gear ratio) and one with locked-elevator (1.0 to 1.0 gear ratio), were flutter tested in the Langley transonic dynamics tunnel with an empennage cantilever-mounted on a sting. The geared-elevator configuration fluttered experimentally at about 20% higher dynamic pressures than the locked-elevator configuration. The experimental flutter dynamic pressure boundaries for both configurations were nearly flat over a Mach number range from 0.9 to 1.1. Flutter calculations (mathematical models) were made for the geared-elevator configuration using three subsonic lifting-surface methods. In one method, the elevator was treated as a discrete surface, and in the other two methods, the stabilizer and elevator were treated as a single warped-surface with the primary difference between these two methods being in the mathematical implementation used. A comparison of the experimental and analytical results shows that the discrete-elevator method predicted best the experimental flutter dynamic pressure level. However, the single warped-surface methods predicts more closely the experimental flutter frequencies and Mach number trends.

  19. Supersonic unstalled flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, J. J.; Goldstein, M. E.; Hartmann, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Recently two flutter analyses have been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center to predict the onset of supersonic unstalled flutter of a cascade of two-dimensional airfoils. The first of these analyzes the onset of supersonic flutter at low levels of aerodynamic loading (i.e., backpressure), while the second examines the occurrence of supersonic flutter at moderate levels of aerodynamic loading. Both of these analyses are based on the linearized unsteady inviscid equations of gas dynamics to model the flow field surrounding the cascade. The details of the development of the solution to each of these models have been published. The objective of the present paper is to utilize these analyses in a parametric study to show the effects of cascade geometry, inlet Mach number, and backpressure on the onset of single and multi degree of freedom unstalled supersonic flutter. Several of the results from this study are correlated against experimental qualitative observation to validate the models.

  20. Wind tunnel test of a fighter aircraft wing/store flutter suppression system: An international effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, C.; Johnson, E. H.; Mills, G. R.; Noll, T. E.; Farmer, M. G.

    1980-01-01

    A 30% scale, half span model of a lightweight fighter aircraft with an active wing/store flutter suppression system was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center sixteen foot transonic dynamics tunnel. The test featured a store configuration that was intentionally designed to exhibit a violent flutter condition. In addition to Northrop organized control laws, three European countries also contributed control laws to stabilize this condition. After the control laws were mechanized by Northrop, they were tested at the Langley facility. The model was tested up to 170% of the open loop flutter dynamic pressure in a number of cases, with the indication that a substantially greater improvement was achievable. Some special features of the test model are discussed and the design and implementation of the control laws as well as the test monitoring techniques and results are presented.

  1. Test Cases for Flutter of the Benchmark Models Rectangular Wings on the Pitch and Plunge Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    The supercritical airfoil was chosen as a relatively modem airfoil for comparison. The BOO12 model was tested first. Three different types of flutter instability boundaries were encountered, a classical flutter boundary, a transonic stall flutter boundary at angle of attack, and a plunge instability near M = 0.9 and for zero angle of attack. This test was made in air and was Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) Test 468. The BSCW model (for Benchmark SuperCritical Wing) was tested next as TDT Test 470. It was tested using both with air and a heavy gas, R-12, as a test medium. The effect of a transition strip on flutter was evaluated in air. The B64AOlO model was subsequently tested as TDT Test 493. Some further analysis of the experimental data for the BOO12 wing is presented. Transonic calculations using the parameters for the BOO12 wing in a two-dimensional typical section flutter analysis are given. These data are supplemented with data from the Benchmark Active Controls Technology model (BACT) given and in the next chapter of this document. The BACT model was of the same planform and airfoil as the BOO12 model, but with spoilers and a trailing edge control. It was tested in the heavy gas R-12, and was instrumented mostly at the 60 per cent span. The flutter data obtained on PAPA and the static aerodynamic test cases from BACT serve as additional data for the BOO12 model. All three types of flutter are included in the BACT Test Cases. In this report several test cases are selected to illustrate trends for a variety of different conditions with emphasis on transonic flutter. Cases are selected for classical and stall flutter for the BSCW model, for classical and plunge for the B64AOlO model, and for classical flutter for the BOO12 model. Test Cases are also presented for BSCW for static angles of attack. Only the mean pressures and the real and imaginary parts of the first harmonic of the pressures are included in the data for the test cases, but digitized time

  2. Unsteady aerodynamic modeling and active aeroelastic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Unsteady aerodynamic modeling techniques are developed and applied to the study of active control of elastic vehicles. The problem of active control of a supercritical flutter mode poses a definite design goal stability, and is treated in detail. The transfer functions relating the arbitrary airfoil motions to the airloads are derived from the Laplace transforms of the linearized airload expressions for incompressible two dimensional flow. The transfer function relating the motions to the circulatory part of these loads is recognized as the Theodorsen function extended to complex values of reduced frequency, and is termed the generalized Theodorsen function. Inversion of the Laplace transforms yields exact transient airloads and airfoil motions. Exact root loci of aeroelastic modes are calculated, providing quantitative information regarding subcritical and supercritical flutter conditions.

  3. Electrophysiological Mechanisms of Atrial Flutter

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Ching- Tai; Chen, Shin-Ann

    2006-01-01

    Atrial flutter (AFL) is a common arrhythmia in clinical practice. Several experimental models such as tricuspid regurgitation model, tricuspid ring model, sterile pericarditis model and atrial crush injury model have provided important information about reentrant circuit and can test the effect of antiarrhythmic drugs. Human atrial flutter has typical and atypical forms. Typical atrial flutter rotates around tricuspid annulus and uses the crista terminalis and sometimes sinus venosa as the boundary. The IVC-tricuspid isthmus is a slow conduction zone and the target of radiofrequency ablation. Atypical atrial flutter may arise from the right or left atrium. Right atrial flutter includes upper loop reentry, free wall reentry and figure of eight reentry. Left atrial flutter includes mitral annular atrial flutter, pulmonary vein-related atrial flutter and left septal atrial flutter. Radiofrequency ablation of the isthmus between the boundaries can eliminate these arrhythmias. PMID:16943903

  4. 14 CFR 23.629 - Flutter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... disconnection of any single element in the primary flight control system, any tab control system, or any flutter..., including speed, damping, mass balance, and control system stiffness; and (2) The natural frequencies of... failure, malfunction, or disconnection of any single element in any tab control system. (2) For...

  5. 14 CFR 23.629 - Flutter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... single element in the primary flight control system, any tab control system, or any flutter damper. (g..., including speed, damping, mass balance, and control system stiffness; and (2) The natural frequencies of..., or disconnection of any single element in any tab control system. (2) For airplanes other than...

  6. 14 CFR 23.629 - Flutter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... single element in the primary flight control system, any tab control system, or any flutter damper. (g..., including speed, damping, mass balance, and control system stiffness; and (2) The natural frequencies of..., or disconnection of any single element in any tab control system. (2) For airplanes other than...

  7. 14 CFR 23.629 - Flutter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... disconnection of any single element in the primary flight control system, any tab control system, or any flutter..., including speed, damping, mass balance, and control system stiffness; and (2) The natural frequencies of... failure, malfunction, or disconnection of any single element in any tab control system. (2) For...

  8. Flutter analysis using transversality theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afolabi, D.

    1993-01-01

    A new method of calculating flutter boundaries of undamped aeronautical structures is presented. The method is an application of the weak transversality theorem used in catastrophe theory. In the first instance, the flutter problem is cast in matrix form using a frequency domain method, leading to an eigenvalue matrix. The characteristic polynomial resulting from this matrix usually has a smooth dependence on the system's parameters. As these parameters change with operating conditions, certain critical values are reached at which flutter sets in. Our approach is to use the transversality theorem in locating such flutter boundaries using this criterion: at a flutter boundary, the characteristic polynomial does not intersect the axis of the abscissa transversally. Formulas for computing the flutter boundaries and flutter frequencies of structures with two degrees of freedom are presented, and extension to multi-degree of freedom systems is indicated. The formulas have obvious applications in, for instance, problems of panel flutter at supersonic Mach numbers.

  9. Flutter Research on Skin Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordes, Eldon E.; Tuovila, Weimer J.; Guy, Lawrence D.

    1960-01-01

    Representative experimental results are presented to show the current status of the panel flutter problem. Results are presented for unstiffened rectangular panels and for rectangular panels stiffened by corrugated backing. Flutter boundaries are established for all types of panels when considered on the basis of equivalent isotropic plates. The effects of Mach number, differential pressure, and aerodynamic heating on panel flutter are discussed. A flutter analysis of orthotropic panels is presented in the appendix.

  10. Evaluation of a stall-flutter spring-damper pushrod in the rotating control system of a CH-54B helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, W. E.; Paul, W. F.; Adams, D. O.

    1974-01-01

    Results of a design and flight test program conducted to define the effect of rotating pushrod damping on stall-flutter induced control loads are presented. The CH-54B helicopter was chosen as the test aircraft because it exhibited stall induced control loads. Damping was introduced into the CH-54B control system by replacing the standard pushrod with spring-damper assemblies. Design features of the spring-damper are described and the results of a dynamic analysis are shown which define the pushrod stiffness and damping requirements. Flight test measurements taken at 47,000 lb gross weight with and without the damper are presented. The results indicate that the spring-damper pushrods reduced high frequency, stall-induced rotating control loads by almost 50%. Fixed system control loads were reduced by 40%. Handling qualities in stall were unchanged, as expected.

  11. Evaluation of Aeroservoelastic Effects on Flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagaraja, K. S.; Felt, Larry R.; Kraft, Raymond

    1998-01-01

    This report presents work performed by The Boeing Company to satisfy the deliverable "Evaluation of aeroservoelastic Effects on Symmetric Flutter" for Subtask 7 of Reference 1. The objective of this report is to incorporate the improved methods for studying the effects of a closed-loop control system on the aeroservoelastic behavior of the airplane planned under NASA HSR technical Integration Task 20 work. Also, a preliminary evaluation of the existing pitch control laws on symmetric flutter of the TCA configuration was addressed."The goal is to develop an improved modeling methodology and perform design studies that account for the aero-structures-systems interaction effects.

  12. An analytical and experimental study to investigate flutter suppression via piezoelectric actuation. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ., 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeg, Jennifer

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to analytically and experimentally study the capabilities of adaptive material plate actuators for suppressing flutter. The validity of analytical modeling techniques for piezoelectric materials was also investigated. Piezoelectrics are materials which are characterized by their ability to produce voltage when subjected to a mechanical strain. The converse piezoelectric effect can be utilized to actuate a structure by applying a voltage. For this investigation, a two degree of freedom wind tunnel model was designed, analyzed, and tested. The model consisted of a rigid airfoil and a flexible mount system which permitted a translational and a rotational degree of freedom. It was designed such that flutter was encounted within the testing envelope of the wind tunnel. Actuators, made of piezoelectric material were affixed to leaf springs of the mount system. Each degree of freedom was controlled by a separate leaf spring. Command signals, applied to the piezoelectric actuators, exerted control over the damping and stiffness properties. A mathematical aeroservoelastic model was constructed using finite element methods, laminated plate theory, and aeroelastic analysis tools. Plant characteristics were determined from this model and verified by open loop experimental tests. A flutter suppression control law was designed and implemented on a digital control computer. Closed loop flutter testing was conducted. The experimental results represent the first time that adaptive materials have been used to actively suppress flutter. It demonstrates that small, carefully placed actuating plates can be used effectively to control aeroelastic response.

  13. Optical detection of blade flutter. [in YF-100 turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieberding, W. C.; Pollack, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    The paper examines the capabilities of photoelectric scanning (PES) and stroboscopic imagery (SI) as optical monitoring tools for detection of the onset of flutter in the fan blades of an aircraft gas turbine engine. Both optical techniques give visual data in real time as well as video-tape records. PES is shown to be an ideal flutter monitor, since a single cathode ray tube displays the behavior of all the blades in a stage simultaneously. Operation of the SI system continuously while searching for a flutter condition imposes severe demands on the flash tube and affects its reliability, thus limiting its use as a flutter monitor. A better method of operation is to search for flutter with the PES and limit the use of SI to those times when the PES indicates interesting blade activity.

  14. Some experiences using wind-tunnel models in active control studies. [minimization of aeroelastic response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Abel, I.; Ruhlin, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    A status report and review of wind tunnel model experimental techniques that have been developed to study and validate the use of active control technology for the minimization of aeroelastic response are presented. Modeling techniques, test procedures, and data analysis methods used in three model studies are described. The studies include flutter mode suppression on a delta-wing model, flutter mode suppression and ride quality control on a 1/30-size model of the B-52 CCV airplane, and an active lift distribution control system on a 1/22 size C-5A model.

  15. An analytical and experimental investigation of flutter suppression via piezoelectric actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeg, Jennifer

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research was to analytically and experimentally study the capabilities of adaptive material plate actuators for suppressing flutter. Piezoelectrics are materials which are characterized by their ability to produce voltage when subjected to a mechanical strain. The converse piezoelectric effect can be utilized to actuate a structure by applying a voltage. For this investigation, a two degree of freedom wind-tunnel model was designed, analyzed, and tested. The model consisted of a rigid wing and a flexible mount system which permitted translational and rotational degrees of freedom. Actuators, made of piezoelectric material were affixed to leaf springs on the mount system. Command signals, applied to the piezoelectric actuators, exerted control over the closed-loop damping and stiffness properties. A mathematical aeroservoelastic model was constructed using finite element and stiffness properties. A mathematical aeroservoelastic model was constructed using finite element methods, laminated plate theory, and aeroelastic analysis tools. A flutter suppression control law was designed, implemented on a digital control computer, and tested to conditions 20 percent above the passive flutter speed of the model. The experimental results represent the first time that adaptive materials have been used to actively suppress flutter. It demonstrates that small, carefully-placed actuating plates can be used effectively to control aeroelastic response.

  16. A feedback linearization approach for panel flutter suppression with piezoelectric actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onawola, Oluseyi Olasupo

    A panel is subject to dynamic instability when induced aerodynamic loads under the supersonic/hypersonic environment result in a self-excited oscillation called panel flutter. The panel of an aircraft that flies at supersonic speed or a structural panel that is in fluid flow at such regime may experience panel flutter. A plate with highly distributed piezoelectric actuators and sensors connected to processing networks, referred to as intelligent plate can actively control its vibrations. The objective of this research is to analytically demonstrate panel flutter suppression using piezoelectric actuation based on feedback linearization controllers. A nonlinear control system is formulated using the nonlinear dynamic equations for a simply supported rectangular panel with piezoelectric layers based on Galerkin's method with modal expansions of nonlinear partial differential equation obtained from von Karman large-deflection plate theory, which accounts for the structure nonlinearity. The nonlinear equations also account for loads such as externally applied in-plane loads, aerodynamic loads, and electrical displacements. The aerodynamic loads are given by the first-order piston theory or the quasi-steady supersonic theory. The control inputs are given by the electric fields required to drive the actuators based on piezoelectric actuation, which is modeled by linear piezoelectric constitutive relations. Outputs of the nonlinear system are feedback and used to transform it into an equivalent controllable linear system in new coordinates by formulating nonlinear feedback control laws, which cancel the nonlinear dynamics resulting in a linear system. The pole placement technique is then employed to make the states of the feedback linearized models locally asymptotically stable at a given equilibrium. Numerical simulations are carried out for the closed-loop systems at dynamic pressures higher than the critical dynamic pressures for the onset of panel flutter, where limit

  17. Supersonic unstalled flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, J. J.; Goldstein, M. E.; Hartmann, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    A parametric study to show the effects of cascade geometry, inlet Mach number, and backpressure on the onset of single and multi degree of freedom unstalled supersonic flutter is presented. Several of the results are correlated against experimental qualitative observation to validate the models.

  18. Evaluation of Aeroservoelastic Effects on Flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagaraja, K. S.; Kraft, raymond; Felt, Larry

    1998-01-01

    The HSCT Flight Controls Group is developing a longitudinal control law, known as Gamma-dot / V, for the NASA HSR program. Currently, this control law is based on a quasi-steady aeroelastic (QSAE) model of the vehicle. This control law was implemented into the p-k flutter analysis process for closed loop aeroservoelastic analysis. The available flexible models, developed for the TCA aeroelastic analysis, were used to assess the effect of control laws on flutter at several different Mach numbers and mass conditions. Significant structures and flight control system interaction was observed during the initial assessment. Figures 1 and 2 present a summary of the effect of total closed loop gain and phase on flutter mechanisms, based on ideal sensors and real sensors, for Mach 0.95 and mass M02 condition. Control laws based on ideal sensors gave rise to increased coupling between the rigid body short period mode and the first symmetric elastic mode. This reduced the stability margins for the first elastic mode and does not meet the required 6 dB gain margin requirement. The effect of "real" sensors significantly increased the structures and control system interactions. This caused the elastic,modes to be highly unstable throughout most of the flight envelope. State-space models were developed for several conditions and then MATLAB program was used for the aeroservoelastic stability analysis. These results provided an independent verification of the p-k flutter analysis findings. Good overall agreement was observed between the p-k flutter analysis and state-space model results for both damping and frequency comparisons. These results are also included in this document.

  19. Application of matrix singular value properties for evaluating gain and phase margins of multiloop systems. [stability margins for wing flutter suppression and drone lateral attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, V.; Newsom, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A stability margin evaluation method in terms of simultaneous gain and phase changes in all loops of a multiloop system is presented. A universal gain-phase margin evaluation diagram is constructed by generalizing an existing method using matrix singular value properties. Using this diagram and computing the minimum singular value of the system return difference matrix over the operating frequency range, regions of guaranteed stability margins can be obtained. Singular values are computed for a wing flutter suppression and a drone lateral attitude control problem. The numerical results indicate that this method predicts quite conservative stability margins. In the second example if the eigenvalue magnitude is used instead of the singular value, as a measure of nearness to singularity, more realistic stability margins are obtained. However, this relaxed measure generally cannot guarantee global stability.

  20. Active control of aerothermoelastic effects for a conceptual hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeg, Jennifer; Gilbert, Michael G.; Pototzky, Anthony S.

    1990-01-01

    Procedures for and results of aeroservothermoelastic studies are described. The objectives of these studies were to develop the necessary procedures for performing an aeroelastic analysis of an aerodynamically heated vehicle and to analyze a configuration in the classical cold state and in a hot state. Major tasks include the development of the structural and aerodynamic models, open loop analyses, design of active control laws for improving dynamic responses and analyses of the closed loop vehicles. The analyses performed focused on flutter speed calculations, short period eigenvalue trends and statistical analyses of the vehicle response to controls and turbulence. Improving the ride quality of the vehicle and raising the flutter boundary of the aerodynamically-heated vehicle up to that of the cold vehicle were the objectives of the control law design investigations.

  1. Roll plus maneuver load alleviation control system designs for the active flexible wing wind-tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Douglas B.; Miller, Gerald D.; Klepl, Martin J.

    1991-01-01

    Three designs for controlling loads while rolling for the Active Flexible Wing (AFW) are discussed. The goal is to provide good roll control while simultaneously limiting the torsion and bending loads experienced by the wing. The first design uses Linear Quadratic Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR) modern control methods to control roll rate and torsional loads at four different wing locations. The second design uses a nonlinear surface command function to produce surface position commands as a function of current roll rate and commanded roll rate. The final design is a flutter suppression control system. This system stabilizes both symmetric and axisymmetric flutter modes of the AFW.

  2. A summary of the active flexible wing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Boyd, III; Cole, Stanley R.; Miller, Gerald D.

    1992-01-01

    A summary of the NASA/Rockwell Active Flexible Wing Program is presented. Major elements of the program are presented. Key program accomplishments included single- and multiple-mode flutter suppression, load alleviation and load control during rapid roll maneuvers, and multi-input/multi-output multiple-function active controls tests above the open-loop flutter boundary.

  3. Some Experimental Studies of Panel Flutter at Mach Number 1.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sylvester, Maurice A; Baker, John E

    1957-01-01

    Experimental studies of panel flutter using thin metal plates were conducted at a Mach number of 1.3 to verify its existence and to study the effects of some structural parameters on the flutter characteristics. The effects of tensile forces and buckling were studied on panels clamped front and rear, in addition to initially buckled panels clamped on all four edges. Panel flutter was obtained under controlled laboratory conditions and it was found that tensile forces, shortening the panels, and increasing the bending stiffness were effective means for eliminating flutter. Buckled panels were more susceptible to flutter than unbuckled panels. No apparent systematic trends in the flutter modes or frequencies could be observed.

  4. Real-time flutter identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, R.; Walker, R.

    1985-01-01

    The techniques and a FORTRAN 77 MOdal Parameter IDentification (MOPID) computer program developed for identification of the frequencies and damping ratios of multiple flutter modes in real time are documented. Physically meaningful model parameterization was combined with state of the art recursive identification techniques and applied to the problem of real time flutter mode monitoring. The performance of the algorithm in terms of convergence speed and parameter estimation error is demonstrated for several simulated data cases, and the results of actual flight data analysis from two different vehicles are presented. It is indicated that the algorithm is capable of real time monitoring of aircraft flutter characteristics with a high degree of reliability.

  5. Flutter of swept fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kielb, R. E.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of sweep on fan blade flutter is studied by applying the analytical methods developed for aeroelastic analysis of advance turboprops. Two methods are used. The first method utilizes an approximate structural model in which the blade is represented by a swept, nonuniform beam. The second method utilizes a finite element technique to conduct modal flutter analysis. For both methods the unsteady aerodynamic loads are calculated using two dimensional cascade theories which are modified to account for sweep. An advanced fan stage is analyzed with 0, 15 and 30 degrees of sweep. It is shown that sweep has a beneficial effect on predominantly torsional flutter and a detrimental effect on predominantly bending flutter. This detrimental effect is shown to be significantly destabilizing for 30 degrees of sweep.

  6. Labyrinth Seal Flutter Analysis and Test Validation in Support of Robust Rocket Engine Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Aini, Yehia; Park, John; Frady, Greg; Nesman, Tom

    2010-01-01

    High energy-density turbomachines, like the SSME turbopumps, utilize labyrinth seals, also referred to as knife-edge seals, to control leakage flow. The pressure drop for such seals is order of magnitude higher than comparable jet engine seals. This is aggravated by the requirement of tight clearances resulting in possible unfavorable fluid-structure interaction of the seal system (seal flutter). To demonstrate these characteristics, a benchmark case of a High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP) outlet Labyrinth seal was studied in detail. First, an analytical assessment of the seal stability was conducted using a Pratt & Whitney legacy seal flutter code. Sensitivity parameters including pressure drop, rotor-to-stator running clearances and cavity volumes were examined and modeling strategies established. Second, a concurrent experimental investigation was undertaken to validate the stability of the seal at the equivalent operating conditions of the pump. Actual pump hardware was used to construct the test rig, also referred to as the (Flutter Rig). The flutter rig did not include rotational effects or temperature. However, the use of Hydrogen gas at high inlet pressure provided good representation of the critical parameters affecting flutter especially the speed of sound. The flutter code predictions showed consistent trends in good agreement with the experimental data. The rig test program produced a stability threshold empirical parameter that separated operation with and without flutter. This empirical parameter was used to establish the seal build clearances to avoid flutter while providing the required cooling flow metering. The calibrated flutter code along with the empirical flutter parameter was used to redesign the baseline seal resulting in a flutter-free robust configuration. Provisions for incorporation of mechanical damping devices were introduced in the redesigned seal to ensure added robustness

  7. Evaluation of somatosensory cortical differences between flutter and vibration tactile stimuli.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Woo; Chung, Yoon Gi; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Park, Jang-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2013-01-01

    In parallel with advances in haptic-based mobile computing systems, understanding of the neural processing of vibrotactile information becomes of great importance. In the human nervous system, two types of vibrotactile information, flutter and vibration, are delivered from mechanoreceptors to the somatosensory cortex through segregated neural afferents. To investigate how the somatosensory cortex differentiates flutter and vibration, we analyzed the cortical responses to vibrotactile stimuli with a wide range of frequencies. Specifically, we examined whether cortical activity changed most around 50 Hz, which is known as a boundary between flutter and vibration. We explored various measures to evaluate separability of cortical activity across frequency and found that the hypothesis margin method resulted in the greatest separability between flutter and vibration. This result suggests that flutter and vibration information may be processed by different neural processes in the somatosensory cortex.

  8. Flutter analysis of a sounding rocket fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natori, M.; Onoda, J.; Kitamura, T.

    The procedures used to characterize the flutter behavior of the fin of the ISAS M-3S II launch vehicle (capable of launching 750 kg to LEO) are described. Consideration is given to supersonic flutter computations, single-point-excitation and vibration testing, construction of flutter models, and transonic wind-tunnel tests. Tables, graphs, diagrams, and photographs are provided.

  9. Analytical and experimental investigation of mistuning in propfan flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaza, Krishna Rao V.; Mehmed, Oral; Williams, Marc; Moss, Larry A.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation of the effects of mistuning on propfan subsonic flutter was performed. The analytical model is based on the normal modes of a rotating composite blade and a three-dimensinal subsonic unsteady lifting surface aerodynamic theory. Theoretical and experimental results are compared for selected cases at different blade pitch angles, rotational speeds, and free-stream Mach numbers. The comparison shows a reasonably good agreement between theory and experiment. Both theory and experiment showed that combined mode shape, frequency, and aerodynamic mistuning can have a beneficial or adverse effect on blade damping depending on Mach number. Additional parametric results showed that alternative blade frequency mistuning does not have enough potential for it to be used as a passive flutter control in propfans similar to the one studied. It can be inferred from the results that a laminated composite propfan blade can be tailored to optimize its flutter speed by selecting the proper ply angles.

  10. Real-time flutter analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R.; Gupta, N.

    1984-01-01

    The important algorithm issues necessary to achieve a real time flutter monitoring system; namely, the guidelines for choosing appropriate model forms, reduction of the parameter convergence transient, handling multiple modes, the effect of over parameterization, and estimate accuracy predictions, both online and for experiment design are addressed. An approach for efficiently computing continuous-time flutter parameter Cramer-Rao estimate error bounds were developed. This enables a convincing comparison of theoretical and simulation results, as well as offline studies in preparation for a flight test. Theoretical predictions, simulation and flight test results from the NASA Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Test (DAST) Program are compared.

  11. Optical Detection of Blade Flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieberding, W. C.; Pollack, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Dynamic strain gages mounted on rotor blades are used as the primary instrumentation for detecting the onset of flutter and defining the vibratory mode and frequency. Optical devices are evaluated for performing the same measurements as well as providing supplementary information on the vibratory characteristics. Two separate methods are studied: stroboscopic imagery of the blade tip and photoelectric scanning of blade tip motion. Both methods give visual data in real time as well as video tape records. The optical systems are described, and representative results are presented. The potential of this instrumentation in flutter research is discussed.

  12. Friction damping of flutter in gas turbine engine airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, A.; Griffin, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using blade-to-ground friction dampers to stabilize flutter in blades. The response of an equivalent one mode model in which the aerodynamic force is represented as negative viscous damping is examined to investigate the following issues: the range of amplitudes over which friction damping can stabilize the response, the maximum negative aerodynamic damping that can be stabilized in such a manner, the effect of simultaneous resonant excitation on these stability limits, and the determination of those damper parameters which will be the best for flutter control.

  13. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Dethman, H. A.; Gratzer, L. B.; Maeshiro, A.; Gangsaas, D.; Blight, J. D.; Buchan, S. M.; Crumb, C. B.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of the Active Controls Technology (ACT) for the advanced subsonic transport project is investigated through analysis of the systems technical data. Control systems technologies under examination include computerized reliability analysis, pitch axis fly by wire actuator, flaperon actuation system design trade study, control law synthesis and analysis, flutter mode control and gust load alleviation analysis, and implementation of alternative ACT systems. Extensive analysis of the computer techniques involved in each system is included.

  14. Design of the flutter suppression system for DAST ARW-IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, J. R.; Pototzky, A. S.; Abel, I.

    1983-01-01

    The design of the flutter suppression system for a remotely-piloted research vehicle is described. The modeling of the aeroelastic system, the methodology used to synthesized the control law, the analytical results used to evaluate the control law performance, and ground testing of the flutter suppression system onboard the aircraft are discussed. The major emphasis is on the use of optimal control techniques employed during the synthesis of the control law.

  15. Safeguards Against Flutter of Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deVries, Gerhard

    1956-01-01

    This report is a complilation of practical rules, derived at the same time from theory and from experience, intended to guide the aeronautical engineer in the design of flutter-free airplanes. Rules applicable to the wing, the ailerons, flaps, tabs,tail surfaces, and fuselage are discussed.

  16. Active load control during rolling maneuvers. [performed in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.

    1994-01-01

    A rolling maneuver load alleviation (RMLA) system has been demonstrated on the active flexible wing (AFW) wind tunnel model in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The objective was to develop a systematic approach for designing active control laws to alleviate wing loads during rolling maneuvers. Two RMLA control laws were developed that utilized outboard control-surface pairs (leading and trailing edge) to counteract the loads and that used inboard trailing-edge control-surface pairs to maintain roll performance. Rolling maneuver load tests were performed in the TDT at several dynamic pressures that included two below and one 11 percent above open-loop flutter dynamic pressure. The RMLA system was operated simultaneously with an active flutter suppression system above open-loop flutter dynamic pressure. At all dynamic pressures for which baseline results were obtained, torsion-moment loads were reduced for both RMLA control laws. Results for bending-moment load reductions were mixed; however, design equations developed in this study provided conservative estimates of load reduction in all cases.

  17. Optical measurement of unducted fan flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurkov, Anatole P.; Mehmed, Oral

    1990-01-01

    A nonintrusive optical method is described for flutter vibrations in unducted fan or propeller rotors and provides detailed spectral results for two flutter modes of a scaled unducted fan. The measurements were obtained in a high-speed wind tunnel. A single-rotor and a dual-rotor counterrotating configuration of the model were tested; however, only the forward rotor of the counterrotating configuration fluttered. Conventional strain gages were used to obtain flutter frequency; optical data provided complete phase results and an indication of the flutter mode shape through the ratio of the leading- to trailing-edge flutter amplitudes near the blade tip. In the transonic regime exhibited some features that are usually associated with nonlinear vibrations. Experimental mode shape and frequencies were compared with calculated values that included centrifugal effects.

  18. Neural predictive control for active buffet alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pado, Lawrence E.; Lichtenwalner, Peter F.; Liguore, Salvatore L.; Drouin, Donald

    1998-06-01

    The adaptive neural control of aeroelastic response (ANCAR) and the affordable loads and dynamics independent research and development (IRAD) programs at the Boeing Company jointly examined using neural network based active control technology for alleviating undesirable vibration and aeroelastic response in a scale model aircraft vertical tail. The potential benefits of adaptive control includes reducing aeroelastic response associated with buffet and atmospheric turbulence, increasing flutter margins, and reducing response associated with nonlinear phenomenon like limit cycle oscillations. By reducing vibration levels and thus loads, aircraft structures can have lower acquisition cost, reduced maintenance, and extended lifetimes. Wind tunnel tests were undertaken on a rigid 15% scale aircraft in Boeing's mini-speed wind tunnel, which is used for testing at very low air speeds up to 80 mph. The model included a dynamically scaled flexible fail consisting of an aluminum spar with balsa wood cross sections with a hydraulically powered rudder. Neural predictive control was used to actuate the vertical tail rudder in response to strain gauge feedback to alleviate buffeting effects. First mode RMS strain reduction of 50% was achieved. The neural predictive control system was developed and implemented by the Boeing Company to provide an intelligent, adaptive control architecture for smart structures applications with automated synthesis, self-optimization, real-time adaptation, nonlinear control, and fault tolerance capabilities. It is designed to solve complex control problems though a process of automated synthesis, eliminating costly control design and surpassing it in many instances by accounting for real world non-linearities.

  19. F-16 flutter model studies with external wing stores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foughner, J. T., Jr.; Bensinger, C. T.

    1977-01-01

    Results from transonic flutter model studies are presented. The flutter model was constructed to support the flutter prevention and clearance program from preliminary design through flight flutter tests. The model tests were conducted in the Langley transonic dynamics tunnel. The large full span free-flying model was shown to be an effective tool in defining airplane flutter characteristics by demonstrating freedom from flutter for most configurations and by defining optimum solutions for a few troublesome configurations.

  20. F-16 flutter model studies with external wing stores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foughner, J. T., Jr.; Bensinger, C. T.

    1977-01-01

    The flutter prevention and clearance task for the F-16 airplane is being accomplished in a combined analysis, wind-tunnel dynamic model test, and flight flutter test program. This paper presents highlight results from transonic flutter model studies. The flutter model was constructed to support the flutter prevention and clearance program from preliminary design through flight flutter tests. The model tests were conducted in NASA's Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The large full-span free-flying model is shown to be an effective tool in defining airplane flutter characteristics by demonstrating freedom from flutter for most configurations and by defining optimum solutions for a few troublesome configurations.

  1. A Wind-Tunnel Parametric Investigation of Tiltrotor Whirl-Flutter Stability Boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piatak, David J.; Kvaternik, Raymond G.; Nixon, Mark W.; Langston, Chester W.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Bennett, Richard L.; Brown, Ross K.

    2001-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation of tiltrotor whirl-flutter stability boundaries has been conducted on a 1/5-size semispan tiltrotor model known as the Wing and Rotor Aeroelastic Test System (WRATS) in the NASA-Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel as part of a joint NASA/Army/Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (BHTI) research program. The model was first developed by BHTI as part of the JVX (V-22) research and development program in the 1980's and was recently modified to incorporate a hydraulically-actuated swashplate control system for use in active controls research. The modifications have changed the model's pylon mass properties sufficiently to warrant testing to re-establish its baseline stability boundaries. A parametric investigation of the effect of rotor design variables on stability was also conducted. The model was tested in both the on-downstop and off-downstop configurations, at cruise flight and hover rotor rotational speeds, and in both air and heavy gas (R-134a) test mediums. Heavy gas testing was conducted to quantify Mach number compressibility effects on tiltrotor stability. Experimental baseline stability boundaries in air are presented with comparisons to results from parametric variations of rotor pitch-flap coupling and control system stiffness. Increasing the rotor pitch-flap coupling (delta(sub 3) more negative) was found to have a destabilizing effect on stability, while a reduction in control system stiffness was found to have little effect on whirl-flutter stability. Results indicate that testing in R-134a, and thus matching full-scale tip Mach number, has a destabilizing effect, which demonstrates that whirl-flutter stability boundaries in air are unconservative.

  2. An application of eigenspace methods to symmetric flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennell, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    An eigenspace assignment approach to the design of parameter insensitive control laws for linear multivariable systems is presented. The control design scheme utilizes flexibility in eigenvector assignments to reduce control system sensitivity to changes in system parameters. The methods involve use of the singular value decomposition to provide an exact description of allowable eigenvectors in terms of a minimum number of design parameters. In a design example, the methods are applied to the problem of symmetric flutter suppression in an aeroelastic vehicle. In this example the flutter mode is sensitive to changes in dynamic pressure and eigenspace methods are used to enhance the performance of a stabilizing minimum energy/linear quadratic regulator controller and associated observer. Results indicate that the methods provide feedback control laws that make stability of the nominal closed loop systems insensitive to changes in dynamic pressure.

  3. Design verification and fabrication of active control systems for the DAST ARW-2 high aspect ratio wing, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    A study was conducted under Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program to accomplish the final design and hardware fabrication for four active control systems compatible with and ready for installation in the NASA Aeroelastic Research Wing No. 2 (ARW-2) and Firebee II drone flight test vehicle. The wing structure was designed so that Active Control Systems (ACS) are required in the normal flight envelope by integrating control system design with aerodynamics and structure technologies. The DAST ARW-2 configuration uses flutter suppression, relaxed static stability, and gust and maneuver load alleviation ACS systems, and an automatic flight control system. Performance goals and criteria were applied to individual systems and the systems collectively to assure that vehicle stability margins, flutter margins, flying qualities and load reductions are achieved.

  4. Design verification and fabrication of active control systems for the DAST ARW-2 high aspect ratio wing. Part 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    This is Part 2-Appendices of a study conducted under Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Program to accomplish the final design and hardware fabrication for four active control systems compatible with and ready for installation in the NASA Aeroelastic Research Wing No. 2 (ARW-2) and Firebee II drone flight test vehicle. The wing structure was designed so that Active Control Systems (ACS) are required in the normal flight envelope by integrating control system design with aerodynamics and structure technologies. The DAST ARW-2 configuration uses flutter suppression, relaxed static stability, and gust and maneuver load alleviation ACS systems, and an automatic flight control system. Performance goals and criteria were applied to individual systems and the systems collectively to assure that vehicle stability margins, flutter margins, flying qualities, and load reductions were achieved.

  5. Current and Future Research in Active Control of Lightweight, Flexible Structures Using the X-56 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, John J.; Bosworth, John T.; Burken, John J.; Suh, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    The X-56 Multi-Utility Technology Testbed aircraft system is a versatile experimental research flight platform. The system was primarily designed to investigate active control of lightweight flexible structures, but is reconfigurable and capable of hosting a wide breadth of research. Current research includes flight experimentation of a Lockheed Martin designed active control flutter suppression system. Future research plans continue experimentation with alternative control systems, explore the use of novel sensor systems, and experiments with the use of novel control effectors. This paper describes the aircraft system, current research efforts designed around the system, and future planned research efforts that will be hosted on the aircraft system.

  6. 14 CFR 27.629 - Flutter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flutter. 27.629 Section 27.629 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 27.629 Flutter. Each...

  7. 14 CFR 27.629 - Flutter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flutter. 27.629 Section 27.629 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 27.629 Flutter. Each...

  8. 14 CFR 27.629 - Flutter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flutter. 27.629 Section 27.629 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 27.629 Flutter. Each...

  9. 14 CFR 27.629 - Flutter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flutter. 27.629 Section 27.629 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 27.629 Flutter. Each...

  10. 14 CFR 27.629 - Flutter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flutter. 27.629 Section 27.629 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 27.629 Flutter. Each...

  11. LED's and the "Fluttering Heart" Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, John W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the nineteenth-century parlor trick entitled the Fluttering Heart phenomenon which uses a red heart on a bright blue background. Discusses theories concerning the apparent fluttering. Suggests doing the trick with a red light-emitting diode in a darkened room. (MVL)

  12. F-15 flight flutter test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, H.; Foppe, G. F.; Grossman, D. T.

    1976-01-01

    The modes to be observed during the F-15 flight flutter test program were selected on the basis of the results of analytical studies, wind tunnel tests, and ground vibration tests. The modes (both symmetrical and antisymmetrical) tracked on this basis were: fin first bending, fin torsion, fin tip roll, stabilator bending, stabilator pitch, boom lateral bending, boom torsion, boom vertical bending, wing first bending, wing second bending, wing first torsion, outer wing torsion, and aileron rotation. Data obtained for these various modes were evaluated in terms of damping versus airspeed at 1525 m (5000 ft), damping versus altitude at the cross-section Mach numbers (to extrapolate to the damping value to be expected at sea level), and flutter boundaries on the basis of flutter margin of various modal pairs representing potential flutter mechanisms. Results of these evaluations are summarized in terms of minimum predicted flutter margin for the various mechanisms.

  13. Flutter Boundary Identification From Simulation Time Histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Myles; Goggin, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    While there has been much recent progress in simulating nonlinear aeroelastic systems, and in predicting many of the aeroelastic phenomena of concern in transport aircraft design (i.e. transonic flutter buckets), the utility of a simulation in generating an understanding of the flutter behavior is limited. This is due in part to the high cost of generating these simulations; and the implied limitation on the number of conditions that can be analyzed, but there are also some difficulties introduced by the very nature of a simulation. Flutter engineers have traditionally worked in the frequency domain, and are accustomed to describing the flutter behavior of an airplane in terms of its V-G and V-F (or Q-G and Q-F) plots and flutter mode shapes. While the V-G and V-F plots give information about how the dynamic response of an airplane changes as the airspeed is increased, the simulation only gives information about one isolated condition (Mach, airspeed, altitude, etc.). Therefore, where a traditional flutter analysis can let the engineer determine an airspeed at which an airplane becomes unstable, while a simulation only serves as a binary check: either the airplane is fluttering at this condition, or it is not. In this document, a new technique is described in which system identification is used to easily extract modal frequencies and damping ratios from simulation time histories, and shows how the identified parameters can be used to determine the variation in frequency and dampin,o ratio as the airspeed is changed. This technique not only provides the flutter engineer with added insight into the aeroelastic behavior of the airplane, but it allows calculation of flutter mode shapes, and allows estimation of flutter boundaries while minimizing the number of simulations required.

  14. Airfoil flutter model suspension system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Wilmer H. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A wind tunnel suspension system for testing flutter models under various loads and at various angles of attack is described. The invention comprises a mounting bracket assembly affixing the suspension system to the wind tunnel, a drag-link assembly and a compound spring arrangement comprises a plunge spring working in opposition to a compressive spring so as to provide a high stiffness to trim out steady state loads and simultaneously a low stiffness to dynamic loads. By this arrangement an airfoil may be tested for oscillatory response in both plunge and pitch modes while being held under high lifting loads in a wind tunnel.

  15. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Current and Advanced Technology ACT control system definition tasks of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program are summarized. The systems mechanize six active control functions: (1) pitch augmented stability; (2) angle of attack limiting; (3) lateral/directional augmented stability; (4) gust load alleviation; (5) maneuver load control; and (6) flutter mode control. The redundant digital control systems meet all function requirements with required reliability and declining weight and cost as advanced technology is introduced.

  16. Subsonic-transonic stall flutter study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stardter, H.

    1979-01-01

    The objective of the Subsonic/Transonic Stall Flutter Program was to obtain detailed measurements of both the steady and unsteady flow field surrounding a rotor and the mechanical state of the rotor while it was operating in both steady and flutter modes to provide a basis for future analysis and for development of theories describing the flutter phenomenon. The program revealed that while all blades flutter at the same frequency, they do not flutter at the same amplitude, and their interblade phase angles are not equal. Such a pattern represents the superposition of a number of rotating nodal diameter patterns, each characterized by a different amplitude and different phase indexing, but each rotating at a speed that results in the same flutter frequency as seen in the rotor system. Review of the steady pressure contours indicated that flutter may alter the blade passage pressure distribution. The unsteady pressure amplitude contour maps reveal regions of high unsteady pressure amplitudes near the leading edge, lower amplitudes near the trailing.

  17. On bimodal flutter behavior of a flexible airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drazumeric, Radovan; Gjerek, Bojan; Kosel, Franc; Marzocca, Pier

    2014-02-01

    The dynamic aeroelastic behavior of an elastically supported airfoil is studied in order to investigate the possibilities of increasing critical flutter speed by exploiting its chord-wise flexibility. The flexible airfoil concept is implemented using a rigid airfoil-shaped leading edge, and a flexible thin laminated composite plate conformally attached to its trailing edge. The flutter behavior is studied in terms of the number of laminate plies used in the composite plate for a given aeroelastic system configuration. The flutter behavior is predicted by using an eigenfunction expansion approach which is also used to design a laminated plate in order to attain superior flutter characteristics. Such an airfoil is characterized by two types of flutter responses, the classical airfoil flutter and the plate flutter. Analysis shows that a significant increase in the critical flutter speed can be achieved with high plunge and low pitch stiffness in the region where the aeroelastic system exhibits a bimodal flutter behavior, e.g., where the airfoil flutter and the plate flutter occur simultaneously. The predicted flutter behavior of a flexible airfoil is experimentally verified by conducting a series of systematic aeroelastic system configurations wind tunnel flutter campaigns. The experimental investigations provide, for each type of flutter, a measured flutter response, including the one with indicated bimodal behavior.

  18. Limit cycle oscillation of a fluttering plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Wei-Liang

    1992-09-01

    The limit cycle oscillation for a cantilever plate in a uniform flow stream is investigated. Von Karman's theory for a large deflection plate and quasi-steady aerodynamic theory are assumed. The equations for computing the nonlinear oscillation of a fluttering cantilever plate are derived by means of Rayleigh-Ritz approach. Lagrange's equations and a set of mode function expansions are employed. Time marching simulation is used to determine the limit cycle oscillation and fluttering boundary. The results indicate that the modal expansion is of convergence. The length-to-width ratio of a plate has a great effect on the flutter amplitude of the limit cycle.

  19. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transpot project-demonstration act system definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Crumb, C. B.; Flora, C. C.; Macdonald, K. A. B.; Smith, R. D.; Sassi, A. P.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    The 1985 ACT airplane is the Final Active Controls Technology (ACT) Airplane with the addition of three-axis fly by wire. Thus it retains all the efficiency features of the full ACT system plus the weight and cost savings accruing from deletion of the mechanical control system. The control system implements the full IAAC spectrum of active controls except flutter-mode control, judged essentially nonbeneficial, and incorporates new control surfaces called flaperons to make the most of wing-load alleviation. This redundant electronic system is conservatively designed to preserve the extreme reliability required of crucial short-period pitch augmentation, which provides more than half of the fuel savings.

  20. Flutter analysis of composite box beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Greenman, Matthew

    1995-01-01

    The dynamic aeroelastic instability of flutter is an important factor in the design of modern high-speed, flexible aircraft. The current trend is toward the creative use of composites to delay flutter. To obtain an optimum design, we need an accurate as well as efficient model. As a first step towards this goal, flutter analysis is carried out for an unswept composite box beam using a linear structural model and Theodorsen's unsteady aerodynamic theory. Structurally, the wing was modeled as a thin-walled box-beam of rectangular cross section. Theodorsen's theory was used to get 2-D unsteady aerodynamic forces, which were integrated over the span. A free-vibration analysis is carried out. These fundamental modes are used to get the flutter solution using the V-g method. Future work is intended to build on this foundation.

  1. Flutter Calculations for an Experimental Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Srivastava, Rakesh; Panovsky, Josef; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Stefko, George L.

    2003-01-01

    During testing, an experimental forward-swept fan encountered flutter at part-speed conditions. A three-dimensional propulsion aeroelasticity code, based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach, was used to model the aeroelastic behavior of this fan. This paper describes the flutter calculations and compares the results to the experimental measurements. Results of sensitivity studies are also presented that show the relative importance of different aspects of aeroelastic modeling.

  2. Influence of mistuning on blade torsional flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical technique for the prediction of fan blade flutter was evaluated by utilizing first stage fan flutter data from tests on an advanced high performance engine. The formulation includes both aerodynamic and mechanical coupling among all the blades of the assembly. Mistuning is accounted for in the analysis so that individual blade inertias, frequencies, or damping can be considered. Airfoil stability was predicted by calculating a flutter determinant, the eigenvalues of which indicate the extent of susceptibility to flutter. When blade to blade differences in frequencies are considered, a stable system is predicted for the test points examined. For a tuned system, it was found that torsional flutter can be predicted at a limited number of interblade phase angles. Examination of these phase angles indicated that they were "close" to the condition of acoustic resonance. For the range of Mach numbers and reduced frequencies considered, the so called subcritical flutter cannot be predicted. The essential influence of mechanical coupling among the blades is to change the frequencies of the system with little or no change in damping; however, aerodynamic coupling together with mechanical coupling could change not only frequencies, but also damping in the system, with a trend toward instability.

  3. Method for experimental determination of flutter speed by parameter identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.; Gilyard, Glenn B.

    1989-01-01

    A method for flight flutter testing is proposed which enables one to determine the flutter dynamic pressure from flights flown far below the flutter dynamic pressure. The method is based on the identification of the coefficients of the equations of motion at low dynamic pressures, followed by the solution of these equations to compute the flutter dynamic pressure. The initial results of simulated data reported in the present work indicate that the method can accurately predict the flutter dynamic pressure, as described. If no insurmountable difficulties arise in the implementation of this method, it may significantly improve the procedures for flight flutter testing.

  4. Modeling the Benchmark Active Control Technology Wind-Tunnel Model for Active Control Design Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the formulation of a model of the dynamic behavior of the Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) wind tunnel model for active control design and analysis applications. The model is formed by combining the equations of motion for the BACT wind tunnel model with actuator models and a model of wind tunnel turbulence. The primary focus of this report is the development of the equations of motion from first principles by using Lagrange's equations and the principle of virtual work. A numerical form of the model is generated by making use of parameters obtained from both experiment and analysis. Comparisons between experimental and analytical data obtained from the numerical model show excellent agreement and suggest that simple coefficient-based aerodynamics are sufficient to accurately characterize the aeroelastic response of the BACT wind tunnel model. The equations of motion developed herein have been used to aid in the design and analysis of a number of flutter suppression controllers that have been successfully implemented.

  5. Vehicle design considerations for active control application to subsonic transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, L. G.; Clement, W. F.

    1974-01-01

    The state of the art in active control technology is summarized. How current design criteria and airworthiness regulations might restrict application of this emerging technology to subsonic CTOL transports of the 1980's are discussed. Facets of active control technology considered are: (1) augmentation of relaxed inherent stability; (2) center-of-gravity control; (3) ride quality control; (4) load control; (5) flutter control; (6) envelope limiting, and (7) pilot interface with the control system. A summary and appraisal of the current state of the art, design criteria, and recommended practices, as well as a projection of the risk in applying each of these facets of active control technology is given. A summary of pertinent literature and technical expansions is included.

  6. Active Control Analysis for Aeroelastic Instabilities in Turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Srivastava, Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Turbomachines onboard aircraft operate in a highly complex and harsh environment. The unsteady flowfield inherent to turbomachines leads to several problems associated with safety, stability, performance and noise. In-flight surge or flutter incidents could be catastrophic and impact the safety and reliability of the aircraft. High-Cycle-Fatigue (HCF), on the other hand, can significantly impact safety, readiness and maintenance costs. To avoid or minimize these problems generally a more conservative design method must be initiated which results in thicker blades and a loss of performance. Actively controlled turbomachines have the potential to reduce or even eliminate the instabilities by impacting the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics. By modifying the unsteady aerodynamics, active control may significantly improve the safety and performance especially at off-design conditions, reduce noise, and increase the range of operation of the turbomachine. Active control can also help improve reliability for mission critical applications such as the Mars Flyer. In recent years, HCF has become one of the major issues concerning the cost of operation for current turbomachines. HCF alone accounts for roughly 30% of maintenance cost for the United States Air-Force. Other instabilities (flutter, surge, rotating-stall, etc.) are generally identified during the design and testing phase. Usually a redesign overcomes these problems, often reducing performance and range of operation, and resulting in an increase in the development cost and time. Despite a redesign, the engines do not have the capabilities or means to cope with in-flight unforeseen vibration, stall, flutter or surge related instabilities. This could require the entire fleet worldwide to be stood down for expensive modifications. These problems can be largely overcome by incorporating active control within the turbomachine and its design. Active control can help in maintaining the integrity of the system in

  7. Flutter calculations in three degrees of freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Garrick, I E

    1942-01-01

    The present paper is a continuation of the general study of flutter published in NACA reports nos. 496 and 685. The paper is mainly devoted to flutter in three degrees of freedom (bending, torsion, and aileron) for which a number of selected cases have been calculated and presented in graphical form. The results are analyzed and discussed with regard to the effects of structural damping, of fractional-span ailerons, and of mass-balancing. The analysis shows that more emphasis should be put on the effect of structural damping and less on mass-balancing. The conclusion is drawn that a definite minimum amount of structural damping, which is usually found to be present, is essential in the calculations for an adequate description of the flutter case. Theoretical flutter predictions are thus brought into closer agreement with the facts of experience. A brief discussion is included of a particular biplane that had experienced flutter at about 200 miles per hour. Some simplifications have been achieved in the method of calculation. (author)

  8. Flight flutter testing of multi-jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartley, J.

    1975-01-01

    Extensive flight flutter tests were conducted by BAC on B-52 and KC-135 prototype airplanes. The need for and importance of these flight flutter programs to Boeing airplane design are discussed. Basic concepts of flight flutter testing of multi-jet aircraft and analysis of the test data will be presented. Exciter equipment and instrumentation employed in these tests will be discussed.

  9. The application of digital computers to near-real-time processing of flutter test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, S. R.

    1976-01-01

    Procedures used in monitoring, analyzing, and displaying flight and ground flutter test data are presented. These procedures include three digital computer programs developed to process structural response data in near real time. Qualitative and quantitative modal stability data are derived from time history response data resulting from rapid sinusoidal frequency sweep forcing functions, tuned-mode quick stops, and pilot induced control pulses. The techniques have been applied to both fixed and rotary wing aircraft, during flight, whirl tower rotor systems tests, and wind tunnel flutter model tests. An hydraulically driven oscillatory aerodynamic vane excitation system utilized during the flight flutter test programs accomplished during Lockheed L-1011 and S-3A development is described.

  10. Generalization of the subsonic kernel function in the s-plane, with applications to flutter analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, H. J.; Desmarais, R. N.

    1984-01-01

    A generalized subsonic unsteady aerodynamic kernel function, valid for both growing and decaying oscillatory motions, is developed and applied in a modified flutter analysis computer program to solve the boundaries of constant damping ratio as well as the flutter boundary. Rates of change of damping ratios with respect to dynamic pressure near flutter are substantially lower from the generalized-kernel-function calculations than from the conventional velocity-damping (V-g) calculation. A rational function approximation for aerodynamic forces used in control theory for s-plane analysis gave rather good agreement with kernel-function results, except for strongly damped motion at combinations of high (subsonic) Mach number and reduced frequency.

  11. The acoustic phenomena of the stalling flutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Z. A.; Feng, Y. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Wang, Y. W.

    An experimental study and measurement analysis is conducted of 275-285 Hz acoustic phenomena associated with the stalling flutter of an axial-flow rotor which has been designed to yield zero total aerodynamic damping at the stall-flutter onset. The two different blade-tip clearances used are 1.6 and 0.5 mm. The multiple-circular arc airfoils employed by the rotor blades are found to possess poorer aeroelastic stability than those of double-circular arc design. The smaller tip clearance is found to result in poorer aeroelastic stability than the larger one.

  12. Subsonic/transonic stall flutter investigation of a rotating rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jutras, R. R.; Fost, R. B.; Chi, R. M.; Beacher, B. F.

    1981-01-01

    Stall flutter is investigated by obtaining detailed quantitative steady and aerodynamic and aeromechanical measurements in a typical fan rotor. The experimental investigation is made with a 31.3 percent scale model of the Quiet Engine Program Fan C rotor system. Both subsonic/transonic (torsional mode) flutter and supersonic (flexural) flutter are investigated. Extensive steady and unsteady data on the blade deformations and aerodynamic properties surrounding the rotor are acquired while operating in both the steady and flutter modes. Analysis of this data shows that while there may be more than one traveling wave present during flutter, they are all forward traveling waves.

  13. Aeroelastic Tailoring of Transport Wings Including Transonic Flutter Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Bret K.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Jutte, Christine V.

    2015-01-01

    Several minimum-mass optimization problems are solved to evaluate the effectiveness of a variety of novel tailoring schemes for subsonic transport wings. Aeroelastic stress and panel buckling constraints are imposed across several trimmed static maneuver loads, in addition to a transonic flutter margin constraint, captured with aerodynamic influence coefficient-based tools. Tailoring with metallic thickness variations, functionally graded materials, balanced or unbalanced composite laminates, curvilinear tow steering, and distributed trailing edge control effectors are all found to provide reductions in structural wing mass with varying degrees of success. The question as to whether this wing mass reduction will offset the increased manufacturing cost is left unresolved for each case.

  14. Qualitative comparison of calculated turbulence responses with wind-tunnel measurements for a DC-10 derivative wing with an active control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, B., III

    1981-01-01

    Comparisons are presented analytically predicted and experimental turbulence responses of a wind tunnel model of a DC-10 derivative wing equipped with an active control system. The active control system was designed for the purpose of flutter suppression, but it had additional benefit of alleviating gust loads (wing bending moment) by about 25%. Comparisions of various wing responses are presented for variations in active control system parameters and tunnel speed. The analytical turbulence responses were obtained using DYLOFLEX, a computer program for dynamic loads analyses of flexible airplanes with active controls. In general, the analytical predictions agreed reasonably well with the experimental data.

  15. The Benchmark Active Controls Technology Model Aerodynamic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Robert C.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Durham, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    The Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) model is a part of the Benchmark Models Program (BMP). The BMP is a NASA Langley Research Center program that includes a series of models which were used to study different aeroelastic phenomena and to validate computational fluid dynamics codes. The primary objective of BACT testing was to obtain steady and unsteady loads, accelerations, and aerodynamic pressures due to control surface activity in order to calibrate unsteady CFD codes and active control design tools. Three wind-tunnel tests in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) have been completed. The first and parts of the second and third tests focused on collecting open-loop data to define the model's aeroservoelastic characteristics, including the flutter boundary across the Mach range. It is this data that is being presented in this paper. An extensive database of over 3000 data sets was obtained. This database includes steady and unsteady control surface effectiveness data, including pressure distributions, control surface hinge moments, and overall model loads due to deflections of a trailing edge control surface and upper and lower surface

  16. Experimental investigation of elastic mode control on a model of a transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramovitz, M.; Heimbaugh, R. M.; Nomura, J. K.; Pearson, R. M.; Shirley, W. A.; Stringham, R. H.; Tescher, E. L.; Zoock, I. E.

    1981-01-01

    A 4.5 percent DC-10 derivative flexible model with active controls is fabricated, developed, and tested to investigate the ability to suppress flutter and reduce gust loads with active controlled surfaces. The model is analyzed and tested in both semispan and complete model configuration. Analytical methods are refined and control laws are developed and successfully tested on both versions of the model. A 15 to 25 percent increase in flutter speed due to the active system is demonstrated. The capability of an active control system to significantly reduce wing bending moments due to turbulence is demonstrated. Good correlation is obtained between test and analytical prediction.

  17. Structural optimization with flutter speed constraints using maximized step size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oconnell, R. F.; Radovcich, N. A.; Hassig, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    A procedure is presented for the minimization of structural mass while satisfying flutter speed constraints. The procedure differs from other optimization methods in that the flutter speed is exactly satisfied at each resizing step, and the step size is determined by a direct minimization of the objective function (mass) for each set of flutter derivatives calculated. In conjunction with this method, a new move vector is suggested which results in a very efficient resizing procedure.

  18. Design procedures for flutter-free surface panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurenson, R. M.; Mcpherson, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    An approach for the design of lightweight external surface panel configurations to preclude panel flutter was developed. Design procedures were developed for flat orthotropic panels under the interacting influence of parameters such as support flexibility, inplane loads, pressure differential, and flow angularity. The basic relationships required to define these design procedures were based on theoretical panel flutter analyses. Where possible, the design procedures were verified through comparison with available experimental panel flutter data.

  19. Flutter Analysis of a Transonic Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R.; Bakhle, M. A.; Keith, T. G., Jr.; Stefko, G. L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the calculation of flutter stability characteristics for a transonic forward swept fan configuration using a viscous aeroelastic analysis program. Unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved on a dynamically deforming, body fitted, grid to obtain the aeroelastic characteristics using the energy exchange method. The non-zero inter-blade phase angle is modeled using phase-lagged boundary conditions. Results obtained show good correlation with measurements. It is found that the location of shock and variation of shock strength strongly influenced stability. Also, outboard stations primarily contributed to stability characteristics. Results demonstrate that changes in blade shape impact the calculated aerodynamic damping, indicating importance of using accurate blade operating shape under centrifugal and steady aerodynamic loading for flutter prediction. It was found that the calculated aerodynamic damping was relatively insensitive to variation in natural frequency.

  20. Flutter of pairs of aerodynamically interfering delta wings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, R. R.; Rauch, F. J.; Hess, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    To examine the effect on flutter of the aerodynamic interference between pairs of closely spaced delta wings, several structurally uncoupled 1/80th-scale models were studied by experiment and analysis. Flutter test boundaries obtained in NASA Langley's 26-in. transonic blowdown wind tunnel were compared with subsonic analytical results generated using the doublet lattice method. Trends for several combinations of vertical and longitudinal wing separation were determined, showing flutter speed significantly affected in the closely spaced configurations. A new flutter mechanism coupling one wing's first bending mode with the other wing's first torsion mode was predicted and observed.

  1. Structural resonance and mode of flutter of hummingbird tail feathers.

    PubMed

    Clark, Christopher J; Elias, Damian O; Girard, Madeline B; Prum, Richard O

    2013-09-15

    Feathers can produce sound by fluttering in airflow. This flutter is hypothesized to be aeroelastic, arising from the coupling of aerodynamic forces to one or more of the feather's intrinsic structural resonance frequencies. We investigated how mode of flutter varied among a sample of hummingbird tail feathers tested in a wind tunnel. Feather vibration was measured directly at ~100 points across the surface of the feather with a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV), as a function of airspeed, Uair. Most feathers exhibited multiple discrete modes of flutter, which we classified into types including tip, trailing vane and torsional modes. Vibratory behavior within a given mode was usually stable, but changes in independent variables such as airspeed or orientation sometimes caused feathers to abruptly 'jump' from one mode to another. We measured structural resonance frequencies and mode shapes directly by measuring the free response of 64 feathers stimulated with a shaker and recorded with the SLDV. As predicted by the aeroelastic flutter hypothesis, the mode shape (spatial distribution) of flutter corresponded to a bending or torsional structural resonance frequency of the feather. However, the match between structural resonance mode and flutter mode was better for tip or torsional mode shapes, and poorer for trailing vane modes. Often, the 3rd bending structural harmonic matched the expressed mode of flutter, rather than the fundamental. We conclude that flutter occurs when airflow excites one or more structural resonance frequencies of a feather, most akin to a vibrating violin string.

  2. Supersonic flutter of panels loaded with inplane shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    A modal flutter analysis for biaxially loaded, orthotropic panels, using linear piston-theory aerodynamics, was extended in order to include the effects of inplane shear loading. Flutter boundaries for shear loads up to buckling are calculated for simply supported, isotropic panels of various length-width ratios and for a square, isotropic panel with elastic boundary conditions along the leading and trailing edges. These flutter boundaries are used to define conservative design curves. Sample calculations made using these design curves indicate that practical panels, which have otherwise been adequately designed, could become flutter critical if the inplane shear loads approach the buckling value.

  3. Structural resonance and mode of flutter of hummingbird tail feathers.

    PubMed

    Clark, Christopher J; Elias, Damian O; Girard, Madeline B; Prum, Richard O

    2013-09-15

    Feathers can produce sound by fluttering in airflow. This flutter is hypothesized to be aeroelastic, arising from the coupling of aerodynamic forces to one or more of the feather's intrinsic structural resonance frequencies. We investigated how mode of flutter varied among a sample of hummingbird tail feathers tested in a wind tunnel. Feather vibration was measured directly at ~100 points across the surface of the feather with a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV), as a function of airspeed, Uair. Most feathers exhibited multiple discrete modes of flutter, which we classified into types including tip, trailing vane and torsional modes. Vibratory behavior within a given mode was usually stable, but changes in independent variables such as airspeed or orientation sometimes caused feathers to abruptly 'jump' from one mode to another. We measured structural resonance frequencies and mode shapes directly by measuring the free response of 64 feathers stimulated with a shaker and recorded with the SLDV. As predicted by the aeroelastic flutter hypothesis, the mode shape (spatial distribution) of flutter corresponded to a bending or torsional structural resonance frequency of the feather. However, the match between structural resonance mode and flutter mode was better for tip or torsional mode shapes, and poorer for trailing vane modes. Often, the 3rd bending structural harmonic matched the expressed mode of flutter, rather than the fundamental. We conclude that flutter occurs when airflow excites one or more structural resonance frequencies of a feather, most akin to a vibrating violin string. PMID:23737565

  4. Active Nozzle Control and Integrated Design Optimization of a Beam Subject to Fluid-Dynamic Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borglund, D.

    1999-02-01

    Active nozzle control is used to improve the stability of a beam subject to forces induced by fluid flow through attached pipes. The control system has a significant effect on the structural stability, making both flutter and divergence type of instabilities possible. The stability analysis is carried out using a state-variable approach based on a finite element formulation of the structural dynamics. The simultaneous design of the control system and the beam shape minimizing structural mass is performed using numerical optimization. The inclusion of the control system in the optimization gives a considerable reduction of the structural mass but results in an optimal design which is very sensitive to imperfections. Using a simple model of the control system uncertainties, a more robust design is obtained by solving a modified optimization problem. Throughout the study, the theoretical findings are verified by experiments.

  5. Flutter spectral measurements using stationary pressure transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurkov, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    Engine-order sampling was used to eliminate the integral harmonics from the flutter spectra corresponding to a case-mounted static pressure transducer. Using the optical displacement data, it was demonstrated that the blade-order sampling of pressure data may yield erroneous results due to the interference caused by blade vibration. Two methods are presented which effectively eliminate this interference yielding the blade-pressure-difference spectra. The phase difference between the differential-pressure and the displacement spectra was evaluated.

  6. A historical overview of flight flutter testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehoe, Michael W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the test techniques developed over the last several decades for flight flutter testing of aircraft. Structural excitation systems, instrumentation systems, digital data preprocessing, and parameter identification algorithms (for frequency and damping estimates from the response data) are described. Practical experiences and example test programs illustrate the combined, integrated effectiveness of the various approaches used. Finally, comments regarding the direction of future developments and needs are presented.

  7. Mechanism of Flutter A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Flutter Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Garrick, I E

    1940-01-01

    The results of the basic flutter theory originally devised in 1934 and published as NACA Technical Report no. 496 are presented in a simpler and more complete form convenient for further studies. The paper attempts to facilitate the judgement of flutter problems by a systematic survey of the theoretical effects of the various parameters. A large number of experiments were conducted on cantilever wings, with and without ailerons, in the NACA high-speed wind tunnel for the purpose of verifying the theory and to study its adaptability to three-dimensional problems. The experiments included studies on wing taper ratios, nacelles, attached floats, and external bracings. The essential effects in the transition to the three-dimensional problem have been established. Of particular interest is the existence of specific flutter modes as distinguished from ordinary vibration modes. It is shown that there exists a remarkable agreement between theoretical and experimental results.

  8. Flutter Analysis for Turbomachinery Using Volterra Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Yao, Weigang

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe an accurate and efficient reduced order modeling method for aeroelastic (AE) analysis and for determining the flutter boundary. Without losing accuracy, we develop a reduced order model based on the Volterra series to achieve significant savings in computational cost. The aerodynamic force is provided by a high-fidelity solution from the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations; the structural mode shapes are determined from the finite element analysis. The fluid-structure coupling is then modeled by the state-space formulation with the structural displacement as input and the aerodynamic force as output, which in turn acts as an external force to the aeroelastic displacement equation for providing the structural deformation. NASA's rotor 67 blade is used to study its aeroelastic characteristics under the designated operating condition. First, the CFD results are validated against measured data available for the steady state condition. Then, the accuracy of the developed reduced order model is compared with the full-order solutions. Finally the aeroelastic solutions of the blade are computed and a flutter boundary is identified, suggesting that the rotor, with the material property chosen for the study, is structurally stable at the operating condition, free of encountering flutter.

  9. Selected advanced aerodynamics and active controls technology concepts development on a derivative B-747

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of applying wing tip extensions, winglets, and active control wing load alleviation to the Boeing 747 is investigated. Winglet aerodynamic design methods and high speed wind tunnel test results of winglets and of symmetrically deflected ailerons are presented. Structural resizing analyses to determine weight and aeroelastic twist increments for all the concepts and flutter model test results for the wing with winglets are included. Control law development, system mechanization/reliability studies, and aileron balance tab trade studies for active wing load alleviation systems are discussed. Results are presented in the form of incremental effects on L/D, structural weight, block fuel savings, stability and control, airplane price, and airline operating economics.

  10. Active Control of Wind-Tunnel Model Aeroelastic Response Using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 Under a joint research and development effort conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and The Boeing Company (formerly McDonnell Douglas) three neural-network based control systems were developed and tested. The control systems were experimentally evaluated using a transonic wind-tunnel model in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. One system used a neural network to schedule flutter suppression control laws, another employed a neural network in a predictive control scheme, and the third employed a neural network in an inverse model control scheme. All three of these control schemes successfully suppressed flutter to or near the limits of the testing apparatus, and represent the first experimental applications of neural networks to flutter suppression. This paper will summarize the findings of this project.

  11. Target flutter rate discrimination by bats using frequency-modulated sonar sounds: behavior and signal processing models.

    PubMed

    Grossetête, A; Moss, C F

    1998-04-01

    This study utilized psychophysical data and acoustical measurements of sonar echoes from artificial fluttering targets to develop insights to the information used by FM bats to discriminate the wingbeat rate of flying insects. Fluttering targets were produced by rotating blades that moved towards the bat, and the animal learned to discriminate between two rates of movement, a reference rate (30 or 50 Hz) and a slower, variable rate. Threshold discrimination performance depended on the rotation rate of the reference target, with a difference value of 9 Hz for the reference rate of 30 Hz and 14 Hz for the reference rate of 50 Hz. Control experiments demonstrated that the bats used sonar echoes from the moving targets to perform the discrimination task. Acoustical measurements showed that the moving target produced a Doppler shift in the echo and a concomitant change in the arrival time of each frequency in the linear period FM sweep. The difference in delay between echoes from moving and stationary parts varied linearly with flutter rate and depended on the characteristics of the bat's sonar sounds. Simulations also showed a reduction in average echo bandwidth with increasing flutter rate, which may account for a higher delay discrimination threshold using the 50-Hz reference rate. This work suggests that Doppler-induced changes in echo delays produced by fluttering targets may contribute to the FM bat's perception of flying insect prey.

  12. NASTRAN documentation for flutter analysis of advanced turbopropellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elchuri, V.; Gallo, A. M.; Skalski, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    An existing capability developed to conduct modal flutter analysis of tuned bladed-shrouded discs was modified to facilitate investigation of the subsonic unstalled flutter characteristics of advanced turbopropellers. The modifications pertain to the inclusion of oscillatory modal aerodynamic loads of blades with large (backward and forward) varying sweep.

  13. The application of measurement techniques to track flutter testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roglin, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    The application is discussed of measurement techniques to captive flight flutter tests at the Supersonic Naval Ordnance Research Track (SNORT), U. S. Naval Ordnance Test Station, China Lake, California. The high-speed track, by its ability to prove the validity of design and to accurately determine the actual margin of safety, offers a unique method of flutter testing for the aircraft design engineer.

  14. Panel Flutter and Sonic Fatigue Analysis for RLV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh; Cheng, Guangfeng

    2001-01-01

    A methodology is presented for the flutter analysis of the seal of thermal protection system (TPS) panel of X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator test vehicle. The seal is simulated as a two-dimensional cantilevered panel with an elastic stopper, which is modeled as an equivalent spring. This cantilever beam-spring model under the aerodynamic pressure at supersonic speeds turns out to be an impact nonlinear dynamic system. The flutter analysis of the seal is thus carried out using, time domain numerical simulation with a displacement stability criterion. The flutter boundary of the seal is further verified with a family of three traditional and one nontraditional panel flutter models. The frequency domain method that applies eigenanalysis on the traditional panel flutter problem was used. The results showed that the critical dynamic pressure could be more than doubled with properly chosen material for the base stopper. The proposed methodology can be easily extended to three-dimensional panel seals with flow angularity.

  15. Flutter study of an advanced composite wing with external stores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Stanley R.; Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Nagaraja, K. S.

    1987-01-01

    A flutter test using a scaled model of an advanced composite wing for a Navy attack aircraft has been conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The model was a wall-mounted half-span wing with a semi-span of 6.63 ft. The wing had an aspect ratio of 5.31, taper ratio of 0.312, and quarter-chord sweep of 25 degrees. The model was supported in a manner that simulated the load path in the carry-through structure of the aircraft and the symmetric boundary condition at the fuselage centerline. The model was capable of carrying external stores from three pylon locations on the wing. Flutter tests were conducted for the wing with and without external stores. No flutter was encountered for the clean wing at test conditions which simulated the scaled airplane operating envelope. Flutter boundaries were obtained for several external store configurations. The flutter boundaries for the fuel tanks were nearly Mach number independent (occurring at constant dynamic pressure). To study the aerodynamic effect of the fuel tank stores, pencil stores (slender cylindrical rods) which had the same mass and pitch and yaw inertia as the fuel tanks were tested on the model. These pencil store configurations exhibited a transonic dip in the flutter dynamic pressure, indicating that the aerodynamic effect of the actual fuel tanks on flutter was significant. Several flutter analyses methods were used in an attempt to predict the flutter phenomenon exhibited during the wind-tunnel test. The analysis gave satisfactory predictions of flutter for the pencil store configurations, but unsatisfactory correlation for the actual fuel tank configurations.

  16. Visualizing Flutter Mechanism as Traveling Wave Through Animation of Simulation Results for the Semi-Span Super-Sonic Transport Wind-Tunnel Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christhilf, David M.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been recognized that frequency and phasing of structural modes in the presence of airflow play a fundamental role in the occurrence of flutter. Animation of simulation results for the long, slender Semi-Span Super-Sonic Transport (S4T) wind-tunnel model demonstrates that, for the case of mass-ballasted nacelles, the flutter mode can be described as a traveling wave propagating downstream. Such a characterization provides certain insights, such as (1) describing the means by which energy is transferred from the airflow to the structure, (2) identifying airspeed as an upper limit for speed of wave propagation, (3) providing an interpretation for a companion mode that coalesces in frequency with the flutter mode but becomes very well damped, (4) providing an explanation for bursts of response to uniform turbulence, and (5) providing an explanation for loss of low frequency (lead) phase margin with increases in dynamic pressure (at constant Mach number) for feedback systems that use sensors located upstream from active control surfaces. Results from simulation animation, simplified modeling, and wind-tunnel testing are presented for comparison. The simulation animation was generated using double time-integration in Simulink of vertical accelerometer signals distributed over wing and fuselage, along with time histories for actuated control surfaces. Crossing points for a zero-elevation reference plane were tracked along a network of lines connecting the accelerometer locations. Accelerometer signals were used in preference to modal displacement state variables in anticipation that the technique could be used to animate motion of the actual wind-tunnel model using data acquired during testing. Double integration of wind-tunnel accelerometer signals introduced severe drift even with removal of both position and rate biases such that the technique does not currently work. Using wind-tunnel data to drive a Kalman filter based upon fitting coefficients to

  17. Hypersonic panel flutter in a rarefied atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resende, Hugo B.

    1993-01-01

    Panel flutter is a form of dynamic aeroelastic instability resulting from the interaction between motion of an aircraft structural panel and the aerodynamic loads exerted on that panel by air flowing past one of the faces. It differs from lifting surface flutter in the sense that it is not usually catastrophic, the panel's motion being limited by nonlinear membrane stresses produced by the transverse displacement. Above some critical airflow condition, the linear instability grows to a limit cycle . The present investigation studies panel flutter in an aerodynamic regime known as 'free molecule flow', wherein intermolecular collisions can be neglected and loads are caused by interactions between individual molecules and the bounding surface. After collision with the panel, molecules may be reflected specularly or reemitted in diffuse fashion. Two parameters characterize this process: the 'momentum accommodation coefficient', which is the fraction of the specularly reflected molecules; and the ratio between the panel temperature and that of the free airstream. This model is relevant to the case of hypersonic flight vehicles traveling at very high altitudes and especially for panels oriented parallel to the airstream or in the vehicle's lee. Under these conditions the aerodynamic shear stress turns out to be considerably larger than the surface pressures, and shear effects must be included in the model. This is accomplished by means of distributed longitudinal and bending loads. The former can cause the panel to buckle. In the example of a simply-supported panel, it turns out that the second mode of free vibration tends to dominate the flutter solution, which is carried out by a Galerkin analysis. Several parametric studies are presented. They include the effects of (1) temperature ratio; (2) momentum accommodation coefficient; (3) spring parameters, which are associated with how the panel is connected to adjacent structures; (4) a parameter which relates compressive

  18. Flutter analysis of low aspect ratio wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    Several very low aspect ratio flat plate wing configurations are analyzed for their aerodynamic instability (flutter) characteristics. All of the wings investigated are delta planforms with clipped tips, made of aluminum alloy plate and cantilevered from the supporting vehicle body. Results of both subsonic and supersonic NASTRAN aeroelastic analyses as well as those from another version of the program implementing the supersonic linearized aerodynamic theory are presented. Results are selectively compared with the experimental data; however, supersonic predictions of the Mach Box method in NASTRAN are found to be erratic and erroneous, requiring the use of a separate program.

  19. Wavelet Applications for Flight Flutter Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, Rick; Brenner, Marty; Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    1999-01-01

    Wavelets present a method for signal processing that may be useful for analyzing responses of dynamical systems. This paper describes several wavelet-based tools that have been developed to improve the efficiency of flight flutter testing. One of the tools uses correlation filtering to identify properties of several modes throughout a flight test for envelope expansion. Another tool uses features in time-frequency representations of responses to characterize nonlinearities in the system dynamics. A third tool uses modulus and phase information from a wavelet transform to estimate modal parameters that can be used to update a linear model and reduce conservatism in robust stability margins.

  20. Speed control of a small turbine using electrical loading.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small wind turbines with permanent magnet alternators (PMA) seldom have active speed control systems. The turbines rely on passive mechanisms such as furling and/or blade flutter to control the rotational speed. These passive methods cause high mechanical stresses and undesirable noise. One metho...

  1. Circus movement atrial flutter in the canine sterile pericarditis model. Differential effects of procainamide on the components of the reentrant pathway.

    PubMed

    Schoels, W; Yang, H; Gough, W B; el-Sherif, N

    1991-04-01

    To evaluate the mechanisms of action of procainamide on the components of the reentrant pathway, drug-induced changes in activation patterns, effective refractory periods (ERPs), and stimulation thresholds were analyzed in nine dogs with sterile pericarditis and sustained atrial flutter. Activation maps were based on 127 close bipolar recordings from a special "jacket" electrode. From the control map, 22 +/- 2 sites covering the slow zone and the normal zone of the reentrant circuit were selected to measure ERPs and thresholds. The excitable gap was estimated from the longest ERP during pacing at the tachycardia cycle length. During atrial flutter, epicardial activation proceeded as a single wave around an arc of functional conduction block in the proximity of the atrioventricular (AV) ring or around a combined functional/anatomic obstacle, with the arc being contiguous with one of the venae cavae. An area of slow conduction, which accounted for 53 +/- 15% of the revolution time within 35 +/- 15% of the total length of the reentrant pathway, was bordered by the arc of block and the AV ring or a caval vein and the AV ring, respectively. Procainamide (5-10 mg/kg i.v.) prolonged the cycle length of atrial flutter from 144 +/- 17 to 190 +/- 24 msec (p less than 0.05) and then terminated the arrhythmia in all studies. The increase in cycle length was due to an increase in conduction time in the slow zone by 37 +/- 11 msec (86 +/- 17% of the total cycle length increase). During the last reentrant beat, conduction failed in the slow zone, with the arc of block joining the AV ring. At termination, procainamide had prolonged conduction time, stimulation threshold, and ERP in the normal zone by 11 +/- 18%, 40 +/- 80%, and 5 +/- 15%, respectively, compared with 51 +/- 16%, 86 +/- 93%, and 14 +/- 21%, respectively, in the slow zone (p less than 0.05 for all three parameters). The duration of the excitable gap did not change significantly. We conclude that procainamide

  2. Flutter and Divergence Analysis using the Generalized Aeroelastic Analysis Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, John W.; Wieseman, Carol D.

    2003-01-01

    The Generalized Aeroelastic Analysis Method (GAAM) is applied to the analysis of three well-studied checkcases: restrained and unrestrained airfoil models, and a wing model. An eigenvalue iteration procedure is used for converging upon roots of the complex stability matrix. For the airfoil models, exact root loci are given which clearly illustrate the nature of the flutter and divergence instabilities. The singularities involved are enumerated, including an additional pole at the origin for the unrestrained airfoil case and the emergence of an additional pole on the positive real axis at the divergence speed for the restrained airfoil case. Inconsistencies and differences among published aeroelastic root loci and the new, exact results are discussed and resolved. The generalization of a Doublet Lattice Method computer code is described and the code is applied to the calculation of root loci for the wing model for incompressible and for subsonic flow conditions. The error introduced in the reduction of the singular integral equation underlying the unsteady lifting surface theory to a linear algebraic equation is discussed. Acknowledging this inherent error, the solutions of the algebraic equation by GAAM are termed 'exact.' The singularities of the problem are discussed and exponential series approximations used in the evaluation of the kernel function shown to introduce a dense collection of poles and zeroes on the negative real axis. Again, inconsistencies and differences among published aeroelastic root loci and the new 'exact' results are discussed and resolved. In all cases, aeroelastic flutter and divergence speeds and frequencies are in good agreement with published results. The GAAM solution procedure allows complete control over Mach number, velocity, density, and complex frequency. Thus all points on the computed root loci can be matched-point, consistent solutions without recourse to complex mode tracking logic or dataset interpolation, as in the k and p

  3. Unsteady Aerodynamic Model Tuning for Precise Flutter Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi

    2011-01-01

    A simple method for an unsteady aerodynamic model tuning is proposed in this study. This method is based on the direct modification of the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices. The aerostructures test wing 2 flight-test data is used to demonstrate the proposed model tuning method. The flutter speed margin computed using only the test validated structural dynamic model can be improved using the additional unsteady aerodynamic model tuning, and then the flutter speed margin requirement of 15 percent in military specifications can apply towards the test validated aeroelastic model. In this study, unsteady aerodynamic model tunings are performed at two time invariant flight conditions, at Mach numbers of 0.390 and 0.456. When the Mach number for the unsteady aerodynamic model tuning approaches to the measured fluttering Mach number, 0.502, at the flight altitude of 9,837 ft, the estimated flutter speed is approached to the measured flutter speed at this altitude. The minimum flutter speed difference between the estimated and measured flutter speed is -0.14 percent.

  4. Interactive flutter analysis and parametric study for conceptual wing design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    1995-01-01

    An interactive computer program was developed for wing flutter analysis in the conceptual design stage. The objective was to estimate the flutter instability boundary of a flexible cantilever wing, when well defined structural and aerodynamic data are not available, and then study the effect of change in Mach number, dynamic pressure, torsional frequency, sweep, mass ratio, aspect ratio, taper ratio, center of gravity, and pitch inertia, to guide the development of the concept. The software was developed on MathCad (trademark) platform for Macintosh, with integrated documentation, graphics, database and symbolic mathematics. The analysis method was based on nondimensional parametric plots of two primary flutter parameters, namely Regier number and Flutter number, with normalization factors based on torsional stiffness, sweep, mass ratio, aspect ratio, center of gravity location and pitch inertia radius of gyration. The plots were compiled in a Vaught Corporation report from a vast database of past experiments and wind tunnel tests. The computer program was utilized for flutter analysis of the outer wing of a Blended Wing Body concept, proposed by McDonnell Douglas Corporation. Using a set of assumed data, preliminary flutter boundary and flutter dynamic pressure variation with altitude, Mach number and torsional stiffness were determined.

  5. Experimental Classical Flutter Reesults of a Composite Advanced Turboprop Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehmed, O.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results are presented that show the effects of blade pitch angle and number of blades on classical flutter of a composite advanced turboprop (propfan) model. An increase in the number of blades on the rotor or the blade pitch angle is destablizing which shows an aerodynamic coupling or cascade effect between blades. The flutter came in suddenly and all blades vibrated at the same frequency but at different amplitudes and with a common predominant phase angle between consecutive blades. This further indicates aerodynamic coupling between blades. The flutter frequency was between the first two blade normal modes, signifying an aerodynamic coupling between the normal modes. Flutter was observed at all blade pitch angles from small to large angles-of-attack of the blades. A strong blade response occurred, for four blades at the two-per-revolution (2P) frequency, when the rotor speed was near the crossing of the flutter mode frequency and the 2P order line. This is because the damping is low near the flutter condition and the interblade phase angle of the flutter mode and the 2P response are the same.

  6. Unsteady Aerodynamic Model Tuning for Precise Flutter Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi

    2011-01-01

    A simple method for an unsteady aerodynamic model tuning is proposed in this study. This method is based on the direct modification of the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices. The aerostructures test wing 2 flight-test data is used to demonstrate the proposed model tuning method. The flutter speed margin computed using only the test validated structural dynamic model can be improved using the additional unsteady aerodynamic model tuning, and then the flutter speed margin requirement of 15 % in military specifications can apply towards the test validated aeroelastic model. In this study, unsteady aerodynamic model tunings are performed at two time invariant flight conditions, at Mach numbers of 0.390 and 0.456. When the Mach number for the unsteady model tuning approaches to the measured fluttering Mach number, 0.502, at the flight altitude of 9,837 ft, the estimated flutter speed is approached to the measured flutter speed at this altitude. The minimum flutter speed difference between the estimated and measured flutter speed is -.14 %.

  7. Stochastic Characterization of Flutter using Historical Wind Tunnel Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeg, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Methods for predicting the onset of flutter during an experiment are traditionally applied treating the data as deterministic values. Uncertainty and variation in the data is often glossed over by using best-fit curves to represent the information. This paper applies stochastic treatments to wind tunnel data obtained for the Piezoelectric Aeroelastic Response Tailoring Investigation model. These methods include modal amplitude tracking, modal frequency tracking and several applications of the flutter margin method. The flutter margin method was developed by Zimmerman and Weissenburger, and extended by Poirel, Dunn and Porter to incorporate uncertainty. Much of the current work follows the future work recommendations of Poirel, Dunn and Porter.

  8. Supersonic stall flutter of high-speed fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, J. J.; Stevans, W.; Jutras, R.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical model is proposed for predicting the onset of supersonic stall bending flutter in high-speed rotors. The analysis is based on a modified two-dimensional, compressible, unsteady actuator disk theory. The stability boundary predicted by the analysis is shown to be in good agreement with the measured boundary of a high speed fan. The prediction that the flutter mode would be a forward traveling wave sensitive to wheel speed and aerodynamic loading is confirmed by experimental measurements. In addition, the analysis shows that reduced frequency and dynamic head also play a significant role in establishing the supersonic stall bending flutter boundary of an unshrouded fan.

  9. An airfoil flutter model suspension system to accommodate large static transonic airloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. H., III

    1985-01-01

    A pitch/plunge flutter model suspension system and associated two-dimensional MBB-A3 airfoil models is described. The system is designed for installation in the Langley 6-by-19-inch and 6-by-18-inch transonic blowdown wind tunnels to enable systematic study of the transonic flutter characteristics and static pressure distributions of supercritical airfoils at transonic Mach numbers. A compound spring suspension concept is introduced which simultaneously meets requirements for low plunge-mode stiffness, lightweight suspended model, and large steady lift due to angle of attack without the need for excessive static deflections of the plunge spring. The system features variable pitch and plunge frequencies, changeable airfoil rotation axes, and a self aligning control system to maintain a constant mean position of the model with changing airload.

  10. Experimental flutter boundaries with unsteady pressure distributions for the NACA 0012 Benchmark Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Dansberry, Bryan E.; Farmer, Moses G.; Eckstrom, Clinton V.; Seidel, David A.; Bennett, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The Structural Dynamics Div. at NASA-Langley has started a wind tunnel activity referred to as the Benchmark Models Program. The objective is to acquire test data that will be useful for developing and evaluating aeroelastic type Computational Fluid Dynamics codes currently in use or under development. The progress is described which was achieved in testing the first model in the Benchmark Models Program. Experimental flutter boundaries are presented for a rigid semispan model (NACA 0012 airfoil section) mounted on a flexible mount system. Also, steady and unsteady pressure measurements taken at the flutter condition are presented. The pressure data were acquired over the entire model chord located at the 60 pct. span station.

  11. Limit cycle oscillation of a fluttering cantilever plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, Earl; Ye, Weiliang

    1991-01-01

    A response of a cantilever plate in high supersonic flow to a disturbance is considered. The Rayleigh-Ritz method is used to solve the nonlinear oscillation of a fluttering plate. It is found that the length-to-width ratio for a cantilever plate has a great effect on flutter amplitude of the limit cycle. For small length-to-width ratio, the dominant chordwise modes are translation and rotation. It is suggested that higher bending modes must be included to obtain an accurate prediction of the flutter onset and limit cycle oscillation. For large length-to-width ratio, significant chordwise bending is apparent in the flutter motion, with the trailing edge area having the largest motion.

  12. Robust Flutter Margin Analysis that Incorporates Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, Rick; Brenner, Martin J.

    1998-01-01

    An approach for computing worst-case flutter margins has been formulated in a robust stability framework. Uncertainty operators are included with a linear model to describe modeling errors and flight variations. The structured singular value, mu, computes a stability margin that directly accounts for these uncertainties. This approach introduces a new method of computing flutter margins and an associated new parameter for describing these margins. The mu margins are robust margins that indicate worst-case stability estimates with respect to the defined uncertainty. Worst-case flutter margins are computed for the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft using uncertainty sets generated by flight data analysis. The robust margins demonstrate flight conditions for flutter may lie closer to the flight envelope than previously estimated by p-k analysis.

  13. Flutter Analysis of the Shuttle Tile Overlay Repair Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bey, Kim S.; Scott, Robert C.; Bartels, Robert E.; Waters, William A.; Chen, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The Space Shuttle tile overlay repair concept, developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is designed for on-orbit installation over an area of damaged tile to permit safe re-entry. The thin flexible plate is placed over the damaged area and secured to tile at discreet points around its perimeter. A series of flutter analyses were performed to determine if the onset of flutter met the required safety margins. Normal vibration modes of the panel, obtained from a simplified structural analysis of the installed concept, were combined with a series of aerodynamic analyses of increasing levels of fidelity in terms of modeling the flow physics to determine the onset of flutter. Results from these analyses indicate that it is unlikely that the overlay installed at body point 1800 will flutter during re-entry.

  14. Flutter of articulated pipes at finite amplitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousselet, J.; Herrmann, G.

    1977-01-01

    The plane motion of an articulated pipe made of two segments is examined and the flow velocity at which flutter manifests itself is sought. The pressure in the reservoir feeding the pipe is kept constant. In contrast to previous works, the flow velocity is not taken as a prescribed parameter of the system but is left to follow the laws of motion. This approach requires a nonlinear formulation of the problem and the equations of motion are solved using Krylov-Bogoliubov's method. A graph of the amplitude of the limit cycles, as a function of the fluid-system mass ratio, is presented and conclusions are drawn as to the necessity of considering nonlinearities in the analysis.

  15. Flutter of articulated pipes at finite amplitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousselet, J.; Herrmann, G.

    1975-01-01

    Previous studies of the behavior of pipes conveying fluid have assumed that the fluid velocity relative to the pipe is a known quantity and is unaffected by the motion of the pipe. This approach eliminates the need to find the flow equations of motion, and is adequate for infinitesimal transverse amplitudes of motion of the pipe system, but is incapable of predicting what will be the effect of larger amplitudes. This last shortcoming may be of importance when flow velocities are near critical velocities, that is, velocities at which the system begins to flutter. It is the purpose of the present study to investigate in greater detail the dynamic behavior of pipes in the vicinity of critical velocities.

  16. Synchronous Diaphragmatic Flutter Secondary to Primary Hypoparathyroidism in a Dog.

    PubMed

    Vrabelova, Daniela; Gilor, Chen; Habing, Amy; Schober, Karsten E; Johnson, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A 3 yr old, spayed, female miniature mchnauzer was presented for rhythmic, spontaneous contractions of the abdominal wall and across the costal arches. The rate of contractions coincided with the heart rate and increased during exercise. The dog was diagnosed with primary hypoparathyroidism based on low plasma ionized calcium and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations. Fluoroscopic exam confirmed the diagnosis of a synchronous diaphragmatic flutter. Treatment of the hypocalcemia led to resolution of the diaphragmatic flutter.

  17. Experimental flutter and buffeting suppression using piezoelectric actuators and sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleman, Afzal; Costa, Pedro A.; Moniz, Paulo A.

    1999-07-01

    This experimental investigation focuses on the application of piezoelectric sensors/actuators for wing flutter and vertical tail buffet suppression. The test article consists of a foam airfoil shell enveloped around an aluminum plate support structure with bonded piezoelectric actuators and sensors. Wind-tunnel test results for the wind are presented for the open- and closed-loop systems. Piezoelectric actuators were effective in suppressing flutter and the wake-induced buffet vibration over the range of parameters investigated.

  18. A numerical classical flutter analysis of advanced propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Mehmed, O.

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional Euler solver is coupled with a three-dimensional structural dynamics model to investigate flutter of propfans. An implicit-explicit hybrid scheme is used to reduce computational time for the solution of Euler equations. The aeroelastic equations are formulated in normal modes and are solved for flutter in frequency domain. The required generalized forces are obtained using a pulse response method. Computations show that the instability is dominated by the second mode frequency as was observed in experiment.

  19. Wing flutter boundary prediction using unsteady Euler aerodynamic method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Batina, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Modifications to an existing 3D implicit upwind Euler/Navier-Stokes code for the aeroelastic analysis of wings are described. These modifications include the incorporation of a deforming mesh algorithm and the addition of the structural equations of motion for their simultaneous time-integration with the governing flow equations. The paper gives a brief description of these modifications and presents unsteady calculations which check the modifications to the code. Euler flutter results for an isolated 45 deg swept-back wing are compared with experimental data for seven freestream Mach numbers which define the flutter boundary over a range of Mach number from 0.499 to 1.14. These comparisons show good agreement in flutter characteristics for freestream Mach numbers below unity. For freestream Mach numbers above unity, the computed aeroelastic results predict a premature rise in the flutter boundary as compared with the experimental boundary. Steady and unsteady contours of surface Mach number and pressure are included to illustrate the basic flow characteristics of the time-marching flutter calculations and to aid in identifying possible causes for the premature rise in the computational flutter boundary.

  20. Exploratory flutter test in a cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    A model consisting of a rigid wing with an integral, flexible beam support that was cantilever mounted from the wall in the NASA LaRC 0.3-m transonic cryogenic tunnel was used in a flutter analysis study. The wing had a rectangular planform of aspect ratio 1.5 and a 64A010 airfoil. Various considerations and procedures for conducting flutter tests in a cryogenic wind tunnel were evaluated. Flutter onset conditions were established from extrapolated subcritical response measurements. A flutter boundary was determined at cryogenic temperatures over a Mach number M range from 0.5 to 0.9. Flutter was obtained at two different Reynolds numbers R at M = 0.5 (R = 4.4 and 18.4 x 10 to the 6th power) and at M = 0.8 (R = 5.0 and 10.4 x 10 to the 6th power). Flutter analyses using subsonic lifting surface (kernel function) aerodynamics were made over the range of test conditions. To evaluate the Reynolds number effects at M = 0.5 and 0.8, the experimental results were adjusted using analytical trends to account for differences in the model test temperatures and mass ratios. The adjusted experimental results indicate that increasing Reynolds number from 5.0 to 20.0 x 10 to the 6th power decreased the dynamic pressure by 4.0 to 6.5 percent at M = 0.5 and 0.8.

  1. Wing flutter boundary prediction using an unsteady Euler aerodynamic method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Batina, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Modifications to an existing three-dimensional, implicit, upwind Euler/Navier-Stokes code (CFL3D Version 2.1) for the aeroelastic analysis of wings are described. These modifications, which were previously added to CFL3D Version 1.0, include the incorporation of a deforming mesh algorithm and the addition of the structural equations of motion for their simultaneous time-integration with the government flow equations. The paper gives a brief description of these modifications and presents unsteady calculations which check the modifications to the code. Euler flutter results for an isolated 45 degree swept-back wing are compared with experimental data for seven freestream Mach numbers which define the flutter boundary over a range of Mach number from 0.499 to 1.14. These comparisons show good agreement in flutter characteristics for freestream Mach numbers below unity. For freestream Mach numbers above unity, the computed aeroelastic results predict a premature rise in the flutter boundary as compared with the experimental boundary. Steady and unsteady contours of surface Mach number and pressure are included to illustrate the basic flow characteristics of the time-marching flutter calculations and to aid in identifying possible causes for the premature rise in the computational flutter boundary.

  2. Dronedarone for the treatment of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter.

    PubMed

    Maund, E; McKenna, C; Sarowar, M; Fox, D; Stevenson, M; Pepper, C; Palmer, S; Woolacott, N

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a summary of the evidence review group (ERG) report on the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of dronedarone for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter based upon a review of the manufacturer's submission to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) as part of the single technology appraisal process. The population considered in the submission were adult clinically stable patients with a recent history of or current non-permanent AF. Comparators were the current available anti-arrhythmic drugs: class 1c agents (flecainide and propafenone), sotalol and amiodarone. Outcomes were AF recurrence, all-cause mortality, stroke, treatment discontinuations (due to any cause or due to adverse events) and serious adverse events. The main evidence came from four phase III randomised controlled trials, direct and indirect meta-analyses from a systematic review, and a synthesis of the direct and indirect evidence using a mixed-treatment comparison. Overall, the results from the different synthesis approaches showed that the odds of AF recurrence appeared statistically significantly lower with dronedarone and other anti-arrhythmic drugs than with non-active control, and that the odds of AF recurrence are statistically significantly higher for dronedarone than for amiodarone. However, the results for outcomes of all-cause mortality, stroke and treatment discontinuations and serious adverse events were all uncertain. A discrete event simulation model was used to evaluate dronedarone versus antiarrhythmic drugs and standard therapy alone. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of dronedarone was relatively robust and less than 20,000 pounds per quality-adjusted life-year. Exploratory work undertaken by the ERG identified that the main drivers of cost-effectiveness were the benefits assigned to dronedarone for all-cause mortality and stroke. Dronedarone is not cost-effective relative to its comparators when

  3. Supersonic Stall Flutter of High Speed Fans. [in turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, J. J.; Stevens, W.; Jutras, R.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical model is developed for predicting the onset of supersonic stall bending flutter in axial flow compressors. The analysis is based on a modified two dimensional, compressible, unsteady actuator disk theory. It is applied to a rotor blade row by considering a cascade of airfoils whose geometry and dynamic response coincide with those of a rotor blade element at 85 percent of the span height (measured from the hub). The rotor blades are assumed to be unshrouded (i.e., free standing) and to vibrate in their first flexural mode. The effects of shock waves and flow separation are included in the model through quasi-steady, empirical, rotor total-pressure-loss and deviation-angle correlations. The actuator disk model predicts the unsteady aerodynamic force acting on the cascade blading as a function of the steady flow field entering the cascade and the geometry and dynamic response of the cascade. Calculations show that the present model predicts the existence of a bending flutter mode at supersonic inlet Mach numbers. This flutter mode is suppressed by increasing the reduced frequency of the system or by reducing the steady state aerodynamic loading on the cascade. The validity of the model for predicting flutter is demonstrated by correlating the measured flutter boundary of a high speed fan stage with its predicted boundary. This correlation uses a level of damping for the blade row (i.e., the log decrement of the rotor system) that is estimated from the experimental flutter data. The predicted flutter boundary is shown to be in good agreement with the measured boundary.

  4. Active control of convection

    SciTech Connect

    Bau, H.H.

    1995-12-31

    Using stability theory, numerical simulations, and in some instances experiments, it is demonstrated that the critical Rayleigh number for the bifurcation (1) from the no-motion (conduction) state to the motion state and (2) from time-independent convection to time-dependent, oscillatory convection in the thermal convection loop and Rayleigh-Benard problems can be significantly increased or decreased. This is accomplished through the use of a feedback controller effectuating small perturbations in the boundary data. The controller consists of sensors which detect deviations in the fluid`s temperature from the motionless, conductive values and then direct actuators to respond to these deviations in such a way as to suppress the naturally occurring flow instabilities. Actuators which modify the boundary`s temperature/heat flux are considered. The feedback controller can also be used to control flow patterns and generate complex dynamic behavior at relatively low Rayleigh numbers.

  5. Flutter clearance of the horizontal tail of the Bellanca Skyrocket II airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricketts, R. H.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.; Farmer, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    The Skyrocket II is an all composite constructed experimental prototype airplane. A flutter clearance program was conducted on the horizontal tail so that the airplane could be safely flown to acquire natural laminar flow aerodynamic data. Ground vibration test data were used in a lifting surface flutter analysis to predict symmetric and antisymmetric flutter boundaries. Subcritical response data which were acquired during flight tests are compared with the analytical results. The final flutter clearance placard speed was based on flight test data.

  6. Active weld control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Bradley W.; Burroughs, Ivan A.

    1994-01-01

    Through the two phases of this contract, sensors for welding applications and parameter extraction algorithms have been developed. These sensors form the foundation of a weld control system which can provide action weld control through the monitoring of the weld pool and keyhole in a VPPA welding process. Systems of this type offer the potential of quality enhancement and cost reduction (minimization of rework on faulty welds) for high-integrity welding applications. Sensors for preweld and postweld inspection, weld pool monitoring, keyhole/weld wire entry monitoring, and seam tracking were developed. Algorithms for signal extraction were also developed and analyzed to determine their application to an adaptive weld control system. The following sections discuss findings for each of the three sensors developed under this contract: (1) weld profiling sensor; (2) weld pool sensor; and (3) stereo seam tracker/keyhole imaging sensor. Hardened versions of these sensors were designed and built under this contract. A control system, described later, was developed on a multiprocessing/multitasking operating system for maximum power and flexibility. Documentation for sensor mechanical and electrical design is also included as appendices in this report.

  7. Bayesian analysis of the flutter margin method in aeroelasticity

    DOE PAGES

    Khalil, Mohammad; Poirel, Dominique; Sarkar, Abhijit

    2016-08-27

    A Bayesian statistical framework is presented for Zimmerman and Weissenburger flutter margin method which considers the uncertainties in aeroelastic modal parameters. The proposed methodology overcomes the limitations of the previously developed least-square based estimation technique which relies on the Gaussian approximation of the flutter margin probability density function (pdf). Using the measured free-decay responses at subcritical (preflutter) airspeeds, the joint non-Gaussain posterior pdf of the modal parameters is sampled using the Metropolis–Hastings (MH) Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. The posterior MCMC samples of the modal parameters are then used to obtain the flutter margin pdfs and finally the fluttermore » speed pdf. The usefulness of the Bayesian flutter margin method is demonstrated using synthetic data generated from a two-degree-of-freedom pitch-plunge aeroelastic model. The robustness of the statistical framework is demonstrated using different sets of measurement data. In conclusion, it will be shown that the probabilistic (Bayesian) approach reduces the number of test points required in providing a flutter speed estimate for a given accuracy and precision.« less

  8. Flutter, Tumble and Vortex Induced Autorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadri, Veeraraghavan; Mittal, Rajat; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2002-11-01

    The study of flow induced rotation goes back as far as Maxwell who first analyzed the behavior of a falling piece of paper. He noted that the strip exhibited either a "flutter" (side-to-side motion) or "tumble" (end-over-end rotation) as it fell under the influence of gravity. Since then a number of researchers have attempted to develop a better understanding of this behavior. We are using a newly developed Cartesian grid method to simulate and analyze the dynamical stability of an object in free fall in an incompressible fluid. The unique feature of this numerical method is that it allows us to simulate flow with complex moving body on stationary Cartesian grids.In order to simplify the flow configuration, we have initially focused on simulating and analyzing the phenomenon of autorotation of a flat plate in a free stream hinged at the center. This configuration may be considered as a model of the free falling plate with the reference frame attached to the centre of the plate. The primary objective of the current study is to understand the effect that the Reynolds number and plate thickness-ratio have on the flow-induced rotation of the plate and to subsequently apply this understanding to predict the behavior of plates in free fall. Results from this study will be presented.

  9. Predicting Flutter and Forced Response in Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale E.; Adamczyk, John J.; Srivastava, Rakesh; Bakhle, Milind A.; Shabbir, Aamir; Chen, Jen-Ping; Janus, J. Mark; To, Wai-Ming; Barter, John

    2005-01-01

    TURBO-AE is a computer code that enables detailed, high-fidelity modeling of aeroelastic and unsteady aerodynamic characteristics for prediction of flutter, forced response, and blade-row interaction effects in turbomachinery. Flow regimes that can be modeled include subsonic, transonic, and supersonic, with attached and/or separated flow fields. The three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically to obtain extremely accurate descriptions of unsteady flow fields in multistage turbomachinery configurations. Blade vibration is simulated by use of a dynamic-grid-deformation technique to calculate the energy exchange for determining the aerodynamic damping of vibrations of blades. The aerodynamic damping can be used to assess the stability of a blade row. TURBO-AE also calculates the unsteady blade loading attributable to such external sources of excitation as incoming gusts and blade-row interactions. These blade loadings, along with aerodynamic damping, are used to calculate the forced responses of blades to predict their fatigue lives. Phase-lagged boundary conditions based on the direct-store method are used to calculate nonzero interblade phase-angle oscillations; this practice eliminates the need to model multiple blade passages, and, hence, enables large savings in computational resources.

  10. Vorticity Transport on a Flexible Wing in Stall Flutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkala, James; Buchholz, James; Farnsworth, John; McLaughlin, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The circulation budget within dynamic stall vortices was investigated on a flexible NACA 0018 wing model of aspect ratio 6 undergoing stall flutter. The wing had an initial angle of attack of 6 degrees, Reynolds number of 1 . 5 ×105 and large-amplitude, primarily torsional, limit cycle oscillations were observed at a reduced frequency of k = πfc / U = 0 . 1 . Phase-locked stereo PIV measurements were obtained at multiple chordwise planes around the 62.5% and 75% spanwise locations to characterize the flow field within thin volumetric regions over the suction surface. Transient surface pressure measurements were used to estimate boundary vorticity flux. Recent analyses on plunging and rotating wings indicates that the magnitude of the pressure-gradient-driven boundary flux of secondary vorticity is a significant fraction of the magnitude of the convective flux from the separated leading-edge shear layer, suggesting that the secondary vorticity plays a significant role in regulating the strength of the primary vortex. This phenomenon is examined in the present case, and the physical mechanisms governing the growth and evolution of the dynamic stall vortices are explored. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research through the Flow Interactions and Control Program monitored by Dr. Douglas Smith, and through the 2014 AFOSR/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program (JA and JB).

  11. Time simulation of flutter with large stiffness changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpel, Mordechay; Wieseman, Carol D.

    1992-01-01

    Time simulation of flutter, involving large local structural changes, is formulated with a state-space model that is based on a relatively small number of generalized coordinates. Free-free vibration modes are first calculated for a nominal finite-element model with relatively large fictitious masses located at the area of structural changes. A low-frequency subset of these modes is then transformed into a set of structural modal coordinates with which the entire simulation is performed. These generalized coordinates and the associated oscillatory aerodynamic force coefficient matrices are used to construct an efficient time-domain, state-space model for a basic aeroelastic case. The time simulation can then be performed by simply changing the mass, stiffness, and damping coupling terms when structural changes occur. It is shown that the size of the aeroelastic model required for time simulation with large structural changes at a few apriori known locations is similar to that required for direct analysis of a single structural case. The method is applied to the simulation of an aeroelastic wind-tunnel model. The diverging oscillations are followed by the activation of a tip-ballast decoupling mechanism that stabilizes the system but may cause significant transient overshoots.

  12. Interactive aircraft flight control and aeroelastic stabilization. [forward swept wing flight vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    Several examples are presented in which flutter involving interaction between flight mechanics modes and elastic wind bending occurs for a forward swept wing flight vehicle. These results show the basic mechanism by which the instability occurs and form the basis for attempts to actively control such a vehicle.

  13. Overview of Recent Flight Flutter Testing Research at NASA Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin J.; Lind, Richard C.; Voracek, David F.

    1997-01-01

    In response to the concerns of the aeroelastic community, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is conducting research into improving the flight flutter (including aeroservoelasticity) test process with more accurate and automated techniques for stability boundary prediction. The important elements of this effort so far include the following: (1) excitation mechanisms for enhanced vibration data to reduce uncertainty levels in stability estimates; (2) investigation of a variety of frequency, time, and wavelet analysis techniques for signal processing, stability estimation, and nonlinear identification; and (3) robust flutter boundary prediction to substantially reduce the test matrix for flutter clearance. These are critical research topics addressing the concerns of a recent AGARD Specialists' Meeting on Advanced Aeroservoelastic Testing and Data Analysis. This paper addresses these items using flight test data from the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft and the F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle.

  14. Surface Acoustic Wave Vibration Sensors for Measuring Aircraft Flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Moore, Jason P.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Under NASA's Advanced Air Vehicles Program the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) Project is investigating flutter effects on aeroelastic wings. To support that work a new method for measuring vibrations due to flutter has been developed. The method employs low power Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors. To demonstrate the ability of the SAW sensor to detect flutter vibrations the sensors were attached to a Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite panel which was vibrated at six frequencies from 1Hz to 50Hz. The SAW data was compared to accelerometer data and was found to resemble sine waves and match each other closely. The SAW module design and results from the tests are presented here.

  15. Bending-torsion flutter of a highly swept advanced turboprop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehmed, O.; Kaza, K. R. V.; Lubomski, J. F.; Kielb, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental and analytical results are presented for a bending-torsion flutter phenomena encountered during wind-tunnel testing of a ten-bladed, advanced, high-speed propeller (turboprop) model with thin airfoil sections, high blade sweep, low aspect ratio, high solidity and transonic tip speeds. Flutter occurred at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.6 and greater and when the relative tip Mach number (based on vector sum of axial and tangential velocities) reached a value of about one. The experiment also included two- and five-blade configurations. The data indicate that aerodynamic cascade effects have a strong destabilizing influence on the flutter boundary. The data was correlated with analytical results which include aerodynamic cascade effects and good agreement was found.

  16. Aero-servo-viscoelasticity theory: Lifting surfaces, plates, velocity transients, flutter, and instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrett, Craig G.

    indicates that the flutter condition should be taken when simple harmonic motion occurs and certain additional velocity derivatives are satisfied. 3. The viscoelastic material behavior imposes a flutter time indicating that the presence of flutter should be verified for the entire life time of a flight vehicle. 4. An expanded definition for instability of a lifting surface or panel. Traditionally, instability is treated as a static phenomenon. The static case is only a limiting case of dynamic instability for a viscoelastic structure. Instability occurs when a particular combination of flight velocity and time are reached leading to growing displacements of the structure. 5. The inclusion of flight velocity transients that occur during maneuvers. Two- and three-dimensional unsteady incompressible and compressible aerodynamics were reformulated for a time dependent velocity. The inclusion of flight velocity transients does affect the flutter and instability conditions for a lifting surface and a panel. The applications of aero-servo-viscoelasticity are to aircraft design, wind turbine blades, submarine's stealth coatings and hulls, and land transportation to name a few examples. One caveat regarding this field of research is that general predictions for an application are not always possible as the stability of a structure depends on the phase relations between the various parameters such as mass, stiffness, damping, and the aerodynamic loads. The viscoelastic material parameters in particular alter the system parameters in directions that are difficult to predict. The inclusion of servo controls permits an additional design factor and can improve the performance of a structure beyond the native performance; however over-control is possible so a maximum limit to useful control does exist. Lastly, the number of material and control parameters present in aero-servo-viscoelasticity are amenable to optimization protocols to produce the optimal structure for a given mission.

  17. Active Control of Environmental Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S. E.; Vuksanovic, B.

    1996-02-01

    Most of the current research on active noise control is confined to restricted spaces such as earphones, active silencers, air-conditioning ducts, truck cabins and aircraft fuselages. In this paper the basic concepts of environmental noise reduction by using active noise control in unconfined spaces are explored. The approach is to develop a controlled acoustic shadow, generated by a wall of secondary sources, to reduce unwanted sound in the direction of a complaint area. The basic acoustic theory is considered, followed by computer modelling, and some results to show the effectiveness of the approach. EA Technology and Yorkshire electric in the United Kingdom are supporting this work.

  18. Comparison of supercritical and conventional wing flutter characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, M. G.; Hanson, P. W.; Wynne, E. C.

    1976-01-01

    A wind-tunnel study was undertaken to directly compare the measured flutter boundaries of two dynamically similar aeroelastic models which had the same planform, maximum thickness-to-chord ratio, and as nearly identical stiffness and mass distributions as possible, with one wing having a supercritical airfoil and the other a conventional airfoil. The considerations and problems associated with flutter testing supercritical wing models at or near design lift coefficients are discussed, and the measured transonic boundaries of the two wings are compared with boundaries calculated with a subsonic lifting surface theory.

  19. Airfoil shape and thickness effects on transonic airloads and flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, S. R.; Edwards, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    A transient pulse technique is used to obtain harmonic forces from a time-marching solution of the complete unsteady transonic small perturbation potential equation. The unsteady pressures and forces acting on a model of the NACA 64A010 conventional airfoil and the MBB A-3 supercritical airfoil over a range of Mach numbers are examined in detail. Flutter calculations at constant angle of attack show a similar flutter behavior for both airfoils, except for a boundary shift in Mach number associated with corresponding Mach number shift in the unsteady aerodynamic forces. Differences in the static aeroelastic twist behavior for the two airfoils are significant.

  20. Airfoil shape and thickness effects on transonic airloads and flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, S. R.; Edwards, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    A transient pulse technique is used to obtain harmonic forces from a time-marching solution of the complete unsteady transonic small perturbation potential evaluation. The unsteady pressures and forces acting on a model of the NACA 64A010 conventional airfoil and the MBB A-3 supercritical airfoil over a range of Mach numbers are examined in detail. Flutter calculations at constant angle of attack show a similar flutter behavior for both airfoils, except for a boundary shift in Mach number associated with a corresponding Mach number shift in the unsteady aerodynamic forces. Differences in the static aeroelastic twist behavior for the two airfoils are significant.

  1. Fan Flutter Computations Using the Harmonic Balance Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Thomas, Jeffrey P.; Reddy, T.S.R.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental forward-swept fan encountered flutter at part-speed conditions during wind tunnel testing. A new propulsion aeroelasticity code, based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach, was used to model the aeroelastic behavior of this fan. This threedimensional code models the unsteady flowfield due to blade vibrations using a harmonic balance method to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. This paper describes the flutter calculations and compares the results to experimental measurements and previous results from a time-accurate propulsion aeroelasticity code.

  2. Flight testing air-to-air missiles for flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutschinski, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    The philosophy of the design of air-to-air missiles and hence of flight testing them for flutter differs from that of manned aircraft. Primary emphasis is put on analytical and laboratory evaluation of missile susceptibility to aeroelastic and aero-servo-elastic instabilities and uses flight testing for confirmation of the absence of such instabilities. Flight testing for flutter is accomplished by using specially instrumented programmed missiles, air or ground launched with a booster to reach the extreme flight conditions of tactical use, or by using guided missiles with telemetered performance data. The instrumentation and testing techniques are discussed along with the success of recent flight tests.

  3. Vector plotting as an indication of the approach to flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broadbent, E. G.

    1975-01-01

    A binary flexure-torsion analysis was made to check theoretically a method for predicting flutter which depends on plotting vectorially the amplitudes of response relative to the exciting force and extracting the relevant damping rate. The results of this calculation are given in graphs both of the vector plots themselves and of the estimated damping rate against forward speed. The estimated damping rates are compared with calculated values. The method has the advantage that in a flight flutter test damping can be estimated from continuous excitation records: the method is an extension of the Kennedy and Pancu technique used in ground resonance testing.

  4. Influence of rotation and pretwist on cantilever fan blade flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisto, F.; Chang, A. T.

    1985-01-01

    The fundamental and lowest frequency natural modes in a cantilever fan blade exhibit significant amounts of flexure and torsion coupled by pretwist and operation in a rotational force field. Consequently the flutter estimation of such blades requires an accurate structural description that incorporates these two effects, amongst others. A beam-type finite element model is used in this study with up to six spanwise elements, each element being pretwisted. Coalescence-type flutter is found with subsonic aerodynamics. Evidence of the aerodynamic resonance phenomenon is exhibited and the importance of including radially varying aerodynamic forces is brought out.

  5. Damping formulas and experimental values of damping in flutter models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Robert P

    1940-01-01

    The problem of determining values of structural damping for use in flutter calculations is discussed. The concept of equivalent viscous damping is reviewed and its relation to the structural damping coefficient g introduced in NACA Technical Report No. 685 is shown. The theory of normal modes is reviewed and a number of methods are described for separating the motions associated with different modes. Equations are developed for use in evaluating the damping parameters from experimental data. Experimental results of measurements of damping in several flutter models are presented.

  6. Flutter analysis and testing of pairs of aerodynamically interfering delta wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, R. R.; Rauch, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    To examine the effect on flutter of the aerodynamic interference between pairs of closely spaced delta wings, several structurally uncoupled 1/80th-scale models were studied by experiment and analysis. Flutter test boundaries run in a 26-in transonic blowdown wind tunnel were compared with subsonic analytical results generated using the doublet lattice method. Trends for several combinations of vertical and longitudinal wing separation showed that flutter speeds can be significantly lowered in closely spaced configurations. For some configurations, a new flutter mechanism, characterized by coupling of the flexible modes from both surfaces at a distinctive flutter frequency, was predicted and observed.

  7. A computerized method for calculating flutter characteristics of a system characterized by two degrees of freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalnaker, W. A.; Hunter, W. F.

    1979-01-01

    A formulation is given for calculating flutter frequency and flutter speed for a problem with two degrees of freedom. Two different solutions for evaluating the flutter determinant are presented and the results for each method are compared. A program flow diagram, partial program listing, and a sample problem with input and output for the two different methods are included. Although the method was developed for computing flutter characteristics of a pylon installed in the NASA Langley VSTOL tunnel, it is sufficiently general to solve any flutter system that can be characterized by two degrees of freedom.

  8. Large Scale Flutter Data for Design of Rotating Blades Using Navier-Stokes Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.

    2012-01-01

    A procedure to compute flutter boundaries of rotating blades is presented; a) Navier-Stokes equations. b) Frequency domain method compatible with industry practice. Procedure is initially validated: a) Unsteady loads with flapping wing experiment. b) Flutter boundary with fixed wing experiment. Large scale flutter computation is demonstrated for rotating blade: a) Single job submission script. b) Flutter boundary in 24 hour wall clock time with 100 cores. c) Linearly scalable with number of cores. Tested with 1000 cores that produced data in 25 hrs for 10 flutter boundaries. Further wall-clock speed-up is possible by performing parallel computations within each case.

  9. Transonic test of a forward swept wing configuration exhibiting Body Freedom Flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, R.; Rauch, F.; Rimer, M.; Muniz, B.; Ricketts, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The aeroelastic dynamic instability designated Body Freedom Flutter (BFF) involves aircraft pitch and wing bending motions characteristic of forward swept wing (FSW) aircraft. Attention is presently given to the results of tests conducted on a 1/2-scale cable-mounted FSW wind tunnel model, with and without relaxed static stability (RSS) control conditions. BFF instability boundaries were found to occur at significantly lower air speeds than those associated with aeroelastic wing divergence on the same model. Servoaeroelastic stability analyses have been conducted which proved capable of predicting the measured onset of BFF, in both the statically stable and RSS configurations tested.

  10. Navier-Stokes, dynamics and aeroelastic computations for vortical flows, buffet and flutter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.

    1993-01-01

    Research on Navier-Stokes, dynamics, and aeroelastic computations for vortical flows, buffet, and flutter applications was performed. Progress during the period from 1 Oct. 1992 to 30 Sep. 1993 is included. Papers on the following topics are included: vertical tail buffet in vortex breakdown flows; simulation of tail buffet using delta wing-vertical tail configuration; shock-vortex interaction over a 65-degree delta wing in transonic flow; supersonic vortex breakdown over a delta wing in transonic flow; and prediction and control of slender wing rock.

  11. Controls Considerations for Turbine Active Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation discusses active control of turbine tip clearance from a control systems perspective. It is a subset of charts that were presented at the 2003 meeting of the International Society of Air Breathing Engines which was held August 31 through September 5 in Cleveland, Ohio. The associated reference paper is cited at the end of the presentation. The presentation describes active tip clearance control research being conducted by NASA to improve turbine engine systems. The target application for this effort is commercial aircraft engines. However, it is believed that the technologies developed as part of this research will benefit a broad spectrum of current and future turbomachinery. The first part of the presentation discusses the concept of tip clearance, problems associated with it, and the benefits of controlling it. It lays out a framework for implementing tip clearance controls that enables the implementation to progress from purely analytical to hardware-in-the-loop to fully experimental. And it briefly discusses how the technologies developed will be married to the previously described ACC Test Rig for hardware-in-the-loop demonstrations. The final portion of the presentation, describes one of the key technologies in some detail by presenting equations and results for a functional dynamic model of the tip clearance phenomena. As shown, the model exhibits many of the clearance dynamics found in commercial gas turbine engines. However, initial attempts to validate the model identified limitations that are being addressed to make the model more realistic.

  12. Study of flutter related computational procedures for minimum weight structural sizing of advanced aircraft, supplemental data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oconnell, R. F.; Hassig, H. J.; Radovcich, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    Computational aspects of (1) flutter optimization (minimization of structural mass subject to specified flutter requirements), (2) methods for solving the flutter equation, and (3) efficient methods for computing generalized aerodynamic force coefficients in the repetitive analysis environment of computer-aided structural design are discussed. Specific areas included: a two-dimensional Regula Falsi approach to solving the generalized flutter equation; method of incremented flutter analysis and its applications; the use of velocity potential influence coefficients in a five-matrix product formulation of the generalized aerodynamic force coefficients; options for computational operations required to generate generalized aerodynamic force coefficients; theoretical considerations related to optimization with one or more flutter constraints; and expressions for derivatives of flutter-related quantities with respect to design variables.

  13. Results of Two Free-fall Experiments on Flutter of Thin Unswept Wings in the Transonic Speed Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauten, William T , Jr; Nelson, Herbert C

    1957-01-01

    Results of four thin, unswept, flutter airfoils attached to two freely falling bodies are reported. Two airfoils fluttered at a Mach number of 0.85, a third airfoil fluttered at a Mach number of 1.03, and a fourth fluttered at a Mach number of 1.07. Results of calculations of flutter speed using incompressible and compressible air-force coefficients, including a Mach number of 1.0, are presented.

  14. Lower muscle co-contraction in flutter kicking for competitive swimmers.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yuji; Hirano, Masami; Yamada, Yosuke; Ikuta, Yasushi; Nomura, Teruo; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Oda, Shingo

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in muscle activation pattern and co-contraction of the rectus and biceps femoris in flutter-kick swimming between competitive and recreational swimmers, to better understand the mechanism of repetitive kicking movements during swimming. Ten competitive and 10 recreational swimmers swam using flutter kicks at three different velocities (100%, 90%, and 80% of their maximal velocity) in a swimming flume. Surface electromyographic signals (EMG) were obtained from the rectus (RF) and biceps femoris (BF), and lower limb kinematic data were obtained at the same time. The beginning and ending of one kick cycle was defined as when the right lateral malleolus reached its highest position in the vertical axis. The offset timing of muscle activation of RF in the recreational swimmers was significantly later at all velocities than in the competitive swimmers (47-48% and 26-33% of kick time of one cycle for recreational and competitive swimmers, respectively), although the kinematic data and other activation timing of RF and BF did not differ between groups. A higher integrated EMG of RF during hip extension and knee extension induced a higher level of muscle co-contraction between RF and BF in the recreational swimmers. These results suggest that long-term competitive swimming training can induce an effective muscle activation pattern in the upper legs.

  15. Selective reinforcement of wing structure for flutter prevention.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, P. A.; Stroud, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The results of an analytical study are presented on the use of boron polyimide filamentary composite material for the purpose of increasing the flutter speed of a simple titanium full depth sandwich wing structure designed for strength. The results clearly demonstrate that selective reinforcement of wing surfaces, using judiciously placed filamentary composites, promises sizable mass savings in the design of advanced aircraft structures.

  16. The effect of magnetic flutter on residual flow

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, P. W.; Pueschel, M. J.; Carmody, D.; Nevins, W. M.

    2013-11-15

    The hypothesis that stochastic magnetic fields disrupt zonal flows associated with ion temperature gradient turbulence saturation is investigated analytically with a residual flow calculation in the presence of magnetic flutter. The calculation starts from the time-asymptotic zero-beta residual flow of Rosenbluth and Hinton [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 724 (1998)] with the sudden application of an externally imposed, fixed magnetic field perturbation. The short-time electron response from radial charge loss due to magnetic flutter is calculated from the appropriate gyrokinetic equation. The potential evolution has quadratic behavior, with a zero crossing at finite time. The crossing time and its parametric dependencies are compared with numerical results from a gyrokinetic simulation of residual flow in the presence of magnetic flutter. The numerical and analytical results are in good agreement and support the hypothesis that the high-beta runaway of numerical simulations is a result of the disabling of zonal flows by finite-beta charge losses associated with magnetic flutter.

  17. Flutter-driven triboelectrification for harvesting wind energy.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jihyun; Lee, Jeongsu; Kim, SeongMin; Ha, Jaewook; Lee, Byoung-Sun; Park, YoungJun; Choong, Chweelin; Kim, Jin-Baek; Wang, Zhong Lin; Kim, Ho-Young; Park, Jong-Jin; Chung, U-In

    2014-01-01

    Technologies to harvest electrical energy from wind have vast potentials because wind is one of the cleanest and most sustainable energy sources that nature provides. Here we propose a flutter-driven triboelectric generator that uses contact electrification caused by the self-sustained oscillation of flags. We study the coupled interaction between a fluttering flexible flag and a rigid plate. In doing so, we find three distinct contact modes: single, double and chaotic. The flutter-driven triboelectric generator having small dimensions of 7.5 × 5 cm at wind speed of 15 ms(-1) exhibits high-electrical performances: an instantaneous output voltage of 200 V and a current of 60 μA with a high frequency of 158 Hz, giving an average power density of approximately 0.86 mW. The flutter-driven triboelectric generation is a promising technology to drive electric devices in the outdoor environments in a sustainable manner.

  18. Analysis of stall flutter of a helicopter radar blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crimi, P.

    1973-01-01

    A study of rotor blade aeroelastic stability was carried out, using an analytic model of a two-dimensional airfoil undergoing dynamic stall and an elastomechanical representation including flapping, flapwise bending and torsional degrees of freedom. Results for a hovering rotor demonstrated that the models used are capable of reproducing both classical and stall flutter. The minimum rotor speed for the occurrence of stall flutter in hover, was found to be determined from coupling between torsion and flapping. Instabilities analogous to both classical and stall flutter were found to occur in forward flight. However, the large stall-related torsional oscillations which commonly limit aircraft forward speed appear to be the response to rapid changes in aerodynamic moment which accompany stall and unstall, rather than the result of an aeroelastic instability. The severity of stall-related instabilities and response was found to depend to some extent on linear stability. Increasing linear stability lessens the susceptibility to stall flutter and reduced the magnitude of the torsional response to stall and unstall.

  19. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF FLUTTER WHEEL IN BASEMENT OF GRISTMILL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF FLUTTER WHEEL IN BASEMENT OF GRISTMILL. THE RECTANGULAR ENCLOSED FLUME PROTRUDING FROM THE WALL AT CENTER/LEFT CARRIED WATER FROM THE EQUALIZING VAT THAT POWERED THE WHEEL - San Jose Grist Mill, Southwest of San Jose Drive, east of Espada Road, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  20. Flutter-driven triboelectrification for harvesting wind energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jihyun; Lee, Jeongsu; Kim, Seongmin; Ha, Jaewook; Lee, Byoung-Sun; Park, Youngjun; Choong, Chweelin; Kim, Jin-Baek; Wang, Zhong Lin; Kim, Ho-Young; Park, Jong-Jin; Chung, U.-In

    2014-09-01

    Technologies to harvest electrical energy from wind have vast potentials because wind is one of the cleanest and most sustainable energy sources that nature provides. Here we propose a flutter-driven triboelectric generator that uses contact electrification caused by the self-sustained oscillation of flags. We study the coupled interaction between a fluttering flexible flag and a rigid plate. In doing so, we find three distinct contact modes: single, double and chaotic. The flutter-driven triboelectric generator having small dimensions of 7.5 × 5 cm at wind speed of 15 ms-1 exhibits high-electrical performances: an instantaneous output voltage of 200 V and a current of 60 μA with a high frequency of 158 Hz, giving an average power density of approximately 0.86 mW. The flutter-driven triboelectric generation is a promising technology to drive electric devices in the outdoor environments in a sustainable manner.

  1. Eulerian-Lagrangian Simulations of Transonic Flutter Instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendiksen, Oddvar O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent applications of Eulerian-Lagrangian computational schemes in simulating transonic flutter instabilities. This approach, the fluid-structure system is treated as a single continuum dynamics problem, by switching from an Eulerian to a Lagrangian formulation at the fluid-structure boundary. This computational approach effectively eliminates the phase integration errors associated with previous methods, where the fluid and structure are integrated sequentially using different schemes. The formulation is based on Hamilton's Principle in mixed coordinates, and both finite volume and finite element discretization schemes are considered. Results from numerical simulations of transonic flutter instabilities are presented for isolated wings, thin panels, and turbomachinery blades. The results suggest that the method is capable of reproducing the energy exchange between the fluid and the structure with significantly less error than existing methods. Localized flutter modes and panel flutter modes involving traveling waves can also be simulated effectively with no a priori knowledge of the type of instability involved.

  2. Flutter of buckled shape memory alloy reinforced laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Shih-Yao; Shiau, Le-Chung; Lai, Chin-Hsin

    2012-03-01

    The effect of shape memory alloys (SMA) on the linear and nonlinear flutter behaviors of buckled cross-ply and angle-ply laminates was investigated in the frequency and time domains using the finite element method. In particular, this study takes the first move toward examining the effect of varying the SMA fiber spacing. Von Karman large deformation assumptions and quasi-steady aerodynamic theory were employed. The flutter boundary, stability boundary, time history response, and phase plane plots of SMA reinforced cross-ply and angle-ply laminates are presented. The numerical results show that increase in the SMA fiber volume fraction and prestrain may generate more recovery stress, and increase the stiffness of the SMA reinforced laminates. Therefore, the flutter boundary and critical load of the plate may be increased significantly. All five types of panel behavior, namely flat, buckled, limit-cycle, periodic, and chaotic motion, are clearly displayed and successively identified. This study sheds light on improving the flutter boundary efficiently by increasing the SMA fiber volume fraction to reinforce the center of the plate.

  3. An electromagnetic vibrator for use in flutter testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deam, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a unique vibrator that can be used for the flutter testing of airplanes. The device is a variation of a linear electric motor; it uses alternating electromagnetic forces to move a magnetic mass and produce vibration. This design approach requires few components and makes the device attractively simple, reliable and efficient.

  4. Flutter analysis of highly swept delta wings by conventional methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, M. D.; Soistmann, D. L.; Bennett, R. M.

    1988-01-01

    The flutter boundaries of six thin highly-swept delta-platform wings have been calculated. Comparisons are made between experimental data and results using several aerodynamic methods. The aerodynamic methods used include a subsonic and supersonic kernel function, second order piston theory, and a transonic small disturbance code. The dynamic equations of motion are solved using analytically calculated mode shapes and frequencies.

  5. Propulsion Aeroelastic Analysis Developed for Flutter and Forced Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field develops new technologies to increase the fuel efficiency of aircraft engines, improve the safety of engine operation, reduce emissions, and reduce engine noise. With the development of new designs for fans, compressors, and turbines to achieve these goals, the basic aeroelastic requirements are that there should be no flutter (self-excited vibrations) or high resonant blade stresses (due to forced response) in the operating regime. Therefore, an accurate prediction and analysis capability is required to verify the aeroelastic soundness of the designs. Such a three-dimensional viscous propulsion aeroelastic analysis capability has been developed at Glenn with support from the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program. This newly developed aeroelastic analysis capability is based on TURBO, a threedimensional unsteady aerodynamic Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbomachinery code developed previously under a grant from Glenn. TURBO can model the viscous flow effects that play an important role in certain aeroelastic problems such as flutter with flow separation, flutter at high loading conditions near the stall line (stall flutter), flutter in the presence of shock and boundary-layer interaction, and forced response due to wakes and shock impingement. In aeroelastic analysis, the structural dynamics representation of the blades is based on normal modes. A finite-element analysis code is used to calculate these in-vacuum vibration modes and the associated natural frequencies. In an aeroelastic analysis using the TURBO code, flutter and forced response are modeled as being uncoupled. To calculate if a blade row will flutter, one prescribes the motion of the blade to be a harmonic vibration in a specified in-vacuum normal mode. An aeroelastic analysis preprocessor is used to generate the displacement field required for the analysis. The work done by aerodynamic forces on the vibrating blade during a cycle of vibration is

  6. Optical control of antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velema, Willem A.; van der Berg, Jan Pieter; Hansen, Mickel J.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial resistance is a major problem in the modern world, stemming in part from the build-up of antibiotics in the environment. Novel molecular approaches that enable an externally triggered increase in antibiotic activity with high spatiotemporal resolution and auto-inactivation are highly desirable. Here we report a responsive, broad-spectrum, antibacterial agent that can be temporally activated with light, whereupon it auto-inactivates on the scale of hours. The use of such a ‘smart’ antibiotic might prevent the build-up of active antimicrobial material in the environment. Reversible optical control over active drug concentration enables us to obtain pharmacodynamic information. Precisely localized control of activity is achieved, allowing the growth of bacteria to be confined to defined patterns, which has potential for the development of treatments that avoid interference with the endogenous microbial population in other parts of the organism.

  7. Actively Controlled Components. Chapter 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, W.; Hiller, S.-J.; Pfoertner, H.; Schadow, K.; Rosenfeld, T.; Garg, S.

    2009-01-01

    Active Control can help to meet future engine requirements by an active improvement of the component characteristics. The concept is based on an intelligent control logic, which senses actual operating conditions and reacts with adequate actuator action. This approach can directly improve engine characteristics as performance, operability, durability and emissions on the one hand. On the other hand active control addresses the design constrains imposed by unsteady phenomena like inlet distortion, compressor surge, combustion instability, flow separations, vibration and noise, which only occur during exceptional operating conditions. The feasibility and effectiveness of active control technologies have been demonstrated in lab-scale tests. This chapter describes a broad range of promising applications for each engine component. Significant efforts in research and development remain to implement these technologies in engine rig and finally production engines and to demonstrate today s engine generation airworthiness, safety, reliability, and durability requirements. Active control applications are in particular limited by the gap between available and advanced sensors and actuators, which allow an operation in the harsh environment in an aero engine. The operating and performance requirements for actuators and sensors are outlined for each of the gas turbine sections from inlet to nozzle.

  8. Demonstration of Active Combustion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovett, Jeffrey A.; Teerlinck, Karen A.; Cohen, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate active control of combustion instabilities in a direct-injection gas turbine combustor that accurately simulates engine operating conditions and reproduces an engine-type instability. This report documents the second phase of a two-phase effort. The first phase involved the analysis of an instability observed in a developmental aeroengine and the design of a single-nozzle test rig to replicate that phenomenon. This was successfully completed in 2001 and is documented in the Phase I report. This second phase was directed toward demonstration of active control strategies to mitigate this instability and thereby demonstrate the viability of active control for aircraft engine combustors. This involved development of high-speed actuator technology, testing and analysis of how the actuation system was integrated with the combustion system, control algorithm development, and demonstration testing in the single-nozzle test rig. A 30 percent reduction in the amplitude of the high-frequency (570 Hz) instability was achieved using actuation systems and control algorithms developed within this effort. Even larger reductions were shown with a low-frequency (270 Hz) instability. This represents a unique achievement in the development and practical demonstration of active combustion control systems for gas turbine applications.

  9. Effects of mistuning on bending-torsion flutter and response of a cascade in incompressible flow. [turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaza, K. R. V.; Kielb, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of small differences between the individual blades (mistuning) on the aeroelastic stability and response of a cascade were studied. The aerodynamic, inertial, and structural coupling between the bending and torsional motions of each blade and the aerodynamic coupling between the blades was considered. A digital computer program was developed to conduct parametric studies. Results indicate that the mistuning has a beneficial effect on the coupled bending torsion and uncoupled torsion flutter. On forced response, however, the effect may be either beneficial or adverse, depending on the engine order of the forcing function. The results also illustrate that it may be feasible to utilize mistuning as a passive control to increase flutter speed while maintaining forced response at an acceptable level.

  10. Viscous Flutter of a Finite Elastic Membrane in Poiseuille Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, L.

    2001-10-01

    Flow-induced vibration in a collapsible tube is relevant to many biomedical applications including the human respiratory system. This paper presents a linear analysis of the coupling between Poiseuille flow and a tensioned membrane of finite length using an eigenvalue approach. The undisturbed state of the channel flow is perfectly parallel. To some extent, this configuration bridges the gap between two types of theoretical models: one for the travelling-wave flutter in an infinite, flexible channel, and the other for the self-induced oscillation of a collapsing section of a Starling-resistor tube. In our study, we focus on the parameter range where the wall-to-fluid mass ratio is high (100), and the Reynolds number based on the maximum flow velocity in the channel is moderately high (200). Eigenmodes representing both static divergence and flutter are found. Particular attention is paid to the energetics of flutter modes. It is shown that energy transfer from the flow to the membrane occurs as a result of unstable, downstream-travelling waves, while the upstream-travelling waves are stable and release most of the transferred energy back to the flow. Coupling between different in vacuo modes offers another view of the origin of energy transfer. In addition, an energy conservation analysis similar to the one used in aeroacoustics is carried out. It is shown that terms directly proportional to fluid viscosity contribute most to the production of fluctuation energy, leading to a special type of dynamic instability which resembles both Tollmien-Schlichting instability in the sense that the fluid viscosity destabilises, and traditional travelling wave flutter since the structural damping plays the role of stabilising. Effects of the membrane mass, length and structural damping are also studied. The characteristics of the membrane flutter are found to depend crucially on the upstream and downstream boundary conditions.

  11. Active Flow Control Activities at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, Scott G.; Sellers, William L., III; Washburn, Anthony E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Langley continues to aggressively investigate the potential advantages of active flow control over more traditional aerodynamic techniques. This paper provides an update to a previous paper and describes both the progress in the various research areas and the significant changes in the NASA research programs. The goals of the topics presented are focused on advancing the state of knowledge and understanding of controllable fundamental mechanisms in fluids as well as to address engineering challenges. An organizational view of current research activities at NASA Langley in active flow control as supported by several projects is presented. On-center research as well as NASA Langley funded contracts and grants are discussed at a relatively high level. The products of this research are to be demonstrated either in bench-top experiments, wind-tunnel investigations, or in flight as part of the fundamental NASA R&D program and then transferred to more applied research programs within NASA, DOD, and U.S. industry.

  12. Study of flutter related computational procedures for minimum weight structural sizing of advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oconnell, R. F.; Hassig, H. J.; Radovcich, N. A.

    1976-01-01

    Results of a study of the development of flutter modules applicable to automated structural design of advanced aircraft configurations, such as a supersonic transport, are presented. Automated structural design is restricted to automated sizing of the elements of a given structural model. It includes a flutter optimization procedure; i.e., a procedure for arriving at a structure with minimum mass for satisfying flutter constraints. Methods of solving the flutter equation and computing the generalized aerodynamic force coefficients in the repetitive analysis environment of a flutter optimization procedure are studied, and recommended approaches are presented. Five approaches to flutter optimization are explained in detail and compared. An approach to flutter optimization incorporating some of the methods discussed is presented. Problems related to flutter optimization in a realistic design environment are discussed and an integrated approach to the entire flutter task is presented. Recommendations for further investigations are made. Results of numerical evaluations, applying the five methods of flutter optimization to the same design task, are presented.

  13. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  14. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  15. Extended active disturbance rejection controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  16. A logical state model of circus movement atrial flutter role of anatomic obstacles, anisotropic conduction and slow conduction zones on induction, sustenance, and overdrive paced modulation of reentrant circuits.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; el-Sherif, N; Isber, N; Restivo, M

    1994-06-01

    Mapping studies of atrial flutter in both the canine sterile pericarditis model and the right atrial enlargement model commonly reveal single loop reentrant circuits in the lower posterior part of the right atrium. Functional bidirectional conduction block and natural anatomical obstacles comprise the central obstacle for reentrant impulse during circus movement atrial flutter. Because the relative roles of anatomical obstacles, in combination with functional barriers, anisotropic conduction, and slow conduction can not be readily assessed with current electrophysiological techniques, an atrial activation model was developed to study the mechanisms of circus movement atrial flutter. A discrete state model consisting of 4096 logically connected cardiac elements was used to simulate atrial activation; an inexcitable region simulating the inferior vena cava (IVC) was also incorporated in the model. Atrial flutter was induced by programmed premature stimulation. Anisotropic conduction velocity properties, regional variations in slow conduction, regional refractory gradients and stimulation parameters were specified for each simulation. The reentrant circuit generally consisted of a single reentrant impulse which circulated around a continuous line of functional bidirectional conduction block joined to the IVC. Rapid pacing, 5-30 ms shorter than the spontaneous reentrant cycle length, was applied to entrain and/or terminate the rhythm. The results of this study demonstrate that patterns of initiation, entrainment, termination and reinitiation of circus movement atrial flutter mimic results from in vivo activation mapping studies. We find that sustained circus movement atrial flutter circuits depend on: 1) natural anatomical obstacles to stabilize reentrant circuits, and 2) anisotropic conduction properties to reduce the degree of functional conduction block needed to maintain circus movement. Rapid pacing of simulated circus movement atrial flutter demonstrated that the

  17. Dual control active superconductive devices

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S.; Beyer, James B.; Nordman, James E.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1993-07-20

    A superconducting active device has dual control inputs and is constructed such that the output of the device is effectively a linear mix of the two input signals. The device is formed of a film of superconducting material on a substrate and has two main conduction channels, each of which includes a weak link region. A first control line extends adjacent to the weak link region in the first channel and a second control line extends adjacent to the weak link region in the second channel. The current flowing from the first channel flows through an internal control line which is also adjacent to the weak link region of the second channel. The weak link regions comprise small links of superconductor, separated by voids, through which the current flows in each channel. Current passed through the control lines causes magnetic flux vortices which propagate across the weak link regions and control the resistance of these regions. The output of the device taken across the input to the main channels and the output of the second main channel and the internal control line will constitute essentially a linear mix of the two input signals imposed on the two control lines. The device is especially suited to microwave applications since it has very low input capacitance, and is well suited to being formed of high temperature superconducting materials since all of the structures may be formed coplanar with one another on a substrate.

  18. A computational transonic flutter boundary tracking procedure. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallman, J. W.; Batina, J. T.; Yang, T. Y.

    1986-01-01

    An automated flutter boundary tracking procedure for the efficient calculation of transonic flutter boundaries is presented. The procedure uses aeroelastic responses to march along the boundary by taking steps in speed and Mach number, thereby reducing the number of response calculations previously required to determine a transonic flutter boundary. Flutter boundary results are presented for a typical airfoil section oscillating with pitch and plunge degrees of freedom. These transonic flutter boundaries are in good agreement with exact boundaries calculated using the conventional time-marching method. The tracking procedure is extended to include static aeroelastic twist as a simulation of the static deformation of a wing and contains all of the essential features that are required to apply it to practical three-dimensional cases. The procedure is also applied to flutter boundaries as a function of structural parameters.

  19. Kinematics and Flow Evolution of a Flexible Wing in Stall Flutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, John; Akkala, James; Buchholz, James; McLaughlin, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Large amplitude stall flutter limit cycle oscillations were observed on an aspect ratio six finite span NACA0018 flexible wing model at a free stream velocity of 23 m/s and an initial angle of attack of six degrees. The wing motion was characterized by periodic oscillations of predominately a torsional mode at a reduced frequency of k = 0.1. The kinematics were quantified via stereoscopic tracking of the wing surface with high speed camera imaging and direct linear transformation. Simultaneously acquired accelerometer measurements were used to track the wing motion and trigger the collection of two-dimensional particle image velocimetry field measurements to the phase angle of the periodic motion. Aerodynamically, the flutter motion is driven by the development and shedding of a dynamic stall vortex system, the evolution of which is characterized and discussed. This work was supported by the AFOSR Flow Interactions and Control Portfolio monitored by Dr. Douglas Smith and the AFOSR/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program (JA and JB).

  20. Atrial fibrillation and flutter following coronary artery bypass graft surgery: A retrospective study and review

    PubMed Central

    Premaratne, Ishani D; Fernando, Naomi D; Williams, Lashira; Hasaniya, Nahidh W

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and objectives Atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Its incidence can range from 10 to 60% of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. This rhythm can result in shorter or longer intervals between beats. Methods Medical records of 143 patients from the Queen’s Medical Center, Kuakini Medical Center, Saint Francis Medical Center, and Straub Hospital and Clinic, all of which are located in Honolulu, Hawaii were reviewed. An additional 39 records of patients who did not develop these complications were also reviewed as a control group. Patients were selected according to the ICD codes for atrial fibrillation/flutter and coronary artery bypass graft. Both anomalies can lead to increased health care costs, morbidity, and mortality. In this study, possible predisposing factors to these complications were investigated. The time of onset, weight gain, elapsed time, fluid status (in/out), hematocrit, and drug regimens were compared between the two groups. Results The differences in weight gain, fluid status, and hematocrit between the groups were not significant. There were a total of 17 different drugs prescribed to the group as a whole but not every patient received the same regimen. Conclusions Atrial fibrillation and flutter were found to be more common in males, particularly between the ages of 60 and 69 years. There were no other significant findings. PMID:27123238

  1. Adaptive neural control of aeroelastic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenwalner, Peter F.; Little, Gerald R.; Scott, Robert C.

    1996-05-01

    The Adaptive Neural Control of Aeroelastic Response (ANCAR) program is a joint research and development effort conducted by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) under a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA). The purpose of the MOA is to cooperatively develop the smart structure technologies necessary for alleviating undesirable vibration and aeroelastic response associated with highly flexible structures. Adaptive control can reduce aeroelastic response associated with buffet and atmospheric turbulence, it can increase flutter margins, and it may be able to reduce response associated with nonlinear phenomenon like limit cycle oscillations. By reducing vibration levels and loads, aircraft structures can have lower acquisition cost, reduced maintenance, and extended lifetimes. Phase I of the ANCAR program involved development and demonstration of a neural network-based semi-adaptive flutter suppression system which used a neural network for scheduling control laws as a function of Mach number and dynamic pressure. This controller was tested along with a robust fixed-gain control law in NASA's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) utilizing the Benchmark Active Controls Testing (BACT) wing. During Phase II, a fully adaptive on-line learning neural network control system has been developed for flutter suppression which will be tested in 1996. This paper presents the results of Phase I testing as well as the development progress of Phase II.

  2. On curve veering and flutter of rotating blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afolabi, Dare; Mehmed, Oral

    1993-01-01

    The eigenvalues of rotating blades usually change with rotation speed according to the Stodola-Southwell criterion. Under certain circumstances, the loci of eigenvalues belonging to two distinct modes of vibration approach each other very closely, and it may appear as if the loci cross each other. However, our study indicates that the observable frequency loci of an undamped rotating blade do not cross, but must either repel each other (leading to 'curve veering'), or attract each other (leading to 'frequency coalescence'). Our results are reached by using standard arguments from algebraic geometry--the theory of algebraic curves and catastrophe theory. We conclude that it is important to resolve an apparent crossing of eigenvalue loci into either a frequency coalescence or a curve veering, because frequency coalescence is dangerous since it leads to flutter, whereas curve veering does not precipitate flutter and is, therefore, harmless with respect to elastic stability.

  3. Novel Active Combustion Control Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caspermeyer, Matt

    2014-01-01

    This project presents an innovative solution for active combustion control. Relative to the state of the art, this concept provides frequency modulation (greater than 1,000 Hz) in combination with high-amplitude modulation (in excess of 30 percent flow) and can be adapted to a large range of fuel injector sizes. Existing valves often have low flow modulation strength. To achieve higher flow modulation requires excessively large valves or too much electrical power to be practical. This active combustion control valve (ACCV) has high-frequency and -amplitude modulation, consumes low electrical power, is closely coupled with the fuel injector for modulation strength, and is practical in size and weight. By mitigating combustion instabilities at higher frequencies than have been previously achieved (approximately 1,000 Hz), this new technology enables gas turbines to run at operating points that produce lower emissions and higher performance.

  4. Hummingbird feather sounds are produced by aeroelastic flutter, not vortex-induced vibration.

    PubMed

    Clark, Christopher J; Elias, Damian O; Prum, Richard O

    2013-09-15

    Males in the 'bee' hummingbird clade produce distinctive, species-specific sounds with fluttering tail feathers during courtship displays. Flutter may be the result of vortex shedding or aeroelastic interactions. We investigated the underlying mechanics of flutter and sound production of a series of different feathers in a wind tunnel. All feathers tested were capable of fluttering at frequencies varying from 0.3 to 10 kHz. At low airspeeds (Uair) feather flutter was highly damped, but at a threshold airspeed (U*) the feathers abruptly entered a limit-cycle vibration and produced sound. Loudness increased with airspeed in most but not all feathers. Reduced frequency of flutter varied by an order of magnitude, and declined with increasing Uair in all feathers. This, along with the presence of strong harmonics, multiple modes of flutter and several other non-linear effects indicates that flutter is not simply a vortex-induced vibration, and that the accompanying sounds are not vortex whistles. Flutter is instead aeroelastic, in which structural (inertial/elastic) properties of the feather interact variably with aerodynamic forces, producing diverse acoustic results.

  5. a Time-Domain Method for Transonic Flutter Analysis with Multidirectional Coupled Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tongqing; Lu, Zhiliang; Wu, Yongjian

    Gridgen is employed for static multi-block grid generation. A rapid deforming technique is employed for dynamic grids. Flutters are numerically analyzed in the time domain with a coupled solution of unsteady Euler equations and structural equations of motion. Based on variable stiffness method of transonic flutter analysis, a time-domain method of transonic flutter analysis with multi-directional coupled vibrations is develpoed. For completeness, flutter characteristics of a wing model with winglets and an aircraft model with external stores are numerically analyzed.

  6. Analysis of supersonic stall bending flutter in axial-flow compressor by actuator disk theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical model was developed for predicting the onset of supersonic stall bending flutter in axial-flow compressors. The analysis is based on two-dimensional, compressible, unsteady actuator disk theory. It is applied to a rotor blade row by considering a cascade of airfoils. The effects of shock waves and flow separation are included in the model. Calculations show that the model predicts the onset, in an unshrouded rotor, of a bending flutter mode that exhibits many of the characteristics of supersonic stall bending flutter. The validity of the analysis for predicting this flutter mode is demonstrated.

  7. Parameter Estimation of Actuators for Benchmark Active Control Technology (BACT) Wind Tunnel Model with Analysis of Wear and Aerodynamic Loading Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Fung, Jimmy

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of transfer function models for the trailing-edge and upper and lower spoiler actuators of the Benchmark Active Control Technology (BACT) wind tunnel model for application to control system analysis and design. A simple nonlinear least-squares parameter estimation approach is applied to determine transfer function parameters from frequency response data. Unconstrained quasi-Newton minimization of weighted frequency response error was employed to estimate the transfer function parameters. An analysis of the behavior of the actuators over time to assess the effects of wear and aerodynamic load by using the transfer function models is also presented. The frequency responses indicate consistent actuator behavior throughout the wind tunnel test and only slight degradation in effectiveness due to aerodynamic hinge loading. The resulting actuator models have been used in design, analysis, and simulation of controllers for the BACT to successfully suppress flutter over a wide range of conditions.

  8. Active controls for ride smoothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.; Thompson, G. O.

    1976-01-01

    Active controls technology offers great promise for significantly smoothing the ride, and thus improving public and air carrier acceptance, of certain types of transport aircraft. Recent findings which support this promise are presented in the following three pertinent areas: (1) Ride quality versus degree of traveler satisfaction; (2) significant findings from a feasibility study of a ride smoothing system; and (3) potential ride problems identified for several advanced transport concepts.

  9. Transonic and Supersonic Flutter Investigation of 1/2-Size Models of All-Movable Canard Surface of an Expendable Powered Target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruhlin, Charles L.; Tuovila, W. J.

    1961-01-01

    A transonic and a supersonic flutter investigation of 1/2-size models of the all-movable canard surface of an expendable powered target has been conducted in the Langley transonic blowdown tunnel and in the Langley 9- by 18-inch supersonic aeroelasticity tunnel, respectively. The transonic investigation covered a Mach number range from 0.7 to 1.3, and the supersonic investigation was made at Mach numbers 1.3, 2.O, and 2.55. The effects on the flutter characteristics of the models of different levels of stiffness and of free play in the pitch control linkage were examined. The semispan models, which were tested at an angle of attack of 0 deg, had pitch springs with the scaled design and 1/2 the scaled design pitch stiffness and total free play in pitch ranging from 0 to 1 deg. An additional model configuration which had a pitch spring 1/4 the scaled design pitch stiffness and no free play in pitch was included in the supersonic tests. All model configurations investigated were flutter free up to dynamic pressures 32 percent greater than those required for flight throughout the Mach number range. Several model configurations were tested to considerably higher dynamic pressures without obtaining flutter at both transonic and supersonic speeds.

  10. Shape sensitivity analysis of flutter response of a laminated wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergen, Fred D.; Kapania, Rakesh K.

    1988-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the shape sensitivity of a wing aeroelastic response with respect to changes in geometric shape. Yates' modified strip method is used in conjunction with Giles' equivalent plate analysis to predict the flutter speed, frequency, and reduced frequency of the wing. Three methods are used to calculate the sensitivity of the eigenvalue. The first method is purely a finite difference calculation of the eigenvalue derivative directly from the solution of the flutter problem corresponding to the two different values of the shape parameters. The second method uses an analytic expression for the eigenvalue sensitivities of a general complex matrix, where the derivatives of the aerodynamic, mass, and stiffness matrices are computed using a finite difference approximation. The third method also uses an analytic expression for the eigenvalue sensitivities, but the aerodynamic matrix is computed analytically. All three methods are found to be in good agreement with each other. The sensitivities of the eigenvalues were used to predict the flutter speed, frequency, and reduced frequency. These approximations were found to be in good agreement with those obtained using a complete reanalysis.

  11. Flutter Stability Verified for the Trailing Edge Blowing Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Srivastava, Rakesh

    2005-01-01

    The TURBO-AE aeroelastic code has been used to verify the flutter stability of the trailing edge blowing (TEB) fan, which is a unique technology demonstrator being designed and fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center for testing in Glenn s 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. Air can be blown out of slots near the trailing edges of the TEB fan blades to fill in the wakes downstream of the rotating blades, which reduces the rotor-stator interaction (tone) noise caused by the interaction of wakes with the downstream stators. The TEB fan will demonstrate a 1.6-EPNdB reduction in tone noise through wake filling. Furthermore, the reduced blade-row interaction will decrease the possibility of forced-response vibrations and enable closer spacing of blade rows, thus reducing engine length and weight. The detailed aeroelastic analysis capability of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes TURBO-AE code was used to check the TEB fan rotor blades for flutter stability. Flutter calculations were first performed with no TEB flow; then select calculations were repeated with TEB flow turned on.

  12. Whirl Flutter Studies for a SSTOL Transport Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.; Hoffman, Krishna

    2004-01-01

    A proposed new class of aircraft - the Advanced Theater Transport (ATT) will combine strategic range and high payload with 'Super-STOL' (short take-off and landing) capability. It is also proposed to modify a YC-15 into a technology demonstrator with a 20-deg tilt wing; four, eight-bladed propellers; cross-shafted gearboxes and V-22 engines. These constitute a unique combination of design features that potentially affect performance, loads and whirl-mode stability (whirl flutter). NASA Ames Research Center is working with Boeing and Hamilton Sundstrand on technology challenges presented by the concept; the purpose of NASA involvement is to establish requirements for the demonstrator and for early design guidance, with emphasis on whirl flutter. CAMRAD II is being used to study the effects of various design features on whirl flutter, with special attention to areas where such features differ from existing aircraft, notably tiltrotors. Although the stability margins appear to be more than adequate, the concept requires significantly different analytical methods, principally including far more blade modes, than typically used for tiltrotors.

  13. Application of Approximate Unsteady Aerodynamics for Flutter Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley W.

    2010-01-01

    A technique for approximating the modal aerodynamic influence coefficient (AIC) matrices by using basis functions has been developed. A process for using the resulting approximated modal AIC matrix in aeroelastic analysis has also been developed. The method requires the unsteady aerodynamics in frequency domain, and this methodology can be applied to the unsteady subsonic, transonic, and supersonic aerodynamics. The flutter solution can be found by the classic methods, such as rational function approximation, k, p-k, p, root locus et cetera. The unsteady aeroelastic analysis using unsteady subsonic aerodynamic approximation is demonstrated herein. The technique presented is shown to offer consistent flutter speed prediction on an aerostructures test wing (ATW) 2 and a hybrid wing body (HWB) type of vehicle configuration with negligible loss in precision. This method computes AICs that are functions of the changing parameters being studied and are generated within minutes of CPU time instead of hours. These results may have practical application in parametric flutter analyses as well as more efficient multidisciplinary design and optimization studies.

  14. Neuronal activity controls transsynaptic geometry

    PubMed Central

    Glebov, Oleg O.; Cox, Susan; Humphreys, Lawrence; Burrone, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The neuronal synapse is comprised of several distinct zones, including presynaptic vesicle zone (SVZ), active zone (AZ) and postsynaptic density (PSD). While correct relative positioning of these zones is believed to be essential for synaptic function, the mechanisms controlling their mutual localization remain unexplored. Here, we employ high-throughput quantitative confocal imaging, super-resolution and electron microscopy to visualize organization of synaptic subdomains in hippocampal neurons. Silencing of neuronal activity leads to reversible reorganization of the synaptic geometry, resulting in a increased overlap between immunostained AZ and PSD markers; in contrast, the SVZ-AZ spatial coupling is decreased. Bayesian blinking and bleaching (3B) reconstruction reveals that the distance between the AZ-PSD distance is decreased by 30 nm, while electron microscopy shows that the width of the synaptic cleft is decreased by 1.1 nm. Our findings show that multiple aspects of synaptic geometry are dynamically controlled by neuronal activity and suggest mutual repositioning of synaptic components as a potential novel mechanism contributing to the homeostatic forms of synaptic plasticity. PMID:26951792

  15. Active load control using microtabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Dora Te-Lun

    2001-11-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) translational tabs are introduced for enhancing and controlling the aerodynamic loading on lifting surfaces. These microtabs are mounted near the trailing edge of lifting surfaces, retract and extend approximately normal to the surface and have a maximum deployment height on the order of the boundary-layer thickness. Deployment of the device effectively modifies the camber distribution of the lifting surface and hence, the lift generated. The effect of the microtabs on lift is shown to be as powerful as conventional control surfaces with lift changes of 30%--50% in the linear range of the lift curve using a tab with a height of 1% of airfoil chord placed at 5% of chord upstream of the trailing edge on the lower surface. A multi-disciplinary approach incorporating aspects of experimental and computational aerodynamics, mechanical design and microfabrication techniques has been taken to develop and test a "proof of concept" model. Flow simulations, using a Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes solver, have been conducted to optimize the size and placement of the devices based on trailing edge volume constraints. Numerical and experimental wind tunnel results are in good agreement, and both confirm that these micro-scale devices create macro-scale changes in aerodynamic loading. Application of this rather simple but innovative lift control system based on microfabrication techniques introduces a robust, dynamic control device and will allow for the miniaturization of conventional high lift and control systems. The result is a significant reduction in typical control system weight, complexity and cost. Also due to the minute size of these tabs, their activation and response times are much faster than that of conventional trailing edge devices. The "proof of concept" tab design, fabrication techniques, computational and experimental setup, and test results using a representative airfoil are presented in this research. (For more information, see

  16. Characteristics of Control Laws Tested on the Semi-Span Super-Sonic Transport (S4T) Wind-Tunnel Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christhilf, David M.; Moulin, Boris; Ritz, Erich; Chen, P. C.; Roughen, Kevin M.; Perry, Boyd

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Span Supersonic Transport (S4T) is an aeroelastically scaled wind-tunnel model built to test active controls concepts for large flexible supersonic aircraft in the transonic flight regime. It is one of several models constructed in the 1990's as part of the High Speed Research (HSR) Program. Control laws were developed for the S4T by M4 Engineering, Inc. and by Zona Technologies, Inc. under NASA Research Announcement (NRA) contracts. The model was tested in the NASA-Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) four times from 2007 to 2010. The first two tests were primarily for plant identification. The third entry was used for testing control laws for Ride Quality Enhancement, Gust Load Alleviation, and Flutter Suppression. Whereas the third entry only tested FS subcritically, the fourth test demonstrated closed-loop operation above the open-loop flutter boundary. The results of the third entry are reported elsewhere. This paper reports on flutter suppression results from the fourth wind-tunnel test. Flutter suppression is seen as a way to provide stability margins while flying at transonic flight conditions without penalizing the primary supersonic cruise design condition. An account is given for how Controller Performance Evaluation (CPE) singular value plots were interpreted with regard to progressing open- or closed-loop to higher dynamic pressures during testing.

  17. An iterative transformation procedure for numerical solution of flutter and similar characteristics-value problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gossard, Myron L

    1952-01-01

    An iterative transformation procedure suggested by H. Wielandt for numerical solution of flutter and similar characteristic-value problems is presented. Application of this procedure to ordinary natural-vibration problems and to flutter problems is shown by numerical examples. Comparisons of computed results with experimental values and with results obtained by other methods of analysis are made.

  18. Fluttering of the Tail Surfaces of an Airplane and the Means for Its Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheubel, F N

    1929-01-01

    The present article, which constitutes a continuation of the work of Von Baumhauer and Konig, will therefore be restricted to the fluttering of the tail surfaces and especially to oscillations of the horizontal empennage. This will also illustrate the characteristics of all other phenomena of fluttering.

  19. Influence of Shock Wave on the Flutter Behavior of Fan Blades Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Rakesh; Bakhle, Milind A.; Stefko, George L.

    2003-01-01

    Modern fan designs have blades with forward sweep; a lean, thin cross section; and a wide chord to improve performance and reduce noise. These geometric features coupled with the presence of a shock wave can lead to flutter instability. Flutter is a self-excited dynamic instability arising because of fluid-structure interaction, which causes the energy from the surrounding fluid to be extracted by the vibrating structure. An in-flight occurrence of flutter could be catastrophic and is a significant design issue for rotor blades in gas turbines. Understanding the flutter behavior and the influence of flow features on flutter will lead to a better and safer design. An aeroelastic analysis code, TURBO, has been developed and validated for flutter calculations at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The code has been used to understand the occurrence of flutter in a forward-swept fan design. The forward-swept fan, which consists of 22 inserted blades, encountered flutter during wind tunnel tests at part speed conditions.

  20. Parametric Flutter Analysis of the TCA Configuration and Recommendation for FFM Design and Scaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Myles; Lenkey, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The current HSR Aeroelasticity plan to design, build, and test a full span, free flying transonic flutter model in the TDT has many technical obstacles that must be overcome for a successful program. One technical obstacle is the determination of a suitable configuration and point in the sky to use in setting the scaling point for the ASE models program. Determining this configuration and point in the sky requires balancing several conflicting requirements, including model buildability, tunnel test safety, and the ability of the model to represent the flutter mechanisms of interest. As will be discussed in detail in subsequent sections, the current TCA design exhibits several flutter mechanisms of interest. It has been decided that the ASE models program will focus on the low frequency symmetric flutter mechanism, and will make no attempt to investigate high frequency flutter mechanisms. There are several reasons for this choice. First, it is believed that the high frequency flutter mechanisms are similar in nature to classical wing bending/torsion flutter, and therefore there is more confidence that this mechanism can be predicted using current techniques. The low frequency mode, on the other hand, is a highly coupled mechanism involving wing, body, tail, and engine motion which may be very difficult to predict. Second, the high frequency flutter modes result in very small weight penalties (several hundred pounds), while suppression of the low frequency mechanism inside the flight envelope causes thousands of pounds to be added to the structure. In order to successfully test the low frequency flutter mode of interest, a suitable starting configuration and point in the sky must be identified. The configuration and point in the sky must result in a wind tunnel model that (1) represents the low-frequency wing/body/engine/empennage flutter mechanisms that are unique to HSCT configurations, (2) flutters at an acceptably low frequency in the tunnel, (3) flutters at an

  1. Experimental parametric studies of transonic T-tail flutter. [wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruhlin, C. L.; Sandford, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests of the T-tail of a wide-body jet airplane were made at Mach numbers up to 1.02. The model consisted of a 1/13-size scaled version of the T-tail, fuselage, and inboard wing of the airplane. Two interchangeable T-tails were tested, one with design stiffness for flutter-clearance studies and one with reduced stiffness for flutter-trend studies. Transonic antisymmetric-flutter boundaries were determined for the models with variations in: (1) fin-spar stiffness, (2) stabilizer dihedral angle (-5 deg and 0 deg), (3) wing and forward-fuselage shape, and (4) nose shape of the fin-stabilizer juncture. A transonic symmetric-flutter boundary and flutter trends were established for variations in stabilizer pitch stiffness. Photographs of the test configurations are shown.

  2. Supersonic unstalled flutter. [aerodynamic loading of thin airfoils induced by cascade motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, J. J.; Goldstein, M. E.; Hartmann, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Flutter analyses were developed to predict the onset of supersonic unstalled flutter of a cascade of two-dimensional airfoils. The first of these analyzes the onset of supersonic flutter at low levels of aerodynamic loading (i.e., backpressure), while the second examines the occurrence of supersonic flutter at moderate levels of aerodynamic loading. Both of these analyses are based on the linearized unsteady inviscid equations of gas dynamics to model the flow field surrounding the cascade. These analyses are utilized in a parametric study to show the effects of cascade geometry, inlet Mach number, and backpressure on the onset of single and multi degree of freedom unstalled supersonic flutter. Several of the results are correlated against experimental qualitative observation to validate the models.

  3. Developing Uncertainty Models for Robust Flutter Analysis Using Ground Vibration Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Starr; Lind, Rick; Kehoe, Michael W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A ground vibration test can be used to obtain information about structural dynamics that is important for flutter analysis. Traditionally, this information#such as natural frequencies of modes#is used to update analytical models used to predict flutter speeds. The ground vibration test can also be used to obtain uncertainty models, such as natural frequencies and their associated variations, that can update analytical models for the purpose of predicting robust flutter speeds. Analyzing test data using the -norm, rather than the traditional 2-norm, is shown to lead to a minimum-size uncertainty description and, consequently, a least-conservative robust flutter speed. This approach is demonstrated using ground vibration test data for the Aerostructures Test Wing. Different norms are used to formulate uncertainty models and their associated robust flutter speeds to evaluate which norm is least conservative.

  4. A computer program for automated flutter solution and matched point determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, K. G.

    1973-01-01

    The use of a digital computer program (MATCH) for automated determination of the flutter velocity and the matched-point flutter density is described. The program is based on the use of the modified Laguerre iteration formula to converge to a flutter crossing or a matched-point density. A general description of the computer program is included and the purpose of all subroutines used is stated. The input required by the program and various input options are detailed, and the output description is presented. The program can solve flutter equations formulated with up to 12 vibration modes and obtain flutter solutions for up to 10 air densities. The program usage is illustrated by a sample run, and the FORTRAN program listing is included.

  5. 14 CFR 23.629 - Flutter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... control system stiffness; and (2) The natural frequencies of main structural components must be determined... tab control system. (2) For airplanes other than those described in paragraph (f)(1) of this section, after the failure, malfunction, or disconnection of any single element in the primary flight...

  6. Active Spacecraft Potential Control Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkar, K.; Nakamura, R.; Tajmar, M.; Scharlemann, C.; Jeszenszky, H.; Laky, G.; Fremuth, G.; Escoubet, C. P.; Svenes, K.

    2016-03-01

    In tenuous plasma the floating potential of sunlit spacecraft reaches tens of volts, positive. The corresponding field disturbs measurements of the ambient plasma by electron and ion sensors and can reduce micro-channel plate lifetime in electron detectors owing to large fluxes of attracted photoelectrons. Also the accuracy of electric field measurements may suffer from a high spacecraft potential. The Active Spacecraft Potential Control (ASPOC) neutralizes the spacecraft potential by releasing positive charge produced by indium ion emitters. The method has been successfully applied on other spacecraft such as Cluster and Double Star. Two ASPOC units are present on each spacecraft. Each unit contains four ion emitters, whereby one emitter per instrument is operated at a time. ASPOC for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission includes new developments in the design of the emitters and the electronics. New features include the use of capillaries instead of needles, new materials for the emitters and their internal thermal insulators, an extended voltage and current range of the electronics, both for ion emission and heating purposes, and a more capable control software. This enables lower spacecraft potentials, higher reliability, and a more uniform potential structure in the spacecraft's sheath compared to previous missions. Results from on-ground testing demonstrate compliance with requirements. Model calculations confirm the findings from previous applications that the plasma measurements will not be affected by the beam's space charge. Finally, the various operating modes to adapt to changing boundary conditions are described along with the main data products.

  7. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Wing planform study and final configuration selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Wing Planform Study and Final Configuration Selection Task of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology Project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program is documented. Application of Active Controls Technology (ACT) in combination with increased wing span resulted in significant improvements over the Conventional Baseline Configuration (Baseline) and the Initial ACT Configuration previously established. The configurations use the same levels of technology, takeoff gross weight, and payload as the Baseline. The Final ACT Configuration (Model 768-107) incorporates pitch-augmented stability (which enabled an approximately 10% aft shift in cruise center of gravity and a 44% reduction in horizontal tail size), lateral/directional-augmented stability, an angle-of-attack limiter, and wing-load alleviation. Flutter-mode control was not beneficial for this configuration. This resulted in an 890 kg (1960 lb) reduction in airplane takeoff gross weight and a 9.8% improvement in cruise lift/drag. At the Baseline mission range (3589 km 1938 nmi), this amounts to 10% block-fuel reduction. Results of this task strongly indicate that the IAAC Project should proceed with the Final ACT evaluation, and begin the required control system development and test.

  8. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Wing planform study and final configuration selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the Wing Planform Study Task and Final Configuration Selection of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology Project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program. Application of Active Controls Technology (ACT) in combination with increased wing span resulted in significant improvements over the Conventional Baseline Configuration (Baseline) and the Initial ACT Configuration previously established. The configurations use the same levels of technology (except for ACT), takeoff gross weight, and payload as the Baseline. The Final ACT Configuration (Model 768-107) incorporates pitch-augmented stability (which enabled an approximately 10% aft shift in cruise center of gravity and a 45% reduction in horizontal tail sizes), lateral/directional-augmented stability, an angle-of-attack limiter, and wing-load alleviation. Flutter-mode control was not beneficial for this configuration. This resulted in an 890 kg (1960 lb) reduction in airplane takeoff gross weight and a 9.8% improvement in cruise lift/drag. At the Baseline mission range (3590 km) (1938 nmi), this amounts to 10% block fuel reduction. Good takeoff performance at high-altitude airports on a hot day was also achieved. Results of this task strongly indicate that the IAAC Project should proceed with the Final ACT evaluation and begin the required control system development and testing.

  9. Semi-actuator disk theory for compressor choke flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micklow, J.; Jeffers, J.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical anaysis predict the unsteady aerodynamic utilizing semi actuator theory environment for a cascade of airfoils harmonically oscillating in choked flow was developed. A normal shock is located in the blade passage, its position depending on the time dependent geometry, and pressure perturbations of the system. In addition to shock dynamics, the model includes the effect of compressibility, interblade phase lag, and an unsteady flow field upstream and downstream of the cascade. Calculated unsteady aerodynamics were compared with isolated airfoil wind tunnel data, and choke flutter onset boundaries were compared with data from testing of an F100 high pressure compressor stage.

  10. Contributions of Transonic Dynamics Tunnel Testing to Airplane Flutter Clearance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Jose A.; Florance, James R.

    2000-01-01

    The Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) became in operational in 1960, and since that time has achieved the status of the world's premier wind tunnel for testing large in aeroelastically scaled models at transonic speeds. The facility has many features that contribute to its uniqueness for aeroelastic testing. This paper will briefly describe these capabilities and features, and their relevance to aeroelastic testing. Contributions to specific airplane configurations and highlights from the flutter tests performed in the TDT aimed at investigating the aeroelastic characteristics of these configurations are presented.

  11. Structural testing for static failure, flutter and other scary things

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricketts, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Ground test and flight test methods are described that may be used to highlight potential structural problems that occur on aircraft. Primary interest is focused on light-weight general aviation airplanes. The structural problems described include static strength failure, aileron reversal, static divergence, and flutter. An example of each of the problems is discussed to illustrate how the data acquired during the tests may be used to predict the occurrence of the structural problem. While some rules of thumb for the prediction of structural problems are given the report is not intended to be used explicitly as a structural analysis handbook.

  12. Aeroservoelastic Testing of Free Flying Wind Tunnel Models Part 1: A Sidewall Supported Semispan Model Tested for Gust Load Alleviation and Flutter Suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Robert C.; Vetter, Travis K.; Penning, Kevin B.; Coulson, David A.; Heeg, Jennifer.

    2013-01-01

    of a two part document. Part 2 is titled: "Aeroservoelastic Testing of Free Flying Wind Tunnel Models, Part 2: A Centerline Supported Fullspan Model Tested for Gust Load Alleviation." A team comprised of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin, and the NASA Langley Research Center conducted three aeroservoelastic wind tunnel tests in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to demonstrate active control technologies relevant to large, flexible vehicles. In the first of these three tests, a semispan, aeroelastically scaled, wind tunnel model of a flying wing SensorCraft vehicle was mounted to a force balance to demonstrate gust load alleviation. In the second and third tests, the same wing was mated to a new, multi-degree of freedom, sidewall mount. This mount allowed the half-span model to translate vertically and pitch at the wing root, allowing better simulation of the full span vehicle's rigid body modes. Gust load alleviation (GLA) and Body freedom flutter (BFF) suppression were successfully demonstrated. The rigid body degrees-of-freedom required that the model be flown in the wind tunnel using an active control system. This risky mode of testing necessitated that a model arrestment system be integrated into the new mount. The safe and successful completion of these free flying tests required the development and integration of custom hardware and software. This paper describes the many systems, software, and procedures that were developed as part of this effort.

  13. Controlled Aeroelastic Response and Airfoil Shaping Using Adaptive Materials and Integrated Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkerton, Jennifer L.; McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Moses, Robert W.; Scott, Robert C.; Heeg, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of several activities of the Aeroelasticity Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center in the area of applying adaptive materials and integrated systems for controlling both aircraft aeroelastic response and airfoil shape. The experimental results of four programs are discussed: the Piezoelectric Aeroelastic Response Tailoring Investigation (PARTI); the Adaptive Neural Control of Aeroelastic Response (ANCAR) program; the Actively Controlled Response of Buffet Affected Tails (ACROBAT) program; and the Airfoil THUNDER Testing to Ascertain Characteristics (ATTACH) project. The PARTI program demonstrated active flutter control and significant rcductions in aeroelastic response at dynamic pressures below flutter using piezoelectric actuators. The ANCAR program seeks to demonstrate the effectiveness of using neural networks to schedule flutter suppression control laws. Th,e ACROBAT program studied the effectiveness of a number of candidate actuators, including a rudder and piezoelectric actuators, to alleviate vertical tail buffeting. In the ATTACH project, the feasibility of using Thin-Layer Composite-Uimorph Piezoelectric Driver and Sensor (THUNDER) wafers to control airfoil aerodynamic characteristics was investigated. Plans for future applications are also discussed.

  14. Controlled aeroelastic response and airfoil shaping using adaptive materials and integrated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Jennifer L.; McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Moses, Robert W.; Scott, Robert C.; Heeg, Jennifer

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of several activities of the Aeroelasticity Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center in the area of applying adaptive materials and integrated systems for controlling both aircraft aeroelastic response and airfoil shape. The experimental results of four programs are discussed: the Piezoelectric Aeroelastic Response Tailoring Investigation (PARTI); the adaptive neural control of aeroelastic response (ANCAR) program; the actively controlled response of buffet affected tails (ACROBAT) program; and the Airfoil THUNDER Testing to ascertain charcteristics (ATTACH) project. The PARTI program demonstrated active flutter control and significant reductions in aeroelastic response at dynamic pressures below flutter using piezoelectric actuators. The ANCAR program seeks to demonstrate the effectiveness of using neural networks to schedule flutter suppression control laws. The ACROBAT program studied the effectiveness of a number of candidate actuators, including a rudder and piezoelectric actuators, to alleviate vertical tail buffeting. In the ATTACH project, the feasibility of using thin-layer composite-unimorph piezoelectric driver and sensor (THUNDER) wafers to control airfoil aerodynamic characteristics was investigated. Plans for future applications are also discussed.

  15. Active control of combustion instability

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, W.; Poinsot, T.; Candel, S.

    1987-12-01

    The principle of 'antisound' is used to construct a method for the suppression of combustion instabilities. This active instability control (AIC) method uses external acoustic excitation by a loudspeaker to suppress the oscillations of a flame. The excitation signal is provided by a microphone located upstream of the flame. This signal is filtered, processed, amplified, and sent to the loudspeaker. The AIC method is validated on a laboratory combustor. It allows the suppression of all unstable modes of the burner for any operating ratio. The influence of the microphone and loudspeaker locations on the performance of the AIC system is described. For a given configuration, domains of stability, i.e., domains where the AIC system parameters provide suppression of the oscillation, are investigated. Measurements of the electric input of the loudspeaker show that the energy consumption of the AIC system is almost negligible and suggest that this method could be used for industrial combustor stabilization. Finally, a simple model describing the effects of the AIC system is developed and its results compared to the experiment.

  16. Active thermal control system evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petete, Patricia A.; Ames, Brian E.

    1991-01-01

    The 'restructured' baseline of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has eliminated many of the growth options for the Active Thermal Control System (ATCS). Modular addition of baseline technology to increase heat rejection will be extremely difficult. The system design and the available real estate no longer accommodate this type of growth. As the station matures during its thirty years of operation, a demand of up to 165 kW of heat rejection can be expected. The baseline configuration will be able to provide 82.5 kW at Eight Manned Crew Capability (EMCC). The growth paths necessary to reach 165 kW have been identified. Doubling the heat rejection capability of SSF will require either the modification of existing radiator wings or the attachment of growth structure to the baseline truss for growth radiator wing placement. Radiator performance can be improved by enlarging the surface area or by boosting the operating temperature with a heat pump. The optimal solution will require both modifications. The addition of growth structure would permit the addition of a parallel ATCS using baseline technology. This growth system would simplify integration. The feasibility of incorporating these growth options to improve the heat rejection capacity of SSF is under evaluation.

  17. Chirality-dependent flutter of Typha blades in wind.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zi-Long; Liu, Zong-Yuan; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Cattail or Typha, an emergent aquatic macrophyte widely distributed in lakes and other shallow water areas, has slender blades with a chiral morphology. The wind-resilient Typha blades can produce distinct hydraulic resistance for ecosystem functions. However, their stem may rupture and dislodge in excessive wind drag. In this paper, we combine fluid dynamics simulations and experimental measurements to investigate the aeroelastic behavior of Typha blades in wind. It is found that the chirality-dependent flutter, including wind-induced rotation and torsion, is a crucial strategy for Typha blades to accommodate wind forces. Flow visualization demonstrates that the twisting morphology of blades provides advantages over the flat one in the context of two integrated functions: improving wind resistance and mitigating vortex-induced vibration. The unusual dynamic responses and superior mechanical properties of Typha blades are closely related to their biological/ecosystem functions and macro/micro structures. This work decodes the physical mechanisms of chirality-dependent flutter in Typha blades and holds potential applications in vortex-induced vibration suppression and the design of, e.g., bioinspired flight vehicles. PMID:27432079

  18. Effects of leading-edge tubercles on wing flutter speeds.

    PubMed

    Ng, B F; New, T H; Palacios, R

    2016-06-01

    The dynamic aeroelastic effects on wings modified with bio-inspired leading-edge (LE) tubercles are examined in this study. We adopt a state-space aeroelastic model via the coupling of unsteady vortex-lattice method and a composite beam to evaluate stability margins as a result of LE tubercles on a generic wing. The unsteady aerodynamics and spanwise mass variations due to LE tubercles have counteracting effects on stability margins with the former having dominant influence. When coupled, flutter speed is observed to be 5% higher, and this is accompanied by close to 6% decrease in reduced frequencies as an indication of lower structural stiffness requirements for wings with LE tubercles. Both tubercle amplitude and wavelength have similar influences over the change in flutter speeds, and such modifications to the LE would have minimal effect on stability margins when concentrated inboard of the wing. Lastly, when used in sweptback wings, LE tubercles are observed to have smaller impacts on stability margins as the sweep angle is increased. PMID:27070824

  19. Chirality-dependent flutter of Typha blades in wind

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zi-Long; Liu, Zong-Yuan; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Cattail or Typha, an emergent aquatic macrophyte widely distributed in lakes and other shallow water areas, has slender blades with a chiral morphology. The wind-resilient Typha blades can produce distinct hydraulic resistance for ecosystem functions. However, their stem may rupture and dislodge in excessive wind drag. In this paper, we combine fluid dynamics simulations and experimental measurements to investigate the aeroelastic behavior of Typha blades in wind. It is found that the chirality-dependent flutter, including wind-induced rotation and torsion, is a crucial strategy for Typha blades to accommodate wind forces. Flow visualization demonstrates that the twisting morphology of blades provides advantages over the flat one in the context of two integrated functions: improving wind resistance and mitigating vortex-induced vibration. The unusual dynamic responses and superior mechanical properties of Typha blades are closely related to their biological/ecosystem functions and macro/micro structures. This work decodes the physical mechanisms of chirality-dependent flutter in Typha blades and holds potential applications in vortex-induced vibration suppression and the design of, e.g., bioinspired flight vehicles. PMID:27432079

  20. Fluttering energy harvesters in the wind: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, J. M.; Watkins, S.; Deivasigamani, A.; John, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    The growing area of harvesting energy by aerodynamically induced flutter in a fluid stream is reviewed. Numerous approaches were found to understand, demonstrate and [sometimes] optimise harvester performance based on Movement-Induced or Extraneously Induced Excitation. Almost all research was conducted in smooth, unidirectional flow domains; either experimental or computational. The power outputs were found to be very low when compared to conventional wind turbines, but potential advantages could be lower noise levels. A consideration of the likely outdoor environment for fluttering harvesters revealed that the flow would be highly turbulent and having a mean flow angle in the horizontal plane that could approach a harvester from any direction. Whilst some multiple harvester systems in smooth, well-aligned flow found enhanced efficiency (due to beneficial wake interaction) this would require an invariant flow approach angle. It was concluded that further work needs to be performed to find a universally accepted metric for efficiency and to understand the effects of the realities of the outdoors, including the highly variable and turbulent flow conditions likely to be experienced.

  1. MAVRIC Flutter Model Transonic Limit Cycle Oscillation Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, John W.; Schuster, David M.; Spain, Charles V.; Keller, Donald F.; Moses, Robert W.

    2001-01-01

    The Models for Aeroelastic Validation Research Involving Computation semi-span wind-tunnel model (MAVRIC-I), a business jet wing-fuselage flutter model, was tested in NASA Langley's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel with the goal of obtaining experimental data suitable for Computational Aeroelasticity code validation at transonic separation onset conditions. This research model is notable for its inexpensive construction and instrumentation installation procedures. Unsteady pressures and wing responses were obtained for three wingtip configurations clean, tipstore, and winglet. Traditional flutter boundaries were measured over the range of M = 0.6 to 0.9 and maps of Limit Cycle Oscillation (LCO) behavior were made in the range of M = 0.85 to 0.95. Effects of dynamic pressure and angle-of-attack were measured. Testing in both R134a heavy gas and air provided unique data on Reynolds number, transition effects, and the effect of speed of sound on LCO behavior. The data set provides excellent code validation test cases for the important class of flow conditions involving shock-induced transonic flow separation onset at low wing angles, including Limit Cycle Oscillation behavior.

  2. MAVRIC Flutter Model Transonic Limit Cycle Oscillation Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, John W.; Schuster, David M.; Spain, Charles V.; Keller, Donald F.; Moses, Robert W.

    2001-01-01

    The Models for Aeroelastic Validation Research Involving Computation semi-span wind-tunnel model (MAVRIC-I), a business jet wing-fuselage flutter model, was tested in NASA Langley's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel with the goal of obtaining experimental data suitable for Computational Aeroelasticity code validation at transonic separation onset conditions. This research model is notable for its inexpensive construction and instrumentation installation procedures. Unsteady pressures and wing responses were obtained for three wingtip configurations of clean, tipstore, and winglet. Traditional flutter boundaries were measured over the range of M = 0.6 to 0.9 and maps of Limit Cycle Oscillation (LCO) behavior were made in the range of M = 0.85 to 0.95. Effects of dynamic pressure and angle-of-attack were measured. Testing in both R134a heavy gas and air provided unique data on Reynolds number, transition effects, and the effect of speed of sound on LCO behavior. The data set provides excellent code validation test cases for the important class of flow conditions involving shock-induced transonic flow separation onset at low wing angles, including LCO behavior.

  3. Wall motion in expiratory flow limitation: choke and flutter.

    PubMed

    Webster, P M; Sawatzky, R P; Hoffstein, V; Leblanc, R; Hinchey, M J; Sullivan, P A

    1985-10-01

    Limitation of expiratory airflow from mammalian airways is currently understood to be due to choking at wave speed (S. V. Dawson and E. A. Elliott. J. Appl. Physiol. 43: 498-515, 1977). A critical weakness of the theory is the lack of a mechanism for the dissipation of energy when effort exceeds that needed for maximal flow. We have observed substantial wall motion with flow limitation in a physical model of a trachea. Therefore we have examined a simple two-dimensional mathematical model, designed to approximate the behavior of the physical model of the trachea, to try to identify a relationship between flow limitation and wall oscillation. The model matches wave-speed predictions when only long waves are considered. The model predicts that aerodynamic flutter will occur in the zone of supercritical flow described in wave-speed theory. Aerodynamic flutter in the zone of supercritical flow provides a potential mechanism for the energy dissipation necessary for transition from supercritical to subcritical flow and explains the high-frequency pure tone heard with flow limitation. PMID:4055608

  4. Chirality-dependent flutter of Typha blades in wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zi-Long; Liu, Zong-Yuan; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2016-07-01

    Cattail or Typha, an emergent aquatic macrophyte widely distributed in lakes and other shallow water areas, has slender blades with a chiral morphology. The wind-resilient Typha blades can produce distinct hydraulic resistance for ecosystem functions. However, their stem may rupture and dislodge in excessive wind drag. In this paper, we combine fluid dynamics simulations and experimental measurements to investigate the aeroelastic behavior of Typha blades in wind. It is found that the chirality-dependent flutter, including wind-induced rotation and torsion, is a crucial strategy for Typha blades to accommodate wind forces. Flow visualization demonstrates that the twisting morphology of blades provides advantages over the flat one in the context of two integrated functions: improving wind resistance and mitigating vortex-induced vibration. The unusual dynamic responses and superior mechanical properties of Typha blades are closely related to their biological/ecosystem functions and macro/micro structures. This work decodes the physical mechanisms of chirality-dependent flutter in Typha blades and holds potential applications in vortex-induced vibration suppression and the design of, e.g., bioinspired flight vehicles.

  5. Flutter analysis of swept-wing subsonic aircraft with parameter studies of composite wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housner, J. M.; Stein, M.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program is presented for the flutter analysis, including the effects of rigid-body roll, pitch, and plunge of swept-wing subsonic aircraft with a flexible fuselage and engines mounted on flexible pylons. The program utilizes a direct flutter solution in which the flutter determinant is derived by using finite differences, and the root locus branches of the determinant are searched for the lowest flutter speed. In addition, a preprocessing subroutine is included which evaluates the variable bending and twisting stiffness properties of the wing by using a laminated, balanced ply, filamentary composite plate theory. The program has been substantiated by comparisons with existing flutter solutions. The program has been applied to parameter studies which examine the effect of filament orientation upon the flutter behavior of wings belonging to the following three classes: wings having different angles of sweep, wings having different mass ratios, and wings having variable skin thicknesses. These studies demonstrated that the program can perform a complete parameter study in one computer run. The program is designed to detect abrupt changes in the lowest flutter speed and mode shape as the parameters are varied.

  6. An Interactive Software for Conceptual Wing Flutter Analysis and Parametric Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    1996-01-01

    An interactive computer program was developed for wing flutter analysis in the conceptual design stage. The objective was to estimate the flutter instability boundary of a flexible cantilever wing, when well-defined structural and aerodynamic data are not available, and then study the effect of change in Mach number, dynamic pressure, torsional frequency, sweep, mass ratio, aspect ratio, taper ratio, center of gravity, and pitch inertia, to guide the development of the concept. The software was developed for Macintosh or IBM compatible personal computers, on MathCad application software with integrated documentation, graphics, data base and symbolic mathematics. The analysis method was based on non-dimensional parametric plots of two primary flutter parameters, namely Regier number and Flutter number, with normalization factors based on torsional stiffness, sweep, mass ratio, taper ratio, aspect ratio, center of gravity location and pitch inertia radius of gyration. The parametric plots were compiled in a Vought Corporation report from a vast data base of past experiments and wind-tunnel tests. The computer program was utilized for flutter analysis of the outer wing of a Blended-Wing-Body concept, proposed by McDonnell Douglas Corp. Using a set of assumed data, preliminary flutter boundary and flutter dynamic pressure variation with altitude, Mach number and torsional stiffness were determined.

  7. Experimental and analytical transonic flutter characteristics of a geared-elevator configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruhlin, C. L.; Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Gregory, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The flutter model represented the aft fuselage and empennage of a proposed supersonic transport airplane and had an all movable horizontal tail with a geared elevator. It was tested mounted from a sting in the transonic dynamics tunnel. Symmetric flutter boundaries were determined experimentally at Mach numbers from 0.7 to 1.14 for a geared elevator configuration (gear ratio of 2.8 to 1.0) and an ungeared elevator configuration (gear ratio of 1.0 to 1.0). Gearing the elevator increased the experimental flutter dynamic pressures about 20 percent. Flutter calculations were made for the geared elevator configuration by using two analytical methods based on subsonic lifting surface theory. Both methods analyzed the stabilizer and elevator as a single, deforming surface, but one method also allowed the elevator to be analyzed as hinged from the stabilizer. All analyses predicted lower flutter dynamic pressures than experiment with best agreement (within 12 percent) for the hinged elevator method. Considering the model as mounted from a flexible rather than rigid sting in the analyses, had only a slight effect on the flutter results but was significant in that a sting related vibration mode was identified as a potentially flutter critical mode.

  8. Healthcare Utilization and Clinical Outcomes after Catheter Ablation of Atrial Flutter

    PubMed Central

    Dewland, Thomas A.; Glidden, David V.; Marcus, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Atrial flutter ablation is associated with a high rate of acute procedural success and symptom improvement. The relationship between ablation and other clinical outcomes has been limited to small studies primarily conducted at academic centers. We sought to determine if catheter ablation of atrial flutter is associated with reductions in healthcare utilization, atrial fibrillation, or stroke in a large, real world population. California Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project databases were used to identify patients undergoing atrial flutter ablation between 2005 and 2009. The adjusted association between atrial flutter ablation and healthcare utilization, atrial fibrillation, or stroke was investigated using Cox proportional hazards models. Among 33,004 patients with a diagnosis of atrial flutter observed for a median of 2.1 years, 2,733 (8.2%) underwent catheter ablation. Atrial flutter ablation significantly lowered the adjusted risk of inpatient hospitalization (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.84–0.92, p<0.001), emergency department visits (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.54–0.65, p<0.001), and overall hospital-based healthcare utilization (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90–0.98, p = 0.001). Atrial flutter ablation was also associated with a statistically significant 11% reduction in the adjusted hazard of atrial fibrillation (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81–0.97, p = 0.01). Risk of acute stroke was not significantly reduced after ablation (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.81–1.45, p = 0.57). In a large, real world population, atrial flutter ablation was associated with significant reductions in hospital-based healthcare utilization and a reduced risk of atrial fibrillation. These findings support the early use of catheter ablation for the treatment of atrial flutter. PMID:24983868

  9. Flutter clearance flight tests of an OV-10A airplane modified for wake vortex flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, Robert V., Jr.; Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Stewart, Eric C.

    1995-01-01

    The envelope expansion, flight flutter tests of a modified OV-10A aircraft are described. For the wake vortex research program, the airplane was modified to incorporate three forward-extending instrumentation booms, one extending forward from each wing tip and one from the right side of the fuselage. The booms were instrumented with sensors to measure the velocity and direction of local air flow. The flutter test results show that the modified OV-10A aircraft is free from flutter at speeds up to 330 KEAS at 5000 feet altitude.

  10. Some experimental and theoretical flutter characteristics of an arrow-wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Ricketts, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical flutter results are presented for a simplified 1/50-size wind-tunnel model of an arrow-wing configuration. Transonic flutter characteristics are presented for three configurations - wing without engine nacelles, wing with flow-through nacelles, and wing with pencil nacelles (thin, streamline bodies). Experimental results are correlated with analytical results obtained from kernel-function and doublet-lattice unsteady aerodynamic theories. Theoretical results are presented that show the effects on flutter of systematic changes in structural stiffness and mass.

  11. Subsonic flutter analysis addition to NASTRAN. [for use with CDC 6000 series digital computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Harder, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    A subsonic flutter analysis capability has been developed for NASTRAN, and a developmental version of the program has been installed on the CDC 6000 series digital computers at the Langley Research Center. The flutter analysis is of the modal type, uses doublet lattice unsteady aerodynamic forces, and solves the flutter equations by using the k-method. Surface and one-dimensional spline functions are used to transform from the aerodynamic degrees of freedom to the structural degrees of freedom. Some preliminary applications of the method to a beamlike wing, a platelike wing, and a platelike wing with a folded tip are compared with existing experimental and analytical results.

  12. Flutter and oscillating air-force calculations for an airfoil in two-dimensional supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrick, I E; Rubinow, S I

    1946-01-01

    A connected account is given of the Possio theory of non-stationary flow for small disturbances in a two-dimensional supersonic flow and of its application to the determination of the aerodynamic forces on an oscillating airfoil. Further application is made to the problem of wing flutter in the degrees of freedom - torsion, bending, and aileron rotations. Numerical tables for flutter calculations are provided for various values of the Mach number greater than unity. Results for bending-torsion wing flutter are shown in figures and are discussed. The static instabilities of divergence and aileron reversal are examined as is a one-degree-of-freedom case of torsional oscillatory instability.

  13. Calculation of AGARD Wing 445.6 flutter using Navier-Stokes aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Batina, John T.

    1993-01-01

    An unsteady, 3D, implicit upwind Euler/Navier-Stokes algorithm is here used to compute the flutter characteristics of Wing 445.6, the AGARD standard aeroelastic configuration for dynamic response, with a view to the discrepancy between Euler characteristics and experimental data. Attention is given to effects of fluid viscosity, structural damping, and number of structural model nodes. The flutter characteristics of the wing are determined using these unsteady generalized aerodynamic forces in a traditional V-g analysis. The V-g analysis indicates that fluid viscosity has a significant effect on the supersonic flutter boundary for this wing.

  14. An overview of the active flexible wing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Stanley R.; Perry, Boyd, III; Miller, Gerald D.

    1991-01-01

    An outline of the Active Flexible Wing (AFW) project that was meant to serve as an introduction to an entire session of the Computational Control Workshop is presented. Following background information on the project is a description of the AFW wind tunnel model and results from the initial wind tunnel test of the AFW model under the current project. Emphasis is on major project accomplishments. The AFW project is an effort to demonstrate aeroelastic control through the application of digital controls technology. Active flutter suppression and active control of maneuver loads during high speed rolling maneuvers are examined.

  15. Virtual Deformation Control of the X-56A Model with Simulated Fiber Optic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Peter M.; Chin, Alexander Wong

    2013-01-01

    A robust control law design methodology is presented to stabilize the X-56A model and command its wing shape. The X-56A was purposely designed to experience flutter modes in its flight envelope. The methodology introduces three phases: the controller design phase, the modal filter design phase, and the reference signal design phase. A mu-optimal controller is designed and made robust to speed and parameter variations. A conversion technique is presented for generating sensor strain modes from sensor deformation mode shapes. The sensor modes are utilized for modal filtering and simulating fiber optic sensors for feedback to the controller. To generate appropriate virtual deformation reference signals, rigid-body corrections are introduced to the deformation mode shapes. After successful completion of the phases, virtual deformation control is demonstrated. The wing is deformed and it is shown that angle-of-attack changes occur which could potentially be used to an advantage. The X-56A program must demonstrate active flutter suppression. It is shown that the virtual deformation controller can achieve active flutter suppression on the X-56A simulation model.

  16. Virtual Deformation Control of the X-56A Model with Simulated Fiber Optic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Peter M.; Chin, Alexander W.; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2014-01-01

    A robust control law design methodology is presented to stabilize the X-56A model and command its wing shape. The X-56A was purposely designed to experience flutter modes in its flight envelope. The methodology introduces three phases: the controller design phase, the modal filter design phase, and the reference signal design phase. A mu-optimal controller is designed and made robust to speed and parameter variations. A conversion technique is presented for generating sensor strain modes from sensor deformation mode shapes. The sensor modes are utilized for modal filtering and simulating fiber optic sensors for feedback to the controller. To generate appropriate virtual deformation reference signals, rigid-body corrections are introduced to the deformation mode shapes. After successful completion of the phases, virtual deformation control is demonstrated. The wing is deformed and it is shown that angle-ofattack changes occur which could potentially be used to an advantage. The X-56A program must demonstrate active flutter suppression. It is shown that the virtual deformation controller can achieve active flutter suppression on the X-56A simulation model.

  17. The multiple-function multi-input/multi-output digital controller system for the AFW wind-tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Mcgraw, Sandra M.

    1992-01-01

    A real time multiple-function digital controller system was developed for the Active Flexible Wing (AFW) Program. The digital controller system (DCS) allowed simultaneous execution of two control laws: flutter suppression and either roll trim or a rolling maneuver load control. The DCS operated within, but independently of, a slower host operating system environment, at regulated speeds up to 200 Hz. It also coordinated the acquisition, storage, and transfer of data for near real time controller performance evaluation and both open- and closed-loop plant estimation. It synchronized the operation of four different processing units, allowing flexibility in the number, form, functionality, and order of control laws, and variability in the selection of the sensors and actuators employed. Most importantly, the DCS allowed for the successful demonstration of active flutter suppression to conditions approximately 26 percent (in dynamic pressure) above the open-loop boundary in cases when the model was fixed in roll and up to 23 percent when it was free to roll. Aggressive roll maneuvers with load control were achieved above the flutter boundary. The purpose here is to present the development, validation, and wind tunnel testing of this multiple-function digital controller system.

  18. Developing Internal Controls through Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, F. Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Life events can include the Tuesday afternoon cooking class with the group worker or the Saturday afternoon football game, but in the sense that Fritz Redl thought of them, these activities are only threads in a fabric of living that includes all the elements of daily life: playing, working, school-based learning, learning through activities,…

  19. Orbiter active thermal control system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubach, G. E.

    1975-01-01

    A brief description of the Orbiter Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) including (1) major functional requirements of heat load, temperature control and heat sink utilization, (2) the overall system arrangement, and (3) detailed description of the elements of the ATCS.

  20. Technology Integration (Task 20) Aeroservoelastic Modeling and Design Studies. Part A; Evaluation of Aeroservoelastic Effects on Flutter and Dynamic Gust Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagaraja, K. S.; Kraft, R. H.

    1999-01-01

    The HSCT Flight Controls Group has developed longitudinal control laws, utilizing PTC aeroelastic flexible models to minimize aeroservoelastic interaction effects, for a number of flight conditions. The control law design process resulted in a higher order controller and utilized a large number of sensors distributed along the body for minimizing the flexibility effects. Processes were developed to implement these higher order control laws for performing the dynamic gust loads and flutter analyses. The processes and its validation were documented in Reference 2, for selected flight condition. The analytical results for additional flight conditions are presented in this document for further validation.

  1. The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) are presented. Topics covered include: program objectives; program features; flight experiment features; current activities; MACE development model lab testing; MACE test article deployed on STS middeck; and development model testing.

  2. User's Guide for a Modular Flutter Analysis Software System (Fast Version 1.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmarais, R. N.; Bennett, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The use and operation of a group of computer programs to perform a flutter analysis of a single planar wing are described. This system of programs is called FAST for Flutter Analysis System, and consists of five programs. Each program performs certain portions of a flutter analysis and can be run sequentially as a job step or individually. FAST uses natural vibration modes as input data and performs a conventional V-g type of solution. The unsteady aerodynamics programs in FAST are based on the subsonic kernel function lifting-surface theory although other aerodynamic programs can be used. Application of the programs is illustrated by a sample case of a complete flutter calculation that exercises each program.

  3. A Conceptual Wing Flutter Analysis Tool for Systems Analysis and Parametric Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2003-01-01

    An interactive computer program was developed for wing flutter analysis in the conceptual design stage. The objective was to estimate flutt er instability boundaries of a typical wing, when detailed structural and aerodynamic data are not available. Effects of change in key flu tter parameters can also be estimated in order to guide the conceptual design. This userfriendly software was developed using MathCad and M atlab codes. The analysis method was based on non-dimensional paramet ric plots of two primary flutter parameters, namely Regier number and Flutter number, with normalization factors based on wing torsion stiffness, sweep, mass ratio, taper ratio, aspect ratio, center of gravit y location and pitch-inertia radius of gyration. These parametric plo ts were compiled in a Chance-Vought Corporation report from database of past experiments and wind tunnel test results. An example was prese nted for conceptual flutter analysis of outer-wing of a Blended-Wing- Body aircraft.

  4. Space Shuttle flutter as affected by wing-body aerodynamic interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, R. R.; Rauch, F. J.; Shyprykevich, P.; Hess, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    In the NASA Langley Research Center 26-inch transonic blowdown wind-tunnel, flutter speeds were measured on 1/80-th scale semispan models of the orbiter wing, the complete Space Shuttle, and intermediate component combinations. Using the doublet lattice method combined with slender body theory to calculate unsteady aerodynamic forces, subsonic flutter speeds were computed for comparison. Aerodynamic interaction was found by test and analysis to raise the flutter speed in some configurations while lowering it in others. Although at Mach number less than 0.7, predicted speeds correlated to within 6% of those measured, rapid deterioration of the agreement occurred at higher subsonic Mach numbers, especially on the more complicated configurations. Additional analysis showed that aerodynamic forces arising from body flexibility potentially can have a large effect on flutter speed, but that the current shuttle design is not so affected.

  5. Worst-Case Flutter Margins from F/A-18 Aircraft Aeroelastic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, Rick; Brenner, Marty

    1997-01-01

    An approach for computing worst-case flutter margins has been formulated in a robust stability framework. Uncertainty operators are included with a linear model to describe modeling errors and flight variations. The structured singular value, micron, computes a stability margin which directly accounts for these uncertainties. This approach introduces a new method of computing flutter margins and an associated new parameter for describing these margins. The micron margins are robust margins which indicate worst-case stability estimates with respect to the defined uncertainty. Worst-case flutter margins are computed for the F/A-18 SRA using uncertainty sets generated by flight data analysis. The robust margins demonstrate flight conditions for flutter may lie closer to the flight envelope than previously estimated by p-k analysis.

  6. Recent advances in active noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guicking, D.

    Advances in the field of active noise control over the last few years are reviewed. Some commercially available products and their technical applications are described, with particular attention given to broadband duct noise silencers, broadband active headphones, waveform synthesis, and LMS controllers. Recent theoretical and experimental research activities are then reviewed. These activities are concerned with duct noise, structural sound, interior spaces, algorithms, echo cancellation, and miscellaneous applications.

  7. Fluid-flow-induced flutter of a flag

    PubMed Central

    Argentina, Médéric; Mahadevan, L.

    2005-01-01

    We give an explanation for the onset of fluid-flow-induced flutter in a flag. Our theory accounts for the various physical mechanisms at work: the finite length and the small but finite bending stiffness of the flag, the unsteadiness of the flow, the added mass effect, and vortex shedding from the trailing edge. Our analysis allows us to predict a critical speed for the onset of flapping as well as the frequency of flapping. We find that in a particular limit corresponding to a low-density fluid flowing over a soft high-density flag, the flapping instability is akin to a resonance between the mode of oscillation of a rigid pivoted airfoil in a flow and a hinged-free elastic plate vibrating in its lowest mode. PMID:15684057

  8. Wind-tunnel Investigations on Flexural-torsional Wing Flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, H

    1938-01-01

    For the purpose of testing the theory of an oscillating airfoil of two degrees of freedom, a wing was mounted in the wind tunnel between two walls in such a manner that it could execute vertical (flexural) oscillations as well as torsional oscillations about an arbitrary axis parallel to the span. It was possible to vary the inertia and elasticity parameters and also to increase artificially the negligibly small natural damping of the system. The oscillations were recorded to a strongly magnified scale. The experimentally determined critical (or flutter) velocities fully agree with the theoretical ones of Wagner and Kussner within the limits of computational and measuring accuracy. An extremely narrow wing without end walls (three dimensional problem) showed the same oscillations as one with end walls (two-dimensional problem).

  9. Fluid-flow-induced flutter of a flag.

    PubMed

    Argentina, Médéric; Mahadevan, L

    2005-02-01

    We give an explanation for the onset of fluid-flow-induced flutter in a flag. Our theory accounts for the various physical mechanisms at work: the finite length and the small but finite bending stiffness of the flag, the unsteadiness of the flow, the added mass effect, and vortex shedding from the trailing edge. Our analysis allows us to predict a critical speed for the onset of flapping as well as the frequency of flapping. We find that in a particular limit corresponding to a low-density fluid flowing over a soft high-density flag, the flapping instability is akin to a resonance between the mode of oscillation of a rigid pivoted airfoil in a flow and a hinged-free elastic plate vibrating in its lowest mode.

  10. The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE): Identification for robust control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlov, Valery I.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on identification for robust control for the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) are presented. Topics covered include: identification for robust control; three levels of identification; basic elements of the approach; advantages of 'post-ID' model of uncertainty; advantages of optimization; and practical realization.

  11. Stability analysis of nonlinear autonomous systems - General theory and application to flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. L.; Morino, L.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis makes use of a singular perturbation method, the multiple time scaling. Concepts of stable and unstable limit cycles are introduced. The solution is obtained in the form of an asymptotic expansion. Numerical results are presented for the nonlinear flutter of panels and airfoils in supersonic flow. The approach used is an extension of a method for analyzing nonlinear panel flutter reported by Morino (1969).

  12. Aeroelastic flutter of feathers, flight and the evolution of non-vocal communication in birds.

    PubMed

    Clark, Christopher J; Prum, Richard O

    2015-11-01

    Tonal, non-vocal sounds are widespread in both ordinary bird flight and communication displays. We hypothesized these sounds are attributable to an aerodynamic mechanism intrinsic to flight feathers: aeroelastic flutter. Individual wing and tail feathers from 35 taxa (from 13 families) that produce tonal flight sounds were tested in a wind tunnel. In the wind tunnel, all of these feathers could flutter and generate tonal sound, suggesting that the capacity to flutter is intrinsic to flight feathers. This result implies that the aerodynamic mechanism of aeroelastic flutter is potentially widespread in flight of birds. However, the sounds these feathers produced in the wind tunnel replicated the actual flight sounds of only 15 of the 35 taxa. Of the 20 negative results, we hypothesize that 10 are false negatives, as the acoustic form of the flight sound suggests flutter is a likely acoustic mechanism. For the 10 other taxa, we propose our negative wind tunnel results are correct, and these species do not make sounds via flutter. These sounds appear to constitute one or more mechanism(s) we call 'wing whirring', the physical acoustics of which remain unknown. Our results document that the production of non-vocal communication sounds by aeroelastic flutter of flight feathers is widespread in birds. Across all birds, most evolutionary origins of wing- and tail-generated communication sounds are attributable to three mechanisms: flutter, percussion and wing whirring. Other mechanisms of sound production, such as turbulence-induced whooshes, have evolved into communication sounds only rarely, despite their intrinsic ubiquity in ordinary flight.

  13. Expanding a flutter envelope using data from accelerating flight: Application to the F-16 fighter aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Charles A.

    Due to the destructive nature of flutter, flutter testing is a mandatory requirement for certification of both civilian and military aircraft. However, along with the complexity of newer aircraft, the time and cost associated with flutter testing has increased dramatically. Considering that many of the test techniques and analysis methods used to perform flutter testing date back to the 1950s and 1960's it may be time to take a fresh look at how flutter testing can best be accomplished. This thesis revisits flutter testing techniques and proposes an alternative to traditional flutter testing. The alternative uses flight test data from an aircraft that is performing an acceleration to clear the flutter envelope of the aircraft. Four academic issues arise from this new test approach. (1) Are frequencies and dampings affected by the acceleration of the aircraft? (2) Can parameter identification algorithms extract frequency and damping values from the time varying data? (3) Can the vibration response at airspeeds (or Mach numbers) beyond which the aircraft has accelerated be anticipated? (4) What formal criteria can be used to determine when the aircraft needs to end the acceleration and terminate the test point? The academic contribution of this thesis is to address these issues. It is shown that although the frequencies and damping values do change the change is so small that it is irrelevant. It is also shown that by taking small windows of data, within which the change in parameters is small, it is possible to accurately identify parameters from the time varying data. Finally it is shown that at least in principal parameters can be predicted using data from sub-critical airspeeds, and that testing can be discontinued before an unstable flight condition is reached.

  14. Two degree-of-freedom flutter solution for a personal computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnock, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    A computer programmed flutter solution has been written in the BASIC language for a personal computer. The program is for two degree-of-freedom bending torsion flutter applications and utilizes two dimensional Theodorsen aerodynamics. The aerodynamics were modified to include approximations for Mach number (compressibility) effects and aspect ratio (finite span) effects. Input options, user instructions, program listing, and a test case application are included.

  15. Computational study of stall flutter in linear cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelrahim, A.; Sisto, F.; Thangam, S. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    Aeroelastic interaction in turbomachinery is of prime interest to operators, designers, and aeroelasticans. Operation at off-design conditions may promote blade stall; eventually the stall pattern will propagate around the blade annulus. The unsteady periodic nature of propagating stall will force blade vibration and blade flutter may occur if the stall propagation frequency is entrained by the blade natural frequency. In this work a computational scheme based on the vortex method is used to simulate the flow over a linear cascade of airfoils. The viscous effect is confined to a thin layer, which determines the separation points on the airfoil surfaces. The preliminary structural model is a two-dimensional characteristic section with a single degree of freedom in either bending or torsion. A study of the relationship between the stall propagation frequency and the blade natural frequency has been conducted. The study shows that entrainment, or frequency synchronization, occurs, resulting in pure torsional flutter over a certain interval of reduced frequency. A severe blade torsional amplitude (of order 20 deg) has been computed in the entrainment region, reaching its largest value in the center of the interval. However, in practice, compressor blades will not sustain this vibration and blade failure may occur before reaching such a large amplitude. Outside the entrainment interval the stall propagation is shown to be independent of the blade natural frequency. In addition, computational results show that there is no entrainment in the pure bending mode. Rather, de-entrainment occurs with similar flow conditions and similar stall frequencies, resulting in blade buffeting in pure bending.

  16. Student Activity Funds: Procedures & Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzetto, Charles E.

    Student activity funds may create educational opportunities for students, but they frequently create problems for business administrators. The first part of this work reviews the types of organizational issues and transactions an organized student group is likely to encounter, including establishing a constitution, participant roles,…

  17. Sensitivity Analysis of Flutter Response of a Wing Incorporating Finite-Span Corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Issac, Jason Cherian; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.

    1994-01-01

    Flutter analysis of a wing is performed in compressible flow using state-space representation of the unsteady aerodynamic behavior. Three different expressions are used to incorporate corrections due to the finite-span effects of the wing in estimating the lift-curve slope. The structural formulation is based on a Rayleigh-Pitz technique with Chebyshev polynomials used for the wing deflections. The aeroelastic equations are solved as an eigen-value problem to determine the flutter speed of the wing. The flutter speeds are found to be higher in these cases, when compared to that obtained without accounting for the finite-span effects. The derivatives of the flutter speed with respect to the shape parameters, namely: aspect ratio, area, taper ratio and sweep angle, are calculated analytically. The shape sensitivity derivatives give a linear approximation to the flutter speed curves over a range of values of the shape parameter which is perturbed. Flutter and sensitivity calculations are performed on a wing using a lifting-surface unsteady aerodynamic theory using modules from a system of programs called FAST.

  18. Automated preliminary design of simplified wing structures to satisfy strength and flutter requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, W. J.; Dexter, C. B.; Stein, M.

    1972-01-01

    A simple structural model of an aircraft wing is used to show the effects of strength (stress) and flutter requirements on the design of minimum-weight aircraft-wing structures. The wing is idealized as an isotropic sandwich plate with a variable cover thickness distribution and a variable depth between covers. Plate theory is used for the structural analysis, and piston theory is used for the unsteady aerodynamics in the flutter analysis. Mathematical programming techniques are used to find the minimum-weight cover thickness distribution which satisfies flutter, strength, and minimum-gage constraints. The method of solution, some sample results, and the computer program used to obtain these results are presented. The results indicate that the cover thickness distribution obtained when designing for the strength requirement alone may be quite different from the cover thickness distribution obtained when designing for either the flutter requirement alone or for both the strength and flutter requirements concurrently. This conclusion emphasizes the need for designing for both flutter and strength from the outset.

  19. Wing box transonic-flutter suppression using piezoelectric self-sensing actuators attached to skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otiefy, R. A. H.; Negm, H. M.

    2010-12-01

    The main objective of this research is to study the capability of piezoelectric (PZT) self-sensing actuators to suppress the transonic wing box flutter, which is a flow-structure interaction phenomenon. The unsteady general frequency modified transonic small disturbance (TSD) equation is used to model the transonic flow about the wing. The wing box structure and piezoelectric actuators are modeled using the equivalent plate method, which is based on the first order shear deformation plate theory (FSDPT). The piezoelectric actuators are bonded to the skin. The optimal electromechanical coupling conditions between the piezoelectric actuators and the wing are collected from previous work. Three main different control strategies, a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) which combines the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) with the Kalman filter estimator (KFE), an optimal static output feedback (SOF), and a classic feedback controller (CFC), are studied and compared. The optimum actuator and sensor locations are determined using the norm of feedback control gains (NFCG) and norm of Kalman filter estimator gains (NKFEG) respectively. A genetic algorithm (GA) optimization technique is used to calculate the controller and estimator parameters to achieve a target response.

  20. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    Actively controlled mechanical seals have recently been developed for industrial use. This study investigates the feasibility of using such seals for aerospace applications. In a noncontacting mechanical seal, the film thickness depends on the geometry of the seal interface. The amount of coning, which is a measure of the radial convergence or divergence of the seal interface, has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the coning with a piezoelectric material. A mathematical model has been formulated to predict the performance of an actively controlled mechanical seal.

  1. Analytical procedures for flutter model development and checkout in preparation for wind tunnel testing of the DAST ARW-1 wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1982-01-01

    A study to develop analytical procedures to be used in the checkout and calibration of a flutter wind tunnel model of the DAST ARW-1 wing equipped with a flutter suppression device is reported. The methods used to obtain a realistic simulation of the structural inertial and aerodynamic properties of the wing, the hydro-electro-servo actuator used for flutter suppression, a prediction of the open loop flutter speed at a fixed Mach number (.897), a procedure for checkout and calibration using the method frequency response of a wing mounted accelerometer, and an analytical representation of a reduced state approximation of the overall system are described.

  2. Active vibration control of lightweight floor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baader, J.; Fontana, M.

    2016-04-01

    Wide-span and lightweight floors are often prone to structural vibrations due to their low resonance frequency and poor material damping. Their dynamic behaviour can be improved using passive, semi-active or active vibration control devices. The following article proposes a novel method for the controller synthesis for active vibration control. An existing passive TMD (tuned mass damper) is modelled and equipped with an actuator in order to provide more efficient damping. Using an iterative optimization approach under constraints, an optimal controller is found which minimizes a quadratic cost function in frequency domain. A simulation of an existing test bench shows that the active vibration control device is able to provide increased damping compared to the passive TMD.

  3. Reliable and Affordable Control Systems Active Combustor Pattern Factor Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarty, Bob; Tomondi, Chris; McGinley, Ray

    2004-01-01

    Active, closed-loop control of combustor pattern factor is a cooperative effort between Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal) Engines and Systems and the NASA Glenn Research Center to reduce emissions and turbine-stator vane temperature variations, thereby enhancing engine performance and life, and reducing direct operating costs. Total fuel flow supplied to the engine is established by the speed/power control, but the distribution to individual atomizers will be controlled by the Active Combustor Pattern Factor Control (ACPFC). This system consist of three major components: multiple, thin-film sensors located on the turbine-stator vanes; fuel-flow modulators for individual atomizers; and control logic and algorithms within the electronic control.

  4. Active Control by Conservation of Energy Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio

    2000-01-01

    Three unrelated experiments are discussed; each was extremely sensitive to initial conditions. The initial conditions are the beginnings of the origins of the information that nonlinearity displays. Initial conditions make the phenomenon unstable and unpredictable. With the knowledge of the initial conditions, active control requires far less power than that present in the system response. The first experiment is on the control of shocks from an axisymmetric supersonic jet; the second, control of a nonlinear panel response forced by turbulent boundary layer and sound; the third, control of subharmonic and harmonics of a panel forced by sound. In all three experiments, control is achieved by redistribution of periodic energy response such that the energy is nearly preserved from a previous uncontrolled state. This type of active control improves the performance of the system being controlled.

  5. Numerical study on the correlation of transonic single-degree-of-freedom flutter and buffet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, ChuanQiang; Zhang, WeiWei; Liu, YiLang; Ye, ZhengYin; Jiang, YueWen

    2015-08-01

    Transonic single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) flutter and transonic buffet are the typical and complex aeroelastic phenomena in the transonic flow. In this study, transonic aeroelastic issues of an elastic airfoil are investigated using Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations. The airfoil is free to vibrate in SDOF of pitching. It is found that, the coupling system may be unstable and SDOF self-excited pitching oscillations occur in pre-buffet flow condition, where the free-stream angle of attack (AOA) is lower than the buffet onset of a stationary airfoil. In the theory of classical aeroelasticity, this unstable phenomenon is defined as flutter. However, this transonic SDOF flutter is closely related to transonic buffet (unstable aerodynamic models) due to the following reasons. Firstly, the SDOF flutter occurs only when the free-stream AOA of the spring suspended airfoil is slightly lower than that of buffet onset, and the ratio of the structural characteristic frequency to the buffet frequency is within a limited range. Secondly, the response characteristics show a high correlation between the SDOF flutter and buffet. A similar "lock-in" phenomenon exists, when the coupling frequency follows the structural characteristic frequency. Finally, there is no sudden change of the response characteristics in the vicinity of buffet onset, that is, the curve of response amplitude with the free-stream AOA is nearly smooth. Therefore, transonic SDOF flutter is often interwoven with transonic buffet and shows some complex characteristics of response, which is different from the traditional flutter.

  6. Outcomes after ablation for typical atrial flutter (from the Loire Valley Atrial Fibrillation Project).

    PubMed

    Clementy, Nicolas; Desprets, Laurent; Pierre, Bertrand; Lallemand, Bénédicte; Simeon, Edouard; Brunet-Bernard, Anne; Babuty, Dominique; Fauchier, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    Similar predisposing factors are found in most types of atrial arrhythmias. The incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) among patients with atrial flutter is high, suggesting similar outcomes in patients with those arrhythmias. We sought to investigate the long-term outcomes and prognostic factors of patients with AF and/or atrial flutter with contemporary management using radiofrequency ablation. In an academic institution, we retrospectively examined the clinical course of 8,962 consecutive patients admitted to our department with a diagnosis of AF and/or atrial flutter. After a median follow-up of 934 ± 1,134 days, 1,155 deaths and 715 stroke and/thromboembolic (TE) events were recorded. Patients with atrial flutter undergoing cavotricuspid isthmus ablation (n = 875, 37% with a history of AF) had a better survival rate than other patients (hazard ratio [HR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25 to 0.49, p <0.0001). Using Cox proportional hazards model and propensity score model, after adjustment for main other confounders, ablation for atrial flutter was significantly associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.84, p = 0.006) and stroke and/or TE events (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.92, p = 0.02). After ablation, there was no significant difference in the risk of TE between patients with a history of AF and those with atrial flutter alone (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.67, p = 0.59). In conclusion, in patients with atrial tachyarrhythmias, those with atrial flutter with contemporary management who undergo cavotricuspid isthmus radiofrequency ablation independently have a lower risk of stroke and/or TE events and death of any cause, whether a history of AF is present or not.

  7. Clinical Differences between Subtypes of Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter: Cross-Sectional Registry of 407 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Eduardo Dytz; Guimarães, Raphael Boesche; Stephan, Laura Siga; Medeiros, Alexandre Kreling; Foltz, Katia; Santanna, Roberto Tofani; Pires, Leonardo Martins; Kruse, Marcelo Lapa; de Lima, Gustavo Glotz; Leiria, Tiago Luiz Luz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter account for one third of hospitalizations due to arrhythmias, determining great social and economic impacts. In Brazil, data on hospital care of these patients is scarce. Objective To investigate the arrhythmia subtype of atrial fibrillation and flutter patients in the emergency setting and compare the clinical profile, thromboembolic risk and anticoagulants use. Methods Cross-sectional retrospective study, with data collection from medical records of every patient treated for atrial fibrillation and flutter in the emergency department of Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul during the first trimester of 2012. Results We included 407 patients (356 had atrial fibrillation and 51 had flutter). Patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were in average 5 years younger than those with persistent atrial fibrillation. Compared to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation patients, those with persistent atrial fibrillation and flutter had larger atrial diameter (48.6 ± 7.2 vs. 47.2 ± 6.2 vs. 42.3 ± 6.4; p < 0.01) and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (66.8 ± 11 vs. 53.9 ± 17 vs. 57.4 ± 16; p < 0.01). The prevalence of stroke and heart failure was higher in persistent atrial fibrillation and flutter patients. Those with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and flutter had higher prevalence of CHADS2 score of zero when compared to those with persistent atrial fibrillation (27.8% vs. 18% vs. 4.9%; p < 0.01). The prevalence of anticoagulation in patients with CHA2DS2-Vasc ≤ 2 was 40%. Conclusions The population in our registry was similar in its comorbidities and demographic profile to those of North American and European registries. Despite the high thromboembolic risk, the use of anticoagulants was low, revealing difficulties for incorporating guideline recommendations. Public health strategies should be adopted in order to improve these rates. PMID:26016782

  8. Active control of buildings during earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vance, Vicki L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide an overview of the different types of control systems used in buildings, to discuss the problems associated with current active control mechanisms, and to show the cost-effectiveness of applying active control to buildings. In addition, a small case study investigates the feasibility and benefits of using embedded actuators in buildings. Use of embedded actuators could solve many of the current problems associated with active control by providing a wider bandwidth of control, quicker speed of response, increased reliability and reduced power requirement. Though embedded actuators have not been developed for buildings, they have previously been used in space structures. Many similarities exist between large civil and aerospace structures indicating that direct transfer of concepts between the two disciplines may be possible. In particular, much of the Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI) technology currently being developed could be beneficially applied to civil structures. While several buildings with active control systems have been constructed in Japan, additional research and experimental verification are necessary before active control systems become widely accepted and implemented.

  9. The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) are presented. Topics covered include: science program objectives and rationale; science requirements; capturing the essential physics; science development approach; development model hardware; development model test plan; and flight hardware and operations.

  10. Active control of turbomachine discrete tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleeter, Sanford

    This paper was directed at active control of discrete frequency noise generated by subsonic blade rows through cancellation of the blade row interaction generated propagating acoustic waves. First discrete frequency noise generated by a rotor and stator in a duct was analyzed to determine the propagating acoustic pressure waves. Then a mathematical model was developed to analyze and predict the active control of discrete frequency noise generated by subsonic blade rows through cancellation of the propagating acoustic waves, accomplished by utilizing oscillating airfoil surfaces to generate additional control propagating pressure waves. These control waves interact with the propagating acoustic waves, thereby, in principle, canceling the acoustic waves and thus, the far field discrete frequency tones. This model was then applied to a fan exit guide vane to investigate active airfoil surface techniques for control of the propagating acoustic waves, and thus the far field discrete frequency tones, generated by blade row interactions.

  11. Analysis and testing of stability augmentation systems. [for supersonic transport aircraft wing and B-52 aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevart, F. D.; Patel, S. M.; Wattman, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Testing and evaluation of stability augmentation systems for aircraft flight control were conducted. The flutter suppression system analysis of a scale supersonic transport wing model is described. Mechanization of the flutter suppression system is reported. The ride control synthesis for the B-52 aeroelastic model is discussed. Model analyses were conducted using equations of motion generated from generalized mass and stiffness data.

  12. Active load control techniques for wind turbines.

    SciTech Connect

    van Dam, C.P.; Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J.

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

  13. Student Activity Funds: Procedures and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzetto, Charles E.

    2000-01-01

    An effective internal-control system can help school business administrators meet the challenges of accounting for student activity funds. Such a system should include appropriate policies and procedures, identification of key control points, self-assessments, audit trails, and internal and external audits. (MLH)

  14. Mission control activity during STS-61 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Flight controller Susan P. Rainwater observes as two astronauts work through a lengthy period of extravehicular activity (EVA) in the cargo bay of the Earth-looking Space Shuttle Endeavour. Rainwater's EVA console was one of Mission Control's busiest during this eleven-day Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission in Earth orbit.

  15. Actively Controlled Magnetic Vibration-Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinky, Carlos M.; Logsdon, Kirk A.; Wbomski, Joseph F.; Brown, Gerald V.

    1993-01-01

    Prototype magnetic suspension system with active control isolates object from vibrations in all six degrees of freedom at frequencies as low as 0.01 Hz. Designed specifically to protect instruments aboard spacecraft by suppressing vibrations to microgravity levels; basic control approach used for such terrestrial uses as suppression of shocks and other vibrations in trucks and railroad cars.

  16. T-tail flutter: Potential-flow modelling, experimental validation and flight tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murua, Joseba; Martínez, Pablo; Climent, Héctor; van Zyl, Louw; Palacios, Rafael

    2014-11-01

    Flutter of T-tail configurations is caused by the aeroelastic coupling between the vertical fin and the horizontal stabiliser. The latter is mounted on the fin instead of the fuselage, and hence the arrangement presents distinct characteristics compared to other typical empennage setups; specifically, T-tail aeroelasticity is governed by inplane dynamics and steady aerodynamic loading, which are typically not included in flutter clearance methodologies based on the doublet lattice method. As the number of new aircraft featuring this tail configuration increases, there is a need for precise understanding of the phenomenon, appropriate tools for its prediction, and reliable benchmarking data. This paper addresses this triple challenge by providing a detailed explanation of T-tail flutter physics, describing potential-flow modelling alternatives, and presenting detailed numerical and experimental results to compensate for the shortage of reproducible data in the literature. A historical account of the main milestones in T-tail aircraft development is included, followed by a T-tail flutter research review that emphasises the latest contributions from industry as well as academia. The physical problem is dissected next, highlighting the individual and combined effects that drive the phenomenon. Three different methodologies, all based on potential-flow aerodynamics, are considered for T-tail subsonic flutter prediction: (i) direct incorporation of supplementary T-tail effects as additional terms in the flutter equations; (ii) a generalisation of the boundary conditions and air loads calculation on the double lattice; and (iii) a linearisation of the unsteady vortex lattice method with arbitrary kinematics. Comparison with wind-tunnel experimental results evidences that all three approaches are consistent and capture the key characteristics in the T-tail dynamics. The validated numerical models are then exercised in easy-to-duplicate canonical test cases. These

  17. [Septal Activation and Control of Limbic Structures].

    PubMed

    Fedotova, I R; Frolov, A A

    2015-01-01

    Coherent activation of limbic system structures as the main function of theta-rhythm is widely discussed in the literature. However until now does not exist the common view on its generation in these brain structures. The model of septal theta-rhythmic activation and control of limbic structures is suggested basing on the literature and own experimental data.

  18. Detection of atrial-flutter and atrial-fibrillation waveforms by fetal magnetocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Kandori, A; Hosono, T; Kanagawa, T; Miyashita, S; Chiba, Y; Murakami, M; Miyashita, T; Tsukada, K

    2002-03-01

    Two cases of fetal tachycardia are reported: atrial flutter and fibrillation. The waveforms from each case were detected by fetal magnetocardiograms (FMCGs) using a 64-channel superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) system. Because the magnitude of supraventricular arrhythmia signals is very weak, two subtraction methods were used to detect the fetal MCG waveforms: subtraction of the maternal MCG signal, and subtraction of the fetal ORS complex signal. It was found that atrial-flutter waveforms showed a cyclic pattern and that atrial-fibrillation waveforms showed f-waves with a random atrial rhythm. Fast Fourier transform analysis determined the main frequency of the atrial flutter to be about 7Hz, and the frequency distribution of atrial fibrillation consisted of small, broad peaks. To visualise the current pattern, current-arrow maps, which simplify the observation of pseudo-current patterns in fetal hearts, of the averaged atrial flutter and fibrillation waveforms were produced. The map of the atrial flutter had a circular pattern, indicating a re-entry circuit, and the map of the atrial fibrillation indicated one wavelet, which was produced by a micro-re-entry circuit. It is thus concluded that an FMCG can detect supraventricular arrhythmia, which can be characterised by re-entry circuits, in fetuses. PMID:12043803

  19. Transonic Flutter Investigation of Models of T-Tail of Blackburn NA-39 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, George W., Jr.; Farmer, Moses G.

    1959-01-01

    A transonic flutter investigation has been made of models of the T-tail of the Blackburn NA-39 airplane. The models were dynamically and elastically scaled from measured airplane data in accordance with criteria which include a flutter safety margin. The investigation was made in the Langley transonic blowdown tunnel and covered a Mach number range from 0.73 to 1.09 at simulated altitudes extending to below sea level. The results of the investigation indicated that, if differences between the measured model and scaled airplane properties are disregarded, the airplane with the normal value of stabilizer pitching stiffness should have a stiffness margin of safety of at least 32 percent at all Mach numbers and altitudes within the flight boundary. However, the airplane with the emergency value of stabilizer pitching stiffness would not have the required margin of safety from symmetrical flutter at Mach numbers greater than about 0.85 at low altitudes. First-order corrections for some differences between the measured model and scaled airplane properties indicated that the airplane with the normal value of stabilizer pitching stiffness would still have an adequate margin of safety from flutter and that the flutter safety margin for the airplane with the emergency value of stabilizer pitching stiffness would be changed from inadequate to adequate. However, the validity of the corrections is questionable.

  20. Automated procedure for design of wing structures to satisfy strength and flutter requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    A pilot computer program was developed for the design of minimum mass wing structures under flutter, strength, and minimum gage constraints. The wing structure is idealized by finite elements, and second-order piston theory aerodynamics is used in the flutter calculation. Mathematical programing methods are used for the optimization. Computation times during the design process are reduced by three techniques. First, iterative analysis methods used to reduce significantly reanalysis times. Second, the number of design variables is kept small by not using a one-to-one correspondence between finite elements and design variables. Third, a technique for using approximate second derivatives with Newton's method for the optimization is incorporated. The program output is compared witH previous published results. It is found that some flutter characteristics, such as the flutter speed, can display discontinous dependence on the design variables (which are the thicknesses of the structural elements). It is concluded that it is undesirable to use such quantities in the formulation of the flutter constraint.

  1. Flight test of a decoupler pylon for wing/store flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cazier, F. W., Jr.; Kehoe, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    The decoupler pylon is a NASA concept of passive wing-store flutter suppression achieved by providing a low store-pylon pitch frequency. Flight tests were performed on an F-16 aircraft carrying on each wing an AIM-9J wingtip missile, a GBU-8 bomb near midspan, and an external fuel tank. Baseline flights with the GBU-8 mounted on a standard pylon established that this configuration is characterized by an antisymmetric limited amplitude flutter oscillation within the operational envelope. The airplane was then flown with the GBU-8 mounted on the decoupler pylon. The decoupler pylon successfully suppressed wing-store flutter throughout the flight envelope. A 37-percent increase in flutter velocity over the standard pylon was demonstrated. Maneuvers with load factors to 4g were performed. Although the static store displacements during maneuvers were not sufficiently large to be of concern, a store pitch alignment system was tested and performed successfully. One GBU-8 was ejected demonstrating that weapon separation from the decoupler pylon is normal. Experience with the present decoupler pylon design indicated that friction in the pivoting mechanism could affect its proper functioning as a flutter suppressor.

  2. The effects of rotational flow, viscosity, thickness, and shape on transonic flutter dip phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, Rakesh; Kaza, Krishna Rao V.

    1988-01-01

    The transonic flutter dip phenomena on thin airfoils, which are employed for propfan blades, is investigated using an integrated Euler/Navier-Stokes code and a two degrees of freedom typical section structural model. As a part of the code validation, the flutter characteristics of the NACA 64A010 airfoil are also investigated. In addition, the effects of artificial dissipation models, rotational flow, initial conditions, mean angle of attack, viscosity, airfoil thickness and shape on flutter are investigated. The results obtained with a Euler code for the NACA 64A010 airfoil are in reasonable agreement with published results obtained by using transonic small disturbance and Euler codes. The two artificial dissipation models, one based on the local pressure gradient scaled by a common factor and the other based on the local pressure gradient scaled by a spectral radius, predicted the same flutter speeds except in the recovery region for the case studied. The effects of rotational flow, initial conditions, mean angle of attack, and viscosity for the Reynold's number studied seem to be negligible or small on the minima of the flutter dip.

  3. Flutter performance of bend-twist coupled large-scale wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Khazar; de Lecea, Alvaro Gorostidi Martinez; Moriones, Carlos Donazar; Ha, Sung Kyu

    2016-05-01

    The bend-twist coupling (BTC) is proven to be effective in mitigating the fatigue loads for large-scale wind turbine blades, but at the same time it may cause the risk of flutter instability. The BTC is defined as a feature of twisting of the blade induced by the primary bending deformation. In the classical flutter, the BTC arises from the aerodynamic loads changing with the angle of attack. In this study, the effects of the structural BTC on the flutter are investigated by considering the layup unbalances (ply angle, material and thickness of the composite laminates) in the NREL 5-MW wind turbine rotor blade of glass fiber/epoxy [02/+45/-45]S laminates. It is numerically shown that the flutter speed may decrease by about 5 percent with unbalanced ply-angle only (one side angle, from 45° to 25°). It was then demonstrated that the flutter performance of the wind turbine blade can be increased by using lighter and stiffer carbon fibers which ensures the higher structural BTC at the same time.

  4. NACA Conference on Aircraft Loads, Structures, and Flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    This document contains reproductions of technical papers on some of the most recent research results on aircraft loads, flutter, and structures from the NACA laboratories. These papers were presented by members of the staff of the NACA laboratories at the Conference held at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory March 5, 6, and 7, 1957. The primary purpose of this Conference was to convey to contractors of the military services and others concerned with the design of aircraft these recent research results and to provide those attending an opportunity to discuss the results. The papers in this document are in the same form in which they were presented at the Conference in order to facilitate their prompt distribution. The original presentation and this record are considered as complementary to, rather than as substitutes for, the Committee?s more complete and formal reports. Accordingly, if information from this document is utilized it is requested that this document not be listed as a reference. Individual reports dealing with most of the information presented at the Conference will subsequently be published by NACA and will therefore be suitable as reference material.

  5. On Flowfield Periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade. Part 1; Experimental Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; McFarland, E. R.; Chima, R. V.; Wood, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive study to improve flow uniformity and periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade is presented here. The results are reported in two independent parts dealing with the experimental approach and the analytical approach. The first part, the Experimental Study, focuses first on the data sets acquired in this facility in the past and explains several discrepancies, particularly the questions of actual flow incidence and cascade back pressure levels. Next, available means for control and modifications of the cascade flowfield, boundary layer bleed and tailboard settings are presented in detail. This is followed by experimental data sets acquired in modified test facility configurations that were based on analytical predictions of the cascade flowfield. Finally, several important conclusions about improving the cascade flowfield uniformity and blade load periodicity are summarized. The important conclusions are: (1) boundary layer bleed does not improve the cascade flow periodicity; (2) tunnel wall contours must be carefully matched to the expected shape of cascade streamlines; (3) actual flow incidence for each cascade configuration rather must be measured instead of relying on the tunnel geometry; and (4) the current cascade configuration exhibits a very high blade load uniformity over six blades from blade #2 to blade #7, and the facility is now ready for unsteady pressure data acquisition.

  6. Control of nucleus accumbens activity with neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Greer, Stephanie M; Trujillo, Andrew J; Glover, Gary H; Knutson, Brian

    2014-08-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) plays critical roles in healthy motivation and learning, as well as in psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Thus, techniques that confer control of NAcc activity might inspire new therapeutic interventions. By providing second-to-second temporal resolution of activity in small subcortical regions, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can resolve online changes in NAcc activity, which can then be presented as "neurofeedback." In an fMRI-based neurofeedback experiment designed to elicit NAcc activity, we found that subjects could increase their own NAcc activity, and that display of neurofeedback significantly enhanced their ability to do so. Subjects were not as capable of decreasing their NAcc activity, however, and enhanced control did not persist after subsequent removal of neurofeedback. Further analyses suggested that individuals who recruited positive aroused affect were better able to increase NAcc activity in response to neurofeedback, and that NAcc neurofeedback also elicited functionally correlated activity in the medial prefrontal cortex. Together, these findings suggest that humans can modulate their own NAcc activity and that fMRI-based neurofeedback may augment their efforts. The observed association between positive arousal and effective NAcc control further supports an anticipatory affect account of NAcc function.

  7. Control of nucleus accumbens activity with neurofeedback

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Stephanie M.; Trujillo, Andrew J.; Glover, Gary H.; Knutson, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) plays critical roles in healthy motivation and learning, as well as in psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Thus, techniques that confer control of NAcc activity might inspire new therapeutic interventions. By providing second-to-second temporal resolution of activity in small subcortical regions, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can resolve online changes in NAcc activity, which can then be presented as “neurofeedback.” In an fMRI-based neurofeedback experiment designed to elicit NAcc activity, we found that subjects could increase their own NAcc activity, and that display of neurofeedback significantly enhanced their ability to do so. Subjects were not as capable of decreasing their NAcc activity, however, and enhanced control did not persist after subsequent removal of neurofeedback. Further analyses suggested that individuals who recruited positive arousal affect were better able to increase NAcc activity in response to neurofeedback, and that NAcc neurofeedback also elicited functionally correlated activity in the medial prefrontal cortex. Together, these findings suggest that humans can modulate their own NAcc activity and that fMRI-based neurofeedback may augment their efforts. The observed association between positive arousal and effective NAcc control further supports an anticipatory affect account of NAcc function. PMID:24705203

  8. Active vibration control of civil structures

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.; Baker, W.; Fales, J.; Shevitz, D.

    1996-11-01

    This is a final report of a one year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Active vibration control (AVC) of structural and mechanical systems is one of the rapidly advancing areas of engineering research. The multifaceted nature of AVC covers many disciplines, such as sensors and instrumentation, numerical modeling, experimental mechanics, and advanced power systems. This work encompassed a review of the literature on active control of structures focusing both on active control hardware and on control algorithms, a design of an isolation systems using magneto-rheological fluid-filled (MRF) dampers and numerical simulations to study the enhanced vibration mitigation effects of this technology.

  9. Vector control activities: Fiscal Year, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    The program is divided into two major components - operations and support studies. The support studies are designed to improve the operational effectiveness and efficiency of the control program and to identify other vector control problems requiring TVA attention and study. Nonchemical methods of control are emphasized and are supplemented with chemical measures as needed. TVA also cooperates with various concerned municipalities in identifying blood-sucking arthropod pest problems and demonstrating control techniques useful in establishing abatement programs, and provides technical assistance to other TVA programs and organizations. The program also helps Land Between The Lakes (LBL) plan and conduct vector control operations and tick control research. Specific program control activities and support studies are discussed.

  10. Implementation of active magnetic bearing digital controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hu; Fang, Jiancheng; Liu, Gang

    2006-11-01

    An active magnetic bearing digital controller is presented. This system is based on high-speed floating-point digital signal processor (DSP) and field programmable gate array (FPGA). The active vibration control algorithms are coded in C language where is possible to reduce the probabilities of software errors occurring and to reduce the debugging time for those errors and are executed by the high-speed floating-point DSP. This paper describes the implementation of the controller. The proposed digital control system can meet the requirement of enough throughput which is difficult using a single fixed-pointing DSP, realize integration of magnetic bearings controller and have the merits of easily to maintain and be applied in other magnetic bearings systems. The system has been applied successfully in several actual magnetic bearings systems at Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics and the experimental results verify its feasibility.

  11. CFD Modeling for Active Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, Pieter G.

    2001-01-01

    This presentation describes current work under UEET Active Flow Control CFD Research Tool Development. The goal of this work is to develop computational tools for inlet active flow control design. This year s objectives were to perform CFD simulations of fully gridded vane vortex generators, micro-vortex genera- tors, and synthetic jets, and to compare flowfield results with wind tunnel tests of simple geometries with flow control devices. Comparisons are shown for a single micro-vortex generator on a flat plate, and for flow over an expansion ramp with sidewall effects. Vortex core location, pressure gradient and oil flow patterns are compared between experiment and computation. This work lays the groundwork for evaluating simplified modeling of arrays of devices, and provides the opportunity to test simple flow control device/sensor/ control loop interaction.

  12. Active vibration control in microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.

    1987-01-01

    The low gravity environment of the space station is suitable for experiments or manufacturing processes which require near zero gravity. An experiment was fabricated to test the validity of the active control process and to verify the flow and control parameters identified in a theoretical model. Zero gravity is approximated in the horizontal plane using a low friction air bearing table. An analog control system was designed to activate calibrated air jets when displacement of the test mass is sensed. The experiment demonstrates that an air jet control system introduces an effective damping factor to control oscillatory response. The amount of damping as well as the flow parameters, such as pressure drop across the valve and flow rate of air, are verified by the analytical model.

  13. Active control of robot manipulator compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, C. C.; Pooran, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    Work performed at Catholic University on the research grant entitled Active Control of Robot Manipulator Compliance, supported by NASA/Goddard space Flight Center during the period of May 15th, 1986 to November 15th, 1986 is described. The modelling of the two-degree-of-freedom robot is first presented. Then the complete system including the robot and the hybrid controller is simulated on an IBM-XT Personal Computer. Simulation results showed that proper adjustments of controller gains enable the robot to perform successful operations. Further research should focus on developing a guideline for the controller gain design to achieve system stability.

  14. Derivatives of a statically reduced stiffness matrix with respect to sizing variables. [for aircraft weight minimization with flutter constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oconnell, R. F.; Hassig, H. J.; Radovcich, N. A.

    1976-01-01

    An expression is obtained for the first derivatives with respect to the sizing variables of a statically reduced stiffness matrix that is a nonlinear function of the sizing variables, where the unreduced stiffness matrix is a linear function of the sizing variables. An accepted procedure to reduce the number of degrees of freedom is to eliminate a number of nodal displacements from the degrees of freedom such that the accuracy of the flutter analysis is not significantly affected. In a typical optimization procedure with flutter constraints, the derivative of the stiffness matrix may be used in a form that contains the characteristic vector of the flutter matrix equation and the transpose of the characteristic vector of the adjoint flutter matrix equation corresponding to a particular solution of the flutter equation.

  15. Flutter Sensitivity to Boundary Layer Thickness, Structural Damping, and Static Pressure Differential for a Shuttle Tile Overlay Repair Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Robert C.; Bartels, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the aeroelastic stability of an on-orbit installable Space Shuttle patch panel. CFD flutter solutions were obtained for thick and thin boundary layers at a free stream Mach number of 2.0 and several Mach numbers near sonic speed. The effect of structural damping on these flutter solutions was also examined, and the effect of structural nonlinearities associated with in-plane forces in the panel was considered on the worst case linear flutter solution. The results of the study indicated that adequate flutter margins exist for the panel at the Mach numbers examined. The addition of structural damping improved flutter margins as did the inclusion of nonlinear effects associated with a static pressure difference across the panel.

  16. Evaluation of four subcritical response methods for on-line prediction of flutter onset in wind-tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruhlin, C. L.; Watson, J. J.; Ricketts, R. H.; Doggett, R. V., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Four subcritical response methods were evaluated for on-line use in transonic wind-tunnel tests where the flutter model is excited solely by airstream turbulence. The methods were: randomdec, power-spectral-density, peak-hold, and cross-spectrum. Subcritical response data were obtained during tests in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel of a cantilevered flutter model wing. The test procedure was to maintain a constant Mach number and increase the dynamic pressure (q) in incremental steps. The four methods provided damping trends by which the flutter mode could be tracked and extrapolated to a flutter-onset q. A hard flutter point was obtained at M = 0.82. The peak-mold and cross-spectrum methods gave reliable results and could be most readily used for on-line testing.

  17. Simulation studies for multichannel active vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Shashikala; Balasubramaniam, R.; Praseetha, K. K.

    2003-10-01

    Traditional approach to vibration control uses passive techniques, which are relatively large, costly and ineffective at low frequencies. Active Vibration Control (AVC) is used to overcome these problems & in AVC additional sources (secondary) are used to cancel vibration from primary source based on the principle of superposition theorem Since the characteristics of the vibration source and environment are time varying, the AVC system must be adaptive. Adaptive systems have the ability to track time varying disturbances and provide optimal control over a much broader range of conditions than conventional fixed control systems. In multi channel AVC vibration fields in large dimensions are controlled & is more complicated. Therefore to actively control low frequency vibrations on large structures, multi channel AVC requires a control system that uses multiple secondary sources to control the vibration field simultaneously at multiple error sensor locations. The error criterion that can be directly measured is the sum of squares of outputs of number of sensors. The adaptive algorithm is designed to minimize this & the algorithm implemented is the "Multiple error LMS algorithm." The best known applications of multiple channel FXLMS algorithm is in real time AVC and system identification. More wider applications are in the control of propeller induced noise in flight cabin interiors. In the present paper the results of simulation studies carried out in MATLAB as well as on TMS320C32 DSP processor will be brought out for a two-channel case.

  18. Active control of buckling of flexible beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Tampe, L.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of using the rapidly growing technology of the shape memory alloys actuators in actively controlling the buckling of large flexible structures is investigated. The need for such buckling control systems is becoming inevitable as the design trends of large space structures have resulted in the use of structural members that are long, slender, and very flexible. In addition, as these truss members are subjected mainly to longitudinal loading they become susceptible to structural instabilities due to buckling. Proper control of such instabilities is essential to the effective performance of the structures as stable platforms for communication and observation. Mathematical models are presented that simulate the dynamic characteristics of the shape memory actuator, the compressive structural members, and the associated active control system. A closed-loop computer-controlled system is designed, based on the developed mathematical models, and implemented to control the buckling of simple beams. The performance of the computer-controlled system is evaluated experimentally and compared with the theoretical predictions to validate the developed models. The obtained results emphasize the importance of buckling control and suggest the potential of the shape memory actuators as attractive means for controlling structural deformation in a simple and reliable way.

  19. Ablation of atrial flutter in a patient with a tricuspid valve replacement after endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Nordbeck, Peter; Bauer, Wolfgang R; Ritter, Oliver

    2009-09-01

    Myocardial scars from heart surgery are a source of tachycardia, eventually causing late morbidity and sudden death. In general, catheter ablation has been shown to be an effective therapy for various rhythm disorders, but it has been rarely described after atrioventricular valve replacement. We report on a 45-year-old man who developed atrial flutter after implantation of a tricuspid valve bioprosthesis. An electrophysiological investigation revealed typical type-I counterclockwise atrial flutter that was successfully terminated by catheter ablation. A sinus rhythm was restored and remained stable during the course of treatment; the valvular function was not diminished. It is demonstrated that safe mapping and ablation of typical atrial flutter is possible after a tricuspid valve replacement.

  20. Analytical comparison of effects of solid-friction and viscous structural damping on panel flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, H. J.

    1976-01-01

    A Galerkin modal analysis is presented that accounts for the effects of both solid friction and viscous structural damping on panel flutter, based on unsteady aerodynamic forces from supersonic potential flow. The eigensolutions are made by complex eigenvalue computer routines. Markedly different effects on the flutter boundary of the two types of structural damping are obtained. This result establishes that there is not, in general, an "equivalent viscous" damping for solid-friction damping. For the limiting case of the static-aerodynamic approximation, a substantially different flutter dynamic pressure is obtained for solid friction identically zero compared with solid friction approaching zero as a limit. Use of the quasi-static aerodynamic approximation eliminates that difference.

  1. Analysis of wing-body interaction flutter for a preliminary space shuttle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, R. R.; Shyprykevich, P.

    1974-01-01

    Subsonic flutter analyses for a preliminary space shuttle design were performed to determine the effect of wing-body aerodynamic interaction on the vehicle flutter speed. It was found that the proximity of the large bodies of the shuttle to the wing reduces critical flutter speed by 11%. Aerodynamic reflection off the bodies is the dominant interaction effect while aerodynamic forces caused by body motion are of secondary importance in most cases. The analyses employed a doublet-lattice representation of the space shuttle, where in the wing and body surfaces were modeled by a lattice of nonplanar lifting surface elements. Axial singularities were introduced to account for body incidence, volume, and camber (slender body) effects. A series of studies on the placement and number of these elements was performed to ensure convergence of the results.

  2. Weight minimization of structures for fixed flutter speed via an optimality criterion. [algorithm for lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segenreich, S. A.; Mcintosh, S. C., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A rigorous optimality criterion is derived and a hybrid weight-reduction algorithm developed for the weight minimization of lifting surfaces with a constraint on flutter speed. The weight-reduction algorithm incorporates a simple recursion formula derived from the optimality criterion. Monotonic weight reduction is accomplished by dynamically adjusting a parameter in the recursion formula so as to achieve a predetermined weight decrease. The algorithm thus combines the simplicity of optimality-criterion methods with the convergence characteristics of mathematical-programming methods. The imposition of the flutter constraint is simplified by forcing to zero the imaginary part of the flutter eigenvalue, with the airspeed fixed. Four examples are discussed. The results suggest that significant improvements in efficiency are possible, in comparison with techniques based purely on mathematical programming.

  3. Flutter of High-Speed Civil Transport Flexible Semispan Model: Time-Frequency Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chabalko, Christopher C.; Hajj, Muhammad R.; Silva, Walter A.

    2006-01-01

    Time/frequency analysis of fluctuations measured by pressure taps and strain gauges in the experimental studies of the flexible semispan model of a high-speed civil transport wing configuration is performed. The interest is in determining the coupling between the aerodynamic loads and structural motions that led to the hard flutter conditions and loss of the model. The results show that, away from the hard flutter point, the aerodynamic loads at all pressure taps near the wing tip and the structural motions contained the same frequency components. On the other hand, in the flow conditions leading to the hard flutter, the frequency content of the pressure fluctuations near the leading and trailing edges varied significantly. This led to contribution to the structural motions over two frequency ranges. The ratio of these ranges was near 2:1, which suggests the possibility of nonlinear structural coupling.

  4. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    This study experimentally investigates an actively controlled mechanical seal for aerospace applications. The seal of interest is a gas seal, which is considerably more compact than previous actively controlled mechanical seals that were developed for industrial use. In a mechanical seal, the radial convergence of the seal interface has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the radial convergence of the seal interface with piezoelectric actuator. An actively controlled mechanical seal was initially designed and evaluated using a mathematical model. Based on these results, a seal was fabricated and tested under laboratory conditions. The seal was tested with both helium and air, at rotational speeds up to 3770 rad/sec, and at sealed pressures as high as 1.48 x 10(exp 6) Pa. The seal was operated with both manual control and with a closed-loop control system that used either the leakage rate or face temperature as the feedback. The output of the controller was the voltage applied to the piezoelectric actuator. The seal operated successfully for both short term tests (less than one hour) and for longer term tests (four hours) with a closed-loop control system. The leakage rates were typically 5-15 slm (standard liters per minute), and the face temperatures were generally maintained below 100 C. When leakage rate was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint leakage rate was typically maintained within 1 slm. However, larger deviations occurred during sudden changes in sealed pressure. When face temperature was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint face temperature was generally maintained within 3 C, with larger deviations occurring when the sealed pressure changed suddenly.

  5. Ground Vibration and Flight Flutter Tests of the Single-seat F-16XL Aircraft with a Modified Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voracek, David F.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA single-seat F-16XL aircraft was modified by the addition of a glove to the left wing. Vibration tests were conducted on the ground to assess the changes to the aircraft caused by the glove. Flight Luther testing was conducted on the aircraft with the glove installed to ensure that the flight envelope was free of aeroelastic or aeroservoelastic instabilities. The ground vibration tests showed that above 20 Hz, several modes that involved the control surfaces were significantly changed. Flight test data showed that modal damping levels and trends were satisfactory where obtainable. The data presented in this report include estimated modal parameters from the ground vibration and flight flutter test.

  6. Flight Controller Software Protects Lightweight Flexible Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight flexible aircraft may be the future of aviation, but a major problem is their susceptibility to flutter-uncontrollable vibrations that can destroy wings. Armstrong Flight Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Minneapolis, Minnesota-based MUSYN Inc. to develop software that helps program flight controllers to suppress flutter. The technology is now available for aircraft manufacturers and other industries that use equipment with automated controls.

  7. Vector control activities. Fiscal year, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Pickard, E.; Cooney, J.C.; McDuff, B.R.

    1983-06-01

    The goal of the TVA Vector Control Program is to protect the public from potential vectors of disease by controlling medically-important arthropod pests that are propagated on TVA lands or waters. In addition, freedom from annoying mosquitoes and other blood-sucking pests permits the development, use, and full enjoyment of the vast recreational opportunities offered by the many miles of freshwater lakes. To attain this goal the program is divided into operations and support studies. The support studies are designed to improve the operational effectiveness and efficiency of the control program and to identify other vector control problems that require TVA attention and study. Specifically, activities concerning water level management of TVA lakes, dewatering projects, plant growth control, drainage and insect control programs are detailed. Further, report is made of post-impoundment surveys, soil sampling studies of Mosquite larvae and ecological mosquito management studies.

  8. Actively Controlling Buffet-Induced Excitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Henderson, Douglas A.; Galea, Stephen C.; Manokaran, Donald S.; Zimcik, David G.; Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Pitt, Dale M.; Gamble, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    High performance aircraft, especially those with twin vertical tails, encounter unsteady buffet loads when flying at high angles of attack. These loads result in significant random stresses, which may cause fatigue damage leading to restricted capabilities and availability of the aircraft. An international collaborative research activity among Australia, Canada and the United States, conducted under the auspices of The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) contributed resources toward a program that coalesced a broad range of technical knowledge and expertise into a single investigation to demonstrate the enhanced performance and capability of the advanced active BLA control system in preparation for a flight test demonstration. The research team investigated the use of active structural control to alleviate the damaging structural response to these loads by applying advanced directional piezoelectric actuators, the aircraft rudder, switch mode amplifiers, and advanced control strategies on an F/A-18 aircraft empennage. Some results of the full-scale investigation are presented herein.

  9. Active Flow Control Stator With Coanda Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guendogdu; Vorreiter; Seume

    2010-01-01

    Active Flow Control increases the permissible aerodynamic loading. Curved surface near the trailing edge ("Coanda surface"): a) increases turning -> higher pressure ratio. b) controls boundary layer separation -> increased surge margin. Objective: Reduce the number of vanes or compressor stages. Constraints: 1. In a real compressor, the vane must still function entirely without blowing. 2. Maintain the flow exit angle of the reference stator despite the resulting increase in stator loading.

  10. Higher-Order Spectral Analysis of F-18 Flight Flutter Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Dunn, Shane

    2005-01-01

    Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) F/A-18 flight flutter test data is presented and analyzed using various techniques. The data includes high-quality measurements of forced responses and limit cycle oscillation (LCO) phenomena. Standard correlation and power spectral density (PSD) techniques are applied to the data and presented. Novel applications of experimentally-identified impulse responses and higher-order spectral techniques are also applied to the data and presented. The goal of this research is to develop methods that can identify the onset of nonlinear aeroelastic phenomena, such as LCO, during flutter testing.

  11. Graphics Flutter Analysis Methods, an interactive computing system at Lockheed-California Company

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radovcich, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    An interactive computer graphics system, Graphics Flutter Analysis Methods (GFAM), was developed to complement FAMAS, a matrix-oriented batch computing system, and other computer programs in performing complex numerical calculations using a fully integrated data management system. GFAM has many of the matrix operation capabilities found in FAMAS, but on a smaller scale, and is utilized when the analysis requires a high degree of interaction between the engineer and computer, and schedule constraints exclude the use of batch entry programs. Applications of GFAM to a variety of preliminary design, development design, and project modification programs suggest that interactive flutter analysis using matrix representations is a feasible and cost effective computing tool.

  12. Active disturbance rejection controller for chemical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Both, Roxana; Dulf, Eva H.; Muresan, Cristina I.

    2015-03-10

    In the petrochemical industry, the synthesis of 2 ethyl-hexanol-oxo-alcohols (plasticizers alcohol) is of high importance, being achieved through hydrogenation of 2 ethyl-hexenal inside catalytic trickle bed three-phase reactors. For this type of processes the use of advanced control strategies is suitable due to their nonlinear behavior and extreme sensitivity to load changes and other disturbances. Due to the complexity of the mathematical model an approach was to use a simple linear model of the process in combination with an advanced control algorithm which takes into account the model uncertainties, the disturbances and command signal limitations like robust control. However the resulting controller is complex, involving cost effective hardware. This paper proposes a simple integer-order control scheme using a linear model of the process, based on active disturbance rejection method. By treating the model dynamics as a common disturbance and actively rejecting it, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) can achieve the desired response. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Active Control of Cryogenic Propellants in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, William

    2011-01-01

    A new era of space exploration is being planned. Exploration architectures under consideration require the long term storage of cryogenic propellants in space. This requires development of active control systems to mitigate the effect of heat leak. This work summarizes current state of the art, proposes operational design strategies and presents options for future architectures. Scaling and integration of active systems will be estimated. Ideal long range spacecraft systems will be proposed with Exploration architecture benefits considered.

  14. Seismic active control by neutral networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yu

    1995-12-31

    A study on the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to active structural control under seismic loads is carried out. The structure considered is a single-degree-of-freedom (SDF) system with an active bracing device. The control force is computed by a trained neural network. The feedforward neural network architecture and an adaptive backpropagation training algorithm is used in the study. The neural net is trained to reproduce the function that represents the response-excitation relationship of the SDF system under seismic loads. The input-output training patterns are generated randomly. In the backpropagation training algorithm, the learning rate is determined by ensuring the decrease of the error function at each epoch. The computer program implemented is validated by solving the classification of the XOR problem. Then, the trained ANN is used to compute the control force according to the control strategy. If the control force exceeds the actuator`s capacity limit, it is set equal to that limit. The concept of the control strategy employed herein is to apply the control force at every time step to cancel the system velocity induced at the preceding time step so that the gradual rhythmic buildup of the response is destroyed. The ground motions considered in the numerical example are the 1940 El Centro earthquake and the 1979 Imperial Valley earthquake in California. The system responses with and without the control are calculated and compared. The feasibility and potential of applying ANNs to seismic active control is asserted by the promising results obtained from the numerical examples studied.

  15. Piezoelectric Power Requirements for Active Vibration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, Matthew C.; McGowan, Anna-Maria Rivas

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a method for predicting the power consumption of piezoelectric actuators utilized for active vibration control. Analytical developments and experimental tests show that the maximum power required to control a structure using surface-bonded piezoelectric actuators is independent of the dynamics between the piezoelectric actuator and the host structure. The results demonstrate that for a perfectly-controlled system, the power consumption is a function of the quantity and type of piezoelectric actuators and the voltage and frequency of the control law output signal. Furthermore, as control effectiveness decreases, the power consumption of the piezoelectric actuators decreases. In addition, experimental results revealed a non-linear behavior in the material properties of piezoelectric actuators. The material non- linearity displayed a significant increase in capacitance with an increase in excitation voltage. Tests show that if the non-linearity of the capacitance was accounted for, a conservative estimate of the power can easily be determined.

  16. Actively Controlled Shaft Seals for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.; Wolff, Paul

    1995-01-01

    This study experimentally investigates an actively controlled mechanical seal for aerospace applications. The seal of interest is a gas seal, which is considerably more compact than previous actively controlled mechanical seals that were developed for industrial use. In a mechanical seal, the radial convergence of the seal interface has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the radial convergence of the seal interface with a piezoelectric actuator. An actively controlled mechanical seal was initially designed and evaluated using a mathematical model. Based on these results, a seal was fabricated and tested under laboratory conditions. The seal was tested with both helium and air, at rotational speeds up to 3770 rad/sec, and at sealed pressures as high as 1.48 x 10(exp 6) Pa. The seal was operated with both manual control and with a closed-loop control system that used either the leakage rate or face temperature as the feedback. The output of the controller was the voltage applied to the piezoelectric actuator. The seal operated successfully for both short term tests (less than one hour) and for longer term tests (four hours) with a closed-loop control system. The leakage rates were typically 5-15 slm (standard liters per minute), and the face temperatures were generally maintained below 100C. When leakage rate was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint leakage rate was typically maintained within 1 slm. However, larger deviations occurred during sudden changes in sealed pressure. When face temperature was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint face temperature was generally maintained within 3 C, with larger deviations occurring when the sealed pressure changes suddenly. the experimental results were compared to the predictions from the mathematical model. The model was successful in predicting the trends in leakage rate that occurred as the balance ratio and sealed pressure changed

  17. Dielectric elastomer actuators for active microfluidic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoul, David; Murray, Coleman; Di Carlo, Dino; Pei, Qibing

    2013-04-01

    Dielectric elastomers with low modulus and large actuation strain have been investigated for applications in which they serve as "active" microfluidic channel walls. Anisotropically prestrained acrylic elastomer membranes are bonded to cover open trenches formed on a silicone elastomer substrate. Actuation of the elastomer membranes increases the cross-sectional area of the resulting channels, in turn controlling hydraulic flow rate and pressure. Bias voltage increases the active area of the membranes, allowing intrachannel pressure to alter channel geometry. The channels have also demonstrated the ability to actively clear a blockage. Applications may include adaptive microfilters, micro-peristaltic pumps, and reduced-complexity lab-on-a-chip devices.

  18. MODELING MERCURY CONTROL WITH POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents a mathematical model of total mercury removed from the flue gas at coal-fired plants equipped with powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection for Mercury control. The developed algorithms account for mercury removal by both existing equipment and an added PAC in...

  19. Active control of automotive fan noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, Anthony; Berry, Alain; Masson, Patrice

    2002-11-01

    Active control for globally reducing the noise radiated by automotive axial engine cooling fans is investigated. First, an aeroacoutic model of the fan is combined with acoustic directivity measurements to derive a distribution of equivalent dipole sources on the fan surface. The results reveal that the fan behaves like a distributed dipole at blade passage tones when the upstream flow through the fan is spatially nonuniform. Numerical simulations of active noise control in the free field have been carried out using the previous aeroacoustic model of the fan and a dipole secondary source in front of the fan. The numerical results show that a single dipole control source is effective in globally controlling the sound radiation of the fan at the blade passage frequency and its first harmonic. Last, an experimental investigation of active control is presented. It consists of a SISO feedforward configuration with either a LMS algorithm (for FIR filters) or a back-retropopagation algorithm (for neural networks) using the Simulink/Dspace environment for real-time implementation.

  20. DNA-based control of protein activity

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, W.; Janssen, B. M. G.

    2016-01-01

    DNA has emerged as a highly versatile construction material for nanometer-sized structures and sophisticated molecular machines and circuits. The successful application of nucleic acid based systems greatly relies on their ability to autonomously sense and act on their environment. In this feature article, the development of DNA-based strategies to dynamically control protein activity via oligonucleotide triggers is discussed. Depending on the desired application, protein activity can be controlled by directly conjugating them to an oligonucleotide handle, or expressing them as a fusion protein with DNA binding motifs. To control proteins without modifying them chemically or genetically, multivalent ligands and aptamers that reversibly inhibit their function provide valuable tools to regulate proteins in a noncovalent manner. The goal of this feature article is to give an overview of strategies developed to control protein activity via oligonucleotide-based triggers, as well as hurdles yet to be taken to obtain fully autonomous systems that interrogate, process and act on their environments by means of DNA-based protein control. PMID:26812623

  1. Active Noise Control for Dishwasher noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Nokhaeng; Park, Youngjin

    2016-09-01

    The dishwasher is a useful home appliance and continually used for automatically washing dishes. It's commonly placed in the kitchen with built-in style for practicality and better use of space. In this environment, people are easily exposed to dishwasher noise, so it is an important issue for the consumers, especially for the people living in open and narrow space. Recently, the sound power levels of the noise are about 40 - 50 dBA. It could be achieved by removal of noise sources and passive means of insulating acoustical path. For more reduction, such a quiet mode with the lower speed of cycle has been introduced, but this deteriorates the washing capacity. Under this background, we propose active noise control for dishwasher noise. It is observed that the noise is propagating mainly from the lower part of the front side. Control speakers are placed in the part for the collocation. Observation part of estimating sound field distribution and control part of generating the anti-noise are designed for active noise control. Simulation result shows proposed active noise control scheme could have a potential application for dishwasher noise reduction.

  2. Flutter parametric studies of cantilevered twin-engine transport type wing with and without winglet. Volume 2: Transonic and density effect investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, K. G.; Nagaraja, K. S.

    1984-01-01

    Flutter characteristics of a cantilevered high aspect ratio wing with winglet were investigated. The configuration represented a current technology, twin engine airplane. Compressibility effects through transonic Mach numbers and a wide range of mass-density ratios were evaluated on a low speed and high speed model. Four flutter mechanisms were obtained from test, and analysis from various combinations of configuration parameters. It is shown that the coupling between wing tip vertical and chordwise motions have significant effect under some conditions. It is concluded that for the flutter model configurations studied, the winglet related flutter is amenable to the conventional flutter analysis techniques. The low speed model flutter and the high-speed model flutter results are described.

  3. Active control of transmitted sound in buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompsett, Russell Harvey George

    The problem of noise from neighbours has increased dramatically over the last few years. Many of the noise complaints are due to the high level, low frequency noise from modern stereo equipment, and are often described in terms of the low frequency characteristics of the music; the repetitive, booming, bass beat. The objective of this research was to establish the feasibility of applying active noise control to alleviate this problem. The initial approach was to evaluate the possibility of exploiting the dominance of individual modes in the response of rooms at low frequency to effect global control. However, initial investigations using a modal model of the sound field revealed that this would be difficult due to the contribution of many acoustic modes excited off resonance. This conclusion was supported by measurements of acoustic room responses in typical buildings, illustrating a non-resonant characteristic. Consequently, attention was turned to the feasibility of using local active control systems to create zones of quiet by concentrating control at a specific location near the observers ears, for example in a seat headrest, or near the pillows of a bed. The lack of a reference signal in either approach requires the use of a feedback control strategy. With a typically non-resonant system, the predictability in the disturbance necessary for successful feedback control must be contained in the primary excitation, namely the music. Examples of different music styles were investigated and of those with the potential to be a nuisance surprisingly few were significantly more predictable than a random disturbance. As expected the most encouraging control performance simulations were found for modern dance music, with a strong repetitive beat. A real-time, local controller was demonstrated in the laboratory with such a disturbance signal and the properties of the quiet zone were measured. The subjective response when hearing the controller in operation was found to be

  4. Active control of multiple resistive wall modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Yadikin, D.; Gregoratto, D.; Paccagnella, R.; Liu, Y. Q.; Bolzonella, T.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.; Kuldkepp, M.; Manduchi, G.; Marchiori, G.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, P.; Menmuir, S.; Ortolani, S.; Rachlew, E.; Spizzo, G.; Zanca, P.

    2005-12-01

    A two-dimensional array of saddle coils at Mc poloidal and Nc toroidal positions is used on the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch (Brunsell P R et al 2001 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43 1457) to study active control of resistive wall modes (RWMs). Spontaneous growth of several RWMs with poloidal mode number m = 1 and different toroidal mode number n is observed experimentally, in agreement with linear MHD modelling. The measured plasma response to a controlled coil field and the plasma response computed using the linear circular cylinder MHD model are in quantitive agreement. Feedback control introduces a linear coupling of modes with toroidal mode numbers n, n' that fulfil the condition |n - n'| = Nc. Pairs of coupled unstable RWMs are present in feedback experiments with an array of Mc × Nc = 4 × 16 coils. Using intelligent shell feedback, the coupled modes are generally not controlled even though the field is suppressed at the active coils. A better suppression of coupled modes may be achieved in the case of rotating modes by using the mode control feedback scheme with individually set complex gains. In feedback with a larger array of Mc × Nc = 4 × 32 coils, the coupling effect largely disappears, and with this array, the main internal RWMs n = -11, -10, +5, +6 are all simultaneously suppressed throughout the discharge (7 8 wall times). With feedback there is a two-fold extension of the pulse length, compared to discharges without feedback.

  5. Circus movement in the canine atrium around the tricuspid ring during experimental atrial flutter and during reentry in vitro.

    PubMed

    Frame, L H; Page, R L; Boyden, P A; Fenoglio, J J; Hoffman, B F

    1987-11-01

    A Y-shaped lesion in the right atrium allows induction of atrial flutter in dogs. We recorded the activation sequence during this tachycardia from 96 endocardial bipolar electrodes using intracavitary electrode arrays during 12 separate episodes in three isolated perfused hearts. In each case a reentrant impulse circulated around the tricuspid valve orifice in either a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction. Cutting the pathway terminated the rhythm and prevented its reinduction. There was no discrete segment of markedly slow conduction in the reentrant circuit. The tachycardia cycle length was decreased by methacholine and increased by lidocaine. Reentry was also induced in atrial tissue around the tricuspid orifice when this structure was isolated and superfused in vitro. Tachycardia cycle lengths varied from 205 to 399 msec, depending on the circumference of the ring and temperature. Induction of tachycardia by premature stimulation depended on differences in the duration of the effective refractory period among parts of the ring. Conduction velocity was relatively uniform and was slower during tachycardias than during pacing at long cycle lengths. Analysis of the response to premature stimuli that reset the tachycardia provided evidence for incomplete recovery of excitability between depolarizations during the tachycardia. Fast-response action potentials were recorded throughout the pathway and up to six to eight cell layers deep. Histologic studies showed the supravalvular lamina, a circumferential band of fibers several cell layers below the endocardial surface, to be continuous around the tricuspid orifice. Propagation through this layer best explains the conduction velocities observed in the intact heart during flutter in this preparation.

  6. Control Systems Cyber Security Standards Support Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Evans

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security’s Control Systems Security Program (CSSP) is working with industry to secure critical infrastructure sectors from cyber intrusions that could compromise control systems. This document describes CSSP’s current activities with industry organizations in developing cyber security standards for control systems. In addition, it summarizes the standards work being conducted by organizations within the sector and provides a brief listing of sector meetings and conferences that might be of interest for each sector. Control systems cyber security standards are part of a rapidly changing environment. The participation of CSSP in the development effort for these standards has provided consistency in the technical content of the standards while ensuring that information developed by CSSP is included.

  7. Actively controlled vibration welding system and method

    DOEpatents

    Cai, Wayne W.; Kang, Bongsu; Tan, Chin-An

    2013-04-02

    A vibration welding system includes a controller, welding horn, an active material element, and anvil assembly. The assembly may include an anvil body connected to a back plate and support member. The element, e.g., a piezoelectric stack or shape memory alloy, is positioned with respect to the assembly. The horn vibrates in a desirable first direction to form a weld on a work piece. The element controls any vibrations in a second direction by applying calibrated response to the anvil body in the second direction. A method for controlling undesirable vibrations in the system includes positioning the element with respect to the anvil assembly, connecting the anvil body to the support member through the back plate, vibrating the horn in a desirable first direction, and transmitting an input signal to the element to control vibration in an undesirable second direction.

  8. Transonic Flutter Characteristics of an Aspect-Ratio-4, 45 deg. Sweptback, Taper-Ratio-0.2 Plan Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unangst, John R.

    1959-01-01

    The results of several flutter investigations to determine the effects of plan-form variations on the flutter characteristics of thin cantilevered wings at transonic Mach numbers have been reported previously. In the present investigation the data are extended to include a wing having an aspect ratio of 4, 45 of sweepback, and a taper ratio of 0.2. The data were obtained in the Langley transonic blowdown tunnel over a Mach number range from 0.6 to 1.4. The experimental results indicate an abrupt and rather large increase in both a flutter-speed parameter and a flutter-frequency parameter as the Mach number is increased from 1.05 to 1.10. The foregoing is interpreted as indicating a marked change in the flutter mode. Calculated flutter speeds, based on incompressible-flow aerodynamic coefficients, were too high by 20 percent or more throughout the subsonic Mach number range of the investigation. Calculated flutter frequencies were about 7 percent too high at a Mach number of 0.65 and were about 20 percent too high at a Mach number of 0.9. No significant independent effects of thickness were indicated for the plan form investigated as the thickness was changed from 3 to 4 percent chord.

  9. Optogenetic feedback control of neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Jonathan P; Fong, Ming-fai; Millard, Daniel C; Whitmire, Clarissa J; Stanley, Garrett B; Potter, Steve M

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetic techniques enable precise excitation and inhibition of firing in specified neuronal populations and artifact-free recording of firing activity. Several studies have suggested that optical stimulation provides the precision and dynamic range requisite for closed-loop neuronal control, but no approach yet permits feedback control of neuronal firing. Here we present the ‘optoclamp’, a feedback control technology that provides continuous, real-time adjustments of bidirectional optical stimulation in order to lock spiking activity at specified targets over timescales ranging from seconds to days. We demonstrate how this system can be used to decouple neuronal firing levels from ongoing changes in network excitability due to multi-hour periods of glutamatergic or GABAergic neurotransmission blockade in vitro as well as impinging vibrissal sensory drive in vivo. This technology enables continuous, precise optical control of firing in neuronal populations in order to disentangle causally related variables of circuit activation in a physiologically and ethologically relevant manner. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07192.001 PMID:26140329

  10. Computed and Experimental Flutter/LCO Onset for the Boeing Truss-Braced Wing Wind-Tunnel Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Scott, Robert C.; Funk, Christie J.; Allen, Timothy J.; Sexton, Bradley W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents high fidelity Navier-Stokes simulations of the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research truss-braced wing wind-tunnel model and compares the results to linear MSC. Nastran flutter analysis and preliminary data from a recent wind-tunnel test of that model at the NASA Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The simulated conditions under consideration are zero angle of attack, so that structural nonlinearity can be neglected. It is found that, for Mach number greater than 0.78, the linear flutter analysis predicts flutter onset dynamic pressure below the wind-tunnel test and that predicted by the Navier-Stokes analysis. Furthermore, the wind-tunnel test revealed that the majority of the high structural dynamics cases were wing limit cycle oscillation (LCO) rather than flutter. Most Navier-Stokes simulated cases were also LCO rather than hard flutter. There is dip in the wind-tunnel test flutter/LCO onset in the Mach 0.76-0.80 range. Conditions tested above that Mach number exhibited no aeroelastic instability at the dynamic pressures reached in the tunnel. The linear flutter analyses do not show a flutter/LCO dip. The Navier-Stokes simulations also do not reveal a dip; however, the flutter/LCO onset is at a significantly higher dynamic pressure at Mach 0.90 than at lower Mach numbers. The Navier-Stokes simulations indicate a mild LCO onset at Mach 0.82, then a more rapidly growing instability at Mach 0.86 and 0.90. Finally, the modeling issues and their solution related to the use of a beam and pod finite element model to generate the Navier-Stokes structure mode shapes are discussed.

  11. Probabilistic Design of a Plate-Like Wing to Meet Flutter and Strength Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, W. Jefferson; Krishnamurthy, T.; Mason, Brian H.; Smith, Steven A.; Naser, Ahmad S.

    2002-01-01

    An approach is presented for carrying out reliability-based design of a metallic, plate-like wing to meet strength and flutter requirements that are given in terms of risk/reliability. The design problem is to determine the thickness distribution such that wing weight is a minimum and the probability of failure is less than a specified value. Failure is assumed to occur if either the flutter speed is less than a specified allowable or the stress caused by a pressure loading is greater than a specified allowable. Four uncertain quantities are considered: wing thickness, calculated flutter speed, allowable stress, and magnitude of a uniform pressure load. The reliability-based design optimization approach described herein starts with a design obtained using conventional deterministic design optimization with margins on the allowables. Reliability is calculated using Monte Carlo simulation with response surfaces that provide values of stresses and flutter speed. During the reliability-based design optimization, the response surfaces and move limits are coordinated to ensure accuracy of the response surfaces. Studies carried out in the paper show the relationship between reliability and weight and indicate that, for the design problem considered, increases in reliability can be obtained with modest increases in weight.

  12. On the interrelation of divergence, flutter and auto-parametric resonance.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, G.; Hauger, W.

    1973-01-01

    The dependence between static instability and kinetic instability (flutter) on autoparameteric resonance is studied by taking compressibility into account in a model of a cantilever beam under the action of a follower force. It is shown that both instabilities are formally special cases of instabilities known as subharmonic and combination resonances.

  13. Flutter Analysis of the Thermal Protection Layer on the NASA HIAD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Benjamin D.; Dowell, Earl H.; Scott, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    A combination of classical plate theory and a supersonic aerodynamic model is used to study the aeroelastic flutter behavior of a proposed thermal protection system (TPS) for the NASA HIAD. The analysis pertains to the rectangular configurations currently being tested in a NASA wind-tunnel facility, and may explain why oscillations of the articles could be observed. An analysis using a linear flat plate model indicated that flutter was possible well within the supersonic flow regime of the wind tunnel tests. A more complex nonlinear analysis of the TPS, taking into account any material curvature present due to the restraint system or substructure, indicated that significantly greater aerodynamic forcing is required for the onset of flutter. Chaotic and periodic limit cycle oscillations (LCOs) of the TPS are possible depending on how the curvature is imposed. When the pressure from the base substructure on the bottom of the TPS is used as the source of curvature, the flutter boundary increases rapidly and chaotic behavior is eliminated.

  14. Congenital toxoplasmosis presenting with fetal atrial flutter after maternal ingestion of infected moose meat.

    PubMed

    Colosimo, Sarah M; Montoya, Jose G; Westley, Benjamin P; Jacob, Jack; Isada, Nelson B

    2013-09-01

    Consumption of undercooked game meat during pregnancy is considered a risk factor for congenital toxoplasmosis, but cases definitively linking ingestion of infected meat to clinical disease are lacking. We report a confirmed case of congenital toxoplasmosis identified because of atrial flutter in the fetus and linked to maternal consumption of Toxoplasma gondii PCR-positive moose meat.

  15. Transonic Shock Oscillations and Wing Flutter Calculated with an Interactive Boundary Layer Coupling Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, John W.

    1996-01-01

    A viscous-inviscid interactive coupling method is used for the computation of unsteady transonic flows involving separation and reattachment. A lag-entrainment integral boundary layer method is used with the transonic small disturbance potential equation in the CAP-TSDV (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code. Efficient and robust computations of steady and unsteady separated flows, including steady separation bubbles and self-excited shock-induced oscillations are presented. The buffet onset boundary for the NACA 0012 airfoil is accurately predicted and shown computationally to be a Hopf bifurcation. Shock-induced oscillations are also presented for the 18 percent circular arc airfoil. The oscillation onset boundaries and frequencies are accurately predicted, as is the experimentally observed hysteresis of the oscillations with Mach number. This latter stability boundary is identified as a jump phenomenon. Transonic wing flutter boundaries are also shown for a thin swept wing and for a typical business jet wing, illustrating viscous effects on flutter and the effect of separation onset on the wing response at flutter. Calculations for both wings show limit cycle oscillations at transonic speeds in the vicinity of minimum flutter speed indices.

  16. Effect of blade flutter and electrical loading on small wind turbine noise

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of blade flutter and electrical loading on the noise level of two different size wind turbines was investigated at the Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) near Bushland, TX. Noise and performance data were collected on two blade designs tested on a wind turbine rated a...

  17. Reduced Uncertainties in the Flutter Analysis of the Aerostructures Test Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi; Lung, Shun-fat

    2010-01-01

    Tuning the finite element model using measured data to minimize the model uncertainties is a challenging task in the area of structural dynamics. A test validated finite element model can provide a reliable flutter analysis to define the flutter placard speed to which the aircraft can be flown prior to flight flutter testing. Minimizing the difference between numerical and experimental results is a type of optimization problem. Through the use of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center s (Edwards, California, USA) multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization tool to optimize the objective function and constraints; the mass properties, the natural frequencies, and the mode shapes are matched to the target data and the mass matrix orthogonality is retained. The approach in this study has been applied to minimize the model uncertainties for the structural dynamic model of the aerostructures test wing, which was designed, built, and tested at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center. A 25-percent change in flutter speed has been shown after reducing the uncertainties

  18. Reduced Uncertainties in the Flutter Analysis of the Aerostructures Test Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi; Lung, Shun Fat

    2011-01-01

    Tuning the finite element model using measured data to minimize the model uncertainties is a challenging task in the area of structural dynamics. A test validated finite element model can provide a reliable flutter analysis to define the flutter placard speed to which the aircraft can be flown prior to flight flutter testing. Minimizing the difference between numerical and experimental results is a type of optimization problem. Through the use of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center's (Edwards, California) multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization tool to optimize the objective function and constraints; the mass properties, the natural frequencies, and the mode shapes are matched to the target data, and the mass matrix orthogonality is retained. The approach in this study has been applied to minimize the model uncertainties for the structural dynamic model of the aerostructures test wing, which was designed, built, and tested at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center. A 25 percent change in flutter speed has been shown after reducing the uncertainties.

  19. Calculation of AGARD Wing 445.6 Flutter Using Navier-Stokes Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Batina, John T.

    1993-01-01

    The flutter characteristics of the first AGARD standard aeroelastic configuration for dynamic response, Wing 445.6, are studied using an unsteady Navier-Stokes algorithm in order to investigate a previously noted discrepancy between Euler flutter characteristics and the experimental data. The algorithm, which is a three-dimensional, implicit, upwind Euler/Navier-Stokes code (CFL3D Version 2.1), was previously modified for the time-marching, aeroelastic analysis of wings using the unsteady Euler equations. These modifications include the incorporation of a deforming mesh algorithm and the addition of the structural equations of motion for their simultaneous time integration with the governing flow equations. In this paper, the aeroelastic method is extended and evaluated for applications that use the Navier- Stokes aerodynamics. The paper presents a brief description of the aeroelastic method and presents unsteady calculations which verify this method for Navier-Stokes calculations. A linear stability analysis and a time-marching aeroelastic analysis are used to determine the flutter characteristics of the isolated 45 deg. swept-back wing. Effects of fluid viscosity, structural damping, and number of modes in the structural model are investigated. For the linear stability analysis, the unsteady generalized aerodynamic forces of the wing are computed for a range of reduced frequencies using the pulse transfer-function approach. The flutter characteristics of the wing are determined using these unsteady generalized aerodynamic forces in a traditional V-g analysis. This stability analysis is used to determine the flutter characteristics of the wing at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.96 and 1.141 using the generalized aerodynamic forces generated by solving the Euler equations and the Navier-Stokes equations. Time-marching aeroelastic calculations are performed at a free-stream Mach number of 1.141 using the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations to compare with the linear V

  20. Active control of locomotion facilitates nonvisual navigation.

    PubMed

    Philbeck, J W; Klatzky, R L; Behrmann, M; Loomis, J M; Goodridge, J

    2001-02-01

    In some navigation tasks, participants are more accurate if they view the environment beforehand. To characterize the benefits associated with visual previews, 32 blindfolded participants were guided along simple paths and asked to walk unassisted to a specified destination (e.g., the origin). Paths were completed without vision, with or without a visual preview of the environment. Previews did not necessarily improve nonvisual navigation. When previewed landmarks stood near the origin or at off-path locations, they provided little benefit; by contrast, when they specified intermediate destinations (thereby increasing the degree of active control), performance was greatly enhanced. The results suggest that the benefit of a visual preview stems from the information it supplies for actively controlled locomotion. Accuracy in reaching the final destination, however, is strongly contingent upon the destination's location during the preview.

  1. Advanced Active Thermal Control Systems Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, Anthony J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    1996-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) initiated a dynamic study to determine possible improvements available through advanced technologies (not used on previous or current human vehicles), identify promising development initiatives for advanced active thermal control systems (ATCS's), and help prioritize funding and personnel distribution among many research projects by providing a common basis to compare several diverse technologies. Some technologies included were two-phase thermal control systems, light-weight radiators, phase-change thermal storage, rotary fluid coupler, and heat pumps. JSC designed the study to estimate potential benefits from these various proposed and under-development thermal control technologies for five possible human missions early in the next century. The study compared all the technologies to a baseline mission using mass as a basis. Each baseline mission assumed an internal thermal control system; an external thermal control system; and aluminum, flow-through radiators. Solar vapor compression heat pumps and light-weight radiators showed the greatest promise as general advanced thermal technologies which can be applied across a range of missions. This initial study identified several other promising ATCS technologies which offer mass savings and other savings compared to traditional thermal control systems. Because the study format compares various architectures with a commonly defined baseline, it is versatile and expandable, and is expected to be updated as needed.

  2. Active Thermal Control System Development for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westheimer, David

    2007-01-01

    All space vehicles or habitats require thermal management to maintain a safe and operational environment for both crew and hardware. Active Thermal Control Systems (ATCS) perform the functions of acquiring heat from both crew and hardware within a vehicle, transporting that heat throughout the vehicle, and finally rejecting that energy into space. Almost all of the energy used in a space vehicle eventually turns into heat, which must be rejected in order to maintain an energy balance and temperature control of the vehicle. For crewed vehicles, Active Thermal Control Systems are pumped fluid loops that are made up of components designed to perform these functions. NASA has been actively developing technologies that will enable future missions or will provide significant improvements over the state of the art technologies. These technologies have are targeted for application on the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), or Orion, and a Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). The technologies that have been selected and are currently under development include: fluids that enable single loop ATCS architectures, a gravity insensitive vapor compression cycle heat pump, a sublimator with reduced sensitivity to feedwater contamination, an evaporative heat sink that can operate in multiple ambient pressure environments, a compact spray evaporator, and lightweight radiators that take advantage of carbon composites and advanced optical coatings.

  3. Distributed control system for active mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Ramos, Luis F.; Williams, Mark R.; Castro, Javier; Cruz, A.; Gonzalez, Juan C.; Mack, Brian; Martin, Carlos; Pescador, German; Sanchez, Vicente; Sosa, Nicolas A.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents the IAC (Instituto de Astrofisica de Canaries, Spain) proposal of a distributed control system intended for the active support of a 8 m mirror. The system incorporates a large number of compact `smart' force actuators, six force definers, and a mirror support computer (MSC) for interfacing with the telescope control system and for general housekeeping. We propose the use of a network for the interconnection of the actuators, definers and the MSC, which will minimize the physical complexity of the interface between the mirror support system and the MSC. The force actuator control electronics are described in detail, as is the system software architecture of the actuator and the MSC. As the network is a key point for the system, we also detail the evaluation of three candidates, before electing the CAN bus.

  4. The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.; Sepe, Raymond B.; Rey, Daniel; Saarmaa, Erik; Crawley, Edward F.

    1993-01-01

    The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) is a NASA In-Step and Control Structure Interaction (CSI) Office funded Shuttle middeck experiment. The objective is to investigate the extent to which closed-loop behavior of flexible spacecraft in zero-gravity (0-g) can be predicted. This prediction becomes particularly difficult when dynamic behavior during ground testing exhibits extensive suspension and direct gravity coupling. On-orbit system identification and control reconfiguration is investigated to improve performance which would otherwise be limited due to errors in prediction. The program is presently in its preliminary design phase with launch expected in the summer of 1994. The MACE test article consists of three attitude control torque wheels, a two axis gimballing payload, inertial sensors and a flexible support structure. With the acquisition of a second payload, this will represent a multiple payload platform with significant structural flexibility. This paper presents on-going work in the areas of modelling and control of the MACE test article in the zero and one-gravity environments. Finite element models, which include suspension and gravity effects, and measurement models, derived from experimental data, are used as the basis for Linear Quadratic Gaussian controller designs. Finite element based controllers are analytically used to study the differences in closed-loop performance as the test article transitions between the 0-g and 1-g environments. Measurement based controllers are experimentally applied to the MACE test article in the 1-g environment and achieve over an order of magnitude improvement in payload pointing accuracy when disturbed by a broadband torque disturbance. The various aspects of the flight portion of the experiment are also discussed.

  5. Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE), phase A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Deluis, Javier; Miller, David W.

    1989-01-01

    A rationale to determine which structural experiments are sufficient to verify the design of structures employing Controlled Structures Technology was derived. A survey of proposed NASA missions was undertaken to identify candidate test articles for use in the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE). The survey revealed that potential test articles could be classified into one of three roles: development, demonstration, and qualification, depending on the maturity of the technology and the mission the structure must fulfill. A set of criteria was derived that allowed determination of which role a potential test article must fulfill. A review of the capabilities and limitations of the STS middeck was conducted. A reference design for the MACE test article was presented. Computing requirements for running typical closed-loop controllers was determined, and various computer configurations were studied. The various components required to manufacture the structure were identified. A management plan was established for the remainder of the program experiment development, flight and ground systems development, and integration to the carrier. Procedures for configuration control, fiscal control, and safety, reliabilty, and quality assurance were developed.

  6. Local flow control for active building facades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaligotla, Srikar; Chen, Wayne; Glauser, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Existing building facade designs are for a passive and an impermeable shell to prevent migration of outdoor air into the building and to control heat transfers between the exterior environment and the building interior. An active facade that can respond in real time to changing environmental conditions like wind speed and direction, pollutant load, temperature, humidity and light can lower energy use and maximize occupant comfort. With an increased awareness of cost and environmental effects of energy use, cross or natural ventilation has become an attractive method to lower energy use. Separated flow regions around such buildings are undesirable due to high concentration of pollutants, especially if the vents or dynamic windows for cross ventilation are situated in these regions. Outside pollutant load redistribution through vents can be regulated via flow separation control to minimize transport of pollutants into the building. Flow separation has been substantially reduced with the application of intelligent flow control tools developed at Syracuse University for flow around "silo" (turret) like structures. Similar flow control models can be introduced into buildings with cross ventilation for local external flow separation control. Initial experiments will be performed for turbulent flow over a rectangular block (scaled to be a mid-rise building) that has been configured with dynamic vents and unsteady suction actuators in a wind tunnel at various wind speeds.

  7. Active optics control development at the LBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, David S.; Biddick, Christopher; Hill, John M.

    2014-07-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) is built around two 8.4 m-diameter primary mirrors placed with a centerline separation of 14.4 m in a common altitude/azimuth mount. Each side of the telescope can utilize a deployable prime focus instrument; alternatively, the beam can be directed to a Gregorian instrument by utilizing a deployable secondary mirror. The direct-Gregorian beam can be intercepted and redirected to several bent-Gregorian instruments by utilizing a deployable tertiary mirror. Two of the available bent-Gregorian instruments are interferometers, capable of coherently combining the beams from the two sides of the telescope. Active optics can utilize as many as 26 linearly independent degrees of freedom to position the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors to control optical collimation while the telescope operates in its numerous observing modes. Additionally, by applying differential forces at 160 locations on each primary mirror, active optics controls the primary mirror figure. The authors explore the challenges associated with collimation and primary mirror figure control at the LBT and outline the ongoing related development aimed at optimizing image quality and preparing the telescope for interferometric operations.

  8. Analytical and experimental study of the effects of wing-body aerodynamic interaction on space shuttle subsonic flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, R. R.; Rauch, F. J.

    1975-01-01

    The effects on flutter of the aerodynamic interaction between the space shuttle bodies and wing, 1/80th-scale semispan models of the orbiter wing, the complete shuttle and intermediate component combinations were tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 26-inch Transonic Blowdown Wind Tunnel. Using the double lattice method combined with slender body theory to calculate unsteady aerodynamic forces, subsonic flutter speeds were computed for comparison. Using calculated complete vehicle modes, flutter speed trends were computed for the full scale vehicle at an altitude of 15,200 meters and a Mach number of 0.6. Consistent with findings of the model studies, analysis shows the shuttle to have the same flutter speed as an isolated cantilevered wing.

  9. Gas turbine engine active clearance control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deveau, Paul J. (Inventor); Greenberg, Paul B. (Inventor); Paolillo, Roger E. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Method for controlling the clearance between rotating and stationary components of a gas turbine engine are disclosed. Techniques for achieving close correspondence between the radial position of rotor blade tips and the circumscribing outer air seals are disclosed. In one embodiment turbine case temperature modifying air is provided in flow rate, pressure and temperature varied as a function of engine operating condition. The modifying air is scheduled from a modulating and mixing valve supplied with dual source compressor air. One source supplies relatively low pressure, low temperature air and the other source supplies relatively high pressure, high temperature air. After the air has been used for the active clearance control (cooling the high pressure turbine case) it is then used for cooling the structure that supports the outer air seal and other high pressure turbine component parts.

  10. Control concepts for active magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegwart, Roland; Vischer, D.; Larsonneur, R.; Herzog, R.; Traxler, Alfons; Bleuler, H.; Schweitzer, G.

    1992-01-01

    Active Magnetic Bearings (AMB) are becoming increasingly significant for various industrial applications. Examples are turbo-compressors, centrifuges, high speed milling and grinding spindles, vibration isolation, linear guides, magnetically levitated trains, vacuum and space applications. Thanks to the rapid progress and drastic cost reduction in power- and micro-electronics, the number of AMB applications is growing very rapidly. Industrial uses of AMBs leads to new requirements for AMB-actuators, sensor systems, and rotor dynamics. Especially desirable are new and better control concepts to meet demand such as low cost AMB, high stiffness, high performance, high robustness, high damping up to several kHz, vibration isolation, force-free rotation, and unbalance cancellation. This paper surveys various control concepts for AMBs and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. Theoretical and experimental results are presented.

  11. Understanding the brain by controlling neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Kristine; Salzman, C. Daniel; Waddell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Causal methods to interrogate brain function have been employed since the advent of modern neuroscience in the nineteenth century. Initially, randomly placed electrodes and stimulation of parts of the living brain were used to localize specific functions to these areas. Recent technical developments have rejuvenated this approach by providing more precise tools to dissect the neural circuits underlying behaviour, perception and cognition. Carefully controlled behavioural experiments have been combined with electrical devices, targeted genetically encoded tools and neurochemical approaches to manipulate information processing in the brain. The ability to control brain activity in these ways not only deepens our understanding of brain function but also provides new avenues for clinical intervention, particularly in conditions where brain processing has gone awry. PMID:26240417

  12. Active Displacement Control of Active Magnetic Bearing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertész, Milan; Kozakovič, Radko; Magdolen, Luboš; Masaryk, Michal

    2014-12-01

    The worldwide energy production nowadays is over 3400 GW while storage systems have a capacity of only 90 GW [1]. There is a good solution for additional storage capacity in flywheel energy storage systems (FES). The main advantage of FES is its relatively high efficiency especially with using the active magnetic bearing system. Therefore there exist good reasons for appropriate simulations and for creating a suitable magneto-structural control system. The magnetic bearing, including actuation, is simulated in the ANSYS parametric design language (APDL). APDL is used to create the loops of transient simulations where boundary conditions (BC) are updated based upon a "gap sensor" which controls the nodal position values of the centroid of the shaft and the current density inputs onto the copper windings.

  13. Active Aircraft Pylon Noise Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J (Inventor); Elmiligui, Alaa A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An active pylon noise control system for an aircraft includes a pylon structure connecting an engine system with an airframe surface of the aircraft and having at least one aperture to supply a gas or fluid therethrough, an intake portion attached to the pylon structure to intake a gas or fluid, a regulator connected with the intake portion via a plurality of pipes, to regulate a pressure of the gas or fluid, a plenum chamber formed within the pylon structure and connected with the regulator, and configured to receive the gas or fluid as regulated by the regulator, and a plurality of injectors in communication with the plenum chamber to actively inject the gas or fluid through the plurality of apertures of the pylon structure.

  14. Nanomechanics of Actively Controlled Deployable Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Lee D.

    2000-01-01

    This document is the interim, annual report for the research grant entitled "Nanomechanics of Actively Controlled Deployed Optics." It is supported by NASA Langley Research Center Cooperative Agreement NCC-1 -281. Dr. Mark S. Lake is the technical monitor of the research program. This document reports activities for the year 1998, beginning 3/11/1998, and for the year 1999. The objective of this report is to summarize the results and the status of this research. This summary appears in Section 2.0. Complete details of the results of this research have been reported in several papers, publications and theses. Section 3.0 lists these publications and, when available, presents their abstracts. Each publication is available in electronic form from a web site identified in Section 3.0.

  15. Some Torsional-damping Measurements of Laminated Beams as Applied to the Propeller Stall-flutter Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Atwood R , Jr

    1953-01-01

    The structural damping in the torsion mode of vibration of a series of untwisted, laminated thin beams simulating propeller blades is presented. The number of lamination were varied, as well as the bonding material and the method of joining lamination. Application of the data to the calculation of the minimum flutter speed of thin propeller blades indicates that appreciable gains in the minimum flutter speed may be obtained for laminated blades using a Cycleweld bond.

  16. Physical Insights, Steady Aerodynamic Effects, and a Design Tool for Low-Pressure Turbine Flutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, Joshua Joseph

    The successful, efficient, and safe turbine design requires a thorough understanding of the underlying physical phenomena. This research investigates the physical understanding and parameters highly correlated to flutter, an aeroelastic instability prevalent among low pressure turbine (LPT) blades in both aircraft engines and power turbines. The modern way of determining whether a certain cascade of LPT blades is susceptible to flutter is through time-expensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. These codes converge to solution satisfying the Eulerian conservation equations subject to the boundary conditions of a nodal domain consisting fluid and solid wall particles. Most detailed CFD codes are accompanied by cryptic turbulence models, meticulous grid constructions, and elegant boundary condition enforcements all with one goal in mind: determine the sign (and therefore stability) of the aerodynamic damping. The main question being asked by the aeroelastician, "is it positive or negative?'' This type of thought-process eventually gives rise to a black-box effect, leaving physical understanding behind. Therefore, the first part of this research aims to understand and reveal the physics behind LPT flutter in addition to several related topics including acoustic resonance effects. A percentage of this initial numerical investigation is completed using an influence coefficient approach to study the variation the work-per-cycle contributions of neighboring cascade blades to a reference airfoil. The second part of this research introduces new discoveries regarding the relationship between steady aerodynamic loading and negative aerodynamic damping. Using validated CFD codes as computational wind tunnels, a multitude of low-pressure turbine flutter parameters, such as reduced frequency, mode shape, and interblade phase angle, will be scrutinized across various airfoil geometries and steady operating conditions to reach new design guidelines regarding the influence

  17. Investigation of the Flow Physics Driving Stall-Side Flutter in Advanced Forward Swept Fan Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Albert J.; Liu, Jong S.; Panovsky, Josef; Bakhle, Milind A.; Stefko, George; Srivastava, Rakesh

    2003-01-01

    Flutter-free operation of advanced transonic fan designs continues to be a challenging task for the designers of aircraft engines. In order to meet the demands of increased performance and lighter weight, these modern fan designs usually feature low-aspect ratio shroudless rotor blade designs that make the task of achieving adequate flutter margin even more challenging for the aeroelastician. This is especially true for advanced forward swept designs that encompass an entirely new design space compared to previous experience. Fortunately, advances in unsteady computational fluid dynamic (CFD) techniques over the past decade now provide an analysis capability that can be used to quantitatively assess the aeroelastic characteristics of these next generation fans during the design cycle. For aeroelastic applications, Mississippi State University and NASA Glenn Research Center have developed the CFD code TURBO-AE. This code is a time-accurate three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes unsteady flow solver developed for axial-flow turbomachinery that can model multiple blade rows undergoing harmonic oscillations with arbitrary interblade phase angles, i.e., nodal diameter patterns. Details of the code can be found in Chen et al. (1993, 1994), Bakhle et al. (1997, 1998), and Srivastava et al. (1999). To assess aeroelastic stability, the work-per-cycle from TURBO-AE is converted to the critical damping ratio since this value is more physically meaningful, with both the unsteady normal pressure and viscous shear forces included in the work-per-cycle calculation. If the total damping (aerodynamic plus mechanical) is negative, then the blade is unstable since it extracts energy from the flow field over the vibration cycle. TURBO-AE is an integral part of an aeroelastic design system being developed at Honeywell Engines, Systems & Services for flutter and forced response predictions, with test cases from development rig and engine tests being used to validate its predictive

  18. Highly flexible flight vehicle aeroelastic and aero-viscoelastic flutter issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrett, Craig G.; Hilton, Harry H.

    2012-11-01

    Aeroelastic and aero-viscoelastic phenomena arising from the high flexibility of modern flight vehicles are examined, and governing relations are formulated and solved. In particular, the time dependent flight velocities associated with maneuvers and with in-plane bending are considered, which necessitate new derivations of the Theodorsen function, unsteady aerodynamic relations and equations of motion. Under these conditions, simple harmonic motion (SHM) is no longer achievable and different flutter criteria based directly on motion stability are presented. The viscoelastic problem is formulated in terms of integral partial differential equations with variable nonlinear coefficients. Their solutions and evaluations are discussed in detail. One interesting departure from linear responses emerged, which indicates flutter in one bending while the other bending mode and the torsional are both stable. A detailed and extended treatment of these subjects may be found in [1].

  19. Nonlinear panel flutter in a rarefied atmosphere - Aerodynamic shear stress effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resende, Hugo B.

    1991-01-01

    The panel flutter phenomenon is studied assuming free-molecule flow. This kind of analysis is relevant in the case of hypersonic flight vehicles traveling at high altitudes, especially in the leeward portion of the vehicle. In these conditions the aerodynamic shear can be expected to be considerably larger than the pressure at a given point, so that the effects of such a loading are incorporated into the structural model. This is accomplished by introducing distributed longitudinal and bending moment loads. The former can lead to buckling of the panel, with the second mode in the case of a simply-supported panel playing a important role, and becoming the dominant mode in the solution. The presence of equivalent springs in the longitudinal direction at the panel's ends also becomes of relative importance, even for the evaluation of the linear flutter parameter. Finally, the behavior of the system is studied in the presence of applied compressive forces, that is, classical buckling.

  20. Flutter in a quasi-one-dimensional model of a collapsible channel

    PubMed Central

    Pihler-Puzović, D.; Pedley, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of wall inertia on instabilities in a collapsible channel with a long finite-length flexible wall containing a high Reynolds number flow of incompressible fluid are studied. Using the ideas of interactive boundary layer theory, the system is described by a one-dimensional model that couples inviscid flow outside the boundary layers formed on the channel walls with the deformation of the flexible wall. The observed instability is a form of flutter, which is superposed on the behaviour of the system when the wall mass is neglected. We show that the flutter has a positive growth rate because the fluid loading acts as a negative damping in the system. We discuss these findings in relation to other work on self-excited oscillations in collapsible channels. PMID:24910525

  1. Design for coupled-mode flutter and non-synchronous vibration in turbomachinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Stephen Thomas

    This research presents the detailed investigation of coupled-mode flutter and non-synchronous vibration in turbomachinery. Coupled-mode flutter and non-synchronous vibration are two aeromechanical challenges in designing turbomachinery that, when present, can cause engine blade failure. Regarding flutter, current industry design practices calculate the aerodynamic loads on a blade due to a single mode. In response to these design standards, a quasi three-dimensional, reduced-order modeling tool was developed for identifying the aeroelastic conditions that cause multi-mode flutter. This tool predicts the onset of coupled-mode flutter reasonable well for four different configurations, though certain parameters were tuned to agree with experimentation. Additionally, the results of this research indicate that mass ratio, frequency separation, and solidity have an effect on critical rotor speed for flutter. Higher mass-ratio blades require larger rotational velocities before they experience coupled-mode flutter. Similarly, increasing the frequency separation between modes and raising the solidity increases the critical rotor speed. Finally, and most importantly, design guidelines were generated for defining when a multi-mode flutter analysis is required in practical turbomachinery design. Previous work has shown that industry computational fluid dynamics can approximately predict non-synchronous vibration (NSV), but no real understanding of frequency lock-in and blade limit-cycle amplitude exists. Therefore, to understand the causes of NSV, two different reduced-order modeling approaches were used. The first approach uses a van der Pol oscillator to model a non-linear fluid instability. The van der Pol model is then coupled to a structural degree of freedom. This coupled system exhibits the two chief properties seen in experimental and computational non-synchronous vibration. Under various conditions, the fluid instability and the natural structural frequency will lock

  2. Flutter and Forced Response Analyses of Cascades using a Two-Dimensional Linearized Euler Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.; Mehmed, O.

    1999-01-01

    Flutter and forced response analyses for a cascade of blades in subsonic and transonic flow is presented. The structural model for each blade is a typical section with bending and torsion degrees of freedom. The unsteady aerodynamic forces due to bending and torsion motions. and due to a vortical gust disturbance are obtained by solving unsteady linearized Euler equations. The unsteady linearized equations are obtained by linearizing the unsteady nonlinear equations about the steady flow. The predicted unsteady aerodynamic forces include the effect of steady aerodynamic loading due to airfoil shape, thickness and angle of attack. The aeroelastic equations are solved in the frequency domain by coupling the un- steady aerodynamic forces to the aeroelastic solver MISER. The present unsteady aerodynamic solver showed good correlation with published results for both flutter and forced response predictions. Further improvements are required to use the unsteady aerodynamic solver in a design cycle.

  3. Coupled bending-bending-torsion flutter of a mistuned cascade with nonuniform blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaza, K. R. V.; Kielb, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    A set of aeroelastic equations describing the motion of an arbitrarily mistuned cascade with flexible, pretwisted, nonuniform blades is developed using an extended Hamilton's principle. The derivation of the equations has its basis in the geometric nonlinear theory of elasticity in which the elongations and shears are negligible compared to unity. A general expression for foreshortening of a blade is derived and is explicity used in the formulation. The blade aerodynamic loading in the subsonic and supersonic flow regimes is obtained from two dimensional, unsteady, cascade theories. The aerodynamic, inertial and structural coupling between the bending (in two planes) and torsional motions of the blade is included. The equations are used to investigate the aeroelastic stability and to quantify the effect of frequency mistuning on flutter in turbofans. Results indicate that a moderate amount of intentional mistuning has enough potential to alleviate flutter problems in unshrouded, high aspect ratio turbofans.

  4. Comparison of Temporal Parameters of Swimming Rescue Elements When Performed Using Dolphin and Flutter Kick with Fins - Didactical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rejman, Marek; Wiesner, Wojciech; Silakiewicz, Piotr; Klarowicz, Andrzej; Abraldes, J. Arturo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was an analysis of the time required to swim to a victim and tow them back to shore, while perfoming the flutter-kick and the dolphin-kick using fins. It has been hypothesized that using fins while using the dolphin-kick when swimming leads to reduced rescue time. Sixteen lifeguards took part in the study. The main tasks performed by them, were to approach and tow (double armpit) a dummy a distance of 50m while applying either the flutter-kick, or the dolphin-kick with fins. The analysis of the temporal parameters of both techniques of kicking demonstrates that, during the approach to the victim, neither the dolphin (tmean = 32.9s) or the flutter kick (tmean = 33.0s) were significantly faster than the other. However, when used for towing a victim the flutter kick (tmean = 47.1s) was significantly faster when compared to the dolphin-kick (tmean = 52.8s). An assessment of the level of technical skills in competitive swimming, and in approaching and towing the victim, were also conducted. Towing time was significantly correlated with the parameter that linked the temporal and technical dimensions of towing and swimming (difference between flutter kick towing time and dolphin-kick towing time, 100m medley time and the four swimming strokes evaluation). No similar interdependency has been discovered in flutter kick towing time. These findings suggest that the dolphin-kick is a more difficult skill to perform when towing the victim than the flutter-kick. Since the hypothesis stated was not confirmed, postulates were formulated on how to improve dolphin-kick technique with fins, in order to reduce swimming rescue time. Key points The source of reduction of swimming rescue time was researched. Time required to approach and to tow the victim while doing the flutter kick and the dolphin-kick with fins was analyzed. The propulsion generated by dolphin-kick did not make the approach and tow faster than the flutter kick. More difficult skill to realize of

  5. Amplitude Scaling of Active Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalnov, Oksana; Seifert, Avraham

    2010-01-01

    Three existing and two new excitation magnitude scaling options for active separation control at Reynolds numbers below one Million. The physical background for the scaling options was discussed and their relevance was evaluated using two different sets of experimental data. For F+ approx. 1, 2D excitation: a) The traditional VR and C(mu) - do not scale the data. b) Only the Re*C(mu) is valid. This conclusion is also limited for positive lift increment.. For F+ > 10, 3D excitation, the Re corrected C(mu), the St corrected velocity ratio and the vorticity flux coefficient, all scale the amplitudes equally well. Therefore, the Reynolds weighted C(mu) is the preferred choice, relevant to both excitation modes. Incidence also considered, using Ue from local Cp.

  6. Flutter and forced response of turbomachinery with frequency mistuning and aerodynamic asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakozawa, Tomokazu

    This dissertation provides numerical studies to improve bladed disk assembly design for preventing blade high cycle fatigue failures. The analyses are divided into two major subjects. For the first subject presented in Chapter 2, the mechanisms of transonic fan flutter for tuned systems are studied to improve the shortcoming of traditional method for modern fans using a 3D time-linearized Navier-Stokes solver. Steady and unsteady flow parameters including local work on the blade surfaces are investigated. It was found that global local work monotonically became more unstable on the pressure side due to the flow rollback effect. The local work on the suction side significantly varied due to nodal diameter and flow rollback effect. Thus, the total local work for the least stable mode is dominant by the suction side. Local work on the pressure side appears to be affected by the shock on the suction side. For the second subject presented in Chapter 3, sensitivity studies are conducted on flutter and forced response due to frequency mistuning and aerodynamic asymmetry using the single family of modes approach by assuming manufacturing tolerance. The unsteady aerodynamic forces are computed using CFD methods assuming aerodynamic symmetry. The aerodynamic asymmetry is applied by perturbing the influence coefficient matrix. These aerodynamic perturbations influence both stiffness and damping while traditional frequency mistuning analysis only perturbs the stiffness. Flutter results from random aerodynamic perturbations of all blades showed that manufacturing variations that effect blade unsteady aerodynamics may cause a stable, perfectly symmetric engine to flutter. For forced response, maximum blade amplitudes are significantly influenced by the aerodynamic perturbation of the imaginary part (damping) of unsteady aerodynamic modal forces. This is contrary to blade frequency mistuning where the stiffness perturbation dominates.

  7. Echolocation behavior of the Japanese horseshoe bat in pursuit of fluttering prey.

    PubMed

    Mantani, Shigeki; Hiryu, Shizuko; Fujioka, Emyo; Matsuta, Naohiro; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2012-10-01

    Echolocation sounds of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon as they approached a fluttering moth (Goniocraspidum pryeri) were investigated using an on-board telemetry microphone (Telemike). In 40% of the successful moth-capture flights, the moth exhibited distinctive evasive flight behavior, but the bat pursued the moth by following its flight path. When the distance to the moth was approximately 3-4 m, the bats increased the duration of the pulses to 65-95 ms, which is 2-3 times longer than those during landing flight (30-40 ms). The mean of 5.8 long pulses were emitted before the final buzz phase of moth capture, without strengthening the sound pressure level. The mean duration of long pulses (79.9 ± 7.9 ms) corresponded to three times the fluttering period of G. pryeri (26.5 × 3 = 79.5 ms). These findings indicate that the bats adjust the pulse duration to increase the number of temporal repetitions of fluttering information rather than to produce more intense sonar sounds to receive fine insect echoes. The bats exhibited Doppler-shift compensation for echoes returning from large static objects ahead, but not for echoes from target moths, even though the bats were focused on capturing the moths. Furthermore, the echoes of the Telemike recordings from target moths showed spectral glints of approximately 1-1.5 kHz caused by the fluttering of the moths but not amplitude glints because of the highly acoustical attenuation of ultrasound in the air, suggesting that spectral information may be more robust than amplitude information in echoes during moth capturing flight.

  8. Ribosome-dependent activation of stringent control.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alan; Fernández, Israel S; Gordiyenko, Yuliya; Ramakrishnan, V

    2016-06-01

    In order to survive, bacteria continually sense, and respond to, environmental fluctuations. Stringent control represents a key bacterial stress response to nutrient starvation that leads to rapid and comprehensive reprogramming of metabolic and transcriptional patterns. In general, transcription of genes for growth and proliferation is downregulated, while those important for survival and virulence are upregulated. Amino acid starvation is sensed by depletion of the aminoacylated tRNA pools, and this results in accumulation of ribosomes stalled with non-aminoacylated (uncharged) tRNA in the ribosomal A site. RelA is recruited to stalled ribosomes and activated to synthesize a hyperphosphorylated guanosine analogue, (p)ppGpp, which acts as a pleiotropic secondary messenger. However, structural information about how RelA recognizes stalled ribosomes and discriminates against aminoacylated tRNAs is missing. Here we present the cryo-electron microscopy structure of RelA bound to the bacterial ribosome stalled with uncharged tRNA. The structure reveals that RelA utilizes a distinct binding site compared to the translational factors, with a multi-domain architecture that wraps around a highly distorted A-site tRNA. The TGS (ThrRS, GTPase and SpoT) domain of RelA binds the CCA tail to orient the free 3' hydroxyl group of the terminal adenosine towards a β-strand, such that an aminoacylated tRNA at this position would be sterically precluded. The structure supports a model in which association of RelA with the ribosome suppresses auto-inhibition to activate synthesis of (p)ppGpp and initiate the stringent response. Since stringent control is responsible for the survival of pathogenic bacteria under stress conditions, and contributes to chronic infections and antibiotic tolerance, RelA represents a good target for the development of novel antibacterial therapeutics. PMID:27279228

  9. Active Control of Wind Tunnel Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Patrick (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    The need for an adaptive active control system was realized, since a wind tunnel is subjected to variations in air velocity, temperature, air turbulence, and some other factors such as nonlinearity. Among many adaptive algorithms, the Least Mean Squares (LMS) algorithm, which is the simplest one, has been used in an Active Noise Control (ANC) system by some researchers. However, Eriksson's results, Eriksson (1985), showed instability in the ANC system with an ER filter for random noise input. The Restricted Least Squares (RLS) algorithm, although computationally more complex than the LMS algorithm, has better convergence and stability properties. The ANC system in the present work was simulated by using an FIR filter with an RLS algorithm for different inputs and for a number of plant models. Simulation results for the ANC system with acoustic feedback showed better robustness when used with the RLS algorithm than with the LMS algorithm for all types of inputs. Overall attenuation in the frequency domain was better in the case of the RLS adaptive algorithm. Simulation results with a more realistic plant model and an RLS adaptive algorithm showed a slower convergence rate than the case with an acoustic plant as a delay plant. However, the attenuation properties were satisfactory for the simulated system with the modified plant. The effect of filter length on the rate of convergence and attenuation was studied. It was found that the rate of convergence decreases with increase in filter length, whereas the attenuation increases with increase in filter length. The final design of the ANC system was simulated and found to have a reasonable convergence rate and good attenuation properties for an input containing discrete frequencies and random noise.

  10. Active Shielding and Control of Environmental Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsynkov, S. V.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the research project supported by NASA under grant # NAG-1-01064, we have studied the mathematical aspects of the problem of active control of sound, i.e., time-harmonic acoustic disturbances. The foundations of the methodology are described in our paper [1]. Unlike. many other existing techniques, the approach of [1] provides for the exact volumetric cancellation of the unwanted noise on a given predetermined region airspace, while leaving unaltered those components of the total acoustic field that are deemed as friendly. The key finding of the work is that for eliminating the unwanted component of the acoustic field in a given area, one needs to know relatively little; in particular, neither the locations nor structure nor strength of the exterior noise sources need to be known. Likewise, there is no need to know the volumetric properties of the supporting medium across which the acoustic signals propagate, except, maybe, in a narrow area of space near the perimeter of the protected region. The controls are built based solely on the measurements performed on the perimeter of the domain to be shielded; moreover, the controls themselves (i.e., additional sources) are concentrated also only on or near this perimeter. Perhaps as important, the measured quantities can refer to the total acoustic field rather than to its unwanted component only, and the methodology can automatically distinguish between the two. In [1], we have constructed the general solution for controls. The apparatus used for deriving this general solution is closely connected to the concepts of generalized potentials and boundary projections of Calderon's type. For a given total wave field, the application of a Calderon's projection allows one to definitively tell between its incoming and outgoing components with respect to a particular domain of interest, which may have arbitrary shape. Then, the controls are designed so that they suppress the incoming component for the domain

  11. Sensor Development for Active Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahng, Seun K.; Gorton, Susan A.; Mau, Johnney C.; Soto, Hector L.; Hernandez, Corey D.

    2001-01-01

    Presented are the developmental efforts for MEMS sensors for a closed-loop active flow control in a low-speed wind tunnel evaluation. The MEMS sensors are designed in-house and fabricated out of house, and the shear sensors are a thermal type that are collocated with temperature and pressure sensors on a flexible polyimide sheet, which conforms to surfaces of a simple curvature. A total of 6 sensors are located within a 1.5 by 3 mm area as a cluster with each sensor being 300 pm square. The thickness of this sensor cluster is 75 pm. Outputs from the shear sensors have been compared with respect to those of the Preston tube for evaluation of the sensors on a flat plate. Pressure sensors are the absolute type and have recorded pressure measurements within 0.05 percent of the tunnel ESP pressure sensor readings. The sensors and signal conditioning electronics have been tested on both a flat plate and a ramp in Langley s 15-Inch Low-Turbulence Tunnel. The system configuration and control PC is configured with LabView, where calibration constants are stored for desired compensation and correction. The preliminary test results are presented within.

  12. Active controlled studies in antibiotic drug development.

    PubMed

    Dane, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    The increasing concern of antibacterial resistance has been well documented, as has the relative lack of antibiotic development. This paradox is in part due to challenges with clinical development of antibiotics. Because of their rapid progression, untreated bacterial infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. As a consequence, placebo-controlled studies of new agents are unethical. Rather, pivotal development studies are mostly conducted using non-inferiority designs versus an active comparator. Further, infections because of comparator-resistant isolates must usually be excluded from the trial programme. Unfortunately, the placebo-controlled data classically used in support of non-inferiority designs are largely unavailable for antibiotics. The only available data are from the 1930s and 1940s and their use is associated with significant concerns regarding constancy and assay sensitivity. Extended public debate on this challenge has led to proposed solutions by some in which these concerns are addressed by using very conservative approaches to trial design, endpoints and non-inferiority margins, in some cases leading to potentially impractical studies. To compound this challenge, different Regulatory Authorities seem to be taking different approaches to these key issues. If harmonisation does not occur, antibiotic development will become increasingly challenging, with the risk of further decreases in the amount of antibiotic drug development. However with clarity on Regulatory requirements and an ability to feasibly conduct global development programmes, it should be possible to bring much needed additional antibiotics to patients.

  13. Actively controlled thin-shell space optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denoyer, Keith K.; Flint, Eric M.; Main, John A.; Lindler, Jason E.

    2003-08-01

    Increasingly, scientific and military missions require the use of space-based optical systems. For example, new capabilities are required for imaging terrestrial like planets, for surveillance, and for directed energy applications. Given the difficulties in producing and launching large optics, it is doubtful that refinements of conventional technology will meet future needs, particularly in a cost-effective manner. To meet this need, recent research has been investigating the feasibility of a new class of ultra-lightweight think-skin optical elements that combine recent advances in lightweight thermally formed materials, active materials, and novel sensing and control architectures. If successful, the approach may lead to an order of magnitude reduction in space optics areal density, improved large scale manufacturing capability, and dramatic reductions in manufacturing and launch costs. In a recent effort, a one meter thin-film mirror like structure was fabricated. This paper provides an overview of tools used to model and simulate this structure as well as results from structural dynamic testing. In addition, progress in the area of non-contact global shape control using smart materials is presented.

  14. High performance composites with active stiffness control.

    PubMed

    Tridech, Charnwit; Maples, Henry A; Robinson, Paul; Bismarck, Alexander

    2013-09-25

    High performance carbon fiber reinforced composites with controllable stiffness could revolutionize the use of composite materials in structural applications. Here we describe a structural material, which has a stiffness that can be actively controlled on demand. Such a material could have applications in morphing wings or deployable structures. A carbon fiber reinforced-epoxy composite is described that can undergo an 88% reduction in flexural stiffness at elevated temperatures and fully recover when cooled, with no discernible damage or loss in properties. Once the stiffness has been reduced, the required deformations can be achieved at much lower actuation forces. For this proof-of-concept study a thin polyacrylamide (PAAm) layer was electrocoated onto carbon fibers that were then embedded into an epoxy matrix via resin infusion. Heating the PAAm coating above its glass transition temperature caused it to soften and allowed the fibers to slide within the matrix. To produce the stiffness change the carbon fibers were used as resistance heating elements by passing a current through them. When the PAAm coating had softened, the ability of the interphase to transfer load to the fibers was significantly reduced, greatly lowering the flexural stiffness of the composite. By changing the moisture content in PAAm fiber coating, the temperature at which the PAAm softens and the composites undergo a reduction in stiffness can be tuned. PMID:23978266

  15. Neonatal atrial flutter after insertion of an intracardiac umbilical venous catheter

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Marcos Moura; Tavares, Wládia Gislaynne de Sousa; Furtado, Maria Mônica Alencar Araripe; Fontenele, Maria Marcia Farias Trajano

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe a case of neonatal atrial flutter after the insertion of an intracardiac umbilical venous catheter, reporting the clinical presentation and reviewing the literature on this subject. Case description: A late-preterm newborn, born at 35 weeks of gestational age to a diabetic mother and large for gestational age, with respiratory distress and rule-out sepsis, required an umbilical venous access. After the insertion of the umbilical venous catheter, the patient presented with tachycardia. Chest radiography showed that the catheter was placed in the position that corresponds to the left atrium, and traction was applied. The patient persisted with tachycardia, and an electrocardiogram showed atrial flutter. As the patient was hemodynamically unstable, electric cardioversion was successfully applied. Comments: The association between atrial arrhythmias and misplaced umbilical catheters has been described in the literature, but in this case, it is noteworthy that the patient was an infant born to a diabetic mother, which consists in another risk factor for heart arrhythmias. Isolated atrial flutter is a rare tachyarrhythmia in the neonatal period and its identification is essential to establish early treatment and prevent systemic complications and even death. PMID:26525686

  16. Harvesting Energy from the Flow-Induced Flutter of a `Piezoleaf'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruas, Andre; Orrego, Santiago; Doran, Kyle; Rips, Aaron; Shoele, Kourosh; Kang, Sung Hoon; Mittal, Rajat

    The objective of our research is to examine energy harvesting from the flow-induced flutter of a small piezoelectric membrane, which we call a `Piezoleaf'. Piezoleaves are small, low-cost, low-maintenance devices capable of powering small portable electronics or wireless sensors in remote areas. It is well known that piezoelectric membranes subjected to time-varying strains generate electrical energy that can be harvested. In the current project, we have designed and constructed a new, low-speed wind-tunnel (1'x1', cross-section) to analyze the flow-induced flutter and energy harvesting performance of a small (approximately 1''x2'') piezoleaf. One of the novel features of this research is that the membrane is fixed at its trailing-edge (i.e. an inverted flag) since this is expected to generate more energy than a regular flag configuration. Guided by numerical simulation, we are conducting tests of this configuration in our wind tunnel for various wind speeds (maximum speeds of about 10 m/s) to examine the effect of wind-speed on the flutter and energy harvesting. High-speed videography is also being used to examine the dynamics of the flag and results from this project will be presented.

  17. Energy Harvesting for Micropower Applications by Flow-Induced Flutter of an Inverted Piezoelectric Flag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoele, Kourosh; Mittal, Rajat

    2015-11-01

    Piezoelectric flexible flags can be used to continuously generate energy for small-scale sensor used in a wide variety of applications ranging from measurement/monitoring of environmental conditions (outdoors or indoors) to in-situ tracking of wild animals. Here, we study the energy harvesting performance as well as the flow-structure interaction of an inverted piezoelectric flag. We use a coupled fluid-structure-electric solver to examine the dynamic response of the inverted flag as well as the associated vortical characteristics with different inertia and bending stiffness. Simulations indicate that large amplitude vibrations can be achieved over a large range of parameters over which lock-on between the flag flutter and the intrinsic wake shedding occurs. The effects of initial inclination of the flag to the prevailing flow as well as Reynolds number of the flow are explored, and the effect of piezoelectric material parameters on the energy harvesting performance of this flutter state is examined in detail. The maximum energy efficiency occurs when there is a match between the intrinsic timescales of flutter and the piezoelectric circuit. The simulations are used to formulate a scaling law that could be used to predict the energy harvesting performance of such devices. The support for this study comes from AFSOR, NSF, EPRI and Johns Hopkins E2SHI Seed Grant.

  18. Simplified and refined structural modeling for economical flutter analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricketts, R. H.; Sobieszczanski, J.

    1977-01-01

    A coordinated use of two finite-element models of different levels of refinement is presented to reduce the computer cost of the repetitive flutter analysis commonly encountered in structural resizing to meet flutter requirements. One model, termed a refined model (RM), represents a high degree of detail needed for strength-sizing and flutter analysis of an airframe. The other model, called a simplified model (SM), has a relatively much smaller number of elements and degrees-of-freedom. A systematic method of deriving an SM from a given RM is described. The method consists of judgmental and numerical operations to make the stiffness and mass of the SM elements equivalent to the corresponding substructures of RM. The structural data are automatically transferred between the two models. The bulk of analysis is performed on the SM with periodical verifications carried out by analysis of the RM. In a numerical example of a supersonic cruise aircraft with an arrow wing, this approach permitted substantial savings in computer costs and acceleration of the job turn-around.

  19. Cortical control of thermoregulatory sympathetic activation.

    PubMed

    Fechir, M; Klega, A; Buchholz, H G; Pfeifer, N; Balon, S; Schlereth, T; Geber, C; Breimhorst, M; Maihöfner, C; Birklein, F; Schreckenberger, M

    2010-06-01

    Thermoregulation enables adaptation to different ambient temperatures. A complex network of central autonomic centres may be involved. In contrast to the brainstem, the role of the cortex has not been clearly evaluated. This study was therefore designed to address cerebral function during a whole thermoregulatory cycle (cold, neutral and warm stimulation) using 18-fluordeoxyglucose-PET (FDG-PET). Sympathetic activation parameters were co-registered. Ten healthy male volunteers were examined three times on three different days in a water-perfused whole-body suit. After a baseline period (32 degrees C), temperature was either decreased to 7 degrees C (cold), increased to 50 degrees C (warm) or kept constant (32 degrees C, neutral), thereafter the PET examination was performed. Cerebral glucose metabolism was increased in infrapontine brainstem and cerebellar hemispheres during cooling and warming, each compared with neutral temperature. Simultaneously, FDG uptake decreased in the bilateral anterior/mid-cingulate cortex during warming, and in the right insula during cooling and warming. Conjunction analyses revealed that right insular deactivation and brainstem activation appeared both during cold and warm stimulation. Metabolic connectivity analyses revealed positive correlations between the cortical activations, and negative correlations between these cortical areas and brainstem/cerebellar regions. Heart rate changes negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the anterior cingulate cortex and in the middle frontal gyrus/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and changes of sweating with glucose metabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex. In summary, these results suggest that the cerebral cortex exerts an inhibitory control on autonomic centres located in the brainstem or cerebellum. These findings may represent reasonable explanations for sympathetic hyperactivity, which occurs, for example, after hemispheric stroke.

  20. Robust controllers for the Middeck Active Control Experiment using Popov controller synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    How, Jonathan P.; Hall, Steven R.

    1993-01-01

    Recent work in robust control with real parameter uncertainties has focused on absolute stability and its connections to real mu theory. In particular, the research has investigated the Popov stability criterion and its associated Lur'e-Postnikov Liapunov functions. State space representations of this Popov stability analysis tests are included in an H2 design formulation to provide a powerful technique for robust controller synthesis. This synthesis approach uses a state space optimization procedure to design controllers that minimize an overbound of an H2 cost functional and satisfy stability analysis tests based on the Popov multiplier. The controller and stability multiplier coefficients are optimized simultaneously, which avoids the iteration and curve-fitting procedures required by the D-K algorithm of mu synthesis. While previous work has demonstrated this synthesis approach on benchmark control problems, the purpose of this paper is to use Popov controller synthesis to design robust compensators for the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE).

  1. Comparison of temporal parameters of swimming rescue elements when performed using dolphin and flutter kick with fins - didactical approach.

    PubMed

    Rejman, Marek; Wiesner, Wojciech; Silakiewicz, Piotr; Klarowicz, Andrzej; Abraldes, J Arturo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was an analysis of the time required to swim to a victim and tow them back to shore, while perfoming the flutter-kick and the dolphin-kick using fins. It has been hypothesized that using fins while using the dolphin-kick when swimming leads to reduced rescue time. Sixteen lifeguards took part in the study. The main tasks performed by them, were to approach and tow (double armpit) a dummy a distance of 50m while applying either the flutter-kick, or the dolphin-kick with fins. The analysis of the temporal parameters of both techniques of kicking demonstrates that, during the approach to the victim, neither the dolphin (tmean = 32.9s) or the flutter kick (tmean = 33.0s) were significantly faster than the other. However, when used for towing a victim the flutter kick (tmean = 47.1s) was significantly faster when compared to the dolphin-kick (tmean = 52.8s). An assessment of the level of technical skills in competitive swimming, and in approaching and towing the victim, were also conducted. Towing time was significantly correlated with the parameter that linked the temporal and technical dimensions of towing and swimming (difference between flutter kick towing time and dolphin-kick towing time, 100m medley time and the four swimming strokes evaluation). No similar interdependency has been discovered in flutter kick towing time. These findings suggest that the dolphin-kick is a more difficult skill to perform when towing the victim than the flutter-kick. Since the hypothesis stated was not confirmed, postulates were formulated on how to improve dolphin-kick technique with fins, in order to reduce swimming rescue time. PMID:24150079

  2. The role of dronedarone in the treatment of atrial fibrillation/flutter in the aftermath of PALLAS.

    PubMed

    Naccarelli, Gerald V; Kowey, Peter R

    2014-11-01

    Dronedarone is an amiodarone analog that differs structurally from amiodarone in that the iodine moiety was removed and a methane-sulfonyl group was added. These modifications reduce thyroid and other end-organ adverse effects and makes dronedarone less lipophilic, with a shorter half-life. Dronedarone has been shown to prevent atrial fibrillation/ flutter (AF/AFl) recurrences in several multi-center trials. In addition to its rhythm control properties, dronedarone has rate control properties. In patients with decompensated heart failure, dronedarone treatment increased mortality and cardiovascular hospitalizations. When dronedarone was used in elderly high risk AF/AFl patients, excluding those with advanced heart failure, cardiovascular hospitalizations were significantly reduced. The results of the PALLAS trial suggest that dronedarone should not be used in the long-term treatment of patients with permanent AF. Post-marketing data have demonstrated rare hepatic toxicity to be associated with dronedarone use. Updated practice and regulatory guidelines have positioned dronedarone as a front-line antiarrhythmic in many patients with AF/Fl. However, the drug should not be used in patients with advanced heart failure and in patients who develop permanent AF. PMID:24821656

  3. Nonlinear flutter of a cantilever wing including the influence of structure uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castravete, Stefan Cristian

    The present work deals with the effect of parametric excitation and uncertainties on the flutter characteristics of an aeroelastic wing. The work is structured in two parts. First part explores the possibility of suppressing wing flutter via parametric excitation along the plane of highest rigidity in the neighborhood of combination resonance. The aerodynamics of the wing is modeled using Theodorsen's theory and the equations are obtained using Hamilton's principle. The domains of attraction and bifurcation diagrams are obtained to reveal the conditions under which the parametric excitation can provide stabilizing effect. The basins of attraction for different values of excitation amplitude reveal the stabilizing effect that takes place above a critical excitation level. Below that level, the response experiences limit cycle oscillations, cascade of period doubling, and chaos. For flow speed slightly higher than the critical flutter speed, the response experiences a train of spikes, known as "firing," a term that is borrowed from neuroscience, followed by "refractory" or recovery effect, up to an excitation level above which the wing is stabilized. The second part of the paper investigates the influence of stiffness uncertainties on the flutter behavior of an aeroelastic wing using a stochastic finite element approach. A numerical algorithm to simulate unsteady, nonlinear, incompressible flow (based on the unsteady vortex lattice method) interacting with linear aeroelastic wing in the presence of uncertainties was developed. The air flow and the wing structure are treated as elements of a single dynamical system. In order to implement this algorithm in the presence of uncertainties, a random field representing bending or torsion stiffness parameters is introduced using a truncated Karhunen-Love expansion. Both perturbation technique and Monte Carlo simulation are used to establish the boundary of stiffness uncertainty level at which the wing exhibits LCO and above

  4. Transonic flutter study of a 50.5 deg cropped-delta wing with two rearward-mounted nacelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, M. C.; Ruhlin, C. L.; Abel, I.

    1974-01-01

    Transonic flutter characteristics of three geometrically similar delta-wing models were experimentally determined in the Langley transonic dynamics tunnel at Mach numbers from about 0.6 to 1.2. The models were designed to be simplified versions of an early supersonic transport wing design. The model was an aspect-ratio-1.28 cropped-delta wing with a leadingedge sweep of 50.5 deg. The flutter characteristics obtained for this wing configuration indicated a minimum flutter-speed index near a Mach number of 0.92 and a transonic compressibility dip amounting to about a 27-percent decrease in the flutter-speed index relative to the value at a Mach number of 0.6. Analytical studies were performed for one wing model at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9 by using both doublet-lattice and lifting-surface (kernel-function) unsteady aerodynamic theory. A comparison of the analytical and experimental flutter results showed good agreement at all Mach numbers investigated.

  5. Transonic single-mode flutter and buffet of a low aspect ratio wing having a subsonic airfoil shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    Transonic flutter and buffet results obtained from wind-tunnel tests of a low aspect ratio semispan wing model are presented. The tests were conducted to investigate potential transonic aeroelastic problems of vehicles having subsonic airfoil sections. The model employed NACA 00XX-64 airfoil sections in the streamwise direction and had a 14 deg leading edge sweep angle. Aspect ratio, and average thickness were 4.0, 0.35, and 8 percent, respectively. The model was tested at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 0.95 at angles of attack from 0 deg to 15 deg. Two zero lift flutter conditions were found that involved essentially single normal mode vibrations. With boundary layer trips on the model, flutter occurred in a narrow Mach number range centered at about Mach 0.90. The frequency and motion of this flutter were like that of the first normal mode vibration. With the trips removed flutter occurred at a slightly high Mach number but in a mode strongly resembling that of the second normal mode.

  6. Effects of angle of attack and vertical fin on transonic flutter characteristics of an arrow-wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Ricketts, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental transonic flutter results are presented for a simplified 1/50 size, aspect ratio 1.77, wind tunnel model of an arrow wing design. Flutter results are presented for two configurations; namely, one with and one without a ventral fin mounted at the 0.694 semispan station. Results are presented for both configurations trimmed to zero lift and in a lifting condition at angles of attack up to 4 deg. The results show that the flutter characteristics of both configurations are similar to those usually observed. Increasing angle of attack reduces the flutter dynamic pressure by a small amount (about 13 percent maximum) for both configurations. The addition of the fin to the basic wing increases the flutter dynamic pressure. Calculated results for both configurations in the nonlifting condition obtained by using subsonic doublet lattice unsteady aerodynamic theory correlate reasonably well with the experimental results. Calculated results for the basic wing obtained by using subsonic kernal function unsteady aerodynamic theory did not agree as well with the experimental data.

  7. Pest control industry and vector control activities in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, C H; Lin, C H; Liao, M J

    1994-12-01

    At the end of 1993, there were 117 private pest control companies in Taiwan, with 438 technical managers and 274 technicians. Their business includes the control of mosquitoes, cockroaches, fleas, rodents, termites, houseflies, etc. Pyrethroids and some organophosphates are employed. At present, no applications of insect growth regulators or microbial agents are used by private pest control operators. During dengue epidemics they assist the government in space spraying with insecticides. The Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan, R.O.C., is responsible for the training and management of pest control operators. In addition, the Administration is also in charge of affairs concerning the manufacture, import, registration and sale of environmental pesticides and microbial agents. It establishes protocols for testing the efficacy of insecticides and promotes pest control on the community level.

  8. Flutter Phenomenon in Flow Driven Energy Harvester–A Unified Theoretical Model for “Stiff” and “Flexible” Materials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Mu, Xiaojing; Wang, Tao; Ren, Weiwei; Yang, Ya; Wang, Zhong Lin; Sun, Chengliang; Gu, Alex Yuandong

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a stable and predictable aero-elastic motion in the flow-driven energy harvester, which is different from flapping and vortex-induced-vibration (VIV). A unified theoretical frame work that describes the flutter phenomenon observed in both “stiff” and “flexible” materials for flow driven energy harvester was presented in this work. We prove flutter in both types of materials is the results of the coupled effects of torsional and bending modes. Compared to “stiff” materials, which has a flow velocity-independent flutter frequency, flexible material presents a flutter frequency that almost linearly scales with the flow velocity. Specific to “flexible” materials, pre-stress modulates the frequency range in which flutter occurs. It is experimentally observed that a double-clamped “flexible” piezoelectric P(VDF-TrFE) thin belt, when driven into the flutter state, yields a 1,000 times increase in the output voltage compared to that of the non-fluttered state. At a fixed flow velocity, increase in pre-stress level of the P(VDF-TrFE) thin belt up-shifts the flutter frequency. In addition, this work allows the rational design of flexible piezoelectric devices, including flow-driven energy harvester, triboelectric energy harvester, and self-powered wireless flow speed sensor. PMID:27739484

  9. Flutter Phenomenon in Flow Driven Energy Harvester–A Unified Theoretical Model for “Stiff” and “Flexible” Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Mu, Xiaojing; Wang, Tao; Ren, Weiwei; Yang, Ya; Wang, Zhong Lin; Sun, Chengliang; Gu, Alex Yuandong

    2016-10-01

    Here, we report a stable and predictable aero-elastic motion in the flow-driven energy harvester, which is different from flapping and vortex-induced-vibration (VIV). A unified theoretical frame work that describes the flutter phenomenon observed in both “stiff” and “flexible” materials for flow driven energy harvester was presented in this work. We prove flutter in both types of materials is the results of the coupled effects of torsional and bending modes. Compared to “stiff” materials, which has a flow velocity-independent flutter frequency, flexible material presents a flutter frequency that almost linearly scales with the flow velocity. Specific to “flexible” materials, pre-stress modulates the frequency range in which flutter occurs. It is experimentally observed that a double-clamped “flexible” piezoelectric P(VDF-TrFE) thin belt, when driven into the flutter state, yields a 1,000 times increase in the output voltage compared to that of the non-fluttered state. At a fixed flow velocity, increase in pre-stress level of the P(VDF-TrFE) thin belt up-shifts the flutter frequency. In addition, this work allows the rational design of flexible piezoelectric devices, including flow-driven energy harvester, triboelectric energy harvester, and self-powered wireless flow speed sensor.

  10. Ablation of left atrial flutter in a patient surgically treated for atrial fibrillation. Does it indicate a possible hybrid approach?

    PubMed

    Barbato, Gaetano; Marinelli, Giuseppe; Carinci, Valeria; Chiappini, Bruno; Pergolini, Francesco; Bracchetti, Daniele; Di Pasquale, Giuseppe

    2004-12-01

    Surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) has a high success rate and nowadays simpler and faster procedures have been proposed. The following is a description of the case of a patient who, after a modified Maze procedure, developed an atypical left atrial flutter and underwent a successful radiofrequency ablation procedure. A 71-year-old male underwent surgical biological valve replacement and a concomitant modified Maze procedure. After surgery the patient developed a persistent atrial arrhythmia with severe symptoms and refractory to any drug. For this reason, an electrophysiological study was planned. We performed a three-dimensional atrial mapping using the real-time position management system (Boston Scientific). Right atrial mapping indicated an early activation area on the septum. After transseptal puncture, left atrial mapping showed a reentry circuit around the mitral annulus with positive entrainment. A linear lesion was made between the mitral annulus and the superior right pulmonary vein and sinus rhythm was restored. After 7 months of follow-up the patient is asymptomatic and still in stable sinus rhythm. In conclusion, the follow-up of surgical AF may be improved by close collaboration between the surgeon and electrophysiologist. The available data suggest that a combined surgical and percutaneous approach could be the strategy of choice.

  11. Guide to good practices for control area activities

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Control Area Activities, Chapter III of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered for controlling the activities in control areas. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Control Area Activities is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for maintaining a formal environment in operational control areas to promote safe and efficient operations.

  12. Speed control for synchronous motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, H.; Schott, J.

    1981-01-01

    Feedback circuit controls fluctuations in speed of synchronous ac motor. Voltage proportional to phase angle is developed by phase detector, rectified, amplified, compared to threshold, and reapplied positively or negatively to motor excitation circuit. Speed control reduces wow and flutter of audio turntables and tape recorders, and enhances hunting in gyroscope motors.

  13. Large amplitude flutter of a low aspect ratio panel at low supersonic speeds comparison of theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ventres, C. S.; Kang, C. K.

    1973-01-01

    Flutter boundaries, as well as flutter limit cycle amplitudes, frequencies and stresses were computed for a panel of length-width ratio 4.48 exposed to applied in-plane and transverse loads. The Mach number range was 1.1 to 1.4. The method used involved direct numerical integration of modal equations of motion derived from the nonlinear plate equations of von Karman, coupled with linearized potential flow aerodynamic theory. The flutter boundaries agreed reasonably well with experiment, except when the in-plane loading approached the buckling load. Structural damping had to be introduced, to produce frequencies comparable to the experimental values. Attempts to compute panel deflections or stress at a given point met with limited success. There is some evidence, however, that deflection and stress maxima can be estimated with somewhat greater accuracy.

  14. Active parallel redundancy for electronic integrator-type control circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    Circuit extends concept of redundant feedback control from type-0 to type-1 control systems. Inactive channels are slaves to the active channel, if latter fails, it is rejected and slave channel is activated. High reliability and elimination of single-component catastrophic failure are important in closed-loop control systems.

  15. Optimal cooperative control synthesis of active displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, S.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    The utility of augmenting displays to aid the human operator in controlling high order complex systems is well known. Analytical evaluation of various display designs for a simple k/s sup 2 plant in a compensatory tracking task using an optimal Control Model (OCM) of human behavior is carried out. This analysis reveals that significant improvement in performance should be obtained by skillful integration of key information into the display dynamics. The cooperative control synthesis technique previously developed to design pilot-optimal control augmentation is extended to incorporate the simultaneous design of performance enhancing augmented displays. The application of the cooperative control synthesis technique to the design of augmented displays is discussed for the simple k/s sup 2 plant. This technique is intended to provide a systematic approach to design optimally augmented displays tailored for specific tasks.

  16. Optimal cooperative control synthesis of active displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Sanjay; Schmidt, David K.

    1987-01-01

    A technique is developed that is intended to provide a systematic approach to synthesizing display augmentation for optimal manual control in complex, closed-loop tasks. A cooperative control synthesis technique, previously developed to design pilot-optimal control augmentation for the plant, is extended to incorporate the simultaneous design of performance enhancing displays. The technique utilizes an optimal control model of the man in the loop. It is applied to the design of a quickening control law for a display and a simple K/(s squared) plant, and then to an F-15 type aircraft in a multichannel task. Utilizing the closed-loop modeling and analysis procedures, the results from the display design algorithm are evaluated and an analytical validation is performed. Experimental validation is recommended for future efforts.

  17. Optimal cooperative control synthesis of active displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, S.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1985-01-01

    The utility of augmenting displays to aid the human operator in controlling high order complex systems is well known. Analytical evaluations of various display designs for a simple k/s-squared plant in a compensatory tracking task using an Optimal Control Model (OCM) of human behavior is carried out. This analysis reveals that significant improvement in performance should be obtained by skillful integration of key information into the display dynamics. The cooperative control synthesis technique previously developed to design pilot-optimal control augmentation is extended to incorporate the simultaneous design of performance enhancing augmented displays. The application of the cooperative control synthesis technique to the design of augmented displays is discussed for the simple k/s-squared plant. This technique is intended to provide a systematic approach to design optimally augmented displays tailored for specific tasks.

  18. Optimal cooperative control synthesis of active displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, S.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1985-01-01

    A technique is developed that is intended to provide a systematic approach to synthesizing display augmentation for optimal manual control in complex, closed-loop tasks. A cooperative control synthesis technique, previously developed to design pilot-optimal control augmentation for the plant, is extended to incorporate the simultaneous design of performance enhancing displays. The technique utilizes an optimal control model of the man in the loop. It is applied to the design of a quickening control law for a display and a simple K/s(2) plant, and then to an F-15 type aircraft in a multi-channel task. Utilizing the closed loop modeling and analysis procedures, the results from the display design algorithm are evaluated and an analytical validation is performed. Experimental validation is recommended for future efforts.

  19. Nonpharmacologic approaches to the treatment of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter.

    PubMed

    Baker, B M; Smith, J M; Cain, M E

    1995-10-01

    The high prevalence of atrial fibrillation, the associated morbidity and mortality, the absence of safe and effective drug therapy, and an increased understanding of the pathophysiologic basis of atrial fibrillation and flutter have collectively led to the development of novel nonpharmacologic treatments for the management of these arrhythmias, including the CORRIDOR and MAZE surgical procedures, catheter-based ablation and modification of AV conduction, catheter-based ablation of atrial flutter and fibrillation, and internal atrial defibrillation. These surgical and catheter-based techniques offer potentially curative therapy while sparing the long-term risk of antiarrhythmic drug therapy. For patients with typical atrial flutter, catheter ablation affords to cure rate in excess of 70%. As technological innovations further facilitate identification and ablation of the critical isthmus in the floor of the right atrium, success rates should improve substantially. For patients with atrial fibrillation, AV junction ablation with implantation of a rate-responsive ventricular pacemaker should be considered palliative therapy, as should modification of AV junction conduction. The MAZE procedure offers very high cure rates, but because it currently involves open heart surgery, patient selection is critical. Catheter-based procedures emulating aspects of the MAZE procedure may one day offer cure rates comparable to those of the surgery itself, but additional research and technological development are necessary to further define and refine the minimal effective procedure, and then to facilitate the placement of contiguous, full-thickness lesions in precise three-dimensional configurations. In the interim, the implantable automatic atrial defibrillator may offer a means for rapidly restoring sinus rhythm without the risks of long-term antiarrhythmic drug therapy.

  20. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Breisacher, Kevin J.; Saus, Joseph R.; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2000-01-01

    Lean-burning combustors are susceptible to combustion instabilities. Additionally, due to non-uniformities in the fuel-air mixing and in the combustion process, there typically exist hot areas in the combustor exit plane. These hot areas limit the operating temperature at the turbine inlet and thus constrain performance and efficiency. Finally, it is necessary to optimize the fuel-air ratio and flame temperature throughout the combustor to minimize the production of pollutants. In recent years, there has been considerable activity addressing Active Combustion Control. NASA Glenn Research Center's Active Combustion Control Technology effort aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines. Analysis and experiments are tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. Considerable progress has been shown in demonstrating technologies for Combustion Instability Control, Pattern Factor Control, and Emissions Minimizing Control. Future plans are to advance the maturity of active combustion control technology to eventual demonstration in an engine environment.

  1. Study of Effects of Sweep on the Flutter of Cantilever Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmby, J G; Cunningham, H J; Garrick, I E

    1951-01-01

    An experimental and analytical investigation of the flutter of sweptback cantilever wings is reported. The experiments employed groups of wings swept back by rotating and by shearing. The angle of sweep range from 0 degree to 60 degrees and Mach numbers extended to approximately 0.85. A theoretical analysis of the air forces on an oscillating swept wing of high length-chord ratio is developed, and the approximations inherent in the assumptions are discussed. Comparison with experiment indicates that the analysis developed in the present report is satisfactory for giving the main effects of sweep, at least for nearly uniform cantilever wings of high and moderate length-chord ratios.

  2. Finite element modal formulation for panel flutter at hypersonic speeds and elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guanfeng

    A finite element time domain modal formulation for analyzing flutter behavior of aircraft surface panels in hypersonic airflow has been developed and presented for the first time. Von Karman large deflection plate theory is used for description of the structural nonlinearity and third order piston theory is employed to account for the aerodynamic nonlinearity. The thermal loadings of uniformly distributed temperature and temperature gradients across the panel thickness are incorporated into the finite element formulation. By applying the modal reduction technique, the number of governing equations of motion is reduced dramatically so that the computational time of direct numerical integration is dropped significantly. All possible types of panel behavior, including flat, buckled but dynamically stable, limit cycle oscillation (LCO), periodic motion, and chaotic motion can be observed and analyzed. As examples of the applications of the proposed methodology, flutter responses of isotropic, specially orthotropic and laminated composite panels are investigated. Special emphasis is put on the boundary between LCO and chaos, as well as the routes to chaos. A systematic mode filtering procedure that helps mode selection without specific knowledge of the complex mode shapes is presented and illustrated. Influences of aerodynamic parameters, including aerodynamic damping and Mach number, on the panel flutter responses are studied. The importance of nonlinear aerodynamic terms is examined in detail. The supporting conditions and panel aspect ratio on the onset condition of chaos are also investigated as an illustration of optimization among different design options. Several mathematical tools, including the time history, phase plane plot, Poincare map, and bifurcation diagram are employed in the chaos study. The largest Lyapunov exponent is also evaluated to assist in detection of chaos. It is found that at low or moderately high nondimensional dynamic pressures, the

  3. Formulation of blade-flutter spectral analyses in stationary reference frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurkov, A. P.

    1984-01-01

    Analytic representations are developed for the discrete blade deflection and the continuous tip static pressure fields in a stationary reference frame. Considered are the sampling rates equal to the rotational frequency, equal to blade passing frequency, and for the pressure, equal to a multiple of the blade passing frequency. For the last two rates the expressions for determining the nodal diameters from the spectra are included. A procedure is presented for transforming the complete unsteady pressure field into a rotating frame of reference. The determination of the true flutter frequency by using two sensors is described. To illustrate their use, the developed procedures are used to interpret selected experimental results.

  4. Application of TURBO-AE to Flutter Prediction: Aeroelastic Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyniak, Daniel; Simons, Todd A.; Stefko, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The TURBO-AE program has been evaluated by comparing the obtained results to cascade rig data and to prediction made from various in-house programs. A high-speed fan cascade, a turbine cascade, a turbine cascade and a fan geometry that shower flutter in torsion mode were analyzed. The steady predictions for the high-speed fan cascade showed the TURBO-AE predictions to match in-house codes. However, the predictions did not match the measured blade surface data. Other researchers also reported similar disagreement with these data set. Unsteady runs for the fan configuration were not successful using TURBO-AE .

  5. Supraventricular tachycardia and atrial flutter associated with a coronary sinus diverticulum: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WU, XIAOLIN; ZHU, RUI; JIANG, HONG; LIU, WENWEI

    2013-01-01

    The case of a patient with narrow QRS-complex supraventricular tachycardia and atrial flutter is described. The 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed sinus rhythm with ventricular pre-excitation and negative δ waves in leads II, III and aVF, indicating Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome with a posteroseptal accessory pathway (AP). Coronary sinus angiography revealed the presence of a diverticulum near the coronary sinus ostium. The AP was successfully ablated using radiofrequency energy applied in the neck of the diverticulum, following several failed attempts at catheter ablation from the endocardial surface of the posteroseptal space. PMID:23837067

  6. Quiet High Speed Fan (QHSF) Flutter Calculations Using the TURBO Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Srivastava, Rakesh; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Min, James B.; Mehmed, Oral

    2006-01-01

    A scale model of the NASA/Honeywell Engines Quiet High Speed Fan (QHSF) encountered flutter wind tunnel testing. This report documents aeroelastic calculations done for the QHSF scale model using the blade vibration capability of the TURBO code. Calculations at design speed were used to quantify the effect of numerical parameters on the aerodynamic damping predictions. This numerical study allowed the selection of appropriate values of these parameters, and also allowed an assessment of the variability in the calculated aerodynamic damping. Calculations were also done at 90 percent of design speed. The predicted trends in aerodynamic damping corresponded to those observed during testing.

  7. Experimental analysis of energy harvesting from self-induced flutter of a composite beam

    SciTech Connect

    Zakaria, Mohamed Y. Al-Haik, Mohammad Y.; Hajj, Muhammad R.

    2015-07-13

    Previous attempts to harvest energy from aeroelastic vibrations have been based on attaching a beam to a moving wing or structure. Here, we exploit self-excited oscillations of a fluttering composite beam to harvest energy using piezoelectric transduction. Details of the beam properties and experimental setup are presented. The effects of preset angle of attack, wind speed, and load resistance on the levels of harvested power are determined. The results point to a complex relation between the aerodynamic loading and its impact on the static deflection and amplitudes of the limit cycle oscillations on one hand and the load resistance and level of power harvested on the other hand.

  8. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  9. 15. INTERIOR OVERVIEW TO SOUTHEAST. ACTIVE CONTROL PANEL AND GENERATORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR OVERVIEW TO SOUTHEAST. ACTIVE CONTROL PANEL AND GENERATORS AT LEFT, HISTORIC CONTROL PANEL AT RIGHT. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. Active control of flexural vibrations in beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using piezoelectric actuators to control the flexural oscillations of large structures in space is investigated. Flexural oscillations are excited by impulsive loads. The vibratory response can degrade the pointing accuracy of cameras and antennae, and can cause high stresses at structural node points. Piezoelectric actuators have the advantage of exerting localized bending moments. In this way, vibration is controlled without exciting rigid body modes. The actuators are used in collocated sensor/driver pairs to form a feedback control system. The sensor produces a voltage that is proportional to the dynamic stress at the sensor location, and the driver produces a force that is proportional to the voltage applied to it. The analog control system amplifies and phase shifts the sensor signal to produce the voltage signal that is applied to the driver. The feedback control is demonstrated to increase the first mode damping in a cantilever beam by up to 100 percent, depending on the amplifier gain. The damping efficiency of the control system when the piezoelectrics are not optimally positioned at points of high stress in the beam is evaluated.

  11. Active chatter control in a milling machine

    SciTech Connect

    Dohner, J.L.; Hinnerichs, T.D.; Lauffer, J.P.

    1997-08-01

    The use of active feedback compensation to mitigate cutting instabilities in an advanced milling machine is discussed in this paper. A linear structural model delineating dynamics significant to the onset of cutting instabilities was combined with a nonlinear cutting model to form a dynamic depiction of an existing milling machine. The model was validated with experimental data. Modifications made to an existing machine model were used to predict alterations in dynamics due to the integration of active feedback compensation. From simulations, subcomponent requirements were evaluated and cutting enhancements were predicted. Active compensation was shown to enable more than double the metal removal rate over conventional milling machines. 25 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Broadband radiation modes: Estimation and active control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2002-03-01

    In this paper we give a formulation of the most efficiently radiating vibration patterns of a vibrating body, the radiation modes, in the time domain. The radiation modes can be used to arrive at efficient weighting schemes for an array of sensors in order to reduce the controller dimensionality. Because these particular radiation modes are optimum in a broadband sense, they are termed broadband radiation modes. Methods are given to obtain these modes from measured data. The broadband radiation modes are used for the design of an actuator array in a feedback control system to reduce the sound power radiated from a plate. Three methods for the design of the actuator are compared, taking into account the reduction of radiated sound power in the controlled frequency range, but also the possible increase of radiated sound power in the uncontrolled frequency range.

  13. Pulley With Active Antifriction Actuator And Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ih, Che-Hang C.; Vivian, Howard C.

    1994-01-01

    Torque actuator and associated control system minimizes effective friction of rotary bearing. Motor exerts compensating torque in response to feedback from external optical sensor. Compensation torque nearly cancels frictional torque of shaft bearings. Also useful in reducing bearing friction in gyro-scopes, galvanometers, torquemeters, accelerometers, earth-motion detectors, and balances.

  14. Selective Activation and Disengagement of Moral Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandura, Albert

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes psychological mechanisms by which moral control is selectively disengaged from inhumane conduct in ordinary and unusual circumstances. Explores the symptoms of moral exclusion as described in the literature. Presents categories that unify theory on moral exclusion and contribute practical classifications for use in empirical studies. (JS)

  15. Genetic Control of Active Neural Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Reijmers, Leon; Mayford, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The use of molecular tools to study the neurobiology of complex behaviors has been hampered by an inability to target the desired changes to relevant groups of neurons. Specific memories and specific sensory representations are sparsely encoded by a small fraction of neurons embedded in a sea of morphologically and functionally similar cells. In this review we discuss genetics techniques that are being developed to address this difficulty. In several studies the use of promoter elements that are responsive to neural activity have been used to drive long-lasting genetic alterations into neural ensembles that are activated by natural environmental stimuli. This approach has been used to examine neural activity patterns during learning and retrieval of a memory, to examine the regulation of receptor trafficking following learning and to functionally manipulate a specific memory trace. We suggest that these techniques will provide a general approach to experimentally investigate the link between patterns of environmentally activated neural firing and cognitive processes such as perception and memory. PMID:20057936

  16. Dronedarone for the treatment of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter: approval and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Wolbrette, Deborah; Gonzalez, Mario; Samii, Soraya; Banchs, Javier; Penny-Peterson, Erica; Naccarelli, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Dronedarone, a new Class III antiarrhythmic agent, has now been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Approval came in March 2009 due to the positive results of the ATHENA trial showing significant reductions in all-cause mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization with dronedarone use. A post hoc analysis of the ATHENA data also suggested a decrease in stroke risk with this agent. However, due to safety concerns in the heart failure population in the earlier ANDROMEDA trial, dronedarone is not recommended for patients with an ejection fraction <35% and recent decompensated heart failure. Dronedarone is an amiodarone analog with multichannel blocking electrophysiologic properties similar to those of amiodarone, but several structural differences. Dronedarone’s lack of the iodine moiety reduces its potential for thyroid and pulmonary toxicity. Preliminary data from the DIONYSOS trial, and an indirect meta-analysis comparing amiodarone with dronedarone, showed amiodarone to be more effective in maintaining sinus rhythm, while dronedarone was associated with fewer adverse effects resulting in early termination of the drug. Dronedarone is the first antiarrhythmic drug for the treatment of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter shown to reduce cardiovascular hospitalizations. In patients with structural heart disease who have an ejection fraction >35% and no recent decompensated heart failure, dronedarone should be considered earlier than amiodarone in the treatment algorithm. PMID:20730068

  17. Global Pressure Measurement of Unsteady-State Flow and Motion on Fluttering Airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Taika; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Saitoh, Kenichi; Sakaue, Hirotaka

    2012-11-01

    Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) measurement has been applied to a fluid dynamic measurement. It can be applied to a steady-state flow in the transonic and supersonic wind tunnels. To extend the PSP measurement, an unsteady-state measurement is paid attention. It can be categorized by the unsteady-state flow and unsteady motion of the PSP-coated model. The former can be captured by using a porous PSP. The fastest PSP gives the response time on the order of ten microseconds. For the latter, the motion-capturing PSP method is studied to capture the unsteady motion. It consists of a two-color PSP and color camera. One color corresponds to the pressure-independent luminescence, and the other to the pressure-dependent luminescence. The former is used to cancel the pressure-independent distribution of a pressure-dependent image. The two-color images are simultaneously captured by the color camera. A combination of the unsteady-state flow and the motion can be occurred for an unsteady-state measurement. We present one of the cases, which is a flutter on an airfoil. By combining a porous PSP and the motion-capturing method, a pressure distribution on a fluttering airfoil (2-D YXX 30% span) is captured.

  18. Methodology of Blade Unsteady Pressure Measurement in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; McFarland, E. R.; Capece, V. R.; Jett, T. A.; Senyitko, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    In this report the methodology adopted to measure unsteady pressures on blade surfaces in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade under conditions of simulated blade flutter is described. The previous work done in this cascade reported that the oscillating cascade produced waves, which for some interblade phase angles reflected off the wind tunnel walls back into the cascade, interfered with the cascade unsteady aerodynamics, and contaminated the acquired data. To alleviate the problems with data contamination due to the back wall interference, a method of influence coefficients was selected for the future unsteady work in this cascade. In this approach only one blade in the cascade is oscillated at a time. The majority of the report is concerned with the experimental technique used and the experimental data generated in the facility. The report presents a list of all test conditions for the small amplitude of blade oscillations, and shows examples of some of the results achieved. The report does not discuss data analysis procedures like ensemble averaging, frequency analysis, and unsteady blade loading diagrams reconstructed using the influence coefficient method. Finally, the report presents the lessons learned from this phase of the experimental effort, and suggests the improvements and directions of the experimental work for tests to be carried out for large oscillation amplitudes.

  19. Reduced-Order Modeling for Flutter/LCO Using Recurrent Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Weigang; Liou, Meng-Sing

    2012-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the efficacy of a recurrent artificial neural network to provide a high fidelity time-dependent nonlinear reduced-order model (ROM) for flutter/limit-cycle oscillation (LCO) modeling. An artificial neural network is a relatively straightforward nonlinear method for modeling an input-output relationship from a set of known data, for which we use the radial basis function (RBF) with its parameters determined through a training process. The resulting RBF neural network, however, is only static and is not yet adequate for an application to problems of dynamic nature. The recurrent neural network method [1] is applied to construct a reduced order model resulting from a series of high-fidelity time-dependent data of aero-elastic simulations. Once the RBF neural network ROM is constructed properly, an accurate approximate solution can be obtained at a fraction of the cost of a full-order computation. The method derived during the study has been validated for predicting nonlinear aerodynamic forces in transonic flow and is capable of accurate flutter/LCO simulations. The obtained results indicate that the present recurrent RBF neural network is accurate and efficient for nonlinear aero-elastic system analysis

  20. The predicted effect of aerodynamic detuning on coupled bending-torsion unstalled supersonic flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyniak, D.; Fleeter, S.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to predict the enhanced coupled bending-torsion unstalled supersonic flutter stability due to alternate circumferential spacing aerodynamic detuning of a turbomachine rotor. The translational and torsional unsteady aerodynamic coefficients are developed in terms of influence coefficients, with the coupled bending-torsion stability analysis developed by considering the coupled equations of motion together with the unsteady aerodynamic loading. The effect of this aerodynamic detuning on coupled bending-torsion unstalled supersonic flutter as well as the verification of the modeling are then demonstrated by considering an unstable 12 bladed rotor, with Verdon's uniformly spaced Cascade B flow geometry as a baseline. However, with the elastic axis and center of gravity at 60 percent of the chord, this type of aerodynamic detuning has a minimal effect on stability. For both uniform and nonuniform circumferentially space rotors, a single degree of freedom torsion mode analysis was shown to be appropriate for values of the bending-torsion natural frequency ratio lower than 0.6 and higher 1.2. When the elastic axis and center of gravity are not coincident, the effect of detuning on cascade stability was found to be very sensitive to the location of the center of gravity with respect to the elastic axis. In addition, it was determined that when the center of gravity was forward of an elastic axis located at midchord, a single degree of freedom torsion model did not accurately predict cascade stability.